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Sample records for nonmigratory monarchs lacked

  1. Population Genetics of Overwintering Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus), from Central Mexico Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Nazario-Yepiz, Nestor O.; Pérez-Gálvez, Fernan; Chávez-Mora, Cristina Alejandra; Laclette, Mariana Ramírez Loustalot; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Population genetic variation and demographic history in Danaus plexippus (L.), from Mexico were assessed based on analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI; 658 bp) and subunit II (COII; 503 bp) gene segments and 7 microsatellite loci. The sample of 133 individuals included both migratory monarchs, mainly from 4 overwintering sites within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) in central Mexico (states of Michoacán and México), and a nonmigratory population from Irapuato, Guanajuato. Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were relatively low, averaging 0.466 and 0.00073, respectively, for COI, and 0.629 and 0.00245 for COII. Analysis of molecular variance of the COI data set, which included additional GenBank sequences from a nonmigratory Costa Rican population, showed significant population structure between Mexican migratory monarchs and nonmigratory monarchs from both Mexico and Costa Rica, suggesting limited gene flow between the 2 behaviorally distinct groups. Interestingly, while the COI haplotype frequencies of the nonmigratory populations differed from the migratory, they were similar to each other, despite the great physical distance between them. Microsatellite analyses, however, suggested a lack of structure between the 2 groups, possibly owing to the number of significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium resulting from heterzoygote deficiencies found for most of the loci. Estimates of demographic history of the combined migratory MBBR monarch population, based on the mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline analyses of the concatenated COI and COII data set (n = 89) suggested a population expansion dating to the late Pleistocene (~35000–40000 years before present) followed by a stable effective female population size (Nef) of about 6 million over the last 10000 years. PMID:28003372

  2. Population Genetics of Overwintering Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus), from Central Mexico Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Nazario-Yepiz, Nestor O; Pérez-Gálvez, Fernan; Chávez-Mora, Cristina Alejandra; Laclette, Mariana Ramírez Loustalot; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo; Markow, Therese Ann

    2017-03-01

    Population genetic variation and demographic history in Danaus plexippus (L.), from Mexico were assessed based on analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI; 658 bp) and subunit II (COII; 503 bp) gene segments and 7 microsatellite loci. The sample of 133 individuals included both migratory monarchs, mainly from 4 overwintering sites within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) in central Mexico (states of Michoacán and México), and a nonmigratory population from Irapuato, Guanajuato. Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were relatively low, averaging 0.466 and 0.00073, respectively, for COI, and 0.629 and 0.00245 for COII. Analysis of molecular variance of the COI data set, which included additional GenBank sequences from a nonmigratory Costa Rican population, showed significant population structure between Mexican migratory monarchs and nonmigratory monarchs from both Mexico and Costa Rica, suggesting limited gene flow between the 2 behaviorally distinct groups. Interestingly, while the COI haplotype frequencies of the nonmigratory populations differed from the migratory, they were similar to each other, despite the great physical distance between them. Microsatellite analyses, however, suggested a lack of structure between the 2 groups, possibly owing to the number of significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium resulting from heterzoygote deficiencies found for most of the loci. Estimates of demographic history of the combined migratory MBBR monarch population, based on the mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline analyses of the concatenated COI and COII data set (n = 89) suggested a population expansion dating to the late Pleistocene (~35000-40000 years before present) followed by a stable effective female population size (Nef) of about 6 million over the last 10000 years. © The American Genetic Association 2016.

  3. Monarch Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The US Fish and Wildlife Service has engaged in a multi-partnered, integrated strategy for monitoring conservation of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus...

  4. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species...

  5. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since the 1980s, new populations have emerged in former stopover areas in the Baltic Sea region, and a non-migratory population has emerged in the wintering area in The Netherlands. This thesis aims to understand these changes. First, I studied the delay in com...

  6. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here.

  7. Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Amanda A.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4–85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  8. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda A Pierce

    Full Text Available Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here.

  9. The Redder the Better: Wing Color Predicts Flight Performance in Monarch Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K.; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color. PMID:22848463

  10. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Davis

    Full Text Available The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width, melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color.

  11. Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Steven M; Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the migration of the eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) have revealed mechanisms behind its navigation. The main orientation mechanism uses a time-compensated sun compass during both the migration south and the remigration north. Daylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and integrated through intricate circuitry in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Monarch circadian clocks have a distinct molecular mechanism, and those that reside in the antennae provide time compensation. Recent evidence shows that migrants can also use a light-dependent inclination magnetic compass for orientation in the absence of directional daylight cues. The monarch genome has been sequenced, and genetic strategies using nuclease-based technologies have been developed to edit specific genes. The monarch butterfly has emerged as a model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of long-distance animal migration.

  12. A Michigan Monarch Recovered in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight

    2000-01-01

    The Monarch Butterfly Project is a cooperative project between the Hiawatha National Forest of the US Forest Service and Wildlife Unlimited of Delta County, Michigan. In 1999, 58 volunteers contributed over 450 hours to monitor monarch reproduction and migation and to improve habitat for monarch butterflies near Penninsula Point, Delta County, in Michigan's upper...

  13. Navigational Strategies of Migrating Monarch Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-10

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0339 NAVIGATIONAL STRATEGIES OF MIGRATING MONARCH BUTTERFLIES Steven Reppert UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS Final Report 11/10/2014...Final Progress Statement to (Dr. Patrick Bradshaw) Contract/Grant Title: Navigational Strategies of Migrating Monarch Butterflies Contract...Grant #: FA9550-10-1-0480 Reporting Period: 01-Sept-10 to 31-Aug-14 Overview of accomplishments: Migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus

  14. Monarch Butterflies: Spirits of Loved Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The study of the beautiful monarch butterfly lends itself to a vast array of subject matter, and offers the opportunity to meet a large and varied number of standards and objectives for many grade levels. Art projects featuring monarchs may include many cross-curricular units such as math (symmetry and number graphing), science (adaptation and…

  15. Monarch Butterflies: Spirits of Loved Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The study of the beautiful monarch butterfly lends itself to a vast array of subject matter, and offers the opportunity to meet a large and varied number of standards and objectives for many grade levels. Art projects featuring monarchs may include many cross-curricular units such as math (symmetry and number graphing), science (adaptation and…

  16. Comparison of Navigation-Related Brain Regions in Migratory versus Non-Migratory Noctuid Moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv de Vries

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species—thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors. Particularly in relation to sensory requirements, volume-differences in neural tissue between closely related species reflect evolutionary investments that correspond to sensory abilities. Likewise, memory-demands imposed by lifestyle have revealed similar adaptations in regions associated with learning. Whether this is also the case for species that differ in their navigational strategy is currently unknown. While the brain regions associated with navigational control in insects have been identified (central complex (CX, lateral complex (LX and anterior optic tubercles (AOTU, it remains unknown in what way evolutionary investments have been made to accommodate particularly demanding navigational strategies. We have thus generated average-shape atlases of navigation-related brain regions of a migratory and a non-migratory noctuid moth and used volumetric analysis to identify differences. We further compared the results to identical data from Monarch butterflies. Whereas we found differences in the size of the nodular unit of the AOTU, the LX and the protocerebral bridge (PB between the two moths, these did not unambiguously reflect migratory behavior across all three species. We conclude that navigational strategy, at least in the case of long-distance migration in lepidopteran insects, is not easily deductible from overall neuropil anatomy. This suggests that the adaptations needed to ensure successful migratory behavior

  17. Genomic Access to Monarch Migration Using TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Targeted Mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Markert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The eastern North American monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is an emerging model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of animal long-distance migration and animal clockwork mechanisms. While genomic studies have provided new insight into migration-associated and circadian clock genes, the general lack of simple and versatile reverse-genetic methods has limited in vivo functional analysis of candidate genes in this species. Here, we report the establishment of highly efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis methods in the monarch butterfly using transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and CRISPR-associated RNA-guided nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9. Using two clock gene loci, cryptochrome 2 and clock (clk, as candidates, we show that both TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 generate high-frequency nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ-mediated mutations at targeted sites (up to 100%, and that injecting fewer than 100 eggs is sufficient to recover mutant progeny and generate monarch knockout lines in about 3 months. Our study also genetically defines monarch CLK as an essential component of the transcriptional activation complex of the circadian clock. The methods presented should not only greatly accelerate functional analyses of many aspects of monarch biology, but are also anticipated to facilitate the development of these tools in other nontraditional insect species as well as the development of homology-directed knock-ins.

  18. Navigational Mechanisms of Migrating Monarch Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Steven M.; Gegear, Robert J.; Merlin, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind the navigation south, using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and likely integrated in the brain’s central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs may also use a magnetic compass, because they possess two cryptochromes that have the molecular capability for light-dependent magnetoreception. Multiple genomic approaches are being utilized to ultimately identify navigation genes. Monarch butterflies are thus emerging as an excellent model organism to study the molecular and neural basis of long-distance migration. PMID:20627420

  19. Provider's and user's perspective about immunization coverage among migratory and non-migratory population in slums and construction sites of Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vijaylakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Strengthening routine immunization is a corner stone for countries to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) which aims to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds and MDG 5 improving maternal health compared to 1990 estimates by 2015. The poor urban newborns are more vulnerable to many health and nutrition problems compared to the non-poor urban counterparts. Therefore there is a need to strengthen health system to cater the needs of urban poor. Standardized WHO30*7 cluster sampling for slums and convenience sampling for construction sites. In depth interviews were conducted for user's as well as provider's perspective about immunization coverage. Two hundred ten children and 210 mothers were enrolled in slums and 100 were sampled from construction sites. The slum workers are considered as non-migratory groups whereas construction site workers are considered as migratory population. Among children, 23 % were fully immunized, 73 % were partially immunized and 3 % were unimmunized in non-migratory population whereas 3 % were fully immunized, 91 % were partially immunized and 6 % were unimmunized in migratory population. Among mothers, 43 and 39 % were fully immunized, 13 and 15 % partially immunized and 43 and 46 % were unimmunized in non-migratory and migratory population, respectively. The various reasons attributed for low coverage are (a) dissatisfaction of the users with the service delivery and procedural delays (bureaucracy), (b) lack of faith in health workers,

  20. The Transformation: Monarch Institute for Neurological Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Those utilizing the Monarch Institute and its powerful website include educational and mental health professionals looking for training, or employers seeking qualified workers who happen to have neurological differences. Most are students and their parents who are worried and in pain because they have a problem. The young person is not progressing…

  1. Do Healthy Monarchs Migrate Farther? Tracking Natal Origins of Parasitized vs. Uninfected Monarch Butterflies Overwintering in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Altizer

    Full Text Available Long-distance migration can lower parasite prevalence if strenuous journeys remove infected animals from wild populations. We examined wild monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus to investigate the potential costs of the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on migratory success. We collected monarchs from two wintering sites in central Mexico to compare infection status with hydrogen isotope (δ2H measurements as an indicator of latitude of origin at the start of fall migration. On average, uninfected monarchs had lower δ2H values than parasitized butterflies, indicating that uninfected butterflies originated from more northerly latitudes and travelled farther distances to reach Mexico. Within the infected class, monarchs with higher quantitative spore loads originated from more southerly latitudes, indicating that heavily infected monarchs originating from farther north are less likely to reach Mexico. We ruled out the alternative explanation that lower latitudes give rise to more infected monarchs prior to the onset of migration using citizen science data to examine regional differences in parasite prevalence during the summer breeding season. We also found a positive association between monarch wing area and estimated distance flown. Collectively, these results emphasize that seasonal migrations can help lower infection levels in wild animal populations. Our findings, combined with recent declines in the numbers of migratory monarchs wintering in Mexico and observations of sedentary (winter breeding monarch populations in the southern U.S., suggest that shifts from migratory to sedentary behavior will likely lead to greater infection prevalence for North American monarchs.

  2. Do Healthy Monarchs Migrate Farther? Tracking Natal Origins of Parasitized vs. Uninfected Monarch Butterflies Overwintering in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Sonia; Hobson, Keith A; Davis, Andrew K; De Roode, Jacobus C; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance migration can lower parasite prevalence if strenuous journeys remove infected animals from wild populations. We examined wild monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) to investigate the potential costs of the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on migratory success. We collected monarchs from two wintering sites in central Mexico to compare infection status with hydrogen isotope (δ2H) measurements as an indicator of latitude of origin at the start of fall migration. On average, uninfected monarchs had lower δ2H values than parasitized butterflies, indicating that uninfected butterflies originated from more northerly latitudes and travelled farther distances to reach Mexico. Within the infected class, monarchs with higher quantitative spore loads originated from more southerly latitudes, indicating that heavily infected monarchs originating from farther north are less likely to reach Mexico. We ruled out the alternative explanation that lower latitudes give rise to more infected monarchs prior to the onset of migration using citizen science data to examine regional differences in parasite prevalence during the summer breeding season. We also found a positive association between monarch wing area and estimated distance flown. Collectively, these results emphasize that seasonal migrations can help lower infection levels in wild animal populations. Our findings, combined with recent declines in the numbers of migratory monarchs wintering in Mexico and observations of sedentary (winter breeding) monarch populations in the southern U.S., suggest that shifts from migratory to sedentary behavior will likely lead to greater infection prevalence for North American monarchs.

  3. Density estimates of monarch butterflies overwintering in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Thogmartin, Wayne; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Oberhauser, Karen; Pleasants, John; Semmens, Brice Xavier; Semmens, Darius; Taylor, Orley R.; Wiederholt, Ruscena

    2017-01-01

    Given the rapid population decline and recent petition for listing of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) under the Endangered Species Act, an accurate estimate of the Eastern, migratory population size is needed. Because of difficulty in counting individual monarchs, the number of hectares occupied by monarchs in the overwintering area is commonly used as a proxy for population size, which is then multiplied by the density of individuals per hectare to estimate population size. There...

  4. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while maintaining food quality.

  5. Propagating native milkweeds for restoring monarch butterfly habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten. Dumroese

    2015-01-01

    The number of monarch butterflies, charismatic nomads of North America, is rapidly declining. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), which are the sole food source for monarch caterpillars, have also experienced a decline throughout the breeding range of this butterfly. Milkweeds can be grown from seeds or vegetatively from root cuttings or rhizomes. Seed germination is often...

  6. Monarchs in decline: a collateral landscape-level effect of modern agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenoien, Carl; Nail, Kelly R; Zalucki, Jacinta M; Parry, Hazel; Oberhauser, Karen S; Zalucki, Myron P

    2016-09-21

    We review the postulated threatening processes that may have affected the decline in the eastern population of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), in North America. Although there are likely multiple contributing factors, such as climate and resource-related effects on breeding, migrating, and overwintering populations, the key landscape-level change appears to be associated with the widespread use of genetically modified herbicide resistant crops that have rapidly come to dominate the extensive core summer breeding range. We dismiss misinterpretations of the apparent lack of population change in summer adult count data as logically flawed. Glyphosate-tolerant soybean and maize have enabled the extensive use of this herbicide, generating widespread losses of milkweed (Asclepias spp.), the only host plants for monarch larvae. Modeling studies that simulate lifetime realized fecundity at a landscape scale, direct counts of milkweeds, and extensive citizen science data across the breeding range suggest that a herbicide-induced, landscape-level reduction in milkweed has precipitated the decline in monarchs. A recovery will likely require a monumental effort for the re-establishment of milkweed resources at a commensurate landscape scale.

  7. Western Monarch and Milkweed Habitat Suitability Modeling Project- Final Presentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To better understand the distribution of key breeding areas for the declining western population of monarch butterflies, the USFWS, in collaboration with the Xerces...

  8. Western Monarch and Milkweed Habitat Suitability Assessment Project- Species Occurence Excel Workbook Tool: Pacific Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — USFWS developed Milkweed and Monarch Occurrence Excel Workbook Tool to facilitate the capture and sharing of milkweed and Monarch observations. The database is...

  9. Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) and milkweeds (Asclepias species): The current situation and methods for propagating milkweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2013-01-01

    An international effort is under way to conserve populations of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L. [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]). Monarchs complete an impressive migration each year, flying from winter roosts on the California coast and the central mountains of Mexico to breeding areas throughout North America. Monarchs depend on habitats along their migratory...

  10. Density estimates of monarch butterflies overwintering in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E; Diffendorfer, Jay E; López-Hoffman, Laura; Oberhauser, Karen; Pleasants, John; Semmens, Brice X; Semmens, Darius; Taylor, Orley R; Wiederholt, Ruscena

    2017-01-01

    Given the rapid population decline and recent petition for listing of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) under the Endangered Species Act, an accurate estimate of the Eastern, migratory population size is needed. Because of difficulty in counting individual monarchs, the number of hectares occupied by monarchs in the overwintering area is commonly used as a proxy for population size, which is then multiplied by the density of individuals per hectare to estimate population size. There is, however, considerable variation in published estimates of overwintering density, ranging from 6.9-60.9 million ha(-1). We develop a probability distribution for overwinter density of monarch butterflies from six published density estimates. The mean density among the mixture of the six published estimates was ∼27.9 million butterflies ha(-1) (95% CI [2.4-80.7] million ha(-1)); the mixture distribution is approximately log-normal, and as such is better represented by the median (21.1 million butterflies ha(-1)). Based upon assumptions regarding the number of milkweed needed to support monarchs, the amount of milkweed (Asclepias spp.) lost (0.86 billion stems) in the northern US plus the amount of milkweed remaining (1.34 billion stems), we estimate >1.8 billion stems is needed to return monarchs to an average population size of 6 ha. Considerable uncertainty exists in this required amount of milkweed because of the considerable uncertainty occurring in overwinter density estimates. Nevertheless, the estimate is on the same order as other published estimates. The studies included in our synthesis differ substantially by year, location, method, and measures of precision. A better understanding of the factors influencing overwintering density across space and time would be valuable for increasing the precision of conservation recommendations.

  11. Density estimates of monarch butterflies overwintering in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E. Thogmartin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapid population decline and recent petition for listing of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L. under the Endangered Species Act, an accurate estimate of the Eastern, migratory population size is needed. Because of difficulty in counting individual monarchs, the number of hectares occupied by monarchs in the overwintering area is commonly used as a proxy for population size, which is then multiplied by the density of individuals per hectare to estimate population size. There is, however, considerable variation in published estimates of overwintering density, ranging from 6.9–60.9 million ha−1. We develop a probability distribution for overwinter density of monarch butterflies from six published density estimates. The mean density among the mixture of the six published estimates was ∼27.9 million butterflies ha−1 (95% CI [2.4–80.7] million ha−1; the mixture distribution is approximately log-normal, and as such is better represented by the median (21.1 million butterflies ha−1. Based upon assumptions regarding the number of milkweed needed to support monarchs, the amount of milkweed (Asclepias spp. lost (0.86 billion stems in the northern US plus the amount of milkweed remaining (1.34 billion stems, we estimate >1.8 billion stems is needed to return monarchs to an average population size of 6 ha. Considerable uncertainty exists in this required amount of milkweed because of the considerable uncertainty occurring in overwinter density estimates. Nevertheless, the estimate is on the same order as other published estimates. The studies included in our synthesis differ substantially by year, location, method, and measures of precision. A better understanding of the factors influencing overwintering density across space and time would be valuable for increasing the precision of conservation recommendations.

  12. Density estimates of monarch butterflies overwintering in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Oberhauser, Karen; Pleasants, John M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Semmens, Darius J.; Taylor, Orley R.; Wiederholt, Ruscena

    2017-01-01

    Given the rapid population decline and recent petition for listing of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) under the Endangered Species Act, an accurate estimate of the Eastern, migratory population size is needed. Because of difficulty in counting individual monarchs, the number of hectares occupied by monarchs in the overwintering area is commonly used as a proxy for population size, which is then multiplied by the density of individuals per hectare to estimate population size. There is, however, considerable variation in published estimates of overwintering density, ranging from 6.9–60.9 million ha−1. We develop a probability distribution for overwinter density of monarch butterflies from six published density estimates. The mean density among the mixture of the six published estimates was ∼27.9 million butterflies ha−1 (95% CI [2.4–80.7] million ha−1); the mixture distribution is approximately log-normal, and as such is better represented by the median (21.1 million butterflies ha−1). Based upon assumptions regarding the number of milkweed needed to support monarchs, the amount of milkweed (Asclepias spp.) lost (0.86 billion stems) in the northern US plus the amount of milkweed remaining (1.34 billion stems), we estimate >1.8 billion stems is needed to return monarchs to an average population size of 6 ha. Considerable uncertainty exists in this required amount of milkweed because of the considerable uncertainty occurring in overwinter density estimates. Nevertheless, the estimate is on the same order as other published estimates. The studies included in our synthesis differ substantially by year, location, method, and measures of precision. A better understanding of the factors influencing overwintering density across space and time would be valuable for increasing the precision of conservation recommendations.

  13. Host Diet Affects the Morphology of Monarch Butterfly Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Kevin; Tao, Leiling; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2017-06-01

    Understanding host-parasite interactions is essential for ecological research, wildlife conservation, and health management. While most studies focus on numerical traits of parasite groups, such as changes in parasite load, less focus is placed on the traits of individual parasites such as parasite size and shape (parasite morphology). Parasite morphology has significant effects on parasite fitness such as initial colonization of hosts, avoidance of host immune defenses, and the availability of resources for parasite replication. As such, understanding factors that affect parasite morphology is important in predicting the consequences of host-parasite interactions. Here, we studied how host diet affected the spore morphology of a protozoan parasite ( Ophryocystis elektroscirrha ), a specialist parasite of the monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus ). We found that different host plant species (milkweeds; Asclepias spp.) significantly affected parasite spore size. Previous studies have found that cardenolides, secondary chemicals in host plants of monarchs, can reduce parasite loads and increase the lifespan of infected butterflies. Adding to this benefit of high cardenolide milkweeds, we found that infected monarchs reared on milkweeds of higher cardenolide concentrations yielded smaller parasites, a potentially hidden characteristic of cardenolides that may have important implications for monarch-parasite interactions.

  14. Effects of altitude on the climbing performance of Monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Kwon; Sridhar, Madhu; Landrum, David; Aono, Hikaru

    2016-11-01

    Millions of Monarchs annually travel up to 4,000km, the longest migration distance among insects. They fly and overwinter at high altitudes. However, the aerodynamic mechanism enabling the long-range flight of Monarch butterflies is unknown. To study the effects of altitude on the aerodynamic performance of Monarch butterflies, a unique combination of a motion tracking system and a variable pressure chamber that allows controlling the density is used. The condition inside the chamber is systematically varied to simulate high altitude conditions up to 3,000 m. An optical tracking technique is used to characterize the climbing trajectories of freely flying Monarch butterflies. Customized reflective markers are designed to minimize the effects of marker addition. Flapping amplitude and frequency as well as climbing trajectories are measured. Lift acting on the butterfly is also determined by considering the force balance. Results show that the average flight speed and the Reynolds number, in general, decreased with the altitude, whereas, interestingly, the lift coefficient increased with the altitude. More detailed measurements and analyses will be performed in the future to explain the lift enhancement by flying at higher altitudes. This work is partly supported by NSF Grant CBET-1335572 and in part by CK's startup fund provided by UAH.

  15. Population trends of large non-migratory herbivores and livestock in the Masai Mara ecosystem, Kenya, between 1977 and 1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottichilo, W.K.; Leeuw, de J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2000-01-01

    The total of all non-migratory wildlife species in the Masai Mara ecosystem has declined by 58% in the last 20 years. This decline ranges from 49% in small brown antelopes to 72% in medium brown antelopes. In individual wildlife species, the decline ranges from 52% in Grant's gazelle to 88% in the w

  16. Population trends of large non-migratory herbivores and livestock in the Masai Mara ecosystem, Kenya, between 1977 and 1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottichilo, W.K.; Leeuw, de J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2000-01-01

    The total of all non-migratory wildlife species in the Masai Mara ecosystem has declined by 58% in the last 20 years. This decline ranges from 49% in small brown antelopes to 72% in medium brown antelopes. In individual wildlife species, the decline ranges from 52% in Grant's gazelle to 88% in the

  17. Modern Monarchs and Democracy: Thailand’s Bhumibol Adulyadej and Juan Carlos of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Ünaldi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of democracy is typically a history of struggle against monarchs and other such autocrats. The elevation of one person over others by virtue of blood and birth has come to be seen as anachronistic; yet some monarchies have managed to survive to this day. This paper analyses two examples of the uneasy coalition between popular sovereignty and royal leadership that is constitutional monarchy. Whereas Juan Carlos of Spain has been described as having steered Spain away from dictatorship, Bhumibol of Thailand has come under scrutiny for allegedly lacking a principled approach to democracy. I argue that structural as much as personal factors influenced the ways in which the two monarchies were legitimised – one by positively responding to the modern aspirations of the king’s subjects, giving him a “forward legitimacy,” the other by revitalising the king’s traditional charisma and opting for “backward legitimacy.”

  18. Non-target effects of clothianidin on monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenka, Jacob R.; Lundgren, Jonathan G.

    2015-04-01

    Monarch butterflies ( Danaus plexippus) frequently consume milkweed in and near agroecosystems and consequently may be exposed to pesticides like neonicotinoids. We conducted a dose response study to determine lethal and sublethal doses of clothianidin using a 36-h exposure scenario. We then quantified clothianidin levels found in milkweed leaves adjacent to maize fields. Toxicity assays revealed LC10, LC50, and LC90 values of 7.72, 15.63, and 30.70 ppb, respectively. Sublethal effects (larval size) were observed at 1 ppb. Contaminated milkweed plants had an average of 1.14 ± 0.10 ppb clothianidin, with a maximum of 4 ppb in a single plant. This research suggests that clothianidin could function as a stressor to monarch populations.

  19. Monarch butterfly orientation: missing pieces of a magnificent puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower

    1996-01-01

    From late August to early September, millions of adult monarch butterflies of the eastern North American population cease reproducing, become highly gregarious and begin migrating southwards. By mid-October, they migrate through central Texas into Mexico where they follow the Sierra Madre Oriental across the Tropic of Cancer. They then shift direction westwards towards the Transverse Neovolcanic Belt of mountains where they overwinter without breeding. A rapid exodus northwards occurs at the spring equinox, and by early April both sexes reach the Gulf Coast states where the females lay eggs on the resurgent spring milkweed (Asclepias) flora and die. Adults of the new generation continue the migration to the northernmost breeding range, arriving by early June. Two or more short-lived breeding generations are produced over the summer, spread eastwards across the Appalachian Mountains and, by September, the autumn migration is again under way. This paper presents a new hypothesis that the orientation of adult monarchs undergoes a continual clockwise shifting throughout the 3-5 generations, rotating by 360 in the course of the year. This hypothesis is consistent with the timing of arrivals and the relative abundances of the successive generations of monarchs throughout eastern North America, with the directions of movement of their spring, summer and autumn generations, and with the timing of their arrival at the overwintering area in central Mexico.

  20. Non-migratory breeding by isolated green sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas) in the Indian Ocean: biological and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Scott D.; Murray, Wendy; Macrae, Ismail; Thorn, Robert; Chongkin, Mohammad; Koch, Andrea U.

    2008-04-01

    Green sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas) are renowned for their long-distance migrations but have less fame for short-distance migrations or non-migratory behavior. We present satellite telemetric evidence from Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean for the first predominantly non-migratory green sea turtle ( C. mydas) population. The mean migration distance from the nesting beach to the foraging grounds was 35.5 km with a maximum mean transit time of 3.4 days. The behavior of this population has major implications for our general understanding of green turtle behavior and their life cycle and for conservation. Firstly, these results indicate a level of juvenile or adult non-breeding homing behavior from the open ocean to foraging grounds adjacent to their natal nesting beach. Secondly, a non-migratory breeding phase reduces the consumption of reproductive energy utilized, potentially resulting in higher fecundity for this population. Thirdly, the close proximity of the nesting and foraging habitats allows for uniformity in management and conservation strategies rarely possible for wide-ranging green turtle populations.

  1. A trans-national monarch butterfly population model and implications for regional conservation priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhauser, Karen; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Diffendorfer, James E.; Semmens, Darius J.; Ries, Leslie; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Semmens, Brice

    2017-01-01

    1. The monarch has undergone considerable population declines over the past decade, and the governments of Mexico, Canada, and the United States have agreed to work together to conserve the species.2. Given limited resources, understanding where to focus conservation action is key for widespread species like monarchs. To support planning for continental-scale monarch habitat restoration, we address the question of where restoration efforts are likely to have the largest impacts on monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus Linn.) population growth rates.3. We present a spatially explicit demographic model simulating the multi-generational annual cycle of the eastern monarch population, and use the model to examine management scenarios, some of which focus on particular regions of North America.4. Improving the monarch habitat in the north central or southern parts of the monarch range yields a slightly greater increase in the population growth rate than restoration in other regions. However, combining restoration efforts across multiple regions yields population growth rates above 1 with smaller simulated improvements in habitat per region than single-region strategies.5. Synthesis and applications: These findings suggest that conservation investment in projects across the full monarch range will be more effective than focusing on one or a few regions, and will require international cooperation across many land use categories.

  2. National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Loomis, John B.; Ries, Leslie; Oberhauser, Karen; Semmens, Darius; Semmens, Brice; Butterfield, Bruce; Bagstad, Ken; Goldstein, Josh; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2013-01-01

    The annual migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) has high cultural value and recent surveys indicate monarch populations are declining. Protecting migratory species is complex because they cross international borders and depend on multiple regions. Understanding how much, and where, humans place value on migratory species can facilitate market-based conservation approaches. We performed a contingent valuation study of monarchs to understand the potential for such approaches to fund monarch conservation. The survey asked U.S. respondents about the money they would spend, or have spent, growing monarch-friendly plants, and the amount they would donate to monarch conservation organizations. Combining planting payments and donations, the survey indicated U.S. households valued monarchs as a total one-time payment of $4.78–$6.64 billion, levels similar to many endangered vertebrate species. The financial contribution of even a small percentage of households through purchases or donations could generate new funding for monarch conservation through market-based approaches.

  3. Abies religiosa habitat prediction in climatic change scenarios and implications for monarch butterfly conservation in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Pierre Duval; Roberto A. Lindig-Cisneros

    2012-01-01

    Abies religiosa (HBK) Schl. & Cham. (oyamel fir) is distributed in conifer-dominated mountain forests at high altitudes along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This fir is the preferred host for overwintering monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migratory populations which habitually congregate within a few stands now located inside a Monarch Butterfly Biosphere...

  4. Milkweed Matters: Monarch butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) survival and development on nine Midwestern milkweed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline over the past twenty years. In order to increase monarch numbers in the breeding range, habitat restoration that includes planting milkweed plants is essential. Milkweeds in the genus Asclepias ...

  5. Beyond the wing planform: morphological differentiation between migratory and nonmigratory dragonfly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Tovar, C M; Sarmiento, C E

    2016-04-01

    Migration is a significant trait of the animal kingdom that can impose a strong selective pressure on several structures to overcome the amount of energy that the organism invests in this particular behaviour. Wing linear dimensions and planform have been a traditional focus in the study of flying migratory species; however, other traits could also influence aerodynamic performance. We studied the differences in several flight-related traits of migratory and nonmigratory Libellulid species in a phylogenetic context to assess their response to migratory behaviour. Wings were compared by linear measurements, shape, surface corrugations and microtrichia number. Thorax size and pilosity were also compared. Migratory species have larger and smoother wings, a larger anal lobe that is reached through an expansion of the discoidal region, and longer and denser thoracic pilosity. These differences might favour gliding as an energy-saving displacement strategy. Most of the changes were identified in the hind wings. No differences were observed for the thorax linear dimensions, wetted aspect ratio, some wing corrugations or the wing microtrichiae number. Similar changes in the hind wing are present in clades where migration evolved. Our results emphasize that adaptations to migration through flight may extend to characteristics beyond the wing planform and that some wing characteristics in libellulids converge in response to migratory habits, whereas other closely related structures remain virtually unchanged. Additionally, we concluded that despite a close functional association and similar selective pressures on a structure, significant differences in the magnitude of the response may be present in its components.

  6. Cardenolide connection between overwintering monarch butterflies from Mexico and their larval food plant,Asclepias syriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, J N; Brower, L P; Lee, S M; McChesney, M M; Cheung, H T; Nelson, C J; Watson, T R

    1986-05-01

    The majority (85%) of 394 monarch butterflies sampled from overwintering sites in Mexico contain the same epoxy cardenolide glycosides, including most conspicuously a novel polar glycoside with a single genin-sugar bridge (aspecioside), as occur in the milkweedsAsclepias speciosa andA. syriaca. This cardenolide commonality was established by isolating aspecioside and syriobioside from the wings of overwintering monarchs and the two plant species, and comparing Chromatographie and NMR spectrometric characteristics of the isolates. When combined with the migratory pattern of monarchs and the distribution of these two milkweed species, this chemical evidence lends strong support to the hypothesis thatA. syriaca is the major late summer food plant of monarchs in eastern North America. This finding may be of ecological importance, forA. syriaca contributes less cardenolide and cardenolides of lower emetic potency to monarchs than most milkweeds studied to date.

  7. Migratory monarchs wintering in California experience low infection risk compared to monarchs breeding year-round on non-native milkweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Dara A; Villablanca, Francis X; Maerz, John C; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Long-distance migration can lower infection risk for animal populations by removing infected individuals during strenuous journeys, spatially separating susceptible age classes, or allowing migrants to periodically escape from contaminated habitats. Many seasonal migrations are changing due to human activities including climate change and habitat alteration. Moreover, for some migratory populations, sedentary behaviors are becoming more common as migrants abandon or shorten their journeys in response to supplemental feeding or warming temperatures. Exploring the consequences of reduced movement for host-parasite interactions is needed to predict future responses of animal pathogens to anthropogenic change. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE) provide a model system for examining how long-distance migration affects infectious disease processes in a rapidly changing world. Annual monarch migration from eastern North America to Mexico is known to reduce protozoan infection prevalence, and more recent work suggests that monarchs that forego migration to breed year-round on non-native milkweeds in the southeastern and south central Unites States face extremely high risk of infection. Here, we examined the prevalence of OE infection from 2013 to 2016 in western North America, and compared monarchs exhibiting migratory behavior (overwintering annually along the California coast) with those that exhibit year-round breeding. Data from field collections and a joint citizen science program of Monarch Health and Monarch Alert showed that infection frequency was over nine times higher for monarchs sampled in gardens with year-round milkweed as compared to migratory monarchs sampled at overwintering sites. Results here underscore the importance of animal migrations for lowering infection risk and motivate future studies of pathogen transmission in migratory species affected by environmental change. © The

  8. Behavioural resistance against a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thierry; Chiang, Allen; Kelavkar, Mangala; Li, Hui; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Oliver, Lindsay; Potini, Yamini; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-01-01

    1. As parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, there should be strong selection for hosts to evolve and maintain defence mechanisms against their parasites. One way in which hosts may protect themselves against parasitism is through altered behaviours, but such defences have been much less studied than other forms of parasite resistance. 2. We studied whether monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) use altered behaviours to protect themselves and their offspring against the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin & Myers (1970), Journal of Protozoology, 17, p. 300). In particular, we studied whether (i) monarch larvae can avoid contact with infectious parasite spores; (ii) infected larvae preferentially consume therapeutic food plants when given a choice or increase the intake of such plants in the absence of choice; and (iii) infected female butterflies preferentially lay their eggs on medicinal plants that make their offspring less sick. 3. We found that monarch larvae were unable to avoid infectious parasite spores. Larvae were also not able to preferentially feed on therapeutic food plants or increase the ingestion of such plants. However, infected female butterflies preferentially laid their eggs on food plants that reduce parasite growth in their offspring. 4. Our results suggest that animals may use altered behaviours as a protection against parasites and that such behaviours may be limited to a single stage in the host-parasite life cycle. Our results also suggest that animals may use altered behaviours to protect their offspring instead of themselves. Thus, our study indicates that an inclusive fitness approach should be adopted to study behavioural defences against parasites. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  9. Tracking climate impacts on the migratory monarch butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Ries, Leslie; Reeves, Rick; Regetz, James; Oberhauser, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate on migratory species is complicated by the fact that these species travel through several climates that may be changing in diverse ways throughout their complete migratory cycle. Most studies are not designed to tease out the direct and indirect effects of climate at various stages along the migration route. We assess the impacts of spring and summer climate conditions on breeding monarch butterflies, a species that completes its annual migration cycle over several generations. No single, broad-scale climate metric can explain summer breeding phenology or the substantial year-to-year fluctuations observed in population abundances. As such, we built a Poisson regression model to help explain annual arrival times and abundances in the Midwestern United States. We incorporated the climate conditions experienced both during a spring migration/breeding phase in Texas as well as during subsequent arrival and breeding during the main recruitment period in Ohio. Using data from a state-wide butterfly monitoring network in Ohio, our results suggest that climate acts in conflicting ways during the spring and summer seasons. High spring precipitation in Texas is associated with the largest annual population growth in Ohio and the earliest arrival to the summer breeding ground, as are intermediate spring temperatures in Texas. On the other hand, the timing of monarch arrivals to the summer breeding grounds is not affected by climate conditions within Ohio. Once in Ohio for summer breeding, precipitation has minimal impacts on overall abundances, whereas warmer summer temperatures are generally associated with the highest expected abundances, yet this effect is mitigated by the average seasonal temperature of each location in that the warmest sites receive no benefit of above average summer temperatures. Our results highlight the complex relationship between climate and performance for a migrating species and suggest that attempts to

  10. Mechanisms underlying parallel reductions in aerobic capacity in non-migratory threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Anne C; Ou, Michelle; Schulte, Patricia M

    2012-03-01

    Non-migratory, stream-resident populations of threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, have a lower maximum oxygen consumption ((O(2),max)) than ancestral migratory marine populations. Here, we examined laboratory-bred stream-resident and marine crosses from two locations (West and Bonsall Creeks) to determine which steps in the oxygen transport and utilization cascade evolved in conjunction with, and thus have the potential to contribute to, these differences in (O(2),max). We found that West Creek stream-resident fish have larger muscle fibres (not measured in Bonsall fish), Bonsall Creek stream-resident fish have smaller ventricles, and both stream-resident populations have evolved smaller pectoral adductor and abductor muscles. However, many steps of the oxygen cascade did not evolve in stream-resident populations (gill surface area, hematocrit, mean cellular hemoglobin content and the activities of mitochondrial enzymes per gram ventricle and pectoral muscle), arguing against symmorphosis. We also studied F1 hybrids to determine which traits in the oxygen cascade have a genetic architecture similar to that of (O(2),max). In West Creek, (O(2),max), abductor and adductor size all showed dominance of marine alleles, whereas in Bonsall Creek, (O(2),max) and ventricle mass showed dominance of stream-resident alleles. We also found genetically based differences among marine populations in hematocrit, ventricle mass, pectoral muscle mass and pectoral muscle pyruvate kinase activity. Overall, reductions in pectoral muscle mass evolved in conjunction with reductions in (O(2),max) in both stream-resident populations, but the specific steps in the oxygen cascade that have a genetic basis similar to that of (O(2),max), and are thus predicted to have the largest impact on (O(2),max), differ among populations.

  11. Color vision and learning in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackiston, Douglas; Briscoe, Adriana D; Weiss, Martha R

    2011-02-01

    The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is well known for its intimate association with milkweed plants and its incredible multi-generational trans-continental migrations. However, little is known about monarch butterflies' color perception or learning ability, despite the importance of visual information to butterfly behavior in the contexts of nectar foraging, host-plant location and mate recognition. We used both theoretical and experimental approaches to address basic questions about monarch color vision and learning ability. Color space modeling based on the three known spectral classes of photoreceptors present in the eye suggests that monarchs should not be able to discriminate between long wavelength colors without making use of a dark orange lateral filtering pigment distributed heterogeneously in the eye. In the context of nectar foraging, monarchs show strong innate preferences, rapidly learn to associate colors with sugar rewards and learn non-innately preferred colors as quickly and proficiently as they do innately preferred colors. Butterflies also demonstrate asymmetric confusion between specific pairs of colors, which is likely a function of stimulus brightness. Monarchs readily learn to associate a second color with reward, and in general, learning parameters do not vary with temporal sequence of training. In addition, monarchs have true color vision; that is, they can discriminate colors on the basis of wavelength, independent of intensity. Finally, behavioral trials confirm that monarchs do make use of lateral filtering pigments to enhance long-wavelength discrimination. Our results demonstrate that monarchs are proficient and flexible color learners; these capabilities should allow them to respond rapidly to changing nectar availabilities as they travel over migratory routes, across both space and time.

  12. Coldness triggers northward flight in remigrant monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

    2013-03-01

    Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from their northern range to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Fall migrants are in reproductive diapause, and they use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate during the long journey south. Eye-sensed directional cues from the daylight sky (e.g., the horizontal or azimuthal position of the sun) are integrated in the sun compass in the midbrain central complex region. Sun compass output is time compensated by circadian clocks in the antennae so that fall migrants can maintain a fixed flight direction south. In the spring, the same migrants remigrate northward to the southern United States to initiate the northern leg of the migration cycle. Here we show that spring remigrants also use an antenna-dependent time-compensated sun compass to direct their northward flight. Remarkably, fall migrants prematurely exposed to overwintering-like coldness reverse their flight orientation to the north. The temperature microenvironment at the overwintering site is essential for successful completion of the migration cycle, because without cold exposure, aged migrants continue to orient south. Our discovery that coldness triggers the northward flight direction in spring remigrants solves one of the long-standing mysteries of the monarch migration.

  13. Western Monarch and Milkweed Habitat Suitability Assessment Project- Public Share Version of Species Occurence Records Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data is a compilation of milkweed (genus Asclepias) and monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) occurrences and specimen records across the western United States...

  14. Effects of in situ climate warming on monarch caterpillar (Danaus plexippus) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Nathan P; Capdevielle, Jillian N; Parker, John D

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming will fundamentally alter basic life history strategies of many ectothermic insects. In the lab, rising temperatures increase growth rates of lepidopteran larvae but also reduce final pupal mass and increase mortality. Using in situ field warming experiments on their natural host plants, we assessed the impact of climate warming on development of monarch (Danaus plexippus) larvae. Monarchs were reared on Asclepias tuberosa grown under 'Ambient' and 'Warmed' conditions. We quantified time to pupation, final pupal mass, and survivorship. Warming significantly decreased time to pupation, such that an increase of 1 °C corresponded to a 0.5 day decrease in pupation time. In contrast, survivorship and pupal mass were not affected by warming. Our results indicate that climate warming will speed the developmental rate of monarchs, influencing their ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, the effects of climate warming on larval development in other monarch populations and at different times of year should be investigated.

  15. Western Monarch and Milkweed Habitat Suitability Modeling Project- MaxEnt Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Products include relative habitat suitability models of five milkweed species thought to be important to western monarchs that enough data points to allow for...

  16. Western Monarch and Milkweed Habitat Suitability Modeling Project- March 2016 Final Presentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To better understand the distribution of key breeding areas for the declining western population of monarch butterflies, the USFWS, in collaboration with the Xerces...

  17. Interpreting surveys to estimate the size of the monarch butterfly population: Pitfalls and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleasants, John M.; Zalucki, Myron P.; Oberhauser, Karen S.; Brower, Lincoln P.; Taylor, Orley R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the change in the size of the eastern North American monarch butterfly summer population, studies have used long-term data sets of counts of adult butterflies or eggs per milkweed stem. Despite the observed decline in the monarch population as measured at overwintering sites in Mexico, these studies found no decline in summer counts in the Midwest, the core of the summer breeding range, leading to a suggestion that the cause of the monarch population decline is not the loss of Midwest agricultural milkweeds but increased mortality during the fall migration. Using these counts to estimate population size, however, does not account for the shift of monarch activity from agricultural fields to non-agricultural sites over the past 20 years, as a result of the loss of agricultural milkweeds due to the near-ubiquitous use of glyphosate herbicides. We present the counter-hypotheses that the proportion of the monarch population present in non-agricultural habitats, where counts are made, has increased and that counts reflect both population size and the proportion of the population observed. We use data on the historical change in the proportion of milkweeds, and thus monarch activity, in agricultural fields and non-agricultural habitats to show why using counts can produce misleading conclusions about population size. We then separate out the shifting proportion effect from the counts to estimate the population size and show that these corrected summer monarch counts show a decline over time and are correlated with the size of the overwintering population. In addition, we present evidence against the hypothesis of increased mortality during migration. The milkweed limitation hypothesis for monarch decline remains supported and conservation efforts focusing on adding milkweeds to the landscape in the summer breeding region have a sound scientific basis.

  18. Citizen Science Observations of Monarch Butterfly Overwintering in the Southern United States

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    Elizabeth Howard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the public have long had a fascination with the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, because of its amazing long-distance migration to overwintering sites in central Mexico, and many participate in online citizen-science programs where they report observations of its life history in North America. Here, we examine a little-studied aspect of monarch biology, the degree of overwintering in the southern United States. We compiled 9 years of sightings of overwintering monarchs in the southern United States that were reported to Journey North, a web-based citizen science program, to map the distribution of areas where monarchs are capable of surviving during the winter (i.e., in January and February, differentiating between adult sightings and sightings of breeding activity. We also statistically compared the latitudes of adult and breeding sightings, examined differences across years in latitude of sightings, and quantified the number of monarchs reported with each sighting. Of all 254 sightings, 80% came from Florida and Texas, with the remainder coming from South Carolina, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, and even one in Virginia. This distribution was generally consistent with the winter range predicted by prior investigators based on climatic conditions of this region. Sightings of adults were on average from higher latitudes than reports of breeding activity and there was significant variation across years in the average latitude of all sightings. The majority of sightings (94.2% were of fewer than 10 adult monarchs per location, and there were no reports of clustering behavior that is typical of monarch overwintering in California and Mexico. The results of this investigation broaden our collective understanding of this stage of the monarch life cycle and, more generally, highlight the value of citizen science programs in advancing science.

  19. Lipid reserves and immune defense in healthy and diseased migrating monarchs Danaus plexippus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dara A.SATTERFIELD; Amy E.WRIGHT; Sonia ALTIZER

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the energetic demands of long-distance migration might lower the pool of resources available for costly immune defenses.Moreover,migration could amplify the costs of parasitism if animals suffering from parasite-induced damage or depleted energy reserves are less able to migrate long distances.We investigated relationships between long-distance migration,infection,and immunity in wild fall-migrating monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus.Monarchs migrate annually from eastern North America to central Mexico,accumulating lipids essential for migration and winter survival as they travel southward.Monarchs are commonly infected by the debilitating protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE).We collected data on lipid reserves,parasite loads,and two immune measures (hemocyte concentration and phenoloxidase activity)from wild monarchs migrating through north GA (USA) to ask whether (1) parasite infection negatively affects lipid reserves,and (2) greater investment in lipid reserves is associated with lower immune measures.Results showed that monarchs sampled later in the fall migration had lower but not significantly different immune measures and significantly higher lipid reserves than those sampled earlier.Lipid measures correlated negatively but only nearly significantly with one measure of immune defense (phenoloxidase activity) in both healthy and infected monarchs,but did not depend on monarch infection status or parasite load.These results provide weak support for a trade-off between energy reserves and immune defense in migrants,and suggest that previously-demonstrated costs of OE infection for monarch migration are not caused by depleted lipid reserves.

  20. Unravelling the Costs of Flight for Immune Defenses in the Migratory Monarch Butterfly.

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    Fritzsche McKay, Alexa; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Migratory animals undergo extreme physiological changes to prepare for and sustain energetically costly movements; one potential change is reduced investment in immune defenses. However, because some migrants have evolved to minimize the energetic demands of movement (for example, through the temporary atrophy of non-essential organs such as those involved in reproduction), migratory animals could potentially avoid immunosuppression during long-distance journeys. In this study, we used a tethered flight mill to examine immune consequences of experimentally induced powered flight in eastern North American monarch butterflies. These butterflies undergo an annual two-way long-distance migration each year from as far north as Canada to wintering sites in Central Mexico. We quantified immune measures as a function of categorical flight treatment (flown versus control groups) and continuous measures of flight effort (e.g., flight distance, duration, and measures of efficiency). We also examined whether relationships between flight and immune measures depended on reproductive investment by experimentally controlling whether monarchs were reproductive or in state of reproductive diapause (having atrophied reproductive organs) prior to flight. Of the three immune responses we measured, hemocyte concentration (the number of immune cells) was lower in flown monarchs relative to controls but increased with flight distance among flown monarchs; the other two immune measures showed no relationship to monarch flight. We also found that monarchs that were reproductively active were less efficient fliers, as they exerted more power during flight than monarchs in reproductive diapause. However, reproductive status did not modify relationships between flight and immune measures. Results of this study add to a growing body of work suggesting that migratory monarchs-like some other animals that travel vast distances-can complete their journeys with efficient use of resources and

  1. Lipid reserves and immune defense in healthy and diseased migrating monarchs Danaus plexippus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara A. SATTERFIELD, Amy E. WRIGHT, Sonia ALTIZER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that the energetic demands of long-distance migration might lower the pool of resources available for costly immune defenses. Moreover, migration could amplify the costs of parasitism if animals suffering from parasite-induced damage or depleted energy reserves are less able to migrate long distances. We investigated relationships between long-distance migration, infection, and immunity in wild fall-migrating monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus. Monarchs migrate annually from eastern North America to central Mexico, accumulating lipids essential for migration and winter survival as they travel southward. Monarchs are commonly infected by the debilitating protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE. We collected data on lipid reserves, parasite loads, and two immune measures (hemocyte concentration and phenoloxidase activity from wild monarchs migrating through north GA (USA to ask whether (1 parasite infection negatively affects lipid reserves, and (2 greater investment in lipid reserves is associated with lower immune measures. Results showed that monarchs sampled later in the fall migration had lower but not significantly different immune measures and significantly higher lipid reserves than those sampled earlier. Lipid measures correlated negatively but only nearly significantly with one measure of immune defense (phenoloxidase activity in both healthy and infected monarchs, but did not depend on monarch infection status or parasite load. These results provide weak support for a trade-off between energy reserves and immune defense in migrants, and suggest that previously-demonstrated costs of OE infection for monarch migration are not caused by depleted lipid reserves [Current Zoology 59 (3: 393–402, 2013].

  2. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings.

  3. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

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    Nathan P Lemoine

    Full Text Available Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp. host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in

  4. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Nathan P

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp.) host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in summer months

  5. A Monarch Butterfly Optimization for the Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem

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    Shifeng Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic vehicle routing problem (DVRP is a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP in which customers appear dynamically. The objective is to determine a set of routes that minimizes the total travel distance. In this paper, we propose a monarch butterfly optimization (MBO algorithm to solve DVRPs, utilizing a greedy strategy. Both migration operation and the butterfly adjusting operator only accept the offspring of butterfly individuals that have better fitness than their parents. To improve performance, a later perturbation procedure is implemented, to maintain a balance between global diversification and local intensification. The computational results indicate that the proposed technique outperforms the existing approaches in the literature for average performance by at least 9.38%. In addition, 12 new best solutions were found. This shows that this proposed technique consistently produces high-quality solutions and outperforms other published heuristics for the DVRP.

  6. Middle Miocene carnivorans from the Monarch Mill Formation, Nevada

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    Kent Smith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available he lowest part of the Monarch Mill Formation in the Middlegate basin, west-central Nevada, has yielded a middle Miocene (Barstovian Land Mammal Age vertebrate assemblage, the Eastgate local fauna. Paleobotanical evidence from nearby, nearly contemporaneous fossil leaf assemblages indicates that the Middle Miocene vegetation in the area was mixed coniferous and hardwood forest and chaparral-sclerophyllous shrubland, and suggests that the area had been uplifted to 2700–2800 m paleoaltitude before dropping later to near its present elevation of 1600 m. Thus, the local fauna provides a rare glimpse at a medium- to high-altitude vertebrate community in the intermountain western interior of North America. The local fauna includes the remains of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and 25 families of mammals. Carnivorans, the focus of this study, include six taxa (three of which are new belonging to four families. Canidae are represented by the borophagine Tomarctus brevirostris and the canine Leptocyon sp. indet. The earliest record and second North American occurrence of the simocyonine ailurid Actiocyon is represented by A. parverratis sp. nov. Two new mustelids, Brevimalictis chikasha gen. et sp. nov. and Negodiaetictis rugatrulleum gen. et sp. nov., may represent Galictinae but are of uncertain subfamilial and tribal affinity. The fourth family is represented by the felid Pseudaelurus sp. indet. Tomarctus brevirostris is limited biochronologically to the Barstovian land mammal age and thus is consistent with the age indicated by other members of the Eastgate local fauna as well as by indirect tephrochronological dates previously associated with the Monarch Mill Formation. Actiocyon parverratis sp. nov. extends the temporal range of the genus Actiocyon from late Clarendonian back to the Barstovian. The Eastgate local fauna improves our understanding of mammalian successions and evolution, during and subsequent to the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum

  7. The stabilizing role of the Sabbath in pre-monarchic Israel: a mathematical model.

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    Livni, Joseph; Stone, Lewi

    2015-03-01

    The three monotheistic cultures have many common institutions and some of them germinated in pre-monarchic Israel. Reasonably, the essential institutions were in place at that starting point; this work explores the possibility that the Sabbath is one of these institutions. Our mathematical examination points to the potential cultural, civic, and social role of the weekly Sabbath, that is, the Sabbath institution, in controlling deviation from social norms. It begins with an analogy between spread of transgression (defined as lack of conformity with social norms) and of biological infection. Borrowing well-known mathematical methods, we derive solution sets of social equilibrium and study their social stability. The work shows how a weekly Sabbath could in theory enhance social resilience in comparison with a similar assembly with a more natural and longer period, say between New Moon and Full Moon. The examination reveals that an efficient Sabbath institution has the potential to ensure a stable organization and suppress occasional appearances of transgression from cultural norms and boundaries. The work suggests the existence of a sharp threshold governed by the "Basic Sabbath Number ש0"-a critical observance of the Sabbath, or large enough ש0, is required to ensure suppression of transgression. Subsequently, the model is used to explore an interesting question: how old is the Sabbath? The work is interdisciplinary, combining anthropological concepts with mathematical analysis and with archaeological parallels in regards to the findings.

  8. Southern Monarchs do not Develop Learned Preferences for Flowers With Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

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    de Oliveira, Marina Vasconcelos; Trigo, José Roberto; Rodrigues, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Danaus butterflies sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from nectar and leaves of various plant species for defense and reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that the southern monarch butterfly Danaus erippus shows innate preferences for certain flower colors and has the capacity to develop learned preferences for artificial flowers presenting advantageous floral rewards such as PAs. We predicted that orange and yellow flowers would be innately preferred by southern monarchs. Another prediction is that flowers with both sucrose and PAs would be preferred over those having sucrose only, regardless of flower color. In nature, males of Danaus generally visit PA sources more often than females, so we expected that males of D. erippus would exhibit a stronger learned preference for PA sources than the females. In the innate preference tests, adults were offered artificial non-rewarding yellow, orange, blue, red, green, and violet flowers. Orange and yellow artificial flowers were most visited by southern monarchs, followed by blue and red ones. No individual visited either green or violet flowers. For assessing learned preferences for PA flowers over flowers with no PAs, southern monarchs were trained to associate orange flowers with sucrose plus the PA monocrotaline vs. yellow flowers with sucrose only; the opposite combination was used to train another set of butterflies. In the tests, empty flowers were offered to trained butterflies. Neither males nor females showed learned preferences for flower colors associated with PAs in the training set. Thus, southern monarchs resemble the sister species Danaus plexippus in their innate preferences for orange and yellow flowers. Southern monarchs, similarly to temperate monarchs, might not be as PA-demanding as are other danaine species.

  9. Which native milkweeds are acceptable host plants for larval monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) within the Midwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past two decades, the population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline. Habitat restoration within the summer breeding range is crucial to boost population numbers. Monarch butterfly larvae use milkweeds as their only host plant. However, l...

  10. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Martin, Tara G; Hobson, Keith A; Wunder, Michael B; Norris, D Ryan

    2013-10-07

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km(2) that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America.

  11. Decline of Monarch Butterflies Overwintering in Mexico- Is the Migratory Phenomenon at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Lincoln; Taylor, Orley R.; Williams, Ernest H.; Slayback, Daniel; Zubieta, Raul R.; Ramirez, M. Isabel

    2012-01-01

    1.During the 2009-2010 overwintering season and following a 15-year downward trend, the total area in Mexico occupied by the eastern North American population of overwintering monarch butterflies reached an all-time low. Despite an increase, it remained low in 2010-2011. 2. Although the data set is small, the decline in abundance is statistically significant using both linear and exponential regression models. 3. Three factors appear to have contributed to reduce monarch abundance: degradation of the forest in the overwintering areas; the loss of breeding habitat in the United States due to the expansion ofGM herbicide-resistant crops, with consequent loss of milkweed host plants, as well as continued land development; and severe weather. 4. This decline calls into question the long-term survival of the monarchs' migratory phenomenon

  12. Long-term trends in midwestern milkweed abundances and their relevance to monarch butterfly declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, David N.; Pearse, Ian; Spyreas, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Declines in monarch butterfly populations have prompted investigation into the sensitivity of their milkweed host plants to land-use change. Documented declines in milkweed abundance in croplands have spurred efforts to promote milkweeds in other habitats. Nevertheless, our current understanding of milkweed populations is poor. We used a long-term plant survey from Illinois to evaluate whether trends in milkweed abundance have caused monarch decline and to highlight the habitat-management practices that promote milkweeds. Milkweed abundance in natural areas has not declined precipitously, although when croplands are considered, changes in agricultural weed management have led to a 68% loss of milkweed available for monarchs across the region. Midsuccessional plant communities with few invasive species provide optimal milkweed habitat. The augmentation of natural areas and the management of existing grasslands, such as less frequent mowing and woody- and exotic-species control, may replace some of the milkweed that has been lost from croplands.

  13. Restoring monarch butterfly habitat in the Midwestern US: ‘all hands on deck’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Rohweder, Jason; Diffendorfer, Jay; Drum, Ryan; Semmens, Darius; Black, Scott; Caldwell, Iris; Cotter, Donita; Drobney, Pauline; Jackson, Laura L.; Gale, Michael; Helmers, Doug; Hilburger, Steve; Howard, Elizabeth; Oberhauser, Karen; Pleasants, John; Semmens, Brice; Taylor, Orley; Ward, Patrick; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiederholt, Ruscena

    2017-07-01

    The eastern migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus plexippus) has declined by >80% within the last two decades. One possible cause of this decline is the loss of ≥1.3 billion stems of milkweed (Asclepias spp.), which monarchs require for reproduction. In an effort to restore monarchs to a population goal established by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and adopted by Mexico, Canada, and the US, we developed scenarios for amending the Midwestern US landscape with milkweed. Scenarios for milkweed restoration were developed for protected area grasslands, Conservation Reserve Program land, powerline, rail and roadside rights of way, urban/suburban lands, and land in agricultural production. Agricultural land was further divided into productive and marginal cropland. We elicited expert opinion as to the biological potential (in stems per acre) for lands in these individual sectors to support milkweed restoration and the likely adoption (probability) of management practices necessary for affecting restoration. Sixteen of 218 scenarios we developed for restoring milkweed to the Midwestern US were at levels (>1.3 billion new stems) necessary to reach the monarch population goal. One of these scenarios would convert all marginal agriculture to conserved status. The other 15 scenarios converted half of marginal agriculture (730 million stems), with remaining stems contributed by other societal sectors. Scenarios without substantive agricultural participation were insufficient for attaining the population goal. Agricultural lands are essential to reaching restoration targets because they occupy 77% of all potential monarch habitat. Barring fundamental changes to policy, innovative application of economic tools such as habitat exchanges may provide sufficient resources to tip the balance of the agro-ecological landscape toward a setting conducive to both robust agricultural production and reduced imperilment of the migratory monarch butterfly.

  14. Restoring monarch butterfly habitat in the Midwestern US: 'All hands on deck'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Rohweder, Jason; Diffendorfer, James E.; Drum, Ryan G.; Semmens, Darius J.; Black, Scott; Caldwell, Iris; Cotter, Donita; Drobney, Pauline; Jackson, Laura L.; Gale, Michael; Helmers, Doug; Hilburger, Steven B.; Howard, Elizabeth; Oberhauser, Karen S.; Pleasants, John M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Taylor, Orley R.; Ward, Patrick; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiederholt, Ruscena

    2017-01-01

    The eastern migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus plexippus) has declined by >80% within the last two decades. One possible cause of this decline is the loss of ≥1.3 billion stems of milkweed (Asclepias spp.), which monarchs require for reproduction. In an effort to restore monarchs to a population goal established by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and adopted by Mexico, Canada, and the US, we developed scenarios for amending the Midwestern US landscape with milkweed. Scenarios for milkweed restoration were developed for protected area grasslands, Conservation Reserve Program land, powerline, rail and roadside rights of way, urban/suburban lands, and land in agricultural production. Agricultural land was further divided into productive and marginal cropland. We elicited expert opinion as to the biological potential (in stems per acre) for lands in these individual sectors to support milkweed restoration and the likely adoption (probability) of management practices necessary for affecting restoration. Sixteen of 218 scenarios we developed for restoring milkweed to the Midwestern US were at levels (>1.3 billion new stems) necessary to reach the monarch population goal. One of these scenarios would convert all marginal agriculture to conserved status. The other 15 scenarios converted half of marginal agriculture (730 million stems), with remaining stems contributed by other societal sectors. Scenarios without substantive agricultural participation were insufficient for attaining the population goal. Agricultural lands are essential to reaching restoration targets because they occupy 77% of all potential monarch habitat. Barring fundamental changes to policy, innovative application of economic tools such as habitat exchanges may provide sufficient resources to tip the balance of the agro-ecological landscape toward a setting conducive to both robust agricultural production and reduced imperilment of the migratory monarch butterfly.

  15. Consequences of Food Restriction for Immune Defense, Parasite Infection, and Fitness in Monarch Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Alexa Fritzsche; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Organisms have a finite pool of resources to allocate toward multiple competing needs, such as development, reproduction, and enemy defense. Abundant resources can support investment in multiple traits simultaneously, but limited resources might promote trade-offs between fitness-related traits and immune defenses. We asked how food restriction at both larval and adult life stages of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) affected measures of immunity, fitness, and immune-fitness interactions. We experimentally infected a subset of monarchs with a specialist protozoan parasite to determine whether parasitism further affected these relationships and whether food restriction influenced the outcome of infection. Larval food restriction reduced monarch fitness measures both within the same life stage (e.g., pupal mass) as well as later in life (e.g., adult lifespan); adult food restriction further reduced adult lifespan. Larval food restriction lowered both hemocyte concentration and phenoloxidase activity at the larval stage, and the effects of larval food restriction on phenoloxidase activity persisted when immunity was sampled at the adult stage. Adult food restriction reduced only adult phenoloxidase activity but not hemocyte concentration. Parasite spore load decreased with one measure of larval immunity, but food restriction did not increase the probability of parasite infection. Across monarchs, we found a negative relationship between larval hemocyte concentration and pupal mass, and a trade-off between adult hemocyte concentration and adult life span was evident in parasitized female monarchs. Adult life span increased with phenoloxidase activity in some subsets of monarchs. Our results emphasize that food restriction can alter fitness and immunity across multiple life stages. Understanding the consequences of resource limitation for immune defense is therefore important for predicting how increasing constraints on wildlife resources will affect fitness and

  16. Variation in wing characteristics of monarch butterflies during migration: Earlier migrants have redder and more elongated wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satterfield Dara A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus in North America has a number of parallels with long-distance bird migration, including the fact that migratory populations of monarchs have larger and more elongated forewings than residents. These characteristics likely serve to optimize flight performance in monarchs, as they also do with birds. A question that has rarely been addressed thus far in birds or monarchs is if and how wing characteristics vary within a migration season. Individuals with superior flight performance should migrate quickly, and/or with minimal stopovers, and these individuals should be at the forefront of the migratory cohort. Conversely, individuals with poor flight performance and/or low endurance would be more likely to fall behind, and these would comprise the latest migrants. Here we examined how the wing morphology of migrating monarchs varies to determine if wing characteristics of early migrants differ from late migrants. We measured forewing area, elongation (length/width, and redness, which has been shown to predict flight endurance in monarchs. Based on a collection of 75 monarchs made one entire season (fall 2010, results showed that the earliest migrants (n = 20 in this cohort had significantly redder and more elongated forewings than the latest migrants (n = 17. There was also a non-significant tendency for early migrants to have larger forewing areas. These results suggest that the pace of migration in monarchs is at least partly dependent on the properties of their wings. Moreover, these data also raise a number of questions about the ultimate fate of monarchs that fall behind

  17. Genetic Variation and Geographic Differentiation Among Populations of the Nonmigratory Agricultural Pest Oedaleus infernalis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Hui; Gao, Yue-Bo; Su, Qian-Fu; Qian, Hai-Tao; Bai, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhu-Ting; Cong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The nonmigratory grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera : Acridoidea) is an agricultural pest to crops and forage grasses over a wide natural geographical distribution in China. The genetic diversity and genetic variation among 10 geographically separated populations of O. infernalis was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers, including the intersimple sequence repeat and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sequences. A high level of genetic diversity was detected among these populations from the intersimple sequence repeat (H: 0.2628, I: 0.4129, Hs: 0.2130) and cytochrome oxidase analyses (Hd: 0.653). There was no obvious geographical structure based on an unweighted pair group method analysis and median-joining network. The values of FST, θII, and Gst estimated in this study are low, and the gene flow is high (Nm > 4). Analysis of the molecular variance suggested that most of the genetic variation occurs within populations, whereas only a small variation takes place between populations. No significant correlation was found between the genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, our results suggest that the geographical distance plays an unimpeded role in the gene flow among O. infernalis populations. PMID:26496789

  18. Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Oberhauser, Karen; Drum, Ryan G.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Altizer, Sonia; Taylor, Orley R.; Pleasants, John M.; Semmens, Darius J.; Semmens, Brice X.; Erickson, Richard A.; Libby, Kaitlin; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids). While climatic factors, principally breeding season temperature, were important determinants of annual variation in abundance, our results indicated strong negative relationships between population size and habitat loss variables, principally glyphosate use, but also weaker negative effects from the loss of overwinter forest and breeding season use of neonicotinoids. Further declines in population size because of glyphosate application are not expected. Thus, if remaining threats to habitat are mitigated we expect climate-induced stochastic variation of the eastern migratory population of monarch butterfly around a relatively stationary population size.

  19. Leader Age and National Condition: A Longitudinal Analysis of 25 European Monarchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    1984-01-01

    Analyzed the reigns of 25 long-tenured European absolute monarchs for 238 five-year age periods to determine the relationship between age and achievement in the politico-military domain. Results indicated that age negatively correlated with success in foreign wars and with treaty negotiation, and positively correlated with civil instability at…

  20. Impact of Consuming ‘Toxic’ Monarch Caterpillars on Adult Chinese Mantid Mass Gain and Fecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L. Rafter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Predators that feed on chemically-defended prey often experience non-lethal effects that result in learned avoidance of the prey species. Some predators are able to consume toxic prey without ill-effect. The Chinese mantid is able to consume cardenolide-containing monarch caterpillars without immediate adverse effects. Although they discard the caterpillars’ gut contents, mantids consume sequestered cardenolides. Although consumption of these cardenolides does not elicit an acute response, there may be long-term costs associated with cardenolide consumption. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of monarch caterpillars will adversely affect adult mantid biomass gain and reproductive condition. We reared mantids from egg to adult and assigned them to one of four toxicity groups that differed in the number of monarch caterpillars offered over a 15-day period. Mantids consumed similar amounts of prey biomass during the experiment. Yet, mantids in the high-toxicity group had a higher conversion efficiency and gained more biomass than mantids in other groups. Mantids in all treatment groups produced similar numbers of eggs. However, mantids in the high-toxicity group produced heavier eggs and devoted a greater portion of their biomass toward egg production than those in the control group. This increase in reproductive condition is probably driven by variation in prey nutritional value and/or the nutritional advantages inherent in eating multiple food types. Our results demonstrate the mantid is able to incorporate ‘toxic’ monarch prey into its diet without acute or chronic ill-effects.

  1. Anatomical basis of sun compass navigation I: the general layout of the monarch butterfly brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Stanley; Reppert, Steven M

    2012-06-01

    Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to migrate to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. The sun compass mechanism involves the neural integration of skylight cues with timing information from circadian clocks to maintain a constant heading. The neuronal substrates for the necessary interactions between compass neurons in the central complex, a prominent structure of the central brain, and circadian clocks are largely unknown. To begin to unravel these neural substrates, we performed 3D reconstructions of all neuropils of the monarch brain based on anti-synapsin labeling. Our work characterizes 21 well-defined neuropils (19 paired, 2 unpaired), as well as all synaptic regions between the more classically defined neuropils. We also studied the internal organization of all major neuropils on brain sections, using immunocytochemical stainings against synapsin, serotonin, and γ-aminobutyric acid. Special emphasis was placed on describing the neuroarchitecture of sun-compass-related brain regions and outlining their homologies to other migratory species. In addition to finding many general anatomical similarities to other insects, interspecies comparison also revealed several features that appear unique to the monarch brain. These distinctive features were especially apparent in the visual system and the mushroom body. Overall, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the brain anatomy of the monarch butterfly that will ultimately aid our understanding of the neuronal processes governing animal migration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Serial founder effects and genetic differentiation during worldwide range expansion of monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Amanda A.; Zalucki, Myron P.; Bangura, Marie; Udawatta, Milan; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Altizer, Sonia; Haeger, Juan Fernández; de Roode, Jacobus C.

    2014-01-01

    Range expansions can result in founder effects, increasing genetic differentiation between expanding populations and reducing genetic diversity along the expansion front. However, few studies have addressed these effects in long-distance migratory species, for which high dispersal ability might counter the effects of genetic drift. Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a long-distance annual migration in North America, but have also dispersed around the world to form populations that do not migrate or travel only short distances. Here, we used microsatellite markers to assess genetic differentiation among 18 monarch populations and to determine worldwide colonization routes. Our results indicate that North American monarch populations connected by land show limited differentiation, probably because of the monarch's ability to migrate long distances. Conversely, we found high genetic differentiation between populations separated by large bodies of water. Moreover, we show evidence for serial founder effects across the Pacific, suggesting stepwise dispersal from a North American origin. These findings demonstrate that genetic drift played a major role in shaping allele frequencies and created genetic differentiation among newly formed populations. Thus, range expansion can give rise to genetic differentiation and declines in genetic diversity, even in highly mobile species. PMID:25377462

  3. Secondary Defense Chemicals in Milkweed Reduce Parasite Infection in Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowler, Camden D; Leon, Kristoffer E; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2015-06-01

    In tri-trophic systems, herbivores may benefit from their host plants in fighting parasitic infections. Plants can provide parasite resistance in two contrasting ways: either directly, by interfering with the parasite, or indirectly, by increasing herbivore immunity or health. In monarch butterflies, the larval diet of milkweed strongly influences the fitness of a common protozoan parasite. Toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides correlate strongly with parasite resistance of the host, with greater cardenolide concentrations in the larval diet leading to lower parasite growth. However, milkweed cardenolides may covary with other indices of plant quality including nutrients, and a direct experimental link between cardenolides and parasite performance has not been established. To determine if the anti-parasitic activity of milkweeds is indeed due to secondary chemicals, as opposed to nutrition, we supplemented the diet of infected and uninfected monarch larvae with milkweed latex, which contains cardenolides but no nutrients. Across three experiments, increased dietary cardenolide concentrations reduced parasite growth in infected monarchs, which consequently had longer lifespans. However, uninfected monarchs showed no differences in lifespan across treatments, confirming that cardenolide-containing latex does not increase general health. Our results suggest that cardenolides are a driving force behind plant-derived resistance in this system.

  4. Effects of in situ climate warming on monarch caterpillar (Danaus plexippus) development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevielle, Jillian N.; Parker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming will fundamentally alter basic life history strategies of many ectothermic insects. In the lab, rising temperatures increase growth rates of lepidopteran larvae but also reduce final pupal mass and increase mortality. Using in situ field warming experiments on their natural host plants, we assessed the impact of climate warming on development of monarch (Danaus plexippus) larvae. Monarchs were reared on Asclepias tuberosa grown under ‘Ambient’ and ‘Warmed’ conditions. We quantified time to pupation, final pupal mass, and survivorship. Warming significantly decreased time to pupation, such that an increase of 1 °C corresponded to a 0.5 day decrease in pupation time. In contrast, survivorship and pupal mass were not affected by warming. Our results indicate that climate warming will speed the developmental rate of monarchs, influencing their ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, the effects of climate warming on larval development in other monarch populations and at different times of year should be investigated. PMID:26528403

  5. Impact of Consuming ‘Toxic’ Monarch Caterpillars on Adult Chinese Mantid Mass Gain and Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, Jamie L.; Gonda-King, Liahna; Niesen, Daniel; Seeram, Navindra P.; Rigsby, Chad M.; Preisser, Evan L.

    2017-01-01

    Predators that feed on chemically-defended prey often experience non-lethal effects that result in learned avoidance of the prey species. Some predators are able to consume toxic prey without ill-effect. The Chinese mantid is able to consume cardenolide-containing monarch caterpillars without immediate adverse effects. Although they discard the caterpillars’ gut contents, mantids consume sequestered cardenolides. Although consumption of these cardenolides does not elicit an acute response, there may be long-term costs associated with cardenolide consumption. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of monarch caterpillars will adversely affect adult mantid biomass gain and reproductive condition. We reared mantids from egg to adult and assigned them to one of four toxicity groups that differed in the number of monarch caterpillars offered over a 15-day period. Mantids consumed similar amounts of prey biomass during the experiment. Yet, mantids in the high-toxicity group had a higher conversion efficiency and gained more biomass than mantids in other groups. Mantids in all treatment groups produced similar numbers of eggs. However, mantids in the high-toxicity group produced heavier eggs and devoted a greater portion of their biomass toward egg production than those in the control group. This increase in reproductive condition is probably driven by variation in prey nutritional value and/or the nutritional advantages inherent in eating multiple food types. Our results demonstrate the mantid is able to incorporate ‘toxic’ monarch prey into its diet without acute or chronic ill-effects. PMID:28218646

  6. Milkweed: A resource for increasing stink bug parasitism and aiding insect pollinator and monarch butterfly conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flowers of milkweed species can produce a rich supply of nectar, and therefore, planting an insecticide-free milkweed habitat in agricultural farmscapes could possibly conserve monarch butterflies, bees and other insect pollinators, as well as enhance parasitism of insect pests. In peanut-cotton...

  7. An experimental displacement and over 50 years of tag-recoveries show that monarch butterflies are not true navigators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtisen, Henrik; Derbyshirec, Rachael; Stalleickena, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) breeding in eastern North America are famous for their annual fall migration to their overwintering grounds in Mexico. However, the mechanisms they use to successfully reach these sites remain poorly understood. Here, we test whether monarchs are true...... toward Mexican overwintering sites, a remarkable achievement considering that these butterflies weigh less than a gram and travel thousands of kilometers to a site they have never seen....

  8. An experimental displacement and over 50 years of tag-recoveries show that monarch butterflies are not true navigators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtisen, Henrik; Derbyshirec, Rachael; Stalleickena, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) breeding in eastern North America are famous for their annual fall migration to their overwintering grounds in Mexico. However, the mechanisms they use to successfully reach these sites remain poorly understood. Here, we test whether monarchs are true...... toward Mexican overwintering sites, a remarkable achievement considering that these butterflies weigh less than a gram and travel thousands of kilometers to a site they have never seen....

  9. Local and cross-seasonal associations of climate and land use with abundance of monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Sarah P.; Ries, Leslie; Oberhasuer, Karen S.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Zipkin, Elise F.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying how climate and land use factors drive population dynamics at regional scales is complex because it depends on the extent of spatial and temporal synchrony among local populations, and the integration of population processes throughout a species’ annual cycle. We modeled weekly, site-specific summer abundance (1994–2013) of monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus at sites across Illinois, USA to assess relative associations of monarch abundance with climate and land use variables during the winter, spring, and summer stages of their annual cycle. We developed negative binomial regression models to estimate monarch abundance during recruitment in Illinois as a function of local climate, site-specific crop cover, and county-level herbicide (glyphosate) application. We also incorporated cross-seasonal covariates, including annual abundance of wintering monarchs in Mexico and climate conditions during spring migration and breeding in Texas, USA. We provide the first empirical evidence of a negative association between county-level glyphosate application and local abundance of adult monarchs, particularly in areas of concentrated agriculture. However, this association was only evident during the initial years of the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops (1994–2003). We also found that wetter and, to a lesser degree, cooler springs in Texas were associated with higher summer abundances in Illinois, as were relatively cool local summer temperatures in Illinois. Site-specific abundance of monarchs averaged approximately one fewer per site from 2004–2013 than during the previous decade, suggesting a recent decline in local abundance of monarch butterflies on their summer breeding grounds in Illinois. Our results demonstrate that seasonal climate and land use are associated with trends in adult monarch abundance, and our approach highlights the value of considering fine-resolution temporal fluctuations in population-level responses to environmental

  10. Migratory connectivity of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus: patterns of spring re-colonization in eastern North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan G Miller

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus migrate up to 3000 km from their overwintering grounds in central Mexico to breed in eastern North America. Malcolm et al. (1993 articulated two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain how Monarchs re-colonize North America each spring. The 'successive brood' hypothesis proposes that monarchs migrate from Mexico to the Gulf Coast, lay eggs and die, leaving northern re-colonization of the breeding range to subsequent generations. The 'single sweep' hypothesis proposes that overwintering monarchs continue to migrate northward after arriving on the Gulf coast and may reach the northern portion of the breeding range, laying eggs along the way. To examine these hypotheses, we sampled monarchs throughout the northern breeding range and combined stable-hydrogen isotopes (δD to estimate natal origin with wing wear scores to differentiate between individuals born in the current vs. previous year. Similar to Malcolm et al. (1993, we found that the majority of the northern breeding range was re-colonized by the first generation of monarchs (90%. We also estimated that a small number of individuals (10% originated directly from Mexico and, therefore adopted a sweep strategy. Contrary to Malcolm et al. (1993, we found that 62% of monarchs sampled in the Great Lakes originated from the Central U.S., suggesting that this region is important for sustaining production in the northern breeding areas. Our results provide new evidence of re-colonization patterns in monarchs and contribute important information towards identifying productive breeding regions of this unique migratory insect.

  11. Cryptochromes define a novel circadian clock mechanism in monarch butterflies that may underlie sun compass navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisun Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock plays a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, a process that is important for successful navigation. We therefore evaluated the monarch clockwork by focusing on the functions of a Drosophila-like cryptochrome (cry, designated cry1, and a vertebrate-like cry, designated cry2, that are both expressed in the butterfly and by placing these genes in the context of other relevant clock genes in vivo. We found that similar temporal patterns of clock gene expression and protein levels occur in the heads, as occur in DpN1 cells, of a monarch cell line that contains a light-driven clock. CRY1 mediates TIMELESS degradation by light in DpN1 cells, and a light-induced TIMELESS decrease occurs in putative clock cells in the pars lateralis (PL in the brain. Moreover, monarch cry1 transgenes partially rescue both biochemical and behavioral light-input defects in cry(b mutant Drosophila. CRY2 is the major transcriptional repressor of CLOCK:CYCLE-mediated transcription in DpN1 cells, and endogenous CRY2 potently inhibits transcription without involvement of PERIOD. CRY2 is co-localized with clock proteins in the PL, and there it translocates to the nucleus at the appropriate time for transcriptional repression. We also discovered CRY2-positive neural projections that oscillate in the central complex. The results define a novel, CRY-centric clock mechanism in the monarch in which CRY1 likely functions as a blue-light photoreceptor for entrainment, whereas CRY2 functions within the clockwork as the transcriptional repressor of a negative transcriptional feedback loop. Our data further suggest that CRY2 may have a dual role in the monarch butterfly's brain-as a core clock element and as an output that regulates circadian activity in the central complex, the likely site of the sun compass.

  12. Techniques for rearing and releasing nonmigratory cranes: Lessons from the Mississippi Sandhill Crane program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; O'Malley, K.E.; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Hereford, Scott G.; Range, P.; Harper, W.T.; Ingram, R.P.; Smith, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Captive-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) reared at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) have been released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) since 1981. Of 131 birds released through December 1990, 103 were reared by foster parents. The remaining 28 were experimentally hand-reared in 1989 and 1990. After refining release procedures, parent-reared birds have integrated into the wild flock, many have survived, and some have bred. Releases of hand-reared cranes elsewhere in the 1970's were largely unsuccessful, at least in part due to the lack of a lengthy acclimation period. A new hand-rearing protocol holds promise in producing release-worthy birds. The technique employs some features first used in the 1960's (e.g., a costume for the human caretaker and model crane heads used to train chicks to feed). In the mid-1980's, the following features were added: (1) the costumed caretaker was given a visor and feathers, (2) a taxidermic crane head or a hand puppet was held or suspended from the ceiling for use in stimulating chicks to feed, (3) a taxidermic mount of a brooding crane supplied warmth, (4) a full-sized live crane was maintained in an adjacent pen and in visual contact with neonatal young to provide an imprinting model, and (5) a small group of adult (or subadult) cranes was penned adjacent to the outdoor chick pens to provide socialization models. Recent releases of Mississippi sandhill cranes hand-reared according to this protocol and released in Mississippi have had high first-year survival rates. The now-operational technique holds promise for producing large numbers of release-worthy birds.

  13. RISK HABITAT OF THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY (Danaus plexippus BY CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Islas-Báez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The change in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change is altering the ecosystem functioning, so it is important to conduct studies that contribute to the knowledge of species distribution under climate change scenarios, to locate areas vulnerable to the phenomenon. Potential changes were estimated area under climate change scenarios, obtained by downscaling and Regional Assembly Model (RAM for the winter habitat of the Monarch Butterfly (MM in the nucleus zone of the Biosphere Reserve of the Monarch Butterfly area. According to the study, the overwintering habitat of the MM disappears in the A2 and B2 scenarios downscaling 2030. With the RAM, reducing the area of habitat MM 2030 is estimated at 37.59 % and in 2050 will be 49.13 %. Therefore, the downscaling model indicates that MM habitat disappears, and the RAM shows that there will be significant losses of habitat MM.

  14. Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Hoang, Kevin M; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviours is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. In the current study, we explore the costs of the usage of antiparasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of antiparasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these antiparasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed the opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although non-polar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump-shaped curve between cardenolide non-polarity and the life span of infected butterflies

  15. Cardenolide fingerprint of monarch butterflies reared on common milkweed,Asclepias syriaca L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, S B; Cockrell, B J; Brower, L P

    1989-03-01

    Monarch butterfly,Danaus plexippus (L.), larvae were collected during August 1983 from the common milkweed,Asclepias syriaca L., across its extensive North American range from North Dakota, east to Vermont, and south to Virginia. This confirms that the late summer distribution of breeding monarchs in eastern North America coincides with the range of this extremely abundant milkweed resource. Plant cardenolide concentrations, assayed by spectrophotometry in 158 samples from 27 collection sites, were biased towards plants with low cardenolide, and ranged from 4 to 229 μg/ 0.1 g dry weight, with a mean of 50 μg/0.1 g. Monarch larvae reared on these plants stored cardenolides logarithmically, and produced 158 adults with a normally distributed concentration range from 0 to 792 μg/0. l g dry butterfly, with a mean of 234 μg/0.1 g. Thus butterflies increased the mean plant cardenolide concentration by 4.7. The eastern plants and their resultant butterflies had higher cardenolide concentrations than those from the west, and in some areas monarchs sequestered more cardenolide from equivalent plants. Plants growing in small patches had higher cardenolide concentrations than those in larger patches, but this did not influence butterfly concentration. However, younger plants and those at habitat edges had higher cardenolide concentrations than either older, shaded, or open habitat plants, and this did influence butterfly storage. There were no apparent topographical differences reflected in the cardenolides of plants and butterflies. Twenty-eight cardenolides were recognized by thin-layer chromatography, with 27 in plants and 21 in butterflies. Butterflies stored cardenolides within the more polar 46% of the plantR d range, these being sequestered in higher relative concentrations than they occurred in the plants. By comparison with published TLC cardenolide mobilities, spots 3, 4, 9, 16, 24 or 25, 26, and 27, may be the cardenolides syrioside, uzarin, syriobioside

  16. Quasi-extinction risk and population targets for the Eastern, migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Brice X; Semmens, Darius J; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Wiederholt, Ruscena; López-Hoffman, Laura; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Pleasants, John M; Oberhauser, Karen S; Taylor, Orley R

    2016-03-21

    The Eastern, migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), an iconic North American insect, has declined by ~80% over the last decade. The monarch's multi-generational migration between overwintering grounds in central Mexico and the summer breeding grounds in the northern U.S. and southern Canada is celebrated in all three countries and creates shared management responsibilities across North America. Here we present a novel Bayesian multivariate auto-regressive state-space model to assess quasi-extinction risk and aid in the establishment of a target population size for monarch conservation planning. We find that, given a range of plausible quasi-extinction thresholds, the population has a substantial probability of quasi-extinction, from 11-57% over 20 years, although uncertainty in these estimates is large. Exceptionally high population stochasticity, declining numbers, and a small current population size act in concert to drive this risk. An approximately 5-fold increase of the monarch population size (relative to the winter of 2014-15) is necessary to halve the current risk of quasi-extinction across all thresholds considered. Conserving the monarch migration thus requires active management to reverse population declines, and the establishment of an ambitious target population size goal to buffer against future environmentally driven variability.

  17. Monarchical Activities of the Yoruba Kings of South Western Nigeria: A Cultural Heritage in Printmaking Visual Documentary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Bankole Oladumiye

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Printmaking is a visual documentary media of art which was used as a medium of expression in analyzing myth and mythology monarchical activities of the Yorubas in South Western Nigeria in this study. The  monarchical activities of the Yoruba Kings, is  the cultural heritage and legacy that people do guide jealously and considered to be of high cultural value. The Yoruba Kings of South Western Nigeria are traditional entity which passed through the rites of installing kings for the throne fore fathers as a leader with symbol of authority between the people and the spirit world. The kings in Yoruba kingdom is so much respected that they are seen as divine and representative of God on earth and they are exalted into the position of deity because of his monarchical duties to his subjects at large. The funfairs that accompany the monarch roles  are worth documenting using printmaking as vehicle of visual and historical expression of myths and mythologies demonstrating African culture which stands out as sacred. The discourse also relies on oral testimonies written and archival documents. The materials used for the execution of the prints are rubber, wood, plate, offset printing inks and glass which records the events as an alternative to the use of photographic documentation. The research examine the philosophy behind the monarchical roles of the Yoruba Kings in print visuals based on the cultural heritage of the Yoruba people it employs an exploratory qualitative methods rely on literature review.

  18. Monarchical Activities of the Yoruba Kings of South Western Nigeria: A Cultural Heritage in Printmaking Visual Documentary.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Printmaking is a visual documentary media of art which was used as a medium of expression in analyzing myth and mythology monarchical activities of the Yorubas in South Western Nigeria in this study. The  monarchical activities of the Yoruba Kings, is  the cultural heritage and legacy that people do guide jealously and considered to be of high cultural value. The Yoruba Kings of South Western Nigeria are traditional entity which passed through the rites of installing kings for the throne fore...

  19. Defining behavioral and molecular differences between summer and migratory monarch butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanginakudru Sriramana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile hormone status and oriented flight, critical features that differentiate summer monarchs from fall migrants, and identifying molecular correlates of behavioral state. Results Here we show that increasing juvenile hormone activity to induce summer-like reproductive development in fall migrants does not alter directional flight behavior or its time-compensated orientation, as monitored in a flight simulator. Reproductive summer butterflies, in contrast, uniformly fail to exhibit directional, oriented flight. To define molecular correlates of behavioral state, we used microarray analysis of 9417 unique cDNA sequences. Gene expression profiles reveal a suite of 40 genes whose differential expression in brain correlates with oriented flight behavior in individual migrants, independent of juvenile hormone activity, thereby molecularly separating fall migrants from summer butterflies. Intriguing genes that are differentially regulated include the clock gene vrille and the locomotion-relevant tyramine beta hydroxylase gene. In addition, several differentially regulated genes (37.5% of total are not annotated. We also identified 23 juvenile hormone-dependent genes in brain, which separate reproductive from non-reproductive monarchs; genes involved in longevity, fatty acid metabolism, and innate immunity are upregulated in non-reproductive (juvenile-hormone deficient migrants. Conclusion The results link key behavioral traits with gene expression profiles in brain that

  20. Defining behavioral and molecular differences between summer and migratory monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haisun; Gegear, Robert J; Casselman, Amy; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Reppert, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Background In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile hormone status and oriented flight, critical features that differentiate summer monarchs from fall migrants, and identifying molecular correlates of behavioral state. Results Here we show that increasing juvenile hormone activity to induce summer-like reproductive development in fall migrants does not alter directional flight behavior or its time-compensated orientation, as monitored in a flight simulator. Reproductive summer butterflies, in contrast, uniformly fail to exhibit directional, oriented flight. To define molecular correlates of behavioral state, we used microarray analysis of 9417 unique cDNA sequences. Gene expression profiles reveal a suite of 40 genes whose differential expression in brain correlates with oriented flight behavior in individual migrants, independent of juvenile hormone activity, thereby molecularly separating fall migrants from summer butterflies. Intriguing genes that are differentially regulated include the clock gene vrille and the locomotion-relevant tyramine beta hydroxylase gene. In addition, several differentially regulated genes (37.5% of total) are not annotated. We also identified 23 juvenile hormone-dependent genes in brain, which separate reproductive from non-reproductive monarchs; genes involved in longevity, fatty acid metabolism, and innate immunity are upregulated in non-reproductive (juvenile-hormone deficient) migrants. Conclusion The results link key behavioral traits with gene expression profiles in brain that differentiate migratory

  1. Analysis of whole blood for drugs of abuse using EMIT d.a.u. reagents and a Monarch 1000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosi, D T; Harvey, D C

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes refinements in procedures coupling methanolic extraction-precipitation of whole blood with subsequent screening for commonly encountered drugs of abuse using EMIT d.a.u. reagents on a Monarch Chemistry Analyzer. The automation capabilities inherent in the Monarch make batch processing of samples convenient and cost effective. The small sample volume requirement of the Monarch allows greater sensitivities and use of lower cutoffs than previously reported. Subsequent analysis of EMIT positives by GC/MS confirmed the presence of the indicated drugs of abuse 86.7% of the time.

  2. Discordant timing between antennae disrupts sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    To navigate during their long-distance migration, monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass. The sun compass timing elements reside in light-entrained circadian clocks in the antennae. Here we show that either antenna is sufficient for proper time compensation. However, migrants with either antenna painted black (to block light entrainment) and the other painted clear (to permit light entrainment) display disoriented group flight. Remarkably, when the black-painted antenna is removed, re-flown migrants with a single, clear-painted antenna exhibit proper orientation behaviour. Molecular correlates of clock function reveal that period and timeless expression is highly rhythmic in brains and clear-painted antennae, while rhythmic clock gene expression is disrupted in black-painted antennae. Our work shows that clock outputs from each antenna are processed and integrated together in the monarch time-compensated sun compass circuit. This dual timing system is a novel example of the regulation of a brain-driven behaviour by paired organs. PMID:22805565

  3. Forbs: Foundation for restoration of monarch butterflies, other pollinators, and greater sage-grouse in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Tara Luna; Jeremy Pinto; Thomas D. Landis

    2016-01-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), other pollinators, and Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are currently the focus of increased conservation efforts. Federal attention on these fauna is encouraging land managers to develop conservation strategies, often without corresponding financial resources. This could foster a myopic approach when...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Commensalibacter papalotli MX01, a Symbiont Identified from the Guts of Overwintering Monarch Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Andrés; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Commensalibacter papalotli strain MX01, isolated from the intestines of an overwintering monarch butterfly. The 2,332,652-bp AT-biased genome of C. papalotli MX01 is the smallest genome for a member of the Acetobacteraceae family and provides the first evidence of plasmids in Commensalibacter. PMID:24604647

  5. Establishment of a Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus, Lepidoptera: Danaidae) Cell Line and its Susceptibility to Insect Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cell line from the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus designated BCIRL-DP-AM/JG was established from adult ovaries. The cell line consisted mainly of round cells and took a prolonged period of time in the growth medium ExCell 401 containing 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics before it could be...

  6. Quasi-extinction risk and population targets for the Eastern, migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Brice X.; Semmens, Darius J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Diffendorfer, James E.; Pleasants, John M.; Oberhauser, Karen S.; Taylor, Orley R.

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern, migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), an iconic North American insect, has declined by ~80% over the last decade. The monarch’s multi-generational migration between overwintering grounds in central Mexico and the summer breeding grounds in the northern U.S. and southern Canada is celebrated in all three countries and creates shared management responsibilities across North America. Here we present a novel Bayesian multivariate auto-regressive state-space model to assess quasi-extinction risk and aid in the establishment of a target population size for monarch conservation planning. We find that, given a range of plausible quasi-extinction thresholds, the population has a substantial probability of quasi-extinction, from 11–57% over 20 years, although uncertainty in these estimates is large. Exceptionally high population stochasticity, declining numbers, and a small current population size act in concert to drive this risk. An approximately 5-fold increase of the monarch population size (relative to the winter of 2014–15) is necessary to halve the current risk of quasi-extinction across all thresholds considered. Conserving the monarch migration thus requires active management to reverse population declines, and the establishment of an ambitious target population size goal to buffer against future environmentally driven variability.

  7. Measuring Intraspecific Variation in Flight-Related Morphology of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus: Which Sex Has the Best Flying Gear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal flight in butterflies depends on structural features of the wings and body, including wing size, flight muscle size, and wing loading. Arguably, there is no butterfly for which flight is more important than the monarch (Danaus plexippus, which undergoes long-distance migrations in North America. We examined morphological features of monarchs that would explain the apparent higher migratory success and flight ability of females over males. We examined 47 male and 45 female monarch specimens from a project where monarchs were reared under uniform conditions. We weighed individual body parts, including the thorax (flight muscle and wings, and computed wing loading and wing thickness for all specimens. When we compared each morphological trait between sexes, we found that females did not differ from males in terms of relative thorax (wing muscle size. Females were generally smaller than males, but females had relatively thicker wings than males for their size, which suggests greater mechanical strength. Importantly, females had significantly lower wing loading than males (7% lower. This would translate to more efficient flight, which may explain their higher migratory success. Results of this work should be useful for interpreting flight behavior and/or migration success in this and other Lepidopteran species.

  8. Chasing Migration Genes: A Brain Expressed Sequence Tag Resource for Summer and Migratory Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haisun; Casselman, Amy; Reppert, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH) deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constructed from summer and migrating butterflies. Of 9,484 unique sequences, 6068 had positive hits with the non-redundant protein database; the EST database likely represents ∼52% of the gene-encoding potential of the monarch genome. The brain transcriptome was cataloged using Gene Ontology and compared to Drosophila. Monarch genes were well represented, including those implicated in behavior. Three genes involved in increased JH activity (allatotropin, juvenile hormone acid methyltransfersase, and takeout) were upregulated in summer butterflies, compared to migrants. The locomotion-relevant turtle gene was marginally upregulated in migrants, while the foraging and single-minded genes were not differentially regulated. Many of the genes important for the monarch circadian clock mechanism (involved in sun compass orientation) were in the EST resource, including the newly identified cryptochrome 2. The EST database also revealed a novel Na+/K+ ATPase allele predicted to be more resistant to the toxic effects of milkweed than that reported previously. Potential genetic markers were identified from 3,486 EST contigs and included 1599 double-hit single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 98 microsatellite polymorphisms. These data provide a template of the brain transcriptome for the monarch butterfly. Our “snap-shot” analysis of the differential regulation of candidate genes between summer and migratory butterflies suggests that unbiased, comprehensive transcriptional profiling

  9. Chasing migration genes: a brain expressed sequence tag resource for summer and migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisun Zhu

    Full Text Available North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constructed from summer and migrating butterflies. Of 9,484 unique sequences, 6068 had positive hits with the non-redundant protein database; the EST database likely represents approximately 52% of the gene-encoding potential of the monarch genome. The brain transcriptome was cataloged using Gene Ontology and compared to Drosophila. Monarch genes were well represented, including those implicated in behavior. Three genes involved in increased JH activity (allatotropin, juvenile hormone acid methyltransfersase, and takeout were upregulated in summer butterflies, compared to migrants. The locomotion-relevant turtle gene was marginally upregulated in migrants, while the foraging and single-minded genes were not differentially regulated. Many of the genes important for the monarch circadian clock mechanism (involved in sun compass orientation were in the EST resource, including the newly identified cryptochrome 2. The EST database also revealed a novel Na+/K+ ATPase allele predicted to be more resistant to the toxic effects of milkweed than that reported previously. Potential genetic markers were identified from 3,486 EST contigs and included 1599 double-hit single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 98 microsatellite polymorphisms. These data provide a template of the brain transcriptome for the monarch butterfly. Our "snap-shot" analysis of the differential regulation of candidate genes between summer and migratory butterflies suggests that unbiased, comprehensive

  10. Cell proliferation during early development of the chick embryo otic anlage: quantitative comparison of migratory and nonmigratory regions of the otic epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, I S; Martín-Partido, G; Rodríguez-Gallardo, L; González-Ramos, C; Navascués, J

    1989-12-01

    During development of the otic anlage, a certain proportion of epithelial cells migrate toward the mesenchymal compartment to form part of the acoustic-vestibular ganglion. The migrating cells are observed only in the zone of the otic anlage that will make contact with the acoustic-vestibular ganglion (so-called ganglion zone). In Hamburger and Hamilton's stages 13 to 16, the number of epithelial cells that migrate is relatively low, but it becomes steadily higher from stage 17 on. In the otic anlage of chick embryos, between developmental stages 9 and 21 (48 to 94 hours of incubation), mitotic index, apical or basal localization within the epithelium of dividing cells, and orientation of the mitotic spindles were analyzed. These features in the ganglion zone were compared with observations in the rest of the otic epithelium, where migratory processes do not take place. In stages 13 to 15, when few epithelial cells are migrating, the mitotic index (MI) in the ganglion zone of the otic anlage is similar to that in nonmigratory regions. In more advanced stages, however, when cell migration becomes accelerated, the MI in the migratory zone of the otic wall is significantly higher than that in the rest of the otic epithelium. This suggests an intimate relationship between the migration of otic epithelial cells and a high rate of cell proliferation, the possible nature of which is discussed. Although the majority of mitoses in the otic anlage are located at the apical surface of the epithelium, from stage 13 onward, a few dividing cells are seen in the basal third of the epithelium. Furthermore, these basal mitoses appear exclusively in the migratory zone of the otic anlage, thus suggesting a possible relationship between epithelial cell migration and basal mitosis. During the developmental period prior to stage 18, no significant differences in mitotic spindle orientation are noted between migratory and nonmigratory zones of the otic anlage. In contrast, in stages of

  11. Wing Color of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus in Eastern North America across Life Stages: Migrants Are “Redder” than Breeding and Overwintering Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Monarch butterflies are famous among insects for their unique migration in eastern North America to overwinter sites in Mexico and their bright orange wing color, which has an aposematic function. While capturing migrating monarchs in northeast Georgia, USA, I noticed that many appeared to have unusually deep orange wings. I initiated the current study to compare wing hues (obtained using image analysis of scanned wings of migrants (captured in 2005 and 2008 to samples of breeding and overwintering monarchs. Consistent with initial observations, migrants had significantly lower orange hues (reflecting deeper, redder orange colors than breeding and overwintering monarchs. There was also a difference in hue between sexes and a relationship with wing size, such that larger monarchs had deeper, redder hues. The reasons for the color difference of migrants are not apparent, but one possibility is that the longer-lived migrant generation has denser scalation to allow for scale loss over their lifespan. Alternatively, this effect could be confined to the subpopulation of monarchs in the Southeastern United States, which may not be well represented at the Mexican overwintering sites. In any case, this discovery highlights the many questions emerging on the significance of wing color variation in this species.

  12. Neural Integration Underlying a Time-Compensated Sun Compass in the Migratory Monarch Butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Shlizerman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Migrating eastern North American monarch butterflies use a time-compensated sun compass to adjust their flight to the southwest direction. Although the antennal genetic circadian clock and the azimuth of the sun are instrumental for proper function of the compass, it is unclear how these signals are represented on a neuronal level and how they are integrated to produce flight control. To address these questions, we constructed a receptive field model of the compound eye that encodes the solar azimuth. We then derived a neural circuit model that integrates azimuthal and circadian signals to correct flight direction. The model demonstrates an integration mechanism, which produces robust trajectories reaching the southwest regardless of the time of day and includes a configuration for remigration. Comparison of model simulations with flight trajectories of butterflies in a flight simulator shows analogous behaviors and affirms the prediction that midday is the optimal time for migratory flight.

  13. Description and evaluation of the Multiscale Online Nonhydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry model (NMMB-MONARCH) version 1.0: gas-phase chemistry at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Alba; Jorba, Oriol; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Dabdub, Donald; Pérez García-Pando, Carlos; Hilboll, Andreas; Gonçalves, María; Janjic, Zavisa

    2017-02-01

    ozone (O3) burden (348 Tg) lies within the range of other state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models. The model generally captures the spatial and seasonal trends of background surface O3 and its vertical distribution. However, the model tends to overestimate O3 throughout the troposphere in several stations. This may be attributed to an overestimation of CO concentration over the Southern Hemisphere leading to an excessive production of O3 or to the lack of specific chemistry (e.g., halogen chemistry, aerosol chemistry). Overall, O3 correlations range between 0.6 and 0.8 for daily mean values. The overall performance of the NMMB-MONARCH is comparable to that of other state-of-the-art global chemistry models.

  14. Influence of non-migratory metal-chelating active packaging film on food quality: impact on physical and chemical stability of emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Decker, Eric A; McClements, D Julian; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-05-15

    Previously, we developed a novel metal-chelating packaging film (PP-g-PAA) by grafting acrylic acid (AA) monomer from polypropylene (PP) film surface, and demonstrated its potential in controlling iron-promoted lipid oxidation. Herein, we further established the industrial practicality of this active film. Specifically, the influence of film surface area-to-product volume ratio (SA/V) and product pH on the application of the film was investigated using an oil-in-water emulsion system. The films equally inhibited lipid oxidation throughout the range of SA/V ratios tested (2-8 cm(2)/ml). PP-g-PAA films were most effective at pH 7.0, and the activity decreased with decreasing pH. The particle size examination of emulsions indicated no adverse influence from the active film on the stability of this emulsion system. FTIR analysis suggested a non-migratory nature of PP-g-PAA films. These results provide fundamental knowledge that will facilitate the application of this effective and economical active packaging film in the food industry.

  15. Trends in deforestation and forest degradation after a decade of monitoring in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Omar; López-García, José; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    We used aerial photographs, satellite images, and field surveys to monitor forest cover in the core zones of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico from 2001 to 2012. We used our data to assess the effectiveness of conservation actions that involved local, state, and federal authorities and community members (e.g., local landowners and private and civil organizations) in one of the world's most iconic protected areas. From 2001 through 2012, 1254 ha were deforested (i.e., cleared areas had social and economic problems remain, and they must be addressed to ensure the reserve's long-term conservation. The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) overwintering colonies in Mexico-which engage in one of the longest known insect migrations-are threatened by deforestation, and a multistakeholder, regional, sustainable-development strategy is needed to protect the reserve.

  16. Monarch-1 Activation in Murine Macrophage Cell Line (J774 A.1 Infected with Iranian Strain of Leishmania Major

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    A Fata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania major is an intracellular parasite transmitted through the bite of the female phlebotomine sand flies. Leishmania major is able to escape the host immune defense and survive within macrophages. Modulation of the NF-κB (Nuclear Factor-Kappa B activation and suppression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by L. major are the main evasion mechanisms that remain to be explored. This study aims to examine the expression level of the Monarch-1 in L. major-infected macrophages, as a negative regulator of the NF-κB activation.Methods: Murine macrophage cell line (J774 A.1 was infected by metacyclic form of Leishmania promasti­gotes at macrophage/parasite ratio of 1:10. After harvesting infected cells at different times, total RNA was extracted and converted to cDNA. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed for Monarch-1 by specific primers. Hypoxanthine Phospho-Ribosyl Transferase (HPRT was used as an internal control to adjust the amount of mRNA in each sample.Results: Semiquantitive analysis of Monarch-1 mRNA expression level showed a significant expres­sion increase within 6 to 30 hours after L. major infection of macrophages when compared to the con­trol macrophages.Conclusion: Monarch-1 expression level reveals a significant increase in the early phase of macro­phage infection with L. major, which in turn may suppress IL-12 production in Leishmania infected macrophages and deeply influence the relationship between host and parasite.

  17. Experimental examination of intraspecific density-dependent competition during the breeding period in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus.

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    D T Tyler Flockhart

    Full Text Available A central goal of population ecology is to identify the factors that regulate population growth. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus in eastern North America re-colonize the breeding range over several generations that result in population densities that vary across space and time during the breeding season. We used laboratory experiments to measure the strength of density-dependent intraspecific competition on egg laying rate and larval survival and then applied our results to density estimates of wild monarch populations to model the strength of density dependence during the breeding season. Egg laying rates did not change with density but larvae at high densities were smaller, had lower survival, and weighed less as adults compared to lower densities. Using mean larval densities from field surveys resulted in conservative estimates of density-dependent population reduction that varied between breeding regions and different phases of the breeding season. Our results suggest the highest levels of population reduction due to density-dependent intraspecific competition occur early in the breeding season in the southern portion of the breeding range. However, we also found that the strength of density dependence could be almost five times higher depending on how many life-stages were used as part of field estimates. Our study is the first to link experimental results of a density-dependent reduction in vital rates to observed monarch densities in the wild and show that the effects of density dependent competition in monarchs varies across space and time, providing valuable information for developing robust, year-round population models in this migratory organism.

  18. Experimental Examination of Intraspecific Density-Dependent Competition during the Breeding Period in Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Martin, Tara G.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    A central goal of population ecology is to identify the factors that regulate population growth. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America re-colonize the breeding range over several generations that result in population densities that vary across space and time during the breeding season. We used laboratory experiments to measure the strength of density-dependent intraspecific competition on egg laying rate and larval survival and then applied our results to density estimates of wild monarch populations to model the strength of density dependence during the breeding season. Egg laying rates did not change with density but larvae at high densities were smaller, had lower survival, and weighed less as adults compared to lower densities. Using mean larval densities from field surveys resulted in conservative estimates of density-dependent population reduction that varied between breeding regions and different phases of the breeding season. Our results suggest the highest levels of population reduction due to density-dependent intraspecific competition occur early in the breeding season in the southern portion of the breeding range. However, we also found that the strength of density dependence could be almost five times higher depending on how many life-stages were used as part of field estimates. Our study is the first to link experimental results of a density-dependent reduction in vital rates to observed monarch densities in the wild and show that the effects of density dependent competition in monarchs varies across space and time, providing valuable information for developing robust, year-round population models in this migratory organism. PMID:22984614

  19. Identifying Large- and Small-Scale Habitat Characteristics of Monarch Butterfly Migratory Roost Sites with Citizen Science Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Davis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus in eastern North America must make frequent stops to rest and refuel during their annual migration. During these stopovers, monarchs form communal roosts, which are often observed by laypersons. Journey North is a citizen science program that compiles roost observations, and we examined these data in an attempt to identify habitat characteristics of roosts. From each observation we extracted information on the type of vegetation used, and we used GIS and a national landcover data set to determine land cover characteristics within a 10 km radius of the roost. Ninety-seven percent of roosts were reported on trees; most were in pines and conifers, maples, oaks, pecans and willows. Conifers and maples were used most often in northern flyway regions, while pecans and oaks were more-frequently used in southern regions. No one landcover type was directly associated with roost sites, although there was more open water near roost sites than around random sites. Roosts in southern Texas were associated primarily with grasslands, but this was not the case elsewhere. Considering the large variety of tree types used and the diversity of landcover types around roost sites, monarchs appear highly-adaptable in terms of roost site selection.

  20. The Monarch Initiative: an integrative data and analytic platform connecting phenotypes to genotypes across species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, Christopher J.; McMurry, Julie A.; Köhler, Sebastian; Balhoff, James P.; Borromeo, Charles; Brush, Matthew; Carbon, Seth; Conlin, Tom; Dunn, Nathan; Engelstad, Mark; Foster, Erin; Gourdine, J.P.; Jacobsen, Julius O.B.; Keith, Dan; Laraway, Bryan; Lewis, Suzanna E.; NguyenXuan, Jeremy; Shefchek, Kent; Vasilevsky, Nicole; Yuan, Zhou; Washington, Nicole; Hochheiser, Harry; Groza, Tudor; Smedley, Damian; Robinson, Peter N.; Haendel, Melissa A.

    2017-01-01

    The correlation of phenotypic outcomes with genetic variation and environmental factors is a core pursuit in biology and biomedicine. Numerous challenges impede our progress: patient phenotypes may not match known diseases, candidate variants may be in genes that have not been characterized, model organisms may not recapitulate human or veterinary diseases, filling evolutionary gaps is difficult, and many resources must be queried to find potentially significant genotype–phenotype associations. Non-human organisms have proven instrumental in revealing biological mechanisms. Advanced informatics tools can identify phenotypically relevant disease models in research and diagnostic contexts. Large-scale integration of model organism and clinical research data can provide a breadth of knowledge not available from individual sources and can provide contextualization of data back to these sources. The Monarch Initiative (monarchinitiative.org) is a collaborative, open science effort that aims to semantically integrate genotype–phenotype data from many species and sources in order to support precision medicine, disease modeling, and mechanistic exploration. Our integrated knowledge graph, analytic tools, and web services enable diverse users to explore relationships between phenotypes and genotypes across species. PMID:27899636

  1. Flight testing of live Monarch butterflies to determine the aerodynamic benefit of butterfly scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Amy; Cranford, Jacob; Conway, Jasmine; Slegers, Nathan; Dechello, Nicole; Wilroy, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Evolutionary adaptations in the morphological structure of butterfly scales (0.1 mm in size) to develop a unique micro-patterning resulting in a surface drag alteration, stem from a probable aerodynamic benefit of minimizing the energy requirement to fly a very lightweight body with comparably large surface area in a low Re flow regime. Live Monarch butterflies were tested at UAHuntsville's Autonomous Tracking and Optical Measurement (ATOM) Laboratory, which uses 22 Vicon T40 cameras that allow for millimeter level tracking of reflective markers at 515 fps over a 4 m × 6 m × 7 m volume. Data recorded included the flight path as well as the wing flapping angle and wing-beat frequency. Insects were first tested with their scales intact, and then again with the scales carefully removed. Differences in flapping frequency and/or energy obtained during flight due to the removal of the scales will be discussed. Initial data analysis indicates that scale removal in some specimens leads to increased flapping frequencies for similar energetic flight or reduced flight speed for similar flapping frequencies. Both results point to the scales providing an aerodynamic benefit, which is hypothesized to be linked to leading-edge vortex formation and induced drag. Funding from the National Science Foundation (CBET and REU) is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. The Monarch Initiative: an integrative data and analytic platform connecting phenotypes to genotypes across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, Christopher J; McMurry, Julie A; Köhler, Sebastian; Balhoff, James P; Borromeo, Charles; Brush, Matthew; Carbon, Seth; Conlin, Tom; Dunn, Nathan; Engelstad, Mark; Foster, Erin; Gourdine, J P; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Keith, Dan; Laraway, Bryan; Lewis, Suzanna E; NguyenXuan, Jeremy; Shefchek, Kent; Vasilevsky, Nicole; Yuan, Zhou; Washington, Nicole; Hochheiser, Harry; Groza, Tudor; Smedley, Damian; Robinson, Peter N; Haendel, Melissa A

    2017-01-04

    The correlation of phenotypic outcomes with genetic variation and environmental factors is a core pursuit in biology and biomedicine. Numerous challenges impede our progress: patient phenotypes may not match known diseases, candidate variants may be in genes that have not been characterized, model organisms may not recapitulate human or veterinary diseases, filling evolutionary gaps is difficult, and many resources must be queried to find potentially significant genotype-phenotype associations. Non-human organisms have proven instrumental in revealing biological mechanisms. Advanced informatics tools can identify phenotypically relevant disease models in research and diagnostic contexts. Large-scale integration of model organism and clinical research data can provide a breadth of knowledge not available from individual sources and can provide contextualization of data back to these sources. The Monarch Initiative (monarchinitiative.org) is a collaborative, open science effort that aims to semantically integrate genotype-phenotype data from many species and sources in order to support precision medicine, disease modeling, and mechanistic exploration. Our integrated knowledge graph, analytic tools, and web services enable diverse users to explore relationships between phenotypes and genotypes across species.

  3. Regional climate on the breeding grounds predicts variation in the natal origin of monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico over 38 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Brower, Lincoln P; Ramirez, M Isabel; Hobson, Keith A; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Altizer, Sonia; Norris, D Ryan

    2017-01-03

    Addressing population declines of migratory insects requires linking populations across different portions of the annual cycle and understanding the effects of variation in weather and climate on productivity, recruitment, and patterns of long-distance movement. We used stable H and C isotopes and geospatial modeling to estimate the natal origin of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America using over 1000 monarchs collected over almost four decades at Mexican overwintering colonies. Multinomial regression was used to ascertain which climate-related factors best-predicted temporal variation in natal origin across six breeding regions. The region producing the largest proportion of overwintering monarchs was the US Midwest (mean annual proportion = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.36-0.41) followed by the north-central (0.17; 0.14-0.18), northeast (0.15; 0.11-0.16), northwest (0.12; 0.12-0.16), southwest (0.11; 0.08-0.12), and southeast (0.08; 0.07-0.11) regions. There was no evidence of directional shifts in the relative contributions of different natal regions over time, which suggests these regions are comprising the same relative proportion of the overwintering population in recent years as in the mid-1970s. Instead, interannual variation in the proportion of monarchs from each region covaried with climate, as measured by the Southern Oscillation Index and regional-specific daily maximum temperature and precipitation, which together likely dictate larval development rates and food plant condition. Our results provide the first robust long-term analysis of predictors of the natal origins of monarchs overwintering in Mexico. Conservation efforts on the breeding grounds focused on the Midwest region will likely have the greatest benefit to eastern North American migratory monarchs, but the population will likely remain sensitive to regional and stochastic weather patterns.

  4. Releases of whooping cranes to the Florida nonmigratory flock: a structured decision-making approach: report to the International Whooping Crane Recovery Team, September 22, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clinton T.; Converse, Sarah J.; Folk, Martin J.; Boughton, Robin; Brooks, Bill; French, John B.; O'Meara, Timothy; Putnam, Michael; Rodgers, James; Spalding, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    We used a structured decision-making approach to inform the decision of whether the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission should request of the International Whooping Crane Recovery Team that additional whooping crane chicks be released into the Florida Non-Migratory Population (FNMP). Structured decision-making is an application of decision science that strives to produce transparent, replicable, and defensible decisions that recognize the appropriate roles of management policy and science in decision-making. We present a multi-objective decision framework, where management objectives include successful establishment of a whooping crane population in Florida, minimization of costs, positive public relations, information gain, and providing a supply of captive-reared birds to alternative crane release projects, such as the Eastern Migratory Population. We developed models to predict the outcome relative to each of these objectives under 29 different scenarios of the release methodology used from 1993 to 2004, including options of no further releases and variable numbers of releases per year over the next 5-30 years. In particular, we developed a detailed set of population projection models, which make substantially different predictions about the probability of successful establishment of the FNMP. We used expert elicitation to develop prior model weights (measures of confidence in population model predictions); the results of the population model weighting and modelaveraging exercise indicated that the probability of successful establishment of the FNMP ranged from 9% if no additional releases are made, to as high as 41% with additional releases. We also used expert elicitation to develop weights (relative values) on the set of identified objectives, and we then used a formal optimization technique for identifying the optimal decision, which considers the tradeoffs between objectives. The optimal decision was identified as release of 3 cohorts (24

  5. Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G

    2015-01-01

    Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and lower extinction

  6. Rural aquaculture as a sustainable alternative for forest conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José; Manzo-Delgado, Lilia L; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    Forest conservation plays a significant role in environmental sustainability. In Mexico only 8.48 million ha of forest are used for conservation of biodiversity. Payment for Environmental Services in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important national protected areas, contributes to the conservation of these forests. In the Reserve, production of rainbow trout has been important for the rural communities who need to conserve the forest cover in order to maintain the hibernation cycle of the butterfly. Aquaculture is a highly productive activity for these protected areas, since it harnesses the existing water resources. In this study, changes from 1999 to 2012 in vegetation and land-use cover in the El Lindero basin within the Reserve were evaluated in order to determine the conservation status and to consider the feasibility of aquaculture as a means of sustainable development at community level. Evaluation involved stereoscopic interpretation of digital aerial photographs from 1999 to 2012 at 1:10,000 scale, comparative analysis by orthocorrected mosaics and restitution on the mosaics. Between 1999 and 2012, forested land recovered by 28.57 ha (2.70%) at the expense of non-forested areas, although forest degradation was 3.59%. Forest density increased by 16.87%. In the 46 ha outside the Reserve, deforestation spread by 0.26%, and land use change was 0.11%. The trend towards change in forest cover is closely related to conservation programmes, particularly payment for not extracting timber, reforestation campaigns and surveillance, whose effects have been exploited for the development of rural aquaculture; this is a new way to improve the socio-economic status of the population, to avoid logging and to achieve environmental sustainability in the Reserve.

  7. Dietary Risk Assessment of v-ATPase A dsRNAs on Monarch Butterfly Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xiaowei; Bidne, Keith; Hellmich, Richard L.; Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2017-01-01

    By suppressing the expression of genes with essential biological functions, in planta RNAi can negatively affect the development and survival of target pests. As a part of a concerted effort to assess the risks of RNAi transgenic crops on non-target organisms, we developed an in vivo toxicity assay to examine the impacts of ingested dsRNAs incurred to the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), an iconic eco-indicator in North America. To create the worst case scenario, the full-length v-ATPase A cDNAs from the target pest, western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and the non-target D. plexippus were respectively cloned. A 400 bp fragment with the highest sequence similarity between the two species was used as the template to synthesize dsRNAs for the subsequent dietary RNAi toxicity assay. Specifically, newly hatched neonates were provisioned with leaf disks surface-coated with v-ATPase A dsRNAs synthesized from D. v. virgifera and D. plexippus, respectively, a control dsRNA, β-glucoruronidase, from plants, and H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expressions and life history traits. The 2283 bp D. plexippus v-ATPase A cDNA contains a 99 bp 5′-untranslated region, a 330 bp 3′-untranslated region, and an 1851 bp ORF encoding 617 amino acids. The temporal RNAi study did not detect any impact to D. plexippus v-ATPase A expression by the assay days and treatments. This was reflected in the phenotypic impacts of dietary RNAi, in which both survival rate and development time were not affected by the uptake of ingested dsRNAs. These combined results suggest that D. plexippus larvae are not susceptible to dietary RNAi, therefore, the impact of transgenic RNAi plants on this non-target organism is, likely, negligible. PMID:28275381

  8. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  9. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  10. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  11. Exploration andAnalysis oftheBook ofLordShang's Conception of Monarch%《商君书》君主观探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张功

    2012-01-01

    The Book of Lord Shang abandoned the mystical halo which hanged over the monarch, the rationality of the existence of the monarch lies in meeting the requirement of conforming to the development trend of social politics and unifying ideas of governmental management. The monarch ruled the country by law and yuan, unifying reward, punishment and education, took the responsibility for constructing a sublimate and moral society where all men would be self-discipline; the monarch should fulfill his duty, by rigid system construction, bringing about the objective circumstance that the subject have to abide by the national acts, and creating a situation that bureaucracies restrict and supervise each other to control the crime of dereliction. So there turned up the most truthful conception of monarch among those theories of great philosophers in the pre-qin times.%《商君书》摒弃了笼罩在君主身上的神秘光环,认为君主存在的合理性在于顺应社会政治发展和统一政府管理理念的需要。君主的职责是缘法治国,壹赏、壹刑、壹教,构建人人自律的道德化理想社会。君主要完成其职责,需通过严密的制度建设,形成臣民不得不遵守国家法令的客观形势(势),造成官吏互相制衡、互相监督的局面,控制官吏渎职犯罪(术)。《商君书》的君主观是先秦诸子学说中最具真理成分的君主观。

  12. Are female monarch butterflies declining in eastern North America? Evidence of a 30-year change in sex ratios at Mexican overwintering sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K.; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Every autumn the entire eastern North American population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergoes a spectacular migration to overwintering sites in the mountains of central Mexico, where they form massive clusters and can number in the millions. Since their discovery, these sites have been extensively studied, and in many of these studies, monarchs were captured and sexes recorded. In a recent effort to compile the sex ratio data from these published records, a surprising trend was found, which appears to show a gradual decline in proportion of females over time. Sex ratio data from 14 collections of monarchs, all spanning 30 years and totaling 69 113 individuals, showed a significant negative correlation between proportion of females and year (r = −0.69, p = 0.007). Between 1976 and 1985, 53 per cent of overwintering monarchs were female, whereas in the last decade, 43 per cent were female. The relationship was significant with and without weighting the analyses by sampling effort. Moreover, analysis of a recent three-year dataset of sex ratios revealed no variation among nine separate colonies, so differences in sampling location did not influence the trend. Additional evidence from autumn migration collections appears to confirm that proportions of females are declining, and also suggests the sex ratio is shifting on breeding grounds. While breeding monarchs face a number of threats, one possibility is an increase in prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, which recent evidence shows affects females more so than males. Further study will be needed to determine the exact cause of this trend, but for now it should be monitored closely. PMID:19776062

  13. Plant-determined variation in the cardenolide content, thin-layer chromatography profiles, and emetic potency of monarch butterflies,Danaus plexippus reared on the milkweed,Asclepias eriocarpa in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, L P; Seiber, J N; Nelson, C J; Lynch, S P; Tuskes, P M

    1982-03-01

    This paper is the first in a series on cardenolide fingerprinting of the monarch butterfly. New methodologies are presented which allow both qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the constituent cardenolides which these insects derive in the wild from specificAsclepias foodplants. Analyses of thin-layer Chromatographic profiles ofAsclepias eriocarpa cardenolides in 85 individual plant-butterfly pairs collected at six widely separate localities in California indicate a relatively invariant pattern of 16-20 distinct cardenolides which we here define as theAsclepias eriocarpa cardenolide fingerprint profile. Cardenolide concentrations vary widely in the plant samples, but monarchs appear able to regulate total storage by increasing their concentrations relative to their larval host plant when reared on plants containing low concentrations, and vice versa. Forced-feeding of blue jays with powdered butterfly and plant material and with one of the constituent plant cardenolides, labriformin, established that theA. eriocarpa cardenolides are extremely emetic, and that monarchs which have fed on this plant contain an average of 16 emetic-dose fifty (ED50) units. The relatively nonpolar labriformin and labriformidin in the plant are not stored by the monarch but are metabolized in vivo to desglucosyrioside which the butterfly does store. This is chemically analogous to the way in which monarchs and grasshoppers metabolize another series of milkweed cardenolides, those found inA. curassavica. It appears that the sugar moiety through functionality at C-3' determines which cardenolides are metabolized and which are stored. The monarch also appears able to store several lowR f cardenolides fromA. eriocarpa without altering them. Differences in the sequestering process in monarchs and milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus) may be less than emphasized in the literature. The monarch is seen as a central organism involved in a coevolutionary triad simultaneously affecting and affected

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the gut metagenome of overwintering monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danainae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-12-01

    We present a 15,314 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence from monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico. The complete mitogenome was generated by next generation sequencing techniques and was reconstructed by iterative assembly of reads from a metagenomic study of pooled butterfly gut DNA. The mitogenome codes for 13 putative protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, the large and small rRNA genes, and contains the A + T-rich sequence corresponding to the control region. The consensus sequence presented here has a depth of coverage of 142-fold and only three putative single nucleotide polymorphisms could be detected. The recovered D. plexippus mitogenome represents the second analyzed for the subfamily Danainae and accordingly, the closest available sequenced mitogenome was found to be the one corresponding to Euploea mulciber (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danainae).

  15. Measuring the Meaning of Words in Contexts: An automated analysis of controversies about Monarch butterflies, Frankenfoods, and stem cells

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Co-words have been considered as carriers of meaning across different domains in studies of science, technology, and society. Words and co-words, however, obtain meaning in sentences, and sentences obtain meaning in their contexts of use. At the science/society interface, words can be expected to have different meanings: the codes of communication that provide meaning to words differ on the varying sides of the interface. Furthermore, meanings and interfaces may change over time. Given this structuring of meaning across interfaces and over time, we distinguish between metaphors and diaphors as reflexive mechanisms that facilitate the translation between contexts. Our empirical focus is on three recent scientific controversies: Monarch butterflies, Frankenfoods, and stem-cell therapies. This study explores new avenues that relate the study of co-word analysis in context with the sociological quest for the analysis and processing of meaning.

  16. Virulence evolution in response to anti-infection resistance: toxic food plants can select for virulent parasites of monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roode, J C; de Castillejo, C Lopez Fernandez; Faits, T; Alizon, S

    2011-04-01

    Host resistance to parasites can come in two main forms: hosts may either reduce the probability of parasite infection (anti-infection resistance) or reduce parasite growth after infection has occurred (anti-growth resistance). Both resistance mechanisms are often imperfect, meaning that they do not fully prevent or clear infections. Theoretical work has suggested that imperfect anti-growth resistance can select for higher parasite virulence by favouring faster-growing and more virulent parasites that overcome this resistance. In contrast, imperfect anti-infection resistance is thought not to select for increased parasite virulence, because it is assumed that it reduces the number of hosts that become infected, but not the fitness of parasites in successfully infected hosts. Here, we develop a theoretical model to show that anti-infection resistance can in fact select for higher virulence when such resistance reduces the effective parasite dose that enters a host. Our model is based on a monarch butterfly-parasite system in which larval food plants confer resistance to the monarch host. We carried out an experiment and showed that this environmental resistance is most likely a form of anti-infection resistance, through which toxic food plants reduce the effective dose of parasites that initiates an infection. We used these results to build a mathematical model to investigate the evolutionary consequences of food plant-induced resistance. Our model shows that when the effective infectious dose is reduced, parasites can compensate by evolving a higher per-parasite growth rate, and consequently a higher intrinsic virulence. Our results are relevant to many insect host-parasite systems, in which larval food plants often confer imperfect anti-infection resistance. Our results also suggest that - for parasites where the infectious dose affects the within-host dynamics - vaccines that reduce the effective infectious dose can select for increased parasite virulence.

  17. Attenuation of the jasmonate burst, plant defensive traits, and resistance to specialist monarch caterpillars on shaded common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Kearney, Emily E; Hastings, Amy P; Ramsey, Trey E

    2012-07-01

    Plant responses to herbivory and light competition are often in opposing directions, posing a potential conflict for plants experiencing both stresses. For sun-adapted species, growing in shade typically makes plants more constitutively susceptible to herbivores via reduced structural and chemical resistance traits. Nonetheless, the impact of light environment on induced resistance has been less well-studied, especially in field experiments that link physiological mechanisms to ecological outcomes. Accordingly, we studied induced resistance of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca, a sun-adapted plant), and linked hormonal responses, resistance traits, and performance of specialist monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus) in varying light environments. In natural populations, plants growing under forest-edge shade showed reduced levels of resistance traits (lower leaf toughness, cardenolides, and trichomes) and enhanced light-capture traits (higher specific leaf area, larger leaves, and lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratio) compared to paired plants in full sun. In a field experiment repeated over two years, only milkweeds growing in full sun exhibited induced resistance to monarchs, whereas plants growing in shade were constitutively more susceptible and did not induce resistance. In a more controlled field experiment, plant hormones were higher in the sun (jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole acidic acid) and were induced by herbivory (jasmonic acid and abscisic acid). In particular, the jasmonate burst following herbivory was halved in plants raised in shaded habitats, and this correspondingly reduced latex induction (but not cardenolide induction). Thus, we provide a mechanistic basis for the attenuation of induced plant resistance in low resource environments. Additionally, there appears to be specificity in these interactions, with light-mediated impacts on jasmonate-induction being stronger for latex exudation than cardenolides.

  18. Does skipping a meal matter to a butterfly's appearance? Effects of larval food stress on wing morphology and color in monarch butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley Johnson

    Full Text Available In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus, a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width, which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%. Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success.

  19. Does Skipping a Meal Matter to a Butterfly's Appearance? Effects of Larval Food Stress on Wing Morphology and Color in Monarch Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Haley; Solensky, Michelle J.; Satterfield, Dara A.; Davis, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed) from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width), which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%). Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high) had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success. PMID:24695643

  20. Milkweed (Gentianales: Apocynaceae): a farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Carpenter, J E

    2014-04-01

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, the stink bugs Nezara viridula (L.) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.) (Hemiptera: Coreidae), disperse at crop-to-crop interfaces to feed on bolls in cotton. The main objective of this study was to determine whether insecticide-free tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica L.), a nectar-producing plant, can increase parasitism of these bugs by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) and provide nectar to monarch butterflies and insect pollinators in these farmscapes. Peanut-cotton plots with and without flowering milkweed plants were established in 2009 and 2010. Adult T. pennipes, monarch butterflies, honey bees, and native insect pollinators readily fed on floral nectar of milkweed. Monarch larvae feeding on milkweed vegetation successfully developed into pupae. In 2009, N. viridula was the primary host of T. pennipes in cotton, and parasitism of this pest by the parasitoid was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (61.6%) than in control cotton (13.3%). In 2010, parasitism of N. viridula, C. hilaris, and L. phyllopus by T. pennipes was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (24.0%) than in control cotton (1.1%). For both years of the study, these treatment differences were not owing to a response by the parasitoid to differences in host density, because density of hosts was not significantly different between treatments. In conclusion, incorporation of milkweed in peanut-cotton plots increased stink bug parasitism in cotton and provided nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

  1. Within-wing isotopic (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N variation of monarch butterflies: implications for studies of migratory origins and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobson Keith A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, stable isotope measurements are being used to assign individuals to broad geographic origins based on established relationships between animal tissues and tissue-specific isoscapes. In particular, the eastern North American population of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus has been the subject of several studies using established δ2H and δ13C wingtissue isoscapes to infer natal origins of migrating and overwintering individuals. However, there has been no study investigating potential variance that can derive from subsampling different regions of the wings, especially those regions differing in pigmentation (orange versus black. Within-wing isotopic (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N variance of 40 monarch butterflies collected from natural overwinter mortality on Mexican roost sites were split evenly into two groups: unwashed samples and those washed in a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solvent. Isotopic variance in δ2H and δ13C was related to pigment (within-wing range 5‰ and 0.5‰, respectively, but not region of subsampling. This variance was reduced 3 to 4 fold through solvent washing that removed pigmented surface scales and any adhered oils. Wing δ15N was similarly influenced by pigment (range 0.3‰, but this effect was not reduced through washing. We recommend future isotopic studies of monarchs and other butterflies for migration research to use the same region for subsampling consistently and to wash samples with solvent to reduce isotopic variance related to uncontrolled variance in discrimination (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N and/or adsorbed water vapor (δ2H. These data also need to be included in description of methods.

  2. Educational and Cultural Regeneration of Modern Spain: Monarchical Reforms in Education and the Role of the Enlightenment Bishops at Eighteen Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel POY CASTRO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 18th century the church of Spain gradually diminished its extensive powers of self-government, while remaining the monopoly of education. This period was marked by the monarchical revival and the alliance between church and State. The crown nominates diocesan bishops and the church of Spain is committed to the goal of a renewed and modern nation. The 18th century saw the rise of an enlightenment Bishops movement, with its emphasis on the recovery of the Spanish catholic tradition, and the renaissance of the educational and cultural institutions.

  3. Lacking power impairs executive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, P.K.; Jostmann, N.B.; Galinsky, A.D.; Dijk, W.W. van

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments explored whether lacking power impairs executive functioning, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive presses of powerlessness increase vulnerability to performance decrements during complex executive tasks. In the first three experiments, low power impaired performance on executi

  4. Between Conflict and Cooperation: Castilian Cities and Corregidores, the Praxis of a Political Relationship up to the Catholic Monarchs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio JARA FUENTE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the process of political centralization undertook by the Trastámaras, in special during the fifteenth century, scholars have traditionally regarded the institution of the «corregimiento» (the «corregidores» –keepers of the town– were royal agents appointed to oversee the government and, in general, administration of royal cities and towns as one of the most perfect instruments highlighting the stages and intensity with which that aim was achieved. Historians have considered the imposition of the «corregimientos» over the towns as a defeat of the urban world, as a trait of weakness on the part of those towns especially predisposed to subject themselves to the political interference represented by these royal officials. Nevertheless, we know that towns were able to face the imposition of these agents with some degree of success. In some circumstances, they not only managed to avoid the appointment or even the effective inauguration into office of these officials but, in many cases, the «corregidor» inauguration constituted the last phase in a process of negotiation not necessarily conducted with the monarch but singularly with the royal agent. These negotiations helped to lubricate the relationship thus generated between both parties, redefining it in terms of political cooperation. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the way in which these royal agents were perceived in the frame of those processes of relationship –sometimes endowed with a conflictive nature, sometimes showing negotiating traits–, and the ability showed by cities and towns to develop an autonomous political action in the frame of the more global process of political centralization. The terminus ad quem of this paper is the Toledo of 1480, it implies the beginning of a different phase in the process of institutional consolidation of the «corregimiento».

  5. Role of forest conservation in lessening land degradation in a temperate region: the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo-Delgado, Lilia; López-García, José; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    With international concern about the rates of deforestation worldwide, particular attention has been paid to Latin America. Forest conservation programmes in Mexico include Payment for Environmental Services (PES), a scheme that has been successfully introduced in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve. To seek further evidence of the role of PES in lessening land degradation processes in a temperate region, the conservation state of the Cerro Prieto ejido within the Reserve was assessed by an analysis of changes in vegetation cover and land-use between 1971 and 2013. There were no changes in the total forest surface area, but the relative proportions of the different classes of cover density had changed. In 1971, closed and semi-closed forest occupied 247.81 ha and 5.38 ha, 82.33% and 1.79% of the total area of the ejido, respectively. By 2013, closed forest had decreased to 230.38 ha (76.54% of the ejido), and semi-closed cover was 17.23 ha (5.72% of the ejido), suggesting that some semi-closed forest had achieved closed status. The final balance between forest losses and recovery was: 29.63 ha were lost, whereas 13.72 ha were recovered. Losses were mainly linked to a sanitation harvest programme to control the bark beetle Scolytus mundus. Ecotourism associated with forest conservation in the Cerro Prieto ejido has been considered by inhabitants as a focal alternative for economic development. Consequently, it is essential to develop a well-planned and solidly structured approach based on social cohesion to foster a community-led sustainable development at local level.

  6. Assimilation of MODIS Dark Target and Deep Blue observations in the dust aerosol component of NMMB-MONARCH version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tomaso, Enza; Schutgens, Nick A. J.; Jorba, Oriol; Pérez García-Pando, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    A data assimilation capability has been built for the NMMB-MONARCH chemical weather prediction system, with a focus on mineral dust, a prominent type of aerosol. An ensemble-based Kalman filter technique (namely the local ensemble transform Kalman filter - LETKF) has been utilized to optimally combine model background and satellite retrievals. Our implementation of the ensemble is based on known uncertainties in the physical parametrizations of the dust emission scheme. Experiments showed that MODIS AOD retrievals using the Dark Target algorithm can help NMMB-MONARCH to better characterize atmospheric dust. This is particularly true for the analysis of the dust outflow in the Sahel region and over the African Atlantic coast. The assimilation of MODIS AOD retrievals based on the Deep Blue algorithm has a further positive impact in the analysis downwind from the strongest dust sources of the Sahara and in the Arabian Peninsula. An analysis-initialized forecast performs better (lower forecast error and higher correlation with observations) than a standard forecast, with the exception of underestimating dust in the long-range Atlantic transport and degradation of the temporal evolution of dust in some regions after day 1. Particularly relevant is the improved forecast over the Sahara throughout the forecast range thanks to the assimilation of Deep Blue retrievals over areas not easily covered by other observational datasets. The present study on mineral dust is a first step towards data assimilation with a complete aerosol prediction system that includes multiple aerosol species.

  7. Climate-change and mass mortality events in overwintering monarch butterflies Eventos de mortandad masiva y cambio climático en poblaciones invernales de la mariposa monarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayani Barve

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus have a unique yearly life cycle, in which successive generations breed and move northward from the southern USA in spring to the northern US and southern Canada by late summer; they overwinter in extremely restricted areas in central Mexico and along the California coast. Mexican overwintering populations have experienced significant mortality events recently, which have been hypothesized as increasing in frequency owing to climate change. Here, we test the hypothesis of climate-change causation of these mortality events, at least in part, finding significant local weather trends toward conditions lethal for monarch survival. We use ecological niche estimates and future climate projections to estimate future overwintering distributions; results anticipate dramatic reductions in suitability of present overwintering areas, and serious implications for local human economies.La mariposa monarca (Danaus plexippus tiene un ciclo de vida singular, en el cual generaciones sucesivas se reproducen y migran hacia el norte, empezando en el sur de los Estados Unidos en la primavera y terminando en el norte de los Estados Unidos y sur del Canadá en verano. Pasan el invierno en unas pocas zonas muy restringidas del centro de México y la costa del estado de California. En tiempos recientes, las poblaciones en México han experimentado mortalidades significativas y se ha hipotetizado que la causa puede ser el cambio climático. En este artículo probamos, al menos en parte, la hipótesis del cambio climático como causa de estos eventos de mortalidad y encontramos un desplazamiento significativo del clima local hacia condiciones que son letales para la mariposa. Utilizamos estimados de nicho ecológico y proyecciones de climas futuros para definir futuras áreas de invernación. Nuestros resultados anticipan una reducción dramática en la calidad de estas áreas actuales e implicaciones serias para las economías locales.

  8. Geochemical constraints on the origin of the Kicking Horse and Monarch Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc ore deposits, southeast British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeginste, Veerle; Swennen, Rudy; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Ellam, Rob M.; Osadetz, Kirk; Roure, François

    2007-11-01

    Two Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore deposits, Kicking Horse and Monarch, have been studied with the aim of comparing the ores at the two localities and to characterize the origin of the mineralizing fluids and the ore formation process(es). Both deposits are hosted by the Middle Cambrian Cathedral Formation carbonate host rocks, Kicking Horse on the north and Monarch on the south flank of the Kicking Horse valley near Field (SE British Columbia). The ore bodies are situated at the transition of (western) basinal to (eastern) shallow-water strata of the paleo-Pacific passive margin succession in the Cordilleran Foreland Province of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Both deposits are related spatially to normal faults. In both localities, the ore minerals are dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, and galena. Dolomite, minor quartz, and calcite are also present in close association with the ores. The salinity (21-30 wt% NaCl eq.) and homogenization temperatures (63-182°C) measured in fluid inclusions in carbonate, quartz, and sphalerite lie within the typical range of MVT fluid conditions. The good stoichiometry (50-53 mol% CaCO3), low δ18O values (-21 to -14‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite) and relatively high homogenization temperatures (>95°C) of the dolomite suggest the dolomites were formed under burial diagenesis. The ore-forming fluids probably interacted with siliciclastic units, based on elevated Li contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios, which are highest in the dolomite type after the main ore stage. We propose that the ores formed from the mixing of a downward-infiltrating, sulfur-bearing halite-dissolution fluid with an upward-migrating, metal-rich evaporated seawater fluid, which had already undergone minor mixing with a dilute fluid.

  9. Detection of trees damaged by pests in Abies religiosa forests in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve using infrared aerial photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Leautaud Valenzuela

    2017-03-01

    photographic mosaic of the sampling area. The unassisted and assisted spectral classification technique was carried out in the ERDAS Imagine image-processing software package. For the unassisted classification, tests were carried out considering various numbers of categories: 5, 10 and 15; the assisted classification included the spectral properties of each category used for the partition to group images into five categories: healthy forest, diseased forest, Juniperus scrubland, bare soil and shaded areas. The accuracy of the technique for the detection of damaged trees was verified through field work, visiting different checkpoints where the health status of the tree was corroborated by direct observation and infrared photography at ground level. A representative sampling area of the A. religiosa forest was established in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (RBMM, sufficient to encompass the largest number of damaged trees, but not so large as to excessively prolong the information-processing phases and make field sampling unattainable.  The analysis comprised an area of 1907 ha in Sierra Chincua, where the greatest affectation was observed in a core zone including 97 points (62% with more than twice the density of individuals (11 trees/km2, relative to the buffer zone (4 trees/km2. This greater damage is the result of forest management policies, which have set no management (including sanitation in the core zone. At the end of this research work, we concluded that digital aerial photographs proved useful for the detection of damaged trees in Abies religiosa forests of RBMM. It is possible to obtain multispectral images using a low-cost photographic technology that is relatively simple and widely available. Our study showed that the best method to detect damage in A. religiosa forests in RBMM is the visual interpretation of aerial photographs, yielding a detection efficiency of over 98%. The method used has a greater costeffectiveness compared to helicopter overflight

  10. Patterns of host-parasite adaptation in three populations of monarch butterflies infected with a naturally occurring protozoan disease: virulence, resistance, and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Li, Hui; Wang, Rebecca; Gowler, Camden; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have used host-parasite systems to study local adaptation, but few of these studies have found unequivocal evidence for adaptation. One potential reason is that most studies have focused on limited measures of host and parasite fitness that are generally assumed to be under negative frequency-dependent selection. We have used reciprocal cross-infection experiments to test for local adaptation in Hawaiian, south Floridian, and eastern North American populations of monarch butterflies and their protozoan parasites. Sympatric host-parasite combinations did not result in greater host or parasite fitness, as would be expected under coevolutionary dynamics driven by negative frequency-dependent selection. Instead, we found that Hawaiian hosts were more resistant and carried more infective and virulent parasites, which is consistent with theoretical predictions for virulence evolution and coevolutionary arms race dynamics. We also found that Hawaiian hosts were more tolerant, particularly of Hawaiian parasites, indicating that increased resistance does not preclude increased tolerance within a population and that hosts may be more tolerant of local parasites. We did not find a similar pattern in the south Floridian or eastern populations, possibly because host-parasite adaptation occurs within the context of a greater ecological community.

  11. 北宋初期笔记小说中的五代十国君臣形象%Images of monarchs and officials in Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms in the literary sketches of the early Northern Song Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗昌繁

    2012-01-01

    现存北宋初期笔记小说中有关五代十国君臣形象的记载较多,其中君王形象可以大致分为雄勇谋略型、节俭勤政型、骄奢淫逸型、风流才子型;官吏形象可以大致分为风流放旷型、质直多才型、韬光避世型、英勇善战型。君臣关系也可以大致分为君明臣贤和睦型、君臣享乐和谐型、君疑臣忌紧张型。这些德行性格或同或异的君臣形象是兵燹频生而又浮华精彩的五代十国时期的一道特殊风景。%The extent literary sketches of the early Northern Song Dynasty recorded lots about images of monarchs and officials in Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. Among them, monarch images could be classified into four groups, namely ambitious, diligent, extravagant and romantic; while official image four groups, namely uninhibited, upright, reclusive and heroic; and the relationship between monarch and officials approximately into three groups, namely wise and harmonious, pleasure seeking and harmonious, and suspicious and strained. All these images with sameness or differences became the unique picture of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms with frequent wars.

  12. Lack of Set Theory Relevant Prerequisite Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide

    2006-01-01

    Many students struggle with college mathematics topics due to a lack of mastery of prerequisite knowledge. Set theory language is one such prerequisite for linear algebra courses. Many students' mistakes on linear algebra questions reveal a lack of mastery of set theory knowledge. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative analysis of a…

  13. Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in the Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L., a Migrating Bio-Indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful technique to quantify gene expression. To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate results, normalization relative to stably expressed reference genes is crucial. The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L., is one of the most recognized insect species for its spectacular annual migration across North America. Besides its great voyages, D. plexippus has drawn attention to its role as a bio-indicator, ranging from genetically modified organisms (GMOs to natural ecosystems. In this study, nine reference genes from D. plexippus genome were selected as the candidate reference genes. The expression profiles of these candidates under various biotic and abiotic conditions were evaluated using the four readily available computational programs, BestKeeper, Normfinder, geNorm, and ΔCt method, respectively. Moreover, RefFinder, a web-based computational platform integrating the four above mentioned algorisms, provided a comprehensive ranking of the stability of these reference genes. As a result, a suite of reference genes were recommended for each experimental condition. Specifically, elongation factor 1α (EF1A and ribosomal protein 49 (RP49 were the most stable reference genes, respectively, under biotic (development, tissue, and sex and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature, and dietary RNAi conditions. With the recent release of a 273-million base pair draft genome, results from this study allow us to establish a standardized RT-qPCR analysis and lay a foundation for the subsequent genomic and functional genomic research in D. plexippus, a major bio-indicator and an emerging model for migratory animals.

  14. Lack of Exercise Might Invite Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163264.html Lack of Exercise Might Invite Dementia Study found being sedentary may make you as ... TV may make you as likely to develop dementia as people genetically predisposed to the condition, a ...

  15. LACK - a VoIP Steganographic Method

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a new steganographic method called LACK (Lost Audio PaCKets Steganography) which is intended mainly for VoIP. The method is presented in a broader context of network steganography and of VoIP steganography in particular. The analytical results presented in the paper concern the influence of LACK's hidden data insertion procedure on the method's impact on quality of voice transmission and its resistance to steganalysis.

  16. The priorities of an enlightened monarch: the limitations of the military-fiscal state under Charles III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Torres Sánchez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the features of the Spanish Military-Fiscal State of Charles III. We have compared the Spanish state with Britain in order to revise Barbier and Klein´s thesis about how the military priorities of Charles III restricted the modernization of his state and caused the monarchy´s fall into debt and bankruptcy. The British case demonstrates how its own success was based on the establishment of a Military-Fiscal State and the constant military activity driven by an aggressive mercantile policy. We conclude that the Military-Fiscal State in Charles III´s Spain was not as well-developed as that of contemporary Great Britain. Spain devoted fewer resources to war, maintained a minimum military activity, and the mobilisation of resources lacked the flexibility found in Britain´s case. All this, along with a profound distrust in the use of public debt as the main way to fund war, meant that Charles III´s state did not become a real “war machine” as did George III´s state. In this article we propose that the weakness of Charles III lay in his limited interest in the development of a true Military-Fiscal State.

  17. Lacking control increases illusory pattern perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Jennifer A; Galinsky, Adam D

    2008-10-03

    We present six experiments that tested whether lacking control increases illusory pattern perception, which we define as the identification of a coherent and meaningful interrelationship among a set of random or unrelated stimuli. Participants who lacked control were more likely to perceive a variety of illusory patterns, including seeing images in noise, forming illusory correlations in stock market information, perceiving conspiracies, and developing superstitions. Additionally, we demonstrated that increased pattern perception has a motivational basis by measuring the need for structure directly and showing that the causal link between lack of control and illusory pattern perception is reduced by affirming the self. Although these many disparate forms of pattern perception are typically discussed as separate phenomena, the current results suggest that there is a common motive underlying them.

  18. Laura: Soybean variety lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain of conventional soybean varieties requires heat processing to break down trypsin inhibitor's activity before using as food or animal feed. At the same time, protein denaturation and other qualitative changes occur in soybean grain, especially if the temperature of heating is not controlled. Two types of trypsin inhibitor were found in soybean grain the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mature grain of soybean Laura is lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Grain yield of variety Laura is equal to high yielding varieties from the maturity group I, where it belongs. Lacking of Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor makes soybean grain suitable for direct feeding in adult non ruminant animals without previous thermal processing. Grain of variety Laura can be processed for a shorter period of time than conventional soybeans. This way we save energy, and preserve valuable nutritional composition of soybean grain, which is of interest in industrial processing.

  19. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  20. Why does Colombia lack agricultural commodity futures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Moreno-Alemay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons why futures contracts are not traded as an alternative to price hedging for agricultural goods in Colombia. Based on surveys, interviews and statistical analysis, this study identified that conceptual gaps in contract negotiation, lack of consensus in the agricultural sector regarding the use of financial mechanisms and the sector’s infrequent contact with Colombia’s financial institutions, are the main reasons why a futures contracts market has not emerged.

  1. Analysing the lack of Demand Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Philip; Cohen, Bernard

    1998-07-01

    We seek to develop means of intervention in Enterprises that will enable them to react in an effective, sustainable and timely fashion to changes in the ways that markets and demand are organized; that is, to act strategically. We take an enterprise to be some entity that seeks to provide its clients with services that they value while maintaining its ability to do so in the face of changes in the demands of its clients and in the resources at its disposal. The services that clients value form around what the organization of their demands lack. The concept of strategy therefore rests on critically evaluating the ontology and semantics of the Enterprise in relation to these holes in demand organization. We access ontology and semantics by constructing and manipulating hypothetical, first-order, mathematical models of the Enterprise's services and of its value-adding processes. Because an enterprise is an anticipatory system, its semantic domain must include representations of the enterprise's model of itself and of the market and demand organizations within which it competes. First-order (set) theory provides adequate expressive power here, but alternative, higher order, mathematical frameworks, such as Dubois' hyperincursion, provide inadequate power, particularly in relation to the analysis of the properties of emergence. Knowing exactly why and where this mathematical lack manifests in the analysis process enables effective collaboration between systems analysts and psychoanalysts, and suggest directions for mathematical research.

  2. Quantum preparation uncertainty and lack of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpędek, Filip; Kaniewski, Jędrzej; Coles, Patrick J.; Wehner, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    The quantum uncertainty principle famously predicts that there exist measurements that are inherently incompatible, in the sense that their outcomes cannot be predicted simultaneously. In contrast, no such uncertainty exists in the classical domain, where all uncertainty results from ignorance about the exact state of the physical system. Here, we critically examine the concept of preparation uncertainty and ask whether similarly in the quantum regime, some of the uncertainty that we observe can actually also be understood as a lack of information (LOI), albeit a lack of quantum information. We answer this question affirmatively by showing that for the well known measurements employed in BB84 quantum key distribution (Bennett and Brassard 1984 Int. Conf. on Computer System and Signal Processing), the amount of uncertainty can indeed be related to the amount of available information about additional registers determining the choice of the measurement. We proceed to show that also for other measurements the amount of uncertainty is in part connected to a LOI. Finally, we discuss the conceptual implications of our observation to the security of cryptographic protocols that make use of BB84 states.

  3. Lack of transplacental transmission of Bartonella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Boulouis, H-J; Reynaud, K; Thoumire, S; Gandoin, C; Bouillin, C; Cordonnier, N; Maillard, R

    2015-02-01

    Transplacental transmission of Bartonella spp. has been reported for rodents, but not for cats and has never been investigated in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess vertical transmission of Bartonella in cattle. Fifty-six cow-calf pairs were tested before (cows) and after (calves) caesarean section for Bartonella bacteremia and/or serology, and the cotyledons were checked for gross lesions and presence of the bacteria. None of the 29 (52%) bacteremic cows gave birth to bacteremic calves, and all calves were seronegative at birth. Neither placentitis nor vasculitis were observed in all collected cotyledons. Bartonella bovis was not detected in placental cotyledons. Therefore, transplacental transmission of B. bovis and multiplication of the bacteria in the placenta do not seem likely. The lack of transplacental transmission may be associated with the particular structure of the placenta in ruminants or to a poor affinity/agressiveness of B. bovis for this tissue.

  4. Mice lacking neurofibromin develop gastric hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Chen, Jian; Richardson, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms are among many manifestations of the genetic disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, the physiological and pathological functions of the Nf1 gene in the GI system have not been fully studied, possibly because of a lack of mouse models. In this study, we generated conditional knockout mice with Nf1 deficiency in the GI tract. These mice develop gastric epithelial hyperplasia and inflammation together with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis. The gastric phenotypes observed in these mutant mice seem to be the consequence of loss of Nf1 in gastric fibroblasts, resulting in paracrine hyperactivation of the ERK pathway in the gastric epithelium. These mice provide a useful model to study the pathogenesis of GI lesions in a subset of patients with NF1 and to investigate the role of the Nf1 gene in the development of GI neoplasms. PMID:19661150

  5. “君要臣死,臣不敢不死”考论%The Textual Criticism and Exposition of the Concept of "the Subject Has No Choice but to Stop Living When the Monarch Orders Him to Do That"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "the subject has no choice but to stop living when the monarch orders him to do that" appears in the novels of the latter part of the Ming Dynasty, and it comes into being with comprehensive basis of folk culture. The concept is more popular in the Qing Dynasty; it often appears in the novels and operas which were created during the time from Kangxi to Qianlong. The concept has its deep theoretical origins. From the pre-Qin days to its birth, it has undergone some related concepts as follows: "although the monarch is not benevolent, the subject daren't disobey the monarch", "the mon- arch is the principle of the subject", "although the monarch is not benevolent, the subject has to pledge loyalty to the monarch". During the Ming and Qing Dynasty, monarchical power was absolutely strengthened and infinitely intensified and it is the realistic background of the appearance and spread of the concept.%“君要臣死,臣不敢不死”这一观念,最初见于明代晚期。在随后的清代获得了广泛流传,多见于康熙至乾隆年间的小说和戏曲。“君要臣死.臣不敢不死”这一观念,分别经历了“君虽不惠.臣不敢不事君”、“君为臣纲”、“君虽不仁,臣不可以不忠”等观念的衍化历程。明清时期君权的无限膨胀,君主专制的绝对强化是此观念产生、流传的现实背景。

  6. Energy brands lack vitality; Energiemerken ontberen vitaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godri, S.; Wilders, E. [CONSULT Brand Strategy, Y and R Advertising, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-06-01

    The three Dutch energy companies (Nuon, Essent and Eneco Energie) have relatively little brand strength. The brands are not perceived to be sufficiently different from one another and are not valued by consumers. With liberalisation imminent, this is hardly a strong starting point. How can you win over consumers if it is not clear what is on offer? In the business market, decision-makers are better placed to distinguish between brands. However, the brands lack vitality in this sector of the market too. The only consolation is that the situation is by no means exclusive to the Netherlands. [Dutch] De merksterkte van de drie Nederlandse energiebedrijven Nuon, Essent en Eneco Energie, is gering. De energiemerken onderscheiden zich niet genoeg en missen waardering. Met het oog op de aanstaande liberalisering geen goede uitgangspositie. Hoe kun je consumenten voor je winnen als onduidelijk is waarvoor ze moeten kiezen? Op de zakelijk markt zijn de beslissers beter in staat om de merken te onderscheiden. Maar ook hier missen de energiemerken vitaliteit. Een troost: Nederlandse energiebedrijven zijn niet de enige met dit probleem.

  7. Lack of RNase L attenuates macrophage functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yi

    Full Text Available Macrophages are one of the major cell types in innate immunity against microbial infection. It is believed that the expression of proinflammatory genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 by macrophages is also crucial for activation of both innate and adaptive immunities. RNase L is an interferon (IFN inducible enzyme which is highly expressed in macrophages. It has been demonstrated that RNase L regulates the expression of certain inflammatory genes. However, its role in macrophage function is largely unknown.Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs were generated from RNase L(+/+and (-/- mice. The migration of BMMs was analyzed by using Transwell migration assays. Endocytosis and phagocytosis of macrophages were assessed by using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-Dextran 40,000 and FITC-E. coli bacteria, respectively. The expression of inflammatory genes was determined by Western Blot and ELISA. The promoter activity of Cox-2 was measured by luciferase reporter assays.Lack of RNase L significantly decreased the migration of BMMs induced by M-CSF, but at a less extent by GM-CSF and chemokine C-C motif ligand-2 (CCL2. Interestingly, RNase L deficient BMMs showed a significant reduction of endocytic activity to FITC-Dextran 40,000, but no any obvious effect on their phagocytic activity to FITC-bacteria under the same condition. RNase L impacts the expression of certain genes related to cell migration and inflammation such as transforming growth factor (TGF-β, IL-1β, IL-10, CCL2 and Cox-2. Furthermore, the functional analysis of the Cox-2 promoter revealed that RNase L regulated the expression of Cox-2 in macrophages at its transcriptional level. Taken together, our findings provide direct evidence showing that RNase L contributes to innate immunity through regulating macrophage functions.

  8. Dendroclimatic analysis of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro (Michoacán, Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Marlès Magre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first study on dendroclimatology of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the state of Michoacán (Mexico, specifically in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro, both municipalities within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR. The sampling in Áporo, northwest of the MBBR, was held in Los Ejidos del Rincón del Soto and Arroyo Seco, in Sierra Chincúa (May 2011. In Zitácuaro, southwest of the reserve, a sampling was performed in the Ejido de San Juan de Zitácuaro, in the area of Ocotal and Palma, and Meso Sedano (June 2011. There were a total of 38 Pinus pseudostrobus and 12 Pinus devoniana sampled in both areas of the study and distributed in 28 trees in the municipality of Áporo and 22 in Zitácuaro. Two samples per tree were taken at 1.3 m height, resulting in a total of 100 tree cores. The dendrochronological series in Áporo for the species Pinus pseudostrobus were extended to 62 years (1949-2010 and for Pinus devoniana 86 years (1925-2010; and the series in Zitácuaro for Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana were extended to 47 years (1964-2010 and 44 years (1967-2010, respectively. The ring chronologies were validated using the program COFECHA, which calculates the cross correlations between individual series of the tree-growth, five series were eliminated due to very low or negative correlations. The climate data from Zitácuaro were obtained from two weather stations located in the same municipality. And, in the case of Áporo, the data was obtained from stations located in Senguio. The growth rates related to the climate were obtained by removing the growth trend of each tree due to the age, size and other factors such as the competition, using the program ARSTAN. The following statistics were used to evaluate the quality of the residual chronologies and to determine the potential dendrochronology of species for the different populations: the average correlation between series (Rbar

  9. Lack of efficacy of ergocalciferol repletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wasser

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin D has become an area of intensive scrutiny, both in medical and lay literature. However, there are limited data to suggest proper repletion regimens for those patients who have hypovitaminosis D. Consequently, various methods are used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of various treatment strategies for hypovitaminosis D in an ambulatory internal medicine practice. Methods: A retrospective chart review between October 2005 and June 2010 of a suburban internal medicine practice was performed via query of the electronic medical record (Centricity, General Electric Healthcare, UK. Patients with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration less than 32 mg/dl were identified and treated. Treatment success was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations greater than 32 mg/dl. Statistical analysis to assess changes in vitamin D level controlling for season, comorbidities, and demographics were used. Results: A total of 607 treatment episodes were identified, with 395 excluded due to lack of follow-up vitamin D level within 16 weeks, no treatment documented, topical treatment, doxercalciferol treatment, or non-compliance. Of the remaining patients, there were 212 treatment instances on 178 patients. Ergocalciferol 50,000 international units (IU was used most frequently (71.4% of the time.. A higher initial vitamin D level was positively associated with treatment success (adjusted odds ratio = 1.11, p=0.002. Increased doses of ergocalciferol increased the likelihood of treatment success (p=0.0011. Seasonal variation was related to posttreatment 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as was body mass index (BMI (p=0.003 and p=0.044. Conclusion: Pretreatment levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, BMI, season, and vitamin D dose are predictors of successful hypovitaminosis D treatment. Our data suggest that patients with initial 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <20 should be treated with a higher total dose of

  10. Representações republicanas, sentidos monárquicos e permanências na transição / Republican representations, monarchical meanings and remains in the transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judá Leão Lobo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este estudo destaca perspectivas incertas na formação e consolidação do republicanismo brasileiro, tendo por parâmetro o método indiciário de reconstrução histórica, no qual indícios, testemunhos e provas servem de pista para se elaborar uma hipótese hermenêutica acerca do passado. Nesse sentido, servimo-nos de textos literários, jornalísticos e acadêmicos, assim como de obras de arte e caricaturas políticas do período de transição para sublinhar continuidades de um imaginário monárquico na transição para a Primeira República.   Palavras-chave: imaginário político-jurídico; Monarquia e República no Brasil; continuidades.   Abstract: This study highlights uncertain perspectives in the formation and consolidation of Brazilian republicanism, having as parameter the indiciary method of historical reconstruction, in which signs, testimonies and evidences serve as clues to formulate a hermeneutical hypothesis about the past. In this sense we interpret literary, journalistic and academic texts, as well as works of art and political cartoons from the period of transition to emphasize continuities of a monarchical imaginary in the transition to the First Republic.   Keywords: political and juridical imaginary; Monarchy and Republic in Brazil; continuities.

  11. Plant-determined variation in the cardenolide content, thin-layer chromatography profiles, and emetic potency of monarch butterflies,Danaus plexippus L. Reared on milkweed plants in California: 2.Asclepias speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, L P; Seiber, J N; Nelson, C J; Lynch, S P; Holland, M M

    1984-04-01

    The pattern of variation in gross cardenolide concentration of 111Asclepias speciosa plants collected in six different areas of California is a positively skewed distribution which ranges from 19 to 344 μg of cardenolide per 0.1 g dry weight with a mean of 90 μg per 0.1 g. Butterflies reared individually on these plants in their native habitats ranged from 41 to 547 μg of cardenolide per 0.1 g dry weight with a mean of 179 μg. Total cardenolide per butterfly ranged from 54 to 1279 μg with a mean of 319 μg. Differences in concentrations and total cardenolide contents in the butterflies from the six geographic areas appeared minor, and there were no differences between the males and the females, although the males did weigh significantly more than females. The uptake of cardenolide by the butterflies was found to be a logarithmic function of the plant concentration. This results in regulation: larvae which feed on low-concentration plants produce butterflies with increased cardenolide concentrations relative to those of the plants, and those which feed on high-concentration plants produce butterflies with decreased concentrations. No evidence was adduced that high concentrations of cardenolides in the plants affected the fitness of the butterflies. The mean emetic potencies of the powdered plant and butterfly material were 5.62 and 5.25 blue jay emetic dose fifty units per milligram of cardenolide and the number of ED50 units per butterfly ranged from 0.28 to 6.7 with a mean of 1.67. Monarchs reared onA. speciosa, on average, are only about one tenth as emetic as those reared onA. eriocarpa. UnlikeA. eriocarpa which is limited to California,A. speciosa ranges from California to the Great Plains and is replaced eastwards byA. syriaca L. These two latter milkweed species appear to have a similar array of chemically identical cardenolides, and therefore both must produce butterflies of relatively low emetic potency to birds, with important ecological implications

  12. 29 CFR 18.602 - Lack of personal knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Lack of personal knowledge. 18.602 Section 18.602 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.602 Lack of personal knowledge. A... witness has personal knowledge of the matter. Evidence to prove personal knowledge may, but need...

  13. Why Art Education Lacks Social Relevance: A Contextual Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersson, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This article examines why both the individual-centered and discipline-centered approaches to art education lack social relevance. Maintains that the lack of a social orientation in these two approaches is due to our social context and our capitalistic system. Proposes that democratic principles serve as the basis of a socially relevant,…

  14. Sequencing and Gene Expression Analysis of Leishmania tropica LACK Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Hammoudeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania Homologue of receptors for Activated C Kinase (LACK antigen is a 36-kDa protein, which provokes a very early immune response against Leishmania infection. There are several reports on the expression of LACK through different life-cycle stages of genus Leishmania, but only a few of them have focused on L.tropica.The present study provides details of the cloning, DNA sequencing and gene expression of LACK in this parasite species. First, several local isolates of Leishmania parasites were typed in our laboratory using PCR technique to verify of Leishmania parasite species. After that, LACK gene was amplified and cloned into a vector for sequencing. Finally, the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, was evaluated by Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR technique.The typing result confirmed that all our local isolates belong to L.tropica. LACK gene sequence was determined and high similarity was observed with the sequences of other Leishmania species. Furthermore, the expression of LACK gene in both promastigotes and amastigotes forms was confirmed.Overall, the data set the stage for future studies of the properties and immune role of LACK gene products.

  15. Lack of Clarity in University Teaching: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira

    1998-01-01

    A study used qualitative methods to examine lack of clarity and need for inference in teaching of an undergraduate physics course for nonscience majors. Evidence from several data sources converge, revealing very low levels of student understanding of material presented and strong dissatisfaction with instruction, and also insights into teacher…

  16. Impaired intestinal proglucagon processing in mice lacking prohormone convertase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Zhu, Xiaorong; Deacon, Carolyn F;

    2003-01-01

    The neuroendocrine prohormone convertases 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2) are expressed in endocrine intestinal L cells and pancreatic A cells, respectively, and colocalize with proglucagon in secretory granules. Mice lacking PC2 have multiple endocrinopathies and cannot process proglucagon to mature gluca...

  17. Siim Nestor soovitab : lack of Eoins / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Väikefirma Seksound annab sel nädalavahetusel välja Viljandi indiebändi Lack of Eoins esikplaadi "Echo Group" (plaadiesitlused 11. dets. Tallinnas Von Krahlis ja 12. dets. Tartus Genialistide klubis, esinevad ka Ans. Andur ja Popidiot, plaate keerutavad Hannes Praks ja Taavi Laatsit)

  18. Garlic exhibits lack of control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...

  19. Special Relativity in Week One: 4) Lack of Simultaneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This is our final article on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course. One of the profound changes in our view of the world was Einstein's discovery of the lack of simultaneity. He illustrated this result with a thought experiment in which we observe a railroad car passing by us. We see the two ends of the…

  20. Bordetella pertussis Strain Lacking Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Sen, Kathryn; Weigand, Michael R; Skoff, Tami H; Cunningham, Victoria A; Halse, Tanya A; Tondella, M Lucia

    2016-02-01

    A Bordetella pertussis strain lacking 2 acellular vaccine immunogens, pertussis toxin and pertactin, was isolated from an unvaccinated infant in New York State in 2013. Comparison with a French strain that was pertussis toxin-deficient, pertactin wild-type showed that the strains carry the same 28-kb deletion in similar genomes.

  1. Siim Nestor soovitab : lack of Eoins / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Väikefirma Seksound annab sel nädalavahetusel välja Viljandi indiebändi Lack of Eoins esikplaadi "Echo Group" (plaadiesitlused 11. dets. Tallinnas Von Krahlis ja 12. dets. Tartus Genialistide klubis, esinevad ka Ans. Andur ja Popidiot, plaate keerutavad Hannes Praks ja Taavi Laatsit)

  2. Lack of peaceful resolution with Israel: economic cost for Palestinians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.C. de Boer (Paul)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe propose to estimate the economic cost for Palestine and for Palestinian residents due to the lack of peaceful resolution with Israel. Thereto we make use of the consensus estimates of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) of real growth rates of economic variab

  3. Early Neurobehavioral Development of Mice Lacking Endogenous PACAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Jozsef; Sandor, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea; Kiss, Peter; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Nagy, Andras D; Fulop, Balazs D; Juhasz, Tamas; Manavalan, Sridharan; Reglodi, Dora

    2017-04-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide. In addition to its diverse physiological roles, PACAP has important functions in the embryonic development of various tissues, and it is also considered as a trophic factor during development and in the case of neuronal injuries. Data suggest that the development of the nervous system is severely affected by the lack of endogenous PACAP. Short-term neurofunctional outcome correlates with long-term functional deficits; however, the early neurobehavioral development of PACAP-deficient mice has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the postnatal development of physical signs and neurological reflexes in mice partially or completely lacking PACAP. We examined developmental hallmarks during the first 3 weeks of the postnatal period, during which period most neurological reflexes and motor coordination show most intensive development, and we describe the neurobehavioral development using a complex battery of tests. In the present study, we found that PACAP-deficient mice had slower weight gain throughout the observation period. Interestingly, mice partially lacking PACAP weighed significantly less than homozygous mice. There was no difference between male and female mice during the first 3 weeks. Some other signs were also more severely affected in the heterozygous mice than in the homozygous mice, such as air righting, grasp, and gait initiation reflexes. Interestingly, incisor teeth erupted earlier in mice lacking PACAP. Motor coordination, shown by the number of foot-faults on an elevated grid, was also less developed in PACAP-deficient mice. In summary, our results show that mice lacking endogenous PACAP have slower weight gain during the first weeks of development and slower neurobehavioral development regarding a few developmental hallmarks.

  4. LACK OF VITAMIN B12 AFTER ROUX Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo, Greise Janaina; Silva, Alice Freitas da

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health issue, with several factors as its cause. It may be related to several co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus II, systemic arterial pressure, dyslipidemia, cancer and others. Current research verified aspects of bariatric surgery with special focus on alterations caused by the lack of vitamin B12. The bibliographical review evaluated scientific papers, particularly recent ones, to obtain data on the theme. Obesity is defined as a disease characterized by the accum...

  5. LACK OF VITAMIN B12 AFTER ROUX Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo, Greise Janaina; Silva, Alice Freitas da

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health issue, with several factors as its cause. It may be related to several co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus II, systemic arterial pressure, dyslipidemia, cancer and others. Current research verified aspects of bariatric surgery with special focus on alterations caused by the lack of vitamin B12. The bibliographical review evaluated scientific papers, particularly recent ones, to obtain data on the theme. Obesity is defined as a disease characterized by the accum...

  6. Unresolved questions from the analysis of mice lacking MCU expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Pan, Xin; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Jie; Holmström, Kira M; Finkel, Toren

    2014-07-11

    Entry of mitochondrial calcium is believed to play an essential role in regulating bioenergetics and initiating cell death pathways. We have recently described a mouse model lacking MCU expression. Surprisingly, these mice are viable and the cells and tissues from these animals do not exhibit any marked protection from cell death. Here, we discuss our findings as well as potential explanations for some of the more unexpected results.

  7. Importance Of Business Planning In An Environment Lacking Economic Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Ciumara Tudor

    2010-01-01

    The importance of business planning in an environment that lacks economic predictability is enhanced because it increases the ability of firms to be proactive. It is however necessary to accept the fundamental assumption that planning activity is conducted in a turbulent environment, where unpredictable events occur frequently. Planning is possible even when changes are common and difficult to predict, by adopting a flexible model to address all significant aspects.

  8. Multiple defects in Escherichia coli mutants lacking HU protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, O; Faelen, M; Girard, D; Jaffé, A; Toussaint, A; Rouvière-Yaniv, J

    1989-01-01

    The HU protein isolated from Escherichia coli, composed of two partially homologous subunits, alpha and beta, shares some of the properties of eucaryotic histones and is a major constituent of the bacterial nucleoid. We report here the construction of double mutants totally lacking both subunits of HU protein. These mutants exhibited poor growth and a perturbation of cell division, resulting in the formation of anucleate cells. In the absence of HU, phage Mu was unable to grow, to lysogenize,...

  9. The subjetivacion of the lack: between Lacan and Hegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Souyris Oportot

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article develops a reflection concerning the figure of the subjectivation and the statute of the lack  in relation to Jacques Lacan y Hegel's thought . The analysis will be addressed from a philosophical approach as and with a psychoanalytic perspective, to show the need to understand the subjectivity, not already as a "work" of duel, but ligature to the loss and the split. The idea is that the above mentioned significances make possible deconstruir and to rethink the duel in lack, that he structures to the subject in an experience "escripturaire" (escriptural and, for the same thing, of dispossession. So that the figure of the subjetivación "in" lack  will allow to grant an important place to the non-place while I spread where the unthinkable thing and the "Autre" registers.  Once exposed this, the reflection will focus on the tragic exigences behind experience “escripturaire” expressed in the image of Antigone

  10. REPROBATION AND LACK OF INTEREST IN MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Humberto Guzmán Valdivia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering education in mechatronics is an attractive field of research because it is a new multidisciplinary career. However, a potential problem is the reprobation rate. In the period from January to April 2012 at the Universidad Politécnica de Zacatecas a 53% regular students of a total of 197 were registered. To find the causes of this problem, a survey was conducted to determine the causes of reprobation, lack of motivation and interest to a population of 96 students, of which 40 were the first training cycle, 32 the second and 24 the third. The surveys yielded three main results. The first indicates that the lack of interest is proportional to the time spent in college. The second shows that the reprobation rate is linked to the laziness and the excess of courses. And the last shows a lack of motivation and low expectations of student due to the monotony of the theoretical courses. In conclusion, more research is needed to have a motivated student in an engineering career in mechatronics.

  11. LACK OF NOTIFICATION OF COMPULSORY NOTIFICATION DISEASES IN HOSPITAL SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Griep

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This research encompasses the diseases of compulsory lack of notification inhospital settings and its interface with the Health Information System (Sistema de Informaçãode Saúde – SIS developed and implemented by the Welfare System in Brazil (Sistema Únicode Saúde – SUS. It tries to identify the elements epidemiology is based on, referring to itsaspects as basis for the development of epidemiologic monitoring actions of contagiousdiseases in the country. It focuses on the following question: what are the factors thatcontribute and/or determine the flaws in the process of notification for compulsory notificationdiseases? The results obtained through a questionnaire presented to the personnel responsiblefor the Hospital Infection Control Service (Serviço de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar showtheir lack of preparedness and technical knowledge, as well as their team’s, in relation to thedynamic functioning of the Epidemiologic Vigilance Service (Serviço de VigilânciaEpidemiológica. It points to the flaws due to the influence exerted by the public and/or privatecharacter of the institutions and considers the possibility of lack of commitment and responsibility of the multi-professional team in the maintenance of the preestablished flow. As aproposal, we present an adoption of continuous educational actions through the implementationof a Long Distance Post Graduation course, aiming for the development of new possibilities forthe teaching-learning process, characterized by the ongoing quest for new knowledge and focuson the student. The implementation of a local and municipal Permanent Habilitation Programmay complement the need for updating, as well as make the discussion of the cases and dataof the reality possible, thus aiming to adopt joined measures in order to cope with the presentedepidemiologic situations.

  12. Lack of Syneresis during Gelation of Dense Colloidal Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig; Hütter; Schönholzer

    2000-02-01

    This study reports experimental results about the shrinkage of particle networks produced by pH-induced destabilization of dense colloidal suspensions. The resulting solid networks exhibit no syneresis effects, at least prior to aging of the gel. From this lack of syneresis it is concluded that the solidification in wet particle systems either is not purely determined by energy (but is also influenced by entropic effects) or cannot be explained within the framework of (static) equilibrium thermodynamics at all. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Increased sensitivity to kindling in mice lacking TSP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendus, D; Rankin-Gee, E K; Mustapha, M; Porter, B E

    2015-10-01

    The development of a hyperexcitable neuronal network is thought to be a critical event in epilepsy. Thrombospondins (TSPs) regulate synaptogenesis by binding the neuronal α2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel. TSPs regulate synapse formation during development and in the mature brain following injury. It is unclear if TSPs are involved in hyperexcitability that contributes to the development of epilepsy. Here we explore the development of epilepsy using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model in mice lacking TSP1 and TSP2. Unexpectedly, we found increased sensitivity to PTZ kindling in mice lacking TSP1, while mice lacking TSP2 kindled similar to wild-type. We found that the increased seizure susceptibility in the TSP1 knockout (KO) mice was not due to a compensatory increase in TSP2 mRNA as TSP1/2 KO mice were sensitive to PTZ, similar to the TSP1 KO mice. Furthermore, there were similar levels of TGF-B signal activation during kindling in the TSP1 KO mice compared to wild-type. We observed decreased expression of voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit CACNA2D1 mRNA in TSP1, TSP2, and TSP1/2 KO mice. Decreased CACNA2D2 mRNA was only detected in mice that lacked TSP1 and α2δ-1/2 protein levels in the cortex were lower in the TSP 1/2 KO mice. CACNA2D2 knockout mice have spontaneous seizures and increased PTZ seizure susceptibility. Here we report similar findings, TSP1, and TSP1/2 KO mice have low levels of CACNA2D2 mRNA expression and α2δ-1/2 receptor level in the cortex, and are more susceptible to seizures. CACNA2D2 mutations in mice and humans can cause epilepsy. Our data suggest TSP1 in particular may control CACNA2D2 levels and could be a modifier of seizure susceptibility.

  14. Disclosing personal health information relating to adults who lack capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-03-01

    The need to share information about patients is vital to effective care and protection, especially where it relates to adults who lack decision-making capacity but it has to be balanced against the right to confidentiality. Like other health professionals, district nurses have a duty to maintain the confidentiality of patient information, and incapable adults have the right to expect their personal health information to be kept private. This right is guaranteed by the common-law duty of confidence, the Data Protection Act 1998 and the NHS Care Record Guarantee and confidentiality policy. This article discusses the district nurse's legal obligations when considering sharing information in relation to an incapable adult

  15. Replication of Mu prophages lacking the central strong gyrase site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Martin L

    2004-09-01

    Replication of Mu prophages lacking the central strong gyrase site (SGS) is severely slowed. To study details of the replication of these prophages, an assay was developed for determining the rate and extent of introduction of nicks at the 3'-ends of a Mu prophage, an early step in Mu replicative transposition. The maximal level of end-nicking of a prophage with the SGS, about 70-90% depending upon the host strain, was achieved within about 15 min after induction, whereas at that time less than 5% nicking was observed with a prophage lacking the SGS. The amount of nicking at the end of the SGS(-) prophage increased with time, and approx. 30% nicking of the SGS(-) prophage was achieved by 60 min post-induction. Nicking kinetics were identical at each end of the prophages, and no nicking was observed at the 5'-ends of the prophages, verifying in vivo the earlier results with in vitro systems. To determine if prophage location affects the kinetics of replication, we examined prophages at numerous chromosomal locations. SGS(+) prophages at different chromosomal locations showed essentially identical replication kinetics. SGS(-) prophages showed a range of delays in replication and host lysis. A gradient of delays was apparent, with prophages further from the chromosomal origin of replication, oriC, showing longer delays than ones nearer to oriC. However, there were also exceptions to this overall gradient. Possible explanations for the differences in the delays observed with SGS(-) prophages are discussed.

  16. [Lack of assertiveness in patients with eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar A, Rosa; Manzo G, Rodrigo; Casanova Z, Dunny

    2006-03-01

    Low self-assertion has been noted as an important feature among patients with eating disorders. To verify, in a female population, if assertiveness is related or has a predictive capacity for the development of eating disorders. An structured clinical interview, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) were administered to 62 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and to 120 female students without eating problems. Patients with eating disorders ranked significantly higher on the EAT-40 and its factors (p assertiveness on the RAS (p Assertiveness measured by RAS and its factors was inversely related to EAT-40 and its items (r= -0.21). The predictive capability of the lack of self-assertion in the development of an eating disorder reached 53%, when patients with eating disorders and subjects at risk were considered together and compared to students without such disorder. Lack of assertiveness is a significant trait in patients with eating disorders; it may worsen its outcome and even perpetuate symptoms. Low self-assertion may be considered a predictive factor in the development of an eating disorder and must be managed from a preventive or therapeutic point of view.

  17. Individuals With OCD Lack Unrealistic Optimism Bias in Threat Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetsche, Ulrike; Rief, Winfried; Exner, Cornelia

    2015-07-01

    Overestimating the occurrence of threatening events has been highlighted as a central cognitive factor in the maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study examined the different facets of this cognitive bias, its underlying mechanisms, and its specificity to OCD. For this purpose, threat estimation, probabilistic classification learning (PCL) and psychopathological measures were assessed in 23 participants with OCD, 30 participants with social phobia, and 31 healthy controls. Whereas healthy participants showed an optimistic expectation bias regarding positive and negative future events, OCD participants lacked such a bias. This lack of an optimistic expectation bias was not specific to OCD. Compared to healthy controls, OCD participants overestimated their personal risk for experiencing negative events, but did not differ from controls in their risk estimation regarding other people. Finally, OCD participants' biases in the prediction of checking-related events were associated with their impairments in learning probabilistic cue-outcome associations in a disorder-relevant context. In sum, the present results add to a growing body of research demonstrating that cognitive biases in OCD are context-dependent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. When innovative instructional designs are too innovative: lack of schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas; Wahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    and it was developed to motivate and encourage the students to engage in more situated learning processes. The course is infamous for low attendance and for demotivating the students; hence the new instructional design should motivate students to attend the lessons and to participate. The new instructional design...... utilized teacher-produced video clips to qualify the students learning in the preparation for the lessons and new pedagogical activities during lessons to make the learning process more situated. However, the outcome was not as planned. The students didn’t recognize the video clips as a significant part...... of the preparation for the lessons and therefore they were not prepared for the activities that the teacher had planned for the lessons. The paper investigates the students’ lack of ‘schema’ and suggests ways of developing schemata to learn in a situated learning environment....

  19. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Barrientos, Tomasa; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A; Sauve, Anthony A; Andrews, Nancy C

    2015-10-20

    Both iron overload and iron deficiency have been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, but cardiac iron utilization is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the transferrin receptor (Tfr1) might play a role in cardiac iron uptake and used gene targeting to examine the role of Tfr1 in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that decreased iron, due to inactivation of Tfr1, was associated with severe cardiac consequences. Mice lacking Tfr1 in the heart died in the second week of life and had cardiomegaly, poor cardiac function, failure of mitochondrial respiration, and ineffective mitophagy. The phenotype could only be rescued by aggressive iron therapy, but it was ameliorated by administration of nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor. Our findings underscore the importance of both Tfr1 and iron in the heart, and may inform therapy for patients with heart failure.

  20. The lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Chun-Hua; Lv Guo-Liang; Wang Zhao-Jun; Zhang Jun

    2008-01-01

    In order to explain the lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge, we have made a detailed study of thermal pulseasymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars by using a population synthesis code. The effects of the oxygen overabundance and the mass loss rate on the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars in the Galactic bulge are discussed. We find that the oxygen overabundance which is about twice as large as that in the solar neighbourhood (close to the present observations) is insufficient to explain the rareness of carbon stars in the bulge. We suggest that the large mass loss rate may serve as a controlling factor in the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars.

  1. Lack of time management as a psychosocial work risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Cladellas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to explore the possible relationship between workers' lack of time management and several psychosocial risks. The psychosocial risks were assessed by means of the ISTAS21 Questionnaire, the Spanish version of the CoPsoQ (Copenhagen Psychological Questionnaire. More specifically, nine dimensions, which are directly related with time management, satisfaction, health and stress, were selected for evaluation. Time management was measured through the following variables: quantitative demands, influences and control of the time. Drawing on a sample of 142 workers from four departments (development, implantation, support and administration, the research results show that the employees who belong to a department that offers few opportunities for individual time management are less satisfied, have worse general and mental health, and experience more behavioral, symptomatic and cognitive stress than those who can manage their work schedule.

  2. Nonadherence is Associated with Lack of HIV-Related Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrehave, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Hønge, Bo Langhoff

    2016-01-01

    -sectional study included 494 HIV-infected individuals from the Bissau HIV Cohort in Guinea-Bissau. They completed a questionnaire designed for assessment of adherence and HIV-related knowledge. RESULTS: A majority were female, 41% were illiterate, 25% did not take the medicine during the last 4 days, and 23......BACKGROUND: Poor treatment adherence is a main barrier for effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. HIV-related knowledge may affect understanding and utilization of HIV medical information, hence limited health literacy is a known barrier to treatment adherence. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross......% skipped their medicine during weekends. The most frequent reasons for not taking medicine were simply forgetting, side effects, lack of food, and being too ill to attend the clinic. Nonadherent patients had a lower level of HIV-related knowledge. CONCLUSION: Main barriers for nonadherence were side...

  3. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both iron overload and iron deficiency have been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, but cardiac iron utilization is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the transferrin receptor (Tfr1 might play a role in cardiac iron uptake and used gene targeting to examine the role of Tfr1 in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that decreased iron, due to inactivation of Tfr1, was associated with severe cardiac consequences. Mice lacking Tfr1 in the heart died in the second week of life and had cardiomegaly, poor cardiac function, failure of mitochondrial respiration, and ineffective mitophagy. The phenotype could only be rescued by aggressive iron therapy, but it was ameliorated by administration of nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor. Our findings underscore the importance of both Tfr1 and iron in the heart, and may inform therapy for patients with heart failure.

  4. Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) lacking the acidic subunit DNA sequence lack Mojave toxin in their venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, B J; Pineda, G; Banuelas-Ornelas, J J; Dagda, R K; Gasanov, S E; Rael, E D; Lieb, C S

    2001-09-01

    The venom composition of Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) differs in that some individuals have Mojave toxin and others do not. In order to understand the genetic basis for this difference, genomic DNA samples from Mojave rattlesnakes collected in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences that relate to the acidic (Mta) and basic (Mtb) subunits of this toxin. DNA samples were subjected to PCR to amplify nucleotide sequences from second to fourth exons of the acidic and basic subunits. These nucleotide sequences were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences generated aligned exactly to previously published nucleotide sequences of Mojave toxin. All DNA samples analyzed generated product using the basic subunit primers, and aligned identically to the Mtb nucleotide sequence. However, only 11 out of the 14 samples generated a product with the acidic subunit primers. These 11 sequences aligned identically to the Mta nucleotide sequence. The venom from the three snakes whose DNA did not amplify with the acidic subunit primers were not recognized by antibodies to Mojave toxin. This suggests that snakes with venom lacking Mojave toxin also lack the productive nucleotide sequence for the acidic subunit in their DNA.

  5. Clinical errors as a lack of context responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugatti, Matteo; Boswell, James F

    2016-09-01

    Although standardized treatments have the potential to decrease clinical errors, within-session responsiveness is complicated and complementary frameworks may be needed to foster enhanced responsiveness in the context of evidence-based treatments. Recent efforts have targeted the enhancement of flexibility and responsiveness in the delivery of manualized treatments, including the development of transdiagnostic treatments (i.e., protocols that are designed to be used across different diagnoses) intended to tailor intervention principles to the needs of individual patients. Context-Responsive Psychotherapy Integration (Constantino, Boswell, Bernecker, & Castonguay, 2013) offers an framework that supports the utilization of evidence-based clinical strategies in response to the identification of specific process markers. Failure to identify or appropriately respond to such markers may result in negative therapeutic process as well as outcomes. This case study uses the context-response psychotherapy integration framework to understand critical moments of clinical decision-making through examining an individual treatment case that unilaterally terminated after seven sessions of transdiagnostic treatment. This illustrative empirical case analysis focuses on three potential clinical errors, as indicated by a lack of responsiveness to three candidate process markers: (a) low outcome expectations, (b) self-strivings, and (c) outcome monitoring. For each clinical error, alternative clinical strategies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Characterization of nonconventional hepatitis B viruses lacking the core promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shau-Feng; Chang, Shih-Hsuan; Li, Bi-Chen; Will, Hans; Netter, Hans Jürgen

    2004-12-20

    The core gene (C-gene) promoter and regulatory sequences play a central role in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle. They are essential for the synthesis of the pregenomic and precore mRNA. The pregenomic RNA is the template required for replication and also the template for the synthesis of the core protein and polymerase. Here, we report the in vivo existence and functional characterization of HBV variants that lack the C-gene promoter region and the regulatory sequences located therein. HBV promoter fragments were isolated by PCR from sera of chronic carriers and characterized. Truncated promoter elements were identified, and then tested in the context of wild-type genomes in the HuH-7 cell line. The expression of the recombinant HBV genome resulted in the synthesis of surface proteins, and low level of core protein as well as a transcript pattern similar to, but smaller in size to wild-type virus. The recombinant HBV genome with the truncated promoter region produced pregenomic RNA-like transcripts. These transcripts were encapsidated and reverse transcribed when complemented by sufficient core and polymerase protein. These date provide an explanation as to why such deletion mutants of HBV can be produced at all, they highlight the functional potentials of viral sequences activated by mutations and may be of relevance for viral evolution and persistence.

  7. New constitutive latex osmotin-like proteins lacking antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cleverson D T; Silva, Maria Z R; Bruno-Moreno, Frederico; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moreira, Renato A; Ramos, Márcio V

    2015-11-01

    Proteins that share similar primary sequences to the protein originally described in salt-stressed tobacco cells have been named osmotins. So far, only two osmotin-like proteins were purified and characterized of latex fluids. Osmotin from Carica papaya latex is an inducible protein lacking antifungal activity, whereas the Calotropis procera latex osmotin is a constitutive antifungal protein. To get additional insights into this subject, we investigated osmotins in latex fluids of five species. Two potential osmotin-like proteins in Cryptostegia grandiflora and Plumeria rubra latex were detected by immunological cross-reactivity with polyclonal antibodies produced against the C. procera latex osmotin (CpOsm) by ELISA, Dot Blot and Western Blot assays. Osmotin-like proteins were not detected in the latex of Thevetia peruviana, Himatanthus drasticus and healthy Carica papaya fruits. Later, the two new osmotin-like proteins were purified through immunoaffinity chromatography with anti-CpOsm immobilized antibodies. Worth noting the chromatographic efficiency allowed for the purification of the osmotin-like protein belonging to H. drasticus latex, which was not detectable by immunoassays. The identification of the purified proteins was confirmed after MS/MS analyses of their tryptic digests. It is concluded that the constitutive osmotin-like proteins reported here share structural similarities to CpOsm. However, unlike CpOsm, they did not exhibit antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. These results suggest that osmotins of different latex sources may be involved in distinct physiological or defensive events.

  8. Lack of global epigenetic methylation defects in CBS deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Ok; Wang, Liqun; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Gupta, Sapna; Slifker, Michael J; Li, Yue-Sheng; Andrews, Andrew J; Kruger, Warren D

    2017-01-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is a recessive inborn error of metabolism in which patients have extremely elevated plasma total homocysteine and have clinical manifestations in the vascular, visual, skeletal, and nervous systems. Homocysteine is an intermediary metabolite produced from the hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), which is a by-product of methylation reactions involving the methyl-donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Here, we have measured SAM, SAH, DNA and histone methylation status in an inducible mouse model of CBS deficiency to test the hypothesis that homocysteine-related phenotypes are caused by inhibition of methylation due to elevated SAH and reduced SAM/SAH ratio. We found that mice lacking CBS have elevated cellular SAH and reduced SAM/SAH ratios in both liver and kidney, but this was not associated with alterations in the level of 5-methylcytosine or various histone modifications. Using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation in combination with microarray, we found that of the 241 most differentially methylated promoter probes, 89 % were actually hypermethylated in CBS deficient mice. In addition, we did not find that changes in DNA methylation correlated well with changes in RNA expression in the livers of induced and uninduced CBS mice. Our data indicates that reduction in the SAM/SAH ratio, due to loss of CBS activity, does not result in overall hypomethylation of either DNA or histones.

  9. Lack of Galanin 3 Receptor Aggravates Murine Autoimmune Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botz, Bálint; Kemény, Ágnes; Brunner, Susanne M; Locker, Felix; Csepregi, Janka; Mócsai, Attila; Pintér, Erika; McDougall, Jason J; Kofler, Barbara; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2016-06-01

    Neurogenic inflammation mediated by peptidergic sensory nerves has a crucial impact on the pathogenesis of various joint diseases. Galanin is a regulatory sensory neuropeptide, which has been shown to attenuate neurogenic inflammation, modulate neutrophil activation, and be involved in the development of adjuvant arthritis, but our current understanding about its targets and physiological importance is incomplete. Among the receptors of galanin (GAL1-3), GAL3 has been found to be the most abundantly expressed in the vasculature and on the surface of some immune cells. However, since there are minimal in vivo data on the role of GAL3 in joint diseases, we analyzed its involvement in different inflammatory mechanisms of the K/BxN serum transfer-model of autoimmune arthritis employing GAL 3 gene-deficient mice. After arthritis induction, GAL3 knockouts demonstrated increased clinical disease severity and earlier hindlimb edema than wild types. Vascular hyperpermeability determined by in vivo fluorescence imaging was also elevated compared to the wild-type controls. However, neutrophil accumulation detected by in vivo luminescence imaging or arthritic mechanical hyperalgesia was not altered by the lack of the GAL3 receptor. Our findings suggest that GAL3 has anti-inflammatory properties in joints by inhibiting vascular hyperpermeability and consequent edema formation.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants lacking inducible cyanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloton, M; Karst, F

    1987-03-01

    To determine the physiological role of cyanate aminohydrolase (cyanase, EC 3.5.5.3) in bacteria, mutants of Escherichia coli K12 devoid of this inducible activity were isolated and their properties investigated. Five independent mutations were localized next to lac; three of them lay between lacY and codA. Thus cyanase activity could depend on the integrity of one gene or set of clustered genes; we propose for this locus the symbol cnt. Growth of the mutant stains was more sensitive to cyanate than growth of wild-type strains. This difference was noticeable in synthetic medium in the presence of low concentrations of cyanate (less than or equal to 1 mM). Higher concentrations inhibited growth of both wild-type and mutant strains. Urea in aqueous solutions dissociates slowly into ammonium cyanate. Accordingly wild-type strains were able to grow on a synthetic medium containing 0.5 M-urea whereas mutants lacking cyanase were not. We conclude that cyanase could play a role in destroying exogenous cyanate originating from the dissociation of carbamoyl compounds such as urea; alternatively cyanate might constitute a convenient nitrogen source for bacteria able to synthesize cyanase in an inducible way.

  11. Lack of fiscal discipline: Challenges and possible solutions

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    Ćirović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of fiscal discipline is one of the most pressing issues in the framework of various economic systems today. The consequences of the global economic crisis have shown all the weaknesses of measures and mechanisms in terms of decision-making in fiscal policy. This problem can be seen now in almost every country. The problem of inadequate implementation of fiscal policy and the maintenance of fiscal discipline is reflected in the fact that their consequences are not visible right away, but tend to show their negative effects much later. Today, we have a situation where a certain current government suffers badly implemented prior fiscal discipline of a previous government. The paper identified causes of fiscal indiscipline, which is most easily seen in the budget process. In addition to determining the causes of fiscal indiscipline, the author puts forward a set of different possible solutions that could positively affect the stabilization of the growing public debt and eliminate the cause of fiscal indiscipline. Possible solutions are analyzed, as well as the positive and negative aspects of their use, and possible implementation problems of specific solutions.

  12. Altered food consumption in mice lacking lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusaulcy, R; Daviaud, D; Pradère, J P; Grès, S; Valet, Ph; Saulnier-Blache, J S

    2009-12-01

    The release of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by adipocytes has previously been proposed to play a role in obesity and associated pathologies such as insulin resistance and diabetes. In the present work, the sensitivity to diet-induced obesity was studied in mice lacking one of the LPA receptor subtype (LPA1R). Conversely to what was observed in wild type (WT) mice, LPA1R-KO-mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) showed no significant increase in body weight or fat mass when compared to low fat diet (LFD). In addition, in contrast to what was observed in WT mice, LPA1R-KO mice did not exhibit over-consumption of food associated with HFD. Surprisingly, when fed a LFD, LPA1R-KO mice exhibited significant higher plasma leptin concentration and higher level of adipocyte leptin mRNA than WT mice. In conclusion, LPA1R-KO mice were found to be resistant to diet-induced obesity consecutive to a resistance to fat-induced over-consumption of food that may result at least in part from alterations in leptin expression and production.

  13. Association between friction and wear in diarthrodial joints lacking lubricin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Gregory D; Torres, Jahn R; Rhee, David K; Helminen, Heikki J; Hytinnen, Mika M; Cha, Chung-Ja; Elsaid, Khaled; Kim, Kyung-Suk; Cui, Yajun; Warman, Matthew L

    2007-01-01

    Objective The glycoprotein lubricin (encoded by the gene Prg4) is secreted by surface chondrocytes and synovial cells, and has been shown to reduce friction in vitro. In contrast to man-made bearings, mammalian diarthrodial joints must endogenously produce friction-reducing agents. This study was undertaken to investigate whether friction is associated with wear. Methods The lubricating ability of synovial fluid (SF) samples from humans with genetic lubricin deficiency was tested in vitro. The coefficient of friction in the knee joints of normal and lubricin-null mice was measured ex vivo; these joints were also studied by light and electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to image and measure how lubricin reduces friction in vitro. Results SF lacking lubricin failed to reduce friction in the boundary mode. Joints of lubricin-null mice showed early wear and higher friction than joints from their wild-type counterparts. Lubricin self-organized and reduced the work of adhesion between apposing asperities. Conclusion These data show that friction is coupled with wear at the cartilage surface in vivo. They imply that acquired lubricin degradation occurring in inflammatory joint diseases predisposes the cartilage to damage. Lastly, they suggest that lubricin, or similar biomolecules, will have applications in man-made devices in which reducing friction is essential. PMID:17968947

  14. Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.

  15. Vulnerability to schizophrenia and lack of common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, G

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the hypothesis that the relational deficit in schizophrenia is not a consequence of acute symptoms and course but instead is a fundamental aspect of schizophrenic vulnerability. This basic relational deficit could be better understood as disconnectedness from common sense. Common sense is a tool for adaptation whose main scope is establishing cause-and-effect and motivational relationships in the physical and social realms. The common sense deficit appears to involve a lack of intuitive attunement (impaired capacity to accurately typify the mental states of other persons because of the incapacity to be involved in their mental lives) and a damaged social knowledge network (disorders of the background of knowledge useful for organizing everyday experiences). Three dimensions of schizophrenic vulnerability can be distinguished: the sensory, conceptualization, and attitudinal dimensions. Sensory disorders are aberrations of self, body, and world perceptions. Conceptualization disorders are disturbances in the attribution of meanings and intentions. Attitudinal disorders consist of eccentricities in the individual's structure of values and beliefs, characterized by distrust toward conventional knowledge and attunement. This article describes the present state and possible future directions of qualitative analyses and empirical investigations relevant to assessing the interplay between vulnerability dimensions and disorders of common sense.

  16. New graduate nurses' experiences about lack of professional confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    Professional confidence is an essential trait for new graduate nurses to possess in order to provide quality patient care in today's complex hospital setting. However, many new graduates are entering the workforce without it and this remains to be explored. This study describes how new graduate nurses accounted for their lack of professional confidence upon entry into professional practice and how it developed during their first year of practice in the hospital setting. Two face-to-face, individual interviews of 12 participants were utilized to capture the lived experiences of new graduate nurses to gain an understanding of this phenomenon. After manual content analysis seven themes emerged: communication is huge, making mistakes, disconnect between school and practice, independence, relationship building, positive feedback is important, and gaining experience. The findings indicate that the development of professional confidence is a dynamic process that occurs throughout the first year of practice. New graduate nurses must experience both positive and negative circumstances in order to move toward the attainment of professional confidence. Knowing this, nurse educators in academia as well as in the hospital setting may better support the development of professional confidence both before and during the first year of practice.

  17. Lack of a Benign Interpretation Bias in Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nader; Prouvost, Caroline; Kuckertz, Jennie M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive models of social anxiety posit that recurrent interpretation of ambiguous information as threatening maintains symptoms (e.g. Clark & Wells, 1995, pp. 69–93, Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997, pp. 741–756, Behavior Research and Therapy, 35). However, biased interpretation may also be represented as a failure to make a benign interpretation of the ambiguous event. Furthermore, interpretation bias can be characterized by both an online (automatic) component and an offline (effortful) component (Hirsch & Clark, 2004, pp. 799–825, Clinical Psychology Review, 24). To measure both benign and threat biases, as well as examine the effect of social anxiety on offline versus online interpretations, Beard and Amir (2009, pp. 1135–1141, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46) developed the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP). In the current study, we administered the WSAP to a group of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) as well as to a group of non-anxious control (NAC) participants. We found that participants with SAD demonstrated a lack of benign online bias, but not an online threat bias when compared to NACs. However, when examining offline biases, SAD patients endorsed social threat interpretations and rejected benign social interpretations to a greater degree than non-anxious individuals. Our results, when taken together, clearly implicate the role of reduced bias toward benign information in SAD. PMID:22545788

  18. LACK OF AWARENESS ABOUT SAFE BLOOD IN PAKISTANI POPULATION

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    Muhammad Usman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is a life saving procedure in various transfusion-dependent life threatening conditions and donation of safe blood is a prerequisite for achieving this goal. This study was designed to evaluate the awareness regarding “safe blood” in Pakistani population. This study was conducted at a large scale through a population survey. The test population was divided into two groups i.e. general population and students. The Performa was designed for a general and student population and included 20 questions related to awareness of safe blood. A total of 4900 individuals belonging to different ethnic groups were included in this population survey. Results of social survey were analyzed by using Usman and Moin awareness chart. Results of this study revealed profound unawareness about safe blood in Pakistani population. This study found lack of awareness about safe blood as a major factor that is playing a vital role in the propagation of blood borne diseases in Pakistan. To secure the recipients from blood borne complications through blood donation, it is necessary to create effective awareness about safe blood in Pakistani population.

  19. Lack of Cholesterol Awareness among Physicians Who Smoke

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    Richard E. Scranton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette use is a known risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD as it adversely affects HDL cholesterol levels and promotes thrombogenesis. Smoking may also be associated with behavioral characteristics that potentiate the risk of CAD. A lack of cholesterol knowledge would indicate an aversion to a prevention-oriented lifestyle. Thus, our goal was to determine the association between tobacco use and knowledge of self-reported cholesterol among male physicians. Using the 1982 and follow-up questionnaires from the physician health study, we report the changes in the frequencies of awareness of self-reported total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors among the 22,067 participants. We classified physicians as being aware of their cholesterol if they reported a cholesterol level and unaware if the question was left unanswered. In 1997, 207 physicians were excluded, as the recorded cholesterol was not interpretable, leaving 21,860 for our follow up analyses. Using unadjusted logistic models, we determined the odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of not reporting a cholesterol level in either 1982 or 1997 for each specified risk factor. We then evaluated whether the lack of cholesterol awareness at both time points was associated with the use of tobacco throughout the study. After 14-years of follow up, cholesterol awareness increased from 35.9 to 58.6 percent. During this period, the frequency of hypertension and hyperlipidemia treatment increased (13.5 to 40.5% and 0.57% to 19.6% respectively, as did the diagnosis of diabetes (2.40 to 7.79%. Behavioral characteristics such as a sedentary lifestyle and obesity also increased (27.8 to 42% and 43.5 to 53.5%, respectively, however the proportion of current smokers deceased from 11.1 to 4.05%. The percentages of individuals being unaware of their cholesterol decreased in all risk factor groups. However, individuals were likely to be unaware of their cholesterol

  20. Lack of plasma kallikrein-kinin system cascade in teleosts.

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    Marty Kwok-Shing Wong

    Full Text Available The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS consists of two major cascades in mammals: "plasma KKS" consisting of high molecular-weight (HMW kininogen (KNG, plasma kallikrein (KLKB1, and bradykinin (BK; and "tissue KKS" consisting of low molecular-weight (LMW KNG, tissue kallikreins (KLKs, and [Lys(0]-BK. Some components of the KKS have been identified in the fishes, but systematic analyses have not been performed, thus this study aims to define the KKS components in teleosts and pave a way for future physiological and evolutionary studies. Through a combination of genomics, molecular, and biochemical methods, we showed that the entire plasma KKS cascade is absent in teleosts. Instead of two KNGs as found in mammals, a single molecular weight KNG was found in various teleosts, which is homologous to the mammalian LMW KNG. Results of molecular phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicated that the all current teleost genomes lack KLKB1, and its unique protein structure, four apple domains and one trypsin domain, could not be identified in any genome or nucleotide databases. We identified some KLK-like proteins in teleost genomes by synteny and conserved domain analyses, which could be the orthologs of tetrapod KLKs. A radioimmunoassay system was established to measure the teleost BK and we found that [Arg(0]-BK is the major circulating form instead of BK, which supports that the teleost KKS is similar to the mammalian tissue KKS. Coincidently, coelacanths are the earliest vertebrate that possess both HMW KNG and KLKB1, which implies that the plasma KKS could have evolved in the early lobe-finned fish and descended to the tetrapod lineage. The co-evolution of HMW KNG and KLKB1 in lobe-finned fish and early tetrapods may mark the emergence of the plasma KKS and a contact activation system in blood coagulation, while teleosts may have retained a single KKS cascade.

  1. Lack of conventional ATPase properties in CFTR chloride channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, B D; Bridges, R J; Frizzell, R A

    1996-05-01

    CFTR shares structural homology with the ABC transporter superfamily of proteins which hydrolyze ATP to effect the transport of compounds across cell membranes. Some superfamily members are characterized as P-type ATPases because ATP-dependent transport is sensitive to the presence of vanadate. It has been widely postulated that CFTR hydrolyzes ATP to gate its chloride channel. However, direct evidence of CFTR hydrolytic activity in channel gating is lacking and existing circumstantial evidence is contradictory. Therefore, we evaluated CFTR chloride channel activity under conditions known to inhibit the activity of ATPases; i.e., in the absence of divalent cations and in the presence of a variety of ATPase inhibitors. Removal of the cytosolic cofactor, Mg2+, reduced both the opening and closing rates of CFTR suggesting that Mg2+ plays a modulatory role in channel gating. However, channels continued to both open and close showing that Mg2+ is not an absolute requirement for channel activity. The nonselective P-type ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, did not alter the gating of CFTR when used at concentrations which completely inhibit the activity of other ABC transporters (1 mM). Higher concentrations of vanadate (10 mM) blocked the closing of CFTR, but did not affect the opening of the channel. As expected, more selective P-type (Sch28080, ouabain), V-type (bafilomycin A1, SCN-) and F-type (oligomycin) ATPase inhibitors did not affect either the opening or closing of CFTR. Thus, CFTR does not share a pharmacological inhibition profile with other ATPases and channel gating occurs in the apparent absence of hydrolysis, although with altered kinetics. Vanadate inhibition of channel closure might suggest that a hydrolytic step is involved although the requirement for a high concentration raises the possibility of previously uncharacterized effects of this compound. Most conservatively, the requirement for high concentrations of vanadate demonstrates that the binding site for

  2. Lack of association between postactivation potentiation and subsequent jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Stephen John; Hussain, Syed Robiul

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a strategy that has been used to acutely enhance the performance of explosive activities. Although, isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) have previously been shown to enhance subsequent explosive performance, no information currently exists regarding (1) the optimal variables (intensity/volume) of a MVC that best elicits a PAP response, and (2) the utilisation of evoked isometric twitch contractions in combination with performance measures to directly ascertain the presence of PAP following a MVC, and its relationship to performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (1) investigate the influence of isometric contraction duration on the PAP response, and (2) to determine the relationship between PAP, indicated as potentiation of muscle twitch force and subsequent jump performance following different-duration MVCs. Eight males (age: 21 ± 0.99) were assessed using performance measures [countermovement jumps] and evoked twitch contractions, before and 4 minutes after three different conditioning contractions (CCs), (1) a 3-second MVC (MVC3), (2) a 5-second MVC (MVC5) and (3) a 7-second MVC (MVC7). Following all CCs, peak twitch torque of the knee extensor muscles was found to increase (MVC3, + 3.9%; MVC5, + 9.6%; MVC7, + 5.2%), although not significantly (P > 0.05). No significant increases in jump height, jump power, rate of force development or takeoff velocity were observed following any of the CCs (P > 0.05). There was also a lack of association between the changes in PAP (twitch torque) and jump height following all CCs (MVC3, r = 0.25; MVC5, r = 0.28; MVC7, r = -0.47). These data indicate that PAP as assessed via twitch contractions is not associated with performance measures subsequent to single-set isometric CCs of varying durations.

  3. Lack of familial aggregation of Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gilberto; Louis, Elan D; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Côté, Lucien; Andrews, Howard; Harris, Juliette; Waters, Cheryl; Ford, Blair; Frucht, Steven; Fahn, Stanley; Ottman, Ruth; Marder, Karen

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) in first-degree relatives of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) compared with first-degree relatives of controls. Case-control study, family history method, and reconstructed cohort approach. Probands with PD without dementia and control probands, matched by age strata, sex, and ethnicity, were examined in person and enrolled without knowledge of family history of PD and other neurological disorders. Disease status in first-degree relatives of probands with PD and control probands was ascertained through a structured family history interview administered to the proband and a second informant (self-report or another informant). Cox proportional hazards models with double-censoring techniques for missing information on age of onset of AD were used to analyze the risk of AD in first-degree relatives of patients with PD compared with first-degree relatives of controls. Four hundred eighty-seven probands with PD and 409 control probands provided family history information on 4819 first-degree relatives older than 30 years (2534 relatives of probands with PD and 2285 relatives of control probands). One hundred thirteen first-degree relatives (2.3%; 61 relatives [2.4%] of patients with PD and 52 relatives [2.3%] of controls) were diagnosed with AD. The risk of AD was not increased in relatives of patients with PD compared with relatives of controls (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.6; P =.65). Similarly, no significantly increased risk of AD was observed when comparing relatives of patients with early-onset (50 years) PD with relatives of controls. The lack of familial aggregation of PD and AD does not support the hypothesis of major shared genetic contributions to the etiology of the 2 most common neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Mice Lacking Hbp1 Function Are Viable and Fertile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Dagmar; Jans, David A.; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Fetal germ cell development is tightly regulated by the somatic cell environment, and is characterised by cell cycle states that differ between XY and XX gonads. In the testis, gonocytes enter G1/G0 arrest from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) in mice and maintain cell cycle arrest until after birth. Failure to correctly maintain G1/G0 arrest can result in loss of germ cells or, conversely, germ cell tumours. High mobility group box containing transcription factor 1 (HBP1) is a transcription factor that was previously identified in fetal male germ cells at the time of embryonic cell cycle arrest. In somatic cells, HBP1 is classified as a tumour suppressor protein, known to regulate proliferation and senescence. We therefore investigated the possible role of HBP1 in the initiation and maintenance of fetal germ cell G1/G0 arrest using the mouse model. We identified two splice variants of Hbp1, both of which are expressed in XY and XX fetal gonads, but only one of which is localised to the nucleus in in vitro assays. To investigate Hbp1 loss of function, we used embryonic stem (ES) cells carrying a Genetrap mutation for Hbp1 to generate mice lacking Hbp1 function. We found that Hbp1-genetrap mouse mutant germ cells proliferated correctly throughout development, and adult males were viable and fertile. Multiple Hbp1-LacZ reporter mouse lines were generated, unexpectedly revealing Hbp1 embryonic expression in hair follicles, eye and limbs. Lastly, in a model of defective germ cell G1/G0 arrest, the Rb1-knockout model, we found no evidence for Hbp1 mis-regulation, suggesting that the reported RB1-HBP1 interaction is not critical in the germline, despite co-expression. PMID:28107452

  5. Implications of the lack of desiccation tolerance in recalcitrant seeds

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    Patricia eBerjak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A suite of interacting processes and mechanisms enables tolerance of desiccation and storage (conservation of orthodox seeds in the dry state. While this is a long-term option under optimised conditions, dry orthodox seeds are not immortal, with life spans having been characterised as short, intermediate and long. Factors facilitating desiccation tolerance are metabolic ‘switch-off’ and intracellular dedifferentiation. Recalcitrant seeds lack these mechanisms, contributing significantly to their desiccation sensitivity.Consequently, recalcitrant seeds, which are shed at high water contents, can be stored only in the short-term, under conditions not allowing dehydration. The periods of such hydrated storage are constrained by germination that occurs without the need for extraneous water, and the proliferation of seed-associated fungi. Cryopreservation is viewed as the only option for long-term conservation of the germplasm of recalcitrant-seeded species. This is not easily achieved, as each of the necessary procedures imposes oxidative damage. Intact recalcitrant seeds cannot be cryopreserved, the common practice being to use excised embryos or embryonic axes as explants. Dehydration is a necessary procedure prior to exposure to cryogenic temperatures, but this is associated with metabolism-linked injury mediated by uncontrolled ROS generation and failing anti-oxidant systems. While the extent to which this occurs can be curtailed by maximising drying rate (flash drying it cannot be completely obviated. Explant cooling for, and rewarming after, cryostorage must necessarily be rapid, to avoid ice crystallisation. The ramifications of desiccation sensitivity are discussed, as are problems involved in cryostorage, particularly those accompanying dehydration and damage consequent upon ice crystallisation. While desiccation sensitivity is a ‘fact’ of seed recalcitrance, resolutions of the difficulties involved germplasm conservation are

  6. Do some AGN lack X-ray emission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Thuan, T. X.; Izotov, Y. I.; Stern, D.; Harrison, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) are thought to be the seeds of early supermassive black holes (SMBHs). While ≳100 IMBH and small SMBH candidates have been identified in recent years, few have been robustly confirmed to date, leaving their number density in considerable doubt. Placing firmer constraints both on the methods used to identify and confirm IMBHs/SMBHs, as well as characterizing the range of host environments that IMBHs/SMBHs likely inhabit is therefore of considerable interest and importance. Additionally, finding significant numbers of IMBHs in metal-poor systems would be particularly intriguing, since such systems may represent local analogs of primordial galaxies, and therefore could provide clues of early accretion processes. Aims: Here we study in detail several candidate active galactic nuclei (AGN) found in metal-poor hosts. Methods: We utilize new X-ray and optical observations to characterize these metal-poor AGN candidates and compare them against known AGN luminosity relations and well-characterized IMBH/SMBH samples. Results: Despite having clear broad optical emission lines that are long-lived (≳10-13 yr), these candidate AGN appear to lack associated strong X-ray and hard UV emission, lying at least 1-2 dex off the known AGN correlations. If they are IMBHs/SMBHs, our constraints imply that they either are not actively accreting, their accretion disks are fully obscured along our line-of-sight, or their accretion disks are not producing characteristic high energy emission. Alternatively, if they are not AGN, then their luminous broad emission lines imply production by extreme stellar processes. The latter would have profound implications on the applicability of broad lines for mass estimates of massive black holes. The reduced spectra (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A64

  7. Educational and Cultural Regeneration of Modern Spain: Monarchical Reforms in Education and the Role of the Enlightenment Bishops at Eighteen Century Regeneración educativa y cultural de la España moderna: reformas monárquicas en educación y el papel de los obispos de la ilustración en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel POY CASTRO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 18th century the church of Spain gradually diminished its extensive powers of self-government, while remaining the monopoly of education. This period was marked by the monarchical revival and the alliance between church and State. The crown nominates diocesan bishops and the church of Spain is committed to the goal of a renewed and modern nation. The 18th century saw the rise of an enlightenment Bishops movement, with its emphasis on the recovery of the Spanish catholic tradition, and the renaissance of the educational and cultural institutions.En el siglo XVIII la iglesia de España disminuyó gradualmente sus extensos poderes de autogobierno, mientras mantenía el monopolio sobre la educación. Este periodo estuvo caracterizado por la recuperación monárquica y la alianza entre iglesia y estado. La corona nomina los obispos y la iglesia española es conminada al objetivo de una nación moderna y renovada. El siglo contempló el ascenso de un movimiento de Obispos de la ilustración, con un énfasis en la recuperación de la tradición católica española, y el renacimiento de las instituciones educativas y culturales.

  8. El sello real como conflicto: apropiación y mal uso de la imagen del monarca en la Audiencia y Chancillería de Santa Fe (The Royal Seal as a Conflict: Misappropriation and Bad Use of the Monarch´s Image at the Audience and Chancellery of Santa Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Cañete, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El importante papel que el sello real tenía, tanto como representante de la figura del monarca como para su uso de validación y garantía, queda perfectamente reflejado en aquellos momentos de la historia en los que se produjeron levantamientos o movimientos de revuelta contra la Corona por parte de los españoles afincados en el Nuevo Mundo. A través del análisis de diversos acontecimientos ocurridos durante el S. XVI en la Audiencia del Nuevo Reino de Granada quiero poner en valor el significado que el sello real tenía en estos territorios. La documentación localizada en el Archivo General de Indias, completada con crónicas de la época y una rica bibliografía me han ayudado a comprender y transmitir las sensaciones que en esta época provocaba la figura del sello real. Abstract: The important role that the royal seal had, as much as a representative of the monarch´s leading figure as for its validation and guarantee use, is perfectly reflected on those moments of the history when uprisings or riots against the Crown took place by the Spanish population of the New World. By means of the analysis of diverse events that took place during the XVI Century at the Audience of the New Kingdom of Granada I want to demonstrate the importance of the royal seal on those territories. The documents preserved in the Archivo General de Indias, completed with chronicles of the time and a rich bibliography have helped me to understand and transmit the feelings that rose at this time around the figure of the royal seal.

  9. Seasonal foraging ecology of non-migratory cougars in a system with migrating prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mark Elbroch

    Full Text Available We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus and moose (Alces alces than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1 elevation decreased, 2 distance to edge habitat decreased, 3 distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4 steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1 elevation decreased, 2 distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3 distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection.

  10. THE LEVELS OF VALUE IN BUSINESS VALUATION. THE DISCOUNT FOR LACK OF MARKETABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatmary Miclea Camelia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of levels of value used in business valuation and adjustments (discounts and prime that enable professional business valuers to relate these in order to determine the value of a business or ownerships interests in a business. Marketability and control over business decision have a profound impact on the value of an ownership interest. Valuators, regularly, reduce the value of an investment interest if it lacks a ready market. In this paper, I highlight the difference between the marketability and liquidity and, the differences between the the discount for lack of marketability and discount for lack of control. A discount for lack of marketability is closely associated with, but, conceptually, distinct from, the discount for lack of control. I present the characteristics of discount for lack of marketability and the rational of applying it in valuation of minority and majority interest.

  11. Reduced food access due to a lack of money, inability to lift and lack of access to a car for food shopping: a multilevel study in Melbourne, Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Cate; Bentley, Rebecca; Thornton, Lukar; Kavanagh, Anne

    2011-06-01

    To describe associations between demographic and individual and area-level socio-economic variables and restricted household food access due to lack of money, inability to lift groceries and lack of access to a car to do food shopping. Multilevel study of three measures of restricted food access, i.e. running out of money to buy food, inability to lift groceries and lack of access to a car for food shopping. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to examine the risk of each of these outcomes according to demographic and socio-economic variables. Random selection of households from fifty small areas in Melbourne, Australia, in 2003. The main food shoppers in each household (n 2564). A lack of money was significantly more likely among the young and in households with single adults. Difficulty lifting was more likely among the elderly and those born overseas. The youngest and highest age groups both reported reduced car access, as did those born overseas and single-adult households. All three factors were most likely among those with a lower individual or household socio-economic position. Increased levels of area disadvantage were independently associated with difficulty lifting and reduced car access. In Melbourne, households with lower individual socio-economic position and area disadvantage have restricted access to food because of a lack of money and/or having physical limitations due difficulty lifting or lack of access to a car for food shopping. Further research is required to explore the relationship between physical restrictions and food access.

  12. 45 CFR 690.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of... knowledge that subjects may be involved within the period of support, but definite plans would not normally... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite...

  13. 7 CFR 1c.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1c.118 Section 1c.118 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement...

  14. 38 CFR 16.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 16.118 Section 16.118 Pensions, Bonuses... and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications... knowledge that subjects may be involved within the period of support, but definite plans would not...

  15. 45 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Research Subjects § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  16. 10 CFR 745.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 745.118 Section 745.118 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human...

  17. 49 CFR 11.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 11.118 Section 11.118 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans...

  18. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 97.118 Section 97.118 Education Office of the Secretary, Department...

  19. Development of a lack of appetite item bank for computer-adaptive testing (CAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thamsborg, L.H.; Petersen, M.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Chie, W.C.; Costantini, A.; Holzner, B.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; Young, T.; Groenvold, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A significant proportion of oncological patients experiences lack of appetite. Precise measurement is relevant to improve the management of lack of appetite. The so-called computer-adaptive test (CAT) allows for adaptation of the questionnaire to the individual patient, thereby optimizing

  20. Lack of Research Amongst Undergraduate Medical Students in India: It's time to Act and Act Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Singh, Kamaljit

    2017-05-15

    Participation in research is important in producing doctors with an understanding of evidence-based medicine. Though a mandatory part in post-graduate medical course, research has largely been invisible from the under graduation medical course in India. Very few research opportunities are available at under graduate level. The reason behind this is lack of encouragement, lack of basic infrastructure, facilities and structured mentorship programs, no extra incentives to researchers and the long journey to get academic acclaim. Another additional aspect is of lack of writing skills for biomedical publication. Additional incentives to students as well faculty members are required to foster the research environment in India.

  1. Relation Between Lack of Forgiveness and Depression: The Moderating Effect of Self-Compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myung-Sun

    2016-12-01

    Although an association between lack of forgiveness and poor mental health is known, prior studies have reported mixed findings of the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms. In an attempt to explain the strength differences between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms, this study examined the moderating effect of self-compassion. A total of 311 Korean teachers (89 men, 222 women; M age = 39.3 year, SD = 9.1) were asked to complete self-report questionnaires, including the Korean versions of the Trait Forgivingness Scale, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Moderated multiple regression was used for analysis, and a buffering interaction of self-compassion was discovered. Specifically, self-compassion moderated the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depression; the relationship was stronger for those low on self-compassion.

  2. Lack of Pharmacy Access May Send Some Seniors Back to Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160255.html Lack of Pharmacy Access May Send Some Seniors Back to Hospital ... Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Limited access to pharmacies may be one reason hospital readmission is more ...

  3. Q&A. Does lack of product management impact the users of open source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Young

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Most commercial software companies employ product managers to handle the planning and marketing of software products, whereas few open source projects have a product manager. Does lack of product management impact the users of open source?

  4. Isolation of a Rhodobacter capsulatus mutant that lacks c-type cytochromes and excretes porphyrins.

    OpenAIRE

    Biel, S W; Biel, A J

    1990-01-01

    A Rhodobacter capsulatus mutant lacking cytochrome oxidase activity was isolated by Tn5 mutagenesis. Difference spectroscopy of crude extracts and extracted c-type cytochromes demonstrated that this mutant completely lacked all c-type cytochromes. The strain did, however, synthesize normal amounts of b-type cytochromes and nonheme iron. This mutant also excreted large amounts of coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin and synthesized reduced amounts of bacteriochlorophyll, suggesting a link between...

  5. Economic stress and lack of internal health locus of control: a life course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2014-02-01

    To investigate associations between economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and lack of internal health locus of control (HLC), testing the accumulation and critical period life course hypotheses. A cross-sectional public health (postal) survey was conducted in Skåne in 2008, based on a random sample with 28,198 participants in the age interval 18-80 years, with 55% participation. Logistic regressions analyzed associations between childhood and current economic stress, and lack of internal HLC. A 33.7% prevalence of men and 31.8% of women lack internal HLC, which was significantly associated with the covariates included. The accumulation hypothesis was partly supported because combined childhood and adulthood economic stress exposures were significantly associated with lack of internal HLC in a graded manner. The critical period hypothesis was not supported since the association between economic stress in childhood and lack of internal HLC was partly significant in the final model, and the association with adult (current) economic stress was also significant. The accumulation hypothesis was partly supported. The critical period hypothesis was not supported since both childhood and current economic stress experience were significantly associated with lack of internal HLC. Economic conditions in childhood as well as adulthood are plausibly of relevance for HLC.

  6. LACK-OF-FIT TESTING FOR LINEAR ERRORS-IN-VARIABLES MODEL%线性测量误差模型的lack-of-fit检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋卫星; 崔恒建

    2002-01-01

    基于正态假设,提出了测量误差模型lack-of-fit检验的一种方法.在原假设下,检验统计量渐近服从χ2分布. 还就该检验的势函数与权函数的选择进行了讨论,同时与文献中相关的方法进行了比较.

  7. Increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein concentrations in mice lacking brain serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Golo; Mosienko, Valentina; Gertz, Karen; Alenina, Natalia; Hellweg, Rainer; Klempin, Friederike

    2016-04-01

    The interplay between BDNF signaling and the serotonergic system remains incompletely understood. Using a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we studied BDNF concentrations in hippocampus and cortex of two mouse models of altered serotonin signaling: tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph)2-deficient (Tph2 (-/-)) mice lacking brain serotonin and serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient (SERT(-/-)) mice lacking serotonin re-uptake. Surprisingly, hippocampal BDNF was significantly elevated in Tph2 (-/-) mice, whereas no significant changes were observed in SERT(-/-) mice. Furthermore, BDNF levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex of Tph2 (-/-) but not of SERT(-/-) mice. Our results emphasize the interaction between serotonin signaling and BDNF. Complete lack of brain serotonin induces BDNF expression.

  8. Development of a lack of appetite item bank for computer-adaptive testing (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Lise Laurberg Holst; Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K

    2015-01-01

    measurement precision. The EORTC Quality of Life Group is developing a CAT version of the widely used EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Here, we report on the development of the lack of appetite CAT. METHODS: The EORTC approach to CAT development comprises four phases: literature search, operationalization, pre......-testing, and field testing. Phases 1-3 are described in this paper. First, a list of items was retrieved from the literature. This was refined, deleting redundant and irrelevant items. Next, new items fitting the "QLQ-C30 item style" were created. These were evaluated by international samples of experts and cancer...... to 12 lack of appetite items. CONCLUSIONS: Phases 1-3 resulted in 12 lack of appetite candidate items. Based on a field testing (phase 4), the psychometric characteristics of the items will be assessed and the final item bank will be generated. This CAT item bank is expected to provide precise...

  9. Analysis of the lack of scientific and technological talents of high-level women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2017-08-01

    The growth and development of high-level female scientific and technological talents has become a global problem, facing severe challenges. The lack of high-level women in science and technology has become a global problem. How to recruit and help female scientists and technological talents grow raises awareness from the industry. To find out the main reasons for the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talent. This paper analyses the impact of gender discrimination on the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talents, the impact of disciplinary differences on female roles. The main reasons are: women’s natural disadvantage of mathematical thinking; female birth, the traditional culture on the role of women and the impact of values.

  10. Lack of Neuronal IFN-β-IFNAR Causes Lewy Body- and Parkinson's Disease-like Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Patrick; Hultberg, Jeanette Göransdotter; Wang, JunYang;

    2015-01-01

    -causing mutant proteins. Mice lacking Ifnb function exhibited motor and cognitive learning impairments with accompanying α-synuclein-containing Lewy bodies in the brain, as well as a reduction in dopaminergic neurons and defective dopamine signaling in the nigrostriatal region. Lack of IFN-β signaling caused...... neuron loss in a familial Parkinson's disease model. These results indicate a protective role for IFN-β in neuronal homeostasis and validate Ifnb mutant mice as a model for sporadic Lewy body and Parkinson's disease dementia.......Neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to inflammation, but whether altered immunomodulation plays a causative role in neurodegeneration is not clear. We show that lack of cytokine interferon-β (IFN-β) signaling causes spontaneous neurodegeneration in the absence of neurodegenerative disease...

  11. The physiological role of mitochondrial calcium revealed by mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin; Liu, Jie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Chengyu; Sun, Junhui; Teng, Yanjie; Fergusson, Maria M; Rovira, Ilsa I; Allen, Michele; Springer, Danielle A; Aponte, Angel M; Gucek, Marjan; Balaban, Robert S; Murphy, Elizabeth; Finkel, Toren

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial calcium has been postulated to regulate a wide range of processes from bioenergetics to cell death. Here, we characterize a mouse model that lacks expression of the recently discovered mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Mitochondria derived from MCU(-/-) mice have no apparent capacity to rapidly uptake calcium. Whereas basal metabolism seems unaffected, the skeletal muscle of MCU(-/-) mice exhibited alterations in the phosphorylation and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, MCU(-/-) mice exhibited marked impairment in their ability to perform strenuous work. We further show that mitochondria from MCU(-/-) mice lacked evidence for calcium-induced permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The lack of PTP opening does not seem to protect MCU(-/-) cells and tissues from cell death, although MCU(-/-) hearts fail to respond to the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A. Taken together, these results clarify how acute alterations in mitochondrial matrix calcium can regulate mammalian physiology.

  12. Competency to stand trial and defendants who lack insight into their mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Andrew D; Piel, Jennifer; Makey, Miller

    2013-01-01

    Forensic evaluators often assess patients who lack insight into their mental illnesses. This lack of insight can have a significant impact on the defendant's ability to make legal strategy decisions that rely on their acceptance of their mental illness. In this article, the relationship between refusing an insanity plea and competency to stand trial will be explored in the context of defendants who lack insight into their mental illness. The authors argue that an adequate competency assessment should take into account the defendant's ability to consider his available pleas rationally. Such evaluations may have the effect of negating the necessity of a Frendak inquiry in those jurisdictions that can impose the insanity defense on defendants.

  13. Defective tubulin organization and proplatelet formation in murine megakaryocytes lacking Rac1 and Cdc42

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleines, Irina; Dütting, Sebastian; Cherpokova, Deya;

    2013-01-01

    normally in vivo but displayed highly abnormal morphology and uncontrolled fragmentation. Consistently, a lack of Rac1/Cdc42 virtually abrogated proplatelet formation in vitro. Strikingly, this phenotype was associated with severely defective tubulin organization, whereas actin assembly and structure were...

  14. 22 CFR 225.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 225.118 Section 225.118 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants,...

  15. 15 CFR 27.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 27.118 Section 27.118 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants,...

  16. 28 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants,...

  17. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for...

  18. 32 CFR 219.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 219.118 Section 219.118 National Defense Department of Defense....118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types... agencies with the knowledge that subjects may be involved within the period of support, but definite...

  19. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient

  20. Influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, and lack of physical activity on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; Tuinstra, J.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of project "lnequality in health In adolescents", the influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, lack of physical activity. and their cumulative influence on health was Investigated in the sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, average age 15 years)

  1. Lack of diffuseness in wave propagation in lightweight joist-floors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Chung, Hyuck

    2007-01-01

    . The structures under consideration are rib-reinforced plate structures. These may be a lightweight floor/joist structure in a building or hull of a ship. The diffuseness or rather the lack of diffuseness, in such 'ribbed-plate' structures is examined. The amount of power transported at an angle is calculated...... by means of the structural intensity in that direction...

  2. Mutant Mice Lacking the p53 C-Terminal Domain Model Telomere Syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simeonova, I.; Jaber, S.; Draskovic, I.; Bardot, B.; Fang, M.; Bouarich-Bourimi, R.; Lejour, V.; Charbonnier, L.; Soudais, C.; Bourdon, J.C.; Huerre, M.; Londono-Vallejo, A.; Toledo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in p53, although frequent in human cancers, have not been implicated in telomere-related syndromes. Here, we show that homozygous mutant mice expressing p53(Delta31), a p53 lacking the C-terminal domain, exhibit increased p53 activity and suffer from aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis,

  3. 17 CFR 14.8 - Lack of requisite qualifications, character and integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... qualifications, character and integrity. 14.8 Section 14.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... requisite qualifications, character and integrity. In addition to those matters specifically referred to in... represent others; or (b) To be lacking in character or integrity; or (c) To have engaged in unethical or...

  4. Tools to Assess Pain or Lack of Comfort in Dementia: A Content Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, J.T. van der; Sampson, E.L.; Block, L. Van den; Lord, K.; Vankova, H.; Pautex, S.; Vandervoort, A.; Radbruch, L.; Shvartzman, P.; Sacchi, V.; Vet, H.C. de; Noortgate, N.J. Van Den

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: There is need for tools to help detect pain or lack of comfort in persons unable to communicate. However, pain and (dis)comfort tools have not been compared, and it is unclear to what extent they discriminate between pain and other possible sources of discomfort, or even if items differ. OB

  5. Regulation of Amidase Formation in Mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO Lacking Glutamine Synthetase Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Herst, Patricia M.; Joosten, Han M.L.J.; Drift, Chris van der

    1982-01-01

    The formation of amidase was studied in mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO lacking glutamine synthetase activity. It appeared that catabolite repression of amidase synthesis by succinate was partially relieved when cellular growth was limited by glutamine. Under these conditions, a correlation

  6. Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 167056.html Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing Areas with lowest rates are in Africa, research ... that they do without, a new study finds. Hand-washing with soap can help prevent the spread of diseases, especially ...

  7. Cyanobacterial contribution to the genomes of the plastid-lacking protists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuzaki Motomichi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic genes with cyanobacterial ancestry in plastid-lacking protists have been regarded as important evolutionary markers implicating the presence of plastids in the early evolution of eukaryotes. Although recent genomic surveys demonstrated the presence of cyanobacterial and algal ancestry genes in the genomes of plastid-lacking protists, comparative analyses on the origin and distribution of those genes are still limited. Results We identified 12 gene families with cyanobacterial ancestry in the genomes of a taxonomically wide range of plastid-lacking eukaryotes (Phytophthora [Chromalveolata], Naegleria [Excavata], Dictyostelium [Amoebozoa], Saccharomyces and Monosiga [Opisthokonta] using a novel phylogenetic pipeline. The eukaryotic gene clades with cyanobacterial ancestry were mostly composed of genes from bikonts (Archaeplastida, Chromalveolata, Rhizaria and Excavata. We failed to find genes with cyanobacterial ancestry in Saccharomyces and Dictyostelium, except for a photorespiratory enzyme conserved among fungi. Meanwhile, we found several Monosiga genes with cyanobacterial ancestry, which were unrelated to other Opisthokonta genes. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that a considerable number of genes with cyanobacterial ancestry have contributed to the genome composition of the plastid-lacking protists, especially bikonts. The origins of those genes might be due to lateral gene transfer events, or an ancient primary or secondary endosymbiosis before the diversification of bikonts. Our data also show that all genes identified in this study constitute multi-gene families with punctate distribution among eukaryotes, suggesting that the transferred genes could have survived through rounds of gene family expansion and differential reduction.

  8. Private Pre-University Education in Romania: Mixing Control with Lack of Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanus, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper approaches private provision of pre-university education in Romania, exploring available data on the sector's size and main characteristics and evaluating the extent to which the current regulatory framework enables positive effects in terms of freedom of choice, quality, equity, and social cohesion. The paper argues that the lack of a…

  9. Mind Maps to Modify Lack of Attention among Saudi Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghistan, Bulquees Ismail Abdul Majid

    2016-01-01

    This research study aims at investigating the impact of Mind Maps on modifying the lack of attention in Arabic language class among Saudi Kindergarten children. To achieve the goals of this study the researcher used an experimental design with a random sample from AlRae'd Kindergarten's children in Riyadh -Saudi Arabia for the academic year…

  10. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  11. Lack of credibility in food markets - driving medium quality food out of the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg

    Some food markets are dominated by high quality and standard quality segments, whereas me-dium quality products are almost absent. A modeling framework with asymmetric information regard-ing true quality of the products and the resulting lack of consumer confidence is presented. Uncer...

  12. [Psychosocial functioning in non-psychiatric acute and chronic inpatients: depression, alexithymia and lack of assertiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Marcelo; Behar, Rosa; Marín, Sofía; Inzunza, Nicolás; Madrid, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Depression, alexithymia, and lack of assertiveness interfere with individual psychosocial functioning and may result in longer hospitalization stay and poorer therapeutic results. To analyze the psychosocial functioning in acute and chronic patients and its association with psychological, clinical and sociodemographic variables. We performed a cross-sectional study that included 80 inpatients of both sexes with organic pathology, aged between 18 to 70 years old, without any current psychiatric disorder. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected from a semi-structured interview and hospital records. Beck Depression Inventory-IA, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and Rathus Assertiveness Scale were administered. Fifty five percent of patients had some degree of depression, 33% alexithymia and 34% lack of assertiveness. The levels of depression, alexithymia and lack of assertiveness in chronic patients were significantly higher than those observed in acute patients. Women and participants older than 60 years exhibited the highest degrees of depression. Alexithymia and lack of assertiveness were associated with a lower educational level. A negative significant correlation between alexithymia and assertiveness scores was observed among acute patients. Participants with chronic diseases had a lower psychosocial functioning. Less educated patients showed more alexithymic and less assertive features. We emphasized the need of a better management of these aspects by the health team, since social functioning might interfere with the outcome of physical illnesses.

  13. Relation of Neuroticism and Negative Career Thoughts and Feelings to Lack of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kevin R.; Shin, Yun-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of chronic career indecision with multivariate modeling. We examined the effects of neuroticism and negative career thoughts and feelings on lack of information, which is one of the core elements of chronic career indecision. The sample included 310 first-semester students who had entered…

  14. Some remarks on the effects of drugs, lack of sleep and loud noise on human performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, A.F. & A.A. Bunt.

    1971-01-01

    Some literature is reviewed on the effect of some drugs, (amphetamine, hypnotics, alcohol), loud noise and sleep loss in test of time estimation, decision making, long term performance and short term memory. Results are most clear with respect to amphetamine, hypnotics and lack of sleep, in that amp

  15. Regulation of Amidase Formation in Mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO Lacking Glutamine Synthetase Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Herst, Patricia M.; Joosten, Han M.L.J.; Drift, Chris van der

    1982-01-01

    The formation of amidase was studied in mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO lacking glutamine synthetase activity. It appeared that catabolite repression of amidase synthesis by succinate was partially relieved when cellular growth was limited by glutamine. Under these conditions, a correlation

  16. Some remarks on the effects of drugs, lack of sleep and loud noise on human performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, A.F. & A.A. Bunt.

    1971-01-01

    Some literature is reviewed on the effect of some drugs, (amphetamine, hypnotics, alcohol), loud noise and sleep loss in test of time estimation, decision making, long term performance and short term memory. Results are most clear with respect to amphetamine, hypnotics and lack of sleep, in that

  17. Stabilization of oral anticoagulant therapy in hospitalized patients and characteristics associated with lack of stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bemt, PMLA; Joosten, P; Risselada, A; van den Boogaart, MHA; Egberts, ACG; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2000-01-01

    The initiation and stabilization of oral anticoagulant therapy in hospitalized patients in a setting without specialized medical or pharmaceutical advice, was studied. In addition, potential risk factors for lack of stabilization were studied. All patients from three wards (orthopaedic surgery, gene

  18. The Lack of Political Cartoons in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Jim

    Political cartoons do not appear in the government-controlled press in the People's Republic of China. The cartoons that do appear in newspapers are good-natured and lacking in any type of political message. Chinese civilization has a 5,000-year history that is grounded in feudalism and must be considered in any analysis of Chinese society. Since…

  19. Do semantic standards lack quality? : a survey among 34 semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin; Oude Luttighuis, Paul; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of standards to improve interoperability in the automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding and other sectors could save billions. While interoperability standards have been created for a number of industries, problems persist, suggesting a lack of quality of the standards themselves. The issue

  20. Do semantic standards lack quality? A survey among 34 semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of standards to improve interoperability in the automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding and other sectors could save billions. While interoperability standards have been created for a number of industries, problems persist, suggesting a lack of quality of the standards themselves. The issue

  1. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  2. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient rel

  3. Lack of Dietary Sources of Iodine and the Prevalence of Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of Dietary Sources of Iodine and the Prevalence of Iodine Deficiency in Rural Women ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... to assess urinary iodine concentration (UIC), goiter and dietary intake of iodine in a sample of ... Hence, there is a need to supply iodized salt in order to achieve the goal of ...

  4. Non-Native Student's Communication Is Affected Due to the Lack of Pragmatic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, V. G.; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at focusing how the lack of pragmatic competence affects student's communication in L2 (Second language) at tertiary level. The city based Indian students learn English which is their second language from 3 years onwards whereas the rural based students learn English only from 6 years onwards. This exposure of the L2 shows the…

  5. Special Deliveries: Certified Nurse-Midwifery Programs Lacking in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzosa, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    With Boston serving as a hub of both educational and medical excellence, it's no wonder that New England has a high reputation to uphold in both of these areas. However, Boston and the rest of the region lack a specific degree program that is putting New England below the radars of potential midwives. Certified nurse-midwifery is a popular field…

  6. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    . This suggests a reversible defect in GH release, rather than a persistent preexisting disorder. It is hypothesized that enhanced bioavailability of IGF-I, acting in concert with elevated proinsulin and insulin levels, may account for the lack of stimulation of 24-hr GH release by the hypocaloric diet in obese...... and perpetuate the obese state....

  7. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from extinct and extant rhinoceroses reveals lack of phylogenetic resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, Tom; Binladen, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    genes is highly diffuse, with mixed topological support from different genes. Furthermore, the choice of outgroup (horse vs tapir) has considerable effect on reconstruction of the phylogeny. The lack of resolution is suggestive of a hard polytomy at the base of crown-group Rhinocerotidae...

  8. Who Lacks Support and Why? An Examination of Mothers' Personal Safety Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harknett, Kristen S.; Hartnett, Caroline Sten

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 12,140 person-waves) to identify characteristics associated with mothers' having or lacking "personal safety net" support from family and friends. We focus on characteristics that are likely to increase the importance of having support available but may also interfere with the…

  9. Standard Operating Procedures, MCSP Monarch and Plant Monitoring, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains the six Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the initial survey instructions (ISI) developed and followed for surveys conducted as part of the...

  10. Paul Downes. Democracy, Revolution and Monarchism in Early American Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Martin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur, Associate Professor, Department of English, University of Toronto, part implicitement d’une évidence : pour l’ensemble hétérogène des colonies américaines rebelles, le lien à la Couronne est le seul commun dénominateur, et le trajet le plus court de Charleston à Boston passe par Londres…D’où, pour un tiers environ de la population — les Loyalistes— une fidèlité à la monarchie poussée parfois jusqu’à l’exil volontaire ; mais pour les Indépendantistes, nolentes volentes, des référence...

  11. monarchical monstrosity in postcolonial literature: a reading of femi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    as characterized by dictatorship, despotism, tyranny and corruption. The paper ... Governance in post-independent African countries is characterized, albeit ...... regimes. Moreover, Osofisan addresses the issue of the corporate existence of.

  12. Lacking Community Out-Reach of Chinese Mining Investors in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Jesper Willaing

    2016-01-01

    Lacking Community Out-Reach of Chinese Mining Investors in the Arctic Despite China’s bad reputation as a mining investor, in a context of dramatically falling mineral prices, Chinese investments seem to be needed in order to realize most new mining projects across the globe. In Greenland...... and Arctic Canada, potential Chinese investors have been met with even more suspicion than elsewhere. National governments are worried about what state owned Chinese investors will mean for their control over national resources while local governments and the public fear what Chinese investors will mean...... for labour conditions and local environment. They fear a lack of social corporate responsibility (CSR) from Chinese investors. This paper assumes that the possible interest in Arctic mineral resources by the Chinese state combined with a strong demand from Greenland and Canada would make the Arctic a most...

  13. NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity is impaired in mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that lack aconitase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A; Rodríguez, L; Olivera, H; Soberón, M

    1985-10-01

    A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking aconitase did not grow on minimal medium (MM) and had five- to tenfold less NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity than the wild-type, although its glutamine synthetase (GS) activity was still inducible. When this mutant was incubated with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source, the 2-oxoglutarate content rose, and the NADP+-dependent GDH activity increased. Furthermore, carbon-limited cultures showed a direct relation between NADP+-dependent GDH activity and the intracellular 2-oxoglutarate content. We propose that the low NADP+-dependent GDH activity found in the mutant was due to the lack of 2-oxoglutarate or some other intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  14. Deregulated MAPK activity prevents adipocyte differentiation of fibroblasts lacking the retinoblastoma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Petersen, Rasmus K; Jørgensen, Claus;

    2002-01-01

    A functional retinoblastoma protein (pRB) is required for adipose conversion of preadipocyte cell lines and primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) in response to treatment with standard adipogenic inducers. Interestingly, lack of functional pRB in MEFs was recently linked to elevated Ras activity....../Akt are significantly increased in pRB-deficient MEFs both before and after the addition of adipogenic inducers. Consistently, we detected higher levels of activated Ras in MEFs lacking pRB. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation by the MEK inhibitor UO126 restored the ability of pRB-deficient MEFs to undergo adipocyte...... differentiation, as manifested by expression of adipocyte marker genes and lipid accumulation. Furthermore and reflecting the elevated levels of activated PKB/Akt in the pRB-deficient MEFs, differentiation proceeded in an insulin-independent manner. In conclusion, we suggest that pRB plays a pivotal role...

  15. Meiosis I in Xenopus oocytes is not error-prone despite lacking spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Shao, Hua; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, X Johné

    2014-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint, SAC, is a surveillance mechanism to control the onset of anaphase during cell division. SAC prevents anaphase initiation until all chromosome pairs have achieved bipolar attachment and aligned at the metaphase plate of the spindle. In doing so, SAC is thought to be the key mechanism to prevent chromosome nondisjunction in mitosis and meiosis. We have recently demonstrated that Xenopus oocyte meiosis lacks SAC control. This prompted the question of whether Xenopus oocyte meiosis is particularly error-prone. In this study, we have karyotyped a total of 313 Xenopus eggs following in vitro oocyte maturation. We found no hyperploid egg, out of 204 metaphase II eggs with countable chromosome spreads. Therefore, chromosome nondisjunction is very rare during Xenopus oocyte meiosis I, despite the lack of SAC.

  16. Development of speech services for people with cleft palate in Thailand: lack of professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathanee, Benjamas

    2012-11-01

    Cleft lip/palate is one of the most common birth defects and has a high incidence in Thailand. Most children with cleft still have social stigma from speech and language defects after surgical treatment. Speech and language therapies are required at an early age and require long-term care until teenager or adult. Unfortunately, there are insufficient speech services for cleft because of a lack of qualified speech and language pathologists in Thailand. Development consisted of two remedy modalities of bottom-up and top-down models, Community-Based Speech Therapy Model for people with Cleft Lip Cleft Palate including networking and standard assessments of both subjective and objective measurements. That might be the best and most suitable way to solve problems of lacking speech services in Thailand or developing countries which have similar contexts.

  17. Activating Ras mutations fail to ensure efficient replication of adenovirus mutants lacking VA-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schümann, Michael; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Adenoviruses lacking their PKR-antagonizing VA RNAs replicate poorly in primary cells. It has been suggested that these virus recombinants still replicate efficiently in tumor cells with Ras mutations and might therefore be useful in tumor therapy. The ability of interferon-sensitive viruses...... to grow in Ras-mutant tumor cells is generally ascribed to a postulated inhibitory effect of mutant Ras on PKR. We have constructed a set of isogenic adenoviruses that lack either or both VA RNA species, and tested virus replication in a variety of cell species with different Ras status. In tendency, VA...... mutational status, upon infection with VA-less adenoviruses in the presence of interferon, but also upon addition of the PKR activator polyIC to cells. When comparing two isogenic cell lines that differ solely with regard to the presence or absence of mutant Ras, no difference was observed concerning...

  18. The Effects of Lack of Joint Goal Planning on Divorce over 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Judith; Almeida, David M; Martire, Lynn M

    Given the negative consequences of divorce on health and well-being, it is important to try to identify its predictors. In the current study we used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development (N = 2801) to examine the longitudinal effects of lack of joint goal planning with a romantic relationship partner on divorce over a 10-year period. Multilevel regression analyses showed that lack of joint planning with the relationship partner was associated with a 19% increase in the odds of divorce, even when controlling for various demographic (i.e., age, gender, relationship length, number of children in the household), individual (i.e., neuroticism, positive affect, negative affect, physical symptoms, planning), and relationship (i.e., marital empathy, partner strain, partner disagreement, marital satisfaction, commitment). These results demonstrate the importance of considering one's partner when making decisions and plans for the future, given that it has clear implications for relationship dissolution.

  19. Nonclinical challenges of Indian dermatology - cities vs. villages, poverty, and lack of awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shyam

    2007-10-01

    As India shines in its enviable achievements, one after the other in rapid succession, it also invites criticism from visitors for what they witness. It is imperative to delve deeper to fathom the realities of the predominantly rural India with its poverty and lack of awareness which are stumbling blocks and are major pitfalls in the practice of dermatology. The urban-rural divide, the phenomenon of migration, poverty, lack of awareness all affect practice of dermatology in this country. These are battles that have no ready answers. However a deeper understanding of the ground reality is a worthwhile exercise for the increasing tribe of international dermatologists who like to explore "cross cultural dermatology".

  20. Migrant Workers' Lack of Cultural Rights and Interests and Government Safeguard Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiang; Yin, Huan-ju; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the status quo of migrant workers' lack of cultural rights and interests as follows: the holistic cultural life of migrant workers is scant and monotonous; the cultural facilities prodded by the majority of enterprises are critically short; the cultural life of migrant workers has the characteristic of closeness to some extent; the holistic cultural consuming capacity of migrant workers is very low, and they are not satisfied with their own cultural life. this paper puts f...

  1. Mice lacking functional STAT1 are highly susceptible to lethal infection with Lassa virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Seregin, Alexey V; Walker, David H; Popov, Vsevolod L; Walker, Aida G; Smith, Jeanon N; Miller, Milagros; de la Torre, Juan C; Smith, Jennifer K; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Fair, Joseph N; Wauquier, Nadia; Grant, Donald S; Bockarie, Bayon; Bente, Dennis; Paessler, Slobodan

    2013-10-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a potentially lethal human disease that is caused by the arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV). Annually, around 300,000 infections with up to 10,000 deaths occur in regions of Lassa fever endemicity in West Africa. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking a functional STAT1 pathway are highly susceptible to infection with LASV and develop lethal disease with pathology similar to that reported in humans.

  2. Deriving mechanisms responsible for the lack of correlation between hypoxia and acidity in solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Molavian

    Full Text Available Hypoxia and acidity are two main microenvironmental factors intimately associated with solid tumors and play critical roles in tumor growth and metastasis. The experimental results of Helmlinger and colleagues (Nature Medicine 3, 177, 1997 provide evidence of a lack of correlation between these factors on the micrometer scale in vivo and further show that the distribution of pH and pO(2 are heterogeneous. Here, using computational simulations, grounded in these experimental results, we show that the lack of correlation between pH and pO(2 and the heterogeneity in their shapes are related to the heterogeneous concentration of buffers and oxygen in the blood vessels, further amplified by the network of blood vessels and the cell metabolism. We also demonstrate that, although the judicious administration of anti-angiogenesis agents (normalization process in tumors may lead to recovery of the correlation between hypoxia and acidity, it may not normalize the pH throughout the whole tumor. However, an increase in the buffering capacity inside the blood vessels does appear to increase the extracellular pH throughout the whole tumor. Based on these results, we propose that the application of anti-angiogenic agents and at the same time increasing the buffering capacity of the tumor extracellular environment may be the most efficient way of normalizing the tumor microenvironment. As a by-product of our simulation we show that the recently observed lack of correlation between glucose consumption and hypoxia in cells which rely on respiration is related to the inhomogeneous consumption of glucose to oxygen concentration. We also demonstrate that this lack of correlation in cells which rely on glycolysis could be related to the heterogeneous concentration of oxygen inside the blood vessels.

  3. Synergistic Impairment of Glucose Homeostasis in ob/ob Mice Lacking Functional Serotonin 2C Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Jennifer M.; Juneja, Punita; Mackay, Adrienne W.; Graham, James; Havel, Peter J.; Tecott, Laurence H.; Goulding, Evan H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate how serotonin and leptin interact in the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis, we generated a genetic mouse model, the OB2C mouse, which lacks functional serotonin 2C receptors and the adipocyte hormone leptin. The OB2C mice exhibited a dramatic diabetes phenotype, evidenced by a synergistic increase in serum glucose levels and water intake. The severity of the animals’ diabetes phenotype would not have been predicted from the phenotypic characterization of mice...

  4. Muscle Regeneration and Myogenic Differentiation Defects in Mice Lacking TIS7

    OpenAIRE

    Vadivelu, Santhosh K.; Kurzbauer, Robert; Dieplinger, Benjamin; ZWEYER, MARGIT; Schafer, Ralf; Wernig, Anton; Vietor, Ilja; Huber, Lukas A.

    2004-01-01

    The tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-induced sequence 7 gene (tis7) is regulated during cell fate processes and functions as a transcriptional coregulator. Here, we describe the generation and analysis of mice lacking the tis7 gene. Surprisingly, TIS7 knockout mice show no gross histological abnormalities and are fertile. Disruption of the tis7 gene by homologous recombination delayed muscle regeneration and altered the isometric contractile properties of skeletal muscles after muscle crush dama...

  5. Financial Services for the Poor: Lack of Personal Identification Documents Impedes Access

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Jentzsch

    2009-01-01

    Without a birth certificate, no identity card can be issued and without identity card, there is no access to formal financial services. This link seems to be trivial in industrialized countries, where the ability of the individual to participate in economic life is rarely hindered by a lack of identification. In many developing countries, however, access to financial services is often denied, because potential customers cannot be identified based upon official identity documents-a basic due d...

  6. Genomic Features of Environmental and Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates Lacking Recognized Virulence Factors Are Dissimilar

    OpenAIRE

    Ronholm, J.; Petronella, N.; Chew Leung, C.; Pightling, A. W.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a bacterial pathogen that can cause illness after the consumption or handling of contaminated seafood. The primary virulence factors associated with V. parahaemolyticus illness are thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and Tdh-related hemolysin (TRH). However, clinical strains lacking tdh and trh have recently been isolated, and these clinical isolates are poorly understood. To help understand the emergence of clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates, a genomic approac...

  7. Patient reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical trials: is 'in-trial' guidance lacking? a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Kyte, DG; Draper, H; Ives, J.; Liles, C; Gheorghe, A.; Calvert, M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly assessed in clinical trials, and guidelines are available to inform the design and reporting of such trials. However, researchers involved in PRO data collection report that specific guidance on 'in-trial' activity (recruitment, data collection and data inputting) and the management of 'concerning' PRO data (i.e., data which raises concern for the well-being of the trial participant) appears to be lacking. The purpose of this revie...

  8. B cell development in mice that lack one or both immunoglobulin kappa light chain genes.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Chen(Florida State University, Tallahassee, U.S.A.); Trounstine, M; Kurahara, C.; Young, F.; Kuo, C C; Y. Xu; Loring, J.F.; Alt, F W; Huszar, D

    1993-01-01

    We have generated mice that lack the ability to produce immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light chains by targeted deletion of J kappa and C kappa gene segments and the intervening sequences in mouse embryonic stem cells. In wild type mice, approximately 95% of B cells express kappa light chains and only approximately 5% express lambda light chains. Mice heterozygous for the J kappa C kappa deletion have approximately 2-fold more lambda+ B cells than wild-type littermates. Compared with normal mice, ...

  9. Chemical composition of saccular endolymph and otolith in fish inner ear: lack of spatial uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, P; Edeyer, A; de Pontual, H; Borelli, G; Boeuf, G; Mayer-Gostan, N

    1999-07-01

    Fish otoliths provide a record of age, growth, and environmental influences. In both trout and turbot, spatial chemical investigation of the endolymph surrounding the otolith (sagitta) showed a lack of uniformity. Proteins, PO(3-)(4), and Mg(2+) were significantly more concentrated in the proximal (facing the macula) than distal zone, whereas the opposite was observed for K(+) and total CO(2) (totCO(2)). Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) was 20% higher in the proximal zone in trout but not in turbot. Total Ca and Cl(-) contents were uniformly distributed in both species. We propose that the endolymphatic gradients of protein and totCO(2) concentration within the endolymph are involved in the otolithic biocalcification process. Microchemical analyses of otolith sections by wavelength dispersive spectrometry showed a lack of spatial uniformity in the K/Ca and Na/Ca ratios, whereas the Sr/Ca ratio was uniform. There is a clear relationship between endolymph and otolith [K(+)], but the interpretation of the results for [Na(+)] needs further investigation. Thus the lack of uniformity in the otolith composition must be taken into account when investigating otolith microchemistry.

  10. Lack of habituation of evoked visual potentials in analytic information processing style: evidence in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfiglio, Marzia; Toscano, M; Puledda, F; Avanzini, G; Di Clemente, L; Di Sabato, F; Di Piero, V

    2015-03-01

    Habituation is considered one of the most basic mechanisms of learning. Habituation deficit to several sensory stimulations has been defined as a trait of migraine brain and also observed in other disorders. On the other hand, analytic information processing style is characterized by the habit of continually evaluating stimuli and it has been associated with migraine. We investigated a possible correlation between lack of habituation of evoked visual potentials and analytic cognitive style in healthy subjects. According to Sternberg-Wagner self-assessment inventory, 15 healthy volunteers (HV) with high analytic score and 15 HV with high global score were recruited. Both groups underwent visual evoked potentials recordings after psychological evaluation. We observed significant lack of habituation in analytical individuals compared to global group. In conclusion, a reduced habituation of visual evoked potentials has been observed in analytic subjects. Our results suggest that further research should be undertaken regarding the relationship between analytic cognitive style and lack of habituation in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  11. ANALYSIS OF A NETWORK OF COOPERATION IN MISIONES, ARGENTINA: BENEFITS AND LACKS FOR LOCAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos, Michalus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a network of existing cooperation in the province of Misiones, Argentina, composed of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs Elaboration of black tea and a group of SMEs from sawn wood, formed from the particular initiative of the tea entrepreneur. The aim is to identify the benefits of working in cooperation and, in turn, highlight the lacks when these processes are not performed in a planned and sustainable local oriented development. The case study that is exposed is a unique, contemporary data survey with establishments belonging to the cooperative network, interviews with entrepreneurs and managers of production, which led to evidence the benefits of cooperation, which include: use of waste, generation of trust between employers and contribution to environmental stewardship. There were also major shortcomings that prevent greater profit derived from the lack of an appropriate methodological instrument to implement this type of cooperative enterprises, among which stands out: poor use of idle resources, lack of process improvements through innovations joint, non-participation of major players and systematic orientation towards the local sustainable development.

  12. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Swem, T.; Brimm, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency.

  13. Lack of Young Subsidence in the East Tibetan Foreland: Implications for Crustal Thickening Processes at Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royden, L. H.; Burchfiel, B. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake of May 12, 2008 occurred on a west-dipping reverse fault (with a pronounced right-slip component) located along the steep eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. It has been suggested that thrust faulting here may not be indicative of large-scale shortening and thickening of the upper crust, but may rather be an expression of vertical uplift of the upper crust, with minor shortening. This interpretation is compatible with the lack of young flexural subsidence in the Sichuan foreland provided that the flexurally competent layers of the Sichuan foreland lithosphere are loaded from below, or internally, by thickening crustal domains deep within the mid or lower crust of the eastern plateau, rather than from above, by emplacement of thrust sheets at shallow crustal levels onto the flexurally competent layer of the foreland. This interpretation reconciles gravity anomalies across the plateau margin, the young age of the high topography of eastern Tibet, and the old age of the Sichuan basin with the lack of Cenozoic flexural subsidence in the Sichuan foreland. A similar lack of asymmetric foreland subsidence is also present along the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau where it abuts the (southeastern) Tarim Basin, suggesting that a similar mechanism may operate here.

  14. Research involving adults lacking capacity to consent: the impact of research regulation on 'evidence biased' medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Victoria

    2016-09-08

    Society is failing in its moral obligation to improve the standard of healthcare provided to vulnerable populations, such as people who lack decision making capacity, by a misguided paternalism that seeks to protect them by excluding them from medical research. Uncertainties surround the basis on which decisions about research participation is made under dual regulatory regimes, which adds further complexity. Vulnerable individuals' exclusion from research as a result of such regulation risks condemning such populations to poor quality care as a result of 'evidence biased' medicine. This paper explores the research regulation provisions for proxy decision making for those unable to provide informed consent for themselves, and the subsequent legal and practical difficulties for decision-makers. There are two separate regulatory regimes governing research involving adults who lack capacity to consent in England and Wales. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 governs how incapacitated adults can be involved in research, however clinical trials of medicinal products are separately regulated by the Medicines for Human Use (Clinical Trials) Regulations 2004. There are significant differences under these dual regimes in the provisions for those lacking capacity to participate in medical research. The level of risk permitted differs, with a greater requirement for justification for participation in a clinical trial than other types of research. Who acts as proxy decision maker, how much information is provided to the person lacking capacity, and whether they retain the power of veto also significantly differs. The development of two separate regulatory regimes has resulted in significant differences between the provisions for clinical trials and other forms of research, and from usual medical practice. The resulting uncertainty has reinforced the tendency of those approving and conducting research to exclude adults lacking capacity to avoid difficult decisions about seeking

  15. Mechanics of cuticular elastic energy storage in leg joints lacking extensor muscles in arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2003-02-01

    Certain leg joints in arachnids lack extensor muscles and have elastically deformable transarticular sclerites spanning their arthrodial membranes, an arrangement consistent with a model in which flexor muscles load transarticular sclerites during flexion and energy from elastic recoil is used for extension. This study quantifies the potential contribution of elastic recoil to extension torque at joints of the fourth leg of representative arachnids. Extension torques of isolated joints with and without transarticular sclerites were measured as the joint was rotated through angles and at angular velocities comparable with those used by walking animals. The procedure was repeated with the joint subjected to different internal fluid pressures in order to assess the potential role of hydraulically induced extension. The efficiency of elastic energy storage (resilience) in the absence of internal fluid pressure was 70-90% for joints with well-developed transarticular sclerites, and the magnitude of torque was similar to those produced by different joint extension mechanisms in other arthropods. Increased internal fluid pressure acted synergistically with transarticular sclerites in some joints but had little or no effect in others. Joints that lacked both extensor muscles and transarticular sclerites appeared to be specialized for hydraulic extension, and joints operated by antagonistic muscles lacked apparent specializations for either elastic or hydraulic extension. It is well known that elastic energy storage is a significant contributor to propulsion in running vertebrates and certain arthropods, where elastic elements are loaded as the center of mass falls during one phase of the locomotor cycle. However, transarticular sclerites are apparently loaded by contraction of flexor muscles when the leg is not in contact with the substratum. Hence the mechanism of a transarticular sclerite is more similar to the flight and jumping mechanisms of other arthropods than to

  16. Assessment of NDE Methods to Detect Lack of Fusion in HDPE Butt Fusion Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2011-07-31

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, were conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provided information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch (30.5-cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes, both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Some of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test. The fusion parameters, nondestructive and destructive evaluation results have been correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. There was no single NDE method that detected all of the lack-of-fusion flaws but a combination of NDE methods did detect most of the flaws.

  17. Life without complex I: proteome analyses of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Eubel, Holger; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) is of particular importance for the respiratory chain in mitochondria. It is the major electron entry site for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) and therefore of great significance for mitochondrial ATP generation. We recently described an Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant lacking the genes encoding the carbonic anhydrases CA1 and CA2, which both form part of a plant-specific 'carbonic anhydrase domain' of mitochondrial complex I. The mutant lacks complex I completely. Here we report extended analyses for systematically characterizing the proteome of the ca1ca2 mutant. Using various proteomic tools, we show that lack of complex I causes reorganization of the cellular respiration system. Reduced electron entry into the respiratory chain at the first segment of the mETC leads to induction of complexes II and IV as well as alternative oxidase. Increased electron entry at later segments of the mETC requires an increase in oxidation of organic substrates. This is reflected by higher abundance of proteins involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Proteins involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and photorespiration are clearly reduced, contributing to the significant delay in growth and development of the double-mutant. Finally, enzymes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species and stress symptoms are much induced. These together with previously reported insights into the function of plant complex I, which were obtained by analysing other complex I mutants, are integrated in order to comprehensively describe 'life without complex I'.

  18. Lack of surface-associated microorganisms in a mixed species community of freshwater Unionidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Allen, J.; Walker, G.; Yokoyama, M.; Garling, D.

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether unionids contain surface-attached endosymbiotic bacteria, ciliates, or fungi, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the epithelial surface of various organs within the digestive systems and mantle cavity of temperate river and lake unionids on a seasonal basis. We also cultured material removed from the lumen of these same organs and from the mantle cavity to detect cellobiose-, cellulose-, and chitin- degrading microbes. No true endosymbiotic fauna were observed attached to the surface of the digestive or mantle tissues of any species of unionid. Microbial growth on cellulose or chitin bacteriological media varied by season and habitat, but not by unionid species or source of the isolate. Lake unionids did not contain microbes capable of digesting cellulose or chitin, whereas unionids from the river site did in March and August, but not in December. Since these cultured cellulose- and chitin-degrading bacteria were never found attached to any unionid tissues, they appeared to be transient forms, not true endosymbionts. Microbes capable of digesting cellobiose were found in every unionid collected in all seasons and habitats, but again, no microbes were directly observed attached to unionid tissues. If unionids, like most other vertebrates, lack digestive enzymes required to initiate primary bond breakage, then the lack of cellulolytic and chitinolytic endosymbionts would affect the ability to utilize cellulose or chitin foods. Thus, in captivity dry feeds based on corn, soybeans, or nauplii should be pre-digested to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients by unionids. The lack of celluloytic or chitinolytic endosymbionts should not affect relocation success, though the seasonal role of transient microbes in unionid nutrition requires further investigation.

  19. Factors associated with lack of prenatal care in a large municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Cristiane Quadrado da; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias da

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with a lack of prenatal care in a large municipality in southern Brazil. METHODS In this case-control age-matched study, 716 women were evaluated; of these, 179 did not receive prenatal care and 537 received prenatal care (controls). These women were identified using the Sistema Nacional de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (Live Birth Information System) of Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, between 2009 and 2010. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR). RESULTS In the final model, the variables associated with a lack of prenatal care were the level of education, particularly when it was lesser than four years [OR 4.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.92;10.36], being single (OR 3.61; 95%CI 1.85;7.04), and multiparity (OR 2.89; 95%CI 1.72;4.85). The prevalence of a lack of prenatal care among administrative regions varied between 0.7% and 3.9%. CONCLUSIONS The risk factors identified must be considered when planning actions for the inclusion of women in prenatal care by both the central management and healthcare teams. These indicated the municipal areas with greater deficits in prenatal care. The reorganization of the actions to identify women with risk factors in the community can be considered to be a starting point of this process. In addition, the integration of the activities of local programs that target the mother and child is essential to constantly identify pregnant women without prenatal care.

  20. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from extinct and extant rhinoceroses reveals lack of phylogenetic resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, Tom; Binladen, Jonas;

    2009-01-01

    genes is highly diffuse, with mixed topological support from different genes. Furthermore, the choice of outgroup (horse vs tapir) has considerable effect on reconstruction of the phylogeny. The lack of resolution is suggestive of a hard polytomy at the base of crown-group Rhinocerotidae......BACKGROUND: The scientific literature contains many examples where DNA sequence analyses have been used to provide definitive answers to phylogenetic problems that traditional (non-DNA based) approaches alone have failed to resolve. One notable example concerns the rhinoceroses, a group for which...

  1. Lack of the RNA chaperone hfq attenuates pathogenicity of several Escherichia coli pathotypes towards Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Jakobsen, Henrik; Struve, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    as a model for virulence characterization and screening for novel antimicrobial entities. Several E. coli human pathotypes are also pathogenic towards C. elegans, and we show here that lack of the RNA chaperone Hfq significantly reduces pathogenicity of VTEC, EAEC, and UPEC in the nematode model. Thus, Hfq...... is intrinsically essential to pathogenic E. coli for survival and virulence exerted in the C. elegans host.......Escherichia coli is an important agent of Gram-negative bacterial infections worldwide, being one of the leading causes of diarrhoea and urinary tract infections. Strategies to understand pathogenesis and develop therapeutic compounds include the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...

  2. Trade Mark Coexistence Agreements: What is all the (lack of) fuss about?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    trade marks who decide to formally coexist, often in the wake of legal skirmishes. In the busy European market, where Community-wide protection is available, an up-front contract may be an attractive way to avoid trade mark conflict. When these contracts work, trade mark law is effectively pre...... marks, the article deepens the discussion. Starting from concepts and commercial realities, the analysis proceeds to case law and underlying legal and economic rationale to determine whether the lack of fuss is justified....

  3. Lack of shunt response in suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Roy; Patel, Sunil; Lee, Edward B; Jackson, Eric M; Lopinto, Joanna; Arnold, Steven E; Clark, Christopher M; Basil, Anuj; Shaw, Leslie M; Xie, Sharon X; Grady, M Sean; Trojanowski, John Q

    2010-10-01

    To determine the impact of cortical Alzheimer disease pathology on shunt responsiveness in individuals treated for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), 37 patients clinically diagnosed with iNPH participated in a prospective study in which performance on neurologic, psychometric, and gait measures before and 4 months after shunting was correlated with amyloid β plaques, neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles observed in cortical biopsies obtained during shunt insertion. No complications resulted from biopsy acquisition. Moderate to severe pathology was associated with worse baseline cognitive performance and diminished postoperative improvement on NPH symptom severity scales, gait measures, and cognitive instruments compared to patients lacking pathology.

  4. Reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation. Lack of association with Muir-Torre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, Dana L; Minni, John P; Nowak, Michael; Abenoza, Pascual; Nousari, Carlos H

    2009-06-01

    We hereby report a case of a reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation (RASD), a rare and often mislabeled benign lesion that is characterized by epidermal acanthosis and clusters of sebocytes in a reticulated seborrheic keratosis-like pattern. The presence of multiple sebaceous tumors, most notably cystic sebaceous adenomas and keratoacanthomas, has been associated with Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS). Although very rare, cases of RASD have been reported with MTS, which potentially offers profound clinical significance to this neoplasm. This case further supports the lack of association of MTS with RASD.

  5. CONGENITAL CATARACT – LACK OF AWARENESS: EFFECTS ON DELAYED HOSPITALIZATION & TREAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on congenital cataract conducted at regional eye hospital and in coordination with paediatric department. Histry, symptomatology and observations taken inconsideration within days , weeks , months after year. Daignosed by Torch Light examination and s lit lamp examination and B - SCAN examination. Very low number of cases detected out of large number of children screened . It may be due lack of awareness of parents to bring the children to the hospital and health personel. After diagnosing surgical interve ntion done. Post - operative visual prognosis good in some cases and some are amblyopic

  6. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis associated with transient cerebral dyschromatopsia, prosopagnosia, and lack of stereopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Hiromasa; Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Ohtomo, Ryo; Bannai, Taro; Wakakura, Masato; Tsuji, Shoji

    2014-06-01

    A 20-year-old woman suffered from anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis and was treated with removal of an ovarian teratoma and retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma in addition to immunotherapy. She was incapable of face recognition, had difficulty with object recognition, and lacked color sensation and stereo perception during recovery. These symptoms were transient and completely resolved over 4 months. Our report documents additional aspects of visual impairment associated with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and suggests that the disease can lead to diffuse cerebral dysfunction including the cortical visual system.

  7. Lack of Arg972 polymorphism in the IRS1 gene in Parakanã Brazilian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Rosângela M N; Chadid, Thiago T; Altemani, Claúdia M; Sales, Teresa S I; Menezes, Raimundo; Soares, Manoel C P; Saad, Sara T O; Saad, Mario J A

    2004-02-01

    Several polymorphisms in the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) gene have been reported in the last years. The most common IRS1 variant, a Gly --> Arg substitution at codon 972 (Arg972 IRS1), is more prevalent among subjects who have features of insulin resistance syndrome associated, or not, with type 2 diabetes in European populations. To determine whether the absence of IRS1 polymorphism is a more general characteristic of Paleo-Indian-derived populations, we examined the Arg972 IRS1 polymorphism in Parakanã Indians and found a lack of this polymorphism in the Parakanã population.

  8. Contribution to hospital performance: market orientation vs. marketing effort and lack of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Marketing is still viewed with some skepticism by some hospital administrators who wonder if marketing is needed when the hospital is in a benign competitive environment. This research seeks to investigate the contribution of a marketing orientation to hospital performance beyond what can be achieved by merely spending money on promotion or not facing stiff competition. Findings reveal that having an authentic market orientation makes a significant contribution to a hospital's success above what can be achieved through promotional budgets and lack of competition.

  9. Best interests of adults who lack capacity part 1 : key concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    Best interests is the standard by which the law judges the propriety of care and treatment for adults who lack decision-making capacity. Since the introduction of mental capacity legislation, determining best interests has moved from a paternalistic risk-benefit analysis to a holistic approach where the wishes, views and values of the patient and their relatives must be considered. In this two-part series, the author discusses the concept of best interests and how nurses should approach the determination of best interests to meet the needs of an incapable person.

  10. Lack of Buffering by Composites Promotes Shift to More Cariogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, I; De Munck, J; Slomka, V; Van Meerbeek, B; Teughels, W; Van Landuyt, K L

    2016-07-01

    Secondary caries (SC) remains a very important problem with composite restorations. The objectives of this study were to test the acid-buffering ability of several restorative materials and to evaluate whether buffering of the restorative material has an impact on the microbial composition of the biofilm. Disk-shaped specimens of conventional composite, composite with surface prereacted glass-ionomer filler particles (so-called giomer), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), amalgam, and hydroxyapatite (HAp) (control) were exposed to aqueous solutions with pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 and to the medium containing bacteria-produced acids, and pH changes were recorded over several days. Next, material specimens were immersed in bacterial growth medium with pH adjusted to 5. After a 24-h incubation, the extracts were collected and inoculated with a cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans) and a noncariogenic (Streptococcus sanguinis) species. The bacterial growth was monitored both in a single-species model by spectrophotometry and in a dual-species model by viability quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Amalgam and HAp showed the strongest acid-buffering ability, followed by the GIC and the giomer, while the conventional composite did not exhibit any buffering capacity. Furthermore, due to the lack of acid-buffering abilities, composite was not able to increase the pH of the medium (pH 5), which, in the absence of antibacterial properties, allowed the growth of S. mutans, while the growth of S. sanguinis, a less aciduric species, was completely inhibited. A similar effect was observed when bacteria were cultured together: there was a higher percentage of S. mutans and lower percentage of S. sanguinis with the conventional composite than with other materials and HAp. In conclusion, conventional composites lack the ability to increase the local pH, which leads to the outgrowth of more acidogenic/aciduric bacteria and higher cariogenicity of the biofilm. Together with lack of antibacterial

  11. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, t...

  12. The lack of theoretical support for using person trade-offs in QALY-type models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    Considerable support for the use of person trade-off methods to assess the quality-adjustment factor in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) models has been expressed in the literature. The WHO has occasionally used similar methods to assess the disability weights for calculation of disability......-adjusted life years (DALYs). This paper discusses the theoretical support for the use of person trade-offs in QALY-type measurement of (changes in) population health. It argues that measures of this type based on such quality-adjustment factors almost always violate the Pareto principle, and so lack normative...

  13. Golgi disruption and early embryonic lethality in mice lacking USO1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Kim

    Full Text Available Golgins are a family of long rod-like proteins characterized by the presence of central coiled-coil domains. Members of the golgin family have important roles in membrane trafficking, where they function as tethering factors that capture transport vesicles and facilitate membrane fusion. Golgin family members also have essential roles in maintaining the organization of the Golgi apparatus. Knockdown of individual golgins in cultured cells resulted in the disruption of the Golgi structure and the dispersal of Golgi marker proteins throughout the cytoplasm. However, these cellular phenotypes have not always been recapitulated in vivo. For example, embryonic development proceeds much further than expected and Golgi disruption was observed in only a subset of cell types in mice lacking the ubiquitously expressed golgin GMAP-210. Cell-type specific functional compensation among golgins may explain the absence of global cell lethality when a ubiquitously expressed golgin is missing. In this study we show that functional compensation does not occur for the golgin USO1. Mice lacking this ubiquitously expressed protein exhibit disruption of Golgi structure and early embryonic lethality, indicating that USO1 is indispensable for early embryonic development.

  14. Marines, medics, and machismo: lack of fit with masculine occupational stereotypes discourages men's participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kim; Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Women have made substantial inroads into some traditionally masculine occupations (e.g., accounting, journalism) but not into others (e.g., military, surgery). Evidence suggests the latter group of occupations is characterized by hyper-masculine 'macho' stereotypes that are especially disadvantageous to women. Here, we explore whether such macho occupational stereotypes may be especially tenacious, not just because of their impact on women, but also because of their impact on men. We examined whether macho stereotypes associated with marine commandos and surgeons discourage men who feel that they are 'not man enough'. Study 1 demonstrates that male new recruits' (N = 218) perceived lack of fit with masculine commandos was associated with reduced occupational identification and motivation. Study 2 demonstrates that male surgical trainees' (N = 117) perceived lack of fit with masculine surgeons was associated with reduced identification and increased psychological exit a year later. Together, this suggests that macho occupational stereotypes may discourage the very men who may challenge them. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Migrant Workers’ Lack of Cultural Rights and Interests and Government Safeguard Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the status quo of migrant workers’ lack of cultural rights and interests as follows:the holistic cultural life of migrant workers is scant and monotonous;the cultural facilities provided by the majority of enterprises are critically short;the cultural life of migrant workers has the characteristic of closeness to some extent;the holistic cultural consuming capacity of migrant workers is very low,and they are not satisfied with their own cultural life.This paper puts forward the measures that the government should adopt to make up for the lack of migrant workers’ cultural rights and interests as follows:first,it should eliminate discrimination in terms of system,and incorporate migrant workers’ cultural rights and interests into the building scope of urban public culture;second,it should establish a variety of free public culture facilities,to adapt to the needs of migrant workers;third,it should formulate various kinds of laws and regulations,to effectively safeguard migrant workers’ cultural rights and interests.

  16. Does lack of resources impair access to breast and cervical cancer screening in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Hamashima, Chisato

    2017-01-01

    To assess the impact of the quantity of resources for breast and cervical cancer screening on the participation rates in screening in clinical settings in municipalities, as well as to clarify whether lack of resources impairs access to cancer screening in Japan. Of the 1,746 municipalities in 2010, 1,443 (82.6%) and 1,469 (84.1%) were included in the analyses for breast and cervical cancer screening, respectively. In order to estimate the effects of the number of mammography units and of gynecologists on the participation rates in breast and cervical cancer screening in clinical settings, multiple regression analyses were performed using the interaction term for urban municipalities. The average participation rate in screening in clinical settings was 6.01% for breast cancer, and was 8.93% for cervical cancer. The marginal effect of the number of mammography units per 1,000 women was significantly positive in urban municipalities (8.20 percent point). The marginal effect of the number of gynecologists per 1,000 women was significantly positive in all municipalities (2.54 percent point) and rural municipalities (3.68 percent point). Lack of mammography units in urban areas and of gynecologists particularly in rural areas impaired access to breast and cervical cancer screening. Strategies are required that quickly improve access for the residents and increase their participation rates in cancer screening.

  17. Scaffold proteins LACK and TRACK as potential drug targets in kinetoplastid parasites: Development of inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Qvit

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases cause ∼500,000 deaths annually and remain a major challenge for therapeutic development. Using a rational design based approach, we developed peptide inhibitors with anti-parasitic activity that were derived from the sequences of parasite scaffold proteins LACK (Leishmania's receptor for activated C-kinase and TRACK (Trypanosoma receptor for activated C-kinase. We hypothesized that sequences in LACK and TRACK that are conserved in the parasites, but not in the mammalian ortholog, RACK (Receptor for activated C-kinase, may be interaction sites for signaling proteins that are critical for the parasites' viability. One of these peptides exhibited leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity in culture. Moreover, in infected mice, this peptide was also effective in reducing parasitemia and increasing survival without toxic effects. The identified peptide is a promising new anti-parasitic drug lead, as its unique features may limit toxicity and drug-resistance, thus overcoming central limitations of most anti-parasitic drugs.

  18. Male and Female Mice Lacking Neuroligin-3 Modify the Behavior of Their Wild-Type Littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbassi, Shireene; Bachmann, Sven O; Cross, Ellen; Roberton, Victoria H; Baudouin, Stéphane J

    2017-01-01

    In most mammals, including humans, the postnatal acquisition of normal social and nonsocial behavior critically depends on interactions with peers. Here we explore the possibility that mixed-group housing of mice carrying a deletion of Nlgn3, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders, and their wild-type littermates induces changes in each other's behavior. We have found that, when raised together, male Nlgn3 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates displayed deficits in sociability. Moreover, social submission in adult male Nlgn3 knockout mice correlated with an increase in their anxiety. Re-expression of Nlgn3 in parvalbumin-expressing cells in transgenic animals rescued their social behavior and alleviated the phenotype of their wild-type littermates, further indicating that the social behavior of Nlgn3 knockout mice has a direct and measurable impact on wild-type animals' behavior. Finally, we showed that, unlike male mice, female mice lacking Nlgn3 were insensitive to their peers' behavior but modified the social behavior of their littermates. Altogether, our findings show that the environment is a critical factor in the development of behavioral phenotypes in transgenic and wild-type mice. In addition, these results reveal that the social environment has a sexually dimorphic effect on the behavior of mice lacking Nlgn3, being more influential in males than females.

  19. Nicotine anxiogenic and rewarding effects are decreased in mice lacking β-endorphin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, José M.; Zimmer, Andreas; Maldonado, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system plays an important role in the behavioral effects of nicotine. Thus, μ-opioid receptor and the endogenous opioids derived from proenkephalin are involved in the central effects of nicotine. However, the role played by the different endogenous opioid peptides in the acute and chronic effects of nicotine remains to be fully established. Mice lacking β-endorphin were acutely injected with nicotine at different doses to evaluate locomotor, anxiogenic and antinociceptive responses. The rewarding properties of nicotine were evaluated by using the conditioned place-preference paradigm. Mice chronically treated with nicotine were acutely injected with mecamylamine to study the behavioral expression of nicotine withdrawal. Mice lacking β-endorphin exhibited a spontaneous hypoalgesia and hyperlocomotion and a reduction on the anxiogenic and rewarding effects induced by nicotine. Nicotine induced similar antinociception and hypolocomotion in both genotypes and no differences were found in the development of physical dependence. The dissociation between nicotine rewarding properties and physical dependence suggests a differential implication of β-endorphin in these addictive related responses. PMID:19376143

  20. Contamination cannot explain the lack of large-scale power in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunn, Emory F

    2008-01-01

    Several anomalies appear to be present in the large-angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy maps of WMAP. One of these is a lack of large-scale power. Because the data otherwise match standard models extremely well, it is natural to consider perturbations of the standard model as possible explanations. We show that, as long as the source of the perturbation is statistically independent of the source of the primary CMB anisotropy, no such model can explain this large-scale power deficit. On the contrary, any such perturbation always reduces the probability of obtaining any given low value of large-scale power. We rigorously prove this result when the lack of large-scale power is quantified with a quadratic statistic, such as the quadrupole moment. When a statistic based on the integrated square of the correlation function is used instead, we present strong numerical evidence in support of the result. The result applies to models in which the geometry of spacetime is perturbed (e.g., an ellipsoidal U...

  1. Poor social performance of lonely people: lacking a skill or adopting a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkus, J; Horowitz, L M

    1987-06-01

    A substantial literature has shown that lonely people differ from nonlonely people on a variety of measures of social performance. These differences have usually been conceptualized as a social skills deficit, which implies that lonely people lack the ability to perform appropriate and effective social behavior. Rather than a lack of this ability, the authors hypothesize that the adoption of passive interpersonal roles predisposes lonely people to exhibit inadequate performance. In order to test this hypothesis, lonely and nonlonely subjects were assigned to one of two roles: They either listened (Condition Li) to an interaction partner describe a personal problem or they themselves described a personal problem (Condition Pr) to their partner. The subjects' interpersonal role produced a substantial effect on their social behavior. Subjects who listened to their partner describe a problem generated more solutions to a set of hypothetical situations, attended to their partners more adequately, and conversed longer than did subjects who described a personal problem. In contrast, lonely subjects did not differ from nonlonely subjects in their social performance within each particular role. Lonely and nonlonely subjects did differ, however, in their subjective evaluations of themselves and of their performance. These results illustrate the need for research to address both the interpersonal and the intrapersonal bases of social performance.

  2. Possible mechanisms of lack of dentin bridge formation in response to calcium hydroxide in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The usage of Calcium hydroxide (CaOH2 has wide applications due to the property of osteo-inductive, protective, and antibacterial actions. However, it is not used in primary teeth, as it fails to form reparative dentin and the exact mechanism has not been explained. The hypothesis: The authors propose an explanation that lack of dentin bridge formation in response to (CaOH2 in primary teeth could be multifactorial: inability of the deciduous stem cells to generate complete dentin-pulp-like tissue; the absence of calcium-magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Ca-Mg ATPase in the odontoblasts; the pre-existing predilection of deciduous dentine pulp to form odontoclasts; the solubility of (CaOH2. Evaluation of the hypothesis: The hypothesis discusses the innate traits of the deciduous stem cells that lack the ability to form the dentin bridge, the absence of Ca-Mg ATPase enzyme and increased solubility of (CaOH2 together fail to stimulate the odontoblasts. Alternatively, pre-existing progenitor cells with proclivity to change into odontoclasts may cause internal resorption and hamper formation of reparative dentin.

  3. Three Evidence Based Methods to Compensate for a Lack of Subject Background when Ordering Chemistry Monographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Wright

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The aim of this article is to present evidence based methods for the selection of chemistry monographs, particularly for librarians lacking a background in chemistry. These methods will be described in detail, their practical application illustrated, and their efficacy tested by analyzing circulation data.Methods – Two hundred and ninety-five chemistry monographs were selected between 2005 and 2007 using rigorously-applied evidence based methods involving the Library's integrated library system (ILS, Google, and SciFinder Scholar. The average circulation rate of this group of monographs was compared to the average circulation rate of 254 chemistry monographs selected between 2002 and 2004 when the methods were not used or were in an incomplete state of development.Results – Circulations/month were on average 9% greater in the cohort of monographs selected with the rigorously-applied evidence based methods. Further statistical analysis, however, finds that this result can not be attributed to the different application of these methods. Conclusion – The methods discussed in this article appear to provide an evidence base for the selection of chemistry monographs, but their application does not change circulation rates in a statistically significant way. Further research is needed to determine if this lack of statistical significance is real or a product of the organic development and application of these methods over time, making definitive comparisons difficult.

  4. Loneliness in patients with rheumatic diseases: the significance of invalidation and lack of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Marianne B; Geenen, Rinie

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases affect about 20% of the population, leading to common symptoms such as joint problems, pain, fatigue, and stiffness. Loneliness is prevalent in individuals with rheumatic diseases. This could be due to not receiving social support and being stigmatized and invalidated, which might be most common in fibromyalgia, a rheumatic disease that lacks medical evidence. The aim of this study was to compare loneliness in distinct rheumatic diseases and to examine the association of loneliness with social support and invalidation. Participants were 927 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (n = 152), fibromyalgia (n = 341), osteoarthritis (n = 150), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 171), or systemic diseases (n = 113). They completed online questionnaires including an 11-point Likert scale assessing loneliness, the Illness Invalidation Inventory (3*1; Kool et al., 2010), and the Social Support Survey (SSS; De Boer, Wijker, Speelman, & De Haes, 1996; Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991). Patients with fibromyalgia experienced significantly more loneliness than patients with ankylosing spondylitis and patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Besides being younger, having lower education, and not working, in multiple regression analyses both lack of social support and invalidation were independently correlated with loneliness. This suggests that to decrease loneliness, therapeutic attention should be given to both increasing social support as well as decreasing invalidation in patients with rheumatic diseases, especially in patients with fibromyalgia.

  5. Lack of motivation: a new modifiable risk factor for peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Klara; Namagondlu, Girish; Samad, Nasreen; McKitty, Khadija; Fan, Stanley L

    2015-03-01

    Can we identify modifiable risk factors for peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD)? We aimed to determine whether housing standard, PD exchange technique or patient motivation might be modifiable risks for peritonitis. We also explored the relationship between lack of motivation and depression. Nurse home visits assessed PD exchange technique, environment and patient motivation. Motivation scores were correlated separately with an Apathy Evaluation Score and a depression score using PHQ-9 questionnaires. Home hygiene, exchange technique and motivation were above average in 53%, 56% and 60%, respectively in 104 patients undergoing PD. After 15 months, 25.9% patients developed peritonitis but nurses' ratings of homes and exchange techniques were not predictive. Low patient motivation was predictive. Patients rated to have above or below median motivation had significantly different Apathy Scores (p = 0.0002). Unmotivated depressed patients were significantly more likely to develop peritonitis compared to motivated depressed patients. Lack of motivation predicted peritonitis particularly if associated with depression. Further studies are required focusing on specific motivation scoring schemes and the psychosocial support that might lead to better outcomes. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  6. Compensatory evolution of gene regulation in response to stress by Escherichia coli lacking RpoS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Stoebel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The RpoS sigma factor protein of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is the master transcriptional regulator of physiological responses to a variety of stresses. This stress response comes at the expense of scavenging for scarce resources, causing a trade-off between stress tolerance and nutrient acquisition. This trade-off favors non-functional rpoS alleles in nutrient-poor environments. We used experimental evolution to explore how natural selection modifies the regulatory network of strains lacking RpoS when they evolve in an osmotically stressful environment. We found that strains lacking RpoS adapt less variably, in terms of both fitness increase and changes in patterns of transcription, than strains with functional RpoS. This phenotypic uniformity was caused by the same adaptive mutation in every independent population: the insertion of IS10 into the promoter of the otsBA operon. OtsA and OtsB are required to synthesize the osmoprotectant trehalose, and transcription of otsBA requires RpoS in the wild-type genetic background. The evolved IS10 insertion rewires expression of otsBA from RpoS-dependent to RpoS-independent, allowing for partial restoration of wild-type response to osmotic stress. Our results show that the regulatory networks of bacteria can evolve new structures in ways that are both rapid and repeatable.

  7. Behavioral characterization of a mutant mouse strain lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Ballard, Michael E; Basso, Ana M; Bratcher, Natalie; Browman, Kaitlin E; Curzon, Pete; Konno, Ryuichi; Meyer, Axel H; Rueter, Lynne E

    2011-02-02

    D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), an enzyme that degrades d-serine, has been suggested as a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia. Here we sought to understand more about the behavioral consequence of lacking DAO and the potential therapeutic implication of DAO inhibition by characterizing a mouse strain (ddY/DAO(-)) lacking DAO activity. We found that the mutant mice showed enhanced prepulse inhibition responses (PPI). Intriguingly, DAO-/- mice had increased sensitivity to the PPI-disruptive effect induced by the competitive NMDA antagonist, SDZ 220-581. In the 24-h inhibitory avoidance test, DAO-/- mice were not different from DAO+/+ mice during the recall. In Barnes Maze, we found that DAO-/- mice had a shortened latency to enter the escape tunnel. Interestingly, although these mice were hypoactive when tested in a protected open field, they showed a profound increase of activity on the edge of the unprotected open field of the Barnes Maze even with the escape tunnel removed. This increased edge activity does not appear to be related to a reduced level of anxiety given that there were no significant genotype effects on the measures of anxiety-like behaviors in two standard animal models of anxiety, elevated plus maze and novelty suppressed feeding. Our data suggest that DAO-/- mice might have altered functioning of NMDARs. However, these results provide only modest support for manipulations of DAO activity as a potential therapeutic approach to treat schizophrenia.

  8. The importance of imagination (or lack thereof) in artificial, human and quantum decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Karl

    2016-01-13

    Enlarging upon experiments and analysis that I did jointly some years ago, in which artificial (symbolic, neural-net and pattern) learning and generalization were compared with that of humans, I will emphasize the role of imagination (or lack thereof) in artificial, human and quantum cognition and decision-making processes. Then I will look in more detail at some of the 'engineering details' of its implementation (or lack thereof) in each of these settings. In other words, the question posed is: What is actually happening? For example, we previously found that humans overwhelmingly seek, create or imagine context in order to provide meaning when presented with abstract, apparently incomplete, contradictory or otherwise untenable decision-making situations. Humans are intolerant of contradiction and will greatly simplify to avoid it. They can partially correlate but do not average. Human learning is not Boolean. These and other human reasoning properties will then be taken to critique how well artificial intelligence methods and quantum mechanical modelling might compete with them in decision-making tasks within psychology and economics.

  9. New methods to analyse microarray data that partially lack a reference signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonten Marc JM

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (CGH has been used to assess genetic variability between bacterial strains. Crucial for interpretation of microarray data is the availability of a reference to compare signal intensities to reliably determine presence or divergence each DNA fragment. However, the production of a good reference becomes unfeasible when microarrays are based on pan-genomes. When only a single strain is used as a reference for a multistrain array, the accessory gene pool will be partially represented by reference DNA, although these genes represent the genomic repertoire that can explain differences in virulence, pathogenicity or transmissibility between strains. The lack of a reference makes interpretation of the data for these genes difficult and, if the test signal is low, they are often deleted from the analysis. We aimed to develop novel methods to determine the presence or divergence of genes in a Staphylococcus aureus multistrain PCR product microarray-based CGH approach for which reference DNA was not available for some probes. Results In this study we have developed 6 new methods to predict divergence and presence of all genes spotted on a multistrain Staphylococcus aureus DNA microarray, published previously, including those gene spots that lack reference signals. When considering specificity and PPV (i.e. the false-positive rate as the most important criteria for evaluating these methods, the method that defined gene presence based on a signal at least twice as high as the background and higher than the reference signal (method 4 had the best test characteristics. For this method specificity was 100% and 82% for MRSA252 (compared to the GACK method and all spots (compared to sequence data, respectively, and PPV were 100% and 76% for MRSA252 (compared to the GACK method and all spots (compared to sequence data, respectively. Conclusion A definition of gene presence based on signal at

  10. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb (14)C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Tendons are often injured and heal poorly. Whether this is caused by a slow tissue turnover is unknown, since existing data provide diverging estimates of tendon protein half-life that range from 2 mo to 200 yr. With the purpose of determining life-long turnover of human tendon tissue, we used...... turnover. Our observation provides a fundamental premise for understanding tendon function and pathology, and likely explains the poor regenerative capacity of tendon tissue.-Heinemeier, K. M., Schjerling, P., Heinemeier, J., Magnusson, S. P., Kjaer, M. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon...... (donor birth years 1945-1983) with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and compared to known atmospheric levels to estimate tissue turnover. We found that Achilles tendon tissue retained levels of 14C corresponding to atmospheric levels several decades before tissue sampling, demonstrating a very limited...

  11. The Relationship of Health Insurance and Mortality: Is Lack of Insurance Deadly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U

    2017-09-19

    About 28 million Americans are currently uninsured, and millions more could lose coverage under policy reforms proposed in Congress. At the same time, a growing number of policy leaders have called for going beyond the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to a single-payer national health insurance system that would cover every American. These policy debates lend particular salience to studies evaluating the health effects of insurance coverage. In 2002, an Institute of Medicine review concluded that lack of insurance increases mortality, but several relevant studies have appeared since that time. This article summarizes current evidence concerning the relationship of insurance and mortality. The evidence strengthens confidence in the Institute of Medicine's conclusion that health insurance saves lives: The odds of dying among the insured relative to the uninsured is 0.71 to 0.97.

  12. Some Properties of A Lack-of-Fit Test for a Linear Errors in Variables Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-xing Zhu; Heng-jian Cui; K.W.Ng

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the linear errors-in-variables model and the corresponding ordinary linear model in statistical inference is studied.It is shown that normality of the distribution of covariate is a necessary and su cient condition for the equivalence.Therefore,testing for lack-of-t in linear errors-in-variables model can be converted into testing for it in the corresponding ordinary linear model under normality assumption.A test of score type is constructed and the limiting chi-squared distribution is derived under the null hypothesis.Furthermore,we discuss the power of the test and the choice of the weight function involved in the test statistic.

  13. Telemedicine: The legal framework (or the lack of it in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raposo, Vera Lúcia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of European law telemedicine is, simultaneously, a health service and an information service, therefore, both regulations apply. In what concerns healthcare and the practice of medicine there are no uniform regulations at the European level. Concerning health services the most relevant achievement to regulate this domain is Directive 2011/24/EU. In what regards information and telecommunications we must have in consideration Directive 95/46/EU, Directive 2000/31/EC and Directive 2002/58/EC. However, many issues still lack uniform regulation, mainly the domain of medical liability and of medical . Probably such standardization will never take place, since the European Union does not have, until now, a common set of norms regarding tort and criminal liability, much less specific legal norms on medical liability. These gaps may jeopardize a truly European internal market in health services and hamper the development of telemedicine in the European zone.

  14. Telemedicine: The legal framework (or the lack of it) in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Vera Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of European law telemedicine is, simultaneously, a health service and an information service, therefore, both regulations apply. In what concerns healthcare and the practice of medicine there are no uniform regulations at the European level. Concerning health services the most relevant achievement to regulate this domain is Directive 2011/24/EU. In what regards information and telecommunications we must have in consideration Directive 95/46/EU, Directive 2000/31/EC and Directive 2002/58/EC. However, many issues still lack uniform regulation, mainly the domain of medical liability and of medical leges artis. Probably such standardization will never take place, since the European Union does not have, until now, a common set of norms regarding tort and criminal liability, much less specific legal norms on medical liability. These gaps may jeopardize a truly European internal market in health services and hamper the development of telemedicine in the European zone. PMID:27579146

  15. Lack of Population Structure in Coriander Populations Based on SDS (Seed Storage Protein Page Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm Yaldiz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is prerequisite for plant breeding. Nothing information existed in the literature for available diversity of Coriander accession in Turkey. Plant breeding activities are negligible in Turkey. So in order to start effective plant breeding program in Turkey, information on the available genetic diversity is viable. Therefore we planned to study the genetic variation and population structure of 29 Coriander accessions by seed storage protein (SDS. SDS analysis elaborated the lack of population structure and genetic bottleneck in the Coriander accessions in Turkey. Based on the results of this study, it was clear that sampling strategy was not appropriate and plant introduction should be made from different sources and diverse genotypes should be used as parents to initialize the effective Turkish Coriander breeding program.

  16. Walk-based measure of balance in signed networks: detecting lack of balance in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Benzi, Michele

    2014-10-01

    There is a longstanding belief that in social networks with simultaneous friendly and hostile interactions (signed networks) there is a general tendency to a global balance. Balance represents a state of the network with a lack of contentious situations. Here we introduce a method to quantify the degree of balance of any signed (social) network. It accounts for the contribution of all signed cycles in the network and gives, in agreement with empirical evidence, more weight to the shorter cycles than to the longer ones. We found that, contrary to what is generally believed, many signed social networks, in particular very large directed online social networks, are in general very poorly balanced. We also show that unbalanced states can be changed by tuning the weights of the social interactions among the agents in the network.

  17. Testing Lack-of-fit for a Polynomial Errors-in-variables Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-xing Zhu; Wei-xing Song; Heng-jian Gui

    2003-01-01

    When a regression model is applied as an approximation of underlying model of data, the model checking is important and relevant. In this paper, we investigate the lack-of-fit test for a polynomial errorin-variables model. As the ordinary residuals are biased when there exist measurement errors in covariables,we correct them and then construct a residual-based test of score type. The constructed test is asymptotically chi-squared under null hypotheses. Simulation study shows that the test can maintain the significance level well.The choice of weight functions involved in the test statistic and the related power study are also investigated.The application to two examples is illustrated. The approach can be readily extended to handle more general models.

  18. Expression in Escherichia coli of active human alcohol dehydrogenase lacking N-terminal acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höög, J O; Weis, M; Zeppezauer, M; Jörnvall, H; von Bahr-Lindström, H

    1987-12-01

    Human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, beta beta isozyme of class I) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and characterized regarding N-terminal processing. The expression system was obtained by ligation of a cDNA fragment corresponding to the beta-subunit of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase into the vector pKK 223-3 containing the tac promoter. The enzyme, detected by Western-blot analysis and ethanol oxidizing activity, constituted up to 3% of the total amount of protein. Recombinant ADH was separated from E. coli ADH by ion-exchange chromatography and the isolated enzyme was essentially pure as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis. The N-terminal sequence was identical to that of the authentic beta-subunit except that the N-terminus was non-acetylated, indicating a correct removal of the initiator methionine, but lack of further processing.

  19. The evolution of culture (or the lack thereof): mapping the conceptual space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAGHAVENDRA GADAGKAR

    2017-07-01

    This short essay is based on a lecture that I gave at short notice on a subject in which I am by no means an expert. The combination of lack of expertise and time for preparation, created an unexpectedly unique opportunity for thinking outside the box. I decided not to try to read up (as there was no time in any case) but instead to organize the little that I already knew about cultural evolution in a systematic schema—I attempted to create a scaffolding, on which I could hang everything I knew about cultural evolution, and hopefully, everything I might ever discover about cultural evolution in the future. I considered three dimensions ofthe study of cultural evolution, namely (i) the phenomenon of cultural evolution, (ii) production of knowledge in the field of cultural evolution, and (iii) the consequences or applications of an understanding of the evolution of culture.

  20. Behavior of DNA-lacking mitochondria in Entamoeba histolytica revealed by organelle transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Makoto; Ogiwara, Sanae; Makiuchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica has mitosomes that are mitochondria lacking some canonical functions and organelle DNA. Mitosomes play an important role in the life cycle of the parasite. The distribution of proteins in mitosomes is not uniform, and how mitosomes are maintained and retained is unknown. To answer these questions, we developed a transplant method for mitosomes with hemagglutinin-tagged protein into recipient cells containing mitosomes with Myc-tagged protein. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the two protein tags colocalized in single mitosomes in some recipient cells. These results suggest that our transplant method can be used in anaerobic protozoa and that donor mitosomes may obtain recipient proteins through fusion with other mitosomes or through de novo synthesis of proteins in recipient cells. PMID:28287148

  1. Lack of reliable alternatives means France faces challenges finding a replacement for nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-03-15

    The lack of alternative low-carbon energy sources that are as reliable as nuclear means France's ''ambitious'' plans to reduce its share of nuclear from 78 % in 2015 to 50 % by 2025 might not be achievable, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said in its January 2017 report. The Paris-based agency said France - which has the world's highest share of nuclear in its electricity mix - must assess possible changes in energy demand and supply and to guarantee ''continuous security of electricity supply'' as it pushes ahead with its plans for an ''energy transition'' up to 2050. The Energy Transition for Green Growth Act (Loi relative a la transition energetique pour la croissance verte, LTECV) was the result of consultations that ran from January to July 2013.

  2. Lack of blinding of outcome assessors in animal model experiments implies risk of observer bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bello, Segun; Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Gruber, Jan

    2014-01-01

    and caused by three pesticides experiments with very large observer bias, pooled ROR was 0.20 (95% CI, 0.07, 0.59) in contrast to the pooled ROR in the other seven experiments, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.57, 1.17). CONCLUSION: Lack of blinding of outcome assessors in animal model experiments with subjective outcomes......OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of not blinding outcome assessors on estimates of intervention effects in animal experiments modeling human clinical conditions. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched PubMed, Biosis, Google Scholar, and HighWire Press and included animal model experiments with both...... blinded and nonblinded outcome assessors. For each experiment, we calculated the ratio of odds ratios (ROR), that is, the odds ratio (OR) from nonblinded assessments relative to the corresponding OR from blinded assessments. We standardized the ORs according to the experimental hypothesis...

  3. Why are low-income teens more likely to lack health insurance than their younger peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne; Burns, Marguerite E

    2011-01-01

    Low-income teenagers are more likely to lack health insurance than younger children. Using data from the 2006, 2007, and 2008 rounds of the National Health Interview Survey, we examine whether differences between teens and younger children in socioeconomic factors, public health insurance eligibility, and observable family characteristics explain this apparent age-related coverage gap. Somewhat surprisingly, they do not. We find a highly robust age-coverage gradient among poor and near-poor children. Our results suggest the need to examine teen-specific insurance enrollment dynamics, particularly in families with no younger siblings, to optimize the effect of the newly enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on teens' insurance coverage.

  4. Lack of new antiinfective agents: Passing into the pre-antibiotic age?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus; Brandenburg; Tobias; Schürholz

    2015-01-01

    The lack of newly developed antibiotics, together with the increase in multi-resistance of relevant pathogenic bacteria in the last decades, represents an alarming signal for human health care worldwide. The number of severely infected persons increases not only in developing but also in highly industrialized countries. This relates in first line to the most severe form of a bacterial infection, sepsis and the septic shock syndrome, with high mortality on critical care units. No particular anti-sepsis drug is available, and the therapy with conventional antibiotics more and more fails to provide a survival benefit. Due to the fact that the pharmaceutical industry has withdrawn to a high degree from the development of anti-infectious agents, a huge challenge for health care is approaching in the 21 st century. In this article, these problems are outlined and possible alternatives are presented which may be helpful to solve the problem.

  5. A closer look at (lack of obviation phenomena in Romanian subjunctive complements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aurelia Cotfas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at Romanian subjunctive complements selected by volitional verbs and considers the interpretation of their null subjects and why – unlike the case of other Romance languages – these can co-refer with a main clause antecedent (what has been called “lack of obviation” in the literature. What we want to show (against claims made by Roussou 2001 and Landau 2004 is that null subject ca-subjunctives in Romanian do not trigger obviation (disjoint subjects and that obviation effects in such contexts can appear not because of ca, but in cases where the subject of the subjunctive complement is an overt 3rd person pronoun whose phi-features match those of the main clause subject. Supporting evidence for the different interpretation of null vs. overt pronouns comes from Reinhart’s (1999, 2000 variable binding vs. co-valuation (Rule I and Ariel’s (1991, 1994 Accessibility Theory.

  6. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M.; Mahmoud, Amr A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  7. Lack of Parental Rules for Cell Phone Use among Low Income Mexican Descendent Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bracamonte Wiggs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth have access to and utilize various types of technology at a growing rate. Cell phones are a portable way for adolescents to remain in constant contact with friends, parents, and others. While White youth are more likely to have a cell phone compared to Latino youth, the trends for cell phone use are similar among all teens with text messaging serving as the most popular means of communication. Despite their high volume of communication with others via cell phones, adolescents are likely to have little or no adult supervision while using technology. With a lack of parental supervision or awareness regarding youth technology use, adolescents may be especially vulnerable to cyberbullying and other negative health impacts. The current study investigates cell phone and texting use among a community sample of Latino adolescents and examines how parental rules regarding cell phone use influences adolescents’ cell phone and texting behaviors.

  8. Altered cognitive performance and synaptic function in the hippocampus of mice lacking C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Alcazar, Marta; Daborg, Jonny; Stokowska, Anna; Wasling, Pontus; Björefeldt, Andreas; Kalm, Marie; Zetterberg, Henrik; Carlström, Karl E; Blomgren, Klas; Ekdahl, Christine T; Hanse, Eric; Pekna, Marcela

    2014-03-01

    Previous work implicated the complement system in adult neurogenesis as well as elimination of synapses in the developing and injured CNS. In the present study, we used mice lacking the third complement component (C3) to elucidate the role the complement system plays in hippocampus-dependent learning and synaptic function. We found that the constitutive absence of C3 is associated with enhanced place and reversal learning in adult mice. Our findings of lower release probability at CA3-CA1 glutamatergic synapses in combination with unaltered overall efficacy of these synapses in C3 deficient mice implicate C3 as a negative regulator of the number of functional glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus. The C3 deficient mice showed no signs of spontaneous epileptiform activity in the hippocampus. We conclude that C3 plays a role in the regulation of the number and function of glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus and exerts negative effects on hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance.

  9. Mechanisms of collective cell movement lacking a leading or free front edge in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Hiroyuki; Kuranaga, Erina

    2017-08-01

    Collective cell movement is one of the strategies for achieving the complex shapes of tissues and organs. In this process, multiple cells within a group held together by cell-cell adhesion acquire mobility and move together in the same direction. In some well-studied models of collective cell movement, the mobility depends strongly on traction generated at the leading edge by cells located at the front. However, recent advances in live-imaging techniques have led to the discovery of other types of collective cell movement lacking a leading edge or even a free edge at the front, in a diverse array of morphological events, including tubule elongation, epithelial sheet extension, and tissue rotation. We herein review some of the developmental events that are organized by collective cell movement and attempt to elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, which include membrane protrusions, guidance cues, cell intercalation, and planer cell polarity, or chirality pathways.

  10. The lack of correspondence between work-related disability and receipt of workers' compensation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieler, Emily A; Burton, John F

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that many persons with disabilities caused by work do not receive workers' compensation benefits. Data from surveys of persons with disabilities were used to estimate the proportion of disability due to work-related injuries and diseases. Studies examining the proportion of workers with work-related disability who received workers' compensation benefits were reviewed. Legal and other factors explaining the lack of receipt of workers' compensation benefits were examined. Many workers with disabilities caused by work do not receive workers' compensation benefits. The obstacles to compensation include increasingly restrictive rules for compensability in many state workers' compensation programs. A substantial proportion of persons with work-related disabilities do not receive workers' compensation benefits. The solutions to this problem, such as providing healthcare to workers regardless of the source of injuries or diseases, are complicated and controversial, and will be difficult to implement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Altered response to benzodiazepine anxiolytics in mice lacking GABA B(1) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombereau, Cedric; Kaupmann, Klemens; van der Putten, Herman; Cryan, John F

    2004-08-16

    Recently, we demonstrated that mice lacking the GABA(B(1)) subunit were more anxious than wild-type animals in several behavioural paradigms, most notably in the light-dark test. In an attempt to assess the effects of classical benzodiazepine anxiolytics on anxiety-like behaviour observed in these mice, animals were administered either chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or diazepam (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) prior to testing in the light-dark box. Surprisingly, in contrast with the wild-type mice, neither benzodiazepines decreased anxiety-like behaviour in GABA(B(1))(-/-) mice. These data suggest that targeted deletion of GABA(B(1)) subunit alters GABA(A) receptor function in vivo.

  12. Lack of association between TDP-43 pathology and tau mis-splicing in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niblock, Michael; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Spickett, Carl; Jones, Rebecca; Shaw, Christopher E; Gallo, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    A proportion of Alzheimer's disease cases displays inclusions of the RNA-binding protein, TDP-43. Considering the pathogenic role of tau mis-splicing, we compared tau isoform expression between Alzheimer's disease cases with or without TDP-43 inclusions. The average ratio of tau isoforms containing or lacking exon 10 (4R/3R ratio) or the total level of tau mRNA was not significantly different between cases with or without TDP-43 pathology in any of the brain regions examined. Although TDP-43 functions may be affected, TDP-43 does not critically regulate expression or splicing of tau in Alzheimer's disease suggesting that TDP-43 contributes to Alzheimer's disease through mechanisms independent of tau. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lack-of-fit tests for assessing mean structures for continuous dose-response data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    We review a range of lack-of-fit tests suitable for assessing the appropriateness of the mean function in dose-response models. The review encompasses both well-known tests and new tests based on recent developments in statistics, which we have extended to the dose-response case. We argue...... that the classical methods are inadequate in certain situations, where the new tests may be applied. Power comparisons are carried out by means of extensive simulation studies, covering both designs with and without replicates at small and large sample sizes. Three datasets from dose-response applications illustrate...... differences and similarities between the tests. The results suggest that the new tests perform better and exhibit a wider applicability....

  14. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Barakat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg. Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive.

  15. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M; Mahmoud, Amr A A

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive.

  16. Lack of consensus in the diagnosis and treatment for ocular tuberculosis among uveitis specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Susan M; Larkin, Kelly L; Winthrop, Kevin; Rosenbaum, James T

    2015-02-01

    To assess the approach of specialists to ocular tuberculosis (TB). The American Uveitis Society (AUS) Listserv was surveyed using two clinical cases and general questions. Of 196 members, 87 responded (44.4%), of whom 64 were affiliated with practices in North America, while 23 were outside of North America. The survey provided normative data on how physicians evaluate patients with uveitis as well as opinions about ocular TB. Responses varied widely on such issues as (1) the pretest probability that a patient with granulomatous panuveitis had TB uveitis (range 1-75%) or that a patient with a risk factor for TB had ocular TB (range 0-90%); (2) the optimal duration of anti-TB therapy; and (3) whether therapy should be discontinued after 2 months in nonresponders. Consensus is lacking among uveitis specialists for the diagnosis or management of ocular TB.

  17. Gene expression profiling of gastric mucosa in mice lacking CCK and gastrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Kodama, Yosuke; Flatberg, Arnar

    2014-01-01

    acid secretion was impaired and the ECL cell signaling pathway was inhibited in CCK2 receptor KO mice but not in CCK1 receptor KO mice. However, in CCK1+2 receptor double KO mice the acid secretion in response to pylorus ligation-induced vagal stimulation and the ECL cell pathway were partially...... hydroxylase probably in trefoil peptide2-immunoreactive cells. In conclusion, mice lacking CCK receptors exhibited a functional shift from the gastrin-CCK pathways to the neuronal pathway in control of the ECL cells and eventually the acid secretion. Taking the present data together with previous findings, we......The stomach produces acid, which may play an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. The aim of this study was to reveal signaling pathways in the gastric mucosa that involve the acid secretion and possibly the bone metabolism in CCK1 and/or CCK2 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Gastric...

  18. Lack of founding Amerindian mitochondrial DNA lineages in extinct aborigines from Tierra del Fuego-Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalueza, C; Pérez-Pérez, A; Prats, E; Cornudella, L; Turbón, D

    1997-01-01

    Ancient DNA from bones and teeth of 60 individuals from four extinct human populations from Tierra del Fuego-Patagonia (Selknam, Yamana, Kaweskar and Aonikenk) has been extracted and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction. High-resolution analysis of endonuclease restriction site variation in the mtDNA and sequencing of its hypervariable non-coding control region, revealed complete absence of two of the four primary mitochondrial haplotype groups present in contemporary Amerinds, namely A and B. In contrast, haplogroups C and D were found in all but one sample with frequencies of approximately 38% and 60%. These results, together with the decreasing incidence of group A in more southerly latitudes in the American continent and the absence of cluster B above 55 degrees North in America and Asia, argue that the first settlers entering America 21000-14000 years ago already lacked both mtDNA lineages.

  19. Mice lacking the PACAP type I receptor have impaired photic entrainment and negative masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, J.; Brabet, P.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    2008-01-01

    The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a retinofugal neuronal pathway which, in mammals, mediates nonimage-forming vision to various areas in the brain involved in circadian timing, masking behavior, and regulation of the pupillary light reflex. The RHT costores the two neurotransmitters glutamate...... and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), which in a rather complex interplay are mediators of photic adjustment of the circadian system. To further characterize the role of PACAP/PACAP receptor type 1 (PAC1) receptor signaling in light entrainment of the clock and in negative masking behavior......, we extended previous studies in mice lacking the PAC1 receptor (PAC1 KO) by examining their phase response to single light pulses using Aschoff type II regime, their ability to entrain to non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles and large phase shifts of the LD cycle (jet lag), as well as their negative...

  20. The lack of Financial Statement Spplication in Kosovo’s Farms and its Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Jehona Shkodra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of financial statement analysis in business activities is essential but this is often seen as frivolous in developing countries and in Kosovo as well . From the research conducted in hundred farms in different regions of Kosovo we understood that the application level of financial statement applied is low and in few farms it does not exist at all. The following research questions were used for this research: 1. Why does this situation happen? 2. To what extent are farmers familiar with the financial statement analysis? 3. What is the farmer’ willingness to advance in financial statement analysis field? 4. What would be the consequences due to the lack of application of financial statements?

  1. PROPOSED CARDIAC STEM CELLS DERIVED FROM “CARDIOSPHERES” LACK CARDIOMYOGENIC POTENTIAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline

       Recent studies have reported that clinical relevant numbers of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) with cardiomyogenic potential can be obtained from small heart tissue biopsies, by an intrinsic ability of CSCs to form beating cardiospheres (CSs) during ex vivo culture. Such data have provided optimism...... that injuried heart tissue may be repaired by stem cell therapy using autologous CS derived cells, and pre-clinical studies have already been described in literature.    Herein, we established CSs from neonatal rats, and by immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and microscopic examination we demonstrated...... to form CSs by themselves. Phenotypically, CS cells largely resembled fibroblasts, and they lacked cardiomyogenic as well as endothelial differentiation potential.    Our data imply that at least the murine cardiosphere model seems unsuitable for enrichment of cardiac stem cells with cardiomyogenic...

  2. Crystal structure of a marine glycoside hydrolase family 99 related protein lacking catalytic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Craig S; Mystkowska, Agata Anna; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik

    2017-09-08

    Algal polysaccharides of diverse structures are one of the most abundant carbon resources for heterotrophic, marine bacteria with coevolved digestive enzymes. A putative sulfo-mannan polysaccharide utilization locus, which is conserved in marine Flavobacteriia, contains an unusual GH99-like protein that lacks the conserved catalytic residues of glycoside hydrolase family 99. Using X-ray crystallography, we structurally characterized this protein from the marine Flavobacterium Ochrovirga pacifica to help elucidate its molecular function. The structure reveals the absence of potential catalytic residues for polysaccharide hydrolysis, which, together with additional structural features, suggests this protein may be non-catalytic and involved in carbohydrate binding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  3. Leishmania promastigotes lack phosphatidylserine but bind annexin V upon permeabilization or miltefosine treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Weingärtner

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Leishmania is an intracellular pathogen infecting and replicating inside vertebrate host macrophages. A recent model suggests that promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite mimic mammalian apoptotic cells by exposing phosphatidylserine (PS at the cell surface to trigger their phagocytic uptake into host macrophages. PS presentation at the cell surface is typically analyzed using fluorescence-labeled annexin V. Here we show that Leishmania promastigotes can be stained by fluorescence-labeled annexin V upon permeabilization or miltefosine treatment. However, combined lipid analysis by thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry and (31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy revealed that Leishmania promastigotes lack any detectable amount of PS. Instead, we identified several other phospholipid classes such phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylethanolamine; phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol as candidate lipids enabling annexin V staining.

  4. A unique variant of streptococcal group O-antigen (C-polysaccharide) that lacks phosphocholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, N; Jansson, P.-E.; Kilian, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    to the previously characterized forms of C-polysaccharide, which all contain one or two choline residues per repeat. The following structure of the repeating unit of the SK598 polysaccharide was established: where AAT is 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxy-d-galactose. This structure is identical to the double......Streptococcus mitis strain SK598, which represents a subgroup of biovar 1, possesses a unique variant of the C-polysaccharide found in the cell wall of all strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and in some strains of S. mitis. This new variant lacks the choline methyl groups in contrast...... choline-substituted form of C-polysaccharide, except that it is substituted with ethanolamine instead of choline. This extends the number of recognized C-polysaccharide variants to four....

  5. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulwa, Zachary B; Sharlin, Jordan A; Clark, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Kilby, Chessa N; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-11-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or overrepresentation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that overrepresentation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards.

  6. [Quality management in emergency departments: Lack of uniform standards for fact-based controlling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, M; Christ, M

    2015-11-01

    The general high occupancy of emergency departments during the winter months of 2014/2015 outlined deficits in health politics. Whether on the regional, province, or federal level, verifiable and accepted figures to enable in depth analysis and fact-based controlling of emergency care systems are lacking. As the first step, reasons for the current situation are outlined in order to developed concrete recommendations for individual hospitals. This work is based on a selective literature search with focus on quality management, ratio driven management, and process management within emergency departments as well as personal experience with implementation of a key ratio system in a German maximum care hospital. The insufficient integration of emergencies into the DRG systematic, the role as gatekeeper between inpatient and outpatient care sector, the decentralized organization of emergency departments in many hospitals, and the inconsistent representation within the medical societies can be mentioned as reasons for the lack of key ratio systems. In addition to the important role within treatment procedures, emergency departments also have an immense economic importance. Consequently, the management of individual hospitals should promote implementation of key ratio systems to enable controlling of emergency care processes. Thereby the perspectives finance, employees, processes as well as partners and patients should be equally considered. Within the process perspective, milestones could be used to enable detailed controlling of treatment procedures. An implementation of key ratio systems without IT support is not feasible; thus, existing digital data should be used and future data analysis should already be considered during implementation of new IT systems.

  7. The Drosophila Anion Exchanger (DAE lacks a detectable interaction with the spectrin cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Base Christine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current models suggest that the spectrin cytoskeleton stabilizes interacting ion transport proteins at the plasma membrane. The human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1 was the first membrane transport protein found to be associated with the spectrin cytoskeleton. Here we evaluated a conserved anion exchanger from Drosophila (DAE as a marker for studies of the downstream effects of spectrin cytoskeleton mutations. Results Sequence comparisons established that DAE belongs to the SLC4A1-3 subfamily of anion exchangers that includes human AE1. Striking sequence conservation was observed in the C-terminal membrane transport domain and parts of the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, but not in the proposed ankyrin-binding site. Using an antibody raised against DAE and a recombinant transgene expressed in Drosophila S2 cells DAE was shown to be a 136 kd plasma membrane protein. A major site of expression was found in the stomach acid-secreting region of the larval midgut. DAE codistributed with an infolded subcompartment of the basal plasma membrane of interstitial cells. However, spectrin did not codistribute with DAE at this site or in anterior midgut cells that abundantly expressed both spectrin and DAE. Ubiquitous knockdown of DAE with dsRNA eliminated antibody staining and was lethal, indicating that DAE is an essential gene product in Drosophila. Conclusions Based on the lack of colocalization and the lack of sequence conservation at the ankyrin-binding site, it appears that the well-characterized interaction between AE1 and the spectrin cytoskeleton in erythrocytes is not conserved in Drosophila. The results establish a pattern in which most of the known interactions between the spectrin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane in mammals do not appear to be conserved in Drosophila.

  8. Bovine leukemia virus structural gene vectors are immunogenic and lack pathogenicity in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerova, L; Altanerova, V; Altaner, C; Boris-Lawrie, K

    1999-10-01

    Infection with a replication-competent bovine leukemia virus structural gene vector (BLV SGV) is an innovative vaccination approach to prevent disease by complex retroviruses. Previously we developed BLV SGV that constitutively expresses BLV gag, pol, and env and related cis-acting sequences but lacks tax, rex, RIII, and GIV and most of the BLV long terminal repeat sequences, including the cis-acting Tax and Rex response elements. The novel SGV virus is replication competent and replicates a selectable vector to a titer similar to that of the parental BLV in cell culture. The overall goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that infection with BLV SGV is nonpathogenic in rabbits. BLV infection of rabbits by inoculation of cell-free BLV or cell-associated BLV typically causes an immunodeficiency-like syndrome and death by 1 year postinfection. We sought to evaluate whether in vivo transfection of BLV provirus recapitulates pathogenic BLV infection and to compare BLV and BLV SGV with respect to infection, immunogenicity, and clinical outcome. Three groups of rabbits were subjected to in vivo transfection with BLV, BLV SGV, or negative control DNA. The results of our 20-month study indicate that in vivo transfection of rabbits with BLV recapitulates the fatal BLV infection produced by cell-free or cell-associated BLV. The BLV-infected rabbits exhibited sudden onset of clinical decline and immunodeficiency-like symptoms that culminated in death. BLV and BLV SGV infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells and induced similar levels of seroconversion to BLV structural proteins. However, BLV SGV exhibited a reduced proviral load and did not trigger the immunodeficiency-like syndrome. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that BLV SGV is infectious and immunogenic and lacks BLV pathogenicity in rabbits, and they support the use of this modified proviral vector delivery system for vaccines against complex retroviruses like BLV.

  9. The Impact of Racism and Midwifery's Lack of Racial Diversity: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren Serbin, Jyesha; Donnelly, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    The United States is increasingly racially diverse. Racial disparities in maternal-child health persist. Despite national calls for workforce diversification, more than 90% of certified nurse-midwives are white. This systematic review examines how racism and midwifery's lack of racial diversity impact both midwives and their patients. Databases were searched in January 2016 for studies that explored 1) racially concordant or racially discordant maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; 2) women of color's experience of race and discrimination in maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; and 3) midwives of color's experience of race and discrimination in clinical, educational, and/or professional settings. Studies were excluded if they were conducted outside the United States, focused on recent immigrant populations, or didn't have an English-language abstract. Selected studies were each reviewed by 2 independent reviewers, and data from the studies were entered into literature tables and synthesized for discussion. A total of 7 studies was retained for review-3 on the experience of patients and 4 on the experience of providers. The studies show racism is common in midwifery education, professional organizations, and clinical practices. Racism and midwifery's lack of racial diversity act as a barrier to people of color completing midwifery education programs and fully participating in midwifery professional organizations. Both patients and midwives of color identified midwives of color as uniquely positioned to provide high-quality care for communities of color. The midwifery profession and its patients stand to substantially benefit from diversification of the field, which requires addressing racism within the profession. Structural competency is a new theory that offers an effective framework to guide these efforts. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. The lack of autophagy triggers precocious activation of Notch signaling during Drosophila oogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Julia MI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proper balance of autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation process, is indispensable for oogenesis in Drosophila. We recently demonstrated that egg development depends on autophagy in the somatic follicle cells (FC, but not in the germline cells (GCs. However, the lack of autophagy only affects oogenesis when FCs are autophagy-deficient but GCs are wild type, indicating that a dysfunctional signaling between soma and germline may be responsible for the oogenesis defects. Thus, autophagy could play an essential role in modulating signal transduction pathways during egg development. Results Here, we provide further evidence for the necessity of autophagy during oogenesis and demonstrate that autophagy is especially required in subsets of FCs. Generation of autophagy-deficient FCs leads to a wide range of phenotypes that are similar to mutants with defects in the classical cell-cell signaling pathways in the ovary. Interestingly, we observe that loss of autophagy leads to a precocious activation of the Notch pathway in the FCs as monitored by the expression of Cut and Hindsight, two downstream effectors of Notch signaling. Conclusion Our findings point to an unexpected function for autophagy in the modulation of the Notch signaling pathway during Drosophila oogenesis and suggest a function for autophagy in proper receptor activation. Egg development is affected by an imbalance of autophagy between signal sending (germline and signal receiving cell (FC, thus the lack of autophagy in the germline is likely to decrease the amount of active ligand and accordingly compensates for increased signaling in autophagy-defective follicle cells.

  11. Mutations by near-ultraviolet radiation in Escherichia coli strains lacking superoxide dismutase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerter, J. (Stephens College, Columbia (USA). Department of Natural Sciences); Eisenstark, A. (Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (USA). Div. of Biological Sciences Paris 7 Universite (France). Centre National de la Recherche, Institut Jacques Monod); Touati, D. (Paris 7 Universite (France). Centre National de la Recherche, Institut Jacques Monod)

    1989-12-01

    In wild-type Eschericia coli, near-ultraviolet radiation (NUV) was only weakly mutagenic. However, in an allelic mutant strain (sodA sodB) that lacks both Mn- and Fe-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and assumed to have excess superoxide anion, NUV induced a 9-fold increase in mutatin above the level that normally occurs in this double mutant. When a sodA sodB double mutant contained a plasmid carrying katG{sup +} (excess HP-I catalase), mutation by NUV was reduced to wild-type (sodA{sup +} sodB{sup +}) levels. Also, in the sodA sodB xthA triple mutant, which lacks exonuclease III (exoIII) in addition to SOD, the mutational frequency by NUV was reduced to wild-type levels. This synergistic action of NUV and O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} suggested that pre-mutational lesions occur, with exoIII converting these lesions to stable mutants. Exposure to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced a 2.8-fold increase in mutations in sodA sodB double mutants, but was reduced to control levels when a plasmid carrying katG{sup +} was introduced. These results suggest that NUV, in addition to its other effects on cells, increases mutations indirectly by increasing the flux of OH{sup .} radicals, possibly by generating excess H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. (author). 20 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab.

  12. Lack of Innate Interferon Responses during SARS Coronavirus Infection in a Vaccination and Reinfection Ferret Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Mark J.; Kelvin, Alyson A.; Leon, Alberto J.; Cameron, Cheryl M.; Ran, Longsi; Xu, Luoling; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Danesh, Ali; Fang, Yuan; Li, Qianjun; Anderson, Austin; Couch, Ronald C.; Paquette, Stephane G.; Fomukong, Ndingsa G.; Kistner, Otfried; Lauchart, Manfred; Rowe, Thomas; Harrod, Kevin S.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Kelvin, David J.

    2012-01-01

    In terms of its highly pathogenic nature, there remains a significant need to further define the immune pathology of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, as well as identify correlates of immunity to help develop vaccines for severe coronaviral infections. Here we use a SARS-CoV infection-reinfection ferret model and a functional genomics approach to gain insight into SARS immunopathogenesis and to identify correlates of immune protection during SARS-CoV-challenge in ferrets previously infected with SARS-CoV or immunized with a SARS virus vaccine. We identified gene expression signatures in the lungs of ferrets associated with primary immune responses to SARS-CoV infection and in ferrets that received an identical second inoculum. Acute SARS-CoV infection prompted coordinated innate immune responses that were dominated by antiviral IFN response gene (IRG) expression. Reinfected ferrets, however, lacked the integrated expression of IRGs that was prevalent during acute infection. The expression of specific IRGs was also absent upon challenge in ferrets immunized with an inactivated, Al(OH)3-adjuvanted whole virus SARS vaccine candidate that protected them against SARS-CoV infection in the lungs. Lack of IFN-mediated immune enhancement in infected ferrets that were previously inoculated with, or vaccinated against, SARS-CoV revealed 9 IRG correlates of protective immunity. This data provides insight into the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and SARS-like-CoV infections and is an important resource for the development of CoV antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:23029269

  13. A stop codon mutation in SCN9A causes lack of pain sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sultan; Dahllund, Leif; Eriksson, Anders B; Hellgren, Dennis; Karlsson, Urban; Lund, Per-Eric; Meijer, Inge A; Meury, Luc; Mills, Tracy; Moody, Adrian; Morinville, Anne; Morten, John; O'donnell, Dajan; Raynoschek, Carina; Salter, Hugh; Rouleau, Guy A; Krupp, Johannes J

    2007-09-01

    The general lack of pain experience is a rare occurrence in humans, and the molecular causes for this phenotype are not well understood. Here we have studied a Canadian family from Newfoundland with members who exhibit a congenital inability to experience pain. We have mapped the locus to a 13.7 Mb region on chromosome 2q (2q24.3-2q31.1). Screening of candidate genes in this region identified a protein-truncating mutation in SCN9A, which encodes for the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.7. The mutation is a C-A transversion at nucleotide 984 transforming the codon for tyrosine 328 to a stop codon. The predicted product lacks all pore-forming regions of Na(v)1.7. Indeed, expression of this altered gene in a cell line did not produce functional responses, nor did it cause compensatory effects on endogenous voltage-gated sodium currents when expressed in ND7/23 cells. Because a homozygous knockout of Na(v)1.7 in mice has been shown to be lethal, we explored why a deficiency of Na(v)1.7 is non-lethal in humans. Expression studies in monkey, human, mouse and rat tissue indicated species-differences in the Na(v)1.7 expression profile. Whereas in rodents the channel was strongly expressed in hypothalamic nuclei, only weak mRNA levels were detected in this area in primates. Furthermore, primate pituitary and adrenal glands were devoid of signal, whereas these two glands were mRNA-positive in rodents. This species difference may explain the non-lethality of the observed mutation in humans. Our data further establish Na(v)1.7 as a critical element of peripheral nociception in humans.

  14. Canid progesterone receptors lack activation function 3 domain-dependent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracanin, Ana; van Wolferen, Monique E; Sartorius, Carol A; Brenkman, Arjan B; Schoonen, Willem G; Mol, Jan A

    2012-12-01

    Progesterone regulates multiple behavioral, physiological, and pathological aspects of female reproductive biology through its two progesterone receptors (PRs), PR-B and the truncated PR-A. PR-B is necessary for mammary gland development in mice and, compared with PR-A, is overall a stronger transactivator of target genes due to an additional activation function 3 (AF3) domain. In dogs, known for their high sensitivity to progesterone-induced mammary cancer, the PR-B function was studied. Canine PR (cPR)-B appeared to contain multiple mutations within AF3 core sequence motifs and lacks N-terminal ligand-independent posttranslational modifications. Consequently, cPR-B has a weak transactivation potential on progesterone-responsive mouse mammary tumor virus-luc and progesterone response element 2-luc reporters transiently transfected in hamster, human, or canine cells and also on known target genes FKBP5 and SGK in doxycycline-inducible, stable transfected cPR-B in canine mammary cells. The cPR-B function was restored to the level of human PR-B by the replacement of canine AF3 domain with the human one. The lack of AF3 domain-dependent transcriptional activity was unique for canids (gray wolf, red fox, and raccoon dog) and not present in closely related caniform species (brown bear, gray seal, and domestic ferret). Despite the limited transactivation potential, canids develop normal mammary glands and frequently mammary tumors. Therefore, these results question the role of PR-B in breast cancer development and may explain unique features of canid reproduction.

  15. Getting what we pay for: innovations lacking in provider payment reform for chronic disease care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Ann; Draper, Debra A

    2008-06-01

    Despite wide recognition that existing physician and hospital payment methods used by health plans and other payers do not foster high-quality and efficient care for people with chronic conditions, little innovation in provider payment strategies is occurring, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) commissioned by the California HealthCare Foundation. This is particularly disconcerting because the nation faces an increasing prevalence of chronic disease, resulting in continued escalation of related health care costs and diminished quality of life for more Americans. To date, most efforts to improve care of patients with chronic conditions have focused on paying vendors, such as disease management firms, to intervene with patients or redesigning care delivery without reforming underlying physician and hospital payment methods. While there is active discussion and anticipation of physician and hospital payment reform, current efforts are limited largely to experimental or small-scale pilot programs. More fundamental payment reform efforts in practice are virtually nonexistent. Existing payment systems, primarily fee for service, encourage a piecemeal approach to care delivery rather than a coordinated approach appropriate for patients with chronic conditions. While there is broad agreement that existing provider payment methods are not well aligned with optimal chronic disease care, there are significant barriers to reforming payment for chronic disease care, including: (1) fragmented care delivery; (2) lack of payment for non-physician providers and services supportive of chronic disease care; (3) potential for revenue reductions for some providers; and (4) lack of a viable reform champion. Absent such reform, however, efforts to improve the quality and efficiency of care for chronically ill patients are likely to be of limited success.

  16. Predicting Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Algae Lacking Carbon Concentrating Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E Kübler

    Full Text Available Seaweeds that lack carbon-concentrating mechanisms are potentially inorganic carbon-limited under current air equilibrium conditions. To estimate effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and ocean acidification on photosynthetic rates, we modeled rates of photosynthesis in response to pCO2, temperature, and their interaction under limiting and saturating photon flux densities. We synthesized the available data for photosynthetic responses of red seaweeds lacking carbon-concentrating mechanisms to light and temperature. The model was parameterized with published data and known carbonate system dynamics. The model predicts that direction and magnitude of response to pCO2 and temperature, depend on photon flux density. At sub-saturating light intensities, photosynthetic rates are predicted to be low and respond positively to increasing pCO2, and negatively to increasing temperature. Consequently, pCO2 and temperature are predicted to interact antagonistically to influence photosynthetic rates at low PFD. The model predicts that pCO2 will have a much larger effect than temperature at sub-saturating light intensities. However, photosynthetic rates under low light will not increase proportionately as pCO2 in seawater continues to rise. In the range of light saturation (Ik, both CO2 and temperature have positive effects on photosynthetic rate and correspondingly strong predicted synergistic effects. At saturating light intensities, the response of photosynthetic rates to increasing pCO2 approaches linearity, but the model also predicts increased importance of thermal over pCO2 effects, with effects acting additively. Increasing boundary layer thickness decreased the effect of added pCO2 and, for very thick boundary layers, overwhelmed the effect of temperature on photosynthetic rates. The maximum photosynthetic rates of strictly CO2-using algae are low, so even large percentage increases in rates with climate change will not

  17. Myocardial mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in mice lacking adiponectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Braun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/- mice and wildtypes (WT. In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24% in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1α were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions.

  18. Mice lacking pten in osteoblasts have improved intramembranous and late endochondral fracture healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis A Burgers

    Full Text Available The failure of an osseous fracture to heal (development of a non-union is a common and debilitating clinical problem. Mice lacking the tumor suppressor Pten in osteoblasts have dramatic and progressive increases in bone volume and density throughout life. Since fracture healing is a recapitulation of bone development, we investigated the process of fracture healing in mice lacking Pten in osteoblasts (Ocn-cre(tg/+;Pten(flox/flox . Mid-diaphyseal femoral fractures induced in wild-type and Ocn-cre(tg/+;Pten(flox/flox mice were studied via micro-computed tomography (µCT scans, biomechanical testing, histological and histomorphometric analysis, and protein expression analysis. Ocn-cre(tg/+;Pten(flox/flox mice had significantly stiffer and stronger intact bones relative to controls in all cohorts. They also had significantly stiffer healing bones at day 28 post-fracture (PF and significantly stronger healing bones at days 14, 21, and 28 PF. At day 7 PF, the proximal and distal ends of the Pten mutant calluses were more ossified. By day 28 PF, Pten mutants had larger and more mineralized calluses. Pten mutants had improved intramembranous bone formation during healing originating from the periosteum. They also had improved endochondral bone formation later in the healing process, after mature osteoblasts are present in the callus. Our results indicate that the inhibition of Pten can improve fracture healing and that the local or short-term use of commercially available Pten-inhibiting agents may have clinical application for enhancing fracture healing.

  19. Myocardial mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in mice lacking adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Martin; Hettinger, Niko; Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Cimolai, Maria C; Hoffmann, Michael M; Osterholt, Moritz; Doenst, Torsten; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/-) mice and wildtypes (WT). In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24%) in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1α were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions.

  20. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. 1.489 Section 1.489 Patents, Trademarks... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International Preliminary...

  1. The Impact of Lack of Resources on Declining Students' Enrolments in Design and Technology in Botswana Junior Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaotlhobogwe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Lack of resources has resulted in declining students' enrolment in design and technology in Botswana junior secondary schools by up to 6% per year over 10 years, despite positive encouragement by the government. Based on the PATT (pupils' attitude towards technology) theoretical framework this study indicated how a lack of resources in Botswana…

  2. Cerebellar transcriptional alterations with Purkinje cell dysfunction and loss in mice lacking PGC-1α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Elizabeth K.; Reid, Courtney S.; McMeekin, Laura J.; Dougherty, Sarah E.; Floyd, Candace L.; Cowell, Rita M.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the expression and activity of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (ppargc1a or PGC-1α) have been reported in multiple movement disorders, yet it is unclear how a lack of PGC-1α impacts transcription and function of the cerebellum, a region with high PGC-1α expression. We show here that mice lacking PGC-1α exhibit ataxia in addition to the previously described deficits in motor coordination. Using q-RT-PCR in cerebellar homogenates from PGC-1α−/− mice, we measured expression of 37 microarray-identified transcripts upregulated by PGC-1α in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with neuroanatomical overlap with PGC-1α or parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer highly expressed by Purkinje cells. We found significant reductions in transcripts with synaptic (complexin1, Cplx1; Pacsin2), structural (neurofilament heavy chain, Nefh), and metabolic (isocitrate dehydrogenase 3a, Idh3a; neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1, Nceh1; pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1, Pdha1; phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase, Phyh; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1, Uqcrfs1) functions. Using conditional deletion of PGC-1α in PV-positive neurons, we determined that 50% of PGC-1α expression and a reduction in a subset of these transcripts could be explained by its concentration in PV-positive neuronal populations in the cerbellum. To determine whether there were functional consequences associated with these changes, we conducted stereological counts and spike rate analysis in Purkinje cells, a cell type rich in PV, from PGC-1α−/− mice. We observed a significant loss of Purkinje cells by 6 weeks of age, and the remaining Purkinje cells exhibited a 50% reduction in spike rate. Together, these data highlight the complexity of PGC-1α's actions in the central nervous system and suggest that dysfunction in multiple cell types contribute to motor deficits in the context of PGC-1α deficiency. PMID

  3. Increased renal renin content in mice lacking the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, Fiona; Chambrey, Régine; Bourgeois, Soline; Meer, Elliott; Mucsi, István; Rosivall, László; Shull, Gary E; Lorenz, John N; Eladari, Dominique; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2008-04-01

    Macula densa (MD) cells express the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) isoform NHE2 at the apical membrane, which may play an important role in tubular salt sensing through the regulation of cell volume and intracellular pH. These studies aimed to determine whether NHE2 participates in the MD control of renin synthesis. Renal renin content and activity and elements of the MD signaling pathway were analyzed using wild-type (NHE2(+/+)) and NHE2 knockout (NHE2(-/-)) mice. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that NHE2(-/-) mice lack NHE3 at the MD apical membrane, so the other apical NHE isoform has not compensated for the lack of NHE2. Importantly, the number of renin-expressing cells in the afferent arteriole in NHE2(-/-) mice was increased approximately 2.5-fold using renin immunohistochemistry. Western blotting confirmed approximately 20% higher renal cortical renin content in NHE2(-/-) mice compared with wild type. No-salt diet for 1 wk significantly increased renin content and activity in NHE2(+/+) mice, but the response was blunted in NHE2(-/-) mice. Renal tissue renin activity and plasma renin concentration were elevated three- and twofold, respectively, in NHE2(-/-) mice compared with wild type. NHE2(-/-) mice also exhibited a significantly increased renal cortical cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) expression, indicating MD-specific mechanisms responsible for the increased renin content. Significant and chronic activation of ERK1/2 was observed in MD cells of NHE2(-/-) kidneys. Removal of salt or addition of NHE inhibitors to cultured mouse MD-derived (MMDD1) cells caused a time-dependent activation of ERK1/2. In conclusion, the NHE2 isoform appears to be important in the MD feedback control of renin secretion, and the signaling pathway likely involves MD cell shrinkage and activation of ERK1/2, COX-2, and mPGES, all well-established elements of the MD-PGE(2)-renin release pathway.

  4. Cerebellar transcriptional alterations with Purkinje cell dysfunction and loss in mice lacking PGC-1α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the expression and activity of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (ppargc1a or PGC-1α have been reported in multiple movement disorders, yet it is unclear how a lack of PGC-1α impacts transcription and function of the cerebellum, a region with high PGC-1α expression. We show here that mice lacking PGC-1α exhibit ataxia in addition to the previously described deficits in motor coordination. Using q-RT-PCR in cerebellar homogenates from PGC-1α -/- mice, we measured expression of 37 microarray-identified transcripts upregulated by PGC-1α in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with neuroanatomical overlap with PGC-1α or parvalbumin (PV, a calcium buffer highly expressed by Purkinje cells. We found significant reductions in transcripts with synaptic (complexin1, Cplx1; Pacsin2, structural (neurofilament heavy chain, Nefh, and metabolic (isocitrate dehydrogenase 3a, Idh3a; neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1, Nceh1; pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1, Pdha1; phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase, Phyh; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1, Uqcrfs1 functions. Using conditional deletion of PGC-1α in PV-positive neurons, we determined that 50% of PGC-1α expression and a reduction in a subset of these transcripts could be explained by its concentration in PV-positive neuronal populations in the cerbellum. To determine whether there were functional consequences associated with these changes, we conducted stereological counts and spike rate analysis in Purkinje cells, a cell type rich in PV, from PGC-1α -/- mice. We observed a significant loss of Purkinje cells by six weeks of age, and the remaining Purkinje cells exhibited a 50% reduction in spike rate. Together, these data highlight the complexity of PGC-1α’s actions in the central nervous system and suggest that dysfunction in multiple cell types contribute to motor deficits in the context of PGC-1α deficiency.

  5. Evidence for a lack of biological P-cycling in a Cambrian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z.; Peng, Y.; Bao, H.

    2015-12-01

    The earliest fossil land plants are known to exist in the Mid-Ordovician at 472 to 468 Ma and protein sequence analyses suggest that the onset of land colonization may have begun at as early as ca. 700-1000 million years ago (Ma) . However, fully established soil ecosystem may not be in place until after the Devonian (ca. 400 Ma) or even later. Dearth of fossil record on possible fungi- and/or bacteria-dominated early land biota renders it difficult to establish the early history of land colonization on Earth. Here we present a proxy for soil biological P- cycling. Igneous rock contains typically 0.005-0.4% (wt) phosphate (PO4-3). In a biologically active soil weathering profile, phosphorus (P) is cycled by land biota including by those of the most primitive kingdoms. During, for example, pyrophosphate hydrolysis, the P-O bonds in PO4-3 breaks and exchange oxygen with ambient water. The biologically processed PO4-3 will have typically much higher δ18Ovalues (15-24‰ VSMOW) than the ones inherited from igneous sources (ca. 6‰). Therefore, an increase in the δ18OPO4 from pristine igneous rocks to the upper more weathered ones should be expected if there was an active soil biological P-cycling. An igneous-PO4 δ18O value in the more weathered rocks would otherwise indicate a lack of biologically-mediated P-cycling, thus a lack of or very limited land colonization. We examined a weathering profile in the Elk Point Formation (520-503Ma), South Dakota, a paleosol developed on a metagabbro in a subtropical climate of the Mid-Cambrian. Phosphate was extracted from a drill core of this profile and was analyzed for δ18OPO4. The δ18OPO4 for the weathered and un-weathered igneous rocks are all within a narrow range of 4.8-8.2‰, suggesting that biological P-cycling was insignificant during the weathering of Elk Point metagabbro at ca. 500 Ma. Subaerial, biologically mediated weathering probably did not play a role in geochemical cycling on Earth until much later in

  6. Transcriptional responses to glucose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking a functional protein kinase A

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    Livas Daniela

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern of gene transcripts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly affected by the presence of glucose. An increased activity of protein kinase A (PKA, triggered by a rise in the intracellular concentration of cAMP, can account for many of the effects of glucose on transcription. In S. cerevisiae three genes, TPK1, TPK2, and TPK3, encode catalytic subunits of PKA. The lack of viability of tpk1 tpk2 tpk3 triple mutants may be suppressed by mutations such as yak1 or msn2/msn4. To investigate the requirement for PKA in glucose control of gene expression, we have compared the effects of glucose on global transcription in a wild-type strain and in two strains devoid of PKA activity, tpk1 tpk2 tpk3 yak1 and tpk1 tpk2 tpk3 msn2 msn4. Results We have identified different classes of genes that can be induced -or repressed- by glucose in the absence of PKA. Representative examples are genes required for glucose utilization and genes involved in the metabolism of other carbon sources, respectively. Among the genes responding to glucose in strains devoid of PKA some are also controlled by a redundant signalling pathway involving PKA activation, while others are not affected when PKA is activated through an increase in cAMP concentration. On the other hand, among genes that do not respond to glucose in the absence of PKA, some give a full response to increased cAMP levels, even in the absence of glucose, while others appear to require the cooperation of different signalling pathways. We show also that, for a number of genes controlled by glucose through a PKA-dependent pathway, the changes in mRNA levels are transient. We found that, in cells grown in gluconeogenic conditions, expression of a small number of genes, mainly connected with the response to stress, is reduced in the strains lacking PKA. Conclusions In S. cerevisiae, the transcriptional responses to glucose are triggered by a variety of pathways, alone or in

  7. Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Mice Lacking the Tas1r3 Taste Receptor Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir O Murovets

    Full Text Available The G-protein-coupled sweet taste receptor dimer T1R2/T1R3 is expressed in taste bud cells in the oral cavity. In recent years, its involvement in membrane glucose sensing was discovered in endocrine cells regulating glucose homeostasis. We investigated importance of extraorally expressed T1R3 taste receptor protein in age-dependent control of blood glucose homeostasis in vivo, using nonfasted mice with a targeted mutation of the Tas1r3 gene that encodes the T1R3 protein. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests, as well as behavioral tests measuring taste responses to sucrose solutions, were performed with C57BL/6ByJ (Tas1r3+/+ inbred mice bearing the wild-type allele and C57BL/6J-Tas1r3tm1Rfm mice lacking the entire Tas1r3 coding region and devoid of the T1R3 protein (Tas1r3-/-. Compared with Tas1r3+/+ mice, Tas1r3-/- mice lacked attraction to sucrose in brief-access licking tests, had diminished taste preferences for sucrose solutions in the two-bottle tests, and had reduced insulin sensitivity and tolerance to glucose administered intraperitoneally or intragastrically, which suggests that these effects are due to absence of T1R3. Impairment of glucose clearance in Tas1r3-/- mice was exacerbated with age after intraperitoneal but not intragastric administration of glucose, pointing to a compensatory role of extraoral T1R3-dependent mechanisms in offsetting age-dependent decline in regulation of glucose homeostasis. Incretin effects were similar in Tas1r3+/+ and Tas1r3-/- mice, which suggests that control of blood glucose clearance is associated with effects of extraoral T1R3 in tissues other than the gastrointestinal tract. Collectively, the obtained data demonstrate that the T1R3 receptor protein plays an important role in control of glucose homeostasis not only by regulating sugar intake but also via its extraoral function, probably in the pancreas and brain.

  8. Cutaneous paragonimiasis due to triploid Paragonimus westermani presenting as a non-migratory subcutaneous nodule: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Makoto; Akaki, Mayumi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Nagayasu, Eiji; Yokouchi, Tetsuhiro; Arimura, Yasuji; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Paragonimiasis is a food-borne infection caused by Paragonimus parasites. The lungs and pleura are the primary sites for the infection; however, ectopic infection can occur in other organs such as skin, liver and brain. It is difficult to make a diagnosis of ectopic paragonimiasis due to an ignorance of, and unfamiliarity with the disease. We report the case of a patient with subcutaneous paragonimiasis diagnosed by histopathological analysis and serological testing. Case present...

  9. The lack of focused anticipation of verbal information in stutterers: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Peter; Mayer, Dagmar; Deecke, Lüder; Thurner, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    The motivation of this work was to investigate stuttering--a disorder of speech motor control--in the light of preparatory neural activity of voluntary movements related to speech. To this end, brain activity was recorded with a whole cortex magnetoencephalograph (MEG) in developmental stutterers and nonstutterers while three different tasks of single-word reading were performed. Visually presented words had to be silently read immediately after word presentation (condition 1), spoken aloud immediately after word presentation (condition 2), or spoken aloud after a delay of 1.3 s as indicated by a second visual stimulus (condition 3). Condition 2 clearly showed marked neurophysiological differences between stutterers and nonstutterers. Only nonstutterers showed clear neural activity before speech onset, which is interpreted as being linked to visual word presentation and to reflect focused verbal anticipation. This prespeech activity might reflect the "Bereitschaftsfeld2" (BF2) that is the later component of the "Bereitschaftsfeld", a well-known preparatory activity described for many other voluntary movements. Our results strongly link the lack of such preparatory brain activity at the single-word level to the disability of fluent speech in stutterers. The present results strongly support the notion that stuttering is related to impaired focused attention or anticipation.

  10. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana F; Romão, Célia V; Pinto, Liliana C; Huber, Harald; Saraiva, Lígia M; Todorovic, Smilja; Cabelli, Diane; Teixeira, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the -EKHVP- motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue is substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (-E23T24HVP-), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild-type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.

  11. Mutant mice lacking the p53 C-terminal domain model telomere syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Iva; Jaber, Sara; Draskovic, Irena; Bardot, Boris; Fang, Ming; Bouarich-Bourimi, Rachida; Lejour, Vincent; Charbonnier, Laure; Soudais, Claire; Bourdon, Jean-Christophe; Huerre, Michel; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo; Toledo, Franck

    2013-06-27

    Mutations in p53, although frequent in human cancers, have not been implicated in telomere-related syndromes. Here, we show that homozygous mutant mice expressing p53Δ31, a p53 lacking the C-terminal domain, exhibit increased p53 activity and suffer from aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis, hallmarks of syndromes caused by short telomeres. Indeed, p53Δ31/Δ31 mice had short telomeres and other phenotypic traits associated with the telomere disease dyskeratosis congenita and its severe variant the Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. Heterozygous p53+/Δ31 mice were only mildly affected, but decreased levels of Mdm4, a negative regulator of p53, led to a dramatic aggravation of their symptoms. Importantly, several genes involved in telomere metabolism were downregulated in p53Δ31/Δ31 cells, including Dyskerin, Rtel1, and Tinf2, which are mutated in dyskeratosis congenita, and Terf1, which is implicated in aplastic anemia. Together, these data reveal that a truncating mutation can activate p53 and that p53 plays a major role in the regulation of telomere metabolism.

  12. Informing disinvestment through cost-effectiveness modelling: is lack of data a surmountable barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnon, Jonathan; Carlton, Jill; Czoski-Murray, Carolyn; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The mandatory nature of recommendations made by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the UK has highlighted inherent difficulties in the process of disinvestment in existing technologies to fund NICE-approved technologies. A lack of evidence on candidate technologies means that the process of disinvestment is subject to greater uncertainty than the investment process, and inefficiencies may occur as a result of the inverse evidence law. This article describes a potential disinvestment scenario and the options for the decision maker, including the conduct of value of information analyses. To illustrate the scenario, an economic evaluation of a disinvestment candidate (screening for amblyopia and strabismus) is presented. Only very limited data were available. The reference case analysis found that screening is not cost effective at currently accepted values of a QALY. However, a small utility decrement due to unilateral vision loss reduced the incremental cost per QALY gained, with screening expected to be extremely cost effective. The discussion highlights the specific options to be considered by decision makers in light of the model-based evaluation. It is shown that the evaluation provides useful information to guide the disinvestment decision, providing a range of focused options with respect to the decision and the decision-making process. A combination of explicit model-based evaluation, and pragmatic and generalizable approaches to interpreting uncertainty in the decision-making process is proposed, which should enable informed decisions around the disinvestment of technologies with weak evidence bases.

  13. Defective Differentiation of Adipose Precursor Cells from Lipodystrophic Mice Lacking Perilipin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ying; Su, Xueying; Deng, Jingna; Liu, Shangxin; Zou, Liangqiang; Zhao, Xiaojing; Wei, Suning; Geng, Bin; Xu, Guoheng

    2015-01-01

    Perilipin 1 (Plin1) localizes at the surface of lipid droplets to regulate triglyceride storage and hydrolysis in adipocytes. Plin1 defect leads to low adiposity in mice and partial lipodystrophy in human. This study investigated the roles of Plin1 in adipocyte differentiation. Plin1 null (-/-) mice showed plenty of multilocular adipocytes and small unilocular adipocytes in adipose tissue, along with lack of a subpopulation of adipose progenitor cells capable of in vivo adipogenesis and along with downregulation of adipogenic pathway. Before initiation of differentiation, adipose stromal-vascular cells (SVCs) from Plin1-/- mice already accumulated numerous tiny lipid droplets, which increased in number and size during the first 12-h induction but thereafter became disappeared at day 1 of differentiation. The adipogenic signaling was dysregulated despite protein level of PPARγ was near normal in Plin1-/- SVCs like in Plin1-/- adipose tissue. Heterozygous Plin1+/- SVCs were able to develop lipid droplets, with both the number and size more than in Plin1-/- SVCs but less than in Plin1+/+ SVCs, indicating that Plin1 haploinsufficiency accounts for attenuated adipogenesis. Aberrant lipid droplet growth and differentiation of Plin1-/- SVCs were rescued by adenoviral Plin1 expression and were ameliorated by enhanced or prolonged adipogenic stimulation. Our finding suggests that Plin1 plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and provides an insight into the pathology of partial lipodystrophy in patients with Plin1 mutation. PMID:25695774

  14. Early signs of pathological cognitive aging in mice lacking high-affinity nicotinic receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eKonsolaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. Α deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-, which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioural signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviours, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm and extend the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments, manifested in both spatial learning and recognition memory tasks. In addition, we reveal deficits in spontaneous behaviour and habituation processes earlier in life. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioural examination of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioural changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging.

  15. Folate deficiency induces neurodegeneration and brain dysfunction in mice lacking uracil DNA glycosylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Golo; Harms, Christoph; Sobol, Robert W; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Linhart, Heinz; Winter, Benjamin; Balkaya, Mustafa; Gertz, Karen; Gay, Shanna B; Cox, David; Eckart, Sarah; Ahmadi, Michael; Juckel, Georg; Kempermann, Gerd; Hellweg, Rainer; Sohr, Reinhard; Hörtnagl, Heide; Wilson, Samuel H; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Endres, Matthias

    2008-07-09

    Folate deficiency and resultant increased homocysteine levels have been linked experimentally and epidemiologically with neurodegenerative conditions like stroke and dementia. Moreover, folate deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, most notably depression. We hypothesized that the pathogenic mechanisms include uracil misincorporation and, therefore, analyzed the effects of folate deficiency in mice lacking uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung-/-) versus wild-type controls. Folate depletion increased nuclear mutation rates in Ung-/- embryonic fibroblasts, and conferred death of cultured Ung-/- hippocampal neurons. Feeding animals a folate-deficient diet (FD) for 3 months induced degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons in Ung-/- but not Ung+/+ mice along with decreased hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein and decreased brain levels of antioxidant glutathione. Furthermore, FD induced cognitive deficits and mood alterations such as anxious and despair-like behaviors that were aggravated in Ung-/- mice. Independent of Ung genotype, FD increased plasma homocysteine levels, altered brain monoamine metabolism, and inhibited adult hippocampal neurogenesis. These results indicate that impaired uracil repair is involved in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric dysfunction induced by experimental folate deficiency.

  16. An investigation of culturally competent terminology in healthcare policy finds ambiguity and lack of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Julian; Parry, Yvonne; Guerin, Pauline

    2013-06-01

    This research explored how the concept of cultural competence was represented and expressed through health policies that were intended to improve the quality and efficacy of healthcare provided to families from culturally marginalised communities, particularly women and children with refugee backgrounds. A critical document analysis was conducted of policies that inform healthcare for families from culturally marginalised communities in two local government areas in South Australia. The analysis identified two major themes: lack of, or inconsistent, definitions of 'culture' and 'cultural competency' and related terms; and the paradoxical use of language to determine care. Cultural competence within health services has been identified as an important factor that can improve the health outcomes for families from marginalised communities. However, inconsistency in definitions, understanding and implementation of cultural competence in health practice makes it difficult to implement care using these frameworks. Clearly defined pathways are necessary from health policy to inform culturally competent service delivery. The capacity for policy directives to effectively circumvent the potential deleterious outcomes of culturally incompetent services is only possible when that policy provides clear definitions and instructions. Consultation and partnership are necessary to develop effective definitions and processes relating to cultural competence. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Prophylactic Platelets in Dengue: Survey Responses Highlight Lack of an Evidence Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, James; Roche, Rosmari Rodriguez; Guzman, Maria G.; Martinez, Eric; Villamil Gomez, Wilmar; Nainggolan, Leonard; Laksono, Ida Safitri; Mishra, Ajay; Lum, Lucy; Faiz, Abul; Sall, Amadou; Dawurung, Joshua; Borges, Alvaro; Leo, Yee-Sin; Blumberg, Lucille; Bausch, Daniel G.; Kroeger, Axel; Horstick, Olaf; Thwaites, Guy; Wertheim, Heiman; Larsson, Mattias; Hien, Tran Tinh; Peeling, Rosanna; Wills, Bridget; Simmons, Cameron; Farrar, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of humans. Thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in the course of infection and haemorrhage may occur in severe disease. The degree of thrombocytopenia correlates with the severity of infection, and may contribute to the risk of haemorrhage. As a result of this prophylactic platelet transfusions are sometimes advocated for the prevention of haemorrhage. There is currently no evidence to support this practice, and platelet transfusions are costly and sometimes harmful. We conducted a global survey to assess the different approaches to the use of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity of the responses highlights the variation in clinical practice and lack of an evidence base in this area and underscores the importance of prospective clinical trials to address this key question in the clinical management of patients with dengue. PMID:22745847

  18. Prophylactic platelets in dengue: survey responses highlight lack of an evidence base.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Whitehorn

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of humans. Thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in the course of infection and haemorrhage may occur in severe disease. The degree of thrombocytopenia correlates with the severity of infection, and may contribute to the risk of haemorrhage. As a result of this prophylactic platelet transfusions are sometimes advocated for the prevention of haemorrhage. There is currently no evidence to support this practice, and platelet transfusions are costly and sometimes harmful. We conducted a global survey to assess the different approaches to the use of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity of the responses highlights the variation in clinical practice and lack of an evidence base in this area and underscores the importance of prospective clinical trials to address this key question in the clinical management of patients with dengue.

  19. Mice lacking TR4 nuclear receptor develop mitochondrial myopathy with deficiency in complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Lee, Yi-Fen; Chou, Samuel; Uno, Hideo; Li, Gonghui; Brookes, Paul; Massett, Michael P; Wu, Qiao; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Chawnshang

    2011-08-01

    The estimated incidence of mitochondrial diseases in humans is approximately 1:5000 to 1:10,000, whereas the molecular mechanisms for more than 50% of human mitochondrial disease cases still remain unclear. Here we report that mice lacking testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4(-/-)) suffered mitochondrial myopathy, and histological examination of TR4(-/-) soleus muscle revealed abnormal mitochondrial accumulation. In addition, increased serum lactate levels, decreased mitochondrial ATP production, and decreased electron transport chain complex I activity were found in TR4(-/-) mice. Restoration of TR4 into TR4(-/-) myoblasts rescued mitochondrial ATP generation capacity and complex I activity. Further real-time PCR quantification and promoter studies found TR4 could modulate complex I activity via transcriptionally regulating the complex I assembly factor NDUFAF1, and restoration of NDUFAF1 level in TR4(-/-) myoblasts increased mitochondrial ATP generation capacity and complex I activity. Together, these results suggest that TR4 plays vital roles in mitochondrial function, which may help us to better understand the pathogenesis of mitochondrial myopathy, and targeting TR4 via its ligands/activators may allow us to develop better therapeutic approaches.

  20. Inadequate Cancer Screening: Lack of Provider Continuity is a Greater Obstacle than Medical Mistrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lauren D; McGilvray, Martha M; Kyle Cooper, J; James, Aimee S

    2017-01-01

    Racial minorities and low-income individuals are generally less likely to have adequate cancer screening than Whites or higher-income individuals. To examine the roles of medical mistrust and lack of provider continuity in cancer screening in a low-income minority population. A total of 144 urban federally qualified health center patients completed a cross-sectional survey that included the Group Based Medical Mistrust Scale and questions on provider continuity and cancer-screening-history. Breast cancer screening was associated with continuity of care but not mistrust (respectively p = .002, p > .05); colon cancer screening was not significantly associated with either factor (p > .05). Findings suggest that among low-income minority adults continuity of care is more strongly associated with screening than medical mistrust. Shifting focus from medical mistrust-a patient-level issue-to establishing health care homes-a system-level issue-may be a more effective strategy for reducing racial and socioeconomic disparities in cancer screening.

  1. Lack of a Functioning P2X7 Receptor Leads to Increased Susceptibility to Toxoplasmic Ileitis.

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    Catherine M Miller

    Full Text Available Oral infection of C57BL/6J mice with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii leads to a lethal inflammatory ileitis.Mice lacking the purinergic receptor P2X7R are acutely susceptible to toxoplasmic ileitis, losing significantly more weight than C57BL/6J mice and exhibiting much greater intestinal inflammatory pathology in response to infection with only 10 cysts of T. gondii. This susceptibility is not dependent on the ability of P2X7R-deficient mice to control the parasite, which they accomplish just as efficiently as C57BL/6J mice. Rather, susceptibility is associated with elevated ileal concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive nitrogen intermediates and altered regulation of elements of NFκB activation in P2X7R-deficient mice.Our data support the thesis that P2X7R, a well-documented activator of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, also plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation.

  2. Lack of additional effect of adjunct of assisted ventilation to pulmonary rehabilitation in mild COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, L; Foglio, K; Porta, R; Baiardi, R; Vitacca, M; Ambrosino, N

    2002-05-01

    Different modalities of assisted ventilation improve breathlessness and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of assisted ventilation during exercise training on the outcome of a structured pulmonary rehabilitation programme (PRP) in COPD patients. Thirty-three male patients with stable COPD (mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 44 (16) % pred), without chronic ventilatory failure, undergoing a 6-week multidisciplinary outpatient PRP including exercise training, were randomised to training during either mask proportional assist ventilation (PAV: 18 patients) or spontaneous breathing (SB: 15 patients). Assessment included exercise tolerance, dyspnoea, leg fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Five out of 18 patients (28%) in the PAV group dropped out due to lack of compliance with the equipment. Both groups showed significant post-PRP improvements in exercise tolerance (peak work rate difference: 20 (95% Cl 2.4-37.6) and 14 (3.8% CI to 24.2) W in PAV and SB group, respectively), dyspnoea and leg fatigue, but not in HRQL, without any significant difference between groups. It is concluded that with the modality and in the patients assessed in this study assisted ventilation during training sessions included in a multidisciplinary PRP was not well tolerated by all patients and gave no additional physiological benefit in comparison with exercise training alone.

  3. [Lack of new trainees in trauma surgery and orthopedics. An approach to a solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, K; Matziolis, D; Perka, C

    2010-12-01

    The reasons for a shortage of young people in trauma surgery and orthopedics have often been discussed. Atypical progression of medical operating levels, antisocial working hours and an inadequate financial compensation for on-call duties have been given as the reasons for a lack of interest in the discipline. Additionally a progressive feminization of the medical profession and rejection of surgical disciplines because of a mismatch with family interests and the demands of advanced surgical training have also been named. Surveys on the choice of medical specialization reveal that experiences during the course of studying have a great influence on future prospects and are immensely important for the further focusing on the future as a medical doctor. In order to increase the attractiveness of the specialization, programs for students were initiated by the heads of the Conventions of Higher Education Lecturers for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery and the management of the German Society for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery. Due to the enormous popularity auxiliary projects were demanded. Consequently a "Trauma Surgery and Orthopedic Day for Students" was organized on 16th February 2010 in the Musculoskeletal Centre of the Charité in Berlin. The aim was to convey practical skills and to inspire the choice of this specialization in the future.

  4. Cross-protection provided by live Shigella mutants lacking major antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szijártó, Valéria; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Eva; Emődy, Levente; Pál, Tibor; Nagy, Gábor

    2013-05-01

    The immune response elicited by Shigella infections is dominated by serotype-specific antibodies recognizing the LPS O-antigens. Although a marked antibody response to invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa-s) shared by all virulent strains is also induced, the varying level of immunity elicited by natural infections is serotype-restricted. Previous vaccines have tried to mimic and achieve this serotype-specific, infection-induced immunity. As, however, the four Shigella species can express 50 different types of O-antigens, current approaches with the aim to induce a broad coverage use a mixture of the most common O-antigens combined in single vaccines. In the current study we present data on an alternative approach to generate immunity protective against multiple serotypes. Mutants lacking both major immune-determinant structures (i.e. the Ipa and O-antigens) were not only highly attenuated, but, unlike their avirulent counterparts still expressing these antigens, elicited a protective immune response to heterologous serotypes in a murine model. Evidence is provided that protection was mediated by the enhanced immunogenic potential of minor conserved antigens. Furthermore, the rough, non-invasive double mutants triggered an immune response different from that induced by the smooth, invasive strains regarding the isotype of antibodies generated. These non-invasive, rough mutants may represent promising candidates for further development into live vaccines for the prophylaxis of bacillary dysentery in areas with multiple endemic serotypes.

  5. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  6. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald P.; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and β-glucanase activities were determined in the compost extracts obtained during mushroom growth. Interestingly, arabinofuranosidase activity able to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylose residues and α-glucuronidase activity were not detected in the compost enzyme extracts. This correlates with the observed accumulation of arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents on the xylan backbone in the compost towards the end of the cultivation. Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments. PMID:26237450

  7. Remodeling of the Cervix and Parturition in Mice Lacking the Progesterone Receptor B Isoform1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellon, Steven M.; Oshiro, Bryan T.; Chhaya, Tejas Y.; Lechuga, Thomas J.; Dias, Rejane M.; Burns, Alexandra E.; Force, Lindsey; Apostolakis, Ede M.

    2011-01-01

    Withdrawal of progestational support for pregnancy is part of the final common pathways for parturition, but the role of nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms in this process is not known. To determine if the PGR-B isoform participates in cervical remodeling at term, cervices were obtained from mice lacking PGR-B (PGR-BKO) and from wild-type (WT) controls before or after birth. PGR-BKO mice gave birth to viable pups at the same time as WT controls during the early morning of Day 19 postbreeding. Morphological analyses indicated that by the day before birth, cervices from PGR-BKO and WT mice had increased in size, with fewer cell nuclei/area as well as diminished collagen content and structure, as evidenced by optical density of picrosirius red-stained sections, compared to cervices from nonpregnant mice. Moreover, increased numbers of resident macrophages, but not neutrophils, were found in the prepartum cervix of PGR-BKO compared to nonpregnant mice, parallel to findings in WT mice. These results suggest that PGR-B does not contribute to the growth or degradation of the extracellular matrix or proinflammatory processes associated with recruitment of macrophages in the cervix leading up to birth. Rather, other receptors may contribute to the progesterone-dependent mechanism that promotes remodeling of the cervix during pregnancy and in the proinflammatory process associated with ripening before parturition. PMID:21613631

  8. Response spectrum of seismic design code for zones lack of near-fault strong earthquake records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-le; DOU Hui-juan; ZHU Xi; SUN Jian-gang

    2007-01-01

    It was shown from the study on the recently near-fault earthquake ground motions that the near-fault effects were seldom considered in the existing Chinese seismic code. Referring to the UBC97 design concept for near-fault factors, based on the collected world-widely free-site records of near-fault earthquakes ground motions classified by earthquake magnitude and site condition, the attenuation relationship expressions of the acceleration spectrum demand at the key points within the long period and moderate period were established in term of the earthquake magnitude and the site condition. Furthermore, the near-fault factors' expressions about the earthquake magnitude and the fault distance were deduced for the area lack of near-fault strong earthquake records. Based on the current Chinese Building Seismic Design Code, the near-fault effect factors and the modified design spectral curves, which were valuable for the seismic design, were proposed to analyze the seismic response of structures.

  9. Polymorphisms in the selenoprotein S gene: lack of association with autoimmune inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Rubio Manuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenoprotein S (SelS protects the functional integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum against the deleterious effects of metabolic stress. SEPS1/SelS polymorphisms have been involved in the increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and IL-6 in macrophages. We aimed at investigating the role of the SEPS1 variants previously associated with higher plasma levels of these cytokines and of the SEPS1 haplotypes in the susceptibility to develop immune-mediated diseases characterized by an inflammatory component. Results Six polymorphisms distributed through the SEPS1 gene (rs11327127, rs28665122, rs4965814, rs12917258, rs4965373 and rs2101171 were genotyped in more than two thousand patients suffering from type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel diseases and 550 healthy controls included in the case-control study. Conclusion Lack of association of SEPS1 polymorphisms or haplotypes precludes a major role of this gene increasing predisposition to these inflammatory diseases.

  10. Lack of protection against gentamicin ototoxicity by auditory conditioning with noise

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    Alex Strose

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Auditory conditioning consists of the pre-exposure to low levels of a potential harmful agent to protect against a subsequent harmful presentation. OBJECTIVE: To confirm if conditioning with an agent different from the used to cause the trauma can also be effective. METHOD: Experimental study with 17 guinea pigs divided as follows: group Som: exposed to 85 dB broadband noise centered at 4 kHz, 30 minutes a day for 10 consecutive days; group Cont: intramuscular administration of gentamicin 160 mg/kg a day for 10 consecutive days; group Expt: conditioned with noise similarly to group Som and, after each noise presentation, received gentamicin similarly to group Cont. The animals were evaluated by distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs, brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The animals that were conditioned with noise did not show any protective effect compared to the ones that received only the ototoxic gentamicin administration. This lack of protection was observed functionally and morphologically. CONCLUSION: Conditioning with 85 dB broadband noise, 30 min a day for 10 consecutive days does not protect against an ototoxic gentamicin administration of 160 mg/kg a day for 10 consecutive days in the guinea pig.

  11. Normal Platelet Integrin Function in Mice Lacking Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Clone-5 (Hic-5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Popp

    Full Text Available Integrin αIIbβ3 plays a central role in the adhesion and aggregation of platelets and thus is essential for hemostasis and thrombosis. Integrin activation requires the transmission of a signal from the small cytoplasmic tails of the α or β subunit to the large extracellular domains resulting in conformational changes of the extracellular domains to enable ligand binding. Hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone-5 (Hic-5, a member of the paxillin family, serves as a focal adhesion adaptor protein associated with αIIbβ3 at its cytoplasmic tails. Previous studies suggested Hic-5 as a novel regulator of integrin αIIbβ3 activation and platelet aggregation in mice. To assess this in more detail, we generated Hic-5-null mice and analyzed activation and aggregation of their platelets in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, lack of Hic-5 had no detectable effect on platelet integrin activation and function in vitro and in vivo under all tested conditions. These results indicate that Hic-5 is dispensable for integrin αIIbβ3 activation and consequently for arterial thrombosis and hemostasis in mice.

  12. Reduced oligodendroglial density in the inferior parietal lobule and lack of insight in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Vostrikov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Alterations and deficits of oligodendrocytes reported in the grey and white matter in schizophrenia may contribute to neuronal disconnectivity. Prefrontal-parietal functional disconnections have been implicated in diverse clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, including poor insight. We studied the effects of schizophrenia diagnosis and insight on numerical density (Nv of oligodendrocytes in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL. Methods: Nissl-stained sections from the Stanley "Parietal Collection" from male schizophrenia subjects (n = 24 having poor, fair, or good insight and healthy matched controls (n = 24 were examined. The Nv of oligodendrocytes was estimated in layer 3 of BA 39 and BA 40 of the IPL and in white matter underlying layer 6 by optical dissector method. Results: In BA 39 we found a significant 15% decrease in the Nv of oligodendrocytes in layer 3 in the schizophrenia group. Nv of oligodendrocytes in the poor+fair insight subgroup was 20% lower compared to controls (pR only in the control group. There were no significant group differences in the Nv of oligodendrocytes in BA 40 or in the white matter underlying BA 39/40 areas. Conclusions: Lack of insight in schizophrenia may be associated with a deficit of oligodendroglia in the grey matter of IPL.

  13. Evidence for dynamic network regulation of Drosophila photoreceptor function from mutants lacking the neurotransmitter histamine

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    An eDau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic feedback from interneurons to photoreceptors can help to optimize visual information flow by balancing its allocation on retinal pathways under changing light conditions. But little is known about how this critical network operation is regulated dynamically. Here, we investigate this question by comparing signaling properties and performance of wild-type Drosophila R1-R6 photoreceptors to those of the hdcJK910 mutant, which lacks the neurotransmitter histamine and therefore cannot transmit information to interneurons. Recordings show that hdcJK910 photoreceptors sample similar amounts of information from naturalistic stimulation to wild-type photoreceptors, but this information is packaged in smaller responses, especially under bright illumination. Analyses reveal how these altered dynamics primarily resulted from network overload that affected hdcJK910 photoreceptors in two ways. First, the missing inhibitory histamine input to interneurons almost certainly depolarized them irrevocably, which in turn increased their excitatory feedback to hdcJK910 R1-R6s. This tonic excitation depolarized the photoreceptors to artificially high potentials, reducing their operational range. Second, rescuing histamine input to interneurons in hdcJK910 mutant also restored their normal phasic feedback modulation to R1-R6s, causing photoreceptor output to accentuate dynamic intensity differences at bright illumination, similar to the wild-type. These results provide mechanistic explanations of how synaptic feedback connections optimize information packaging in photoreceptor output and novel insight into the operation and design of dynamic network regulation of sensory neurons.

  14. Reduced hypertension-induced end-organ damage in mice lacking cardiac and renal angiotensinogen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ningling; Walther, Thomas; Tian, Xiao-Li; Bohlender, Jürgen; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Ganten, Detlev; Bader, Michael

    2002-06-01

    Hypertension-induced damage of kidney and heart is of major clinical relevance, but its pathophysiology is only partially understood. As there is considerable evidence for involvement of angiotensin II, we generated a new mouse model by breeding angiotensinogen (AOGEN) deficient mice with transgenic animals expressing the rat AOGEN gene only in brain and liver. This genetic manipulation overcame the hypotension of AOGEN-deficient mice and even caused hypertension indistinguishable in its extent from the parent transgenic mice with an intact endogenous AOGEN gene. In contrast to normal mice, however, crossbred animals lacked detectable expression of AOGEN in kidney and heart. As a consequence they showed markedly reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Furthermore, hypertension-induced alterations in kidney histology and function were less pronounced in crossbred mice than in equally hypertensive animals expressing AOGEN locally. The dysmorphogenesis observed in kidneys from AOGEN-deficient mice was absent in mice expressing this gene only in liver and brain. Our results support an important role of local AOGEN expression in hypertension-induced end-organ damage but not in the development of the kidney.

  15. Nodules Initiated by Rhizobium meliloti Exopolysaccharide Mutants Lack a Discrete, Persistent Nodule Meristem 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Signer, Ethan R.; Hirsch, Ann M.

    1992-01-01

    Infection of alfalfa with Rhizobium meliloti exo mutants deficient in exopolysaccharide results in abnormal root nodules that are devoid of bacteria and fail to fix nitrogen. Here we report further characterization of these abnormal nodules. Tightly curled root hairs or shepherd's crooks were found after inoculation with Rm 1021-derived exo mutants, but curling was delayed compared with wild-type Rm 1021. Infection threads were initiated in curled root hairs by mutants as well as by wild-type R. meliloti, but the exo mutant-induced threads aborted within the peripheral cells of the developing nodule. Also, nodules elicited by Rm 1021-derived exo mutants were more likely to develop on secondary roots than on the primary root. In contrast with wild-type R. meliloti-induced nodules, the exo mutant-induced nodules lacked a well defined apical meristem, presumably due to the abortion of the infection threads. The relationship of these findings to the physiology of nodule development is discussed. ImagesFigure 3Figure 1Figure 2Figure 4 PMID:16668605

  16. Lignin degradation by a white-rot fungus lacking lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, C.B.; Eriksson, K.E.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been the organism of choice for studies of lignin degradation and much of this work has focused on two phenol oxidases, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), secreted by the fungus under ligninolytic conditions. However, many white-rot fungi, including a number of aggressive lignin degraders, seem to operate without expressing LiP activity. Laccase is another phenol oxidase that white-rot fungi often produce. However, the role played by laccase in lignin degradation has remained obscured since its low redox potential appeared to make it incapable of oxidizing non-phenolic lignin constituents. We have identified, Pychnoporus cinnabarinus lacking both LiP and MnP, but a high producer of laccase, to degrade lignin as efficiently as UP producing fungi. We have found that P. cinnabarinus, to overcome the redox potential barrier for laccase, produces a mediator for oxidation of non-phenolic lignin structures. This is the first description of how laccase may be used in a biological system for the degradation of lignin.

  17. Lack of Melanopsin Is Associated with Extreme Weight Loss in Mice upon Dietary Challenge.

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    Didem Göz Aytürk

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders have been established as major risk factors for ocular complications and poor vision. However, little is known about the inverse possibility that ocular disease may cause metabolic dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the metabolic consequences of a robust dietary challenge in several mouse models suffering from retinal mutations. To this end, mice null for melanopsin (Opn4-/-, the photopigment of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs, were subjected to five weeks of a ketogenic diet. These mice lost significantly more weight than wild-type controls or mice lacking rod and cone photoreceptors (Pde6brd1/rd1. Although ipRGCs are critical for proper circadian entrainment, and circadian misalignment has been implicated in metabolic pathology, we observed no differences in entrainment between Opn4-/- and control mice. Additionally, we observed no differences in any tested metabolic parameter between these mouse strains. Further studies are required to establish the mechanism giving rise to this dramatic phenotype observed in melanopsin-null mice. We conclude that the causality between ocular disease and metabolic disorders merits further investigation due to the popularity of diets that rely on the induction of a ketogenic state. Our study is a first step toward understanding retinal pathology as a potential cause of metabolic dysfunction.

  18. Speed kills: the complex links between transport, lack of time and urban health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Paul Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Road safety experts understand the contribution of speed to the severity and frequency of road crashes. Yet, the impact of speed on health is far more subtle and pervasive than simply its effect on road safety. The emphasis in urban areas on increasing the speed and volume of car traffic contributes to ill-health through its impacts on local air pollution, greenhouse gas production, inactivity, obesity and social isolation. In addition to these impacts, a heavy reliance on cars as a supposedly 'fast' mode of transport consumes more time and money than a reliance on supposedly slower modes of transport (walking, cycling and public transport). Lack of time is a major reason why people do not engage in healthy behaviours. Using the concept of 'effective speed', this paper demonstrates that any attempt to 'save time' through increasing the speed of motorists is ultimately futile. Paradoxically, if planners wish to provide urban residents with more time for healthy behaviours (such as exercise and preparing healthy food), then, support for the 'slower' active modes of transport should be encouraged.

  19. Lack of glucagon receptor signaling and its implications beyond glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Maureen J; Vuguin, Patricia M

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon action is transduced by a G protein-coupled receptor located in liver, kidney, intestinal smooth muscle, brain, adipose tissue, heart, pancreatic β-cells, and placenta. Genetically modified animal models have provided important clues about the role of glucagon and its receptor (Gcgr) beyond glucose control. The PubMed database was searched for articles published between 1995 and 2014 using the key terms glucagon, glucagon receptor, signaling, and animal models. Lack of Gcgr signaling has been associated with: i) hypoglycemic pregnancies, altered placentation, poor fetal growth, and increased fetal-neonatal death; ii) pancreatic glucagon cell hyperplasia and hyperglucagonemia; iii) altered body composition, energy state, and protection from diet-induced obesity; iv) impaired hepatocyte survival; v) altered glucose, lipid, and hormonal milieu; vi) altered metabolic response to prolonged fasting and exercise; vii) reduced gastric emptying and increased intestinal length; viii) altered retinal function; and ix) prevention of the development of diabetes in insulin-deficient mice. Similar phenotypic findings were observed in the hepatocyte-specific deletion of Gcgr. Glucagon action has been involved in the modulation of sweet taste responsiveness, inotropic and chronotropic effects in the heart, satiety, glomerular filtration rate, secretion of insulin, cortisol, ghrelin, GH, glucagon, and somatostatin, and hypothalamic signaling to suppress hepatic glucose production. Glucagon (α) cells under certain conditions can transdifferentiate into insulin (β) cells. These findings suggest that glucagon signaling plays an important role in multiple organs. Thus, treatment options designed to block Gcgr activation in diabetics may have implications beyond glucose homeostasis.

  20. Lack of musicality? Explaining anomalies in some senior Korean Christians’ hymn singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Weon Cha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article launches an inquiry into the ways in which some senior Korean Christians sing Protestant hymns at a Korean church in Cleveland, OH. The majority of the church members sing hymns as they are written; several older members (aged 65 or over born in rural Korea, however, systematically transform them. The older singers tend to turn any diatonic hymn into a pentatonic melody, lowering fa down to mi and pulling ti up to do. Drawing on a variety of disciplines such as music theory, psychology, ethnography, and cultural history, I propose categorical perception as a key to understanding melodic transformation. Even though the piano accompanist at the church—who is rigidly Western music oriented—criticizes the older singers for their lack of musicality, numerous psychological studies suggest that the older Korean singers transform the hymns, precisely because they are musically trained, albeit in regional Korean folk singing practices. My fieldwork at the Annual Hymn Competition and my interview with the preacher of the church reinforce the idea that categorical perception is not only existent but also strongly cultural.

  1. Neurobiology of addiction versus drug use driven by lack of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Serge H; Lenoir, Magalie; Guillem, Karine

    2013-08-01

    Research on the neurobiology of addiction often involves nonhuman animals that are given ready access to drugs for self-administration but without other choices. Here we argue using cocaine as an example that this standard setting may no longer be sufficient and can even lead to the formulation of unrealistic views about the neurobiology of addiction. Addiction as a psychiatric disorder is defined as resulting from brain dysfunctions that affect normal choice-making, not as an expectable response to lack of alternative choices. We encourage neurobiologists involved in addiction research to increase animals' choice during drug access, preferably by supplying alternative rewarding pursuits. Only animals that continue to take and prefer drugs despite and at the expense of other available choices may be considered as having developed an addiction-like behavior in comparison to those that remain able to stop drug use for other pursuits, even after extended drug use. The systematic comparison of these two individual behaviors should reveal new insights about the neurobiology of drug choice and addiction. More generally, this research should also shed a unique light on how the brain 'chooses' among qualitatively different kinds of pursuits.

  2. Lack of functional specialization of neurons in the mouse primary visual cortex that have expressed calretinin

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    Daniela eCamillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein often used as a marker for a subset of inhibitory interneurons in the mammalian neocortex. We studied the labeled cells in offspring from a cross of a Cre-dependent reporter line with the CR-ires-Cre mice, which express Cre-recombinase in the same pattern as calretinin. We found that in the mature visual cortex, only a minority of the cells that have expressed calretinin and Cre-recombinase during their lifetime is GABAergic and only about 20% are immunoreactive for calretinin. The reason behind this is that calretinin is transiently expressed in many cortical pyramidal neurons during development. To determine whether neurons that express or have expressed calretinin share any distinct functional characteristics, we recorded their visual response properties using GCaMP6s calcium imaging. The average orientation selectivity, size tuning, and temporal and spatial frequency tuning of this group of cells, however, match the response profile of the general neuronal population, revealing the lack of functional specialization for the features studied.

  3. A systematic literature search on psychological first aid: lack of evidence to develop guidelines.

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    Tessa Dieltjens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Providing psychological first aid (PFA is generally considered to be an important element in preliminary care of disaster victims. Using the best available scientific basis for courses and educational materials, the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders wants to ensure that its volunteers are trained in the best way possible. OBJECTIVE: To identify effective PFA practices, by systematically reviewing the evidence in existing guidelines, systematic reviews and individual studies. METHODS: Systematic literature searches in five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, PILOTS and G-I-N were conducted from inception to July 2013. RESULTS: Five practice guidelines were included which were found to vary in the development process (AGREE II score 20-53% and evidence base used. None of them provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Additionally, two systematic reviews of PFA were found, both noting a lack of studies on PFA. A complementary search for individual studies, using a more sensitive search strategy, identified 11 237 references of which 102 were included for further full-text examination, none of which ultimately provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. CONCLUSION: The scientific literature on psychological first aid available to date, does not provide any evidence about the effectiveness of PFA interventions. Currently it is impossible to make evidence-based guidelines about which practices in psychosocial support are most effective to help disaster and trauma victims.

  4. Cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity is abolished in HSL-/- macrophages but unchanged in macrophages lacking KIAA1363.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchebner, Marlene; Pfeifer, Thomas; Rathke, Nora; Chandak, Prakash G; Lass, Achim; Schreiber, Renate; Kratzer, Adelheid; Zimmermann, Robert; Sattler, Wolfgang; Koefeler, Harald; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Kostner, Gerhard M; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Chiang, Kyle P; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Cravatt, Benjamin; Kratky, Dagmar

    2010-10-01

    Cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation in macrophages represents a crucial event during foam cell formation, a hallmark of atherogenesis. Here we investigated the role of two previously described CE hydrolases, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and KIAA1363, in macrophage CE hydrolysis. HSL and KIAA1363 exhibited marked differences in their abilities to hydrolyze CE, triacylglycerol (TG), diacylglycerol (DG), and 2-acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether (AcMAGE), a precursor for biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF). HSL efficiently cleaved all four substrates, whereas KIAA1363 hydrolyzed only AcMAGE. This contradicts previous studies suggesting that KIAA1363 is a neutral CE hydrolase. Macrophages of KIAA1363(-/-) and wild-type mice exhibited identical neutral CE hydrolase activity, which was almost abolished in tissues and macrophages of HSL(-/-) mice. Conversely, AcMAGE hydrolase activity was diminished in macrophages and some tissues of KIAA1363(-/-) but unchanged in HSL(-/-) mice. CE turnover was unaffected in macrophages lacking KIAA1363 and HSL, whereas cAMP-dependent cholesterol efflux was influenced by HSL but not by KIAA1363. Despite decreased CE hydrolase activities, HSL(-/-) macrophages exhibited CE accumulation similar to wild-type (WT) macrophages. We conclude that additional enzymes must exist that cooperate with HSL to regulate CE levels in macrophages. KIAA1363 affects AcMAGE hydrolase activity but is of minor importance as a direct CE hydrolase in macrophages.

  5. Lack of the Lysosomal Membrane Protein, GLMP, in Mice Results in Metabolic Dysregulation in Liver.

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    Xiang Yi Kong

    Full Text Available Ablation of glycosylated lysosomal membrane protein (GLMP, formerly known as NCU-G1 has been shown to cause chronic liver injury which progresses into liver fibrosis in mice. Both lysosomal dysfunction and chronic liver injury can cause metabolic dysregulation. Glmp gt/gt mice (formerly known as Ncu-g1gt/gt mice were studied between 3 weeks and 9 months of age. Body weight gain and feed efficiency of Glmp gt/gt mice were comparable to wild type siblings, only at the age of 9 months the Glmp gt/gt siblings had significantly reduced body weight. Reduced size of epididymal fat pads was accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly in Glmp gt/gt mice. Blood analysis revealed reduced levels of blood glucose, circulating triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acids in Glmp gt/gt mice. Increased flux of glucose, increased de novo lipogenesis and lipid accumulation were detected in Glmp gt/gt primary hepatocytes, as well as elevated triacylglycerol levels in Glmp gt/gt liver homogenates, compared to hepatocytes and liver from wild type mice. Gene expression analysis showed an increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis in Glmp gt/gt liver compared to wild type. Our findings are in agreement with the metabolic alterations observed in other mouse models lacking lysosomal proteins, and with alterations characteristic for advanced chronic liver injury.

  6. Absence epilepsy and sinus dysrhythmia in mice lacking the pacemaker channel HCN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Andreas; Budde, Thomas; Stieber, Juliane; Moosmang, Sven; Wahl, Christian; Holthoff, Knut; Langebartels, Anke; Wotjak, Carsten; Munsch, Thomas; Zong, Xiangang; Feil, Susanne; Feil, Robert; Lancel, Marike; Chien, Kenneth R.; Konnerth, Arthur; Pape, Hans-Christian; Biel, Martin; Hofmann, Franz

    2003-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channels are believed to be involved in the generation of cardiac pacemaker depolarizations as well as in the control of neuronal excitability and plasticity. The contributions of the four individual HCN channel isoforms (HCN1–4) to these diverse functions are not known. Here we show that HCN2-deficient mice exhibit spontaneous absence seizures. The thalamocortical relay neurons of these mice displayed a near complete loss of the HCN current, resulting in a pronounced hyperpolarizing shift of the resting membrane potential, an altered response to depolarizing inputs and an increased susceptibility for oscillations. HCN2-null mice also displayed cardiac sinus dysrhythmia, a reduction of the sinoatrial HCN current and a shift of the maximum diastolic potential to hyperpolarized values. Mice with cardiomyocyte- specific deletion of HCN2 displayed the same dysrhythmia as mice lacking HCN2 globally, indicating that the dysrhythmia is indeed caused by sinoatrial dysfunction. Our results define the physiological role of the HCN2 subunit as a major determinant of membrane resting potential that is required for regular cardiac and neuronal rhythmicity. PMID:12514127

  7. The Lack of Torus Emission from BL Lacertae Objects: An Infrared View of Unification with WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Plotkin, Richard M; Brandt, W N; Markoff, Sera; Shemmer, Ohad; Wu, Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform a statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number ($\\sim10^2$) of BL Lac objects --- low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions. In other BL Lac objects, however, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN emission. We do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. The lack of observable torus emission is consistent with suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion disks. Implications for the "nature vs. nurture" debate for FR I and FR II radio galaxies are briefly discussed. Our study supports the notion that, beyond orientation, accretion rate plays an important role in AGN unification.

  8. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and β-glucanase activities were determined in the compost extracts obtained during mushroom growth. Interestingly, arabinofuranosidase activity able to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylose residues and α-glucuronidase activity were not detected in the compost enzyme extracts. This correlates with the observed accumulation of arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents on the xylan backbone in the compost towards the end of the cultivation. Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments.

  9. Adult hematopoietic stem cells lacking Hif-1α self-renew normally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Milica; Sepulveda, Catarina; Subramani, Chithra; Guitart, Amélie V; Mohr, Jasmine; Allen, Lewis; Panagopoulou, Theano I; Paris, Jasmin; Lawson, Hannah; Villacreces, Arnaud; Armesilla-Diaz, Alejandro; Gezer, Deniz; Holyoake, Tessa L; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Kranc, Kamil R

    2016-06-09

    The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool is maintained under hypoxic conditions within the bone marrow microenvironment. Cellular responses to hypoxia are largely mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors, Hif-1 and Hif-2. The oxygen-regulated α subunits of Hif-1 and Hif-2 (namely, Hif-1α and Hif-2α) form dimers with their stably expressed β subunits and control the transcription of downstream hypoxia-responsive genes to facilitate adaptation to low oxygen tension. An initial study concluded that Hif-1α is essential for HSC maintenance, whereby Hif-1α-deficient HSCs lost their ability to self-renew in serial transplantation assays. In another study, we demonstrated that Hif-2α is dispensable for cell-autonomous HSC maintenance, both under steady-state conditions and following transplantation. Given these unexpected findings, we set out to revisit the role of Hif-1α in cell-autonomous HSC functions. Here we demonstrate that inducible acute deletion of Hif-1α has no impact on HSC survival. Notably, unstressed HSCs lacking Hif-1α efficiently self-renew and sustain long-term multilineage hematopoiesis upon serial transplantation. Finally, Hif-1α-deficient HSCs recover normally after hematopoietic injury induced by serial administration of 5-fluorouracil. We therefore conclude that despite the hypoxic nature of the bone marrow microenvironment, Hif-1α is dispensable for cell-autonomous HSC maintenance.

  10. Cells bearing chromosome aberrations lacking one telomere are selectively blocked at the G2/M checkpoint

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    Rodriguez, Pilar [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barquinero, Joan Francesc [Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Duran, Assumpta [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Caballin, Maria Rosa [Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ribas, Montserrat [Servei de Radiofisica i Radioproteccio de l' Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Barrios, Leonardo, E-mail: Lleonard.Barrios@uab.cat [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-11-02

    Cell cycle checkpoints are part of the cellular mechanisms to maintain genomic integrity. After ionizing radiation exposure, the cells can show delay or arrest in their progression through the cell cycle, as well as an activation of the DNA repair machinery in order to reduce the damage. The G2/M checkpoint prevents G2 cells entering mitosis until the DNA damage has been reduced. The present study evaluates which G0 radiation-induced chromosome aberrations are negatively selected in the G2/M checkpoint. For this purpose, peripheral blood samples were irradiated at 1 and 3 Gy of {gamma}-rays, and lymphocytes were cultured for 48 h. Calyculin-A and Colcemid were used to analyze, in the same slide, cells in G2 and M. Chromosome spreads were consecutively analyzed by solid stain, pancentromeric and pantelomeric FISH and mFISH. The results show that the frequency of incomplete chromosome elements, those lacking a telomeric signal at one end, decreases abruptly from G2 to M. This indicates that cells with incomplete chromosome elements can progress from G0 to G2, but at the G2/M checkpoint suffer a strong negative selection.

  11. Myogenic Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells That Lack a Functional Pax7 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinska, Areta M.; Grabowska, Iwona; Archacka, Karolina; Bem, Joanna; Swierczek, Barbara; Helinska, Anita; Streminska, Wladyslawa; Fogtman, Anna; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Koblowska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Pax7 plays a key role during embryonic myogenesis and sustains the proper function of satellite cells, which serve as adult skeletal muscle stem cells. Overexpression of Pax7 has been shown to promote the myogenic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. However, the effects of the absence of functional Pax7 in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have not yet been directly tested. Herein, we studied mouse stem cells that lacked a functional Pax7 gene and characterized the differentiation of these stem cells under conditions that promoted the derivation of myoblasts in vitro. We analyzed the expression of myogenic factors, such as myogenic regulatory factors and muscle-specific microRNAs, in wild-type and mutant cells. Finally, we compared the transcriptome of both types of cells and did not find substantial differences in the expression of genes related to the regulation of myogenesis. As a result, we showed that the absence of functional Pax7 does not prevent the in vitro myogenic differentiation of ESCs. PMID:26649785

  12. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Calderón, Margarita; Pons-Ferrer, Teresa; Mrázova, Anna; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Vilková, Mária; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Vega, José M; Eliášová, Adriana; Repčák, Miroslav; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L. japonicus plants in response to stress.

  13. Constitutive Stringent Response Restores Viability of Bacillus subtilis Lacking Structural Maintenance of Chromosome Protein.

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    Camille Benoist

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis mutants lacking the SMC-ScpAB complex are severely impaired for chromosome condensation and partitioning, DNA repair, and cells are not viable under standard laboratory conditions. We isolated suppressor mutations that restored the capacity of a smc deletion mutant (Δsmc to grow under standard conditions. These suppressor mutations reduced chromosome segregation defects and abrogated hypersensitivity to gyrase inhibitors of Δsmc. Three suppressor mutations were mapped in genes involved in tRNA aminoacylation and maturation pathways. A transcriptomic survey of isolated suppressor mutations pointed to a potential link between suppression of Δsmc and induction of the stringent response. This link was confirmed by (pppGpp quantification which indicated a constitutive induction of the stringent response in multiple suppressor strains. Furthermore, sublethal concentrations of arginine hydroxamate (RHX, a potent inducer of stringent response, restored growth of Δsmc under non permissive conditions. We showed that production of (pppGpp alone was sufficient to suppress the thermosensitivity exhibited by the Δsmc mutant. Our findings shed new light on the coordination between chromosome dynamics mediated by SMC-ScpAB and other cellular processes during rapid bacterial growth.

  14. Development of botanical principles for clinical use in cancer: Where are we lacking?

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    R J Poojari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of drugs from plant sources (botanicals for the treatment of cancer has not been successful in India, despite a plethora of medicinal plants and an equal number of experiments demonstrating anti-cancer activity of plant principles in vitro. There are several pitfalls in our approach to botanical drug development. Foremost is the lack of industry-academia collaborations in this field. Research goals in Indian academic institutions are generally short-term and mostly aimed at fulfilling the minimum requirements of a doctoral/MD or MPharm thesis. Secondly, quality assurance of herbal formulations is difficult to achieve and good manufacturing practices are expensive to implement. This could introduce bias during the biological evaluation of botanicals. A systematic approach covering a wide range of investigations including but not limited to mechanistic studies, potential herb-drug interactions, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability could help in the optimization of herbal formulations in the preclinical stage of development before they can be considered for clinical trials. Government initiatives such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathic have encouraged research in these areas, but are insufficient to promote focused and aggressive evaluation of potential herbs. Particular emphasis should be given to clinical pharmacokinetics, drug interactions and clinical trials in specific cancers for the evaluation of dosage, safety, efficacy and concomitant use with chemotherapy. Only such policies can result in meaningful evaluation of botanicals for cancer therapy.

  15. Lack of Cultural Competency in International Aid Responses: The Ebola Outbreak in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southall, Hannah Grace; DeYoung, Sarah E.; Harris, Curt Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A cornerstone of effective disaster management is that response should always begin and end at the local level (1). The response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia, West Africa, was a combination of independent efforts by many nations and organizations. Many of these independent efforts ignored or were not able to work with the local levels of emergency management in Liberia. This oversight occurred because of the Liberian’s mistrust of both their government and foreign aid groups, as well as the lack of cultural competency demonstrated by the aid groups. The health-care and emergency management infrastructure in Liberia appeared to be non-existent at the beginning of the EVD outbreak. However, there were resources available at the community level: the Liberians and their culture. Although these resources were rarely used, there were some instances in which communities were included in response efforts. It was in these instances that possible improvements to international disaster response protocol were found. PMID:28197401

  16. Evidence for Dynamic Network Regulation of Drosophila Photoreceptor Function from Mutants Lacking the Neurotransmitter Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, An; Friederich, Uwe; Dongre, Sidhartha; Li, Xiaofeng; Bollepalli, Murali K; Hardie, Roger C; Juusola, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic feedback from interneurons to photoreceptors can help to optimize visual information flow by balancing its allocation on retinal pathways under changing light conditions. But little is known about how this critical network operation is regulated dynamically. Here, we investigate this question by comparing signaling properties and performance of wild-type Drosophila R1-R6 photoreceptors to those of the hdc (JK910) mutant, which lacks the neurotransmitter histamine and therefore cannot transmit information to interneurons. Recordings show that hdc (JK910) photoreceptors sample similar amounts of information from naturalistic stimulation to wild-type photoreceptors, but this information is packaged in smaller responses, especially under bright illumination. Analyses reveal how these altered dynamics primarily resulted from network overload that affected hdc (JK910) photoreceptors in two ways. First, the missing inhibitory histamine input to interneurons almost certainly depolarized them irrevocably, which in turn increased their excitatory feedback to hdc (JK910) R1-R6s. This tonic excitation depolarized the photoreceptors to artificially high potentials, reducing their operational range. Second, rescuing histamine input to interneurons in hdc (JK910) mutant also restored their normal phasic feedback modulation to R1-R6s, causing photoreceptor output to accentuate dynamic intensity differences at bright illumination, similar to the wild-type. These results provide mechanistic explanations of how synaptic feedback connections optimize information packaging in photoreceptor output and novel insight into the operation and design of dynamic network regulation of sensory neurons.

  17. A cognitive rehabilitation paradigm effective in male rats lacks efficacy in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kristopher D; Granter-Button, Shirley; Harley, Carolyn W; Moody-Corbett, Frances; Peeling, James; Corbett, Dale

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive dysfunction, as a consequence of dementia, is a significant cause of morbidity lacking efficacious treatment. Females comprise at least half of this demographic but have been vastly underrepresented in preclinical studies. The current study addressed this gap by assessing the protective efficacy of physical exercise and cognitive activity on learning and memory outcomes in a rat model of vascular dementia. Forty ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats (∼6 months old) were exposed to either a diet high in saturated fats and refined sugars or standard laboratory chow and underwent either chronic bilateral carotid occlusion or Sham surgery. Learning and memory abilities were evaluated using standard cognitive outcomes over the ensuing 6 months, followed by histologic analyses of hippocampal CA1 neurons. In Experiment 1, we confirmed hypoperfusion-induced cognitive dysfunction using a 2 × 2 (Surgery × Diet) experimental design, without alterations in hippocampal architecture. In Experiment 2, hypoperfused animals were either exposed to alternating days of physical (wheel running) and cognitive activity (modified Hebb-Williams maze) or sedentary housing. In contrast to males, this combination rehabilitation paradigm did not improve cognition or histopathologic outcomes in hypoperfused animals. These findings, highlighting differences between female and male animals, show the necessity of including both sexes in preclinical experimentation.

  18. Gp120 on HIV-1 Virions Lacks O-Linked Carbohydrate.

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    Elizabeth Stansell

    Full Text Available As HIV-1-encoded envelope protein traverses the secretory pathway, it may be modified with N- and O-linked carbohydrate. When the gp120s of HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-1 YU2, HIV-1 Bal, HIV-1 JRFL, and HIV-1 JRCSF were expressed as secreted proteins, the threonine at consensus position 499 was found to be O-glycosylated. For SIVmac239, the corresponding threonine was also glycosylated when gp120 was recombinantly expressed. Similarly-positioned, highly-conserved threonines in the influenza A virus H1N1 HA1 and H5N1 HA1 envelope proteins were also found to carry O-glycans when expressed as secreted proteins. In all cases, the threonines were modified predominantly with disialylated core 1 glycans, together with related core 1 and core 2 structures. Secreted HIV-1 gp140 was modified to a lesser extent with mainly monosialylated core 1 O-glycans, suggesting that the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane component may limit the accessibility of Thr499 to glycosyltransferases. In striking contrast to these findings, gp120 on purified virions of HIV-1 Bal and SIV CP-MAC lacked any detectable O-glycosylation of the C-terminal threonine. Our results indicate the absence of O-linked carbohydrates on Thr499 as it exists on the surface of virions and suggest caution in the interpretation of analyses of post-translational modifications that utilize recombinant forms of envelope protein.

  19. Lack of Evidence for Molecular Mimicry in HIV-Infected Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Burbelo

    Full Text Available Previous studies in HIV patients have reported autoantibodies to several human proteins, including erythropoietin (EPO, interferon-α (IFN-α, interleukin-2 (IL-2, and HLA-DR, as potential mediators of anemia or immunosuppression. The etiology of these autoantibodies has been attributed to molecular mimicry between HIV epitopes and self-proteins. Here, the Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS was used to investigate the presence of such autoantibodies in HIV-infected adults. High levels of antibodies to HIV proteins such as capsid (p24, matrix (p17, envelope (gp41, and reverse transcriptase (RT were detected using LIPS in both untreated and anti-retroviral-treated HIV-infected individuals but not in uninfected controls. LIPS readily detected anti-EPO autoantibodies in serum samples from subjects with presumptive pure red cell aplasia but not in any of the samples from HIV-infected or uninfected individuals. Similarly, subjects with HIV lacked autoantibodies to IFN-α, IL-2, HLA-DR and the immunoglobulin lambda light chain; all purported targets of molecular mimicry. While molecular mimicry between pathogen proteins and self-proteins is a commonly proposed mechanism for autoantibody production, the findings presented here indicate such a process is not common in HIV disease.

  20. Lack of interaction between the behavioral effects of ketamine and benzodiazepines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidecka, Sylwia; Pirogowicz, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    The effect of co-administration of ketamine at the sub-effective dose with diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and clonazepam on their antinociceptive and protective efficacy against pentetrazole-induced seizures were studied in mice. Ketamine alone produces dose-dependent antinociception manifested as reduction in the number of writhing episodes evoked by acetic acid. In the writhing test, the antinociceptive effects of the threshold doses of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide or clonazepam were not changed by ketamine, whereas that of morphine was intensified by ketamine. In the hot plate test, slight antinociceptive effects of the threshold dose of diazepam, but not that of chlordiazepoxide (except the results at 120 min of observation), were significantly intensified by ketamine vs ketamine alone. Ketamine alone was able to protect mice, in the dose-related manner, against pentetrazole-induced seizures. The anticonvulsant effects of the threshold doses of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and clonazepam were not changed by ketamine. These findings indicate that co-administration of ketamine (at the sub-effective dose) with diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and clonazepam (at non-effective doses) resulted in an intensification of neither antinociceptive nor protective effect against pentetrazole-induced seizures in mice. These data seem to indicate the lack of interaction between ketamine and benzodiazepines with respect to their antinociceptive and anticonvulsant efficacy.

  1. Mice lacking Axl and Mer tyrosine kinase receptors are susceptible to experimental autoimmune orchitis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Liu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Liu, Peng; Cheng, C Yan; Lee, Will M; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian testis is an immunoprivileged organ where male germ cell autoantigens are immunologically ignored. Both systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens and local immunosuppressive milieu contribute to the testicular immune privilege. Testicular immunosuppression has been intensively studied, but information on systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens is lacking. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases in maintaining the systemic tolerance to male germ cell antigens using the experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) model. Axl and Mer double-knockout (Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-)) mice developed evident EAO after a single immunization with germ cell homogenates emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. EAO was characterized by the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the testis. Damage to the seminiferous epithelium was also observed. EAO induction was associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation in the testes, impaired permeability of the blood-testis barrier and generation of autoantibodies against germ cell antigens in Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) mice. Immunization also induced mild EAO in Axl or Mer single-gene-knockout mice. By contrast, a single immunization failed to induce EAO in wild-type mice. The results indicate that Axl and Mer receptors cooperatively regulate the systemic immune tolerance to male germ cell antigens.

  2. Mutant huntingtin regulates EGF receptor fate in non-neuronal cells lacking wild-type protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melone, Mariarosa A B; Calarco, Anna; Petillo, Orsolina; Margarucci, Sabrina; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Galderisi, Umberto; Koverech, Guido; Peluso, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Huntingtin (htt) is a scaffold protein localized at the subcellular level and is involved in coordinating the activity of several protein for signaling and intracellular transport. The emerging properties of htt in intracellular trafficking prompted us to study the role of mutant htt (polyQ-htt) in the intracellular fate of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whose activity seems to be strictly regulated by htt. In particular, to evaluate whether protein trafficking dysfunction occurs in non-neuronal cells in the absence of functional htt, we monitored the EGFR protein in fibroblasts from homozygotic HD patients and their healthy counterpart. We found that polyQ-htt controls EGFR degradation and recycling. Lack of wild-type htt caused alteration of the ubiquitination cycle, formation of EGFR-incorporating high-molecular weight protein aggregates and abnormal EGFR distribution in endosomes of the degradation and recycling pathways after EGF stimulation. PolyQ-htt-induced alteration of EGFR trafficking affected cell migration and proliferation, at least in part, through inhibition of ERK signaling. To our knowledge the data here reported represent the first signaling and phenotypic characterization of polyQ-htt involvement in the modulation of growth factor stimulation in non-neuronal cells.

  3. Both bias and lack of knowledge influence organizational focus on first case of the day starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Elisabeth U; Dexter, Franklin; Masursky, Danielle; Garver, Michael P; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2009-04-01

    The economic costs of reducing first case delays are often high, because efforts need to be applied to multiple operating rooms (ORs) simultaneously. Nevertheless, delays in starting first cases of the day are a common topic in OR committee meetings. We added three scientific questions to a 24 question online, anonymous survey performed before the implementation of a new OR information system. The 57 respondents cared sufficiently about OR management at the United States teaching hospital to complete all questions. The survey revealed reasons why personnel may focus on the small reductions in nonoperative time achievable by reducing tardiness in first cases of the day. (A) Respondents lacked knowledge about principles in reducing over-utilized OR time to increase OR efficiency, based on their answering the relevant question correctly at a rate no different from guessing at random. Those results differed from prior findings of responses at a rate worse than random, resulting from a bias on the day of surgery of making decisions that increase clinical work per unit time. (B) Most respondents falsely believed that a 10 min delay at the start of the day causes subsequent cases to start at least 10 min late (P tardiness of start times shows that education may be of no benefit. As the latter results match findings of previous studies of scheduling decisions, interventions to reduce patient and surgeon waiting from start times may depend principally on the application of automation to guide decision-making.

  4. Impaired hair growth and wound healing in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Jurado, Constanza; García-Serrano, Laura; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia; Paramio, Jesus M; Aranda, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Both clinical and experimental observations show that the skin is affected by the thyroidal status. In hypothyroid patients the epidermis is thin and alopecia is common, indicating that thyroidal status might influence not only skin proliferation but also hair growth. We demonstrate here that the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) mediate these effects of the thyroid hormones on the skin. Mice lacking TRα1 and TRβ (the main thyroid hormone binding isoforms) display impaired hair cycling associated to a decrease in follicular hair cell proliferation. This was also observed in hypothyroid mice, indicating the important role of the hormone-bound receptors in hair growth. In contrast, the individual deletion of either TRα1 or TRβ did not impair hair cycling, revealing an overlapping or compensatory role of the receptors in follicular cell proliferation. In support of the role of the receptors in hair growth, TRα1/TRβ-deficient mice developed alopecia after serial depilation. These mice also presented a wound-healing defect, with retarded re-epithelialization and wound gaping, associated to impaired keratinocyte proliferation. These results reinforce the idea that the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors play an important role on skin homeostasis and suggest that they could be targets for the treatment of cutaneous pathologies.

  5. Photosynthetic oxygen evolution at low water potential in leaf discs lacking an epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A C; Kawamitsu, Y; Kanechi, M; Boyer, John S

    2002-06-01

    Land plants encountering low water potentials (low psiw) close their stomata, restricting CO2 entry and potentially photosynthesis. To determine the impact of stomatal closure, photosynthetic O2 evolution was investigated in leaf discs from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants after removing the lower epidermis at low psiw. Wounding was minimal as evidenced by O2 evolution nearly as rapid as that in intact discs. O2 evolution was maximal in 1% CO2 in the peeled discs and was markedly inhibited when psiw was below -1.1 MPa. CO2 entered readily at all psiw, as demonstrated by varying the CO2 concentration. Results were the same whether the epidermis was removed before or after low psiw was imposed. Due to the lack of an epidermis and ready movement or CO2 through the mesophyll, the loss in O2 evolving activity was attributed entirely to photosynthetic metabolism. Intact leaf discs showed a similar loss in activity when measured at a CO2 concentration of 5%, which supported maximum O2 evolution at low psiw. In 1% CO2, however, O2 evolution at low psiw was below the maximum, presumably because stomatal closure restricted CO2 uptake. The inhibition was larger than in peeled discs at psiw between -1 and -1.5 MPa but became the same as in peeled discs at lower psiw. Therefore. as photosynthesis began to be inhibited by metabolism at low psiw, stomatal closure added to the inhibition. As psiw became more negative, the inhibition became entirely metabolic.

  6. Working principle and application of HEMS with lack of a cold source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Ping; He Manchao; Meng Li; Chen Chen

    2011-01-01

    With the increase of mining depth,the temperature of the original rock in deep mines increases.High temperature heat hazards at working surfaces and driving faces are becoming increasingly more serious.Given the problem of mine cooling technologies at China and abroad and the actual conditions of a coal mine,we developed HEMS (High Temperature Exchange Machinery System) with inrushing mine water as the source of cold energy.Combined with the characteristics of a shortage of inrushing water in the coal mine.we proposed the Sanhejian model of HEMS with its lack of a cold source.The cooling engineering construction,given the present conditions in the Sanhejian Coal Mine.consisted of two phases.In phase Ⅰ horizontal water circulation was used as cold energy,while phase Ⅱ was the geothermal utilization project.For the key equipment of HEMS-PT or HEMS-T,we provided the operational principle from theory and an actual application.Finally,we analyzed the operational effect of HEMS.After cooling,the temperature at the working face was below 30 ℃,which meets the national regulations.This system opens up new technology to solve the problem of deep mine heat hazards,which makes good sense in energy conservation and pollution reduction,improves the environment and realizes sustainable economic develonment.

  7. Is lack of antibiotic usage affecting udder health status of organic dairy cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjales, Inmaculada; López-Alonso, Marta; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Ruth; Rey-Crespo, Francisco; Villar, Ana; Miranda, Marta

    2016-11-01

    This research communication aimed to compare somatic cell count (SCC), the main marker of udder health status, in organic farms not using antibiotics (O, n = 6), organic farms using antibiotics (OA, n = 7) and conventional farms (CA, n = 5) using antibiotic treatments, all of them at pasture. SCC was statistically significantly higher in O (173780) compared to CA (93325) and OA (107152). Milk yield had a significant diluting effect on SCC and differences between groups increased with parities. Stratified analysis of SCC depending on lactation number and % of monthly SCC test with different linear scores (LS) indicated that there is no difference in udder health in the primiparous heifers from the three groups of farms, but it deteriorates in older cows because of chronic infections in O (possibly due to lack of antibiotic use). Our results suggest that the non-use of antibiotics had an effect in udder health leading to higher occurrence of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Therefore, preventive management practices for mastitis control are essential in organic farms.

  8. Pharmaceutical companies and global lack of access to medicines: strengthening accountability under the right to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Anand; Citro, Brian; Mankad, Mihir; Lander, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Many medicines currently available on the market are simply too expensive for millions around the world to afford. Many medicines available in the developing world are only available to a small percentage of the population due to economic inequities. The profit-seeking behavior of pharmaceutical companies exacerbates this problem. In most cases, the price reductions required to make drugs affordable to a broader class of people in the developing world are not offset by the resultant increase in sales volume. Simply stated, in most of the developing world, it is more profitable to sell drugs to the very wealthy at high prices than it is to sell cheaper drugs to a greater number of people. As a result, medicines remain unaffordable for the vast majority of people in many parts of the world. While this might be an acceptable outcome for certain commodities, such as luxury goods, it is completely unacceptable for life-saving medicines. Therefore, in order to effectively address the global lack of access to medicines, the role pharmaceutical companies play in the international intellectual property regime must be critically examined. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Development of botanical principles for clinical use in cancer: where are we lacking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojari, R J; Patil, A G; Gota, V S

    2012-01-01

    Development of drugs from plant sources (botanicals) for the treatment of cancer has not been successful in India, despite a plethora of medicinal plants and an equal number of experiments demonstrating anti-cancer activity of plant principles in vitro. There are several pitfalls in our approach to botanical drug development. Foremost is the lack of industry-academia collaborations in this field. Research goals in Indian academic institutions are generally short-term and mostly aimed at fulfilling the minimum requirements of a doctoral/MD or MPharm thesis. Secondly, quality assurance of herbal formulations is difficult to achieve and good manufacturing practices are expensive to implement. This could introduce bias during the biological evaluation of botanicals. A systematic approach covering a wide range of investigations including but not limited to mechanistic studies, potential herb-drug interactions, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability could help in the optimization of herbal formulations in the preclinical stage of development before they can be considered for clinical trials. Government initiatives such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathic have encouraged research in these areas, but are insufficient to promote focused and aggressive evaluation of potential herbs. Particular emphasis should be given to clinical pharmacokinetics, drug interactions and clinical trials in specific cancers for the evaluation of dosage, safety, efficacy and concomitant use with chemotherapy. Only such policies can result in meaningful evaluation of botanicals for cancer therapy.

  10. Postprandial Hypotension due to a Lack of Sympathetic Compensation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumoto,Akihisa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hypotension is an important hemodynamic abnormality in diabetes mellitus, but few reports are available on the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and postprandial hypotension. Ten diabetic patients and 10 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Postural blood pressure and heart rate changes were measured before lunch, and then the hemodynamic responses to a standardized meal were investigated. Holter electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring was conducted for assessing spectral powers and time-domain parameters of RR variations. Postural changes from the supine to the upright position decreased the systolic blood pressure of the diabetics from 133(+-16 to 107(+-20 mmHg (p<0.01, but did not decrease the systolic blood pressure of the controls. The heart rate remained constant in the diabetics but was increased in the controls. Food ingestion decreased systolic blood pressure in the diabetics, with a maximum reduction of 25(+-5 mmHg. This decrease was not associated with any changes in the ratio of low frequency to high frequency, and yet the heart rate remained almost constant. Indexes involving parasympathetic tone were not affected. Food ingestion did not affect blood pressure in the control group. These findings suggest that lack of compensatory sympathetic activation is a factor contributing to postprandial hypotension in diabetics, and that parasympathetic drive does not make a significant contribution to this condition.

  11. Newly generated cells are increased in hippocampus of adult mice lacking a serine protease inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sticker Melanie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone occurs throughout the life of mammals and newly generated neurons can integrate functionally into established neuronal circuits. Neurogenesis levels in the dentate gyrus are modulated by changes in the environment (enrichment, exercise, hippocampal-dependent tasks, NMDA receptor (NMDAR activity, sonic hedgehog (SHH and/or other factors. Results previously, we showed that Protease Nexin-1 (PN-1, a potent serine protease inhibitor, regulates the NMDAR availability and activity as well as SHH signaling. Compared with wild-type (WT, we detected a significant increase in BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus of mice lacking PN-1 (PN-1 -/- both in controls and after running exercise. Patched homologue 1 (Ptc1 and Gli1 mRNA levels were higher and Gli3 down-regulated in mutant mice under standard conditions and to a lesser extent after running exercise. However, the number of surviving BrdU-positive cells did not differ between WT and PN-1 -/- animals. NMDAR availability was altered in the hippocampus of mutant animals after exercise. Conclusion All together our results indicate that PN-1 controls progenitors proliferation through an effect on the SHH pathway and suggest an influence of the serpin on the survival of newly generated neurons through modulation of NMDAR availability.

  12. A unique hexokinase in Cryptosporidium parvum, an apicomplexan pathogen lacking the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yonglan; Zhang, Haili; Guo, Fengguang; Sun, Mingfei; Zhu, Guan

    2014-09-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum may cause virtually untreatable infections in AIDS patients, and is recently identified as one of the top four diarrheal pathogens in children in developing countries. Cryptosporidium differs from other apicomplexans (e.g., Plasmodium and Toxoplasma) by lacking many metabolic pathways including the Krebs cycle and cytochrome-based respiratory chain, thus relying mainly on glycolysis for ATP production. Here we report the molecular and biochemical characterizations of a hexokinase in C. parvum (CpHK). Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicated that apicomplexan hexokinases including CpHK were highly divergent from those of humans and animals (i.e., at the base of the eukaryotic clade). CpHK displays unique kinetic features that differ from those in mammals and Toxoplasma gondii (TgHK) in the preference towards various hexoses and its capacity to use ATP and other NTPs. CpHK also displays substrate inhibition by ATP. Moreover, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) could not only inhibit the CpHK activity, but also the parasite growth in vitro at concentrations nontoxic to host cells (IC(50) = 0.54 mM). While the exact action of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on the parasite is subject to further verification, our data suggest that CpHK and the glycolytic pathway may be explored for developing anti-cryptosporidial therapeutics.

  13. Lack of resistance development in Bemisia tabaci to Isaria fumosorosea after multiple generations of selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianni; Wang, Zhaolei; Huang, Yü; Keyhani, Nemat O.; Huang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of insecticide resistant insect pests is of significant concern worldwide. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is an important agricultural pest and has shown incredible resilience developing resistance to a number of chemical pesticides. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Isaria fumosorosea offer an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for insect control, and this fungus has been shown to be an effective pathogen of B. tabaci. Little is known concerning the potential for the development of resistance to I. fumosorosea by B. tabaci. Five generations of successive survivors of B. tabaci infected by I. fumosorosea were assayed with I. fumosorosea. No significant differences in susceptibility to I. fumosorosea, number of ovarioles, or ovipostioning were seen between any of the generations tested. Effects of I. fumosorosea and cell-free ethyl acetate fractions derived from the fungus on the B. tabaci fat body, ovary, and vitellogenin were also investigated. These data revealed significant deformation and degradation of ovary tissues and associated vitellogenin by the fungal mycelium as well as by cell-free ethyl acetate fungal extracts. These data indicate the lack of the emergence of resistance to I. fumosorosea under the conditions tested and demonstrate invasion of the insect reproductive tissues during fungal infection. PMID:28230074

  14. Regional Development and Decentralization – two Options to Overcome Lack of Funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka JURLINA ALIBEGOVIC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization can be generally described as a process in which selected functions are assigned to sub-national units. The literature identifies a number of positive consequences of decentralization which all lead to a better satisfaction of citizens’ needs for public services. Although the decentralization process in Croatia started more than ten years ago, it has not yet been completed. While leading to a new allocation of authorities and responsibilities to local government units, the level of fiscal decentralization remained lower than in the EU countries.In this paper we analyze the fiscal capacity of local government units to provide an insight into the main problems of decentralization in Croatia. We show that most local government units have very low fiscal capacity, which is insufficient for financing basic public functions with their own resources. The paper presents the results of a survey relating to the decentralization process conducted among local councilors at the regional level in Croatia. We explore how local councilors at the regional level evaluate different goals of decentralization. With the lack of fiscal capacity in mind, we identify two possible solutions for an optimal provision of public functions. The first one is the level of political will for a joint provision of public functions by different local units, and the second one is a change in the territorial organization of the country. We measure the difference in the attitudes toward these questions across counties.

  15. Lack of resistance development in Bemisia tabaci to Isaria fumosorosea after multiple generations of selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianni; Wang, Zhaolei; Huang, Yü; Keyhani, Nemat O.; Huang, Zhen

    2017-02-01

    The emergence of insecticide resistant insect pests is of significant concern worldwide. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is an important agricultural pest and has shown incredible resilience developing resistance to a number of chemical pesticides. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Isaria fumosorosea offer an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for insect control, and this fungus has been shown to be an effective pathogen of B. tabaci. Little is known concerning the potential for the development of resistance to I. fumosorosea by B. tabaci. Five generations of successive survivors of B. tabaci infected by I. fumosorosea were assayed with I. fumosorosea. No significant differences in susceptibility to I. fumosorosea, number of ovarioles, or ovipostioning were seen between any of the generations tested. Effects of I. fumosorosea and cell-free ethyl acetate fractions derived from the fungus on the B. tabaci fat body, ovary, and vitellogenin were also investigated. These data revealed significant deformation and degradation of ovary tissues and associated vitellogenin by the fungal mycelium as well as by cell-free ethyl acetate fungal extracts. These data indicate the lack of the emergence of resistance to I. fumosorosea under the conditions tested and demonstrate invasion of the insect reproductive tissues during fungal infection.

  16. Lack of effective anti-apoptotic activities restricts growth of Parachlamydiaceae in insect cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The fundamental role of programmed cell death in host defense is highlighted by the multitude of anti-apoptotic strategies evolved by various microbes, including the well-known obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia (Chlamydophila pneumoniae. As inhibition of apoptosis is assumed to be essential for a successful infection of humans by these chlamydiae, we analyzed the anti-apoptotic capacity of close relatives that occur as symbionts of amoebae and might represent emerging pathogens. While Simkania negevensis was able to efficiently replicate within insect cells, which served as model for metazoan-derived host cells, the Parachlamydiaceae (Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Protochlamydia amoebophila displayed limited intracellular growth, yet these bacteria induced typical features of apoptotic cell death, including formation of apoptotic bodies, nuclear condensation, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and effector caspase activity. Induction of apoptosis was dependent on bacterial activity, but not bacterial de novo protein synthesis, and was detectable already at very early stages of infection. Experimental inhibition of host cell death greatly enhanced parachlamydial replication, suggesting that lack of potent anti-apoptotic activities in Parachlamydiaceae may represent an important factor compromising their ability to successfully infect non-protozoan hosts. These findings highlight the importance of the evolution of anti-apoptotic traits for the success of chlamydiae as pathogens of humans and animals.

  17. Lack of strategy holding: a new pattern of learning deficit in cortical dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedet, María J; Lauro-Grotto, Rosapia; Giotti, Chiara

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate, by means of systematic research and qualitative data analysis, the presence, among a group of patients with fronto-temporal lobar degeneration of a subgroup that, at variance with the standard pattern, is able to devise and implement learning strategies, but appear impaired at carrying them on from a trial to the next. In order to provide evidence of the existence of a group of patients showing this type of learning disability, that we refer to as lack of strategy holding, we performed a stepwise hierarchical cluster analysis of a set of variables whose scores were selected from the subject's performance at the Test de Aprendizaje Verbal España-Complutense. Results substantiate the segregation of three groups of subjects characterized by the following patterns of performance: normal elderly individuals, who show a quite preserved ability to discover a semantic strategy along the learning trials and to carry it from a trial to the next, patients presenting with a deficit in implementing semantic learning strategies and possibly use of serial and/or phonological strategies to perform the task, and to patients who, although able to generate and implement appropriate learning strategies, appear unable to carry them over the learning trials. The presence of this new pattern raises a few questions that seem worth trying to address.

  18. Innate immune restriction and antagonism of viral RNA lacking 2'-O methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Jennifer L. [Departments of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis., MO 63110 (United States); Diamond, Michael S., E-mail: diamond@borcim.wustl.edu [Departments of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis., MO 63110 (United States); Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis., MO 63110 (United States); Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis., MO 63110 (United States); The Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis., MO 63110 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    N-7 and 2′-O methylation of host cell mRNA occurs in the nucleus and results in the generation of cap structures (cap 0, m{sup 7}GpppN; cap 1, m{sup 7}GpppNm) that control gene expression by modulating nuclear export, splicing, turnover, and protein synthesis. Remarkably, RNA cap modification also contributes to mammalian cell host defense as viral RNA lacking 2′-O methylation is sensed and inhibited by IFIT1, an interferon (IFN) stimulated gene (ISG). Accordingly, pathogenic viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm have evolved mechanisms to circumvent IFIT1 restriction and facilitate infection of mammalian cells. These include: (a) generating cap 1 structures on their RNA through cap-snatching or virally-encoded 2′-O methyltransferases, (b) using cap-independent means of translation, or (c) using RNA secondary structural motifs to antagonize IFIT1 binding. This review will discuss new insights as to how specific modifications at the 5′-end of viral RNA modulate host pathogen recognition responses to promote infection and disease.

  19. Preserved recovery of cardiac function following ischemia-reperfusion in mice lacking SIRT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Meyer-Steenbuck, Maximilian; Lother, Achim; Hoffmann, Michael M; Odening, Katja E; Hein, Lutz; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Lack of the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) impairs mitochondrial function and increases the susceptibility to induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Because these alterations contribute to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, we hypothesized that SIRT3 deficiency may increase cardiac injury following myocardial IR. Hearts of 10-week-old mice were perfused in the isolated working mode and subjected to 17.5 min of global no-flow ischemia, followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Measurements before ischemia revealed a decrease in cardiac power (-20%) and rate pressure product (-15%) in SIRT3(-/-) mice. Mitochondrial state 3 respiration (-15%), ATP synthesis (-39%), and ATP/O ratios (-29%) were decreased in hearts of SIRT3(-/-) mice. However, percent recovery of cardiac power (WT 94% ± 9%; SIRT3(-/-) 89% ± 9%) and rate pressure product (WT 89% ± 16%; SIRT3(-/-) 96% ± 3%) following IR was similar in both groups. Myocardial infarct size was not increased in SIRT3(-/-) mice following permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Left ventricular pressure and dP/dtmax, and mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis were not different between groups following LAD ligation. Thus, despite pre-existing defects in cardiac function and mitochondrial respiratory capacity in SIRT3(-/-) mice, SIRT3 deficiency does not additionally impair cardiac function following IR or following myocardial infarction.

  20. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu.

  1. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita eGarcía-Calderón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2 in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L .japonicus plants in response to stress.

  2. Priming and memory of stress responses in organisms lacking a nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Monika; Schwachtje, Jens; Baier, Margarete; Balazadeh, Salma; Bäurle, Isabel; Geiselhardt, Sven; Hincha, Dirk K; Kunze, Reinhard; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Rillig, Matthias C; Rolff, Jens; Romeis, Tina; Schmülling, Thomas; Steppuhn, Anke; van Dongen, Joost; Whitcomb, Sarah J; Wurst, Susanne; Zuther, Ellen; Kopka, Joachim

    2016-11-01

    Experience and memory of environmental stimuli that indicate future stress can prepare (prime) organismic stress responses even in species lacking a nervous system. The process through which such organisms prepare their phenotype for an improved response to future stress has been termed 'priming'. However, other terms are also used for this phenomenon, especially when considering priming in different types of organisms and when referring to different stressors. Here we propose a conceptual framework for priming of stress responses in bacteria, fungi and plants which allows comparison of priming with other terms, e.g. adaptation, acclimation, induction, acquired resistance and cross protection. We address spatial and temporal aspects of priming and highlight current knowledge about the mechanisms necessary for information storage which range from epigenetic marks to the accumulation of (dormant) signalling molecules. Furthermore, we outline possible patterns of primed stress responses. Finally, we link the ability of organisms to become primed for stress responses (their 'primability') with evolutionary ecology aspects and discuss which properties of an organism and its environment may favour the evolution of priming of stress responses.

  3. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins lack neurovirulence in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV that expresses an individual filovirus glycoprotein (GP in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G. The main concern with all replication-competent vaccines, including the rVSV filovirus GP vectors, is their safety. To address this concern, we performed a neurovirulence study using 21 cynomolgus macaques where the vaccines were administered intrathalamically. Seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV GP; seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV GP; three animals received rVSV-wild type (wt vector, and four animals received vehicle control. Two of three animals given rVSV-wt showed severe neurological symptoms whereas animals receiving vehicle control, rVSV-ZEBOV-GP, or rVSV-MARV-GP did not develop these symptoms. Histological analysis revealed major lesions in neural tissues of all three rVSV-wt animals; however, no significant lesions were observed in any animals from the filovirus vaccine or vehicle control groups. These data strongly suggest that rVSV filovirus GP vaccine vectors lack the neurovirulence properties associated with the rVSV-wt parent vector and support their further development as a vaccine platform for human use.

  4. Severely impaired learning and altered neuronal morphology in mice lacking NMDA receptors in medium spiny neurons.

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    Lisa R Beutler

    Full Text Available The striatum is composed predominantly of medium spiny neurons (MSNs that integrate excitatory, glutamatergic inputs from the cortex and thalamus, and modulatory dopaminergic inputs from the ventral midbrain to influence behavior. Glutamatergic activation of AMPA, NMDA, and metabotropic receptors on MSNs is important for striatal development and function, but the roles of each of these receptor classes remain incompletely understood. Signaling through NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs in the striatum has been implicated in various motor and appetitive learning paradigms. In addition, signaling through NMDARs influences neuronal morphology, which could underlie their role in mediating learned behaviors. To study the role of NMDARs on MSNs in learning and in morphological development, we generated mice lacking the essential NR1 subunit, encoded by the Grin1 gene, selectively in MSNs. Although these knockout mice appear normal and display normal 24-hour locomotion, they have severe deficits in motor learning, operant conditioning and active avoidance. In addition, the MSNs from these knockout mice have smaller cell bodies and decreased dendritic length compared to littermate controls. We conclude that NMDAR signaling in MSNs is critical for normal MSN morphology and many forms of learning.

  5. Lack of miRNA misregulation at early pathological stages in Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eReinhardt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Late onset neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health concern as the population in many countries ages. Both frequent diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD, 14% incidence for 80-84 year old Europeans or Parkinson disease (PD, 1.4% prevalence for > 55 years old share, with other low-incidence neurodegenerative pathologies such as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs, 0.01% prevalence and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, 0.02% prevalence, a lack of efficient treatment in spite of important research efforts. Besides significant progress, studies with animal models have revealed unexpected complexities in the degenerative process, emphasizing a need to better understand the underlying pathological mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs, a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. The current data supporting a role of miRNAs in PD, tauopathies, dominant ataxias and FTLD will first be discussed to emphasize the different levels of the pathological processes which may be affected by miRNAs. To investigate a potential involvement of miRNA dysregulation in the early stages of these neurodegenerative diseases we have used Drosophila models for 7 diseases (PD, 3 FTLD, 3 dominant ataxias that recapitulate many features of the human diseases. We performed deep sequencing of head small RNAs after 3 days of pathological protein expression in the fly head neurons. We found no evidence for a statistically significant difference in miRNA expression in this early stage of the pathological process. In addition, we could not identify small non coding CAG repeat RNAs (sCAG in polyQ disease models. Thus our data suggest that transcriptional deregulation of miRNAs or sCAG is unlikely to play a significant role in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Lack of central sprouting of primary afferent fibers after ricin deafferentation.

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    Pubols, L M; Bowen, D C

    1988-09-08

    A new deafferentation technique, the application of ricin to peripheral nerves, was used to test for collateral sprouting of undamaged primary afferent fibers within the adult mammalian spinal cord dorsal horn. The right sciatic nerves in rats were injected with ricin 14 to 57 days prior to bilateral labelling of dorsal rootlets with horseradish peroxidase. To equate the number of surviving dorsal root fibers on the two sides, the left sciatic nerves were injected 5 days prior to labelling. In each animal, horseradish peroxidase was applied to a bilateral pair of lumbar or low thoracic dorsal rootlets 18 hours prior to sacrifice to test for sprouting by labelling primary afferent fibers and terminals in the right (experimental) and left (control) dorsal horns. Although there is overlap of degenerated and intact primary afferent fields in this preparation, a postulated precondition for sprouting (Murray and Goldberger: J. Neurosci. 6:3205-3217, '86), we found no evidence for sprouting of undamaged, myelinated afferent fibers in the experimental dorsal horns. The pattern of labelling was symmetrical in all animals, and the density of labelling was not consistently greater on the experimental side. These results support the conclusions of Rodin et al. (J. Comp. Neurol. 215:187-198, '83) and Rodin and Kruger (Somatosens. Res. 2:171-192, '84), who also found no sprouting in the rat's dorsal horn after surgical deafferentation, and do not support the assertion that the difference between the results of those studies and earlier studies in cats was due to a lack of overlap of degenerated and intact dorsal roots in the rat.

  7. Early Signs of Pathological Cognitive Aging in Mice Lacking High-Affinity Nicotinic Receptors.

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    Konsolaki, Eleni; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Polissidis, Alexia V; Stamatakis, Antonios; Skaliora, Irini

    2016-01-01

    In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. A deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-), which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioral signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviors, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments in spatial learning. In addition, they document age-related deficits in other areas, such as recognition memory, burrowing and nesting building, thereby extending the validity of this animal model for the study of pathological aging. Finally, our data reveal deficits in spontaneous behavior and habituation processes that precede the onset of cognitive decline and could therefore be useful as a non-invasive behavioral screen for identifying animals at risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioral assessment of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioral changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging.

  8. Natural Outbreak of BVDV-1d-Induced Mucosal Disease Lacking Intestinal Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M V; Konradt, G; de Souza, S O; Bassuino, D M; Silveira, S; Mósena, A C S; Canal, C W; Pavarini, S P; Driemeier, D

    2017-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the Pestivirus genus, which is further divided into subgenotypes (1a-1u and 2a-c). When persistent infection occurs, the calf will be immunotolerant to BVDV and possibly develop mucosal disease. This study describes an outbreak of BVDV-1d-induced mucosal disease lacking intestinal lesions. Eleven calves presented with anorexia, sialorrhea, lameness, recumbency, and death. Three calves were necropsied, showing ulceration of the interdigital skin and the oral and nasal mucosa; linear ulcers in the tongue, esophagus, and rumen; and rounded ulcers in the abomasum. Microscopically, mucosa and skin had superficial necrosis, with single-cell necrosis and vacuolation in epithelial cells, and severe parakeratosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed BVDV antigen in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in skin and mucosa. All 11 dead calves were positive upon reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Pestivirus along with another 11 live calves from the herd, which were positive again by RT-PCR and IHC after a 4-week interval. Sequencing of the 5' untranslated region and N-terminal protease showed that viruses from these 22 calves were homologous and of subgenotype BVDV-1d. Cytopathic BVDV was isolated from 8 of 11 dead calves, but only noncytopathic BVDV was isolated from the 11 live animals. The findings indicate that this was an outbreak of mucosal disease caused by BVDV-1d, with high morbidity, and lesions restricted to the upper alimentary system and skin and absent from intestine. Thus, the epidemiological and pathological features in this form of mucosal disease may be similar to vesicular diseases, including foot and mouth disease.

  9. Lack of adaptation to human tetherin in HIV-1 Group O and P

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    Haworth Kevin G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 viruses are categorized into four distinct groups: M, N, O and P. Despite the same genomic organization, only the group M viruses are responsible for the world-wide pandemic of AIDS, suggesting better adaptation to human hosts. Previously, it has been reported that the group M Vpu protein is capable of both down-modulating CD4 and counteracting BST-2/tetherin restriction, while the group O Vpu cannot antagonize tetherin. This led us to investigate if group O, and the related group P viruses, possess functional anti-tetherin activities in Vpu or another viral protein, and to further map the residues required for group M Vpu to counteract human tetherin. Results We found a lack of activity against human tetherin for both the Vpu and Nef proteins from group O and P viruses. Furthermore, we found no evidence of anti-human tetherin activity in a fully infectious group O proviral clone, ruling out the possibility of an alternative anti-tetherin factor in this virus. Interestingly, an activity against primate tetherins was retained in the Nef proteins from both a group O and a group P virus. By making chimeras between a functional group M and non-functional group O Vpu protein, we were able to map the first 18 amino acids of group M Vpu as playing an essential role in the ability of the protein to antagonize human tetherin. We further demonstrated the importance of residue alanine-18 for the group M Vpu activity. This residue lies on a diagonal face of conserved alanines in the TM domain of the protein, and is necessary for specific Vpu-tetherin interactions. Conclusions The absence of human specific anti-tetherin activities in HIV-1 group O and P suggests a failure of these viruses to adapt to human hosts, which may have limited their spread.

  10. Prevention of obesity and insulin resistance in mice lacking plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

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    Ma, Li-Jun; Mao, Su-Li; Taylor, Kevin L; Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak; Guan, YouFei; Zhang, YaHua; Brown, Nancy J; Swift, Larry L; McGuinness, Owen P; Wasserman, David H; Vaughan, Douglas E; Fogo, Agnes B

    2004-02-01

    Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has been linked to not only thrombosis and fibrosis but also to obesity and insulin resistance. Increased PAI-1 levels have been presumed to be consequent to obesity. We investigated the interrelationships of PAI-1, obesity, and insulin resistance in a high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF) diet-induced obesity model in wild-type (WT) and PAI-1-deficient mice (PAI-1(-/-)). Obesity and insulin resistance developing in WT mice on an HF diet were completely prevented in mice lacking PAI-1. PAI-1(-/-) mice on an HF diet had increased resting metabolic rates and total energy expenditure compared with WT mice, along with a marked increase in uncoupling protein 3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle, likely mechanisms contributing to the prevention of obesity. In addition, insulin sensitivity was enhanced significantly in PAI-1(-/-) mice on an HF diet, as shown by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma and adiponectin mRNA, key control molecules in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, were maintained in response to an HF diet in white adipose tissue in PAI-1(-/-) mice, contrasting with downregulation in WT mice. This maintenance of PPAR-gamma and adiponectin may also contribute to the observed maintenance of body weight and insulin sensitivity in PAI-1(-/-) mice. Treatment in WT mice on an HF diet with the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist to downregulate PAI-1 indeed inhibited PAI-1 increases and ameliorated diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. PAI-1 deficiency also enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose cells in vitro. Our data suggest that PAI-1 may not merely increase in response to obesity and insulin resistance, but may have a direct causal role in obesity and insulin resistance. Inhibition of PAI-1 might provide a novel anti-obesity and anti-insulin resistance treatment.

  11. Lack of fitness costs associated with acetamiprid resistance in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Muhammad; Sayyed, Ali H; Saeed, Shafqat; Saleem, Mushtaq A

    2012-08-01

    Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a devastating pest that can cause severe damage to a range of crops by direct feeding and by plant virus transmission. Because of indiscriminate use of insecticides, this whitefly has developed resistance to several insecticides, including neonicotinoids. Our objectives were to determine fitness components affected by acetamiprid resistance in B. tabaci. Assay results showed that selection with acetamiprid had removed heterozygotes from the field population because the survival rate of the resistant population was significantly greater than that of the field population at a very high dose. Comparison of various life traits between the acetamiprid-selected (Aceta-SEL) population and three other populations showed that the numbers of eggs laid by acetamiprid Aceta-SEL population were significantly lower compared with that of other populations but that the proportions of eggs hatched were significantly higher. However, the time taken by nymphal stages of the Aceta-SEL population to develop was significantly higher than that of the susceptible populations. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and doubling time of Aceta-SEL was significantly higher than Lab-PK and UNSEL populations, but the growth index was similar for all populations. The growth index and high intrinsic value of Aceta-SEL population suggest that the resistance allele may not have detrimental impact. The lack of fitness costs in B. tabaci could promote the rapid development of resistance to acetamiprid and other neonicotinoids. This resistance could threaten the sustainability of whitefly management program on genetically engineered cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) where neonicotinoids are being sprayed to manage sucking pests in the field.

  12. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  13. Falsely elevated troponin I results due to outliers indicate a lack of analytical robustness.

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    Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Pretorius, Carel J; Dimeski, Goce; O'Rourke, Peter K; Tyack, Shirley A

    2010-05-01

    Troponin (Tn) is the preferred biochemical marker for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. Spurious false Tn results (outliers) may cause significant problems with clinical management. We investigated the occurrence of outliers and whether this phenomenon could be explained by analytical imprecision. Methods and results Troponin I (TnI) was measured in duplicate with Beckman AccuTnI reagent if the first TnI result was > or =0.04 microg/L (n = 5265). All TnI requests were performed in duplicate in a subset of samples for one calendar month (n = 881). A total of 13,178 TnI requests were received during the study period. Variables were sample type, centrifugation speed and analyser. Results were identified as outliers when the difference between two results exceeded a critical difference (CD) limit defined by CD = z x square root 2 x SD(Analytical). Outliers at the 0.0005 probability level were detected in 102 of 5265 duplicate observations (1.94 +/- 0.37%). This translated into an outlier rate of 0.55 +/- 0.13% for all TnI results and 1.37 +/- 0.31% for results above 0.04 microg/L. Outliers resulted only in falsely elevated TnI values and were not dependent on the analyser, centrifugation speed or sample type. TnI outliers occurred more frequently than anticipated, could not be explained by analytical imprecision and indicated a lack of robustness in the assay. The high rate and the magnitude of the errors will complicate clinical management and carry a risk of detrimental patient outcome. The outlier rate is a useful parameter to define the robustness of assays.

  14. Lack of reliable clinical predictors to identify obstructive sleep apnea in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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    Nerbass, Flávia B.; Pedrosa, Rodrigo P.; Genta, Pedro R.; Antunes, Murillo O.; Arteaga-Fernández, Edmundo; Drager, Luciano F.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea is common among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and may contribute to poor cardiovascular outcomes. However, obstructive sleep apnea is largely unrecognized in this population. We sought to identify the clinical predictors of obstructive sleep apnea among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Consecutive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were recruited from a tertiary University Hospital and were evaluated using validated sleep questionnaires (Berlin and Epworth) and overnight portable monitoring. Ninety patients (males, 51%; age, 46±15 years; body mass index, 26.6±4.9 kg/m2) were included, and obstructive sleep apnea (respiratory disturbance index ≥15 events/h) was present in 37 patients (41%). RESULTS: Compared with the patients without obstructive sleep apnea, patients with obstructive sleep apnea were older and had higher body mass index, larger waist circumference, larger neck circumference, and higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation. Excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth scale) was low and similar in the patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. The only predictors of obstructive sleep apnea (using a logistic regression analysis) were age ≥45 years (odds ratio [OR], 4.46; 95% confidence interval [CI 95%], 1.47–13.54; p = 0.008) and the presence of atrial fibrillation [OR, 5.37; CI 95%, 1.43–20.12; p = 0.013]. CONCLUSION: Consistent clinical predictors of obstructive sleep apnea are lacking for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which suggests that objective sleep evaluations should be considered in this population, particularly among elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. PMID:23917665

  15. Lack of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate compromises photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis in fluctuating environments.

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    McCormick, Alistair J; Kruger, Nicholas J

    2015-03-01

    The balance between carbon assimilation, storage and utilisation during photosynthesis is dependent on partitioning of photoassimilate between starch and sucrose, and varies in response to changes in the environment. However, the extent to which the capacity to modulate carbon partitioning rapidly through short-term allosteric regulation may contribute to plant performance is unknown. Here we examine the physiological role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2 ) during photosynthesis, growth and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.). In leaves this signal metabolite contributes to coordination of carbon assimilation and partitioning during photosynthesis by allosterically modulating the activity of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Three independent T-DNA insertional mutant lines deficient in 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (F2KP), the bifunctional enzyme responsible for both the synthesis and degradation of Fru-2,6-P2 , lack Fru-2,6-P2 . These plants have normal steady-state rates of photosynthesis, but exhibit increased partitioning of photoassimilate into sucrose and have delayed photosynthetic induction kinetics. The F2KP-deficient plants grow normally in constant environments, but show reduced growth and seed yields relative to wildtype plants in fluctuating light and/or temperature. We conclude that Fru-2,6-P2 is required for optimum regulation of photosynthetic carbon metabolism under variable growth conditions. These analyses suggest that the capacity of Fru-2,6-P2 to modulate partitioning of photoassimilate is an important determinant of growth and fitness in natural environments.

  16. Lack of developmental redundancy between Unc45 proteins in zebrafish muscle development.

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    Sophie A Comyn

    Full Text Available Since the majority of protein-coding genes in vertebrates have intra-genomic homologues, it has been difficult to eliminate the potential of functional redundancy from analyses of mutant phenotypes, whether produced by genetic lesion or transient knockdown. Further complicating these analyses, not all gene products have activities that can be assayed in vitro, where the efficiency of the various family members can be compared against constant substrates. Two vertebrate UNC-45 homologues, unc45a and unc45b, affect distinct stages of muscle differentiation when knocked down in cell culture and are functionally redundant in vitro. UNC-45 proteins are members of the UCS (UNC-45/CRO1/She4p protein family that has been shown to regulate myosin-dependent functions from fungi to vertebrates through direct interaction with the myosin motor domain. To test whether the same functional relationship exists between these unc45 paralogs in vivo, we examined the developmental phenotypes of doubly homozygous unc45b(-/-; unc45a(-/- mutant zebrafish embryos. We focused specifically on the combined effects on morphology and gene expression resulting from the zygotic lack of both paralogs. We found that unc45b(-/- and unc45b(-/-; unc45a(-/- embryos were phenotypically indistinguishable with both mutants displaying identical cardiac, skeletal muscle, and jaw defects. We also found no evidence to support a role for zygotic Unc45a function in myoblast differentiation. In contrast to previous in vitro work, this rules out a model of functional redundancy between Unc45a and Unc45b in vivo. Instead, our phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses provide evidence for the role of functional divergence in the evolution of the UCS protein family.

  17. Lack of the vitamin D receptor is associated with reduced epidermal differentiation and hair follicle growth.

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    Xie, Zhongjion; Komuves, László; Yu, Qian-Chun; Elalieh, Hashem; Ng, Dean C; Leary, Colin; Chang, Sandra; Crumrine, Debra; Yoshizawa, Tatsuya; Kato, Shigeaki; Bikle, Daniel D

    2002-01-01

    The active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, acting through the vitamin D receptor, regulates the expression of genes in a variety of vitamin D-responsive tissues, including the epidermis. To investigate the role of the vitamin D receptor in mediating epidermal differentiation, we examined the histomorphology and expression of differentiation markers in the epidermis of vitamin D receptor knockout mice generated by gene targeting. The homozygous knockout mouse displayed a phenotype that closely resembles vitamin D-dependent rickets type II in humans, including the development of rickets and alopecia. Hair loss developed by 3 mo after birth and gradually led to nearly total hair loss by 8 mo. Histologic analysis of the skin of homozygous knockout mice revealed dilation of the hair follicles with the formation of dermal cysts starting at the age of 3 wk. These cysts increased in size and number with age. Epidermal differentiation markers, including involucrin, profilaggrin, and loricrin, detected by immunostaining and in situ hybridization, showed decreased expression levels in homozygous knockout mice from birth until 3 wk, preceding the morphologic changes observed in the hair follicles. Keratin 10 levels, however, were not reduced. At the ultrastructural level, homozygous knockout mice showed increased numbers of small dense granules in the granular layer with few or no surrounding keratin bundles and a loss of keratohyalin granules. Thus, both the interfollicular epidermis and the hair follicle appear to require the vitamin D receptor for normal differentiation. The temporal abnormalities between the two processes reflect the apparent lack of requirement for the vitamin D receptor during the anagen phase of the first (developmental) hair cycle, but with earlier effects on the terminal differentiation of the interfollicular epidermis.

  18. Lack of hepcidin expression attenuates steatosis and causesfibrosis in the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of key iron-regulatoryprotein, hepcidin in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD).METHODS: Hepcidin (Hamp1 ) knockout and floxedcontrol mice were administered a high fat and highsucrose (HFS) or a regular control diet for 3 or 7 mo.Steatosis, triglycerides, fibrosis, protein and gene expressionin mice livers were determined by histologicaland biochemical techniques, western blotting and realtimepolymerase chain reaction.RESULTS: Knockout mice exhibited hepatic ironaccumulation. Despite similar weight gains, HFS feedinginduced hepatomegaly in floxed, but not knockout,mice. The livers of floxed mice exhibited higher levelsof steatosis, triglycerides and c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK) phosphorylation than knockout mice. In contrast,a significant increase in fibrosis was observed inknockout mice livers within 3 mo of HFS administration.The hepatic gene expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fat-specific protein-27,but not peroxisome proliferator-activated receptoralphaor microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, wereattenuated in HFS-fed knockout mice. Knockout micefed with regular diet displayed increased carnitinepalmitoyltransferase-1a and phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxykinase-1 but decreased glucose-6-phosphataseexpression in the liver. In summary, attenuated steatosiscorrelated with decreased expression of lipogenic andlipid storage genes, and JNK phosphorylation. Deletionof Hamp1 alleles per se modulated hepatic expressionof beta-oxidation and gluconeogenic genes.CONCLUSION: Lack of hepcidin expression inhibitshepatic lipid accumulation and induces early developmentof fibrosis following high fat intake. Hepcidinand iron may play a role in the regulation of metabolicpathways in the liver, which has implications for NAFLDpathogenesis.

  19. Analgesic tone conferred by constitutively active mu opioid receptors in mice lacking β-arrestin 2.

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    Lam, Hoa; Maga, Matthew; Pradhan, Amynah; Evans, Christopher J; Maidment, Nigel T; Hales, Tim G; Walwyn, Wendy

    2011-04-12

    Hedonic reward, dependence and addiction are unwanted effects of opioid analgesics, linked to the phasic cycle of μ opioid receptor activation, tolerance and withdrawal. In vitro studies of recombinant G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) over expressed in cell lines reveal an alternative tonic signaling mechanism that is independent of agonist. Such studies demonstrate that constitutive GPCR signaling can be inhibited by inverse agonists but not by neutral antagonists. However, ligand-independent activity has been difficult to examine in vivo, at the systems level, due to relatively low levels of constitutive activity of most GPCRs including μ receptors, often necessitating mutagenesis or pharmacological manipulation to enhance basal signaling. We previously demonstrated that the absence of β-arrestin 2 (β-arr2) augments the constitutive coupling of μ receptors to voltage-activated Ca²+ channels in primary afferent dorsal root ganglion neurons from β-arr2⁻/⁻ mice. We used this in vitro approach to characterize neutral competitive antagonists and inverse agonists of the constitutively active wild type μ receptors in neurons. We administered these agents to β-arr2⁻/⁻ mice to explore the role of constitutive μ receptor activity in nociception and hedonic tone. This study demonstrates that the induction of constitutive μ receptor activity in vivo in β-arr2⁻/⁻ mice prolongs tail withdrawal from noxious heat, a phenomenon that was reversed by inverse agonists, but not by antagonists that lack negative efficacy. By contrast, the aversive effects of inverse agonists were similar in β-arr2⁻/⁻ and β-arr2+/+ mice, suggesting that hedonic tone was unaffected.

  20. Analgesic tone conferred by constitutively active mu opioid receptors in mice lacking β-arrestin 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hales Tim G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hedonic reward, dependence and addiction are unwanted effects of opioid analgesics, linked to the phasic cycle of μ opioid receptor activation, tolerance and withdrawal. In vitro studies of recombinant G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs over expressed in cell lines reveal an alternative tonic signaling mechanism that is independent of agonist. Such studies demonstrate that constitutive GPCR signaling can be inhibited by inverse agonists but not by neutral antagonists. However, ligand-independent activity has been difficult to examine in vivo, at the systems level, due to relatively low levels of constitutive activity of most GPCRs including μ receptors, often necessitating mutagenesis or pharmacological manipulation to enhance basal signaling. We previously demonstrated that the absence of β-arrestin 2 (β-arr2 augments the constitutive coupling of μ receptors to voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in primary afferent dorsal root ganglion neurons from β-arr2-/- mice. We used this in vitro approach to characterize neutral competitive antagonists and inverse agonists of the constitutively active wild type μ receptors in neurons. We administered these agents to β-arr2-/- mice to explore the role of constitutive μ receptor activity in nociception and hedonic tone. This study demonstrates that the induction of constitutive μ receptor activity in vivo in β-arr2-/- mice prolongs tail withdrawal from noxious heat, a phenomenon that was reversed by inverse agonists, but not by antagonists that lack negative efficacy. By contrast, the aversive effects of inverse agonists were similar in β-arr2-/- and β-arr2+/+ mice, suggesting that hedonic tone was unaffected.