WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonmetro poverty rate

  1. Child Poverty Was Lower at End of 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carolyn C.

    2001-01-01

    Poverty rates increased in the early 1990s, but between 1994 and 1999 the metro child poverty rate declined 6 percentage points and the nonmetro rate declined 4 percent. In 1999, the poverty rate for nonmetro Black children was about double that of nonmetro White children, but the Black-White gap in poverty narrowed between 1985 and 1999. (TD)

  2. In-Kind Benefits and the Nonmetro Poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Virginia K.

    1986-01-01

    Reports the effect of valuing in-kind benefits as income and contrasts the resulting changes in reported poverty rates in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. Finds consideration of in-kind benefits such as food stamps and Medicaid does reduce the reported number of poor, but incidence of poverty remains higher for nonmetro areas. (LFL)

  3. Nonmetro Net Outmigration Stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromartie, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Annual population losses from net migration for nonmetro areas declined from 0.38-0.20 percent during the period of 1988-91. However, annual inmigration and outmigration flows were consistently above 1.5 million (about 3 percent of nonmetro population). During the three-year period, nonmetro areas consistently lost young adults and those with…

  4. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  5. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  6. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  7. Poor people on the move: county-to-county migration and the spatial concentration of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, M

    1998-05-01

    "Poverty rates in high-poverty and low-poverty rural [U.S.] counties, and, thus, the spatial concentration of poverty, are affected by poverty-specific differences in in-migration and out-migration patterns. These patterns are investigated using 1985-90 county-to-county migration data from the decennial census. Effects on poverty rates of four migration flows (in- and out-migration of poor, in- and out-migration of nonpoor) are quantified, and their impacts on spatial concentration of poverty are assessed. The effect of selected county characteristics on the migration of the poor and nonpoor in nonmetro counties [is] estimated."

  8. Rural Poverty Rate Edges Downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Although rural poverty began to decline, 1994-95, many rural households had incomes just above poverty. Rural minorities were especially disadvantaged; racial differences in educational attainment accounted for 20-33% of income gaps. One-quarter of rural children lived in poverty, most in single-parent households. Most rural poor families lived in…

  9. Higher Inmigration, Lower Outmigration Contribute to Nonmetro Population Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromartie, John

    1996-01-01

    For 1993-94, data from the Internal Revenue Service indicate that nonmetro areas showed positive net migration for the United States, all regions, and all economic county types, with the greatest gains in the West and in retirement-destination counties. The most rapidly growing counties had the highest rates for both inmigration and outmigration.…

  10. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity.

  11. Nonmetro Personal Income Increases in the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate that nonmetropolitan personal income increased in real terms during 1990-96, whereas metropolitan income did not. Among long-term influences, steadily rising educational attainment has fostered convergence between nonmetro and metro income. Table and figure detail nonmetro and metro incomes, 1990-96, for…

  12. Poverty rates in Venezuela: getting the numbers right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis; Rosnick, David

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at household and individual poverty rates in Venezuela over the past seven years. For more than a year, the statement that poverty in Venezuela has increased under the government of President Hugo Chávez has appeared in scores of major newspapers, on major television and radio programs, and even in publications devoted to foreign policy. There are no data to support such statements, and in fact the available data show a decline in poverty for both individuals and households over the seven-year period: the percentage of people in poverty declined from 50 percent in the first quarter of 1999 to 43.7 percent in 2005. Further, there is no evidence to suggest any change in the methodology for measuring poverty during this period, as has been alleged in a number of reports. The article also examines briefly the impact of significant changes in non-cash benefits such as free health care, which are not taken into account in the measured poverty rate, on poor people in Venezuela. Finally, the authors look at how the mistakes in reporting on Venezuela's poverty rate were made; an appendix gives examples of mistakes in major media and foreign policy publications.

  13. Why Are Child Poverty Rates Higher in Britain than in Germany? A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Schluter, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We analyze why child poverty rates were much higher in Britain than in Western Germany during the 1990s, using a framework focusing on poverty transition rates. Child poverty exit rates were significantly lower, and poverty entry rates significantly higher, in Britain. We decompose these cross-national differences into differences in the…

  14. Nonmetro Outmigration Exceeds Inmigration for the First Time in a Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromartie, John B.

    2001-01-01

    More people moved from nonmetro to metro areas than in the opposite direction during 1999-2000. Only the Midwest saw nonmetro growth. Nonmetro outmigration is concentrated among young adults leaving for college and jobs in cities, while inmigration among the college-educated dropped to near zero. Migration decisions of baby boomers will determine…

  15. Poverty in Female-headed Households: Residential Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Diane K.; Sachs, Carolyn

    1988-01-01

    Examines how individual characteristics and the employment opportunity structure vary for female-headed households in urban and nonmetropolitan areas. Finds little difference by residence on characteristics that influence poverty status. Employed nonmetro women more likely to have poverty incomes while opportunities for female headed nonmetro…

  16. Poor People in Poor Places: Local Opportunity Structures and Household Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Individualist and structuralist perspectives on poverty were integrated by examining the relationship between "people poverty" and "place poverty" in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas, using a multilevel framework. Both household compositional factors (including education) and contextual factors contributed to the nonmetro-metro difference in…

  17. Reducing the Child Poverty Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, nearly one in five or 18 percent of children in the U.S. lived in poverty (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Many of these children come from minority backgrounds. African American (35 percent), American Indian (33 percent) and Latino (27 percent) children are more likely to live in poverty than their white (11 percent) and Asian (12…

  18. 45 CFR 284.50 - What information will we use to determine the child poverty rate in each Territory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... child poverty rate in each Territory? 284.50 Section 284.50 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... STATE OR TERRITORY'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.50 What information will we use to determine the child poverty rate in each Territory? (a) Our intent is that, to the...

  19. 45 CFR 284.20 - What information will we use to determine the child poverty rate in each State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 90-percent confidence level; (iii) Use the official definition of poverty as used by the Census... child poverty rate in each State? 284.20 Section 284.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... TERRITORY'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.20 What information will we use to...

  20. The Relationship of School Poverty and Suspension Rates: Finding Ways to Reduce Suspension through Prevention Programming and School Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Erica

    2012-01-01

    What is the relationship between school poverty and school suspension rates and to what extent do prevention programming and school bonding lower the suspension risk for students in high poverty schools? The present study examined the association between school level poverty and suspension rates in addition to investigating whether prevention…

  1. Cross-temporal and cross-national poverty and mortality rates among developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  2. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Fritzell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  3. Wage Premiums for On-the-Job Computer Use: A Metro and Nonmetro Analysis. Rural Development Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmin, Lorin D.

    By 1997, almost half of all U.S. workers used computers on the job, and such workers generally received higher wages than non-users. However, on-the-job use was less common in nonmetro areas than in metro areas, and wages for nonmetro workers were generally lower. But is computer use instrumental in explaining the metro-nonmetro wage gap? A survey…

  4. 45 CFR 284.21 - What will we do if the State's child poverty rate increased five percent or more over the two...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What will we do if the State's child poverty rate... IN A STATE OR TERRITORY'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.21 What will we do if the State's child poverty rate increased five percent or more over the two-year period? (a)...

  5. Moving up in Rural America: Economic Attainment of Nonmetro Latino Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, William; Henderson, Jamila; Koball, Heather; Capps, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Rapid Hispanic population growth represents a pronounced demographic transformation in many nonmetropolitan counties, particularly since 1990. Its considerable public policy implications stem largely from high proportions of new foreign-born residents. Despite the pressing need for information on new immigrants in nonmetro counties and a…

  6. There is poverty convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Klasen, Stephan; Wacker, Konstantin M.

    2016-01-01

    Martin Ravallion ("Why Don't We See Poverty Convergence?" American Economic Review, 102(1): 504-23; 2012) presents evidence against the existence of convergence in global poverty rates despite convergence in household mean income levels and the close linkage between income growth and poverty reduction. We show that this finding is driven by a specification that demands more than simple convergence in poverty headcount rates and assumes a growth elasticity of poverty reduction, which is well-k...

  7. Poverty in American Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Rainwater, Lee

    1992-01-01

    This study proposes a social rather than an economic conception of poverty in the U.S., exploring the definition of poverty line from this perspective. Data from three sources is used to describe poverty rates in the U.S. in relation to changes over time, a cross national perspective, and variations in persistent poverty for race, sex and age.

  8. Comparison of research productivity between metro and non-metro cities in a biomedical journal from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kvs Hari; Aravinda, K

    2013-04-01

    The research productivity of a place depends on doctors, patients and available infrastructure to carry research activities. We aimed to study the publishing trends and research productivity of metro and non-metro cities in the Journal of the Association of Physi cians of India (JAPI). Bibliometric analysis of research articles published in JAPI between 2000 and 2011was undertaken. The four types of articles (original articles including brief reports, case reports, correspondence and pictorial image) were studied for research productivity. They were analyzed according to subspecialty, publication times and type of research work from both places. Comparison between groups was done using Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney U test. Descriptive statistics were used and a P < 0.05 was considered significant. Of a total of 2977 articles, 1798 were available for analysis. Metros published 46% (825/1798) and non-metros 54% (973/1798). Original articles and case reports constituted 3/4(th) of the published literature from both places. Pictorial images were seen more from non-metro cities (P = 0.03). Mumbai and Delhi were leading from the metros, whereas Varanasi and Chandigarh were leading from the non-metro places. Endocrinology, Neurology, Cardiology and Infectious Diseases constituted the top four subspecialties from both places. Neurology articles were published more from non-metros (P = 0.03). The timelines from submission to publication varied between 12 and 15 months, and were lesser for articles from the metros (P = 0.01). Metros and non-metro cities are comparable in publishing trends and research productivity. Places with post-graduate institutes contribute majority of the research articles. Faster publication timelines from metros indicate better manuscript content and preparation.

  9. Rich-Poor Income Gap Hits 40-Year High As Poverty Rate Stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

    On September 26, 1990, the Census Bureau released its 1989 figures on poverty and income which showed that no significant progress was made in reducing poverty in 1989, and that gaps between rich and poor and between the wealthy and the middle class hit their widest points in more than 40 years. Although 1989 marked the seventh year of economic…

  10. The Effect of Poverty, Gender Exclusion, and Child Labor on Out-of-School Rates for Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda Castillo, Leopoldo; Sotelsek Salem, Daniel; Sarr, Leopold Remi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze the effect of poverty, social exclusion, and child labor on out-of-school rates for female children. This empirical study is based on a dynamic panel model for a sample of 216 countries over the period 1970 to 2010. Results based on the generalized method of moments (GMM) of Arellano and Bond (1991) and the…

  11. The Effect of Poverty, Gender Exclusion, and Child Labor on Out-of-School Rates for Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda Castillo, Leopoldo; Sotelsek Salem, Daniel; Sarr, Leopold Remi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze the effect of poverty, social exclusion, and child labor on out-of-school rates for female children. This empirical study is based on a dynamic panel model for a sample of 216 countries over the period 1970 to 2010. Results based on the generalized method of moments (GMM) of Arellano and Bond (1991) and the…

  12. Ukraine Poverty Update

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Ukraine recorded one of the sharpest declines in poverty of any transition economy in recent years. The poverty rate, measured against an absolute poverty line, fell from a high of 32 percent in 2001 to 14 percent in 2004, and then again to 8 percent in 2005. This Update presents simulations of the direct influence of an increase in energy prices on the poverty rate. Using 2005 as a base p...

  13. [Self-rated health in adults: influence of poverty and income inequality in the area of residence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Beatriz; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of income inequality and poverty in the towns of Bogotá, Colombia, on poor self-rated health among their residents. The study was based on a multipurpose survey applied in Bogotá-Colombia. A hierarchical data structure (individuals=level1, locations=level 2) was used to define a logit-type multilevel logistic model. The dependent variable was self-perceived poor health, and local variables were income inequality and poverty. All analyses were controlled for socio-demographic variables and stratified by sex. The prevalence of self-reported fair or poor health in the study population was 23.2%. Women showed a greater risk of ill health, as well as men and women with a low educational level, older persons, those without work in the last week and persons affiliated to the subsidized health system. The highest levels of poverty in the city increased the risk of poor health. Cross-level interactions showed that young women and men with a low education level were the most affected by income inequality in the locality. In Bogotá, there are geographical differences in the perception of health. Higher rates of poverty and income inequality were associated with an increased risk of self-perceived poor health. Notable findings were the large health inequalities at the individual and local levels. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. In-Work Poverty and Self-Rated Health in a Cohort of Working Germans: A Hybrid Approach for Decomposing Within-Person and Between-Persons Estimates of In-Work Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Schmidt-Catran, Alexander W

    2017-02-15

    In this study, we investigated whether self-rated health (SRH) can be predicted by in-work poverty and how between-persons and within-person differences in the poverty status of people who are working contribute to this relationship. We used a logistic random-effects model designed to test within-person and between-persons differences with data from a nationally representative German sample with 19 waves of data collection (1995-2013) to estimate effects of between-persons and within-person differences in working poverty status on poor SRH. Interactions by age and sex were tested, and models controlled for sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and work-related characteristics. We found significant differences in SRH between individuals with different working poverty status but no evidence that within-person differences in working poverty status are associated with poor SRH. The association between in-work poverty and SRH was significantly stronger for women but did not differ significantly by age. All findings were robust when including sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and working characteristics. In this sample of German adults, we found a polarization of poor SRH between the working nonpoor and the working poor but no causal association of within-person differences in working poverty status with SRH. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Analysis of 1986 Poverty Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Research and Action Center, Washington, DC.

    Poverty data released by the U. S. Census Bureau indicates no significant progress toward reducing the poverty rate during a period of economic recovery. The 1986 poverty rate of 13.6 percent remains significantly higher than anytime in the 1970s. Minority group children represent the largest age group of the poverty population. The sluggish…

  16. The importance of consecutive spells of poverty: a longitudinal poverty index

    OpenAIRE

    Mendola, Daria; Busetta, Annalisa; Milito, Anna Maria

    2009-01-01

    Traditional measures of poverty persistence, such as 'poverty rate' (i.e., the number of years spent in poverty upon the total number of observations) or the 'persistent-risk-of-poverty rate', do not devote enough attention to the sequence of poverty spells. In particular, they are insufficient in underlining the different effects associated with occasional single spells of poverty and the consecutive years of poverty. We propose a new index which measures the severity of poverty, taking into...

  17. Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Poverty 1996-1999. Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John

    This report examines patterns of poverty using seven different measures: average monthly poverty, episodic poverty, chronic poverty, annual poverty, poverty spells, poverty entry rates, and poverty exit rates. Data come from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and reflect the dynamics of poverty from 1996-1999.…

  18. Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  19. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  20. The Impact of Collective Bargaining on Teacher Transfer Rates in Urban High-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. Howard

    2006-01-01

    Data in this report reveals that collectively bargaining agreements are not the source of the teacher quality problem in urban school districts. The data shows that collective bargaining agreements are associated with reduced teacher transfer activity, especially in high-poverty schools, and less reliance on first-year teachers to staff…

  1. Children's Educational Completion Rates and Achievement: Implications for Ethiopia's Second Poverty Reduction Strategy (2006-10)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Bezuayehu, T.O.

    2005-01-01

    The major development objectives of the Ethiopian Government are to reduce poverty and improve primary school enrolment and educational achievement (SDPRP, 2002). However, education performance indicators show that only access¿related targets have been achieved, while educational quality declined in

  2. Methodology for determining whether an increase in a state's child poverty rate is the result of the TANF program--Administration for Children and Families, HHS. Proposed rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-23

    The Administration for Children and Families is proposing a methodology to determine the child poverty rate in each State. If a State experiences an increase in its child poverty rate of 5 percent or more as a result of its Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, the State must submit and implement a corrective action plan. This requirement is a part of the new welfare reform block grant program enacted in 1996.

  3. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N=278,097 were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs and incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17 and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08. Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18 and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  4. Income inequality, area-level poverty, perceived aversion to inequality, and self-rated health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2009-08-01

    In this study we conduct a multilevel analysis to investigate the association between regional income inequality and self-rated health in Japan, based on two nationwide surveys. We confirm that there is a significant association between area-level income inequality and individual-level health assessment. We also find that health assessment tends to be more sensitive to income inequality among lower income individuals, and to degree of area-level poverty, than income inequality for the society as a whole. In addition, we examine how individuals are averse to inequality, based on the observed association between inequality and self-rated health.

  5. Implications of supermarket access, neighbourhood walkability and poverty rates for diabetes risk in an employee population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Cynthia J; Yount, Byron W; Eyler, Amy A

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes is a growing public health problem, and the environment in which people live and work may affect diabetes risk. The goal of the present study was to examine the association between multiple aspects of environment and diabetes risk in an employee population. This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Home environment variables were derived using employees' zip code. Descriptive statistics were run on all individual- and zip-code-level variables, stratified by diabetes risk and worksite. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was then conducted to determine the strongest associations with diabetes risk. Data were collected from employee health fairs in a Midwestern health system, 2009-2012. The data set contains 25 227 unique individuals across four years of data. From this group, using an individual's first entry into the database, 15 522 individuals had complete data for analysis. The prevalence of high diabetes risk in this population was 2·3 %. There was significant variability in individual- and zip-code-level variables across worksites. From the multivariable analysis, living in a zip code with higher percentage of poverty and higher walk score was positively associated with high diabetes risk, while living in a zip code with higher supermarket density was associated with a reduction in high diabetes risk. Our study underscores the important relationship between poverty, home neighbourhood environment and diabetes risk, even in a relatively healthy employed population, and suggests a role for the employer in promoting health.

  6. Poverty in Edwardian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeley, Ian; Newell, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a newly discovered household budget data set for 1904. We use these data to estimate urban poverty among working families in the British Isles. Applying Bowley's poverty line, we estimate that at least 23 per cent of people in urban working households and 18 per cent of working households had income insufficient to meet minimum needs. This is well above Rowntree's estimate of primary poverty for York in 1899 and high in the range that Bowley found in northern towns in 1912–13. The skill gradient of poverty is steep; for instance, among labourers' households, the poverty rates are close to 50 per cent. Measures of the depth of poverty are relatively low in the data, suggesting that most poor male-headed working households were close to meeting Bowley's new standard.

  7. Poverty Survey 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Armoedesignalement 2011 In this joint publication, Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP present the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The trend in the poverty rate is described for the population as a whole and for t

  8. Poverty Survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Armoedesignalement 2013 In this joint publication, Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and the Netherlands Institute for Social Research¦SCP present the most recent data on poverty in the Netherlands. The report describes the trend in the poverty rate for the Dutch population as a whole as

  9. Poverty Survey 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff; Ferdy Otten; Wim Bos e.o.

    2014-01-01

    In this joint publication, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research¦SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) present the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The development of the poverty rate is described for the Dutch population as a whole as well as for the main groups at risk

  10. The Dynamics and Persistence of Poverty: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Devicienti; Valentina Gualtieri

    2007-01-01

    This article studies the dynamics and persistence of poverty in Italy during the nineties, using the ECHP, 1994-2001. Various definitions of poverty are analyzed in parallel, income poverty, subjective poverty and a multidimensional index of life-style deprivation. For each poverty definition, the hazard rates of leaving poverty and re-entering into it are estimated and combined to compute a measure of poverty persistence that takes account of individuals’ repeated spells in poverty. The esti...

  11. ANALYSIS OF INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN ARRIVALS OF TOURISTS IN BOARDING HOUSES, ACCOMMODATION CAPACITY AND RELATIVE POVERTY RATE TO REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHIZDEANU ION

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the activity area, the link between the firm, sustainability and the necessary means to achieve that desideratum, is real and accepted in the context in which scientists, investors, entrepreneurs, state and citizens are becoming more and more aware of the devastating impact of the chaotic activities aimed at making a profit at any cost. Being aware of the importance of the correlation between ecotourism and sustainability, after a preliminary conceptualization of the means to promote green tourism business, and some elements of ecological marketing an analysis has been attempted via the linear regression model of interdependence between arrivals of tourists in the rural boarding houses, accommodation capacity and the relative poverty rate at the level of development region in Romania. In this sense, the data provided by the National Institute of Statistics have been used.

  12. Poverty, race, and medication use are correlates of asthma hospitalization rates. A small area analysis in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, D J; Beiser, A S; O'Connor, G T

    1995-07-01

    Hospitalization rates for asthma in New York City are highest in poor urban neighborhoods, although the reasons for this are unknown. We performed a small area analysis of asthma hospitalization rates in Boston, to determine whether this pattern of asthma hospitalization also obtained in a medium-sized city and to identify characteristics of neighborhoods with high hospitalization rates, including the relative use of inhaled anti-inflammatory medication. Zip codes were used to define 22 small areas within Boston. The number of asthma hospitalizations for residents of each area in 1992 was obtained from the Codman Research Group. Population and demographic characteristics of each area were obtained from the 1990 US Census. Estimates of inhaled asthma medications (beta-agonists, steroids, and cromolyn) dispensed in each area in 1992 were obtained from IMS America. Asthma hospitalization rates for each of the six areas with the highest rates (5.3 to 9.8 per 1,000 persons) were significantly greater than the city-wide average of 4.2 hospitalizations per thousand persons (p poverty rate and with the proportion of nonwhite residents and inversely correlated with income and educational attainment. Asthma hospitalization rate was inversely correlated with the ratio of inhaled anti-inflammatory to beta-agonist medication use (r = -0.55, p = 0.008). We conclude that asthma hospitalization rates in Boston are highest in poor inner city neighborhoods, and that these high rates affect both genders and all age groups. Underuse of inhaled anti-inflammatory medication may be one of the many factors that contributes to this excess hospitalization.

  13. Challenge Poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IN the 1996 International Year for Eliminating Poverty while the world claims a war against poverty, a movement with the aim of helping mothers in poverty is being carried out in China. This movement is entitled "Happiness Project," with the intention of bringing better lives to China’s impoverished mothers. Among the 65 million people living in poverty in China more than 15 million of them are poor mothers.

  14. Understanding Differences in Black and White Child Poverty Rates. A Report of the Heritage Center for Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.; Fagan, Patrick F.

    This study uses National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to analyze differences in black and white child poverty. The NLSY documents family income and underlying conditions such as employment, educational attainment, welfare use, and marriage or divorce. This analysis examines: time in poverty, time on welfare, time in a single parent…

  15. Trends in Child Poverty Using an Improved Measure of Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Fox, Liana

    2016-04-01

    The official measure of poverty has been used to assess trends in children's poverty rates for many decades. But because of flaws in official poverty statistics, these basic trends have the potential to be misleading. We use an augmented Current Population Survey data set that calculates an improved measure of poverty to reexamine child poverty rates between 1967 and 2012. This measure, the Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure, is based partially on the US Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics' new Supplemental Poverty Measure. We focus on 3 age groups of children, those aged 0 to 5, 6 to 11, and 12 to 17 years. Young children have the highest poverty rates, both historically and today. However, among all age groups, long-term poverty trends have been more favorable than official statistics would suggest. This is entirely due to the effect of counting resources from government policies and programs, which have reduced poverty rates substantially for children of all ages. However, despite this progress, considerable disparities in the risk of poverty continue to exist by education level and family structure.

  16. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  17. Poverty persistence and poverty dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Biewen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of the poverty that is measured in a single period is transitory rather than persistent. In most countries, only a portion of people who are currently poor are persistently poor. People who are persistently poor or who cycle into and out of poverty should be the main focus of anti-poverty policies. Understanding the characteristics of the persistently poor, and the circumstances and mechanisms associated with entry into and exit from poverty, can help to inform governments...

  18. Early Childhood Poverty: A Statistical Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younghwan; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    Noting that young children in poverty face a greater likelihood of impaired development because of their increased exposure to a number of risk factors associated with poverty, this report presents statistical information on the incidence of poverty during early childhood. The report notes that the poverty rate for U.S. children under age 3…

  19. The dynamics of childhood poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M E; Chaudry, A

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty rates have remained high since the middle of the 1970s. While several trends, including declines in the number of children per family and increases in parental years of schooling, worked to reduce child poverty rates, several others, including show economic growth, widening economic inequality, and increases in the proportion of children living in mother-only families, had the opposite effect, pushing more children into poverty. Poverty is a common risk: One-third of all children will be poor for at least one year. For many, poverty lasts only a short while, but for a small percentage, poverty persists both throughout childhood and into the adult years. Poverty is not shared equally across different demographic groups. African-American children. Latino children, and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Long-term poverty is even more concentrated than single-year poverty. In 1992, almost 90% of long-term poor children were African-American as compared to all poor children (single-year and long-term poor), of whom 60% were white. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in long-term childhood poverty. Changes in employment of family members and changes in family composition are each strongly associated with transitions into and out of childhood poverty. Of these, changes in employment are the most important.

  20. Improving the Measurement of Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutto, Nathan; Waldfogel, Jane; Kaushal, Neeraj; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2011-03-01

    This study estimates 2007 national poverty rates using an approach largely conceptualized by a 1995 National Academy of Sciences panel and similar to the supplemental poverty measure that will soon be produced by the U.S. Census Bureau. The study uses poverty thresholds based on expenditures for shelter, food, clothing, and utilities, as well as a measure of family income that includes earnings, cash transfers, near-cash benefits, tax credits, and tax payments. The measure also accounts for child care, work, and out-of-pocket medical expenses; variation in regional cost of living; and mortgage-free homeownership. Under this method, the rate of poverty is estimated to be higher than the rate calculated in the traditional manner, rising from 12.4 percent in the official measure to 16 percent in the new measure; the rate of child poverty is more than 3 percentage points higher, and elderly poverty is nearly 7 points higher.

  1. Peru : Opportunities for All, Peru Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Peru faces high levels of poverty and inequality. In 2004, over half of Peru's population was poor and about 20 percent were extremely poor. Following improvements during the 1990s, poverty increased in the wake of the 1998 economic crisis, while extreme poverty remained stable. Notwithstanding the economic recovery since 2001, with a strong positive impact in reducing extreme poverty, progress on poverty rates however, has been limited to rural areas. A main focus of this report is to explai...

  2. Reducing Poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou are little different from any other world metropolis and belie the unimaginable degree of poverty in certain rural areas of China. Staff reporter Zhang Hua went to Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region to report on a poverty reduction project called "Love of the Earth, Mother's Water Tank" launched by the China Women's

  3. Understanding Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Jerneck

    2015-01-01

    Policies and strategies to fight global environmental degradation, gender inequality, and poverty are often inadequate, ineffective, or insufficient. In response, this article seeks potential synergies and leverage points between three significant interrelated discourses that are often treated separately—development, gender, and environment. Proceeding from a brief history of development thinking and poverty definition...

  4. Understanding Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jerneck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies and strategies to fight global environmental degradation, gender inequality, and poverty are often inadequate, ineffective, or insufficient. In response, this article seeks potential synergies and leverage points between three significant interrelated discourses that are often treated separately—development, gender, and environment. Proceeding from a brief history of development thinking and poverty definitions, I describe indicators, strategies, and approaches to poverty reduction and gender equality. Second, I analyze how targeting, mainstreaming, and market-based initiatives all fail both to distinguish empirical from analytical gender and to incorporate environment and gender into development policy and action—despite their key role in meeting the normative goal of poverty reduction. Third, through a political-ecology lens, I suggest an integrated approach to poverty, inequality, and socioenvironmental challenges that arise at the intersections of development, gender, and environment, and for that, I draw examples from research on social and environmental change and action in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Explaining Poverty Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    Measuring poverty remains a complex and contentious issue. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty rates are higher, information bases typically weaker, and the underlying determinants of welfare relatively volatile. This paper employs recently collected data on household...... consumption in Mozambique to examine the evolution of consumption poverty with focus on the period 2002/03 to 2008/09. The paper contributes in four areas. First, the period in question was characterized by major movements in international commodity prices. Mozambique provides an illuminating case study...... of the implications of these world commodity price changes for living standards of poor people. Second, a novel ‘backcasting’ approach using a computable general equilibrium model of Mozambique, linked to a poverty module is introduced. Third, the backcasting approach is also employed to rigorously examine...

  6. The Dynamics and Persistence of Poverty: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Devicienti; Valentina Gualtieri; Mariacristina Rossi

    2010-01-01

    This article studies the dynamics and persistence of poverty in Italy during the nineties (1994-2001). Two definitions of poverty are analyzed: income poverty and a multidimensional index of life-style deprivation. For both definitions, poverty exit and re-entry rates are estimated and combined to compute measures of poverty persistence over multiple spells. A picture of high poverty turnover emerges according to either definition. Multi-spell hazard rate models have been estimated to assess ...

  7. Law's Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Modiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article adopts an analysis that explicitly politicises poverty and relates it to the concrete history of racialised capitalism and structural inequality that defined colonialism and apartheid and continues to persist and intensify in "post"-apartheid South Africa. Rather than formulating racialised poverty in legalist, economist or managerial terms, it should rather be understood as a form of oppression that comprises exploitation, marginalisation, powerlessness, cultural imperialism and violence. Such a formulation would make social structure, historical injustice and power central and would also allow for poverty to be grasped beyond a purely distributive logic by bringing to light the non-distributive, non-economic dimensions of poverty. Comprehending poverty in this way, as not only a question of economic distribution and empowerment, but also one of ethical, moral and even ontological recognition necessitates an enquiry into the emancipatory force of rights. Given their centrality in political and social discourse and in legal scholarship on poverty, it is worth considering whether and to what extent rights can be utilised in the struggle against (racialised poverty.

  8. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kathleen S

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The role of poverty rate and racial distribution in the geographic clustering of breast cancer survival among older women: a geographic and multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B; Lian, Min; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined disparities in survival among women aged 66 years or older in association with census-tract-level poverty rate, racial distribution, and individual-level factors, including patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related factors, utilization of medical care, and mammography use. They used linked data from the 1992-1999 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programs, 1991-1999 Medicare claims, and the 1990 US Census. A geographic information system and advanced statistics identified areas of increased or reduced breast cancer survival and possible reasons for geographic variation in survival in 2 of the 5 SEER areas studied. In the Detroit, Michigan, area, one geographic cluster of shorter-than-expected breast cancer survival was identified (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60). An additional area where survival was longer than expected approached statistical significance (HR = 0.4; P = 0.056). In the Atlanta, Georgia, area, one cluster of shorter- (HR = 1.81) and one cluster of longer-than-expected (HR = 0.72) breast cancer survival were identified. Stage at diagnosis and census-tract poverty (and patient's race in Atlanta) explained the geographic variation in breast cancer survival. No geographic clusters were identified in the 3 other SEER programs. Interventions to reduce late-stage breast cancer, focusing on areas of high poverty and targeting African Americans, may reduce disparities in breast cancer survival in the Detroit and Atlanta areas.

  10. Law's Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Modiri, Joel M

    2015-01-01

    This article adopts an analysis that explicitly politicises poverty and relates it to the concrete history of racialised capitalism and structural inequality that defined colonialism and apartheid and continues to persist and intensify in "post"-apartheid South Africa. Rather than formulating racialised poverty in legalist, economist or managerial terms, it should rather be understood as a form of oppression that comprises exploitation, marginalisation, powerlessness, cultural imperialism and...

  11. Escaping Poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ While the global economic crisis still threatens to trap tens of millions of people in extreme poverty, alleviation initiatives in China are gaining new momentum and increasing recognition from the international community. From lifting innumerable people out of poverty by satisfying basic needs of food, clothes and shelter during the past three decades, the Chinese Government's antipoverty drive is now to focus more on helping rural poor to start small businesses and guaranteeing access to public services and social welfare.

  12. Nebraska's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazere, Edward B.; Ostrom, Kristin Anderson

    The high poverty rate (13.8 percent) among Nebraska's children is cause for concern, since there is strong evidence that poverty can hinder development and adversely affect children's ability to become productive adults. It is commonly assumed that poor children live in families where parents could work but do not. Yet in Nebraska, of poor…

  13. A Regional Look at Poverty in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Engin Duran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose of this study is to investigate the evolution, geographical distribution and convergence of poverty rates across Turkish  regions over 2006-2013. We use dataset  from TURKSTAT where the povertyrate is calculated using the median-income. Methodologically, Moran’s I tests, Conditional Kernel-Density and Markov Transition Probability Matrices are used. Our analyses indicate three results. First, at national-level, number of people living under poverty and poverty rate have declined. This decline was  observed in Western regions while increase was observed in less developed Eastern regions. Second , poverty rates follow geographically correlated pattern. Third, regional poverty rates do not tend to converge eachother.Keywords: Regional Poverty Rates, Relative Poverty, Spatial Moran’s I Test,Conditional Kernel Density Estimations,Markov Transition Probability MatricesJEL Classification Codes: I32, R12, R52, I30

  14. The role of the health sector in addressing poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D L

    2001-01-01

    To explore Canadian health sector initiatives addressing poverty. Information about 224 health sector initiatives addressing poverty was collected from Health Canada, provincial/territorial health ministries, and health regions. Health Canada, 12 provincial/territorial health ministries, and at least one third of health regions have been undertaking poverty-related initiatives. Almost two thirds (64.7%) of initiatives focused on the consequences of poverty. Much less frequent were initiatives that aim to: raise awareness about poverty; prevent people from becoming poor; enhance skills and education of people in poverty; and alter social and economic conditions contributing to poverty. While strategies that focus on the consequences of poverty likely enhance the health of Canadians in poverty, these strategies do little to reduce poverty rates. Efforts to improve the health of both individual Canadians in poverty and society as a whole will be limited until the health sector uses more strategies that challenge fundamental structural conditions contributing to poverty.

  15. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  16. The Effect of Marriage on Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.; Fagan, Patrick F.

    This report examines what share of the current level of child poverty in the United States can be attributed to the growth of single parenthood since the 1960s, focusing on what the child poverty rate would be today if single parent families had remained at the levels that existed before the beginning of the war on poverty. Researchers simulated…

  17. Old age and poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Drenka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of demographic changes in Serbia is followed by discussions on the need to provide safety at old age and solve the problems of poverty and social exclusion of older citizens. In the current state there are no mechanisms that guarantee an adequate life standard at old age, the consequence of which is a high poverty rate, deteriorating health and limited access to social programs. The results of the Survey on life standard from 2002 and 2007 show that poverty among population in general and pensioners has decreased, while the poverty risk among people older than 65 has increased twice. The restrictive methods of the reforms cause a change in the relation between the pensions and the earnings, so that more and more pensioners receive below average, i.e. minimal pensions. Not all old people are covered by pension insurance so that a significant number (around 400.000 does not have a safe monthly income at all. The state program of financial aid is of modest size and does not provide help to all of the poor. Welfare aid decreases the risk of poverty, but it do not guarantee an adequate level of material security at old age. The low level of minimal and average pensions, the decline of participation in the average earnings and the strict criteria of the social security system have brought to awareness the necessity of 'social pensions' and various help and support programs for the elderly. .

  18. Hookworm and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Human hookworm infection is the leading cause of anemia and undernutrition and the second most important parasitic infection of humans. Hookworm occurs almost exclusively in the setting of rural poverty in the developing countries of the tropics. The rural dependency reflects the precise soil and temperature requirements of the environmental life history stages of the parasite, whereas the relationship between hookworm and poverty is based on multiple factors, including inadequate sanitation, the absence of concrete floors in home dwellings, and lack of access to essential medicines. Also, hookworm not only occurs in the setting of poverty but also promotes poverty because of its health and educational effects in children, its adverse effect on pregnancy outcome, and its effect on worker productivity. Since the middle of the 20th century, poverty reduction and urbanization have successfully reduced the prevalence of hookworm in the world's industrialized nations and some middle-income countries. However, the control of hookworm in low-income countries still relies heavily on the frequent and periodic use of anthelminthic drugs either through deworming programs targeting school-aged children or through integrated control programs that simultaneously target the seven neglected tropical diseases, including hookworm. However, the high rates of hookworm reinfection and the possible emergence of drug resistance will ultimately require the development of new control tools--including the Human Hookworm Vaccine, one of several so-called antipoverty vaccines that could undergo development and testing over the next decade.

  19. Taxi, Jitneys and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Sandi

    1970-01-01

    Version of the paper given at The Transportation and Poverty Conference of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Argues for revival of jitneys (12-14 capacity motor vehicles, operating on fixed routes, fares zone-rated) to serve ghetto residents and provide employment, too. Taxi company competition also discussed. (KG)

  20. Effects of poverty on education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ronald Buck; Joe Deutsch

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of poverty on education. Many different aspects contribute to a community becoming impoverished such as deindustrialization, high unemployment rates, untreated mental health, and violent crimes...

  1. Urban Poverty in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of important urban poverty questions. What defines urban poverty and how is urban poverty being measured? What other factors beyond consumption poverty need to be tackled? Who are the urban poor? What relations exist between urban poverty and city size? What linkages exist between urbanization, income, and urban poverty? What policy responses to urban poverty are implemented in selected Asian countries? The report served as a background study for the Internati...

  2. The Poverty Challenge: How Individual Decision-Making Behavior Influences Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2005-01-01

    What drives poverty? We propose a research approach to study poverty by focusing on individual decision-making behavior in which the interaction between individual's innovativeness and time preference rate is crucial to begin understanding poverty. This approach enables policy makers to formulate

  3. The Poverty Challenge: How Individual Decision-Making Behavior Influences Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2005-01-01

    What drives poverty? We propose a research approach to study poverty by focusing on individual decision-making behavior in which the interaction between individual's innovativeness and time preference rate is crucial to begin understanding poverty. This approach enables policy makers to formulate ef

  4. Population growth, poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, J S

    1997-07-01

    One of the most popular explanations for the many problems that face Africa is population growth. Africa's population has doubled since 1960. Africa has the highest fertility rate in the world and the rate of population growth is higher than in any other region. At the same time, Africa faces a social and economic situation that is viewed by many as alarming. Among the problems that devastate Africa is that of persistent poor health. Africa has lower life expectancy, higher mortality rates and is affected by more disease and illness conditions than any other region. Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, this paper examines the relationship between population growth, poverty and poor health. While most analyses have focused on population growth as an original cause of poverty and underdevelopment, this paper argues that while both population growth and poor health play a significant role in exacerbating the problem of poverty, they are themselves primary consequences of poverty rather than its cause.

  5. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors.

  6. Young child poverty in the United States: Analyzing trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs using the Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Jessica; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Between 1968 and 2013, the poverty rate of young children age 0 to 5 years fell by nearly one third, in large part because of the role played by anti-poverty programs. However, young children in the U.S. still face a much higher rate of poverty than do older children in the U.S. They also continue to have a much higher poverty rate than do young children in other developed countries around the world. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs in addressing poverty among young children, using an improved measure of poverty, the Supplemental Poverty Measure. We examine changes over time and the current status, both for young children overall and for key subgroups (by child age, and by child race/ethnicity). Our findings can be summarized in three key points. First, poverty among all young children age 0–5 years has fallen since the beginning of our time series; but absent the safety net, today’s poverty rate among young children would be identical to or higher than it was in 1968. Second, the safety net plays an increasing role in reducing the poverty of young children, especially among Black non-Hispanic children, whose poverty rate would otherwise be 20.8 percentage points higher in 2013. Third, the composition of support has changed from virtually all cash transfers in 1968, to about one third each of cash, credit and in-kind transfers today. PMID:28659652

  7. Spatial determinants of poverty in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwi, Paul O; Ndeng'e, Godfrey; Kristjanson, Patti; Arunga, Mike; Notenbaert, An; Omolo, Abisalom; Henninger, Norbert; Benson, Todd; Kariuki, Patrick; Owuor, John

    2007-10-23

    This article investigates the link between poverty incidence and geographical conditions within rural locations in Kenya. Evidence from poverty maps for Kenya and other developing countries suggests that poverty and income distribution are not homogenous. We use spatial regression techniques to explore the effects of geographic factors on poverty. Slope, soil type, distance/travel time to public resources, elevation, type of land use, and demographic variables prove to be significant in explaining spatial patterns of poverty. However, differential influence of these and other factors at the location level shows that provinces in Kenya are highly heterogeneous; hence different spatial factors are important in explaining welfare levels in different areas within provinces, suggesting that targeted propoor policies are needed. Policy simulations are conducted to explore the impact of various interventions on location-level poverty levels. Investments in roads and improvements in soil fertility are shown to potentially reduce poverty rates, with differential impacts in different regions.

  8. The effects of poverty on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, J; Duncan, G J

    1997-01-01

    Although hundreds of studies have documented the association between family poverty and children's health, achievement, and behavior, few measure the effects of the timing, depth, and duration of poverty on children, and many fail to adjust for other family characteristics (for example, female headship, mother's age, and schooling) that may account for much of the observed correlation between poverty and child outcomes. This article focuses on a recent set of studies that explore the relationship between poverty and child outcomes in depth. By and large, this research supports the conclusion that family income has selective but, in some instances, quite substantial effects on child and adolescent well-being. Family income appears to be more strongly related to children's ability and achievement than to their emotional outcomes. Children who live in extreme poverty or who live below the poverty line for multiple years appear, all other things being equal, to suffer the worst outcomes. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for certain child outcomes. Children who experience poverty during their preschool and early school years have lower rates of school completion than children and adolescents who experience poverty only in later years. Although more research is needed on the significance of the timing of poverty on child outcomes, findings to date suggest that interventions during early childhood may be most important in reducing poverty's impact on children.

  9. Breaking the cycle of poverty: challenges for European early childhood education and care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leseman, Paul; Slot, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates in European countries have increased during recent decades and are particularly high in East European countries. Young children are especially vulnerable to poverty. Poverty in early childhood can have irreversible negative consequences for cognitive, social and emotional development,

  10. Breaking the cycle of poverty: challenges for European early childhood education and care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leseman, Paul; Slot, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates in European countries have increased during recent decades and are particularly high in East European countries. Young children are especially vulnerable to poverty. Poverty in early childhood can have irreversible negative consequences for cognitive, social and emotional development,

  11. Poverty and health in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between poverty and several health-related characteristics in West Germany was investigated. Data were derived from the National and Regional Health Surveys conducted in West Germany from 1984 to 1992. 25,544 males and 25,719 females with German nationality aged 25-69 years were examined. Poverty was defined as a household income of 50% less than the mean for West Germany. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between poverty and four health variables: individual health behavior, subjective assessment of health status, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported prevalence of lifetime chronic diseases. 10.2% of males and 12.8% of females were classified as being below the poverty line. For most but not all health parameters, less favourable results were found for the segment of the population with a household income below the poverty line. The most striking poverty-related differences were observed for lack of regular sport activities, subjective health satisfaction, obesity and myocardial infarction/stroke. Significantly lower prevalence rates for study subjects below the poverty line were observed for hypercholesterolemia in females only. Allergic disorders were the only chronic diseases reported significantly less often in males and females below the poverty line. Poverty has strong effects on individual health status and the prevalence of chronic diseases. Due to the rising unemployment rates in Germany in the last years it is very likely that the strong negative consequences of poverty for health are increasing.

  12. The Poverty Burden: A Measure of the Difficulty of Ending Extreme Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin; Renuka Mahadevan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider an extension of the commonly used poverty gap measure that may be used to address the question of whether the elimination of poverty is a feasible objective, given sufficient political commitment. The resources potentially available to address poverty may be measured by the total amount by which the incomes of the non-poor exceed the same poverty line. The ratio of the poverty gap to the resources potentially available is equal to the proportional tax rate on income...

  13. Joining together to combat poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusić, M; Vuk Pavlović, S

    2000-03-01

    The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development.

  14. Rural poverty and export farming in Guatemala.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on rural poverty and the dualistic nature of agrarian structures (dualistic farming) in Guatemala - examines level and trend of rural poverty through indicators such as household income, housing, illiteracy and nutrition; notes paradox of high rate of agricultural development and severe poverty in rural areas; analyses nature of agrarian system leading to internal migration of peasant farmers and aspects of rural employment; focuses on high economic growth and l...

  15. Application of experimental poverty measures to the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K A

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau recently released new, experimental measures of poverty based on a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) panel's recommendations. This article examines the effects of the experimental measures on poverty rates among persons aged 65 or older in order to help inform policy debate. Policymakers and analysts use poverty rates to measure the successes and failures of existing programs and to create and defend new policy initiatives. The Census Bureau computes the official rates of poverty using poverty thresholds and definitions of countable income that have changed little since the official poverty measure was adopted in 1965. Amid growing concerns about the adequacy of the official poverty measure, a NAS panel undertook a study of the concepts, methodology, and data needed to measure poverty. The panel concluded in its 1995 report that the current measure no longer provides an accurate picture of relative rates of poverty for different groups in the population or of changes in poverty over time. The panel recommended changes in establishing the poverty thresholds, defining family resources, and obtaining the required data. The Census Bureau report shows how estimated levels of poverty would differ from the official level as specific recommendations of the NAS panel are implemented individually and how estimated trends would differ when many recommendations are implemented simultaneously. It computes nonstandardized and standardized poverty rates. (The latter constrains the overall poverty rate under the experimental measures to match the official rate.) This article reports poverty rates that have not been standardized and provides considerably more detail than the Census report about the effects of the experimental measures on poverty among the aged. It examines the effects of changing the poverty thresholds and the items included or excluded from the definition of available resources. It also explores the effects of the experimental measures on

  16. Global Poverty : Scraping distributional data from the World Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of measuring global poverty consistently is addressed using a family of bare bones consumption baskets (BBB). This methodology pinpoints equivalent levels of welfare, both internationally and intertemporally. Naturally, in calculating poverty rates the household consumption distributions

  17. Income or living standard and health in Germany: different ways of measurement of relative poverty with regard to self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Andress, Hans-Juergen; Janssen, Christian

    2011-08-01

    Current study introduces the living standard concept as an alternative approach of measuring poverty and compares its explanatory power to an income-based poverty measure with regard to subjective health status of the German population. Analyses are based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (2001, 2003 and 2005) and refer to binary logistic regressions of poor subjective health status with regard to each poverty condition, their duration and their causal influence from a previous time point. To calculate the discriminate power of both poverty indicators, initially the indicators were considered separately in regression models and subsequently, both were included simultaneously. The analyses reveal a stronger poverty-health relationship for the living standard indicator. An inadequate living standard in 2005, longer spells of an inadequate living standard between 2001, 2003 and 2005 as well as an inadequate living standard at a previous time point is significantly strongly associated with subjective health than income poverty. Our results challenge conventional measurements of the relationship between poverty and health that probably has been underestimated by income measures so far.

  18. Elderly poverty and Supplemental Security Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, poverty is generally assessed on the basis of income, as reported in the Current Population Survey's (CPS's) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), using an official poverty standard established in the 1960s. The prevalence of receipt of means-tested transfers is underreported in the CPS, with uncertain consequences for the measurement of poverty rates by both the official standard and by using alternative "relative" measures linked to the contemporaneous income distribution. The article reports results estimating the prevalence of poverty in 2002. We complete this effort by using a version of the 2003 CPS/ASEC for which a substantial majority (76 percent) of respondents have individual records matching administrative data from the Social Security Administration on earnings and receipt of income from the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. Adjustment of the CPS income data with administrative data substantially improves coverage of SSI receipt. The consequence for general poverty is sensitive to the merge procedures employed, but under both sets of merge procedures considered, the estimated poverty rate among all elderly persons and among elderly SSI recipients is substantially less than rates estimated using the unadjusted CPS. The effect of the administrative adjustment is less significant for perception of relative poverty than for absolute poverty. We emphasize the effect of these adjustments on perception of poverty among the elderly in general and elderly SSI recipients in particular.

  19. Measuring and Analyzing Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaya Acharya

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes an assessment of Nepalese poverty situation during 1977 - 1997 using a comparative static approach. Income and human poverty indices have been estimated using World Bank and UNDP methods, respectively. Moreover, it also makes exploratory analysis to study the causes and nature of Nepalese poverty. It concludes that Nepalese income poverty was drastically reduced during the period 1976/77 – 1984/85, but increased afterwards. However, human poverty has reduced in sustenance during the whole period. Poverty in Nepal is more pervasive, deep and uneven as compared to the rest of the South Asia. Comparing the income and human poverty indices, we conclude that income poverty is volatile as compared to the human poverty. Poverty in Nepal has some economic, demographic, and political origins; and more remote and occupational caste people are poorer as compared to the rest

  20. Income and Poverty across SMSAs: A Two-Stage Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Two popular explanations of urban poverty are the "welfare-disincentive" and "urban-deindustrialization" theories. Using cross-sectional Census data, we develop a two-stage model to predict an SMSAs median family income and poverty rate. The model allows the city's welfare level and industrial structure to affect its median family income and poverty rate directly. It also allows welfare and industrial structure to affect income and poverty indirectly, through their effects on family structure...

  1. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  2. Zambia Poverty Assessment : Stagnant Poverty and Inequality in a Natural Resource-Based Economy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    As in many countries throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and around the developing world, poverty in Zambia is overwhelmingly a rural phenomenon. In 2010 the moderate poverty rate in rural areas was 74 percent, more than double the urban poverty rate of 35 percent. The economic growth continued throughout the decade, reaching an impressive annual average of 5.7 percent, and by 2011 the World Ban...

  3. Measuring and Analyzing Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjaya Acharya

    2004-01-01

    This paper makes an assessment of Nepalese poverty situation during 1977 - 1997 using a comparative static approach. Income and human poverty indices have been estimated using World Bank and UNDP methods, respectively. Moreover, it also makes exploratory analysis to study the causes and nature of Nepalese poverty. It concludes that Nepalese income poverty was drastically reduced during the period 1976/77 – 1984/85, but increased afterwards. However, human poverty has reduced in sustenance dur...

  4. Measuring Lifetime Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hoy; Buhong Zheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an axiomatic framework for measuring life time poverty over multiple periods. For an individual, we argue that lifetime poverty is influenced by both the snapshot poverty of each period and the poverty level of the "permanent" lifetime consumption; it is also influenced by how poverty spells are distributed over the life time. Two obvious candidates for aggregation are to aggregate over time and then across individuals, or vice versa. For a society, we consider a path-inde...

  5. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.

  6. Emerging Urban Poverty and Effects of the Dibao Program on Alleviating Poverty in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyan Wang

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the current urban poverty situation, examines the factors affecting the probability of a household being in poverty and investigates how the urban minimum living standard guarantee (dibao) program helps poor people to get out of poverty.The targeting efficiency of the urban dibao program is discussed. The present study finds that the poverty rate of households with unemployed workers is much higher than that of households without unemployed workers. The urban dibao program is helpful in reducing poverty rates, but it does not reduce poverty rates too much. The government should place emphasis on helping laid-off and unemployed workers to become reemployed. The most urgent problem for the dibao program is improving the efficiency of targeting.

  7. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  8. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  9. Poverty's threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    In the debate on the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, chaired by Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway, delegates to the UN General Assembly asserted that problems generated by the impact of poverty on the environment could not be solved by restricting aid to developing countries unless those countries promised to cease damaging their environment. Rather, most delegates agreed, aid should include the resources which would enable those countries to achieve "sustainable development," i.e., development that does not destroy the environment and deplete natural resources. The United States countered with the opinion that what is needed is not a UN organized "sustainable development program," but rather a grassroots "sustainable development movement" in all countries. Several delegates pointed out that it was the affluent countries which played a large part in the destruction of the environment. The Present of the Maldives, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, pointed out, for example, that the greenhouse effect, generated by the burning of fossil fuels, would raise the sea level 2 meters, virtually submerging his country. Mrs. Brundtland pointed out that it was not morally acceptable to suggest that the poor remain poor to protect the environment. Governments at all levels, she said, must include environmental concerns in their decision making in all sectors of governmental functioning, e.g., finance, industry, energy, and agriculture.

  10. Using Dialogic Research to Overcome Poverty: From Principles to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Rosa; Padros, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In the EU commitment to alleviating the high rates of poverty in Europe there is widespread agreement among policy-makers that it is crucial to include the voices of those who are living in poverty in order to fight exclusion most effectively. Similarly, those studying ways to address poverty and inequality are increasingly required to seek…

  11. The Effects of Parental Employment on Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Eggebeen, David J.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes data from 1990 Current Population Survey supporting three general conclusions: (1) parental employment and children's poverty are linked in married-couple and female-headed families; (2) child poverty rates are insensitive to parental employment; (3) black-white differences in child poverty are not result of racial differences in…

  12. Elderly poverty alleviation through living with family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, M S; Speare, A

    1995-11-01

    "We estimate here the extent of United States elderly poverty alleviation through living with family. These estimates are motivated by public-policy concern about the well-being of the elderly, and by the relevance of the process for fertility under the old-age-security hypothesis. An inter-temporal poverty-measurement model is estimated with 1984 Survey of Income and Program Participation income and wealth data. Without extended-family co-residence, and assuming no bequests, poverty rates would increase 42% over observed rates. Female elderly account for almost all the alleviated poverty. As a population, their impoverishment with age is effectively prevented by co-residence. Proportionately more black than white elderly are beneficiaries of poverty alleviation through living with family, but white elderly are more likely to be beneficiaries if at risk."

  13. Individualization of poverty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2015-01-01

    that Beck’s thesis about the individualization and democratization of poverty is based on narrow income based definitions and that (possible) empirical verification depends on the definitions of poverty and approaches used to examine poverty. My analyses show that the dynamic perspective (using income......The German Sociologist Ulrich Beck is best known for his book “Risk Society” which has been discussed extensively; however Beck’s claims about modern poverty have not received the same attention among poverty researchers. The individualization perspective views poverty as a relatively transient...... phenomenon and the democratization perspective views the risk of poverty as spread equally in the population. Both perspectives challenge the mainstream tradition of class analysis, and therefore both view poverty as largely independent of traditional stratification factors. In this article, I argue...

  14. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  15. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Mohanty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. RESULTS: The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. CONCLUSION: Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  16. Poverty in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina

    2005-01-01

    The note looks at poverty in Ecuador, assessing macroeconomic developments through its policies to maintain stability with fiscal discipline, and increase economic productivity and competitiveness, in particular, the 1998/99 crisis, the 2000 dollarization and their effect on poverty. From 1990 to 2001, national consumption-based poverty rose from 40 to 45 percent, and the number of poor pe...

  17. Poverty Monitor 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1999. The Poverty Monitor 1999 (Armoedemonitor 1999) presents as complete and up-to-date a picture as possible of poverty in the Netherlands, and thus provides a factual basis for the debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP

  18. Poverty Monitor 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1998. The Poverty Monitor 1998 (Armoedemonitor 1998) presents a complete and up-to-date picture of poverty in the Netherlands. It is intended to provide a factual basis for the current debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and

  19. Adolescents and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Vanessa R.

    2011-01-01

    More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

  20. Poverty Monitor 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1998. The Poverty Monitor 1998 (Armoedemonitor 1998) presents a complete and up-to-date picture of poverty in the Netherlands. It is intended to provide a factual basis for the current debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics

  1. Poverty in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greever, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the topic of poverty and its effects upon student behavior and academic performance. Presented in this chapter of the review of the related literature will be: (a) description of poverty and the role of education, (b) effects of poverty on student behavior, (c) effects…

  2. Adolescents and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Vanessa R.

    2011-01-01

    More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

  3. Poverty Monitor 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1999. The Poverty Monitor 1999 (Armoedemonitor 1999) presents as complete and up-to-date a picture as possible of poverty in the Netherlands, and thus provides a factual basis for the debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics

  4. Poverty in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The note looks at poverty in Ecuador, assessing macroeconomic developments through its policies to maintain stability with fiscal discipline, and increase economic productivity and competitiveness, in particular, the 1998/99 crisis, the 2000 dollarization and their effect on poverty. From 1990 to 2001, national consumption-based poverty rose from 40 to 45 percent, and the number of poor pe...

  5. The effects of contraception on female poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Stephanie P; LaLumia, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates are particularly high among households headed by single women, and childbirth is often the event preceding these households' poverty spells. This paper examines the relationship between legal access to the birth control pill and female poverty. We rely on exogenous cross-state variation in the year in which oral contraception became legally available to young, single women. Using census data from 1960 to 1990, we find that having legal access to the birth control pill by age 20 significantly reduces the probability that a woman is subsequently in poverty. We estimate that early legal access to oral contraception reduces female poverty by 0.5 percentage points, even when controlling for completed education, employment status, and household composition.

  6. Poor trends - The pace of poverty reduction after the Millennium Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluhm, R; de Crombrugghe, D.P.I.; Szirmai, A.

    2014-01-01

    We review the origins of the dollar-a-day poverty line, discuss historical poverty and inequality trends, and forecast poverty rates until 2030 using a new fractional response approach. Three findings stand out. First, global poverty reduction since 1981 has been rapid but regional trends are hetero

  7. The psychology of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Janse van Rensburg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the psychological experience of poor people and the pastoral responsibility to guide them towards poverty transition. A qualitative analysis of the narratives of three participants is compared to the enthralling history of Florcy Mabuza who in her book, Poverty mentality: The root of poverty, explains the dangers of a spiritual and emotional mindset that precipitates and feeds the plight of poverty. Using a literature study to interpret the narratives as well as a method of encoding, basic mindsets of poverty and factors that influence this mindset are identified. The study culminates in conclusions to encourage further research and pastoral involvement.

  8. World Bank Development Policies and Poverty Alleviation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-07-10

    Jul 10, 2007 ... The median annual growth rate of real GDP per capita in Africa also fell .... The increases in the prices of petroleum products induce inflation conse- .... tive justice, SAP has resulted in increasing poverty and higher unemploy-.

  9. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward.

  10. Poverty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    2009-01-01

    differentiation in the methods, measurement and results though most accept the concept of relative poverty (see for instance Peter Townsend 2006). We see qualitative and quantitative studies; studies based on the median income, studies based on poverty lines from minimum budget definitions and surveys including......Recently poverty has become an issue in Danish public debates and research after some quiet years with not much attention. The intention with this paper is to make a descriptive covering view of the Danish research on poverty since the year of 2000 until summer 2009. We see quite some...... questions on deprivation etc.. This paper will present all major studies of empirical poverty research and discuss strengths and inadequacies in the research of poverty and finally raise some perspectives from the current political and professional debates which question poverty research....

  11. Kentucky Child Poverty, 2000: One in Four Children Is Poor. Census Brief: Child Poverty in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graycarek, Rick; Hoye, Kathleen

    This census brief examines changes in the child poverty rate during the 1990s for the state of Kentucky. The brief notes that more than one in four children in Kentucky is living in poverty, with nearly half of Kentucky's children living in families that are not financially self-sufficient. The majority of poor children live in urban areas, most…

  12. At-Risk-of-Poverty Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Dvornáková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC is a survey on households’ living conditions. The main aim of the survey is to get long-term comparable data on social and economic situation of households. Data collected in the survey are used mainly in connection with the evaluation of income poverty and determinationof at-risk-of-poverty rate. This article deals with the calculation of the at risk-of-poverty threshold based on data from EU-SILC 2009. The main task is to compare two approaches to the computation of at riskof-poverty threshold. The first approach is based on the calculation of the threshold for each country separately,while the second one is based on the calculation of the threshold for all states together. The introduction summarizes common attributes in the calculation of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, such as disposable household income, equivalised household income. Further, different approaches to both calculations are introduced andadvantages and disadvantages of these approaches are stated. Finally, the at-risk-of-poverty rate calculation is described and comparison of the at-risk-of-poverty rates based on these two different approaches is made.

  13. Poverty, sex and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli

    2009-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the relative importance of economic factors (notably poverty) and sexual behavior in driving the AIDS epidemic. This paper draws on relevant research and cross-country regression analysis to argue that the impact of economic determinants is dwarfed by contextual factors within Africa. The regression analysis suggests that controlling for per capita income, calories per capita and the ratio of female to male participation rates (none of which were statistically significant): being a Southern African country increases expected HIV prevalence 8.3 times; being in the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa 3 times; being a predominantly Protestant country 2.5 times; and being a predominantly Muslim country reduces expected HIV prevalence to 62% of the base case. Including the share of income going to the poor did not improve the model and was itself statistically insignificant. The analysis suggests that poverty may play a role in the HIV epidemic in some countries (and may well be a factor affecting the vulnerability of some people to HIV infection in all countries) but that its overall impact is dwarfed by social and behavioral factors.

  14. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  15. Poverty and Social Transfers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Šuæur

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects of poverty in Croatia are still insufficiently well researched. Not only is there no knowledge about how long Croatian citizens remain poor, but there are also some disagreements about the actual number of the poor and the choice of the national poverty line. Nor has there been any precise evaluation of the effects of the individual anti-poverty policy measures. The objective of this paper was to analyse the basic indicators of the scope and distribution of poverty, the risk groups and the structure of the population of the poor and to investigate the role of social transfers in the reduction of poverty. The paper consists of four parts and an introduction. In Part 1 there is an analysis of the trends in the numbers of the poor in Croatia at the beginning of the millennium and the profile of poverty. The second part deals with the policy for the reduction or elimination of poverty, while in Part 3 the author deals with the problem of selecting the official poverty line and the role of the minimum income in Croatia. Part 4 contains the conclusions. Using the official EU poverty line, a comparative analysis shows that the rates of relative poverty in Croatia do not deviate greatly from the EU mean, although Croatia does have a somewhat higher rate of poverty than most of the countries in the Union. Most at risk of falling below the poverty line are the elderly, the retired and the unemployed, single-person households, single-parent families and families with three or more children. The total system of social transfers is not less effective than the transfer systems of most of the countries of the EU. If we exclude old age and survivor pensions from the social transfers, in fact, Croatia has the most effective social transfers of any of the countries observed. However, on the other hand, the poverty rate reduction due to old age and survivor pensions is one of the lowest in the countriescompared.

  16. Constructing Official Poverty Lines for Countries in Transition – Beyond the Poverty Line (2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Škare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model for defining the poverty line using the Kakwani (2010 approach and developing a possible candidate for the construction of a new official poverty line. The model uses consumer theory to construct both food and non-food poverty thresholds and ensures that the poverty line is consistent across regions. Namely, it is of great importance to review a new unique measure for transition countries because there is a lack of statistics and research in these countries because their governments denied the existence of poverty during the socialist years. The methodology developed in this paper is used to illustrate the construction of a poverty threshold and poverty rates in Croatia, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Slovenia and Russia for the period 2000-2010. The focus on poverty in transition countries was placed in the former Soviet bloc; for that reason, the benchmark country used to illustrate the methodology for the above period was Russia. Because there are considerable differences in the methods used for poverty estimates, as well as insufficient and incomplete statistics, proposal for a new unique measure would serve as a “tool” for the prompt application of adequate social policies for transition countries.

  17. Poverty Eradication Dilemma: Understanding Poverty Dynamics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... dilemma using the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP), an all-inclusive ... security, conflict resolution and disaster management; (iv) good .... modernization and industrialization even if it has meant forest, schools and.

  18. Cigarette smoking and poverty in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanli; Rao, Keqin; Hu, Teh-Wei; Sun, Qi; Mao, Zhenzhong

    2006-12-01

    Drawing on the 1998 China national health services survey data, this study estimated the poverty impact of two smoking-related expenses: excessive medical spending attributable to smoking and direct spending on cigarettes. The excessive medical spending attributable to smoking is estimated using a regression model of medical expenditure with smoking status (current smoker, former smoker, never smoker) as part of the explanatory variables, controlling for people's demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The poverty impact is measured by the changes in the poverty head count, after smoking-related expenses are subtracted from income. We found that the excessive medical spending attributable to smoking may have caused the poverty rate to increase by 1.5% for the urban population and by 0.7% for the rural population. To a greater magnitude, the poverty headcount in urban and rural areas increased by 6.4% and 1.9%, respectively, due to the direct household spending on cigarettes. Combined, the excessive medical spending attributable to smoking and consumption spending on cigarettes are estimated to be responsible for impoverishing 30.5 million urban residents and 23.7 million rural residents in China. Smoking related expenses pushed a significant proportion of low-income families into poverty in China. Therefore, reducing the smoking rate appears to be not only a public health strategy, but also a poverty reduction strategy.

  19. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour.

  20. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  1. Poverty in Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Lomborg, Mette Sakham; Kamper, Anna Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this project is to examine why the population of people who lives in poverty has increased in Belize, and what the government of Belize is doing in order to defeat the poverty problem. It provides and analysis of Belize's National Poverty Elimination Strategy and Action Plan and the different programmes that are implemented in Belize in order to improve the livelihoods of the poor. The project do also examine the economy, natural disasters, crime and violence, educatio...

  2. Lifting Poverty with Willpower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    More than 1 billion people in the world today--the great majority of whom are women--live in absolute poverty....In order to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development, women and men must participate fully and equally in the formulation of macroeconomic and social policies and strategies for the eradication of poverty.--Extracts from Platform For Action of the 4th World Conference On Women

  3. Migration and urban poverty and inequality in China

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Using data from recent surveys of migrants and local residents in 10 cities in 2005, this paper examines how migration influences measurements of urban poverty and inequality in China, and also compares how other indicators of well-being differ for migrants and local residents. Contrary to previous studies that report that the income poverty rate of migrant households is 1.5 times that of local resident households, we find relatively small differences in the poverty rates of migrants and loca...

  4. Poverty and death in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, R A; Eaker, E D; Barker, N D; Teutsch, S M; Sosniak, W A; Krieger, N

    1996-01-01

    The authors conducted a survival analysis to determine the effect of poverty on mortality in a national sample of blacks and whites, 25 to 74 years of age (the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-1) and NHANES-1 Epidemiologic Follow up Study). They estimated the proportion of mortality associated with poverty during 1971-1984 and in 1991 by calculating population attributable risk and assessed confounding by major known risk factors (e.g., smoking, cholesterol levels, and physical inactivity). In 1973, 6.0 percent of U.S. mortality among black and white persons 25 to 74 years of age was attributable to poverty; in 1991, the proportion was 5.9 percent. In 1991, rates of mortality attributable to poverty were lowest for white women, 2.2 times as high for white men, 8.6 times as high for black men, and 3.6 times as high for black women. Adjustment for all these potential confounders combined had little effect on the hazard ratio among men, but reduced the effect of poverty on mortality among women by 42 percent. The proportion of mortality attributable to poverty among U.S. black and white adults has changed only minimally in recent decades. The effect of poverty on mortality must be largely explained by conditions other than commonly recognized risk factors.

  5. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  6. Poverty, social stress & mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S

    2007-10-01

    While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.

  7. Community Poverty and Child Abuse Fatalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Caitlin A; Fleegler, Eric W; Monuteaux, Michael C; Wilson, Celeste R; Christian, Cindy W; Lee, Lois K

    2017-05-01

    Child maltreatment remains a problem in the United States, and individual poverty is a recognized risk factor for abuse. Children in impoverished communities are at risk for negative health outcomes, but the relationship of community poverty to child abuse fatalities is not known. Our objective was to evaluate the association between county poverty concentration and rates of fatal child abuse. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of child abuse fatalities in US children 0 to 4 years of age from 1999 to 2014 by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Compressed Mortality Files. Population and poverty statistics were obtained from US Census data. National child abuse fatality rates were calculated for each category of community poverty concentration. Multivariate negative binomial regression modeling assessed the relationship between county poverty concentration and child abuse fatalities. From 1999 to 2014, 11 149 children 0 to 4 years old died of child abuse; 45% (5053) were poverty concentration had >3 times the rate of child abuse fatalities compared with counties with the lowest poverty concentration (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-3.79). Higher county poverty concentration is associated with increased rates of child abuse fatalities. This finding should inform public health officials in targeting high-risk areas for interventions and resources. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Strategies for poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Else

    2003-01-01

    SIU konferanse Solstrand 6.-7. October 2003 Higher education has a value of its own. When linked to the issue of poverty reduction it is necessary to ask another set of questions, including the crutial one whether higher education in general is the best tool for poverty reduction.

  9. Poverty and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the multiple ways in which the enduring, and increasing, problems associated with child poverty blight young people's educational opportunities in the school system. Current policies, supported by a sympathetic media, blame individuals for their poverty, and blame teachers when they fail to "close the…

  10. Rethinking Education and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    In "Rethinking Education and Poverty," William G. Tierney brings together scholars from around the world to examine the complex relationship between poverty and education in the twenty first century. International in scope, this book assembles the best contemporary thinking about how education can mediate class and improve the lives of…

  11. Poverty and Aspirations Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.; Mani, A.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework to study the psychology of poverty and 'aspirations failure'. In our framework, the rich and the poor share the same preferences - and also a behavioral bias in setting aspirations. Greater downside risks imposed by poverty exacerbates the effects of this behaviora

  12. Strategies for poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Else

    2003-01-01

    SIU konferanse Solstrand 6.-7. October 2003 Higher education has a value of its own. When linked to the issue of poverty reduction it is necessary to ask another set of questions, including the crutial one whether higher education in general is the best tool for poverty reduction.

  13. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  14. Poverty Monitor 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2000. The Poverty Monitor 2000 (Armoedemonitor 2000) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of

  15. Poverty monitor 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff; Ferdy Otten; Wim Bos

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2007. The Poverty Monitor 2007 contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP in collaboration with Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The report describes

  16. Poverty Monitor 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2000. The Poverty Monitor 2000 (Armoedemonitor 2000) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and tren

  17. Poverty and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the multiple ways in which the enduring, and increasing, problems associated with child poverty blight young people's educational opportunities in the school system. Current policies, supported by a sympathetic media, blame individuals for their poverty, and blame teachers when they fail to "close the…

  18. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  19. Poverty monitor 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff; Ferdy Otten; Wim Bos

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2007. The Poverty Monitor 2007 contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP in collaboration with Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The report describes povert

  20. Poverty Monitor 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2001. The Poverty Monitor 2001 (Armoedemonitor 2001) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and trend

  1. Poverty Monitor 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Henk-Jan Dirven; Stella Hoff; Ger Linden

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2003. The Poverty Monitor 2003 (Armoedemonitor 2003) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and trend

  2. high-poverty schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ditions, and serve as role models for the rest of the system (Taylor, 2006:73). Introduction ... Schools are identified as poor based on the relative poverty of the community, in ... The true impact of poverty on the provision of education is evident from ... overcome, and a happy and effective learning environment be created in a.

  3. Redrawing the Poverty Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new threshold means more than 100 million impoverished people will be eligible for government assistance as China continues to battle poverty The Chinese Government has decided to set the nation’s poverty line at an annual per-capita net income

  4. Poverty Monitor 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2001. The Poverty Monitor 2001 (Armoedemonitor 2001) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and

  5. Poverty and Aspirations Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.; Mani, A.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework to study the psychology of poverty and 'aspirations failure'. In our framework, the rich and the poor share the same preferences - and also a behavioral bias in setting aspirations. Greater downside risks imposed by poverty exacerbates the effects of this behaviora

  6. Measuring Poverty: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the author's rejoinder on commentaries of his article which illustrate the variety of perspectives with which people approach poverty measurement issues. Some of the comments highlight the theoretical concerns underpinning poverty measurement efforts, whereas others focus on empirical considerations. As a social scientist,…

  7. Institutions and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution.

  8. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  9. Half in Ten: Why Taking Disability into Account is Essential to Reducing Income Poverty and Expanding Economic Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Fremstad

    2009-01-01

    Disability is both a fundamental cause and consequence of income poverty. The income-poverty rate for persons with disabilities is between two to three times the rate for persons without disabilities. Yet, contemporary policy debate and research about income poverty in the United States is largely silent about disability. This paper argues that we need to have a broader view of what poverty is and also that disability must be taken into account in anti-poverty policy.

  10. Gender Inequality in Poverty in Affluent Nations: The Role of Single Motherhood and the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Karen; England, Paula; McLanahan, Sara; Ross, Katherin; Smeeding, Tim

    Women have higher rates of poverty than men in almost all societies. This paper compares the difference between male and female poverty in modern nations, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) to compare men's and women's poverty rates in eight Western industrialized countries in the 1990s. The LIS contains information on household…

  11. STUDI KOMPARASI KEMISKINAN DI INDONESIA: MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY DAN MONETARY POVERTY

    OpenAIRE

    Nuryitmawan, Tegar Rismanuar

    2016-01-01

    Research on poverty has long been done by various methods and approaches. Approach to identifying the poor in general by calculating consumption expenditure or income reveneu. The calculation is then known as monetary poverty. Indonesia also use and implemented that approach. However, some experts believe that monetary poverty approach does not capture the whole cause of poverty because the indicator calculation not enough. Though poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon that involves not onl...

  12. The Determinants of Urban Household Poverty in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Mok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since independence in 1950s Malaysia has been recognized as one of the more successful countries in fighting poverty: head count ratio came down to 5.7% by 2004. However the recent process of rapid urbanization has led to an increase of urban poverty aggravated further by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. It is important to understand the nature and scale of urbanization, the various driving forces that affect it and the determinants of urban poverty as linked to this process. Our research identified the determinants of urban poverty in Malaysia using a logistic regression. A sample of 2,403 urban households from the 2004-05 Household Expenditure Survey (HES had been used in this research. We first estimated the probability of households with specified characteristics to fall below Malaysia’s official poverty line. Then we analyzed the sensitivity of the probability estimated to shift of the poverty line over a reasonable range. Results showed that human capital significantly reduced the chance of being poor while migrant workers are more prone to poverty. Household size, race and regions were also important determinants of poverty outcome in urban Malaysia. The findings had important policy implications for Malaysian government which had pledged to reduce overall poverty rate to 2.8% and eradicated hardcore poverty by 2010 under the Ninth Malaysian Plan.

  13. A Critical Review of Rural Poverty Literature: Is There Truly a Rural Effect? Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Paper No. 1309-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bruce; Jensen, Leif; Miller, Kathleen; Mosley, Jane; Fisher, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Poverty rates are highest in the most urban and most rural areas of the United States, and are higher in nonmetropolitan than metropolitan areas. Yet, perhaps because only one-fifth of the nation's 35 million poor people live in nonmetropolitan areas, rural poverty has received less attention than urban poverty from both policymakers and…

  14. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  15. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  16. Poverty, income and ill health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T K

    1999-01-01

    The article presents an outline of the relationship between poverty, low income, and poor health conditions. A table shows the differences between central Asia and Western Europe in terms of maternal and child health indicators. Various studies also show that the more polarized the income, the worse the population's health status. Countries with higher per capita gross national product (GNP) tend to have lower infant and maternal mortality. Countries who have achieved low mortality rate despite their low levels of per capita GNP, attribute the result to non-health factors such as the spread of education and the drive to provide access to other basic needs, in addition to low cost health services. It is believed that people from deprived backgrounds are more susceptible to diseases, malnutrition, and despair. This may be due to cutbacks in expenditure on food and lower utilization of health services by the socially deprived. Furthermore, poverty is a major cause of death and misery of children and women both in developed and developing countries. It accounts for the social injustices done to women and undermines the physical, social, intellectual and emotional development of children. New patterns of health care service delivery are being developed by the WHO to improve the state of poverty-stricken countries. The article concludes with sound recommendations for both local and national levels.

  17. Effects of poverty on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Buck

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of poverty on education. Many different aspects contribute to a community becoming impoverished such as deindustrialization, high unemployment rates, untreated mental health, and violent crimes. Impoverished communities rural and urban face many issues. These issues include dilapidated housing, lack of access to professional services, and most importantly inferior education. The education is inferior for a number of reasons; students are showing up to school with numerous problems that the teachers are unable to account for through instruction. The school facilities face structural inadequacies which have been proven to have an effect on the quality of instruction. The teachers in the schools, while qualified, are often times not supported by school administration. School administrators are busy with their own issues in determining what areas to allocate their limited budget. Poverty is a vast and complex issue that plagues communities in a seemingly endless cycle. However, working together to find effective ways of solving issues caused by poverty, the future can become a brighter for American youth growing up in poor communities.

  18. Ending child poverty in the good times and the bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is now 10 years since the present Government pledged to eradicate child poverty by the year 2020. Some progress has been made, for example through increases in child benefit and the tax credit system, increased parental employment rates, and children's centres. However, the charity Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG) argues that progress has been disappointingly slow and that some aspects of policy development have undermined this progress. This article discusses the implications of the current economic recession on child poverty and includes the key points from the CPAG's manifesto, published in 2009 to mark the 10th anniversary of the pledge to end child poverty.

  19. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  20. Growth and Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Leyaro, Vincent; Mahrt, Kristi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter considers the evolution of welfare of the Tanzanian population using a multi-dimensional approach. It also employs a detailed economy-wide model of the Tanzanian economy to explore growth and monetary poverty reduction scenarios from 2007 to 2015. This approach permits assessment...... of the coherence of observed trends in macroeconomic variables and projects consumption poverty outcomes to 2015. In the multi-dimensional approach, we find that real gains have been achieved. On monetary poverty, our model broadly reproduces key macroeconomic features of the past eight years. We find...... that published consumption poverty reductions for 2007 to 2011/12 from the most recent assessment fall within a reasonable to optimistic range. And, the simulations generate broader based growth across the income distribution compared with the recent assessment. Looking forward, the simulations from 2012 to 2105...

  1. How we see poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Morduch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How we think about poverty is colored by how we measure it. For economists, that often means seeing poverty through quantities measured in large, representative surveys.  The surveys give a comprehensive view, but favor breadth over depth. Typical economic surveys are limited in their ability to tease out informal activity, and, while they capture yearly sums, they offer little about how the year was actually lived by families. Year-long financial diaries provide a complementary way of seeing poverty, with a focus on week by week choices and challenges. The result is a re-framing of poverty and its relationship to money, calling for greater attention to financial access and a broader notion of how finance matters.

  2. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  3. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  4. Elderly poverty and supplemental security income, 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program is the nation's safety net for the aged, blind, and disabled. SSI receipt is often not reported by individuals interviewed in the Current Population Survey (CPS), the statistical base for the Census Bureau's annual estimates of poverty rates. In an earlier article, we explored the effect on estimated poverty rates in 2002 of adjusting CPS income reports using administrative data on earnings and benefits from the SSI and Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance programs. We assessed poverty using both the official standard and a "relative" standard based on half of median pretax, posttransfer income. This article extends that work through 2005. We find that including administrative data presents challenges, but under the methodology we adopt, such adjustments lower estimated official poverty overall and increase estimated poverty rates for elderly SSI recipients. Relative poverty rates are much higher than official poverty rates. By any of the applied standards and procedures for income adjustment, poverty changed little over the 2002-2005 interval.

  5. The increasing risk of poverty across the American life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Daniel A; Rank, Mark R; Hirschl, Thomas A

    2009-11-01

    This article extends the emerging body of life course research on poverty by empirically identifying the incidence, chronicity, and age pattern of American poverty and how these dimensions have changed during the period 1968-2000. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we construct a series of life tables that estimate the risk of poverty for adults during their 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s, and compare these estimates for Americans in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Our empirical results suggest that the risk of acute poverty increased substantially, particularly in the 1990s. This observed increase was especially pronounced for individuals in their 20s, 30s, and 40s; for all age groups with respect to extreme poverty; and for white males. On the other hand, the risk of chronic poverty declined during the 1990s (as measured by the percentage of the poor who experienced five or more years of poverty within a 10-year interval). The results in this article tell a very different story than the Census Bureau's yearly cross-sectional rates, which have shown little overall change in the U.S. poverty rate during this 30-year period. In contrast, a life course approach reveals a rising economic risk of acute poverty for individuals, one that is consistent with recent observations and research suggesting that a growing number of Americans will eventually find themselves in an economically precarious position.

  6. Neighborhood poverty and racial differences in ESRD incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Nataliya; McClellan, William; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, Dana; Kleinbaum, David; Soucie, J Michael; Presley, Rodney

    2008-02-01

    Poverty is associated with increased risk of ESRD, but its contribution to observed racial differences in disease incidence is not well-defined. To explore the contribution of neighborhood poverty to racial disparity in ESRD incidence, we analyzed a combination of US Census and ESRD Network 6 data comprising 34,767 patients that initiated dialysis in Georgia, North Carolina, or South Carolina between January 1998 and December 2002. Census tracts were used as the geographic units of analysis, and the proportion of the census tract population living below the poverty level was our measure of neighborhood poverty. Incident ESRD rates were modeled using two-level Poisson regression, where race, age and gender were individual covariates (level 1), and census tract poverty was a neighborhood covariate (level 2). Neighborhood poverty was strongly associated with higher ESRD incidence for both blacks and whites. Increasing poverty was associated with a greater disparity in ESRD rates between blacks and whites, with the former at greater risk. This raises the possibility that blacks may suffer more from lower socioeconomic conditions than whites. The disparity persisted across all poverty levels. The reasons for increasingly higher ESRD incidence among US blacks as neighborhood poverty increases remain to be explained.

  7. The Impact of International Remittance on Poverty, Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: International remittance, poverty and household consumption and. Investment ... living abroad. This number is growing at a higher rate since then. ...... urban areas by adjusting the rate of inflation between 2010/11 and 2011/12.

  8. Teacher Performance Trajectories in High- and Lower-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeyu; Özek, Umut; Hansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether teacher performance trajectory over time differs by school-poverty settings. Focusing on elementary school mathematics teachers in North Carolina and Florida, we find no systematic relationship between school student poverty rates and teacher performance trajectories. In both high- (=60% free/reduced-price lunch [FRPL])…

  9. Teacher Performance Trajectories in High- and Lower-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeyu; Özek, Umut; Hansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether teacher performance trajectory over time differs by school-poverty settings. Focusing on elementary school mathematics teachers in North Carolina and Florida, we find no systematic relationship between school student poverty rates and teacher performance trajectories. In both high- (=60% free/reduced-price lunch [FRPL])…

  10. Poverty and Disability: Addressing the Challenge of Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty increases the likelihood that students with disabilities will experience poor postschool outcomes, including unemployment, underemployment, and limited postsecondary education. The effects of the intersection of poverty and disability persist into adulthood where the employment rate for adults with disabilities is only one fourth…

  11. Effects of Remittances on Poverty among Rural Households in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatomide Waheed Olowa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Poverty in Nigeria is more prevalent in therural sector due to dwindling and inequitabledistribution of real income. Remittances (money and goods sent by migrants to relativesback home can be poverty reducing. However,the extent to which remittances affectpoverty and income inequality has not been adequately documented inNigeria.This paperuses a large, nationally-representative household survey to analyse the impact of domesticremittances (from Nigeria and foreign remittances (from African and other countries onpoverty in rural Nigeria. The socioeconomic characteristics showed that on the average,households that received foreign remittanceshad older heads (61.7± 19.7 years, smallerhousehold size (4.0 ± 2.5, bigger land size(18.53±26.5 ha, higherliteracy rate (0.50 ±0.5 and non-poor (0.08 ±0.3 with higher annual per capita expenditure (₦111,768 ±₦179,868. Poverty analysis showed that both types of remittances reduce the level,depth and severity of poverty in rural Nigeria.However, the size of the poverty reductiondepends on how poverty is being measured. The paper finds that poverty is reduced morewhen domestic, as opposed to foreign remittances are included inhousehold income, andwhen poverty is measured by the more sensitive poverty measures: poverty gap andsquared poverty gap. At a poverty line of₦23,733 per annum, a 10%increase in domesticremittances decreased Poverty Incidence(PI, Poverty Gap (PG and Squared PovertyGap (SPG by 1.80%, 1.60% and 1.60% while10% rise in foreign remittances reducedpoverty incidence (PI, Poverty gap (PG and Squared poverty gap (SPG by 0.86%,0.62% and0.62% respectively in rural Nigeria. Across GPZs, While 10% increase inforeign remittances reduced PI (-0.88% in North-Central (NC it had no effect in NE(0.00%. Same increase in domestic remittances reduced PI, PG, SPG most in the SS (-0.29%, -1.85% and -0.75% and leastin NE (-0.09%, -0.82% and -0.22%

  12. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2005-12-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States.

  13. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States. PMID:16900262

  14. Two Americas. Comparisons of U.S. Child Poverty in Rural, Inner City and Suburban Areas. A Linear Trend Analysis to the Year 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John T.; Brown, J. Larry

    This analysis, part of a series on child poverty in America, contains an overview of child poverty trends over the period from 1959 to 1992 and projections of child poverty rates and levels by area of residence to the year 2010. Analyses, based on data from the Census Bureau, show a marked increase in the overall rate of child poverty since the…

  15. Improvements in poverty and income in 1995 tempered by troubling long-term trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K

    1998-01-01

    Census data on poverty and income show short-term improvements in 1995, but the trends were not as positive over the longer term. Poverty rates remained higher than they were at comparable points in previous economic cycles. The incomes of lower- and middle-income households grew in 1995, but only the wealthiest fifth of the population completely recovered from the recession of the early 1990s. Although poverty rates fell and incomes rose for most groups in 1995, Hispanic households did not share in the overall economic gains. In addition, economic improvements were not shared by all geographic areas--the reduction in poverty was concentrated in suburban areas. The current poverty measure does not show the full impact of government benefit programs on poverty, as it does not take into account the effect of non-cash benefits or taxes. An alternative poverty measure gives a much better picture of the effectiveness of government benefit programs in reducing poverty.

  16. Including health insurance in poverty measurement: The impact of Massachusetts health reform on poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Sanders D; Remler, Dahlia K

    2016-12-01

    We develop and implement what we believe is the first conceptually valid health-inclusive poverty measure (HIPM) - a measure that includes health care or insurance in the poverty needs threshold and health insurance benefits in family resources - and we discuss its limitations. Building on the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, we construct a pilot HIPM for the under-65 population under ACA-like health reform in Massachusetts. This pilot demonstrates the practicality, face validity and value of a HIPM. Results suggest that public health insurance benefits and premium subsidies accounted for a substantial, one-third reduction in the health inclusive poverty rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alleviating energy poverty: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-09-15

    Energy services play an important role in human welfare. India faces acute energy poverty indicating lack of access of clean energy fuels. Access to electricity is limited to 56% households in India and about 89% of rural households depend on polluting energy sources. Energy poverty impacts income poverty as poor find it difficult to acquire high priced cleaner fuels. It also adversely impacts the socio economic conditions of women. The paper highlights the linkage of energy poverty with income poverty and gender inequality. It analyses measures taken to alleviate energy poverty and recommends regulatory and policy measures as way forward.

  18. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  19. [An end to poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, P

    1994-10-01

    The African continent is distinguished by a much higher fertility rate than other regions. Fertility in Africa has remained almost constant at slightly over six children per woman on average, while important declines have occurred elsewhere over the past 25 years. High fertility in Africa is often attributed to poor diffusion of family planning, early marriage, and low female educational attainment, but other cultural and economic factors are involved. The significant decline of infant mortality over the past several decades has produced growth rates never before observed. Africa's very young populations may be at the origin of uncontrollable political disorder, as young persons with bleak prospects fall easy prey to ethnic, religious, and political extremism. Demographic growth has become an additional barrier to development. High fertility is tolerated or encouraged as constituting a cultural trait, but the resulting population growth is not a cultural trait. Demographic pressure has increased environmental problems in many regions. It is estimated that over ten million rural residents of the Sahel have been affected by soil degradation. The per capita availability of arable land fell from one-half to one-third hectare between 1965 and 1987. Shortages of firewood and water have become more common. The relationship between demographic growth, environmental crisis, and poverty in the countryside depends on other factors such as production techniques, modes of access to land and water, and the degree of security of land tenure. Population pressure was not the initial factor that disturbed the balance of the traditional societies, but it exacerbated the effects of other forces such as the introduction of cash crops and monetarization of the economy. Rural exodus and accelerated urban migration have been prompted in large part by the higher incomes and greater availability of services of all types in the cities. Achieving control of fertility in Africa will require

  20. Breaking the Cycle of Poverty: Challenges for European Early Childhood Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leseman, Paul P. M.; Slot, Pauline L.

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates in European countries have increased during recent decades and are particularly high in East European countries. Young children are especially vulnerable to poverty. Poverty in early childhood can have irreversible negative consequences for cognitive, social and emotional development, academic achievement and behavioural adjustment.…

  1. Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

  2. Breaking the Cycle of Poverty: Challenges for European Early Childhood Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leseman, Paul P. M.; Slot, Pauline L.

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates in European countries have increased during recent decades and are particularly high in East European countries. Young children are especially vulnerable to poverty. Poverty in early childhood can have irreversible negative consequences for cognitive, social and emotional development, academic achievement and behavioural adjustment.…

  3. Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of…

  4. Is Poverty In China A Matter Of Social Exclusion And Material Deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Xiao; Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Although China has experienced a rapid economic growth in the past decades,poverty rates are still high.The findings indicate that,while material deprivation and social exclusion are reasonable explanations for the poverty in China,government policy is an even more fundamental reason for the worsening poverty.

  5. Explaining Black-White Disparity in Maltreatment: Poverty, Female-Headed Families, and Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Amie M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess a structural level explanation of racial disparity in child maltreatment. Using data from Florida counties (1998-2001) and the 2000 census, the effects of poverty, concentrated poverty, and female-headed families in poverty on Black, White, and the difference between Black-White rates of child…

  6. Waging War on Poverty: Poverty Trends Using a Historical Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Liana E.; Wimer, Christopher; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the March Current Population Survey, we provide poverty estimates for 1967 to 2012 based on a historical Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM). During this period, poverty, as officially measured, has stagnated. However, the official poverty measure (OPM) does not account for the effect of near-cash transfers on the financial resources available to families, an important omission since such transfers have become an increasingly important part of government anti-poverty policy. Applying the historical SPM, which does count such transfers, we find that trends in poverty have been more favorable than the OPM suggests and that government policies have played an important and growing role in reducing poverty—a role that is not evident when the OPM is used to assess poverty. We also find that government programs have played a particularly important role in alleviating child poverty and deep poverty, especially during economic downturns. PMID:26347369

  7. Poverty, Government Transfers, and the Business Cycle: Evidence for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Herzer, Dierk; Klump, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    We examine the impact of government transfers and the business cycle on poverty in the United States in the context of a poverty function that includes the official poverty rate, three types of government transfers, real wages, the number of female-headed families, and a business cycle variable. Using cointegration techniques, we find – contrary to most previous studies – that government transfer programs play an important poverty-reducing role. In addition, the findings suggest that the busi...

  8. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  9. HIV, poverty and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2010-03-01

    This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing.

  10. Impacts of Policies on Poverty: The Definition of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how poverty can be defined in the context of policy impact analysis. After reporting and discussing the definition of poverty as “the lack of, or the inability to achieve, a socially acceptable standard of living”, it discusses the mono-dimensional and multi-dimensional approaches to the definition of poverty. Furthermore, the module focuses on the absolute and the relative concept of poverty, also drawing some analogies and differences with the concept of food secu...

  11. Attitudes towards poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Derdziuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, perceived as a lack of basic consumer goods, gives rise to a whole range of outcomes which affect not only the material dimension of human existence, but also influence social relations and references to spiritual values. Attitudes which could be associated with involuntary and unacceptable poverty include: doubt in the Divine Providence, bitterness, jealousy and envy, blaming others, lack of gratitude and in perceiving good, laziness, lack of initiative, escalating demands, gluttony and greed as well as meanness. However, joy, peace, freedom and solidarity with the poor, as well as work and enterprise, are symptoms of evangelical attitudes of the poor in spirit. Attitudes to poverty point to a wide range of human behaviours towards possessions and in effect, reveal an individual’s sense of value.

  12. Poverty, health and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, S

    2007-09-01

    Poverty is an important influence on health and despite continuing economic growth, poverty and health inequalities persist. Current public policy aims to reduce the inequalities in the health, by focussing on the social factors influencing health, improving access to health and personal social services for those who are poor or socially excluded and by improving the information and research base in respect of the health status and service access for the poor and socially excluded groups. It is important that processes for target setting and evaluation involve people experiencing poverty, at all levels through consultative and participative structures and processes and in the roll-out of primary care teams. A number of projects throughout the country aim to address health inequalities using community development. These are essentially about widening participation in the development, planning and delivery of health services and ensuring that the community is actively involved in the decision making process about health services in their area.

  13. Joining together to combat poverty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusić, M; Vuk Pavlović, S

    2000-01-01

    The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around...

  14. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of large-scale investments in biofuels for growth and income distribution. We find that biofuels investment enhances growth and poverty reduction despite some displacement of food crops by biofuels. Overall, the biofuel investment trajectory analyzed increases...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor...

  15. Poverty in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Dirk; Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with poverty within Israel. Against the background of the history of pre-state Israel and the developments after the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 the historical roots of Israeli poverty are analyzed. Thus the ‘socialist’-Zionist project, ethnic exclusion, religious and intra-Jewish ethnic lines of conflict as well as the Bedouins, Druzes and Israeli Arabs as ‘specific’ Israeli citizen are discussed. Despite the economic growth in Israel since 2003 ‘the major...

  16. The Chronic Poverty Report 2005

    OpenAIRE

    The Chronic Poverty Research Centre, CPRC

    2005-01-01

    The report examines what chronic poverty is and why it matters, who the chronically poor are, where they live, what causes poverty to be persistent and what should be done about it. It argues that approaches to development policy must acknowledge the agency of the chronically poor themselves in overcoming their poverty. But they also need real commitment, matched by actions and resources, to support their efforts to attain their rights and overcome the obstacles that trap them in poverty.

  17. Does Drug Use Cause Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kaestner

    1998-01-01

    In this study, I examine the effect of drug use on poverty. The main objective of the paper is to provide descriptive empirical information about the relationship between drug use and poverty, and to explore, in a preliminary fashion, the question of whether drug use causes poverty. Toward this end, I present the results of both descriptive and multivariate analyses of the relationship between drug use and poverty for two national samples of young adults. One sample is drawn from the National...

  18. The Chronic Poverty Report 2005

    OpenAIRE

    The Chronic Poverty Research Centre, CPRC

    2005-01-01

    The report examines what chronic poverty is and why it matters, who the chronically poor are, where they live, what causes poverty to be persistent and what should be done about it. It argues that approaches to development policy must acknowledge the agency of the chronically poor themselves in overcoming their poverty. But they also need real commitment, matched by actions and resources, to support their efforts to attain their rights and overcome the obstacles that trap them in poverty.

  19. Child Poverty in the United States: A Tale of Devastation and the Promise of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Alyn T.

    2017-01-01

    The child poverty rate in the United States is higher than in most similarly developed countries, making child poverty one of America’s most pressing social problems. This article provides an introduction of child poverty in the US, beginning with a short description of how poverty is measured and how child poverty is patterned across social groups and geographic space. I then examine the consequences of child poverty with a focus educational outcomes and child health, and three pathways through which poverty exerts its influence: resources, culture, and stress. After a brief review of the anti-poverty policy and programmatic landscape, I argue that moving forward we must enrich the communities in which poor families live in addition to boosting incomes and directly supporting children’s skill development. I conclude with emerging research questions. PMID:28890733

  20. Poverty on the Cards 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut; Benedikt Goderis; Cok Vrooman

    2016-01-01

    Decline in poverty since 2014 According to SCP’s ‘modest but adequate’ poverty threshold, 7.6% of the Dutch population were living in poverty in 2014. That figure is expected to have fallen to 7% in 2016. If the promised measures to improve purchasing power are implemented, thi

  1. Poverty-related diseases (PRDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makoge, Valerie; Maat, Harro; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Cameroon, poverty-related diseases (PRDs) are a major public health concern. Research and policies addressing PRDs are based on a particular understanding of the interaction between poverty and disease, usually an association between poverty indicators and health indicators for a

  2. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  3. Infrastructure and social tie: Spatial model approach on understanding poverty in Malang regency, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, I. R. D.; Hasyim, A. W.; Pratama, B. A.; Helmy, M.; Sheilla, M. N.

    2017-06-01

    Poverty is a problem that requires attention from the government especially in developing countries such as Indonesia. This Research takes Place at Kasembon District because it has 53,19% family below poverty line in the region. The purpose of this research is to measure poverty based on 3 poverty indicators published by World Bank and 1 multidimensional poverty index. Furthermore, this research invesitigas the relationship between poverty with social and infrastructure in Kasembon District. This study using social network analysis, hot spots analysis, and regression analysis with ordinary least squares. From the poverty indicators known that Pondokagung Village has the highest poverty rate compared to another region. Results from regression model indicate that social and infrastructure affecting poverty in Kasembon District. Social parameter that affecting poverty is density. Infrastructure parameter that affecting poverty is length of paved road. Coefficient value of density is the largest in the model. Therefore it can be concluded that social factors can give more opportunity to reduce poverty rates in Kasembon District. In the local model of paved road coefficient, it is known that the coefficient for each village has not much different value from the global model.

  4. Age, Poverty, Homicide, and Gun Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Males

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional theories of “adolescent risk taking” have not been validated against recent research indicating that youthful traffic crash, violent crime, felony crime, and firearms mortality rates reflect young people’s low-socio-economic status (SES compared with older adults’, not young age. Aside from a small number of recent, conflicting studies, the literature gap on this key issue remains. The present study examines the 54,094 homicide deaths, including 41,123 gun homicides, victimizing California residents ages 15 to 69 during 1991 to 2012 by poverty status. Without controlling for poverty, homicide rates display the traditional age-curve peaking at 19, then declining. When poverty is controlled, the traditional age-curve persists only for high-poverty populations, in which young people are vastly over-represented, and homicide rates are elevated for all ages. This finding reiterates that “adolescent risk taking” may be an artifact of failing to control for age-divergent SES.

  5. The neurology of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, G

    1982-01-01

    An intellectual deficit is known to exist in populations where extreme poverty is rife and is thus seen extensively in the lower socio-economic strata of underdeveloped nations. Poverty is a complex entity whose sociological and economic indicators often bear little relevance to the biological agents which can affect the central nervous system. An attempt is made to express poverty in terms of identifiable defects, physiological in nature. Thus adverse socio-economic factors are converted into specific biological entities which, though necessary for adequate development of the brain, are restricted where there is poverty. A number of causative deficiencies, including nutritional, visual, auditory, tactile, vestibular, affective, and other stimuli are postulated. These interact and potentiate one another. Each is capable of an independent action on the brain and examples are given of some sensory deprivations as well as malnutrition and their possible mechanism of action. If the various deficiencies can independently harm the brain, then a number of separate specific functions should be affected; examples are offered. The nature of this intellectual deficit is probably a non-fulfillment of genetic potential of certain specific functions of the brain, which may exhibit limited variations between one community and another, depending on cultural differences. The deleterious effect of this intellectual impairment is seen most clearly in figures of school desertion, for example in Latin America. Analogous data for adults is scarce.

  6. Poverty, Work and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kotze, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    This contribution suggests that if we are serious about adult education in the context of poverty eradication we require some shifts away from neo-liberal assumptions and values. Women and/in the informal economy should become the central focus, and livelihood studies would better allow us to understand the complex daily struggle for food and the…

  7. Poverty and Political Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouda, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Frances Gouda examines the different rhetorical approaches to poverty, charity, and social welfare embraced by intellectuals and policy-makers in the Netherlands and France in the period 1815 - 1854. She explores the different discourses in Holland and France about the revolutionary threat implicit

  8. Explaining Poverty Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    consumption in Mozambique to examine the evolution of consumption poverty with focus on the period 2002/03 to 2008/09. The paper contributes in four areas. First, the period in question was characterized by major movements in international commodity prices. Mozambique provides an illuminating case study...

  9. Producing Against Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ypeij, Annelou

    2000-01-01

    Producing against Poverty is an anthropological research on micro-entrepreneurs in Lima, Peru. It analyses the way micro-producers accumulate capital. The anthropological approach of the book starts with an analysis of the daily lives of the micro-producers. Its gender approach makes a comparison be

  10. Tackling Urban Poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Despite fast development, many residents in Chinese cities struggle to find a decent life When talking about poverty in China, people tend to conjure up images of farmers struggling in remote mountain villages or in the arid lands of the far west. Yet behind their gleaming skyscrapers and

  11. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  12. Poverty and Political Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouda, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Frances Gouda examines the different rhetorical approaches to poverty, charity, and social welfare embraced by intellectuals and policy-makers in the Netherlands and France in the period 1815 - 1854. She explores the different discourses in Holland and France about the revolutionary threat implicit

  13. GIS-based poverty and population distribution analysis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Hong

    2009-07-01

    Geographically, poverty status is not only related with social-economic factors but also strongly affected by geographical environment. In the paper, GIS-based poverty and population distribution analysis method is introduced for revealing their regional differences. More than 100000 poor villages and 592 national key poor counties are chosen for the analysis. The results show that poverty distribution tends to concentrate in most of west China and mountainous rural areas of mid China. Furthermore, the fifth census data are overlaid to those poor areas in order to gain its internal diversity of social-economic characteristics. By overlaying poverty related social-economic parameters, such as sex ratio, illiteracy, education level, percentage of ethnic minorities, family composition, finding shows that poverty distribution is strongly correlated with high illiteracy rate, high percentage minorities, and larger family member.

  14. Grass Roots War on Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Amsden, Alice H

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa’s failure to slay the dragon of poverty is due to a logical flaw in its policies: the remedies to reduce poverty don’t address the causes. Poverty is caused by unemployment, owing to a scarcity of jobs that pay above bare subsistence, but grass-roots poverty alleviation measures are exclusively designed to make job-seekers more capable although no jobs are available. The ‘appropriate’ technologies of the grass roots movement that dominates anti-poverty policies are ...

  15. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  16. Poverty in America: trends and new patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'hare, W P

    1985-06-01

    Poverty trends in the US between 1959-83, as revealed by census data, are described, 1984 government expenditures on social programs are delineated, contrasting explanations put forth to explain the increase in poverty between 1978-83 are critically examined, and some practical suggestions for reducing poverty levels are made. Between 1959-73, the absolute number and the proportion of individuals below the poverty line decreased respectively from 39.5-23.0 million and from 22.4%-11.1%. Between 1973-78, poverty rates fluctuated somewhat. Between 1978-83, the absolute number and proportion of poor increased respectively from 24.5-35.3 million and from 11.4%-15.2%. Between 1978-83, the depth of poverty also increased. The proportion of families with incomes below US$5000 increased from 3.9%-5.7%, and the median income for poor families declined. Some experts, such as Charles Murray, attribute the increase in poverty to federal poverty programs. Murray maintains that poverty programs undermine the work ethic and encourage the creation of female headed households. Others, including Michael Harrington, attribute the increase in poverty to structural changes in the economy and to changes in the composition of the population. Harrington maintains that the decline in the number of manufacturing jobs, the lack of employment opportunities for unskilled workers, and the entry of the baby boom generation into the working age population makes it increasingly difficult for young males, and especially for black males, to find jobs offering financial security. The present analysis provided more support for the latter explanation than for the former explanation. Numerous studies indicate that there is considerable movement in and out of poverty and that most individuals are poor because they cannot find jobs. The American public has a mistaken impression about the amount of money expended by the government to provide assistance to the poor. The bulk of the government's social

  17. Women in Poverty: Experience from Limpopo Province, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    unemployment, vulnerable people, poverty strategy. Introduction. This study .... socio-economic development in the province is very poor compared to any ... unemployment rate and lower education status than those not working in agriculture.

  18. and Asset-based Poverty Dynamics in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    group levels indicates that despite a stagnant poverty rate, consumption patterns have changed ..... therefore the real dependency ratio may be even higher, the ratio indicates that. 7. We also .... To adjust for inflation at the national level and ...

  19. Disability, poverty and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Disability is both a cause and consequence of poverty. Eliminating world poverty is unlikely to be achieved unless the rights and needs of people with disabilities are taken into account. According to the United Nations, one person in 20 has a disability. More than three out of four of these live in a developing country. More often than not they are among the poorest of the poor. Recent World Bank estimates suggest they may account for as many as one in five of the world's poorest. Disability limits access to education and employment, and leads to economic and social exclusion. Poor people with disabilities are caught in a vicious cycle of poverty and disability, each being both a cause and a consequence of the other. A large proportion of disability is preventable. Achieving the international development targets for economic, social and human development will undoubtedly reduce the levels of disability in many poor countries. However, general improvements in living conditions will not be enough. Specific steps are still required, not only for prevention, but also to ensure that people with disabilities are able to participate fully in the development process, obtain a fair share of the benefits, and claim their rights as full and equal members of society. An integrated approach is required, linking prevention and rehabilitation with empowerment strategies and changes in attitudes. This paper assesses the significance of disability as a key development issue, and its importance in relation to poverty, human rights, and the achievement of internationally agreed development targets. It also sets out ways in which development co-operation, including DFID's own work, can help incorporate the rights and needs of people with disabilities into the mainstream of poverty reduction work and the achievement of human rights.

  20. Poverty and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Franco, E.; Fuckar, N. S.; Kalmbach, E. R.; Kayatta, E.; Lankester, K.; Rothschild, R. E.; Sarma, A.; Wall, M. L.

    2008-05-01

    The poor are disproportionately vulnerable to environmental change because they have the least amount of resources with which to adapt, and they live in areas (e.g. flood plains, low-lying coastal areas, and marginal drylands) that are particularly vulnerable to the manifestations of climate change. By quantifying the various environmental, economic, and social factors that can contribute to poverty, we identify populations that are most vulnerable to poverty and poverty traps due to environmental change. We define vulnerability as consisting of risk (probability of event and exposed elements), resiliency, and capacity to respond. Resiliency captures the social system's ability to absorb a natural disaster while retaining the same basic structure, organization, and ways of functioning, as well as its general capacity to adapt to stress and change. Capacity to respond is a surrogate for technical skills, institutional capabilities, and efficacy within countries and their economies. We use a "climate change multiplier" to account for possible increases in the frequency and severity of natural events due to climate change. Through various analytical methods, we quantify the social, political, economic, and environmental factors that contribute to poverty or poverty traps. These data sets are then used to determine vulnerability through raster multiplication in geospatial analysis. The vulnerability of a particular location to climate change is then mapped, with areas of high vulnerability clearly delineated. The success of this methodology indicates that it is indeed possible to quantify the effects of climate change on global vulnerability to natural disasters, and can be used as a mechanism to identify areas where proactive measures, such as improving adaptation or capacity to respond, can reduce the humanitarian and economic impacts of climate change.

  1. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  2. On the psychology of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushofer, Johannes; Fehr, Ernst

    2014-05-23

    Poverty remains one of the most pressing problems facing the world; the mechanisms through which poverty arises and perpetuates itself, however, are not well understood. Here, we examine the evidence for the hypothesis that poverty may have particular psychological consequences that can lead to economic behaviors that make it difficult to escape poverty. The evidence indicates that poverty causes stress and negative affective states which in turn may lead to short-sighted and risk-averse decision-making, possibly by limiting attention and favoring habitual behaviors at the expense of goal-directed ones. Together, these relationships may constitute a feedback loop that contributes to the perpetuation of poverty. We conclude by pointing toward specific gaps in our knowledge and outlining poverty alleviation programs that this mechanism suggests.

  3. Poverty, social exclusion and health in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Paula

    2002-07-01

    People in Portugal have never been so healthy. Nevertheless, there are great differences in health status between social groups and regions. In 1994, Portugal was the country with the second worst level of inequality in terms of income distribution and with the highest level of poverty in the European Union (EU). Poverty in Portugal affects mainly the elderly and women (especially in single parent families). Beyond these groups, there are the children, the ethnic minorities and the homeless. Substance abusers, the unemployed, and ex-prisoners are also strongly affected by situations of social exclusion and poverty. Although poverty has been an important issue on the political agenda in Portugal, it shows a worrying tendency to resist traditional Social Security interventions. In the late 1990s, however, welfare coverage rates appear to have risen. To what extent can poverty cause a worsening of health status? Is there any sustainable positive association between welfare and improved health status? How, to whom and when should actions to improve the health status of the disadvantaged be addressed, without subverting the health status of the rest of the population. It is also necessary to reveal the consequences of poor health to individuals, families and communities in terms of income, social empowerment and the ability to fulfil other needs. Finally, reflection on the role and effectiveness of traditional social security models is necessary, in order to improve the impact and adequacy of its interventions. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge about disadvantage, the current health situation of the most vulnerable groups in Portuguese society-those affected by poverty, deprivation and social exclusion-and to detect the constraints on access to health and health care.

  4. Integration of family planning with poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1996-12-01

    The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.

  5. Class-Based Analysis of Multidimensional Poverty: The Case of Mersin-Erzurum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zanbak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, poverty is calculated for various socioeconomic classes in Mersin and Erzurum provinces by using multidimensional poverty approach and then the findings are analyzed comparatively. While the multidimensional poverty measurement methodology is drawn on as a calculation of poverty (Alkire and Foster, 2007; 2011a, the definition of socioeconomic classes are based on theoretical assumptions used in Köse, Pınar, and Bahçe (2009 and Günaydın (2011. The results of this analysis show that the class with the highest poverty rate under all poverty lines is the petty bourgeois.  The second class with the higher rates is working classes.  When the poverty of the qualified working class is added, working class actually represents the poorest class. 

  6. Women in extreme poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  7. Poverty and childhood cancer incidence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Daniels, Julie L; Zhu, Kangmin

    2010-07-01

    This study examined socioeconomic differentials in cancer incidence rates during 2000-2005 among children aged 0-19 in the United States. The data on childhood cancers, which were classified by the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, Third Edition (ICCC-3), were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. The socioeconomic status of residential area at diagnosis was estimated by county-level poverty rate in Census 2000, i.e., percentage of persons in the county living below the national poverty thresholds. Counties were categorized as low-, medium-, and high-poverty areas when the poverty rates were poverty counties had lower age-adjusted incidence rates than low-poverty counties for total childhood cancers combined, central nervous system neoplasms (ICCC group III), neuroblastoma (group IV), renal tumors (group VI), and other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas (group XI). When the data were stratified by race, these associations were observed among whites, but not blacks. For leukemia (group I), poor counties had higher incidence rates than affluent counties for whites, but lower rates for blacks. This ecologic study provides perspective on area socioeconomic variations in childhood cancer incidence that warrants further research.

  8. Inequality, poverty, and material deprivation in new and old members of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matković, Teo; Sucur, Zoran; Zrinscak, Sinsa

    2007-10-01

    To analyze the main indicators of income inequality, objective and subjective poverty, material deprivation, and the role of public social transfers in the reduction of poverty in 15 old and 10 new member states of the European Union (EU), undergoing post-communist socio-economic transition, as well as in Croatia, a candidate EU country. Objective poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, poverty thresholds in purchasing power standards (PPS), total social expenditure, inequality indicators, and risks of poverty according to demographics were calculated using the data from the Eurostat databases, in particular, Household Budget Survey. For Croatia, Central Bureau of Statistics first releases on poverty indicators were used, as well as database of the Ministry of Finance (social expenditure). Subjective poverty rates and non-monetary deprivation index were calculated using the European Quality of Life Survey, which was carried out in 2003 in EU countries and in 2006 in Croatia. According to the indicators of income inequality and objective poverty, there was a divide among old EU member states (EU15), with UK, Ireland and South European countries having higher and Continental and Nordic countries lower indicators of inequality and poverty. Among new member states (NMS10), Baltic countries and Poland had the highest and Slovenia and the Czech Republic the lowest indicators of inequality and poverty. In all EU15 countries, except Greece, subjective poverty rates were lower than objective ones, whereas in all NMS10 countries the levels of subjective poverty were much higher than those of objective poverty. With some exceptions, NMS10 countries had low or even decreasing social expenditures. The share of respondents who were deprived of more than 50% of items was 6 times higher in the NMS10 than in the EU15 countries. When standard of living was measured by income inequality, relative poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, total social protection expenditures, and non

  9. Inequality, Poverty, and Material Deprivation in New and Old Members of European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matković, Teo; Šućur, Zoran; Zrinščak, Siniša

    2007-01-01

    Aim To analyze the main indicators of income inequality, objective and subjective poverty, material deprivation, and the role of public social transfers in the reduction of poverty in 15 old and 10 new member states of the European Union (EU), undergoing post-communist socio-economic transition, as well as in Croatia, a candidate EU country. Method Objective poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, poverty thresholds in purchasing power standards (PPS), total social expenditure, inequality indicators, and risks of poverty according to demographics were calculated using the data from the Eurostat databases (in particular, Household Budget Survey). For Croatia, Central Bureau of Statistics first releases on poverty indicators were used, as well as database of the Ministry of Finance (social expenditure). Subjective poverty rates and non-monetary deprivation index were calculated using the European Quality of Life Survey, which was carried out in 2003 in EU countries and in 2006 in Croatia. Results According to the indicators of income inequality and objective poverty, there was a divide among old EU member states (EU15), with UK, Ireland and South European countries having higher and Continental and Nordic countries lower indicators of inequality and poverty. Among new member states (NMS10), Baltic countries and Poland had the highest and Slovenia and the Czech Republic the lowest indicators of inequality and poverty. In all EU15 countries, except Greece, subjective poverty rates were lower than objective ones, whereas in all NMS10 countries the levels of subjective poverty were much higher than those of objective poverty. With some exceptions, NMS10 countries had low or even decreasing social expenditures. The share of respondents who were deprived of more than 50% of items was 6 times higher in the NMS10 than in the EU15 countries. When standard of living was measured by income inequality, relative poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, total social protection

  10. Poverty among Foster Children: Estimates Using the Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Jessica; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the Current Population Survey and the new Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) to provide estimates for poverty among foster children over the period 1992 to 2013. These are the first large-scale national estimates for foster children who are not included in official poverty statistics. Holding child and family demographics constant, foster children have a lower risk of poverty than other children. Analyzing income in detail suggests that foster care payments likely play an important role in reducing the risk of poverty in this group. In contrast, we find that children living with grandparents have a higher risk of poverty than other children, even after taking demographics into account. Our estimates suggest that this excess risk is likely linked to their lower likelihood of receiving foster care or other income supports. PMID:28659651

  11. Is dengue a disease of poverty? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kate; Dixon, Jenna; Sinn, Chi-Ling Joanna; Elliott, Susan J

    2015-02-01

    Policy prescriptions for combating dengue fever tend to focus on addressing environmental and social conditions of poverty. However, while poverty has long been considered a determinant of dengue, the research evidence for such a relationship is not well established. Results of a systematic review of the research literature designed to identify and assess the current state of the empirical evidence for the dengue-poverty link reveal a mixed story. Of 260 peer-reviewed articles referencing dengue-poverty relationships, only 12 English-language studies empirically assessed these relationships. Our analysis covering various social and economic conditions of poverty showed no clear associations with dengue rates. While nine of the 12 studies demonstrated some positive associations between measures of dengue and poverty (measured inconsistently through income, education, structural housing condition, overcrowding, and socioeconomic status), nine also presented null results and five with negative results. Of the five studies relating to access to water and sanitation, four reported null associations. Income and physical housing conditions were more consistently correlated with dengue outcomes than other poverty indicators. The small size of this sample, and the heterogeneity of measures and scales used to capture conditions of poverty, make it difficult to assess the strength and consistency of associations between various poverty indicators and dengue outcomes. At present, the global body of eligible English-language peer-reviewed literature investigating dengue-poverty relationships is too small to support a definitive relationship. We conclude that more research, particularly using standardized measures of both outcomes and indicators, is needed to support evidence-informed policies and approaches.

  12. Is dengue a disease of poverty? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kate; Dixon, Jenna; Sinn, Chi-Ling Joanna; Elliott, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Policy prescriptions for combating dengue fever tend to focus on addressing environmental and social conditions of poverty. However, while poverty has long been considered a determinant of dengue, the research evidence for such a relationship is not well established. Results of a systematic review of the research literature designed to identify and assess the current state of the empirical evidence for the dengue–poverty link reveal a mixed story. Of 260 peer-reviewed articles referencing dengue–poverty relationships, only 12 English-language studies empirically assessed these relationships. Our analysis covering various social and economic conditions of poverty showed no clear associations with dengue rates. While nine of the 12 studies demonstrated some positive associations between measures of dengue and poverty (measured inconsistently through income, education, structural housing condition, overcrowding, and socioeconomic status), nine also presented null results and five with negative results. Of the five studies relating to access to water and sanitation, four reported null associations. Income and physical housing conditions were more consistently correlated with dengue outcomes than other poverty indicators. The small size of this sample, and the heterogeneity of measures and scales used to capture conditions of poverty, make it difficult to assess the strength and consistency of associations between various poverty indicators and dengue outcomes. At present, the global body of eligible English-language peer-reviewed literature investigating dengue–poverty relationships is too small to support a definitive relationship. We conclude that more research, particularly using standardized measures of both outcomes and indicators, is needed to support evidence-informed policies and approaches. PMID:25546339

  13. Poverty and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Juan Sanabria Landazábal

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay there is argued that the notions ofpoverty, development, quality of life and, in general, all the concepts, variables and indicators used in the explanations and theories on this type, are different points of view from the observers' interests,of the same and only social phenomenon. Therefore,there are multiple works on poverty and development. However, an approximation from the perspective of complexity must bear in mind that the development may refer to the social structure as a whole, and to the actions that modify context of the system, just when it has been ordered through the science in order to explain the reality. Therefore,there is a clase relation between poverty and development. These are different ways to see the same phenomenon, which allow us to think about the life quality from a global sense.

  14. Social evils, poverty & health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

    2007-10-01

    There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all.

  15. Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Augsburg, B.; Haas, R; Harmgart, H.; Meghir, C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We use an RCT to analyze the impact of microcredit on poverty reduction. The study population consists of loan applicants to a large microfinance institution in Bosnia and Herzegovina who would have been rejected through regular screening. Access to credit allowed borrowers to start and expand small-scale businesses. THe re is little evidence that this lead to net increases in household income. Households that already had a business and where the borrower had more education, ran dow...

  16. Microfinance, Poverty and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Britta Augsburg; Ralph de Haas; Heike Harmgart; Costas Meghir

    2012-01-01

    We use an RCT to analyze the impact of microcredit on poverty reduction, child and teenage labour supply, and education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study population consists of loan applicants that regular screening would have marginally rejected. Access to credit allowed borrowers to start and expand small-scale businesses. Households that already had a business and where the borrower had more education, ran down savings, presumably to complement the loan and achieve the minimum investmen...

  17. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...

  18. [Inequality, poverty and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Silva, Aline Elizabeth; Rodrigues, Chrystiellen Ayana Aparecida; Nunes, Nádia Lúcia Almeida; Vigato, Tássia Cassimiro; Magalhães, Rosana

    2010-06-01

    National studies have been demonstrating the positive relationship among inequality, poverty and obesity revealing the singularities and complexity of the nutritional transition in Brazil. In this direction, the women constitute a vulnerable group to the dynamics of the obesity in the poverty context. Such fact imposes the theoretical deepening and the accomplishment of researches that make possible a larger approach with the phenomenon in subject. In this perspective, the study analyzed the daily life of poor and obese women, users of basic units of health of the city of Diamantina, Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais State. The results revealed the complex relationship between feminine obesity and poverty. The cultural and material aspects of life, as well as the different feeding and body conceptions that demonstrated to be fundamental elements for the analysis of the multiple faces of the obesity among the investigated group. Facing these results it is appropriate to encourage public policies that promote equity widening the access of those groups to the main resources for the prevention and combat of obesity.

  19. General Overview On Poverty: The Sample of OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan YÜKSEL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, as a significant threat to humans all over the world, has been enhancing because of the fact that there has been a strong inequality of the income rates. In this economic system, the poor becomes poorer and the rich becomes richer and the difference between these two groups has become absolute. On the other hand, the international organizations are not effective enough to solve the problem of poverty. In this context, the main aim of the study is to have a look at the general overview of poverty by means of OECD countries and to come to a certain as well as concrete resolutions on its prevention.

  20. Impact of Poverty on Black Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeocha, Peter A.

    1976-01-01

    Defines some dimensions of poverty, determines the scope and consequences of poverty in an affluent society to its black youths, reviews the existing strategies to combat poverty, examines a number of the major characteristics of poverty (as different from poverty in less affluent societies) and suggests other ways and means of alleviating and…

  1. On the Poverty in the Rocky Desertification Areas of Southwest China Based on AHP: A Case Study of Liupanshui City in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin; ZHU; Xiaodong; REN

    2014-01-01

    Karst rocky desertification mountain areas are regarded as main positions to wipe out poverty for their large poverty population,wide poverty area,high rate of poverty,etc. This paper takes Liupanshui city as an example where the situation of rocky desertification is very serious. We build the indicator system of poverty alleviation and development by analyzing their poverty and using the AHP method and also find the limiting factors which restrict the development of this area then put forward the recommendations to alleviate poverty.

  2. Rural poverty and development in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, F

    1981-07-01

    Rural poverty in West Malaysia during the 1957-1970 period is examined. The period covered was 1 of a high rate of growth combined with an increasing inequality of income and worsening poverty. During the 1955-1970 period, a large amount of development funds, manpower, and expertise was directed towards a reduction of West Malaysia's rural poverty. Despite these efforts, rural poverty increased. Over the period under review, the share of income going to the richest 20% of the population increased from 50% to 56%; the share going to the middle 20% of the population remained constant at 20%; the poorest 60% of the population saw their share of income decline from 30% to 24%. The poorest 40% of the population received only 11.6% of income in 1970. They were predominantly rural, with this sector accounting for 87% of all poverty. The 3 development plans of this period set high aggregate growth rates as the primary targets and emphasized productivity and income in the rural sector. Rural development has not been sold short; the total funding figure of $2,209.46 million represents 40% of all development spending between 1956 and 1970. The money funded 3 broad areas of rural development: replanting of smallholder rubber with high-yielding clones; increasing rice production; and opening new land. The strategy has been to concentrate upon raising the yields from existing farmland and expanding into new areas of settlement. The problem of dealing with poverty in West Malaysia was made worse by the rapid rate of population increase. The population increase of 1,657,000 was absorbed into the traditional smallholder sector, very largely in exisitng areas of settlement. Over the same period, the modern sector of agriculture, the rubber estates, reduced their labor force by 30,000 as they moved into the cultivation of oil palm, a crop requiring less labor. Some of the additional agricultural workers were placed on new land under government land-development and resettlement

  3. Dynamics of poverty in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses issues related to the dynamics of income poverty using unique household panel data for urban and rural areas of Ethiopia covering the period 1994-97. The percentage of households that remained in poverty was twice as large in urban areas as in rural areas. This suggests that income variability is a serious problem in rural areas, while the persistence is a key feature of urban poverty. The paper also discusses household characteristics that are correlated with the inciden...

  4. Poverty - A Source of Conflict,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-25

    contend that poor coun- tries are likely to attack richer ones for the spoils of war, but rather that poverty is a breeding ground for instability. He...Studies Institute v POVERTY - A SOURCE OF CONFLICT The rich get richer; the poor get poorer. As this rule has applied to individuals, it has apparently...problems. These problems resulting from poverty create a dangerous threat to the stability of the world. This does not mean that poor countries will

  5. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-08-15

    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  6. Rethinking the measures of poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Sallila, Seppo; Hiilamo, Heikki; Sund, Reijo

    2004-01-01

    This study attempts to introduce a new method to measure relative income poverty. The aim is to find a solution which will combine information both on the depth of poverty and the quantity of the poor, i.e. the number of people living in poverty. Furthermore, a yardstick is sought which would be relatively simple and easy to understand, as these properties would facilitate the use of the new method in sociological poverty research and political decision making. The paper begins by discussing ...

  7. More Poor Kids in More Poor Places: Children Increasingly Live where Poverty Persists. Issue Brief Number 38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Marybeth J.; Johnson, Kenneth M.; Schaefer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this brief examine child poverty rates using decennial census data from 1980, 1990, and 2000, as well as American Community Survey five-year estimates between 2005 and 2009, to identify those counties where child poverty has persisted. They find persistent child poverty in nearly twice as many U.S. counties as those that report high…

  8. Oh Canada! Too many children in poverty for too long.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Laurel

    2007-10-01

    Despite continued economic growth, Canada's record on child poverty is worse than it was in 1989, when the House of Commons unanimously resolved to end child poverty by the year 2000. Most recent data indicate that nearly 1.2 million children - almost one of every six children - live in low-income households. Campaign 2000 contends that poverty and income inequality are major barriers to the healthy development of children, the cohesion of our communities and, ultimately, to the social and economic well-being of Canada. Canada needs to adopt a poverty-reduction strategy that responds to the UNICEF challenge to establish credible targets and timetables to bring the child poverty rate well below 10%, as other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations have done. Campaign 2000 calls on the federal government to develop a cross-Canada poverty-reduction strategy in conjunction with the provinces, territories and First Nations, and in consultation with low-income people. This strategy needs to include good jobs at living wages that ensure that full-time work is a pathway out of poverty; an effective child benefit of $5,100 that is indexed; a system of affordable, universally accessible early learning and child care services available to all families irrespective of employment status; an affordable housing program that creates more affordable housing and helps to sustain existing stock; and affordable and accessible postsecondary education and training programs that prepare youth and adults for employment leading to economic independence.

  9. The effects of poverty on child health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, J L; Bennett, N G; Conley, D C; Li, J

    1997-01-01

    Poverty has been shown to negatively influence child health and development along a number of dimensions. For example, poverty-net of a variety of potentially confounding factors-is associated with increased neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates, greater risk of injuries resulting from accidents or physical abuse/neglect, higher risk for asthma, and lower developmental scores in a range of tests at multiple ages. Despite the extensive literature available that addresses the relationship between poverty and child health and development, as yet there is no consensus on how poverty should be operationalized to reflect its dynamic nature. Perhaps more important is the lack of agreement on the set of controls that should be included in the modeling of this relationship in order to determine the "true" or net effect of poverty, independent of its cofactors. In this paper, we suggest a general model that should be adhered to when investigating the effects of poverty on children. We propose a standard set of controls and various measures of poverty that should be incorporated in any study, when possible.

  10. Poverty in New York City, 1969-99: the influence of demographic change, income growth, and income inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Mark K. Levitan; Susan S. Wieler

    2008-01-01

    The four-year rise in the U.S. poverty rate that began with the 2001 recession and the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina has sparked renewed interest in poverty among researchers and policymakers. Policies for addressing poverty are influenced by perceptions of its causes. Accordingly, this article evaluates the impact of several purported causes of poverty in New York City. Using decennial census data for 1970-2000, the authors employ simulations and a decomposition framework to investigate the...

  11. Multidimensional poverty measure and analysis: a case study from Hechi City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Baixue

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the anti-poverty outline of China and the human-environment sustainable development, we propose a multidimensional poverty measure and analysis methodology for measuring the poverty-stricken counties and their contributing factors. We build a set of multidimensional poverty indicators with Chinese characteristics, integrating A-F double cutoffs, dimensional aggregation and decomposition approach, and GIS spatial analysis to evaluate the poor's multidimensional poverty characteristics under different geographic and socioeconomic conditions. The case study from 11 counties of Hechi City shows that, firstly, each county existed at least four respects of poverty, and overall the poverty level showed the spatial pattern of surrounding higher versus middle lower. Secondly, three main poverty contributing factors were unsafe housing, family health and adults' illiteracy, while the secondary factors include fuel type and children enrollment rate, etc., generally demonstrating strong autocorrelation; in terms of poverty degree, the western of the research area shows a significant aggregation effect, whereas the central and the eastern represent significant spatial heterogeneous distribution. Thirdly, under three kinds of socioeconomic classifications, the intra-classification diversities of H, A, and MPI are greater than their inter-classification ones, while each of the three indexes has a positive correlation with both the rocky desertification degree and topographic fragmentation degree, respectively. This study could help policymakers better understand the local poverty by identifying the poor, locating them and describing their characteristics, so as to take differentiated poverty alleviation measures according to specific conditions of each county.

  12. An International Inquiry: Stories of Poverty--Poverty Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2017-01-01

    This article features an international inquiry of two high-poverty urban schools, one Canadian and one American. The article examines poverty in terms of "small stories" that educators and students live and tell, often on the edges, unheard and unaccounted for in grand narratives. It also expands the story constellations approach to…

  13. The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

  14. The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

  15. An International Inquiry: Stories of Poverty--Poverty Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2017-01-01

    This article features an international inquiry of two high-poverty urban schools, one Canadian and one American. The article examines poverty in terms of "small stories" that educators and students live and tell, often on the edges, unheard and unaccounted for in grand narratives. It also expands the story constellations approach to…

  16. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  17. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  18. Poverty and Development——Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全辉霞

    2008-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the developing countries have made remarkable progress, but they feel that rapid economic growth has failed to eliminate the widespread absolute poverty except China. In order to fight against poverty, Chinese government has adopted a few measures.

  19. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  20. Measuring Chronic Non-Income Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Günther, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    An increasing interest in poverty dynamics has lately also led to an extensive literature on the analysis of chronic poverty. Based on Amartya Sen?s groundbreaking work on capabilities and functionings static poverty measures have long used non-income indicators. In contrast, measures of poverty dynamics - including chronic poverty – have in general conceptualised poverty only in an income dimension. Hence, this paper first critically discusses the conceptual and empirical potentials and limi...

  1. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  2. Poverty and Human Rights: New Direction in Poverty Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pihri Buhaerah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to support the argument that poverty is multidimensional and part of human rights concern. In doing so, this paper uses relevant literature review on poverty issues. This paper finds that the capability approach is a useful conceptual framework to link conventional approach with human rights and support the argument that poverty is multidimensional. Under this perspective, there are two prerequisites cases of non-fulfillment of human rights can be counted as poverty, namely (i the human rights involved must be those that correspond to the capabilities that are considered basic by a given society; and (ii inadequate command over economic resources must play a role in the causal chain leading to the non-fulfillment of human rights. Furthermore, there are three different ways in which human rights can be relevant to poverty: constitutive relevance, instrumental relevance, and constraint-based relevance.

  3. Protected areas and poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  4. Poverty reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Paul

    2007-10-23

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid.

  5. Poverty alleviation project review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braun, AL

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Braun_2003.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4851 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Braun_2003.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 www.csir.co.za CSIR Poverty Alleviation..., Carding, Roving, Yarn formation Manufacturing (SMME): Knitting / Weaving CASHMERE IS KING Stakeholder: Dept. of Science and Technology Funders of the Cashmere Project Role Players: Get the buy-in and determine roles of each • Department...

  6. Gender, poverty and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chhachhi (Amrita); T-D. Truong (Thanh-Dam)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractViews on poverty are deeply rooted in cultural frameworks about the human condition shaped by histories. In the debate on modernity, perspectives on poverty oscillate between: a) making the poor -- their "morals" and "culture" -- responsible for their own situation and b) positioning the

  7. Gender, poverty and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chhachhi (Amrita); T-D. Truong (Thanh-Dam)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractViews on poverty are deeply rooted in cultural frameworks about the human condition shaped by histories. In the debate on modernity, perspectives on poverty oscillate between: a) making the poor -- their "morals" and "culture" -- responsible for their own situation and b) positioning the

  8. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, Patricio; Gonzalez Jimenez, Victor; Noussair, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We study whether poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared t

  9. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We study whether exposure to poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared to subjects assigned to a control treatment. Questionnaire responses, as well as facial recognition software, provide quantitative measures of the affective state evoked by the two treatments. Subjects exposed to images of poverty experience a more negative affective state than those in the control treatment. Further analysis shows that individuals in a more positive emotional state exhibit less of a treatment effect. Also, those who exhibit greater attentiveness upon viewing the poverty video are less productive. The results are consistent with the notion that exposure to poverty can induce a psychological state in individuals that adversely affects productivity. PMID:28125621

  10. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Patricio S; Gonzalez Jimenez, Victor H; Noussair, Charles N

    2017-01-01

    We study whether exposure to poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared to subjects assigned to a control treatment. Questionnaire responses, as well as facial recognition software, provide quantitative measures of the affective state evoked by the two treatments. Subjects exposed to images of poverty experience a more negative affective state than those in the control treatment. Further analysis shows that individuals in a more positive emotional state exhibit less of a treatment effect. Also, those who exhibit greater attentiveness upon viewing the poverty video are less productive. The results are consistent with the notion that exposure to poverty can induce a psychological state in individuals that adversely affects productivity.

  11. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  12. Analysis on Temporal and Spatial Changes and Driving Forces of Poverty-Stricken Areas in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xiaoli; Yuan Jinguo; Wang Wei

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes poverty-stricken county as the basic unit, and selects net income per peasant to study the poverty status in Hebei Province during 1986~2000.Temporal and spatial changes of povertystricken areas are analyzed. The result shows that poverty-stricken areas in Hebei Province distributed concentratedly and the areas decreased during 1986~2000, the net income per peasant was on the rise with an increasing speed in off-poverty counties being slightly higher than that in poverty-stricken counties, but the growth rate was extremely unstable,rising slowly in off-poverty counties while dropping in poverty-stricken counties. The main driving forces that influenced temporal and spatial changes were economic development of the whole province,ecological environment quality, infrastructure conditions and radiation of the key city. On this basis, some anti-poverty countermeasures suitable to local conditions are proposed.

  13. Neglected infections of poverty in Texas and the rest of the United States: management and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M A; Bezek, S; Serpa, J A; Hotez, P J; Woc-Colburn, L

    2012-08-01

    In the poorest regions of the United States, especially along the Gulf Coast and in South Texas, are a group of endemic parasitic and related infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Such infections are characterized by their chronicity, disabling features, and disproportionate impact on the estimated 46 million people who live below the U.S. poverty line. Today more Americans live in poverty than ever before in the half-century that the Census Bureau has been recording poverty rates. In association with that poverty, a group of major neglected infections of poverty have emerged in the United States. Here we describe the major neglected infections of poverty in the United States, with a brief overview of their significant epidemiological features, their links with poverty, and our approaches to their diagnosis, management, and treatment.

  14. Poverty risk among older immigrants in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2016-01-01

    Focus in the paper is on poverty among immigrants and refugees 50 years and older coming to Denmark from countries outside the OECD, with main emphasis on immigrants coming as guest workers before 1974, as refugees and as family members and marriage partners – tied movers – relative to individuals...... where you become eligible for State pension. Poverty rates by national background are described using alternative household concepts. Next, a number of background factors of relevance for poverty are summarized. We focus on age, gender, marital status, occupational status at age 55 and duration...... of residence. We find major differences between migrant groups and between migrants and natives regarding how income is composed at different ages on market income, pensions and benefits. Next, we present a number of regressions aiming at explaining differences in the poverty risk with differences in a number...

  15. Look both ways: mainstreaming biodiversity and poverty reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Steve; Roe, Dilys; Smith, Jessica

    2010-10-15

    The world's failure to meet its 2010 target to significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss demonstrates that conservation efforts have so far been insufficient. They are too often undermined by seemingly more pressing economic and poverty goals — despite the frequent correlation of high biodiversity with high incidence of poverty. But it shouldn't be a competition. Biodiversity and poverty reduction are intrinsically linked and demand an integrated approach. The Convention on Biological Diversity has long emphasised the need for integrating, or 'mainstreaming', biodiversity into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies, most recently in its new Strategic Plan. Lessons learnt from wider experience of environmental mainstreaming can help parties to the Convention achieve this target in practice — they point to a six-step plan for the task.

  16. Brazil: from reduction of poverty to a commitment to eradicate extreme poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Lavinas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to summarise certain positive results achieved by the Lula government in the sphere of social policy and to highlight the new challenges taken on by President Dilma Rousseff in terms of eradicating extreme poverty, after her first year in government. After Lula’s success with social policy, Rousseff has committed herself to eradicating extreme poverty over the short term (the four years of her mandate in a federation that is marked by weak links in cooperation, a distinct heterogeneity within the federated bodies and profound socio-economic inequality among citizens. Under Lula’s government, the factors that most helped to reduce poverty and inequality were the recovery of the minimum salary’s real value in rates higher than that of inflation, as well as an increase in formal employment, with the creation of approximately 12,000,000 jobs in eight years. For Dilma’s term of office, which began with a downturn in economic growth rates, an even bigger challenge lies ahead. In light of this, the article evaluates the prospects for success of Dilma’s government in terms of eradicating extreme poverty in Brazil.

  17. The international child poverty gap: does demography matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuveline, Patrick; Weinshenker, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    According to the Luxembourg Income Study data, the U.S. child poverty rate is the second highest among 15 high-income nations. The present work reveals that 55% of all American children living in a household headed by a single female with no other adult present live in poverty-the highest rate for any of the five living arrangements in the 15 countries examined in this study. While previous analyses have focused on market forces and governmental redistribution across households, we question the contribution of demographic factors that place children in family structures with different poverty risks relative to other factors such as differential market opportunities and governmental benefits for adults caring for children in various living arrangements. Applying a classic demographic decomposition technique to the overall poverty gap, we find that the distributional effect of demographic behavior contributes little to the U.S. poverty gap with other nations (and none with respect to the United Kingdom). Overall differences in labor markets and welfare schemes best explain the U.S. child poverty gap, although for some countries, the gap is accentuated by the gradient of governmental transfers, and for most countries, by the gradient of market earnings across living arrangements.

  18. Is globalization reducing poverty and inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Robert Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years or so, India, China, and the rest of East Asia experienced fast economic growth and falls in the poverty rate, Latin America stagnated, and the former Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa regressed. But what are the net trends? The neoliberal argument says that world poverty and income inequality fell over the past two decades for the first time in more than a century and a half, thanks to the rising density of economic integration across national borders. The evidence therefore confirms that globalization in the context of the world economic regime in place since the end of Bretton Woods generates more "mutual benefit" than "conflicting interests." This article questions the empirical basis of the neoliberal argument.

  19. Poverty eradication and decreased human papilloma virus related cancer of the penis and vulva in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, H M; Hanchard, B

    2008-04-01

    Human papilloma virus causes genital cancers. Decreases in cervical cancer have been reported to be due to comprehensive screening programmes difficult to replicate in poorer countries. HPV cancer may be related to poverty. In Jamaica, we have seen decreases in cancer of the penis and vulva and there has also been a decrease in poverty. The decrease cannot be attributed to screening. We believe elimination of poverty has decreased HPV persistence and decreased cancer rates.

  20. The persistence of income poverty and life-style deprivation: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Devicienti; Valentina Gualtieri; Mariacristina Rossi

    2011-01-01

    This article estimates poverty persistence over an individual's lifetime, using two definitions: income poverty and a multidimensional index of life-style deprivation. We stressed the ability of the two definitions to provide a generally consistent characterization of poverty persistence risks faced by various population subgroups, but also the additional insights to be gained by analyzing the two definitions in parallel in a longitudinal context. The results of multiple-spell hazard rate mod...

  1. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulina, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N = 675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls foll...

  2. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.

  3. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Douglas F. [Senior Energy Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Khandker, Shahidur R. [Lead Economist, Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Samad, Hussain A. [Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. (author)

  4. The Effects of Global Interaction on Poverty in Developing Countries, 1991-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While previous studies have examined the impact of globalization on a myriad of welfare outcomes in developing countries, the effect of cross-national exchanges on extreme poverty remains unexplored. Poverty has declined substantially during this most recent wave of globalization, suggesting that cross-border relations may be partially responsible. We test this proposition by estimating the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI, trade openness, and the presence of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs on poverty, measured at both the $1.25-a-day (extreme poverty level, and the $2.50-a-day (moderate poverty level, net of domestic conditions. Using a sample of 114 developing countries over five waves of data collected from 1991 to 2005, results from random effects models show that FDI exhibits a positive relationship with poverty at the $1.25 and $2.50 levels, while trade openness demonstrates a negative relationship with both extreme and moderate poverty. Once domestic conditions are controlled, INGO participation fails to demonstrate a significant effect on poverty at either level. Among domestic variables, economic growth and fertility rate affect poverty at the $1.25 level, while growth and domestic investment demonstrate an effect at the $2.50 level. These findings confirm that global interaction by poor countries influences poverty reduction within these countries, but in different directions.

  5. Popular perceptions of poverty in Dutch society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, L.C.J.M.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Studies on poverty are mainly engaged with the definition and measurement of poverty, while the issue of what people consider reasons for living in need is often neglected. In this article we explore four types of poverty explanations based on a) the distinction between poverty as a matter of fate

  6. Growth, poverty and chronic poverty in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from 15 Communities 1994-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercon, S.; Hoddinott, J.; Woldehanna, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines growth, poverty and chronic poverty in 15 Ethiopian villages between 1994 and 2004. Growth and poverty reduction in these communities was substantial; headcount poverty fell from 48 to 35 percent. However, there is also movement in and out of poverty over this period and a

  7. Growth, poverty and chronic poverty in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from 15 Communities 1994-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercon, S.; Hoddinott, J.; Woldehanna, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines growth, poverty and chronic poverty in 15 Ethiopian villages between 1994 and 2004. Growth and poverty reduction in these communities was substantial; headcount poverty fell from 48 to 35 percent. However, there is also movement in and out of poverty over this period and a signif

  8. Vaccines against poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

    2014-08-26

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented.

  9. Inequality, Poverty, Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the economic connections of globalization, the roots of this phenomenon and its implications for presence. In the 70´, the economic bases of developed countries started changing. Since then the economic power of transnational corporations has risen. The TNCs change the international division of labor and divide the production cycle in an unprecedented manner. The economic sovereignty of countries weakens. All these factors influence the position of labor and consequently phenomena like unemployment, poverty and uncertainty. Since the 70´s the wage share, one of the most important macroeconomic indicators, has started sinking in developed contries. This means that a higher proportion of output goes to capital, i.e. to profits. Unemployment in developed countries has also changed its form since the 70´s – it has become structural and long-term one. Forms of precarious labor increase significantly and in the developed countries (especially obviously in the US the phenomenon of working poverty appears. Hand in hand with these phenomena goes the increase in inequality, of all developed countries again mostly in the US. The implications are not only social, such as the preservation of elite, i.e. the tendency towards oligarchization and decrease in social mobility. These implications are also connected with the debt phenomenon, which serves as a factor of discipline and system preservation, or respectively the postponement of weakened purchasing power of the lower and middle income classes. The rise in insecurity and the impossibility to identify oneself with the job has its political implications as well. In the context of reflecting the problem itself it takes form of various social protests (such as Occupy Wall Street, but also can be shown in the rise of various xenophobe and extreme right movements that destabilize the whole political system, including doubting the regime of democracy as such.

  10. Assessing poverty: some reflections on the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, B

    1995-11-01

    "This paper examines the quantitative poverty measurement literature. After describing the literature a number of issues in poverty research are discussed. It can be concluded that the framework for poverty assessments is not always fixed. Much has been written about the poverty line but the issue of updating it seems to have attracted less attention than deserved. Substantial advancements in poverty research have been gained by fuller reports on the extent of poverty through the use of poverty indices and because of increased availability of panel data."

  11. Poverty, disease, and the ecology of complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Pluciński, Mateusz M; Murray, Megan B; Farmer, Paul E; Barrett, Christopher B; Keenan, Donald C; Bonds, Matthew H

    2014-04-01

    Understanding why some human populations remain persistently poor remains a significant challenge for both the social and natural sciences. The extremely poor are generally reliant on their immediate natural resource base for subsistence and suffer high rates of mortality due to parasitic and infectious diseases. Economists have developed a range of models to explain persistent poverty, often characterized as poverty traps, but these rarely account for complex biophysical processes. In this Essay, we argue that by coupling insights from ecology and economics, we can begin to model and understand the complex dynamics that underlie the generation and maintenance of poverty traps, which can then be used to inform analyses and possible intervention policies. To illustrate the utility of this approach, we present a simple coupled model of infectious diseases and economic growth, where poverty traps emerge from nonlinear relationships determined by the number of pathogens in the system. These nonlinearities are comparable to those often incorporated into poverty trap models in the economics literature, but, importantly, here the mechanism is anchored in core ecological principles. Coupled models of this sort could be usefully developed in many economically important biophysical systems--such as agriculture, fisheries, nutrition, and land use change--to serve as foundations for deeper explorations of how fundamental ecological processes influence structural poverty and economic development.

  12. Mapping poverty using mobile phone and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Carla; Bjelland, Johannes; Iqbal, Asif M.; Hadiuzzaman, Khandakar N.; Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Poverty is one of the most important determinants of adverse health outcomes globally, a major cause of societal instability and one of the largest causes of lost human potential. Traditional approaches to measuring and targeting poverty rely heavily on census data, which in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are unavailable or out-of-date. Alternate measures are needed to complement and update estimates between censuses. This study demonstrates how public and private data sources that are commonly available for LMICs can be used to provide novel insight into the spatial distribution of poverty. We evaluate the relative value of modelling three traditional poverty measures using aggregate data from mobile operators and widely available geospatial data. Taken together, models combining these data sources provide the best predictive power (highest r2 = 0.78) and lowest error, but generally models employing mobile data only yield comparable results, offering the potential to measure poverty more frequently and at finer granularity. Stratifying models into urban and rural areas highlights the advantage of using mobile data in urban areas and different data in different contexts. The findings indicate the possibility to estimate and continually monitor poverty rates at high spatial resolution in countries with limited capacity to support traditional methods of data collection. PMID:28148765

  13. The effects of poverty on children's development and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Marcio A

    2012-01-01

    According to the US Census Bureau, the poverty rate for children under 18 years of age increased to 22% in 2010. Poverty leads to adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents such as harmful effects on learning, psychosocial development, physical health, productivity and family life. Because the citizens and residents of a country are its most valuable assets, it is unwise to allow housing instability, food insecurity and hunger to continue to exist at its current levels. Reducing poverty is likely to prevent illnesses, decrease hospitalizations, and lead to lower health care costs. There is also a need for intervention strategies to ensure equitable access to healthy foods across the world. Children who are food insecure are more likely to be in poor health and to have poor nutritional outcomes. Poverty may lead to poor dental health due to malnutrition or incorrect diet and it may also have an effect on the child's behavior in the dental office. An understanding of poverty will lessen the anger, frustration and prejudice that pediatric dentists may feel when working with low-income families. This manuscript presents a concise overview of the effects of poverty in children's lives.

  14. Mapping poverty using mobile phone and satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jessica E; Sundsøy, Pål Roe; Pezzulo, Carla; Alegana, Victor A; Bird, Tomas J; Blumenstock, Joshua; Bjelland, Johannes; Engø-Monsen, Kenth; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Iqbal, Asif M; Hadiuzzaman, Khandakar N; Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Tatem, Andrew J; Bengtsson, Linus

    2017-02-01

    Poverty is one of the most important determinants of adverse health outcomes globally, a major cause of societal instability and one of the largest causes of lost human potential. Traditional approaches to measuring and targeting poverty rely heavily on census data, which in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are unavailable or out-of-date. Alternate measures are needed to complement and update estimates between censuses. This study demonstrates how public and private data sources that are commonly available for LMICs can be used to provide novel insight into the spatial distribution of poverty. We evaluate the relative value of modelling three traditional poverty measures using aggregate data from mobile operators and widely available geospatial data. Taken together, models combining these data sources provide the best predictive power (highest r(2) = 0.78) and lowest error, but generally models employing mobile data only yield comparable results, offering the potential to measure poverty more frequently and at finer granularity. Stratifying models into urban and rural areas highlights the advantage of using mobile data in urban areas and different data in different contexts. The findings indicate the possibility to estimate and continually monitor poverty rates at high spatial resolution in countries with limited capacity to support traditional methods of data collection. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Disparities in Diabetes: The Nexus of Race, Poverty, and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J.; McGinty, Emma E.; Bower, Kelly; Rohde, Charles; Young, J. Hunter; LaVeist, Thomas A.; Dubay, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the role of neighborhood poverty and racial composition on race disparities in diabetes prevalence. Methods. We used data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2000 US Census to estimate the impact of individual race and poverty and neighborhood racial composition and poverty concentration on the odds of having diabetes. Results. We found a race–poverty–place gradient for diabetes prevalence for Blacks and poor Whites. The odds of having diabetes were higher for Blacks than for Whites. Individual poverty increased the odds of having diabetes for both Whites and Blacks. Living in a poor neighborhood increased the odds of having diabetes for Blacks and poor Whites. Conclusions. To address race disparities in diabetes, policymakers should address problems created by concentrated poverty (e.g., lack of access to reasonably priced fruits and vegetables, recreational facilities, and health care services; high crime rates; and greater exposures to environmental toxins). Housing and development policies in urban areas should avoid creating high-poverty neighborhoods. PMID:24228660

  16. Freedom and poverty in the fishery commons

    OpenAIRE

    Svein Jentoft; Paul Onyango; Mohammad Mahmudul Islam

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In fisheries, alleviating poverty sometimes requires strategies that are inherently in conflict. When aiming to develop a fishery as a means to reduce poverty, its common pool resource basis might be undermined, resulting in greater poverty. But poverty in fisheries is also linked to, or a part of deeper social issues and processes, for instance, the marginalization and exclusion of certain communities. Poverty also has many factors— income, health, literacy, gender, power, sec...

  17. The reoccurance of pre-welfare state poverty profiles in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    2011-01-01

    . However immigrants and descendants are facing a pre-welfare state poverty risk profile with very high poverty rates among children, families and old age. In context the economical crisis has several consequences. One is regarding the possibilities to prevent poverty through increased public spending. Most......This abstract is addressing the conference theme “Welfare and professionalism in Turbulent Times – where are we now and where are we heading” focusing on the development of poverty and inequality exemplified by the development in a larger city in Denmark. The Danish welfare state with emphasis...... on universalism, progressive taxation and extensive social benefits is often regarded to perform well at preventing poverty problems and inequality (Goul Andersen 2003). Comparative research shows Denmark and the Nordic welfare states as countries with low levels of poverty and inequality (OECD 2008, Fritzell...

  18. Poverty variations among the elderly: the roles of income security policies and family co-residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Lisa; Boyd, Monica

    2011-03-01

    Despite a rapid overall decline in poverty among older people since the 1970s, poverty among elderly immigrants is persistently high in Canada. Using data from the 2006 Canadian Census of Population, this article presents results of a study on the poverty of elderly immigrants in comparison to the Canadian-born elderly population. Results from logistic regression analysis suggest that a large portion of the higher poverty rates among elderly immigrants can be explained by the lack or inadequacy of state income support. Nevertheless, the high poverty levels among elderly immigrants are mitigated by financial assistance from their kin. This article concludes by highlighting the role of family support as a coping strategy for escaping poverty and by assessing two mechanisms of state intervention that could improve the economic well-being of elderly immigrants.

  19. Global justice, poverty and maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor de María Cáceres M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Global justice is currently situated in an ambiance of tension and debate, facing a series of statements attempting to explain relationships among countries, based on the background of agreements already accomplished by supranational agencies. This network of relationships, not always fair nor equitable, has resulted in an increased accumulation of wealth in just a few hands and poverty in a growing number of people in poor countries and geographic areas with restrictions to access both to resources and to technological and scientific advances. Poverty, exclusion and inequalities limit all together the opportunities for development in these communities, with the outcome of serious consequences such as the deterioration in basic indicators of development. Maternal mortality rate (mm is considered a sentinel indicator since it belongs in most cases to premature deaths which would be avoidable through proper measures in education, health promotion and timely access to quality health services. The purpose of this essay is to defend the thesis that the lack of global justice has limited the scope of the goals related to poverty and mm reduction

  20. The face of energy poverty in Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, T. [McQuesten Legal and Community Services, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    In 1907, Hamilton, Ontario was known as the electric city, where jobs were plentiful and where the cheapest hydro power in the world was produced. This presentation stated that currently, Hamilton which faces one of the highest poverty rates in the province of Ontario, with 96,000 residents living below the low income cutoff. Heat and hydro costs have escalated and have driven more Hamiltonians into deep poverty. Several quotes from residents were presented along with photographs to illustrate the situation. A graph depicting poverty by age demographics was also provided. The presentation emphasized that there is a need for a housing emergency loan program and a utility arrears program for the City of Hamilton, as many tenants are struggling to survive without heat, gas or electricity. The presentation concluded that Hamilton is in need of an effective heat strategy during the summer cooling months because senior citizens, persons with disabilities and families living in low-income, poorly ventilated housing are particularly at risk during an extreme heat event. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. DO FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS DECREASE POVERTY? EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC CENSUS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

  2. Major parasitic diseases of poverty in mainland China: perspectives for better control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Huang, Si-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Significant progress has been made in the prevention, control, and elimination of human parasitic diseases in China in the past 60 years. However, parasitic diseases of poverty remain major causes of morbidity and mortality, and inflict enormous economic costs on societies.In this article, we review the prevalence rates, geographical distributions, epidemic characteristics, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of parasitic diseases of poverty listed in the first issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty on 25 October 2012. We also address the challenges facing control of parasitic diseases of poverty and provide suggestions for better control.

  3. Child Poverty and the Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty.

  4. Determinant of Poverty in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    Teshome Kebede and M. K. Sharma: Determinant of Poverty in Ethiopia. 114. 1. ... share of the population that is multidimensional poor, adjusted by the intensity ... nutrition, as well as clothing, housing and health care and education that can.

  5. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical ..... mansions, flats – whatever materials, technologies, skills, or functional ideas .... Although many people have an intuitive understanding of what the ...

  6. Poverty determinants in Isla Grande

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William Orlando Prieto Bustos

    2011-01-01

      This document contrasts the estimations of a nonlinear fixed effects model for determining poverty with a linear fixed event model for income generation for a sample of 136 persons using data panels for 2007 and 2009...

  7. Reflections on"Higher Exposure Rate"of Poverty-Strick-en Students in College Financial Support Work%关于高校资助工作中贫困学生“高曝光率”问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雨茜

    2013-01-01

    College poverty-stricken students, as a special group, are attracting more and more national and social attention, which is embodied in college financial support mode. However, in addi-tion to its role in promoting the strength of financial support and alleviating college poverty-stricken students' economic pressure, the present method of financial support with high exposure rate as the characteristics also increase some poverty-stricken students' spiritual and psychological pressure and develop some students' habit of dependence. How to help poverty-stricken students ac-complish their academic career and grow healthily on the premise of protecting and respecting their personal life and privacy is an issue worthy of deep consideration and research.%高校贫困生作为高校中的特殊群体,不断得到国家和社会的关注。高校助困模式的不断发展显示出国家和社会对高校贫困生问题的重视。但是,我国目前以高曝光率为特征的助困方式,一方面促进了经济助困力度的加强,缓解了高校贫困生的经济压力;另一方面带来新的问题:有的贫困生增加了精神或心理压力、有的贫困生养成了依赖习惯等等。如何在帮助贫困学生完成学业健康成长的同时,保护好贫困学生的个人生活和隐私受到尊重,值得深入思考和研究。

  8. Human Poverty: a practical and analytical study on Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin Mohamed Ahmed, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The poverty problem is no longer a problem embodied in only one country, or bounded by a certain geographic area. It has become a problem with heavily international concerns. Poverty is a multifaceted phenomenon that outreaches low or no incomes to the so called human poverty. Human poverty is one of the major obstacles to development particularly in the so called least developing countries (LDCs. In this paper, efforts were concentrating on defining the problem of human poverty, its measurement methods and the underlying causes of it in these countries. Empirically and by the use of OLS regression method and cross-sectional data from some poor countries (Human Development Report, 2005, three models tried to tackle the research problem. The first model was a combination of both low and medium income poor countries, the second was medium income and the third was low income poor countries. Among the results of this research is that variables of general expenditure on education and health and the growth rate in total domestic product are major causes of human poverty. Significantly, the results showed that there were very low growth rates levels in total domestic product, very low general expenditures on education and health which indicate serious symptoms of higher human poverty indices. Finally, the study recommends that governments might better concentrate on more expenditure on education and health as a main priority to eradicate all types of poverty particularly the human poverty.

  9. Time on my side? Life course trajectories of poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Peggy; Sacker, Amanda; Wiggins, Richard D

    2005-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between poverty and health in time. Following the argument that time is significant for shaping the experience of being poor or not poor and growing evidence of heterogeneity in long-term patterns of poverty, we investigate whether different kinds of poverty have distinct consequences for long-term health. Using data from the 1968-1996 annual waves of the United States Panel Study of Income Dynamics Data, we estimate a general growth mixture model to assess the relationship between the longitudinal courses of poverty and health. The model allows us to first estimate latent poverty classes in the data and then determine their effects on latent self-rated health. Four types of long-term poverty patterns characterized as stable nonpoor, exiting poverty, entering poverty and stable poor were evident in the data. These different kinds of poverty affected self-rated health trajectories in distinct ways, but worked in concert with age, education and race to create gaps in initial health status that were constant over time.

  10. Neighborhood poverty and kidney transplantation among US Asians and Pacific Islanders with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Y N; O'Hare, A M; Young, B A; Boyko, E J; Chertow, G M

    2008-11-01

    The degree to which low transplant rates among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States are confounded by poverty and reduced access to care is unknown. We examined the relationship between neighborhood poverty and kidney transplant rates among 22 152 patients initiating dialysis during 1995-2003 within 1800 ZIP codes in California, Hawaii and the US-Pacific Islands. Asians and whites on dialysis were distributed across the spectrum of poverty, while Pacific Islanders were clustered in the poorest areas. Overall, worsening neighborhood poverty was associated with lower relative rates of transplant (adjusted HR [95% CI] for areas with > or =20% vs. poverty, 0.41 [0.32-0.53], p poverty, Asians and Pacific Islanders experienced lower transplant rates compared with whites. The degree of disparity increased with worsening neighborhood poverty (adjusted HR [95% CI] for Asians-Pacific Islanders vs. whites, 0.64 [0.51-0.80], p or =20% residents living in poverty; race-poverty level interaction, p = 0.039). High levels of neighborhood poverty are associated with lower transplant rates among Asians and Pacific Islanders compared with whites. Our findings call for studies to identify cultural and local barriers to transplant among Asians and Pacific Islanders, particularly those residing in resource-poor neighborhoods.

  11. Poverty Alleviation and Equity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle, Edwin; Reyes, Celia M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent Philippine data indicate that the needs of the poor, which are met unsatisfactorily, include productive employment, access to quality education, access to basic health services, potable water, sanitation facilities and electricity. This paper emphasizes that eradicating poverty entails effective poverty alleviation strategy as an integral part of the government programs. Strategies should be focused on broad-based economic growth for employment generation and livelihood opportunities. ...

  12. "Culture" and the intergenerational transmission of poverty: the prevention paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jens; Mayer, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Many U.S. policymakers support changing the "culture" of poor parents to encourage marriage, work, and religion as a means to end the intergenerational transmission of poverty. In this article Jens Ludwig and Susan Mayer review and evaluate research on how parental work, marriage, and religion affect children's socioeconomic status as adults, as well as on the likelihood that changing these indicators of parental behavior will reduce poverty in the next generation. They conclude that even if policymakers were able to ensure that all children had married, working, and religious parents, the result would be a far smaller reduction in poverty among the children's generation than many people believe. The explanation for this "poverty-prevention paradox," say Ludwig and Mayer, is that the poverty rate in the children's generation depends not only on how many poor children grow up to be poor adults, but also on how many nonpoor children grow up to be poor adults. Reducing the chances that poor children become poor adults will dramatically lower future poverty rates only if most poor adults begin life as poor children. But most poor adults grow up as nonpoor children in the type of "pro-social" households that policymakers are pushing to attain. Moreover, little good evidence supports the idea that such parental behaviors as marriage, work, and religious adherence have strong causal effects on children's long-term economic success. The authors argue that encouraging positive social behaviors in the parents of poor children is a worthwhile goal in its own right. But they stress that policymakers should recognize the limits of this strategy for reducing poverty among future generations. There may be no substitute for a system of social insurance and income transfers for those children who do wind up poor as adults.

  13. Poverty and Welfare among Rural Female-Headed Families before and after PRWORA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Jensen, Leif

    2001-01-01

    Rural poverty among female-headed families with children has declined since 1996 welfare reforms. Moreover, the income of female-headed families has increased, while income from earnings has more than offset declines in public assistance income. Rural single mothers nevertheless continue to experience higher poverty rates than their urban…

  14. Child Poverty in New Zealand: Why It Matters and How It Can Be Reduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A combination of policy changes and wider socio-economic trends led to a dramatic increase in child poverty in New Zealand during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Higher rates of child poverty have now become embedded in the system and show little sign of resolving themselves. For a country which once took pride in being comparatively egalitarian…

  15. Poverty and Social Developments in Peru, 1994-1997. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    From 1994 to 1997, social welfare improved in Peru. Areas of improvement included decreased poverty and severe poverty rates, increased school attendance and literacy, and a healthier population. Most important among health improvements was reduced malnutrition among young children. Social improvements stemmed from the favorable overall economic…

  16. Child Poverty in New Zealand: Why It Matters and How It Can Be Reduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A combination of policy changes and wider socio-economic trends led to a dramatic increase in child poverty in New Zealand during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Higher rates of child poverty have now become embedded in the system and show little sign of resolving themselves. For a country which once took pride in being comparatively egalitarian…

  17. [Medicine inspired by poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, H

    2000-05-13

    Since his arrival in Egypt in 1994 the author joined a number of archaeological expeditions as a surveyor and part-time physician. During this latter activity he came into contact with the beliefs and practices of the local workmen and those of the Ababda Bedouin in particular. Living a harsh life in the southern part of the Egyptian Eastern Desert, their medicine seems to be inspired by poverty. Widely used for all internal disorders are 'kaya bil-naar': oval scars made with red-hot metal instruments. Another, less common, form of scarification is 'mi'ah-hed'asher', three parallel lines carved deeply into the cheek of the patient. 'Muhawy' is the bite of a snake into the earlobe of the patient, to prevent snake-bites. Another prophylactic is the 'higab', a small leather pouch containing a magical object or text. Therapies for less serious disorders include the use of herbs, spices and foodstuffs, often prepared in special ways. Externally, car fuel and axle grease are widely used. With the development of the Red Sea coast for tourism, the life of the Ababda Bedouin will change fundamentally. The above practices are likely to be replaced by Western medicine, probably a change for the better for these people.

  18. Study on the Dynamic Poverty Reduction Effect of China's Poverty Relief Funds Expenditure Structure%中国扶贫资金支出结构的动态减贫效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛基; 吕康银; 孙晔

    2014-01-01

    This paper raise the hypothesis that poverty alleviation funds have the positive poverty reduction effect on the incidence of poverty in rural areas, the depth of poverty in rural areas and rural poverty intensity. Then use the macroscopic survey data to measure the extent of rural poverty, revealing trends of rural poverty. Meanwhile, this paper use the impulse response function analysis to quantitative analysis the dynamic poverty reduction effect of poverty relief funds expenditure structure, by summarizing the poverty reduction of capital expenditures for poverty alleviation and constructing a theoretical framework for the poverty alleviation funds and rural poverty. The results show that poverty alleviation loans have a positive effect of poverty reduction on rural poverty rate. Work-relief funds have a positive effect of poverty reduction on rural poverty rate, the depth of rural poverty and rural poverty intensity. Poverty alleviation development funds have a positive effect of Poverty reduction on depth of rural poverty, but poverty alleviation loans impact on rural poverty intensity show a negative effects of poverty reduction, poverty alleviation development funds have a significant negative effect on rural poverty intensity. On this basis, this paper puts forward some relevant policy suggestions to improve the expenditure structure of poverty alleviation funds.%文章从理论上总结扶贫资金支出对农村贫困的减贫效果,构建扶贫资金支出与农村贫困的理论分析框架,提出扶贫资金对农村贫困发生率、农村贫困深度、农村贫困强度具有正向减贫效果的研究假设,以宏观调查数据度量我国农村贫困程度,揭示我国农村贫困的变化趋势,并运用脉冲响应函数分析方法,对扶贫资金支出结构的动态减贫效果进行了分析,结果显示:扶贫专项贷款对农村贫困发生率具有正向减贫效果;以工代赈资金对农村贫困发生率、农村

  19. Effects of Credit on Economic Growth, Unemployment and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangasa Augustinus Sipahutar

    2016-06-01

                  Effect of credit on economic growth, unemployment and poverty provides evidence from Indonesia on the role of banks credit for promoting economic growth and reducing both unemployment and poverty.  To document the link between banks credit and economic growth, we estimate a VAR model and variance decompositions of annual GDP per capita growth rates to examine what proxy measures of banks credit are most important in accounting for economic growth over time and how much they contribute to explaining economic growth.  We also estimate an ECM to document the relationship between banks credit to both unemployment and poverty.  This paper revealed bi-direction causality between banks credit and economic growth.  Banks credit promotes economic growth and economic growth affects credit depth and financial development.  Furthermore, banks credit is a growth accelerating factor on Indonesian economic growth.  Banks credit is an endogenous growth and a good predictor on Indonesian economy. Our estimation model explained that credit allocated by banks increases business escalation to the real sectors then promotes economic growth, decreases unemployment rate through increasing in labor demanded, increases income and then decrease poverty.  This overall transmission mechanism just occurred through presence of banks credit by increasing money supply to the real sectors, promotes growth and social welfare.   Keywords :  banks credit, economic growth, growth accelerating factor, poverty, unemployment   JEL Classification : E51, E52, E58

  20. Regional Poverty and Population Response:A Comparison of Three Regions in the United States and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Siebert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine poverty in three regions in the United States and Germany and discuss its causes and demographic consequences. The three regions are those with the highest rates of poverty in the two countries: the Mississippi Delta and Texas Borderland in the United States and the Northeastern Border Region in Germany. We show that standard models to explain poverty need to be placed in the historical legacies of the three regions in order to understand their current levels of poverty. While our results show many common factors for poverty in the three regions, they also point to important differences. Similarly, we identify differences among the regions in their demographic responses to poverty, in part reflecting their different historical legacies. Thus, one implication of the paper is the importance of place-based poverty-mitigation strategies for successful policy planning.

  1. Child poverty can be reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  2. Poverty, women, and reproduction. Welfare reform and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    As they attempt to redesign the welfare system in the US, policy-makers could learn much by referring to the social justice teachings of the Catholic Church. As early as 1891, the pope was calling for the social protection of the poor. This view was expanded by papal edicts in 1971 and 1981 as well as by US bishops in 1986 and by the new catechism in 1994. In 1992, there were more than 39 million people living in poverty in the US. While the poor are overwhelmingly White, Blacks, who make up 12% of the population, account for 34% of the poor (children account for 70%). The poverty rate increases from 7.2% when both parents are present to 18% in father-only families and 44.7% in mother-only families. The four main definitions of poverty are poverty as deprivation, poverty as inequality, poverty as culture, and poverty as exploitation. The true nature of poverty encompasses all of these aspects. The goals of welfare, then should be to provide assistance and opportunity. While Americans are divided over which proposed changes should be enacted, no one argues against assisting children (which by extension provides aid to the mothers who raise them). The welfare reform movement, however, is fueled by racist and sexist attitudes. All of the potential changes are directed at women and ignore the hundreds of thousands of men benefiting from the system. Even when women have jobs, their income remains below the poverty level. Policy-makers also seek to control the private sphere of women's reproduction through welfare reform. A just welfare system would attempt to help people who need it; integrate the poor into solving the problem of poverty; provide real job training and jobs; offer support during the transition from welfare to self-sufficiency; provide sex education, reproductive services and counseling, and child care; and offer hope to poor children. This requires respect for the poor, access to information, a lack of coercion, the inclusion of poor men, repudiating an

  3. Quantifying Poverty Temporal Changes in Association with Rural Transition in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyuan You

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is a social problem in developing countries, especially for the rural places experiencing rapid transition. This study characterizes the temporal changes of rural poverty under rural transition during 1991–2010 in Guangxi. In particular, poverty is measured by the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke method, and rural transition is described from three aspects including rural industrialization, regional urbanization, and agriculture commercialization. Relationships are quantified by multivariate linear regression. Results reveal that industry income proportion (IIP and secondary industry proportion (SIP are positive contributors to the poverty incidence, while urban-rural income gap (URIG is a negative contributor to the poverty incidence. Industrial total output of township and village enterprises (ITOE, IIP, and grain commercialization rate (GCR present positive correlation with the poverty depth. The URIG has a negative correlation with the poverty depth. Tertiary industry proportion (TIP and expenditure on fixed productive assets per capita (EFPA are positively correlated with the poverty severity, while URIG and power of agricultural machinery (PAM associate with poverty severity negatively. Redundancy analysis shows that individual influence of rural industrialization is higher than that of regional urbanization and agriculture commercialization. The joint influences of rural industrialization, regional urbanization, and agriculture commercialization are the strongest.

  4. The Africanization of poverty: a retrospective on "Make Poverty History".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which the British campaign coalition Make Poverty History represented Africa throughout 2005. Focusing particularly on the G8 Gleneagles summit, Make Poverty History (MPH) asserted a series of justice claims which had no geographical reference. Nevertheless, as a result of internal tensions within the coalition, and especially as a result of the ways in which MPH interacted with other political agencies as the summit approached, MPH's messages became increasingly interpolated by references to Africa as a result of the emergence of government, media, and celebrity involvement. The result of this was that global poverty increasingly became an African issue. As 2005 became the "Year of Africa," the justice messages that constituted MPH were largely effaced by the more familiar imperial legacy which represents Africa as a place of indigence in need of outside assistance.

  5. Characteristics of the population below the poverty level: 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winard, A; Rudolph, S

    1985-02-01

    The US poverty thresholds are updated every year to reflect annual average Consumer Price Index changes; in 1983 the average poverty threshold for a 4 person family was $10,178. This report uses the March 1984 Current Population Survey (CPS) to present detailed social and economic characteristics of the US population below the poverty level. The poverty rate rose from 15.0% in 1982 to 15.2% in 1983, showing a rise from 34.4 to 35.3 million people. Major population subgroups showed no significant changes from 1982 to 1983; classed as poor were 24.0 million whites (12.1%), 9.9 million blacks (35.7%), 4.2 million Hispanics (28.4%), and 13.7 million children under age 18 (22%). No significant changes occurred in either metropolitan or nonmetropolitan areas. Poverty declined in the South (but still remained high at 17.2%), rose in the Midwest, and changed little in the Northeast and West. 7.6 million families lived below the poverty level in 1983, with neither married couple families nor female headed households showing significant change from 1982. Families maintained by women, however, accounted for 47% of poor families, and the number of poor unrelated persons rose from 6.5 to 6.8 million, with women comprising 62% of these persons. In 1983, the average income deficit--the income amount needed to raise a family above the poverty threshold--was $4,020. The CPS estimates are based only on money income and do not include noncash benefits such as food stamps or medicare.

  6. Indicators System for Poverty Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Mitrut

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty represents a life aspect which is focusing the attention of both the macroeconomic analysis and the international comparisons. In order to measure the level being recorded by this phenomenon, there is a system of indicators which are used in order to underline, in a correlated manner, a number of aspects which are characterizing, quality and quantity wise, the evolution of the poverty in a specific country or, to a larger extent, through comparative surveys, at international level. Despite the fact that they are not the only instrument being used within the process of comparison of the stages of social and economic development at the international level, however the poverty indicators are providing a clear significance to the worked out surveys. In fact, the very purpose of the economic activity consists of increasing welfare and, as much as possible, at least reducing, if not eradicating, the poverty. The present work is broadly presenting the methodology as well as, both theoretical and practical, the way of computing the poverty, making a synthesis of the specific used indicators.

  7. Poverty and severe psychiatric disorder in the U.S.: evidence from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Brandon; Jones, Kristine; Mitra, Sophie

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that persons with severe psychiatric disorders are more likely to be poor and face disparities in education and employment outcomes. Poverty rates, the standard measure of poverty, give no information on how far below the poverty line this group falls. This paper compares the poverty rate, poverty depth (distance from the poverty line) and poverty severity (inequality of incomes below the poverty line) of households with and without a working-age member with severe psychiatric disorder in the United States using data from the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). First, we perform multivariate analysis of the association between severe disorder and poverty depth using MEPS data. Second, we calculate poverty rates, depth, and severity for the subgroup of households having a member with disorder and compare to the subgroup of households without such a member. In multivariate regressions, the presence of a household member with severe psychiatric disorder predicts a 52-percentage point increase in poverty depth and 3.10 times the odds of being poor. Poverty rate, depth, and severity are significantly greater for households of persons with disorder. Mean total incomes are lower for households of persons with severe disorder compared to other households while mean health expenditures are similar. Severe psychiatric disorder is associated with greater depth of poverty and likelihood of being poor. We identify groups who are the most disadvantaged according to severity of income poverty among households with severe psychiatric disorder. These include households whose head has no high school education, who has been without work for the entire year, and who is black or Hispanic. While these characteristics are related to poverty for the overall sample, they correlate to heightened poverty severity when combined with severe disorder. Families face less severity than single persons but poverty rate, depth, and severity increase for both

  8. Poverty and Health in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines health conditions in the rural areas of Central Argentina, the country’s main region for soy-bean production and export. Health conditions are analyzed through the concepts of emerging and re-emerging diseases in a context of increasing poverty. Data on poverty and health was obtained from both primary sources (trade union, government officials, rural doctors and the South Watch/FA/FODEPAL/UNR working group and secondary sources (IPEC/INDEC, IDESA, Consultora Equis, the Argentine Ministry of Employment, ILO, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of the Environment, toxicology centers and rural doctors. Analysis of rural health conditions gives cause for concern. There is evidence of deterioration in the social determinants of health such as an increase in rural and urban poverty associated with informal employment and child labor. At the same time lack of government epidemiological and toxicological data appears to hide or distort the reality of health conditions.

  9. Towards Sustainable Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    resources is concerned, disparities in access to health and education, macro- economic ... measuring the level of poverty based on people's ability to have access to ... meaning of poverty still tends towards lack and below average and poor.

  10. Poverty Could Make Lupus Even Worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165745.html Poverty Could Make Lupus Even Worse Second study saw ... 19, 2017 FRIDAY, May 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Poverty and race are tied to the health of ...

  11. Industrial Diversification, Employment and Rural Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial Diversification, Employment and Rural Poverty Reduction in China and ... the same poverty background and socio economic history makes it proper for ... Using questionnaire and secondary data for statistical analysis and growth ...

  12. Poverty measurement for a binational population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anita Alves Pena

    2013-01-01

      Traditional poverty measures are inappropriate for migrant populations. Frequently cited poverty thresholds are calculated under assumptions that individuals and their families face only one set of prices annually...

  13. Poverty's Impact on A Child's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162949.html Poverty's Impact on a Child's Mental Health Poor kids ... Jan. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Growing up in poverty exposes children to greater levels of stress, which ...

  14. Race/ethnicity, poverty status, and renal transplant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Rebecca; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Nickolas, Thomas; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Shea, Steven; Barr, R Graham

    2005-10-15

    There are known racial disparities in renal graft survival. Data are lacking comparing associations of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status with graft failure and functional status after transplantation. Our goal was to test if African-American and Hispanic race/ethnicity and poverty are associated with worse outcomes following renal transplantation. We performed a retrospective cohort study using a nationwide registry (United Network for Organ Sharing). We studied 4,471 adults who received renal transplants in 1990. Outcomes were graft failure and functional status over 10 years. Cumulative incidence of graft failure was higher among African-Americans and Hispanics than whites (77% vs. 64% vs. 60 %; Ppoverty status was not (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1). Days with impaired functional status were higher for African-Americans compared to whites (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9) but not independent of poverty. Poverty was independently associated with impaired functional status (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). African-Americans and Hispanics had higher rates of graft failure compared to whites after adjustment for poverty and other covariates whereas poverty, but not race/ethnicity, was related to functional status following renal transplantation. National datasets should include individual-level measures of socioeconomic status in order to improve evaluation of social and environmental causes of disparities in renal transplant outcomes.

  15. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R

    2014-11-01

    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.

  16. Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghbendra Jha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

  17. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  18. Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies—An Important Component of Poverty Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MANRTINW.BLOEM; REGINGMOENCH-PFANNER; 等

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1990s,the international development banks and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) convened to outline seven International Development Goals(IDGs) to reduce poverty by 2015,These goals incorporated both the economic and social dimensions of poverty.A two-thirds reduction of child mortality and a three-fourths reduction of maternal mortality from rates in 1990 by 2015 are two of these seven IDGs,There is a need for better combinations of cost-effective strategies to resch these challenging goals by the year 2015,This paper discusses the potential usefulness of micronutrient deficiency control programs for this purpose.

  19. Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies—An Important Component of Poverty Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the international development banks and theInternational Monetary Fund (IMF) convened to outline seven International Development Goals (IDGs) to reduce poverty by 2015. These goals incorporated both the economic and social dimensions of poverty. A two-thirds reduction of child mortality and a three-fourths reduction of maternal mortality from rates in 1990 by 2015 are two of these seven IDGs. There is a need for better combinations of cost-effective strategies to reach these challenging goals by the year 2015. This paper discusses the potential usefulness of micronutrient deficiency control programs for this purpose.

  20. Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmael Habtamu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited.Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b Self-rated wealth, and (c Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified 'Stylised Activity List' developed for the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06-3.78; p<0.0001, self-rated wealth (OR, 4.41, 95%CI, 2.75-7.07; p<0.0001 and peer-rated wealth (OR, 8.22, 95% CI, 4.59-14.72; p<0.0001. Cases had less access to latrines (57% v 76.5%, p = <0.0001 and higher person-to-room density (4.0 v 3.31; P = 0.0204 than the controls. Compared to controls, cases were significantly less likely to participate in economically productive activities regardless of visual impairment and other health problems, more likely to report difficulty in performing activities and more likely to receive assistance in performing productive activities.This study demonstrated a strong association between trachomatous trichiasis and relative poverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth

  1. Impact of infrastructure expenses in strategic sectors for Brazilian poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Marinho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of infrastructure investments in the reduction of poverty in Brazil, controlled through other determinants such as economic growth, income inequality, average schooling years, unemployment rate and state budgets from 1995 to 2011. A model for a dynamic panel data, estimated by the generalized method of moments (GMM in two steps as developed by Arellano-Bond (1991 and Blundell-Bond (1998 found among other conclusions, a significant inverse relation between public investment in infrastructure and poverty. The Granger causality test for panel data proposed by Hurlin and Venet (2001, 2004 and Hurlin (2004, 2005 reinforced results validation.

  2. The World Bank and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, M; Shakow, A

    1982-06-01

    During the 1970s it was World Bank policy to use its funds to raise the productivity and living standards of the poor. It has increased its lending for sector and subsectors considered to offer the most direct benefits to the poor such as rural development, population, health, and nutrition. Projects with particular emphasis on poverty have benefitted large numbers of poor people and have had good economic rates of return. Lending for rural projects increased in the 1970s from US$2.6 billion in 1969-73 to over US$13 billion in 1978-81; rural development projects audited in 1979 benfitted 660 small farmers for every US$1 million loaned compared with 47 farmers/US$1 million in other agricultural projects. Some problems are: 1) low-risk technical packages appropriate for poor farmers in semi-arid rainfed areas are not readily available; 2) the Bank's rural development strategy seeks mainly to raise the production of small farms, but other aspects need to be emphasized; 3) domestic pricing and postharvest policies often undermine the success of projects aimed at the rural poor; and 4) success in rural development often rests on sociological and cultural factors, difficult areas that deserve more attention. For urban areas the Bank has strongly endorsed providing "sites and sources" instead of structures; since 1972, 52 Bank projects centered on urban shelter involving US$1.6 billion have been undertaken. Cost recovery is established at 66-95%. About 5% of Bank lending is for education and despite the importance of population, health, and nutrition, these areas absorb less than 1% of the Bank's total lending program. Only US$400 million in population loans were made to 13 countries in the 1970s and only recently have separate health projects been started. Emphasis for the 1980s must be on rural development, urban shelter, primary education, health, education, and population.

  3. Energy and poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghir, J. [The World Bank Group, Washington DC (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The energy community has its work cut out for it: 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity, and 2.4 billion still rely on traditional biomass fuels. This deprivation in energy has enormous impacts on the lives of poor people. Strong links between the energy sector and poverty reduction (through income, health, education, gender, and the environment) underscore the importance of the energy sector in social and economic development. They also point to the importance of the energy sector working closely with other sectors in tackling energy deprivation. If it does so, the world's poor people can look forward to enjoying the same benefits of modern energy as its affluent people do. Even so, ending energy deprivation will not be easy. It calls for tough public policy choices and sustained commitment. And the energy business is such that these choices require a delicate balancing act: provide enough subsidies and financing to make modern energy accessible to the poor, yet avoid distorting energy markets by favoring one fuel over another or stifling the markets through counterproductive pricing and subsidy policies. How best to design and implement policies for expanding access to energy is a question requiring close attention to the lessons from experience. But experience already points to some good choices. It shows the importance of removing institutional and regulatory barriers, designing subsidies carefully, ensuring local involvement in the design and delivery of energy services, and protecting the poor during reforms. These policies are not enough to end energy deprivation, but they are certainly necessary for doing so. Moreover, no one way of applying these policies will work under all the widely varying social and economic conditions around the world. Recognizing this, the World Bank is pioneering some of the most innovative research in this area. Where it sees appropriate opportunities, it remains open to providing investment and adjustment lending. It

  4. Social capital formation : a poverty reducing strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Else

    2002-01-01

    From the symposium: Social Capital Formation in Poverty Reduction: Which role for the Civil Society Organizations and the State? - on 28 June 2000 in Geneva The title of the symposium is "Social Capital Formation in Poverty Reduction: Which Role for Civil Society Organizations and the State?". The emphasis here is on poverty and whether poverty reduction can be obtained through a strategy of increased social capital. The emphasis is not on social development in general or the b...

  5. Poverty in China seen from outer space

    OpenAIRE

    Almås, Ingvild; Johnsen, Åshild Auglænd; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of poverty are highly sensitive to price and income measures across time and space. This paper offers a complementary approach to traditional poverty measurement that ensures comparability: we use nighttime light as a proxy for poverty measurement. We measure the percentage of populated areas in China with no nighttime light, and the percentage of the population living in these areas.Between 1992 and 2005, both measures reveal a steady decrease in poverty in China. From 2005 to 2010...

  6. Looking at women's poverty in poor households

    OpenAIRE

    Baysu, Gülseli

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the internal dynamics of women’s poverty, and how women experience and cope with poverty in poor households. It mainly deals with two points, one regarding the conceptualization of women’s poverty as content and context, and the other regarding the method of investigation. As for the former, women’s poverty is defined as unequal access to resources (social as well as material), responsibilities (particularly the one...

  7. Guinea-Bissau; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the National Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (NPRSP) for Guinea-Bissau. The paper discusses the phenomenon of poverty, its dimensions, extent, and distribution by category and region. It provides a background analysis of developments in poverty based on the diagnostic of past economic policies. The paper presents the priority goals in the fight against poverty by articulating a long-term and medium-term vision as well as strategic actions. The operational s...

  8. Poverty experience, race, and child health.

    OpenAIRE

    Malat, Jennifer; Oh, Hyun Joo; Hamilton, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies that examine children's poverty and health at one point in time do not account for some children experiencing poverty briefly and others living in poverty for much of their lives. The objective of this study was to determine how duration of poverty and child race are related to child health. METHODS: To assess these relationships, we analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. Ordinary least squares regression was used to est...

  9. POVERTY TRAPS, ECONOMIC INEQUALITY AN INCENTIVES FOR DELINQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Villa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores theoretical linkages between poverty traps, economic inequality and delinquency in a perfect competition overlapping generations model characterized by dual legal production sectors and one illegal sector. The model posits an absence of credit for human capital accumulation, which generates barriers to skilled educational attainment. We find that the existence of a poverty trap under conditions of sufficient initial economic inequality and costly indivisible human capital investment generates persistent delinquency in the long run. We examine steady state changes caused by shocks that increase skilled wages or reduce land assets available to the unskilled, finding that these shocks produce outbursts of delinquency that die out later if the shocks are temporary but increases permanently otherwise. We also find that an increase on relative poverty has an ambiguous effect on long run delinquency rates while an increased focus on law enforcement policies, intended to increase deterrence and incapacitation, reduces delinquency in the long run and increases wealth inequality.

  10. Child Care in the American South: Poverty, Costs, and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Vikki K.

    2012-01-01

    High-quality child care has been shown to improve the academic success and life adjustments of children living in poverty. During the past decade, many American states have adopted voluntary Quality Rating and Improvement (QRI) systems in an attempt to increase the level of quality in child care. Using data compiled by the National Association of…

  11. Glass Ceilings and Bottomless Pits: Women's Work, Women's Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Chris; Albelda, Randy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews economic trends (marriage rate, growing labor market, manufacturing decline, and poverty) and contradictions in policy (family values vs. valuing families, opportunity vs. obligation to work, having a job vs. living wage). Outlines eight policy approaches in child care, job creation, minimum wage, housing, social safety net,…

  12. Trends in Demography of Childhood Poverty and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiura, Glenn T.; Yamaki, Kiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    This article presents childhood disability prevalence trends and their interaction with economic status. Estimates derived from National Health Interview Survey data (1983-96) indicate a significant increase in childhood disability rates. Analysis indicates a greater risk in single-parent households and a growing relationship between poverty and…

  13. Do Family Structure and Poverty Affect Sexual Risk Behaviors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    1Demography and Population Studies Programme, Schools of Public Health and Social ... Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Demography and Social Statistics Department, Faculty of ... understanding of the relationship between family characteristics, poverty rating and risky .... class in a faculty, s/he sought the permission of the.

  14. Glass Ceilings and Bottomless Pits: Women's Work, Women's Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Chris; Albelda, Randy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews economic trends (marriage rate, growing labor market, manufacturing decline, and poverty) and contradictions in policy (family values vs. valuing families, opportunity vs. obligation to work, having a job vs. living wage). Outlines eight policy approaches in child care, job creation, minimum wage, housing, social safety net,…

  15. Impact of food and nutrition interventions on poverty in an informal settlement in the Vaal Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H; Slabbert, Tielman J C

    2008-02-01

    UNICEF has stated that urban poverty is primarily found in squatter settlements. At present 13.5% of all South African households live in informal settlements. The major research question is to what extent does poverty influence the food, nutrition and health of informal-settlement dwellers. The purpose of the present study was to determine the depth of poverty in this community and to measure the possible effect that planned food and nutrition interventions may have on eliminating poverty in this area. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to 340 randomly-selected caregivers. A validated quantified FFQ was administered by trained enumerators as the test measurement for dietary intake and food consumption patterns and 24 h recall was used as the reference measurement, and the data were analysed. A poverty model was used to measure the impact of extra income on the poverty levels of 190 households. Of the respondents 89% lived in Zn shacks and the average household size was 4.9 individuals. The unemployment rate was 94.2% for respondents and 64.9% for their partners. The majority of households (68.8%) had an income of poverty gap was R 1342.21 ( pound93) and the poverty gap ratio was 56%. The poverty model showed that an increase of R 500 ( pound35) in monthly household income results in a poverty gap ratio of 35%. The poverty model confirmed that the impact of food and nutrition interventions on poverty can be measured and that when planning these interventions the model could be used to measure their feasibility. The results indicate that this community is poverty-stricken and has chronic food insecurity, and they will be used to facilitate planning and implementation of sustainable income-generating community-based interventions to promote urban food security and alleviate poverty in this community.

  16. Poverty Dynamics: the case of the Maldives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. de Kruijk (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPoverty dynamics research leads to a better understanding of poverty than point-in-time studies. We have executed a comprehensive longitudinal poverty study based on 3 large-scale household surveys carried out on all 200 inhabited islands in the Maldives. The first wave was conducted in

  17. Reducing Poverty on a Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Dodson, Blanca

    2006-01-01

    Development practitioners have been working for half a century to help pull millions of people out of poverty, disease, and fear. However, the challenge of poverty remains enormous. The disparity in levels of income, health, and education across countries grows greater, even as levels of absolute poverty decline. Many countries have made great achievements, but the lack of capacity to collect ...

  18. Gender and Poverty Reduction: A Kenyan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, Elishiba Njambi; Kombo, Donald Kisilu

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is a dehumanising condition for every one. It erodes human rights of the affected whether women or men. Poverty subjects an individual to a state of powerlessness, hopelessness, and lack of self-esteem, confidence, and integrity, leading to a situation of multidimensional vulnerability. Poverty has a gender dimension since women and men…

  19. Poverty Dynamics: the case of the Maldives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. de Kruijk (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPoverty dynamics research leads to a better understanding of poverty than point-in-time studies. We have executed a comprehensive longitudinal poverty study based on 3 large-scale household surveys carried out on all 200 inhabited islands in the Maldives. The first wave was conducted in

  20. The Effects of Poverty on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Misty; Tissington, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Poverty, which forms a specific culture and way of life, is a growing issue in the United States. The number of Americans living in poverty is continually increasing. Poverty indicates the extent to which an individual does without resources. Resources can include financial, emotional, mental, spiritual, and physical resources as well as support…

  1. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyun Zhao; Zhilan Feng; Carlos Castillo-Chavez

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas. The economic theory of crime demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime. The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  2. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  3. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  4. Poverty and internalizing symptoms: The indirect effect of middle childhood poverty on internalizing symptoms via an emotional response inhibition pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Capistrano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood poverty is a pervasive problem that can alter mental health outcomes. Children from impoverished circumstances are more likely than their middle-income counterparts to develop internalizing problems such as depression and anxiety. To date, however, the emotional-cognitive control processes that link childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms remain largely unexplored. Using the Emotion Go/NoGo paradigm, we examined the association between poverty and emotional response inhibition in middle childhood. We further examined the role of emotional response inhibition in the link between middle childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms. Lower income was associated with emotional response inhibition difficulties (indexed by greater false alarm rates in the context of task irrelevant angry and sad faces. Furthermore, emotional response inhibition deficits in the context of angry and sad distracters were further associated with child-report internalizing problems. The results of the current study demonstrate the significance of understanding the emotional-cognitive control vulnerabilities of children raised in poverty and their association with mental health outcomes.

  5. Poverty and Internalizing Symptoms: The Indirect Effect of Middle Childhood Poverty on Internalizing Symptoms via an Emotional Response Inhibition Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistrano, Christian G; Bianco, Hannah; Kim, Pilyoung

    2016-01-01

    Childhood poverty is a pervasive problem that can alter mental health outcomes. Children from impoverished circumstances are more likely than their middle-income counterparts to develop internalizing problems such as depression and anxiety. To date, however, the emotional-cognitive control processes that link childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms remain largely unexplored. Using the Emotion Go/NoGo paradigm, we examined the association between poverty and emotional response inhibition in middle childhood. We further examined the role of emotional response inhibition in the link between middle childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms. Lower income was associated with emotional response inhibition difficulties (indexed by greater false alarm rates in the context of task irrelevant angry and sad faces). Furthermore, emotional response inhibition deficits in the context of angry and sad distracters were further associated with child-report internalizing problems. The results of the current study demonstrate the significance of understanding the emotional-cognitive control vulnerabilities of children raised in poverty and their association with mental health outcomes.

  6. Population, environment dynamics, poverty and quality of life in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, B

    1996-12-01

    This article focuses on the growth in poverty, environmental concerns, and Chinese government efforts to eliminate poverty with integrated programs. China had 1.2 billion people in February 1995, or 20% of total world population on 7% of the world's arable land. The rate of natural increase was 1.1% in 1996. China's population could double to 2.4 billion by 2060. About 14 million people are added every year. China has about 300 million women of childbearing age. Even with 1 child per woman, population would grow by 300 million. 18 provinces have population growth over the national average of 1.49%. Many of these provinces are also provinces with high population density, high poverty ratios, and higher than 2 birth orders. The highest growth is in western China. Poor households have a lower quality of life, more disabled members, high rates of endemic disease, and illiteracy. Among the very poor without adequate food or clothing, environmental protection is a meaningless concept. Poverty alleviation strategies have shifted from relief to economic development. State support combined with local resources in a pooling approach pays for poverty alleviation programs. The central government's share will increase until the year 2000. The number of poor was 80 million in 1994 (9% of total population) living in 592 poor counties in remote and mountainous areas. The number of poor was reduced to 65 million in 1996. An integrated approach of family planning and poverty alleviation operates in Jinzhai County of Anhui province. China is determined to reorient to a "service-oriented, client- centered, woman-sensitive, and rural-emphasized approach."

  7. What do the World Bank's poverty assessments teach us about poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanmer, L.C.; Pyatt, G.; White, H.

    1999-01-01

    Metadata only record As part of the World Bank's poverty reduction strategy, Poverty Assessments have been carried out for a number of countries which analyse who the poor are, the causes of poverty and poverty reduction policies. This article reviews what can be learnt from the twenty-five Assessments prepared for countries in sub-Saharan Africa up to 1996. Whilst other factors are acknowledged in identifying the poor, the Assessments over-emphasize income-poverty defined against an inevi...

  8. Growing out of poverty: trends and patterns of urban poverty in China 1988–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Simon; Song, Lina; Xia, Qingjie

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates trends in absolute poverty in urban China from 1988 to 2002 using the Chinese Household Income Project (CHIP) surveys. Poverty incidence curves are plotted, showing that poverty has fallen markedly during the period regardless of the exact location of the poverty line. Income inequality rose from 1988 to 1995 but has been fairly constant thereafter. Models of the determination of income and poverty reveal widening differentials by education, sex and party membership. Inco...

  9. Optimal multi-dimensional poverty lines: The state of poverty in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Jamal R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Poverty estimation based on calories intake is unrealistic. The established concept of multidimensional poverty has methodological weaknesses in the treatment of different dimensions and there is disagreement in methods of combining them into a single poverty line. This paper introduces a methodology to estimate optimal multidimensional poverty lines and uses the Iraqi household socio-economic survey data of 2012 to demonstrate the idea. The optimal poverty line for Iraq is found to be 170.5 Thousand Iraqi Dinars (TID).

  10. Contrasting the Levels of Poverty against the Burden of Poverty: An Indian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Udaya S Mishra; Deepak Singhania

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of levels of poverty across contexts and circumstances overlook the composition and characteristics of the domain of non-poor. But implications of poverty in terms of compromised welfare as well as its potential for alleviation do depend on the structure and composition of the non-poor. On this premise, this note empirically illustrates a contrast between the levels and burden of poverty for Indian states. It finds that burden of poverty is not linear with levels of poverty implyi...

  11. Geographic aspects of poverty and health in Tanzania: does living in a poor area matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud Khan, M; Hotchkiss, David R; Berruti, Andrés A; Hutchinson, Paul L

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies have consistently found an inverse relationship between household-level poverty and health status. However, what is not well understood is whether and how the average economic status at the community level plays a role in the poverty-health relationship. The purpose of this study is to investigate the concentration of poverty at the community level in Tanzania and its association with the availability and quality of primary health care services, the utilization of services, and health outcomes among household categories defined by wealth scores. A principal component method has been applied to rank households separately by urban/rural location using reported levels of asset ownership and living conditions. The household wealth scores were also used to classify communities into three cluster-types based on the proportion of households belonging to the poorest wealth tercile. On average, all the wealth terciles living in low poverty concentration areas were found to have better health outcomes and service utilization rates than their counterparts living in high poverty concentration clusters. Consistent with the finding is that high poverty concentration areas were further away from facilities offering primary health care than low poverty concentration areas. Moreover, the facilities closest to the high poverty concentration areas had fewer doctors, medical equipment and drugs. Among the high poverty concentration clusters, the 10 communities with the best women's body mass index (BMI) measures were found to have access to facilities with a greater availability of equipment and drugs than the 10 communities with the worst BMI measures. Although this study does not directly measure quality, the characteristics that differentiate high poverty concentration clusters from low poverty concentration clusters point to quality as more important than physical access among the study population.

  12. Poverty and reproductive health: global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketting, E

    1997-01-01

    This article opens by tabulating selected family planning (FP) indicators from the 24 poorest countries (those with a gross national product (GNP) of up to $300 per capita). Consideration of what is poverty and who are the poor concludes that poverty is hard to define but that is it a combination of low income, low life expectancy, illiteracy, and low educational levels; that is, the result of a denial of choices and opportunities. The poorest countries by this criteria differ somewhat from the poorest chosen according to GNP, but most are located in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of national data is complicated by the fact that huge differences exist between rich and poor within countries. The poorest countries have the lowest use of FP, the most restrictive abortion laws, high incidences of mortality associated with unsafe abortion, and high maternal mortality rates. International population and FP assistance is embarrassingly low and unfairly allocated. International assistance must be increased to break the cycle of poverty and improve reproductive health. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that improvement of reproductive health for the impoverished is a basic condition for human development and reduction of global inequity. In its policy statement on this topic, the IPPF recommends that local FP associations 1) constantly reevaluate how to maximize their impact on the most vulnerable, 2) be pioneers in the field of sexual and reproductive health, 3) reassess priorities in light of diminishing donor funding, 4) become advocates for increased resources and to further the work they are undertaking, and 5) strengthen collaboration with other development agencies working in the field.

  13. Poverty Eradication in Fragile Places: Prospects for Harvesting the Highest Hanging Fruit by 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Milante

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the range of likely and potential progress on poverty eradication in fragile states to 2030. Using the International Futures model and recently released 2011 International Comparison Program data, this paper calculates current (2015 poverty for a US$1.90 poverty line, and subsequently runs three scenarios. The estimates suggest that there are 485 million poor in fragile states in 2015, a 33.5 per cent poverty rate. This paper’s Base Case scenario results in a forecasted 22.8 per cent poverty rate in fragile states by 2030. The most optimistic scenario yields a 13.1 per cent poverty rate for this group of countries (257 million. An optimistic scenario reflecting political constraints in fragile states yields a 19.1 per cent poverty rate (376 million. Even under the most optimistic circumstances, fragile states will almost certainly be home to hundreds of millions of poor in 2030, suggesting that the world must do things dramatically differently if we are to reach the high hanging fruit and truly ‘leave no one behind’ in the next fifteen years of development.

  14. Nursing students' beliefs about poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Linda I; Sword, Wendy; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Rideout, Elizabeth

    2004-11-01

    This paper examines baccalaureate nursing students' beliefs about the relationship between poverty and health, and the factors that influence these beliefs. The relationship between poverty and health is well established, and poverty remains a persistent problem in many industrialized nations. Nurses' understanding of how poverty influences health will affect how they interact with individual clients as well as the strategies they employ to address poverty-related issues. No studies have examined nursing students' understandings of how poverty influences health and the factors that influence that understanding. A cross-sectional survey of a random sample (n = 740) of basic baccalaureate nursing students was conducted in three Canadian universities in 2000. Students completed a 59-item questionnaire eliciting data on demographic variables, personal and educational exposure to poverty, beliefs about the relationship between poverty and health (myth, drift, behavioural, structural), and attitudes to poverty. Students were most likely to adhere to a structural explanation of the relationship between poverty and health. Very little of the variance in myth and drift explanations was accounted for by course or personal exposure, programme level, age, and attitudes toward poverty. Greater course exposure and more positive attitudes toward the poor predicted support for the structural explanation. Support for the behavioural explanation was influenced by attitudes toward the poor and, to a lesser extent, by course exposure, age, and programme level. Students would benefit from greater exposure to poverty through coursework that emphasizes the structural factors contributing to poverty and its negative health consequences. Classroom experience should be complemented with clinical placements that provide students with opportunities to interact with families living in poverty and to work collaboratively with others to address the causes and consequences of poverty at community

  15. How Poverty Affects Classroom Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    "Poverty" is an uncomfortable word. Teachers are often unsure what to expect from kids from low-income households and what to do differently as a result. Well-known author and educator Eric Jensen points to seven differences that show up in school between low- and middle-income children. By understanding what they are and how to address…

  16. Informal export barriers and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2004-01-01

    The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher pover...

  17. Poverty among Elderly in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  18. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  19. The reoccurrence of a pre-welfare state poverty profile in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    2012-01-01

    Even though poverty rates and inequality have increased somewhat recently, Denmark has remained among the countries with the lowest levels of poverty and inequality. However, under this surface of relative stability there has been a substantial social polarisation in the larger Danish cities....... This study based on register data reveals that in the city of Aarhus there has been significantly increased inequality, and fast growing poverty rates, in particular among ethnic minorities, from 1983-2007. From a policy perspective this was to be expected due to significant changes in welfare policy since...

  20. The Evolution of Elderly Poverty in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Milligan

    2007-01-01

    The drop in income poverty among the elderly in Canada over the last generation has been well-documented. In this paper, I extend the calculation of head-count measures of poverty to all currently available microdata, spanning the years 1973 to 2003. I then generate consumption poverty measures spanning 1969 to 2004 and compare to the income poverty results. For both income and consumption, I implement a relative poverty measure that uses the wellbeing of working age families as a benchmark f...

  1. Understanding energy poverty - Case study: Tajikistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robic, Slavica; Olshanskaya, Marina; Vrbensky, Rastislav; Morvaj, Zoran

    2010-09-15

    Access and affordability to energy services determine the state of energy poverty; however, there is no widely applicable definition of energy poverty and no universal set of measures for its eradication exists. This paper offers a new definition and possible solution for decrease, and eventually eradication, of energy poverty for the specific case of Tajikistan. As eradication of energy poverty needs to go in hand with nature preservation and economic development, authors provide possible approach to decrease of energy poverty in Tajikistan while simultaneously preserving nature and boosting the local economy.

  2. Mainstreaming Children into National Poverty Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    The purpose of this paper is to assess how the needs of children are incorporated into Ethiopia¿s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)¿known as the Ethiopian Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme 2002-2005 (SDRDP) ¿and to develop policy recommendations for the second PRSP based...... on a comparative content analysis with other countries¿ PRSPs. The paper begins by identifying the key ingredients of a child-centred PRSP, including: consideration of childhood poverty in the document¿s poverty analysis; spaces for consultation with children; childspecific policies and programmes as well as child...... the multi-dimensionality of childhood poverty in Ethiopia....

  3. Mainstreaming Children into National Poverty Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    The purpose of this paper is to assess how the needs of children are incorporated into Ethiopia¿s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)¿known as the Ethiopian Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme 2002-2005 (SDRDP) ¿and to develop policy recommendations for the second PRSP based...... on a comparative content analysis with other countries¿ PRSPs. The paper begins by identifying the key ingredients of a child-centred PRSP, including: consideration of childhood poverty in the document¿s poverty analysis; spaces for consultation with children; childspecific policies and programmes as well as child...... the multi-dimensionality of childhood poverty in Ethiopia....

  4. Levels of poverty and the poverty gap in rural Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Mears

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The aim of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the income and expenditure patterns of selected deep rural villages. This is done by measuring the level of poverty and/or the poverty gap of 132 households in Limpopo, one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. Problem investigated: The Millennium Declaration symbolises the commitment to end extreme poverty, but limited data is available for rural areas to inform policy decisions. The relative income shares for individuals, households and percentile groups within a population provide the best information on poverty for policy formulation. The nature and size distribution of income are therefore central to analysing the poverty problem within low-income areas. The survey area is one of the poorest areas in South Africa, and shows what data is needed to measure and understand the extent of poverty. Design/Method/Approach: A representative sample of 132 households was drawn, which represents 6,9 percent of the estimated 1900 households in selected villages of rural Limpopo. A total of 740 household members were represented in the survey, with an average of 5,6 members per household. Originality/Value: Although this is a relatively small sample, it generated much-needed data on this very poor area of South Africa. Detailed empirical data on the income and expenditure patterns is not available, especially for rural areas. The socio-economic data from this research supported an important health project of the Water and Health Research Unit (WHRU of the University of Johannesburg. The article also lays the foundation for further research in this field of study, facilitating engagement with a number of related debates such as those about satisfaction of life, vulnerability to poverty, the geography of deprivation and the mapping of poverty. Conclusion: The main finding is that the government provides for many needs of the poor, especially in the deep rural areas. Only

  5. 1 Towards a Skill-Based Music Education in Reducing Poverty and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... Keywords: Poverty, Leadership, Skills, Music Education, Skill-Based Education. ... not adequately developed avenues by which people can have access ... poor, and the rate of employment is about 15 per cent (UNDP, 2009).

  6. Last word: prisoners of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, G

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of poverty and living conditions among the poor in developing countries. The world is divided into the haves and the have nots. The have nots include 1.6 billion who are worse off than they were 15 years ago. 70 countries have 1997 levels of income that are under their income in the 1960s or 1970s. The economic declines in the developing world are "longer and deeper" than the Great Depression of the 1930s. 1.3 billion people live on less than $1. a day, and 3.3 billion live on around $2. a day ($750 per year). This level of poverty occurs in a world where total global income increased during 1960-93 by 6 times to $23 trillion, and average world per capita income tripled. However, 60% of world population live in poverty. The income gap has widened between rich and poor. "The effects of poverty are mediated through low social cohesion, marginalization of poor people, and lack of social participation." The serious health problems of poor people are the result of lack of clean water, decent housing, sanitation, and basic services and the result of despair, anger, fear, worry about debts, job and housing insecurity, and feelings of failure and social alienation. Richard Wilkerson found in a new study that the decline in social cohesion in Eastern Europe and chronic stress may impact on health as seriously as dangerous housing and working conditions among the poor. Polarization, increased inequality, and poverty breed alienation, despair, and crime and challenge principles of justice. Globalization must apply not just to trade and communication but also to social and environmental issues. The global rich with 78% of the global gross domestic product spend only an average of 0.29% of national income on official development aid. Effectiveness in achieving balanced social conditions worldwide will depend on the amount of foreign aid and the actions of recipient countries to strengthen their institutions.

  7. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N = 675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (Mage = 41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed. PMID:24189205

  8. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-03-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N=675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (M(age)=41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed.

  9. Health safety nets can break cycles of poverty and disease: a stochastic ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucinski, Mateusz M; Ngonghala, Calistus N; Bonds, Matthew H

    2011-12-07

    The persistence of extreme poverty is increasingly attributed to dynamic interactions between biophysical processes and economics, though there remains a dearth of integrated theoretical frameworks that can inform policy. Here, we present a stochastic model of disease-driven poverty traps. Whereas deterministic models can result in poverty traps that can only be broken by substantial external changes to the initial conditions, in the stochastic model there is always some probability that a population will leave or enter a poverty trap. We show that a 'safety net', defined as an externally enforced minimum level of health or economic conditions, can guarantee ultimate escape from a poverty trap, even if the safety net is set within the basin of attraction of the poverty trap, and even if the safety net is only in the form of a public health measure. Whereas the deterministic model implies that small improvements in initial conditions near the poverty-trap equilibrium are futile, the stochastic model suggests that the impact of changes in the location of the safety net on the rate of development may be strongest near the poverty-trap equilibrium.

  10. Targeting, universalism, and single-mother poverty: a multilevel analysis across 18 affluent democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, David; Burroway, Rebekah

    2012-05-01

    We examine the influence of individual characteristics and targeted and universal social policy on single-mother poverty with a multilevel analysis across 18 affluent Western democracies. Although single mothers are disproportionately poor in all countries, there is even more cross-national variation in single-mother poverty than in poverty among the overall population. By far, the United States has the highest rate of poverty among single mothers among affluent democracies. The analyses show that single-mother poverty is a function of the household's employment, education, and age composition, and the presence of other adults in the household. Beyond individual characteristics, social policy exerts substantial influence on single-mother poverty. We find that two measures of universal social policy significantly reduce single-mother poverty. However, one measure of targeted social policy does not have significant effects, and another measure is significantly negative only when controlling for universal social policy. Moreover, the effects of universal social policy are larger. Additional analyses show that universal social policy does not have counterproductive consequences in terms of family structure or employment, while the results are less clear for targeted social policy. Although debates often focus on altering the behavior or characteristics of single mothers, welfare universalism could be an even more effective anti-poverty strategy.

  11. Fuel poverty and the health of older people: the role of local climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, R; Blane, D

    2013-09-01

    Fuel poverty is a risk factor for ill-health, particularly among older people. We hypothesized that both the risk of fuel poverty and the strength of its detrimental effects on health would be increased in areas of colder and wetter climate. Individual data on respiratory health, hypertension, depressive symptoms and self-rated health were derived from the 2008/09 wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Climate data for 89 English counties and unitary authorities were obtained from the UK Met Office. Multilevel regression models (n = 7160) were used to test (i) the association between local climate and fuel poverty risk, and (ii) the association between local climate and the effect of fuel poverty on health (adjusted for age, gender, height, smoking status and household income). Individual risk of fuel poverty varied across counties. However, this variation was not explained by differences in climate. Fuel poverty was significantly related to worse health for two of the outcomes (respiratory health and depressive symptoms). However, there was no significant effect of climate on fuel poverty's association with these outcomes. Although there is regional variation in England in both the risk of fuel poverty and its effects on health, this variation is not explained by differences in rainfall and winter temperatures.

  12. Freedom and poverty in the fishery commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Jentoft

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In fisheries, alleviating poverty sometimes requires strategies that are inherently in conflict. When aiming to develop a fishery as a means to reduce poverty, its common pool resource basis might be undermined, resulting in greater poverty. But poverty in fisheries is also linked to, or a part of deeper social issues and processes, for instance, the marginalization and exclusion of certain communities. Poverty also has many factors— income, health, literacy, gender, power, security, etc.—all of which make poverty alleviation a particularly “wicked problem” that would require a broad process of political, social and institutional reform. In other words, poverty alleviation is not only an issue of sustainable resource management but also one of societal governance. Drawing from research in small-scale fisheries communities in Nicaragua, Tanzania, and Bangladesh, this paper describes how fishing people cope with poverty. The paper discusses what the governance implications are for alleviating poverty at individual, household and community levels, and argue that both the definition of poverty and poverty alleviation in small-scale fisheries must be rooted in real life experiences.

  13. REDUCING POVERTY AS A DRIVER OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odoardi Iacopo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is ten years after Lisbon and in the year dedicated to poverty alleviation that this paper is written in order to investigate the implications of the decisions regarding poverty reduction taken by the EU. We present a simple comparison of the risks of poverty in European countries in 2000 and 2008, before and after transfers, and our finding is a positive effect of the policies towards poverty alleviation, even if the risk of poverty is increasing. By studying the correlation between percentage of people that fall below the poverty line and GDP per capita, we do not observe a whole diverse situation in Europe, with only few minor differences between rich and poor countries. We also discuss the importance of alternative approaches in estimating poverty, by means of a multidimensional method which considers a multitude of aspects in the quality of life.

  14. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries.

  15. Poverty and Education Report: Students Are Not to Blame--Understanding the Structural Causes of Family Poverty. BCTF Research Report. Section XII. 2009-EI-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, there were an estimated 181,000 low-income children in the province, with British Columbia (BC) reporting the highest before-tax child poverty rate (21.9%) in Canada (15.8%) for the fifth year in a row. This was the news in the "2008 Child Poverty Report Card" recently released by the First Call: BC Child and Youth Advocacy…

  16. Risks of poverty in the modern Russian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Mikhailovna Pasovets

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poverty acts as an indicator of insufficiency and deficit of economic resources of the population; its boundaries serve as a demarcation line between people’s adaptation to social and economic changes and their maladjustment. The construction of a socio-demographic portrait of the poor, reflecting its recent dynamics and the current state helps identify the key risks of poverty and their stability in the modern Russian conditions. It is difficult for certain social categories to adapt. The specificity of socio-economic differentiation of the population in the modern Russian society is connected with the persistence of the stratification profile defined by the unequal distribution of money income among the population groups during the period of reforms. Raised standards of living of most population in the 2000s led to the drastic reduction in absolute poverty, defined by the boundaries of income below the subsistence minimum. However, nowadays, according to the objective indicators of the income amount, the tenth part of the Russians is considered as the poor. The population’s income is still insufficient; it testifies the presence of poverty risks for some categories of the population in the modern Russian conditions. The analysis of the dynamics and state of the objective sources of poverty shows that the high poverty rates are observed in small towns (with the population being equal to 50–100 thousand inhabitants and up to 50 thousand people and rural settlements and refer to children and youth under 30, the unemployed and economically inactive population. Besides, the working poor employed in industries get low wages

  17. Research on Participatory Poverty Index in North Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In terms of current life style, living and production conditions and hygienic and educational condition, we select 8 indices, such as annual net income of farmers per capita, annual grain yield per capita, total power of agricultural machinery per capita, dropout rate of school children and so on, to establish index system of determining the poor village in North Jiangsu. By selecting Lianqun Village in Suining County of Xuzhou City, Mawa Village in Siyang County of Suqian City, Chuanxing Village in Guanyun County of Lianyungang City, Xiaozhu Village in Hongze County of Huai’an City, Fengda Village in Xiangshui County of Yancheng City as the representative villages, after the discussion and consultation of the masses and the village cadres of all villages, we get the measuring results of weight. Through the field survey, investigation and interview in the selected regions, we get the relevant data, and then we conduct standardization processing, so as to get the index value that can comprehensively reflect the characteristics of poverty. According to the index data that have been standardized, by using participatory poverty index formula for calculation, we get the values that can explain the poverty degree of the respondents. We sequence the representative poor villages in this region according to the poverty degree from high to low, and the result is as follows: Mawa Village, ianqun Village, Chuanxing Village, Xiaozhu Village, and Fengda Village. It indicates that in terms of the operability of theory and technique, the participatory poverty index can better recognize the poor villages, so that it lays solid foundation for rationally and effectively using the limited poverty alleviation resources.

  18. Poverty is Not Just an Indicator: The Relationship Between Income, Poverty, and Child Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Ajay; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we review the evidence on the effects of poverty and low income on children's development and well-being. We argue that poverty is an important indicator of societal and child well-being, but that poverty is more than just an indicator. Poverty and low income are causally related to worse child development outcomes, particularly cognitive developmental and educational outcomes. Mechanisms through which poverty affects these outcomes include material hardship, family stress, parental and cognitive inputs, and the developmental context to which children are exposed. The timing, duration, and community context of poverty also appear to matter for children's outcomes-with early experiences of poverty, longer durations of poverty, and higher concentrations of poverty in the community leading to worse child outcomes.

  19. Poverty and the Labour Market in Indonesia: Employment Trends across the Wealth Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and the Labour Market in Indonesia: Employment Trends across the Wealth Distribution’, isamong Indonesia’s first papers on the relationship between poverty and the labour market. It providesa detailed analysis of employment indicators (labour force participation rates, hours worked, and typeand sector of employment) for the period 2000-2012 across the entire wealth distribution, by location,gender and various sociodemographic characteristics.Despite high economic growth rates, the cr...

  20. The violence of poverty victimizes children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jailer, T

    1999-01-01

    While war, torture, and sexual violence threaten children's health, poverty is the most dangerous and widespread threat to children. However, while societies may react strongly to the most apparent forms and instances of violence against children, they fail to take the measures needed to effectively reduce the prevailing levels of poverty afflicting the world's children. For example, in 1998, the global starvation rate among children reached its 600-year peak; in Africa, 15% of children die before reaching age 5 years; and 200 million children under age 5 years are malnourished, with half of all deaths in that age group due to malnutrition. Lack of water, clothing, shelter, food, or medicine causes about 16.5 million deaths annually. Furthermore, current global military spending has reached $781 billion/year, more than the total income of the poorest 45% of the global population, while current annual world spending on education is only $80 billion. The world is becoming an increasingly hostile place for most people, but especially for children. Yet, as global economic and political conditions increasingly endanger children and their families, young people seem to be noticed only as certain kinds of problems.

  1. Effect of intervention on clinic visiting rate of woman with gynecological diseases after disease census among retired or poverty-stricken women%退休及生活困难女性妇女病普查后就诊干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽玲; 沈晔; 何萍; 黄璧琨; 孙雄

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价社区医生督促就诊措施对上海市长宁区江苏社区退休及生活困难女性妇女病普查后就诊率的干预效果.方法 采用前瞻性干预研究设计和整群抽样方法,利用妇科普查和入户调查相结合的方法,收集714名退休及生活困难女性相关信息进行分析.结果 江苏社区2008年妇女病普查患病并接受基线随访的退休及生活困难女性共714例,普查后半年内就诊率为36.27%;社区医生上门督促后1年左右再次接受调查的共681例,就诊率为54.48%;生活困难女性基线就诊率(13.04%)低于退休女性(37.87%);受教育程度为大专及以上或初中者督促后就诊率较高,分别为48.84%和33.33%;自感疾病严重程度和基线就诊率、督促后就诊率均呈正相关(OR=2.45,95%CI=1.82~3.30;OR=5.10,95%CI=3.21~8.10).结论 退休及生活困难女性妇女病普查检出率高,就诊率低,社区医生督促就诊对于提高就诊率有一定效果.%Objective To evaluate the effect of intervention on improving chinic visiting rate of women with gynecolological diseases after disease census among retired or poverty-stricken women in a community of Shanghai.Methods The prospective intervention study was executed in 714 subjects selected with cluster sampling from all retired or poverty-stricken women registered in the community.Data were collected through a questionnaire survey and physical examination.Results Among the 714 women with at least one gynecological disease,36.27% sought medical treatment during six months after the disease survey.After a face-to-face intervention on clinic visit by community doctor,54.48% of the women sought medical treatment.A decreased clinic visiting baseline rate was detected in the poverty-stricken women( 13.04% ).An increased clinic visiting rate after the intervention of community doctor was observed in the women with education of college and above(48.84% ) and middle school (33.33%).There was a

  2. Poverty and inequality issues in Albania: trends and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Myftaraj (Tomori) Elena

    2010-01-01

    Poverty and inequality are complex and widespread phenomena. Poverty is an indicator and the main factor of inequality, so reduction of poverty is one of the biggest challenges for economic and social consolidation of a country. There are different concepts of poverty, in this paper we are focused on the concept of absolute poverty. The main objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis on the trends of poverty and inequality indicators, as well as an analysis on the reduction of poverty ...

  3. Poverty and inequality issues in Albania: trends and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Myftaraj (Tomori) Elena

    2010-01-01

    Poverty and inequality are complex and widespread phenomena. Poverty is an indicator and the main factor of inequality, so reduction of poverty is one of the biggest challenges for economic and social consolidation of a country. There are different concepts of poverty, in this paper we are focused on the concept of absolute poverty. The main objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis on the trends of poverty and inequality indicators, as well as an analysis on the reduction of poverty ...

  4. Time poverty in Brazil: measurement and analysis of its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Lopes Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes well-being on an individual level, through the allocation of work hours done by adults and children and thus it measures time poverty in Brazil. In order to achieve such measurement, poverty indicators such as Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT were adapted into a time poverty mode. Additionally, an analysis of its determinants was also conducted. Among other findings, the fact that women (either children and adult ones are the time-poorest individuals in urban or rural areas. Another unfortunate finding is that the high rate of time poverty among children, numerically 16,1% is not far from the adult rate which is of 19,7%. The overall composite time poor individual profile is of an African-Brazilian adult woman of little education, not necessarily income poor and residing in an urban area of the northeast region, living in a household of few people, she is the mother of children who are younger than 14 years old.

  5. Poverty and fatal accidental drug overdoses of cocaine and opiates in New York City: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuk, P M; Tardiff, K; Leon, A C; Hirsch, C S; Stajic, M; Portera, L; Hartwell, N

    1997-05-01

    This ecological study examines the association of the poverty status of urban communities in New York City with their mortality rates of accidental drug overdoses. Mean annual age-adjusted rates of drug overdoses involving cocaine, opiates, or both (n = 1,684) were calculated for each of 59 residential community districts in New York City for 1990-1992. A linear regression analysis was performed to test the association of the mortality rate with the poverty status of the district as measured by the proportion of the district living below the 1989 U.S. poverty line. Poverty status accounted for 69% of the variance in the drug overdose mortality rates of communities (p poverty status of communities in New York City.

  6. Mean consumption, poverty and inequality in rural India in the 60th round of the National Sample Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Raghbendra; Gaiha, Raghav; Sharma, Anurag

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on mean consumption, poverty (all three FGT measures) and inequality during 2004 for rural India using National Sample Survey (NSS) data for the 60th Round. Mean consumption at the national level is much higher than the poverty line. However, the Gini coefficient is higher than in recent earlier rounds. The headcount ratio is 22.9 per cent. Mean consumption, all three measures of poverty and the Gini coefficient are computed at the level of 20 states and 63 agro-climatic zones in these 20 states. It is surmised that despite impressive growth rates deprivation is pervasive, pockets of severe poverty persist, and inequality is rampant.

  7. The Impact of Sectorial Economic Growth on Poverty and Social welfare in Provinces of Iran (2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoofeh Farahmand

    2013-07-01

    Iran's disappointingly low rate of poverty reduction and high welfare between the 2000 and 2007 was not due only to weak economic growth — though this was certainly key. It also reflected a low growth elasticity of poverty reduction, consistent with the country's high level of inequality. In this paper, we investigated three possible sets of factors that determine the distributional component of poverty reduction and more social welfare. We did find marked differences in the poverty-reducing effect of growth across different sectors, with growth in the service sector being consistently more pro-poor than either in agriculture or industry sectors.

  8. Do we understand the linkages between economic growth, poverty targets and poverty reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Jensen, Stig Eduard Breitenstein

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on poverty trends in Africa, looking at the argument for a correspondence between economic growth and poverty reduction. It questions whether a link between economic growth and poverty reduction can be established. We first look at the general picture...... economic growth and poverty reduction; second, that collection and interpretation of poverty data could be biased, with the World Bank, for instance, having an interest in showing improvements in poverty reduction in Africa; and, finally, that the paucity of data needs, at the very least, to be recognised...

  9. Poverty and health sector inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities.

  10. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  11. Re-Visiting the Crime-and-Poverty Paradigm: An Empirical Assessment with Alternative Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The common sense notion of the crime-and-poverty synergy is widely used by many people. It influences policy directions and some researchers have used empirical works on the matter without testing its premise. The current study uses national data from Jamaica on 1) inflation, 2) unemployment, 3) poverty, 4) gross domestic product per capita growth, and the 5) exchange rate to test the crime-and-poverty phenomenon, and establish models that can be used to explain violent crimes. Data from 1989...

  12. Poverty and Corruption in Latin America, Callenges for a Sustainable Development Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Estefanía Carballo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of corruption on country-level economic performance are part of a dynamic debate in the social sciences, concerning the measure and monitoring of corruption. In Latin America, the coexistence of high poverty levels with high economic growth rates continues to be a puzzling situation that may be partly explained by corruption and institutional quality indicators. This study discusses the links between poverty and corruption, by constructing an econometric model that compares corruption measurements with poverty and development indicators for Latin America, for the 1998-2008 decade.

  13. Adjusted Poverty Measures and the Distribution of Title I Aid: Does Title I Really Make the Rich States Richer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.; Taylor, Lori; Levin, Jesse; Chambers, Jay; Blankenship, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Federal and state governments in the United States make extensive use of student poverty rates in compensatory aid programs like Title I. Unfortunately, the measures of student poverty that drive funding allocations under such programs are biased because they fail to reflect geographic differences in the cost of living. In this study, we construct…

  14. On the Robustness of Poverty Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Nhate, Virgulino; Silva, Patricia Castro Da

    Monitoring of poverty requires timely household budget data. However, such data are not available as frequently as needed for policy purposes. Recently, statistical methods have emerged to predict poverty overtime by combining detailed household consumption and expenditure data with more frequent...... data collected from other surveys. In this paper we compare poverty predictions for Mozambique using different source data to test the robustness of the predicted poverty statistics. A critical element in this exercise of predicting poverty overtime is the stability of the parameters that determine...... household consumption. We find that the assumption of stable consumption determinants does not hold for Mozambique during the time period examined. We also examine what drives the resulting predicted poverty statistics. The paper then considers the policy implications of these findings for Mozambique...

  15. Education for the Eradication of Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Oriahi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible education for the eradication of poverty in Nigeria. It defines poverty as a state pf shortage or deficiency of meeting basic needs. Majors causes of poverty are overpopulation, illiteracy, unemployment, environmental degradation and government insensitive to the welfare of the people. Effects of poverty include homelessness, malnutrition and starvation, illness, crime, violence and antisocial behaviour like Internet Fraud (Yahoo business and Advance Fee Fraud Populace (419. Some poverty eradication strategies highlighted include: (i Organisation of international workshops on eradication of poverty, (ii Respect for human rights, (iii Quality basic education for girls (iv Meaningful contributions by NGOs, (v Provision of jobs for the people. Some recommendations are made for the way forward.

  16. Anti-Poverty Strategies for the UK: Poverty and Crime Review

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, CS; Kingston, S

    2014-01-01

    This review of the literature about how and why poverty and crime influence one another, and the benefits to crime reduction of reducing poverty, looks at the implications for practical policies and strategies.

  17. Multidimensional Poverty and Health Status as a Predictor of Chronic Income Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal analysis of Wave 5 to 10 of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia dataset was undertaken to assess whether multidimensional poverty status can predict chronic income poverty. Of those who were multidimensionally poor (low income plus poor health or poor health and insufficient education attainment) in 2007, and those who were in income poverty only (no other forms of disadvantage) in 2007, a greater proportion of those in multidimensional poverty continued to be in income poverty for the subsequent 5 years through to 2012. People who were multidimensionally poor in 2007 had 2.17 times the odds of being in income poverty each year through to 2012 than those who were in income poverty only in 2005 (95% CI: 1.23-3.83). Multidimensional poverty measures are a useful tool for policymakers to identify target populations for policies aiming to improve equity and reduce chronic disadvantage.

  18. [Understanding homicides in Latin America: poverty or institutionalization?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Homicides occur the world over, but they are not homogeneously distributed by geographical areas (continents, countries, regions), either over long or short periods of time, or in social groups, namely age, gender, social class or ethnicity. Why are there more homicides in some countries than in others? Why do killings increase in some countries, while they decrease in others? There are two fundamental schools of thought for social explanations of crime and violence: those attributing its origins to poverty and inequality and those blaming institutionalization or social norms. To discuss these theories, this paper analyzes and compares the changes in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil in the first decade of the twenty-first century, where the homicide rate has decreased, increased and remained the same, respectively. Using the measurement of six variables (poverty, inequality, unemployment, national wealth, human development and the rule of law) and the technique of trajectory analysis, the results revealed that institutionalization is more to blame for the change than poverty and inequality. The text concludes that poverty and inequality affect crime and homicides, although not directly, but mediated by the institutions instead.

  19. Relationship between oral health in children and poverty related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squassi, Aldo; Mauro, Silvia; Mauro, María José; Sánchez, Gabriel; Bordoni, Noemí

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the variables related to poverty and its influence on oral health in children living in a suburban area ofBuenos Aires, Argentina. The study population consisted of 1,049 children. 579 children at social risk (Group I) were recruited from five neighborhoods with critical lacks (Katzman, 1989) and divided into 2 subgroups according to age: (A) preschool children and (B) school children. 470 preschool and school children from the same district but living in homes without critical lacks served as controls (Group II). The following variables associated with poverty were analyzed: (a) parents' instructional level, (b) employment conditions, and (c) accessibilty to regular oral health care. Group I comprised children from five neighborhoods categorized according to the incidence rate of each variable. Clinical examinations were performed under similar conditions by three calibrated investigators. DMFS, dmfs, total DMFS + dmfs, DS + ds, Care Index and Loe & Silness plaque index were recorded and analyzed using Students t test, ANOVA and Chi square test (level of significance p poverty-related variables rose. The highest number of children with high cariogenic risk was observed in neighborhoods with the highest social risk (c2 = 30.48; p poverty-related variables seemed to be associated with factors that play a role in the dental caries development process in school and preschool children living in the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires.

  20. Poverty and inequity in adolescent health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Gustavo A

    2009-12-01

    Although poverty is not a new phenomenon, currently it has peculiar characteristics: globalization, inequity, new features in education, exclusion, gender inequalities, marginalization of native peoples and migrations, difficulties found by different sectors to have access to technology, and unemployment. These characteristics are seen not only in countries considered to be developing nations, but affect the whole world. The present international financial crisis, this time originating in industrialized countries, represents an aggravating factor, the consequences of which are still difficult to estimate. It has a particular impact on adolescents and young people in terms of health as a whole, mortality rates, violence, nutrition, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, mental health, and disabilities, all being aggravated by the difficulties of access to ap propriate health services. Social capital is seriously affected, and this entails a strong and deleterious impact not only on present generations but also on future ones. It is a challenge that cannot be ignored.

  1. Poverty among the Indigenous Peoples of Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Jamieson

    1999-01-01

    This report is part of a larger project undertaken by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) designed to obtain information which will assist the planning of poverty alleviation programs in a number of countries in Latin America. The specific aim of this report is to identify the conditions of poverty experienced by indigenous peoples in Nicaragua, to outline as far as possible the structural causes of this poverty, and to recommend measures which might be taken to alleviate it.

  2. Small Area Estimation of Poverty Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Juan-Albacea, Zita

    2009-01-01

    In response to high demands for lower level poverty estimates, the National Statistical Coordination Board releases provincial estimates, in addition to the national and regional, starting with the 1997 FIES. However, estimates of the coefficients of variation (CV) of several provincial estimates indicate that the resulting poverty measures are not reliable. Making a decision based on unreliable poverty statistics is very risky especially if the decision to be made relates to the welfare of p...

  3. Cultural diversity and anti-poverty policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Michèle; Small, Mario Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how anti-poverty policy has considered the role of culture and how it ought to do so. While some have explained poverty as a function of the presumed cultural deficiency or distinctiveness of the poor, we suggest that these explanations have not been convincing and that policy requires a broader and more sophisticated understanding of the relationship between culture and behaviour. In fact, we suggest that cultural differences may be positively employed in comprehensive anti-poverty strategies.

  4. Trading Out of Poverty: Some Major Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikić, Mia

    2000-01-01

    What are the ways in which trade (trade liberalisation) may have impact on poverty? This paper looks at some of the findings of the analytical literature on trade-poverty linkages that operate through the impact of trade on income distribution, and through the impact of trade on economic growth. This paper further asks the question whether trade effects on poverty depend on a particular type of trade liberalisation. In particular, it exposes the weaknesses of non-reciprocal trade liberalisati...

  5. Biodiversity conservation and the eradication of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Aveling, Ros; Brockington, Dan; Dickson, Barney; Elliott, Jo; Hutton, Jon; Roe, Dilys; Vira, Bhaskar; Wolmer, William

    2004-11-12

    It is widely accepted that biodiversity loss and poverty are linked problems and that conservation and poverty reduction should be tackled together. However, success with integrated strategies is elusive. There is sharp debate about the social impacts of conservation programs and the success of community-based approaches to conservation. Clear conceptual frameworks are needed if policies in these two areas are to be combined. We review the links between poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation and present a conceptual typology of these relationships.

  6. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas. The economic theory of crime demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime. The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  7. POVERTY AND LAND POLICY IN CAMBODIA

    OpenAIRE

    Engvall, Anders; Kokko, Ari

    2007-01-01

    Slow agricultural development has restrained economic growth and poverty alleviation in Cambodia. The country's volatile history has left a legacy of weak tenure security and large areas of underutilized land. This study estimates the impact of access to land on poverty in a logistic regression framework using household survey data. Increased access to land is shown to significantly lower the risk of household poverty. Tenure security, land improvements and irrigation strengthens this effect....

  8. Does Inequality Matter for Poverty Reduction? Evidence from Pakistan’s Poverty Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Jamal

    2006-01-01

    The paper explores the linkages between poverty, growth and inequality in the context of Pakistan. Time series macro data are used for the period 1979 to 2002. Consistent poverty and inequality measures are interpolated to facilitate the estimation of poverty elasticity with respect to growth and inequality in a multivariate regression framework. The paper also attempts to find out macroeconomic and structural correlates of inequality. The empirical findings—high poverty elasticity with respe...

  9. Poverty, the Underclass, and Immigration: Another Look at the Debate on Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The current popular debate on poverty focuses on the underclass. Poverty is considered, in this context, a problem of unskilled, uneducated individuals or of groups ofpeople whose lifestyles mire them in poverty. In this article, the author argues that the focus on the underclass, and subsequent use of individually and culturally focused explanations for poverty, skew our understanding of the problem and divert our attention from appropriate policy responses. Using evidence from four differen...

  10. Impact of animal health programmes on poverty reduction and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradere, J P

    2017-04-01

    Based on data from publications and field observations, this study analyses the interactions between animal health, rural poverty and the performance and environmental impact of livestock farming in low-income countries and middle-income countries. There are strong statistical correlations between the quality of Veterinary Services, livestock productivity and poverty rates. In countries with effective Veterinary Services, livestock growth stems mainly from productivity gains and poverty rates are the lowest. Conversely, these analyses identify no statistical link between the quality of Veterinary Services and increased livestock production volumes. However, where animal diseases are poorly controlled, productivity is low and livestock growth is extensive, based mainly on a steady increase in animal numbers. Extensive growth is less effective than intensive growth in reducing poverty and aggravates the pressure of livestock production on natural resources and the climate.

  11. Azerbaijan Republic; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews Azerbaijan’s State Program on Poverty Reduction and Economic Development 2003–2005 (SPPRED). The Poverty Reduction Program in Azerbaijan has attracted an extensive and high degree of interest, matching its complexity and scope. The main objective of the SPPRED is to define and measure poverty in Azerbaijan using a variety of indicators, identify the causes of poverty, and develop a strategy to address these causes. The role of a participatory dimension in the SPPRED is ...

  12. PARADOX OF POVERTY IN VILLAGE Ubud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sudipa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research raises poverty as a social reality in the middle of the sparkling tourism in Ubud Village . This study focused on the discussion : ( 1 why is there poverty , ( 2 what efforts the government and other agencies to reduce poverty , and ( 3 how the effects of poverty are emerging . This study used qualitative methods . Data obtained through observation , interviews , and documentation . The results showed , poverty in the village of Ubud , which is caused by external factors such as government policy reference data, which is not clear , the lack of proper diagnosis , addressing poverty is not integrated and overlapping , and the failure of tourism development policies . External factors supported internal factors , namely the economic constraints , resources , and socio-cultural pressures , lifestyle , consumer behavior , asset ownership , land , and the cost of customs and rituals . Government efforts made ??through the program financially and non- financially poverty reduction through policy or regulation , mentoring , and training . NGOs make efforts to non - financially as a companion , mediator , facilitator and prepare sosial.Dampak mapping poverty in the village of Ubud is to reduce public confidence in the government , social conflict , and economic conflicts . The impact on tourism is tourism failing to provide social welfare . The impact for the community is resulting in social inequality , conflict , rising crime , and the inheritance of poverty

  13. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  14. Measuring Poverty in order to Eradicate It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Damon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, the UN established its Millennium Development Goals, with the notable aim of halving extreme poverty by 2015. That same year, the European Union launched its Lisbon strategy, containing an injunction to “make a decisive impact on the eradication of poverty by 2010”. Since 2007, France has set a national target of reducing poverty by one third over five years. These proactive policies call, in all three cases, for technical elucidation to define and describe poverty. Each of the three scales – French, European and international – has its own approaches and methods of quantification. And yet their similarities are more significant than their differences.

  15. Poverty PhDs: Funds of Knowledge, Poverty, and Professional Identity in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Manning, Jill Michelle; Chun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the common deficit approach, this self-study explores the relationship between the funds of knowledge possessed by people of poverty and their development of professional identity in academia. All three authors have moved beyond conditions of financial poverty, but all find that the mental conditions of poverty persist. We conclude…

  16. Poverty dynamics in Germany: Evidence on the relationship between persistent poverty and health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Katja; Roosen, Jutta; Jensen, Helen H

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have found poverty to be related to lower levels of health due to poor health behavior such as unhealthy eating, smoking or less physical activity. Longer periods of poverty seem to be especially harmful for individual health behavior. Studies have shown that poverty has a dynamic character. Moreover, poverty is increasingly regarded as being a multidimensional construct and one that considers more aspects than income alone. Against this background this paper analyzes the relationship between health behavior and persistent spells of income poverty as well as a combined poverty indicator using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2000-2010). Next to cross-sectional logistic regression models we estimate fixed-effects models to analyze the effect of persistent poverty on dietary behavior, tobacco consumption, and physical activity. Cross-sectional results suggest that persistent poverty is related to poor health behavior, particularly regarding tobacco consumption and physical activity. Results also show that multidimensional and dynamic aspects of poverty matter. Complementary panel analyses reveal negative effects for the combined poverty indicator only for dietary behavior in the total sample. However, by analyzing the sample by gender we identify further effects of persistent poverty on health behavior. The analyses show that not only do individuals in poverty but also those in precarious situations show health-damaging behavior more often.

  17. Poverty PhDs: Funds of Knowledge, Poverty, and Professional Identity in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Manning, Jill Michelle; Chun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the common deficit approach, this self-study explores the relationship between the funds of knowledge possessed by people of poverty and their development of professional identity in academia. All three authors have moved beyond conditions of financial poverty, but all find that the mental conditions of poverty persist. We conclude…

  18. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  19. Geoinformatics for the Mapping of Nexus Between Poverty and Land Degradation in Drylands of Thar Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Mahesh

    2012-07-01

    Poverty and land degradation are major problems in majority of world dry lands, where meagre vegetative coverage (of forests and trees) contribute significantly to rural livelihoods. In order to eradicate poverty in the dry lands, it is important to protect the land from deforestation, fragmentation, degradation, drought and sometimes flash floods. Satellite remote sensing is a critical need for India - for spatial and temporal inter-linking of poverty and land degradation nexus and its prioritization. Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) is often used to generate and apply knowledge in the complex local context. Connecting natural resources and ecosystem services with attributes of poverty is amenable through Remote Sensing and GIS. Such linkages in a typical local context are important to recognize while building rural assets and natural resources conservation leading to poverty alleviation. A large proportion of the poor in the Rajasthan state live in resource poor western region who lack productive assets (especially land) and also lack adequate livelihoods skills or capacities due to illiteracy. People are inadequately organized to assert their rights and utilize available resources and services. The state also continues to be plagued by high levels of gender and caste discrimination (World Bank, 2007). Incidence of Poverty: The number of population below poverty line in Rajasthan in 2004-05 were 22.1 percent. The corresponding figures for rural areas are 18.7 percent. In urban areas, the number of poor people are 32.9 percent. Rural poverty situation is significantly better than urban poverty. (HDR, 2008) Despite the fact that poverty rates in Rajasthan are lower than the national average, the incidence of poverty in Western Rajasthan is nevertheless high. The incidence of poverty varies between 11.2% in Jodhpur to as much as 35.2% in Jalore. The poor households suffer from both lack of resources and the means to access them, which

  20. Poverty among Young Children in Black Immigrant, US-Born Black, and Non-Black Immigrant Families: The Role of Familial Contexts. Discussion Paper Series. DP 2010-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and US-born Blacks, and among Black and non-Black children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than US-born Black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among…

  1. Arthritis in the family practice setting: associations with education and community poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Leigh F; Shreffler, Jack; Mielenz, Thelma; Schoster, Britta; Kaufman, Jay S; Xiao, Changfu; Randolph, Randy; Sloane, Philip D

    2008-07-15

    To examine associations of self-reported arthritis in 25 urban and rural family practice clinics with education (individual socioeconomic status) and community poverty (community socioeconomic status). A total of 7,770 patients at 25 family practice sites across North Carolina self-reported whether they had arthritis. Education was measured as less than a high school (HS) degree, a HS degree, and more than a HS degree. The US Census 2000 block group poverty rate (percentage of households in poverty in that block group) was grouped into low, middle, and high tertiles. We assumed heterogeneity by race (non-Hispanic white and African American) for the effects of these sociodemographic variables, and therefore stratified by race. Multilevel analyses were performed using a 2-level mixed logistic model to examine the independent associations and joint effects of education and poverty with self-reported arthritis as the outcome, adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. White participants with less than a HS degree living in block groups with high poverty had 1.55 times the odds (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.10-2.17) of reporting arthritis compared with white participants with more than a HS degree and low poverty rates. African American participants with less than a HS degree and high poverty rates had 2.06 times the odds (95% CI 1.16-3.66) of reporting arthritis compared with African American participants with more than a HS degree and low poverty rates. In the family practice setting, both disadvantaged white and African American participants showed increased odds of self-reported arthritis, with stronger associations in African Americans.

  2. Water poverty and rural development: Evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matshe, I

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use...

  3. Poverty alleviation with economic growth strategy: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty alleviation with economic growth strategy: Prospects and challenges in ... by making a choice between growth-promoting policies and poverty-focused ... poverty through a broadly-based growth process with an explicit orientation to ...

  4. 新形势下新疆国家级贫困县的贫困类型与扶贫对策%Study on Poverty Types and Countermeasures of State Poverty Countries in Xinjiang Under New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金鹤; 崔登峰

    2011-01-01

    It seems long-term, arduous, complex and especial to alleviate poverty for state poverty countries in Xinjiang.Due to the special geographical environment, and ethnic composition, poverty is not only an economic problem in Xinjiang, but also social and political issues. This study found that most of state poverty countries located in the three south Xinjiang districts, there are higher poverty rate, minorities account for a higher proportion of poor population, and have high fiscal deficit, very prominent contradictions of unbalanced payments, as well as a strong dependence of superiors' finance. The paper classified state poverty countries in Xinjiang into six categories: ecological poverty, regional poverty, ethnic poverty, cultural and educational poverty, poverty caused by market competition, and institutional poverty, and on this basis, the paper discusses relevant countermeasures, such as effectively integrating various resources of poverty alleviation, poverty alleviation by empowerment, industrial poverty alleviation, technological poverty alleviation, the equalization of public services and so on.%新疆国家级贫困县的扶贫开发工作在新形势下具有长期性、艰巨性、复杂性和特殊性.缘于特殊的地理环境和民族构成,反贫困在新疆不仅是经济问题,同时也是社会问题和政治问题.研究发现,新疆国家级贫困县绝大多数都分布在南疆三地州,贫困率较高,少数民族占贫困人口比重居高不下,财政均出现高额赤字,收支矛盾极为突出,对上级财政有着极强的依赖性.新疆国家级贫困县的贫困类型及原因分为六类:生态贫困、地域贫困、民族贫困、文化教育贫困、市场竞争引致性贫困和制度性贫困,并在此基础上从有效整合各种扶贫资源、赋权武扶贫、产业扶贫、科技扶贫、公共服务均等化等方面提出扶贫对策.

  5. Enhancing Dental Students' Understanding of Poverty Through Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampiris, Lewis N; White, Alex; Sams, Lattice D; White, Tiffany; Weintraub, Jane A

    2017-09-01

    Dental students should develop an understanding of the barriers to and frustrations with accessing dental care and maintaining optimal oral health experienced by persons with limited resources rather than blaming the patient or caregiver. Developing this understanding may be aided by helping students learn about the lives of underserved and vulnerable patients they will encounter not only in extramural rotations, but throughout their careers. The aim of this study was to determine if dental students' understanding of daily challenges faced by families with low income changed as a result of a poverty simulation. In 2015 and 2016, an experiential poverty simulation was used to prepare third-year dental students at one U.S. dental school for their upcoming required community-based rotations. In 2015, United Way staff conducted the simulation using the Missouri Community Action Poverty Simulation (CAPS); in 2016, faculty members trained in CAPS conducted the simulation using a modified version of the tool. In the simulation, students were assigned to family units experiencing various types of hardship and were given specific identities for role-playing. A retrospective pretest and a posttest were used to assess change in levels of student understanding after the simulation. Students assessed their level of understanding in five domains: financial pressures, difficult choices, difficulties in improving one's situation, emotional stressors, and impact of community resources for those living in poverty. The survey response rates in 2015 and 2016 were 86% and 74%, respectively. For each of the five domains, students' understanding increased from 58% to 74% per domain. The majority reported that the exercise was very valuable or somewhat valuable (74% in 2015, 88% in 2016). This study found that a poverty simulation was effective in raising dental students' understanding of the challenges faced by low-income families. It also discovered that framing the issues in the

  6. The Role of Public Health Insurance in Reducing Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children.

  7. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S

    2016-02-01

    China's economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households.

  8. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households. PMID:26855470

  9. Poverty and development thinking:synthesis or uneasy compromise?

    OpenAIRE

    David Hulme

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines how the concept of poverty has waxed and waned within development thought and how these fluctuations have shaped development policy and action towards, or away from, direct goals of poverty reduction or eradication. It provides an overview of poverty in social thought; examines the contestations over how poverty analysis is positioned in development theory; charts the conceptual contestations around poverty; presents a brief history of poverty in development thoug...

  10. Determinants Of Poverty During Transition: Household Survey Evidence From Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Brück, Tilman; Danzer, Alexander M.; Muravyev, Alexander; Weißhaar, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes the incidence, the severity and the determinants of household poverty in Ukraine during transition using two comparable surveys from 1996 and 2004. We measure poverty using income and consumption and contrast the effects of various poverty lines. Poverty in both periods follows some of the determinants commonly identified in the literature, including greater poverty among households with children and with less education. We also identify specific features of poverty in tran...

  11. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  12. Using Asset Poverty Measures to Understand Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Traps and Farmer Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverpool, Lenis Saweda

    2009-01-01

    Effective poverty reduction programs require careful measurement of poverty status. Commonly used consumption or income-based classifications of poverty aggregate together households that are persistently poor with those who are only in poverty due to passing conditions. They also classify as non-poor households that are at risk of falling into…

  13. Using Asset Poverty Measures to Understand Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Traps and Farmer Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverpool, Lenis Saweda

    2009-01-01

    Effective poverty reduction programs require careful measurement of poverty status. Commonly used consumption or income-based classifications of poverty aggregate together households that are persistently poor with those who are only in poverty due to passing conditions. They also classify as non-poor households that are at risk of falling into…

  14. Money income and poverty status in the United States: 1987 (advance data from the March 1988 Current Population Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welniak, E J; Littman, M S

    1988-08-01

    This report presents 1987 data on the income and poverty status of persons and families in the US. Data were drawn from the March 1988 Current Population Survey that studied 60,000 households nationwide. Income and poverty estimates in this report are based solely on money income before taxes and exclude noncash benefits such as food stamps, Medicare, medicaid, public housing, and other employer-provided fringe benefits. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) In 1987, median family income was $30,850, a 1% increase from 1986. This is the 5th consecutive year this figure has increased. 2) Median income of families with a female householder, no husband present, increased from $14,146 in 1986 to $14,620 in 1987, a 3.4% increase; this is the 2nd significant annual increase since 1979. 3) Real per capita income increased to $12,290 in 1987, a 1.6% increase over 1986. 4) The 32.5% of persons below the poverty level stayed at about the same number from 1986 to 1987. The poverty rate also stayed at about the same level, 13.6% in 1986 and 13.5% in 1987. 5) Both the number of poor and the poverty rate have declined since 1983 but remain above their recent low-point in 1978. 6) In 1987, 10.5% of Whites were in poverty, a decrease of .5% from 1986; 33.1% of Blacks were in poverty, an increase of 2%. 7) The Hispanic poverty rate showed no significant change, while the number in poverty increased by 353,000. 8) The poverty rate among persons living on farms was 12.6% in 1987, a decline of 7%.

  15. Halving poverty in South Africa: Growth and distributional aspects ; distributional implications of halving poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tregenna, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Declaration commits to halving extreme poverty between 2000 and 2015. The South African government has set a goal of halving poverty by 2014, although the meaning of this goal has not yet been defined. This article specifies government's stated target of halving poverty by 2014 in terms of specific measures of the poverty gap and poverty headcount ratio, using income and expenditure survey microdata. With the poverty line as defined here, approximately half the S...

  16. Information and Communication Technology for Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharama, Motilal

    2005-01-01

    It has been estimated that over 700 million of the world's poor live in Asia-Pacifiui region i.e., those who earn $1 or less a day. Nearly one of three Asians is poor. It is claimed by multilateral agencies that the incidence of poverty (proportion of people below the poverty line) is slightly declining. Others question this claim and argue that…

  17. Cultural Diversity and Anti-Poverty Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Michele; Small, Mario Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how anti-poverty policy has considered the role of culture and how it ought to do so. While some have explained poverty as a function of the presumed cultural deficiency or distinctiveness of the poor, we suggest that these explanations have not been convincing and that policy requires a broader and more sophisticated…

  18. Alternative weighting structures for multidimensional poverty assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavapozzi, Danilo; Han, Wei; Miniaci, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    A multidimensional poverty assessment requires a weighting scheme to aggregate the well-being dimensions considered. We use Alkire and Foster’s (2011a) framework to discuss the channels through which a change of the weighting structure affects the outcomes of the analysis in terms of overall poverty

  19. Poverty, Education and Work: Some Introductory Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Ana

    2007-01-01

    The article argues that poverty must be understood within a human rights approach, moving beyond a narrow economic definition. Recognising the multidimensional character of poverty also leads to acknowledge that there are no universal answers. Solutions must be culturally determined and this poses one of the major challenges for adult education…

  20. Computing poverty measures with survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Van Kerm

    2009-01-01

    I discuss estimation of poverty measures from household survey data in Stata and show how to derive analytic standard errors that take into account survey design features. Where needed, standard errors are adjusted for the estimation of the poverty line as a fraction of the mean or median income. The linearization approach based on influence functions is generally applicable to many estimators.

  1. The Private Sector and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) is to create opportunities for people to escape poverty and improve their lives. There is a subjective dimension to poverty which relates to peoples’ perceptions and translates into such basic human concerns as self-confidence, motivation, and hope. Successful development projects tap into this dimension and enhance the meaning peo...

  2. Young Children in Poverty: A Statistical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Neil G.; Li, Jiali; Song, Younghwan; Yang, Keming

    This document continues a series of statistical reports from the National Center for Children in Poverty about young child poverty in the United States. The highlights of this update include the current profile of extremely poor, poor, and near poor population of young children; an examination of the changing association between higher education…

  3. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  4. Participatory Child Poverty Assessment in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…

  5. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  6. Human Development, Inequality and Poverty: empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Seth; Antonio Villar

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the empirical findings surrounding the design of human development, inequality and poverty measures. We focus on the United Nations Development Program approach to those issues, in particular regarding the human development index and the multidimensional poverty index.

  7. Poverty - The road ahead. A theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. J. Meiring

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the role of the Church in combating poverty in South Africa. After a brief discussion of Biblical perspectives on poverty, an overview of the involvement of the Church throughout history, especially during the second half of the 20th century, is given.

  8. On Capability Approach, Poverty and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojiu Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The core of development is to face up with the challenge of the issue of poverty, which directly is associated with the ultimate goal of social, political and economic development. If the poverty has not been properly handled, development will be inefficient and unsustainable. This paper briefly indicates the main idea of Amartya Sen’s capability approach, then utilizing the approach to analyze poverty and the bottleneck in dealing such issues. It illustrates the inter-relationship of capability, poverty and corruption, and demonstrates that corruption is both the cause and the consequence of poverty and the failure of capability. When there corruption comes, the essential power to alleviate and eliminate poverty such as political accountability, transparency, engagement and openness are all spoiled and even wiped off. Political accountability, transparence, engagement are of great importance to both anti-corruption and poverty and promotion of capability. Economic aid for the poor and needy should be reinforced by fostering and promoting the capability of the poor and needy, so that the purpose of eliminating poverty and corruption could be achieved.

  9. Dynamics of Poverty and Wellbeing in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    Understanding change is critical to policy formulation. Who benefits, who ... The papers cover changes in consumption poverty, multi-dimensional poverty, food security .... The first two papers in this special issue examine cross-sectional trends and panel dynamics of .... Rather than using NFEs to supplement periods of low ...

  10. High-Flying High-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In discussing socioeconomic integration before audiences, the author is frequently asked: What about high-poverty schools that do work? Don't they suggest that economic segregation isn't much of a problem after all? High-poverty public schools that beat the odds paint a heartening story that often attracts considerable media attention. In 2000,…

  11. Women Principals Leading Learning at "Poverty's Edge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The author profiles two women principals of color who have successfully enhanced student learning in high-poverty schools. In their leadership narratives, the principals address how the complexity of poverty affects their work, how they affirm the worth and dignity of all, how they influence beliefs and attitudes of staff, why they think their…

  12. Impact of poverty on women's health.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Women's health is determined not only by biology but also by social context. While the health of both men and women is adversely affected by poverty, a higher proportion of women suffer from its effects because of increasing "feminization of poverty." The extent of this phenomenon, its multiple roots, and the role physicians could play in addressing it are discussed.

  13. Women Principals Leading Learning at "Poverty's Edge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The author profiles two women principals of color who have successfully enhanced student learning in high-poverty schools. In their leadership narratives, the principals address how the complexity of poverty affects their work, how they affirm the worth and dignity of all, how they influence beliefs and attitudes of staff, why they think their…

  14. Ninez y Pobreza (Childhood and Poverty).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didonet, Vital

    1992-01-01

    Reviews data on child poverty worldwide, providing statistics on 20 poverty-related problems. Examines effects of economic factors (i.e., unemployment, wage stagnation, inflation, and internal migration) and political policies (i.e., military spending over health and education) on child well-being, arguing that families and children themselves…

  15. Asset-Based Measurement of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, Andrea; Magri, Silvia; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is generally defined as income or expenditure insufficiency, but the economic condition of a household also depends on its real and financial asset holdings. This paper investigates measures of poverty that rely on indicators of household net worth. We review and assess two main approaches followed in the literature: income-net worth…

  16. Alternative weighting structures for multidimensional poverty assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavapozzi, Danilo; Han, Wei; Miniaci, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    A multidimensional poverty assessment requires a weighting scheme to aggregate the well-being dimensions considered. We use Alkire and Foster’s (2011a) framework to discuss the channels through which a change of the weighting structure affects the outcomes of the analysis in terms of overall poverty

  17. Ninez y Pobreza (Childhood and Poverty).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didonet, Vital

    1992-01-01

    Reviews data on child poverty worldwide, providing statistics on 20 poverty-related problems. Examines effects of economic factors (i.e., unemployment, wage stagnation, inflation, and internal migration) and political policies (i.e., military spending over health and education) on child well-being, arguing that families and children themselves…

  18. Familial Influences on Poverty Among Young Children in Black Immigrant, U.S.-born Black, and Nonblack Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants. PMID:21491186

  19. Familial influences on poverty among young children in black immigrant, U.S.-born black, and nonblack immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2011-05-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants.

  20. TOURISM AND POVERTY IN BADUNG REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Patera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and poverty’s phenomenon had already been known since the birth of human civilization. In the 1980s poverty became a serious concern of practitioners and scholars in various part of the world, including Indonesia. Poverty is not only understood in understanding as an abstract concept, but also as a reality of economic injustice and inability to meet basic human needs in some rich countries but also in many developing countries in the world. The problem of poverty is a fundamental and tourism is one of the many ways to solve this. The objective of this paper is to study the role of tourism to poverty alleviation including: 1 to analyze the influence of tourism development toward economic performance; 2 to analyze the effect of economic performance on poverty eradication; 3 to analyze the influence of tourism on poverty alleviation; 4 to formulate a strategy to increase tourism's role in poverty alleviation in Badung Regency. This study uses quantitative approach supported by secondary data and qualitative approach using primary data obtained through observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Research was conducted in South Badung Regency in the most developed tourism growth and considered the richest district among all regencies in Bali Regencies. Various attempts have been made to alleviate poverty, however have not been able to resolve poverty problems. The grand theory of this study refers to Neoliberalism Theory, supported by Social Democratic Theory and Empowerment Theory. Neoliberalism emphasizes that poverty as an individual problem and prosperity can only be achieved by achievement of economic growth through free market mechanism. According to Social Democratic Theory the emergence of poverty came from outside of the community itself. While the emphasis on the Empowerment Theory is in improving the ability of individual or communities to become indepedence on economic, social welfare and political right. Data