WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonmetals

  1. Metal-to-nonmetal transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hensel, Friedrich; Holst, Bastian

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to nonmetal-to-metal transitions. The original ideas of Mott for such a transition in solids have been adapted to describe a broad variety of phenomena in condensed matter physics (solids, liquids, and fluids), in plasma and cluster physics, as well as in nuclear physics (nuclear matter and quark-gluon systems). The book gives a comprehensive overview of theoretical methods and experimental results of the current research on the Mott effect for this wide spectrum of topics. The fundamental problem is the transition from localized to delocalized states which describes the nonmetal-to-metal transition in these diverse systems. Based on the ideas of Mott, Hubbard, Anderson as well as Landau and Zeldovich, internationally respected scientists present the scientific challenges and highlight the enormous progress which has been achieved over the last years. The level of description is aimed to specialists in these fields as well as to young scientists who will get an overview for their own work...

  2. Catalysis by nonmetals rules for catalyst selection

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Oleg V

    1970-01-01

    Catalysis by Non-metals: Rules of Catalyst Selection presents the development of scientific principles for the collection of catalysts. It discusses the investigation of the mechanism of chemosorption and catalysis. It addresses a series of properties of solid with catalytic activity. Some of the topics covered in the book are the properties of a solid and catalytic activity in oxidation-reduction reactions; the difference of electronegativities and the effective charges of atoms; the role of d-electrons in the catalytic properties of a solid; the color of solids; and proton-acid and proton-ba

  3. Metal/nonmetal diesel particulate matter rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomko, D.M. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Safety and Health Technology Center; Stackpole, R.P. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Triadelphia, WV (United States). Approval and Certification Center; Findlay, C.D. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Arlington, VA (United States). Metal/Nonmetal Safety and Health; Pomroy, W.H. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Duluth, MN (United States). Metal/Nonmetal North Central District

    2010-07-01

    The American Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground metal and nonmetal mines. The rule established an interim concentration limit for DPM of 400 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon, to be followed in 2004 by a final limit of 160 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon. The 2001 rule was challenged in federal court by various mining trade associations and mining companies. The rule was subsequently amended. This paper highlighted the major provisions of the 2006 final rule and summarized MSHAs current compliance sampling procedures. The concentration limit was changed to a permissible exposure limit and the sampling surrogate was changed from total carbon to elemental carbon. The MSHA published a new rule in 2006 which based the final limit on a miner's personal exposure rather than a concentration limit. The final limit was phased in using 3 steps over 2 years. This paper also discussed engineering controls and a recent MSHA report on organic carbon, elemental carbon and total carbon emissions from a diesel engine fueled with various blends of standard diesel and biodiesel. In May 2008, about two-thirds of all underground metal/nonmetal mines achieved and maintained compliance with the rule. 20 refs.

  4. Radiation damage in non-metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneham, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Work on the problem of radiation damage in non-metals over the past 25 years is reviewed with especial emphasis on the contribution made at AERE, Harwell and in particular by members of the Theoretical Physics Division. In the years between 1954 and the end of the 1960's the main thrust in the radiation damage of non-metals was model-building including devising defect models and mechanisms that were qualitatively acceptable, and compiling systematic data. The early 1970's made greater quantitative demands as computer techniques made theory more powerful. In many cases it was possible to predict defect properties accurately, so that one could distinguish between different defect models which were hard to tell apart by experiment alone. In the late 1970's the most important aspect has moved towards mechanisms of defect processes, especially in cases where experiment by itself is limited by timescale, by complexity, by the unintentional impurities inevitable in real crystals, or by the extreme conditions required. (UK)

  5. Nonmetal-metal transition in metal–molten-salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestrelli, P.-L.; Alavi, A.; Parrinello, M.; Frenkel, D.

    1996-01-01

    The method of ab initio molecular dynamics, based on finite-temperature density-functional theory, is used to study the nonmetal-metal transition in two different metal–molten-salt solutions, Kx(KCl)1-x and Nax(NaBr)1-x. As the excess metal concentration is increased the electronic density becomes

  6. Application of glass-nonmetals of waste printed circuit boards to produce phenolic moulding compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jie; Rao Qunli; Xu Zhenming

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using glass-nonmetals, a byproduct of recycling waste printed circuit boards (PCBs), to replace wood flour in production of phenolic moulding compound (PMC). Glass-nonmetals were attained by two-step crushing and corona electrostatic separating processes. Glass-nonmetals with particle size shorter than 0.07 mm were in the form of single fibers and resin powder, with the biggest portion (up to 34.6 wt%). Properties of PMC with glass-nonmetals (PMCGN) were compared with reference PMC and the national standard of PMC (PF2C3). When the adding content of glass-nonmetals was 40 wt%, PMCGN exhibited flexural strength of 82 MPa, notched impact strength of 2.4 kJ/m 2 , heat deflection temperature of 175 deg. C, and dielectric strength of 4.8 MV/m, all of which met the national standard. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed strong interfacial bonding between glass fibers and the phenolic resin. All the results showed that the use of glass-nonmetals as filler in PMC represented a promising method for resolving the environmental pollutions and reducing the cost of PMC, thus attaining both environmental and economic benefits

  7. Synthesis and Catalytic Applications of Non-Metal Doped Mesoporous Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Z. Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous titania (mp-TiO2 has drawn tremendous attention for a diverse set of applications due to its high surface area, interfacial structure, and tunable combination of pore size, pore orientation, wall thickness, and pore connectivity. Its pore structure facilitates rapid diffusion of reactants and charge carriers to the photocatalytically active interface of TiO2. However, because the large band gap of TiO2 limits its ability to utilize visible light, non-metal doping has been extensively studied to tune the energy levels of TiO2. While first-principles calculations support the efficacy of this approach, it is challenging to efficiently introduce active non-metal dopants into the lattice of TiO2. This review surveys recent advances in the preparation of mp-TiO2 and their doping with non-metal atoms. Different doping strategies and dopant sources are discussed. Further, co-doping with combinations of non-metal dopants are discussed as strategies to reduce the band gap, improve photogenerated charge separation, and enhance visible light absorption. The improvements resulting from each doping strategy are discussed in light of potential changes in mesoporous architecture, dopant composition and chemical state, extent of band gap reduction, and improvement in photocatalytic activities. Finally, potential applications of non-metal-doped mp-TiO2 are explored in water splitting, CO2 reduction, and environmental remediation with visible light.

  8. Mining Waste Classification and Quantity of Non-Metal Minesin Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Burger

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining is an important human activity that creates wealth and supplies materials for maintaining standard of living and further human development. However, mining has also negative impacts on the environment and society. One of them is the production of mining waste throughout the entire mining cycle, in particular in the mine development and operation /production stage.Due to the EU Directive 2006/21/EC on the management of waste from the extractive industries and its implementation in Member state, estimation on quality and quantity of mining waste from active non-metal mines in Slovenia was carried out. In the selected mines mining and processing was closely examined. With material flow analysis quantity and characteristics of mining waste were defined for several mines of different commodities.Data on mining waste were afterwards generalized in order to get an overall country evaluation on mining waste “production” of non-metal mines.Mining waste as a result of mining and beneficiation processes in non-metal mines of Slovenia is either inert or non-hazardous. Most of the mining waste is used for mine reclamation running simultaneously with the production phase. The largest amounts of mining waste per unit produced are created in dimension stone industry. Since the dimensionstone production is small, the waste amount is negligible. Large quantities of mining waste are produced in crushed stone and, sand and gravel operations, because aggregate production is pretty large with regard to other non-metals production in Slovenia. We can therefore conclude that large quantities of mining waste from non-metal mines, which are mostly used in reclamation and for side products, do not represent danger to the environment.

  9. ‘… a metal conducts and a non-metal doesn't’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, P. P.; Lodge, M. T. J.; Hensel, F.; Redmer, R.

    2010-01-01

    In a letter to one of the authors, Sir Nevill Mott, then in his tenth decade, highlighted the fact that the statement ‘… a metal conducts, and a non-metal doesn’t’ can be true only at the absolute zero of temperature, T=0 K. But, of course, experimental studies of metals, non-metals and, indeed, the electronic and thermodynamic transition between these canonical states of matter must always occur above T=0 K, and, in many important cases, for temperatures far above the absolute zero. Here, we review the issues—theoretical and experimental—attendant on studies of the metal to non-metal transition in doped semiconductors at temperatures close to absolute zero (T=0.03 K) and fluid chemical elements at temperatures far above absolute zero (T>1000 K). We attempt to illustrate Mott’s insights for delving into such complex phenomena and experimental systems, finding intuitively the dominant features of the science, and developing a coherent picture of the different competing electronic processes. A particular emphasis is placed on the idea of a ‘Mott metal to non-metal transition’ in the nominally metallic chemical elements rubidium, caesium and mercury, and the converse metallization transition in the nominally non-metal elements hydrogen and oxygen. We also review major innovations by D. A. Goldhammer (Goldhammer 1913 Dispersion und absorption des lichtes) and K. F. Herzfeld (Herzfeld 1927 Phys. Rev. 29, 701–705. (doi:10.1103/PhysRev.29.701)) in a pre-quantum theory description of the metal–non-metal transition, which emphasize the pivotal role of atomic properties in dictating the metallic or non-metallic status of the chemical elements of the periodic table under ambient and extreme conditions; a link with Pauling’s ‘metallic orbital’ is also established here. PMID:20123742

  10. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E. Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-01

    All historical periods of Kosovo—Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian—are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  11. Damage parameters for non-metals in a high energy neutron environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, G.F.; Berry, H.C.; Lazareth, O.W.; Goland, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Simulation of radiation damage induced in monatomic and binary non-metals by FMIT and fusion neutrons is described. Damage produced by elastic scattering of recoil atoms and by ionization-assisted processes has been evaluated using the damage program DON. Displacement damage from gamma rays has been evaluated by using the technique of Oen and Holmes. A comparison of damage for an anticipated FMIT radiation environment generated by a coupled n-γ transport calculations and a fusion spectrum is made. Gamma-induced displacement damage is sufficiently small that it is dominated by neutron-induced recoil processes. Ionization-assisted displacements may be important depending upon the ionization cross section of the particular non-metal under consideration

  12. Comparative study of metal and non-metal ion implantation in polymers: Optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resta, V.; Quarta, G.; Farella, I.; Maruccio, L.; Cola, A.; Calcagnile, L.

    2014-01-01

    The implantation of 1 MeV metal ( 63 Cu + , 107 Ag + , 197 Au + ) and non-metal ( 4 He + , 12 C + ) ions in a polycarbonate (PC) matrix has been studied in order to evaluate the role of ion species in the modification of optical and electrical properties of the polymer. When the ion fluence is above ∼1 × 10 13 ions cm −2 , the threshold for latent tracks overlapping is overcome and π-bonded carbon clusters grow and aggregate forming a network of conjugated C=C bonds. For fluences around 1 × 10 17 ions cm −2 , the aggregation phenomena induce the formation of amorphous carbon and/or graphite like structures. At the same time, nucleation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) from implanted species can take place when the supersaturation threshold is overcome. The optical absorption of the samples increases in the visible range and the optical band gap redshifts from 3.40 eV up to 0.70 eV mostly due to the carbonization process and the formation of C 0x clusters and cluster aggregates. Specific structures in the extinction spectra are observed when metal ions are selected in contrast to the non-metal ion implanted PC, thus revealing the possible presence of noble metal based NPs interstitial to the C 0x cluster network. The corresponding electrical resistance decreases much more when metal ions are implanted with at least a factor of 2 orders of magnitude difference than the non-metal ions based samples. An absolute value of ∼10 7 Ω/sq has been measured for implantation with metals at doses higher than 5 × 10 16 ions cm −2 , being 10 17 Ω/sq the corresponding sheet resistance for pristine PC

  13. Comparative study of metal and non-metal ion implantation in polymers: Optical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta, V., E-mail: vincenzo.resta@le.infn.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Quarta, G. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Farella, I. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems – Unit of Lecce, National Council of Research (IMM/CNR), Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Maruccio, L. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Cola, A. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems – Unit of Lecce, National Council of Research (IMM/CNR), Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Calcagnile, L. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The implantation of 1 MeV metal ({sup 63}Cu{sup +}, {sup 107}Ag{sup +}, {sup 197}Au{sup +}) and non-metal ({sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sup +}) ions in a polycarbonate (PC) matrix has been studied in order to evaluate the role of ion species in the modification of optical and electrical properties of the polymer. When the ion fluence is above ∼1 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2}, the threshold for latent tracks overlapping is overcome and π-bonded carbon clusters grow and aggregate forming a network of conjugated C=C bonds. For fluences around 1 × 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup −2}, the aggregation phenomena induce the formation of amorphous carbon and/or graphite like structures. At the same time, nucleation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) from implanted species can take place when the supersaturation threshold is overcome. The optical absorption of the samples increases in the visible range and the optical band gap redshifts from 3.40 eV up to 0.70 eV mostly due to the carbonization process and the formation of C{sub 0x} clusters and cluster aggregates. Specific structures in the extinction spectra are observed when metal ions are selected in contrast to the non-metal ion implanted PC, thus revealing the possible presence of noble metal based NPs interstitial to the C{sub 0x} cluster network. The corresponding electrical resistance decreases much more when metal ions are implanted with at least a factor of 2 orders of magnitude difference than the non-metal ions based samples. An absolute value of ∼10{sup 7} Ω/sq has been measured for implantation with metals at doses higher than 5 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}, being 10{sup 17} Ω/sq the corresponding sheet resistance for pristine PC.

  14. Enhancement of oxygen vacancies and solar photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide by incorporation of nonmetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Ashokrao B.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Pardeshi, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method and characterized by TG–DTA, XRD, SEM–EDX, XPS, UV–visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction data suggests the hexagonal wurtzite structure for modified ZnO crystallites and the incorporation of nonmetal expands the lattice constants of ZnO. The room temperature PL spectra suggest more number of oxygen vacancies exist in nonmetal-doped ZnO than that of undoped zinc oxide. XPS analysis shows the substitution of some of the O atoms of ZnO by nonmetal atoms. Solar photocatalytic activity of B-doped ZnO, N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO was compared by means of oxidative photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of Bisphenol A (BPA). B-doped ZnO showed better solar PCD efficiency as compare to N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO. The PCD of BPA follows first order reaction kinetics. The detail mechanism of PCD of Bisphenol A was proposed with the identification of intermediates such as hydroquinone, benzene-1,2,4-triol and 4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl) phenol. - Graphical Abstract: B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO synthesized by mechanochemical method were characterized by various techniques. Solar photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol-A is in the order of B-ZnO>N-ZnO>ZnO. Highlights: ► B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method. ► PL spectra suggest oxygen vacancies are in order of B-doped ZnO>N-doped ZnO>ZnO. ► Solar PCD efficiency is in order of B-doped ZnO>N-doped ZnO>ZnO for Bisphenol A.

  15. A first-principles study on the magnetic properties of nonmetal atom doped phosphorene monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiling; Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Baishun; Du, Xiaobo; Yan, Yu

    2015-07-07

    In order to induce magnetism in two-dimensional semiconductors for their applications in spintronic devices and novel chemical and electronic properties of semiconducting phosphorene, the geometrical structure, electronic and magnetic properties of doped phosphorene monolayers with a series of nonmetal atoms, including H, F, Cl, Br, I, B, C, Si, N, As, O, S and Se, were systematically investigated using first-principles calculations. The results show that although the substitutional doping of H, F, Cl, Br, I, B, N, O, S or Se results in large structural deformation at the doping sites of phosphorene monolayers, all neutral nonmetal atom doped systems are stable. The calculated formation energies reveal that the substitutional doping of numerous nonmetal atoms in phosphorene monolayer are possible under appropriate experimental conditions, and the charged dopants C(-), Si(-), S(+) and Se(+) are stable. Moreover, the substitutional doping of H, F, Cl, Br, I, B, N, As, C(-), Si(-), S(+) or Se(+) cannot induce magnetism in phosphorene monolayer due to the saturation or pairing of valence electrons of dopant and its neighboring P atoms, whereas ground states of neutral C, Si, O, S or Se doped systems are magnetic due to the appearance of an unpaired valence electron of C and Si or the formation of a nonbonding 3p electron of a neighboring P atom around O, S and Se. Furthermore, the magnetic coupling between the moments induced by two Si, O, S or Se are long-range anti-ferromagnetic and the coupling can be attributed to the hybridization interaction involving polarized electrons, whereas the coupling between the moments induced by two C is weak.

  16. Tunable redox potential of nonmetal doped monolayer MoS{sub 2}: First principle calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S. [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, China Jiliang University (China); Li, C., E-mail: canli1983@gmail.com [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, China Jiliang University (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University (China); Zhao, Y.F.; Gong, Y.Y.; Niu, L.Y.; Liu, X.J. [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, China Jiliang University (China)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Both E{sub CBM} and E{sub VBM} values are affected by the chemical valences of dopants, which also affect the redox potentials of specimens. Compared to the pristine monolayer MoS{sub 2}, the nonmetal ions with odd chemical valences [monovalent (H{sup +}, F{sup –}, Cl{sup –}, Br{sup –} and I{sup –}), trivalent (N{sup 3–}, P{sup 3–} and As{sup 3–}) and pentavalence (B{sup 5–})] enhance the oxidation potential and reduce the reduction potential of specimens, but the nonmetal ions with even chemical valences [divalent (O{sup 2–}, Se{sup 2–} and Te{sup 2–}) and quadravalent (C{sup 4–} and Si{sup 4–})] have the opposite effects on the redox potentials. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The newly formed chemical bonds affect the electronic distribution around the dopants and the nearby Mo atoms. • Compared to pristine monolayer MoS{sub 2}, the nonmetal ions with odd (even) chemical valences enhance (reduce) the oxidation potential and reduce (enhance) the reduction potential of specimens. • The lone pair electrons in nonmetal ions with odd chemical valences extra interact with the Mo ions which reduces the E{sub CBM} and E{sub VBM} values of specimens. - Abstract: Doping is an effective method to alter the electronic behavior of materials by forming new chemical bonds and bringing bond relaxation. With this aid of first principle calculations, the crystal configuration and electronic properties of monolayer MoS{sub 2} have been modulated by the nonmetal (NM) dopants (H, B, C, N, O, F, Si, P, Cl, As, Se, Br, Te and I), and the thermodynamic stability depending on the preparation conditions (Mo-rich and S-rich conditions) were discussed. Results shown that, the NM dopants substituted preferentially for S under Mo-rich condition, the electronic distribution around the dopants and the nearby Mo atoms are changed by the new formed Mo-NM bonds and bands relaxation. Compared to pristine monolayer MoS{sub 2}, the NM ions with odd

  17. Influence of nonmetals recycled from waste printed circuit boards on flexural properties and fracture behavior of polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yanhong; Shen Zhigang; Cai Chujiang; Ma Shulin; Xing Yushan

    2009-01-01

    Flexural strength and flexural modulus of the composites can be successfully improved by filling nonmetals recycled from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) into polypropylene (PP). By using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the influence of nonmetals on fracture behavior of PP composites is investigated by in situ flexural test. Observation results show that the particles can effectively lead to mass micro cracks instead of the breaking crack. The process of the crack initiation, propagation and fiber breakage dissipate a great amount of energy. As a result, the flexural properties of the composites can be reinforced significantly. Results of the in situ SEM observation and analysis to the dynamic flexural process supply effective test evidence for the reinforcing mechanism of the nonmetals/PP composites on the basis of the energy dissipation theory

  18. The nonmetal-metal transition in solutions of metals in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1997-04-01

    Solutions of metals in molten salts present a rich phenomenology: localization of electrons in disordered ionic media, activated electron transport increasing with metal concentration towards a nonmetal-metal (NM-M) transition, and liquid-liquid phase separation. A brief review of progress in the study of these systems is given in this article, with main focus on the NM-M transition. After recalling the known NM-M behaviour of the component elements in the case of expanded fluid alkali metals and mercury and of solid halogens under pressure, the article focuses on liquid metal - molten salt solutions and traces the different NM-M behaviours of the alkalis in their halides and of metals added to polyvalent metal halides. (author). 51 refs, 2 figs

  19. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no

  20. Metal-nonmetal oscillations in doped blue phosphorene: a first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Liwei; Cai, Xiaolin; Li, Xiaohua; Wang, Baoji; Yu, Weiyang; Zhao, Ruiqi

    2018-05-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT), we have systematically investigated the geometry structure and electronic properties of group IIIA, IVA, VA, and VIA atoms doped blue phosphorene, such as B‑, C‑, N‑, O‑, Al‑, Si- and S-doped blue phosphorene systems. We find that the electronic properties of blue phosphorene are drastically modified by the number of valence electrons in dopant atoms. An intriguing general rule of metal-nonmetal oscillations have been obtained that the dopant atoms from even group, such as IVA and VIA, lead to metal properties, while dopant atoms from odd group, such as IIIA and VA, give rise to semiconductor properties, which is different from traditional n or p doping effect in bulk case. This even–odd oscillating behavior is attributed to the peculiar bonding characteristics of blue phosphorene and the strong hybridization of sp orbitals between dopants and blue phosphorene. Then the underlying mechanism has been investigated with the electronic filling analysis. These results pave an intriguing way to tune the transport properties of electronic and photoelectronic devices based on blue phosphorene.

  1. 3D FDTD modelling of GPR: the effects of antenna polarisation on gpr signals from nonmetal pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiruddin Shaari

    2003-01-01

    A 3D finite-difference time domain (FDTD) modelling of ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been carried out in order to determine the effectiveness of the method when it is used in a ground survey for metal and nonmetal pipes. In particular, the effects of the relative orientation between the antenna polarisation and pipe length and the dielectric contrast between ground soil and pipes on the GPR signal strength are investigated. The results show that the parallel antenna-target is the preferred orientation for metal pipes while the normal or orthogonal arrangement is the preferred one for the nonmetal pipes. The dielectric contrast between medium and target also seems to affect the strength the GPR signals from the nines. (Author)

  2. Cleavage of hydrogen by activation at a single non-metal centre - towards new hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Sławomir J

    2015-05-28

    Molecular surfaces of non-metal species are often characterized by both positive and negative regions of electrostatic potential (EP) at a non-metal centre. This centre may activate molecular hydrogen which further leads to the addition reaction. The positive EP regions at the non-metal centres correspond to σ-holes; the latter sites are enhanced by electronegative substituents. This is why the following simple moieties; PFH2, SFH, AsFH2, SeFH, BrF3, PF(CH3)2 and AsF(CH3)2, were chosen here to analyze the H2 activation and its subsequent splitting at the P, As, S, Se and Br centres. Also the reverse H-H bond reforming process is analyzed. MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations were performed for systems corresponding to different stages of these processes. The sulphur centre in the SFH moiety is analyzed in detail since the potential barrier height for the addition reaction for this species is the lowest of the moieties analyzed here. The results of calculations show that the SFH + H2 → SFH3 reaction in the gas phase is endothermic but it is exothermic in polar solvents.

  3. Exposure of miners to diesel exhaust particulates in underground nonmetal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H J; Borak, J; Hall, T; Sirianni, G; Chemerynski, S

    2002-01-01

    A study was initiated to examine worker exposures in seven underground nonmetal mines and to examine the precision of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 5040 sampling and analytical method for diesel exhaust that has recently been adopted for compliance monitoring by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Approximately 1000 air samples using cyclones were taken on workers and in areas throughout the mines. Results indicated that worker exposures were consistently above the MSHA final limit of 160 micrograms/m3 (time-weighted average; TWA) for total carbon as determined by the NIOSH 5040 method and greater than the proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLV limit of 20 micrograms/m3 (TWA) for elemental carbon. A number of difficulties were documented when sampling for diesel exhaust using organic carbon: high and variable blank values from filters, a high variability (+/- 20%) from duplicate punches from the same sampling filter, a consistent positive interference (+26%) when open-faced monitors were sampled side-by-side with cyclones, poor correlation (r 2 = 0.38) to elemental carbon levels, and an interference from limestone that could not be adequately corrected by acid-washing of filters. The sampling and analytical precision (relative standard deviation) was approximately 11% for elemental carbon, 17% for organic carbon, and 11% for total carbon. An hypothesis is presented and supported with data that gaseous organic carbon constituents of diesel exhaust adsorb onto not only the submicron elemental carbon particles found in diesel exhaust, but also mining ore dusts. Such mining dusts are mostly nonrespirable and should not be considered equivalent to submicron diesel particulates in their potential for adverse pulmonary effects. It is recommended that size-selective sampling be employed, rather than open-faced monitoring, when using the NIOSH 5040 method.

  4. Insight into destabilization mechanism of Mg-based hydrides interstitially co-doped with nonmetals: a DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Zhu, Luying; Yang, Fusheng; Zhang, Zaoxiao; Nyamsi, Serge N.

    2018-04-01

    Mg-based metal hydride is one of the most promising materials for hydrogen energy storage. However, the high thermal stability due to strong bonding effects between the atoms limits its practical application. In order to reduce the thermal stability, a method of doping double nonmetals into Mg-based system was proposed in this study. The density functional theory (DFT) calculation results showed that the thermal stabilities of both the B-N co-doped Mg-based alloy and its hydride are reduced compared with pure Mg-based system. The relative formation enthalpies of the alloy and its hydride are 0.323 and 0.595 eV atom-1, respectively. The values are much higher than those for either singly B- or N-doped Mg-based system. The more significant destabilization by doping double nonmetal elements than single element is mainly attributed to a dual effect in weakening Mg-Ni/NiH4 bonds, caused by criss-cross interactions between B-Ni and N-Mg bonds.

  5. Clinical application of removable partial dentures using thermoplastic resin-part I: definition and indication of non-metal clasp dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, Kenji; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Yatabe, Masaru; Arakawa, Ichiro; Arita, Masahiro; Ino, Satoshi; Kanamori, Toshikazu; Kawai, Yasuhiko; Kawara, Misao; Komiyama, Osamu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Hosoki, Maki; Masumi, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Mutsuo; Aita, Hideki; Ono, Takahiro; Kondo, Hisatomo; Tamaki, Katsushi; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Tsukasaki, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Masanori; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    This position paper proposes a definition and naming standard for removable partial dentures (RPDs) using thermoplastic resin, and presents a guideline for clinical application. A panel of 14 experts having broad experience with clinical application of RPDs using thermoplastic resin was selected from members of the Japan Prosthodontic Society. At a meeting of the panel, "non-metal clasp denture" was referred as the generic name of RPDs with retentive elements (resin clasps) made of thermoplastic resin. The panel classified non-metal clasp dentures into two types: one with a flexible structure that lacks a metal framework and the other having a rigid structure that includes a metal framework. According to current prosthetic principles, flexible non-metal clasp dentures are not recommended as definitive dentures, except for limited cases such as patients with a metal allergy. Rigid non-metal clasp dentures are recommended in cases where patients will not accept metal clasps for esthetic reasons. Non-metal clasp dentures should follow the same design principles as conventional RPDs using metal clasps. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Co-recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards to manufacture reproduction composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhixing; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards (WPCB) to manufacture reproduction composites (RC), with the aim of co-recycling these two waste resources. The composites were prepared in a twin-crew extruder and investigated by means of mechanical testing, in situ flexural observation, thermogravimatric analysis, and dimensional stability evaluation. The results showed that the presence of nonmetal particles significantly improved the mechanical properties and the physical performance of the RC. A loading of 30 wt% nonmetal particles could achieve a flexural strength of 72.6 MPa, a flexural modulus of 3.57 GPa, and an impact strength of 15.5 kJ/m2. Moreover, it was found that the application of maleic anhydride-grafted ABS as compatilizer could effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between the ABS plastic and the nonmetal particles. This research provides a novel method to reuse waste ABS and WPCB nonmetals for manufacturing high value-added product, which represents a promising way for waste recycling and resolving the environmental problem.

  7. Current knowledge of US metal and nonmetal miner health: Current and potential data sources for analysis of miner health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, K. M.; Halldin, C. N.; Wood, J.; Storey, E.; Johns, D.; Laney, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about the current health status of US metal and nonmetal (MNM) miners, in part because no health surveillance systems exist for this population. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a program to characterize burden of disease among MNM miners. This report discusses current knowledge and potential data sources of MNM miner health. Recent national surveys were analyzed, and literature specific to MNM miner health status was reviewed. No robust estimates of disease prevalence were identified, and national surveys did not provide information specific to MNM miners. Because substantial gaps exist in the understanding of MNM miners' current health status, NIOSH plans to develop a health surveillance program for this population to guide intervention efforts to reduce occupational and personal risks for chronic illness. PMID:25658684

  8. Static, dynamic and electronic properties of expanded fluid mercury in the metal-nonmetal transition range. An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CalderIn, L; Gonzalez, L E; Gonzalez, D J

    2011-01-01

    Fluid Hg undergoes a metal-nonmetal (M-NM) transition when expanded toward a density of around 9 g cm -3 . We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for several thermodynamic states around the M-NM transition range and the associated static, dynamic and electronic properties have been analyzed. The calculated static structure shows a good agreement with the available experimental data. It is found that the volume expansion decreases the number of nearest neighbors from 10 (near the triple point) to around 8 at the M-NM transition region. Moreover, these neighbors are arranged into two subshells and the decrease in the number of neighbors occurs in the inner subshell. The calculated dynamic structure factors agree fairly well with their experimental counterparts obtained by inelastic x-ray scattering experiments, which display inelastic side peaks. The derived dispersion relation exhibits some positive dispersion for all the states, although its value around the M-NM transition region is not as marked as suggested by the experiment. We have also calculated the electronic density of states, which shows the appearance of a gap at a density of around 8.3 g cm -3 . (paper)

  9. Time-gated luminescence assay using nonmetal probes for determination of protein kinase activity-based disease markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Marje; Padrik, Peeter; Vaasa, Angela; Saar, Kristi; Leppik, Krista; Soplepmann, Jaan; Uri, Asko

    2012-03-15

    A novel nonmetal optical probe ARC-1063 whose long-lifetime luminescence is induced by association with the target protein kinase is used for the measurement of the concentration of catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc) in complicated biological solutions. High affinity (K(D) = 10 pM toward PKAc) and unique optical properties of the probe enable its application for the measurement of picomolar concentrations of PKAc in the presence of high concentrations of other proteins. The described assay is applicable in the high-throughput format with the instrument setups designed for lanthanide-based time-gated (time-resolved) luminescence methods. The assay is used for demonstration that extracellular PKAc (ECPKA) is present in plasma samples of all healthy persons and cancer patients but great care must be taken for procedures of treatment of blood samples to avoid disruption, damage, or activation of platelets in the course of plasma (or serum) preparation and conservation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of photocatalytic activity of metal and non-metal doped Tio2 for Hydrogen production enhancement - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Aqilah Sulaiman, Siti; Zaky Noh, Mohamad; Nadia Adnan, Nurul; Bidin, Noriah; Razak, Siti Noraiza Ab

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide TiO2 is well-known materials that has become an efficient photocatalyst for environmental sustainability. Known as solar driven catalysis, TiO2 is considered as the most promising way to alleviate environmental issues caused by the combustion of fossil fuels and to meet worldwide demands for energy. Much effort has been concerned on TiO2 band gap modification to become a visible-light-activated photocatalysts of TiO2 because it can only be excited by UV light irradiation due to its large band gap. Modifications like metals and nonmetals doping has been proposed in the past decades. This reviews survey recent advanced preparation methods of doped-TiO2 including various types of doping methods for various types of dopants and provides general review on further modifications. The characterizations techniques used in order to determine the structural, morphological and optical properties of modified TiO2 is also discussed. Further, a new method of TiO2 modification is proposed in this mini review paper.

  11. Morphology, mechanical and thermal oxidative aging properties of HDPE composites reinforced by nonmetals recycled from waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuangqiao; Bai, Shibing; Wang, Qi

    2016-11-01

    In this study nonmetals recycled from waste printed circuit boards (NPCB) is used as reinforce fillers in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. The morphology, mechanical and thermal oxidative aging properties of NPCB reinforced HDPE composites are assessed and it compared with two other commercial functional filler for the first time. Mechanical test results showed that NPCB could be used as reinforcing fillers in the HDPE composites and mechanical properties especially for stiffness is better than other two commercial fillers. The improved mechanical property was confirmed by the higher aspect ratio and strong interfacial adhesion in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. The heat deflection temperature (HDT) test showed the presence of fiberglass in NPCB can improve the heat resistance of composite for their potential applications. Meanwhile, the oxidation induction time (OIT) and the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results showed that NPCB has a near resistance to oxidation as two other commercial fillers used in this paper. The above results show the reuse of NPCB in the HDPE composites represents a promising way for resolving both the environmental pollution and the high-value reuse of resources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Radiation damage measurements on nonmetals made during irradiation with 1 to 3 MeV electrons. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the fundamental processes producing radiation damage in nonmetals a unique facility has been developed for making optical absorption, luminescence and other measurements during irradiation with 1 to 3 MeV electrons. Measurements are made with a 13 meter long double beam spectrometer arranged so that all sensitive components, e.g., phototubes, are outside of the irradiation chamber. A computer provdies automatic control and data recording. A 256 point absorption and a 256 point luminescence spectra are recorded as often as every 40 seconds in either the 200-400 or 400-800 mm wavelength range. Samples are irradiated, at temperatures between 20 and 900 C, in an electronically controlled chamber containing He exchange gas and equipped with thin Havar windows to transmit the electron beam and high purity fused silica windows for the spectrophotometer beams. Radiation induced luminescence and absorption in the chamber windows, etc. is eliminated by the double beam spectrophotometer. Studies made with this equipment demonstrate clearly that many of the processes occurring during damage formation are transient

  13. Clinical application of removable partial dentures using thermoplastic resin. Part II: Material properties and clinical features of non-metal clasp dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, Kenji; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Yatabe, Masaru; Arakawa, Ichiro; Arita, Masahiro; Ino, Satoshi; Kanamori, Toshikazu; Kawai, Yasuhiko; Kawara, Misao; Komiyama, Osamu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Hosoki, Maki; Masumi, Shin-ichi; Yamauchi, Mutsuo; Aita, Hideki; Ono, Takahiro; Kondo, Hisatomo; Tamaki, Katsushi; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Tsukasaki, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Masanori; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2014-04-01

    This position paper reviews physical and mechanical properties of thermoplastic resin used for non-metal clasp dentures, and describes feature of each thermoplastic resin in clinical application of non-metal clasp dentures and complications based on clinical experience of expert panels. Since products of thermoplastic resin have great variability in physical and mechanical properties, clinicians should utilize them with careful consideration of the specific properties of each product. In general, thermoplastic resin has lower color-stability and higher risk for fracture than polymethyl methacrylate. Additionally, the surface of thermoplastic resin becomes roughened more easily than polymethyl methacrylate. Studies related to material properties of thermoplastic resin, treatment efficacy and follow-up are insufficient to provide definitive conclusions at this time. Therefore, this position paper should be revised based on future studies and a clinical guideline should be provided. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution of nuclear analysis methods to the certification of BCR reference materials for non-metals in non-ferrous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, J.

    1979-01-01

    A number of reference materials for oxygen in different non-ferrous metals have been certified by BCR in the frame of a multidisciplinary Community project. The contribution of nuclear analysis methods is illustrated by several examples concerning the optimization of sample preparation techniques, the analysis of low and high oxygen non-ferrous metals and the extension of the program to other non-metals, especially nitrogen and carbon. (author)

  15. Implementation and application of a method for quantifying metals and non-metals in drainage water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Camila Goncalves Bof

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a waste generated in phosphoric acid production by the 'wet process'. The immense amount of phosphogypsum yearly produced (around 150 million tons) is receiving attention from environmental protection agencies all over the word, given its potential of contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for many decades, especially for agricultural application on cropland. Although the phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of impurities, such as metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb), non-metals (As and Se) and radioactive elements from natural series of 232 Th and 238 U. Therefore, its continuous application as an agricultural agent can result not just in soil contamination, but also contamination of the surface and groundwater due to the runoff and infiltration process. The concern associated with the contamination of aquatic environments increases; when water is used for human consumption, requiring progressive adoption of more restrictive limits. However, some of the conventional analytical techniques used to determine the maximum limit of contaminants in water have detection limits above the maximum limits established by the environmental legislation. This work was aimed to evaluate the mobility of metals and non-metals in soils and, consequently, the contamination of drainage water through greenhouse-scale leaching and transport of toxic elements from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum. Hence, methods were studied and implemented for determination of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb) using Furnace Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF AAS), as well as for non-metals (As and Se) using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (lCP-MS). Effects of different chemical modifiers on the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentration by GF AAS were also investigated. In general, it was observed that the metal and non-metal concentration were below than the actual detection limit of the equipment for all

  16. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Lubin, Jay H; Portengen, Lützen; Blair, Aaron; Attfield, Michael D; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2010-10-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a component of DE) levels were estimated based on REC data from monitoring surveys conducted in 1998-2001 as part of the DEMS investigation. These values were adjusted for underground workers by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration trends in the mines derived from models of historical CO (another DE component) measurements and DE determinants such as engine horsepower (HP; 1 HP = 0.746 kW) and mine ventilation. CO was chosen to estimate historical changes because it was the most frequently measured DE component in our study facilities and it was found to correlate with REC exposure. Databases were constructed by facility and year with air sampling data and with information on the total rate of airflow exhausted from the underground operations in cubic feet per minute (CFM) (1 CFM = 0.0283 m³ min⁻¹), HP of the diesel equipment in use (ADJ HP), and other possible determinants. The ADJ HP purchased after 1990 (ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)) was also included to account for lower emissions from newer, cleaner engines. Facility-specific CO levels, relative to those in the DEMS survey year for each year back to the start of dieselization (1947-1967 depending on facility), were predicted based on models of observed CO concentrations and log-transformed (Ln) ADJ HP/CFM and Ln(ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)). The resulting temporal trends in relative CO levels were then multiplied by facility/department/job-specific REC estimates derived from the DEMS surveys personal measurements to obtain historical facility/department/job/year-specific REC exposure estimates. The facility-specific temporal trends of CO levels (and thus the REC

  17. Characterization of near-infrared nonmetal atomic emission from an atmospheric helium microwave-induced plasma using a Fourier transform spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, J.; Van Tra, H.; Chi Tran, K.; Baudais, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach for using Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) for the detection of atomic emission from an atmospheric helium plasma has been developed and the results obtained are described. Among the different types of plasma source available, the atmospheric pressure microwave helium plasma appears to be an efficient excitation source for the determination of nonmetal species. The more complete microwave plasma emission spectra of Cl, Br, I, S, O, P, C, N, and He in the near-infrared region were obtained and their corrected relative emission intensities are reported. This makes qualitative identification simple, and aids in the quantitative analysis of atomic species. The accuracy of the emission wavelengths obtained with the Fourier transform spectrophotometer was excellent and the resolution provided by the FTS allowed certain adjacent emission lines to be adequate for analytical applications

  18. Adsorption of alkali, alkaline-earth, simple and 3d transition metal, and nonmetal atoms on monolayer MoS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. D. Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Single adsorption of different atoms on pristine two-dimensional monolayer MoS2 have been systematically investigated by using density functional calculations with van der Waals correction. The adatoms cover alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, main group metal, 3d-transition metals, coinage metal and nonmetal atoms. Depending on the adatom type, metallic, semimetallic or semiconducting behavior can be found in direct bandgap monolayer MoS2. Additionally, local or long-range magnetic moments of two-dimensional MoS2 sheet can also attained through the adsorption. The detailed atomic-scale knowledge of single adsorption on MoS2 monolayer is important not only for the sake of a theoretical understanding, but also device level deposition technological application.

  19. Adsorption of alkali, alkaline-earth, simple and 3d transition metal, and nonmetal atoms on monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X. D.; Fang, Y. M.; Wu, S. Q., E-mail: zzhu@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: wsq@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhu, Z. Z., E-mail: zzhu@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: wsq@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Single adsorption of different atoms on pristine two-dimensional monolayer MoS{sub 2} have been systematically investigated by using density functional calculations with van der Waals correction. The adatoms cover alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, main group metal, 3d-transition metals, coinage metal and nonmetal atoms. Depending on the adatom type, metallic, semimetallic or semiconducting behavior can be found in direct bandgap monolayer MoS{sub 2}. Additionally, local or long-range magnetic moments of two-dimensional MoS{sub 2} sheet can also attained through the adsorption. The detailed atomic-scale knowledge of single adsorption on MoS{sub 2} monolayer is important not only for the sake of a theoretical understanding, but also device level deposition technological application.

  20. Tailoring the electronic structure of β-Ga2O3 by non-metal doping from hybrid density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiyan; Guo, Yating; Dong, Hao; Zhou, Xin

    2015-02-28

    A systematic study using density functional theory has been performed for β-Ga2O3 doped with non-metal elements X (X = C, N, F, Si, P, S, Cl, Se, Br, and I) to evaluate the effect of doping on the band edges and photocatalytic activity of β-Ga2O3. The utilization of a more reliable hybrid density functional, as prescribed by Heyd, Scuseria and Ernzerhof, is found to be effective in predicting the band gap of β-Ga2O3 (4.5 eV), in agreement with the experimental result (4.59 eV). Based on the relaxed structures of X-doped systems, the defect formation energies and the plots of density of states have been calculated to analyze the band edges, the band gap states and the preferred doping sites. Our results show that the doping is energetically favored under Ga-rich growth conditions with respect to O-rich growth conditions. It is easier to replace the threefold coordinated O atom with non-metal elements compared to the fourfold coordinated O atom. X-doped systems (X = C, Si, P) show no change in the band gap, with the presence of discrete midgap states, which have adverse effect on the photocatalytic properties. The photocatalytic redox ability can be improved to a certain extent by doping with N, S, Cl, Se, Br, and I. The band alignments for Se-doped and I-doped β-Ga2O3 are well positioned for the feasibility of both photo-oxidation and photo-reduction of water, which are promising photocatalysts for water splitting in the visible region.

  1. NIOSH comments to DOL on MSHA's advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPR) metal and nonmetal mine safety and health, radiation standards by J. D. Millar, March 18, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The testimony presents the views of NIOSH with regard to specific issues raised by MSHA in a proposed rulemaking affecting metal and nonmetal mine safety and health, radiation standards. Results are included from epidemiological studies in which the relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters was examined. A quantitative risk assessment is also noted which will be considered in the development of a NIOSH recommended exposure limit for radon daughters. Specific issues addressed include risk assessment, particularly the relationship and the associated uncertainty between cumulative lifetime radon daughters exposure at or below 120 working level months and the lifetime risk of lung cancer or other biological response, and themethodology used to arrive at the risk relationship. The use of a nonthreshold model extrapolating from elevated exposure levels is considered along with modification of the risk relationship to account for cell repair or other factors. Questions concerning the latency period, cigarette smoking, exposure to thoron daughters, exposure to gamma radiation, and exposure to ore dusts are also addressed

  2. Kinetics, morphology and thermodynamics of the solid--liquid transition of non-metals. Progress report for period, 1 December 1976--30 November 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkerka, R.F.; Hartzell, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    Modeling of the process of Internal Centrifugal Zone Growth (ICZG) was completed. Both one-dimensional models (for infinitely long samples and induction coils) and two-dimensional models show similar S-curve instabilities on heating, but the two-dimensional models serve to define the shape of the molten zone. Molten zone shape was found to be a sensitive function of rf skin depth in the solid and induction coil geometry. Changes in these parameters lead to zone shapes which change from convex to concave. Practical guidelines were established for the suitability of the ICZG process by calculating a maximum rf frequency to obtain a suitable surface-to-center temperature difference in the sample and a minimum frequency to avoid heating instabilities. For there to be an allowable frequency range, it is necessary that 2hR/sub s//k greater than 1, where h is the surface heat transfer coefficient, R/sub s/ is the sample radius, and k is its thermal conductivity; this limits ICZG to poor conductors (nonmetals), except for very large samples and forced surface cooling. Experiments on silicon were used to verify the heating instability quantitatively. Internal susceptors were tried to heat oxides at low frequencies but led to local overheating and cracking. 2 figures, 2 tables

  3. Polaronic Nonmetal-Correlated Metal Crossover System β'-CuxV2O5 with Anharmonic Copper Oscillation and Thermoelectric Conversion Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Masashige; Sato, Takuma

    2017-12-01

    The crystal structures and electronic properties of β'CuxV2O5 are explored through measurements of X-ray four-circle diffraction, electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power, thermal conductivity, magnetization, and electron paramagnetic resonance. For various compositions with 0.243 ≤ x ≤ 0.587, the crystal structures are redetermined through the anharmonic approach of the copper displacement factors, where the anharmonicity is reduced with increasing Cu concentration. The electron transport for x ≤ 0.45 is nonmetallic due to polaron hopping and the random potential of Cu ions, while for x = 0.60, a correlated Fermi-liquid state appears with a Wilson ratio of 1.3 and a Kadowaki-Woods ratio close to the universal value for heavy-fermion systems. At around x = 0.50, the polaronic bandwidth may broaden so that the Hubbard subbands caused by the electron correlation will overlap. The nonmetallic composition in the proximity of the nonmetal-metal crossover shows a dimensionless thermoelectric power factor of 10-2 at 300 K, partly due to the anharmonic copper oscillation.

  4. The effects of nonmetal dopants on the electronic, optical and chemical performances of monolayer g–C{sub 3}N{sub 4} by first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S. [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Li, C., E-mail: canli1983@gmail.com [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Li, H.H.; Zhao, Y.F.; Gong, Y.Y.; Niu, L.Y.; Liu, X.J. [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, T. [College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The electronic structures have been altered by the newly formed C−NM bonds and the relaxed chemical bonds around them. • The optical absorption edge (and intensity) in visible-light range red-shifts 10–75 nm (and increases about 14%–71%) except O– and S– doped specimens. • The separation of the HOMO and LUMO of H–, B–, O–, S–, F– and As– doped specimens can effectively enhance the photocatalytic efficiency.The electronic structures have been altered by the newly formed C−NM bonds and the relaxed chemical bonds around them. • The optical absorption edge (and intensity) in visible-light range red-shifts 10–75 nm (and increases about 14%–71%) except O– and S– doped specimens. • The separation of the HOMO and LUMO of H–, B–, O–, S–, F– and As– doped specimens can effectively enhance the photocatalytic efficiency. - Abstract: Doping is an effective means to alter the electronic behavior of materials by forming new chemical bond and relaxing the surrounding chemical bonds. With the aid of first-principle studies, the effects of a series of nonmetal (NM) dopants on the geometric, thermodynamic, electronic and optical performances of monolayer g–C{sub 3}N{sub 4} have been investigated. Results shown that, all considered NM atoms except Br and I atoms can be introduced into the monolayer g–C{sub 3}N{sub 4} on account of the thermal stability, the supercell parameter and film thickness have been altered by the newly formed C−NM bonds and the relaxed chemical bonds around them, which have affected their electronic structure. The band gap values were altered less than ±0.14 eV. The optical absorption edge (and intensity) in visible light of all doped specimens red-shift 10–75 nm (and increase about 14%–71%) except for O– and S–doped specimens, and thus the NM dopants can enhance the visible-light response capability. Moreover, the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied

  5. The effects of nonmetal dopants on the electronic, optical and chemical performances of monolayer g–C_3N_4 by first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.; Li, C.; Li, H.H.; Zhao, Y.F.; Gong, Y.Y.; Niu, L.Y.; Liu, X.J.; Wang, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The electronic structures have been altered by the newly formed C−NM bonds and the relaxed chemical bonds around them. • The optical absorption edge (and intensity) in visible-light range red-shifts 10–75 nm (and increases about 14%–71%) except O– and S– doped specimens. • The separation of the HOMO and LUMO of H–, B–, O–, S–, F– and As– doped specimens can effectively enhance the photocatalytic efficiency.The electronic structures have been altered by the newly formed C−NM bonds and the relaxed chemical bonds around them. • The optical absorption edge (and intensity) in visible-light range red-shifts 10–75 nm (and increases about 14%–71%) except O– and S– doped specimens. • The separation of the HOMO and LUMO of H–, B–, O–, S–, F– and As– doped specimens can effectively enhance the photocatalytic efficiency. - Abstract: Doping is an effective means to alter the electronic behavior of materials by forming new chemical bond and relaxing the surrounding chemical bonds. With the aid of first-principle studies, the effects of a series of nonmetal (NM) dopants on the geometric, thermodynamic, electronic and optical performances of monolayer g–C_3N_4 have been investigated. Results shown that, all considered NM atoms except Br and I atoms can be introduced into the monolayer g–C_3N_4 on account of the thermal stability, the supercell parameter and film thickness have been altered by the newly formed C−NM bonds and the relaxed chemical bonds around them, which have affected their electronic structure. The band gap values were altered less than ±0.14 eV. The optical absorption edge (and intensity) in visible light of all doped specimens red-shift 10–75 nm (and increase about 14%–71%) except for O– and S–doped specimens, and thus the NM dopants can enhance the visible-light response capability. Moreover, the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of H

  6. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony to Department of Labor on the Mine Safety and Health Administration proposed rule: ionizing radiation standards for metal and nonmetal mines, August 13, 1987 by R. Niemeier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recommendations were offered for protecting workers against the health effects of ionizing radiation in metal and nonmetal mines. Available data demonstrating such health effects was reviewed and evidence supporting the technical feasibility of reducing the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) standard was presented. Five recent studies indicated a significant increase in lung cancer rates associated with radon progeny exposure in underground mines. Additional studies indicated an exposure/response relationship in uranium miners. The influence of smoking on the association between radon progeny exposure and lung cancer was cited. Evidence has indicated that exposure to radon progeny carries a potential risk of developing occupationally induced lung cancer. Risk-assessment data supported the conclusion that miners with the same characteristics as the United States Public Health Service uranium miners cohort and who accrue a cumulative occupational exposure of 120 working level months, would have a lung cancer excess lifetime risk of about 35 to 40 lung cancer deaths per 1000 exposed miners. Modern mining methods using dilution ventilation as well as bulkheading and backfilling techniques make it possible to achieve substantial reductions in the cumulative exposure to radon progeny. Information was provided on sampling strategy, control technology, ventilation systems, respirators, and medical surveillance programs

  7. Implementation and application of a method for quantifying metals and non-metals in drainage water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum; Implementacao e aplicacao de metodologia para dosagem de metais e nao metais em aguas de drenagem de solos adubados com fosfogesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Camila Goncalves Bof

    2010-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a waste generated in phosphoric acid production by the 'wet process'. The immense amount of phosphogypsum yearly produced (around 150 million tons) is receiving attention from environmental protection agencies all over the word, given its potential of contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for many decades, especially for agricultural application on cropland. Although the phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of impurities, such as metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb), non-metals (As and Se) and radioactive elements from natural series of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. Therefore, its continuous application as an agricultural agent can result not just in soil contamination, but also contamination of the surface and groundwater due to the runoff and infiltration process. The concern associated with the contamination of aquatic environments increases; when water is used for human consumption, requiring progressive adoption of more restrictive limits. However, some of the conventional analytical techniques used to determine the maximum limit of contaminants in water have detection limits above the maximum limits established by the environmental legislation. This work was aimed to evaluate the mobility of metals and non-metals in soils and, consequently, the contamination of drainage water through greenhouse-scale leaching and transport of toxic elements from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum. Hence, methods were studied and implemented for determination of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb) using Furnace Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF AAS), as well as for non-metals (As and Se) using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (lCP-MS). Effects of different chemical modifiers on the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentration by GF AAS were also investigated. In general, it was observed that the metal and non-metal concentration were below than the actual detection limit of the

  8. Selection of lixiviant System for the alkaline in-situ Leaching of uranium from an arkosic type of sandstone and measuring the dissolution behaviour of some metals and non-metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Y.; Shah, S.S.; Siddiq, M.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory simulation study was carried out to check the possibility of alkaline in-situ leaching of uranium from an arkosic type of sandstone recovered from a specific location at a depth of 300-500 m. The ore body was overlaying impervious clay shale below the water table. Different CO/sub 3/ containing soluble salts were tested as complexing agent of the UO/sup +2/ ions along with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ as oxidizing agent. The lixiviant system, comprising NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ as complexing agent along with H/Sub 2/O/sub 2/ as oxidizing agent in concentrations of 5 g/L and 0.5 g/L respectively, was found to be the most efficient for the leaching of uranium among the 25 different compositions employed. Along with uranium, the dissolution behaviour of 15 other metals, non-metals and radicals, including eight transition metals, was also observed in the lixiviant employed. These were Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO/sub 4/, CO/sub 3/, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mo. It was found that the leaching of uranium compared to non-transition et als/radicals followed the trend Cl > SO > U > Na > K > Mg > Ca > CO. The comparison of uranium leaching to the transition metals was in the order U > Cr > Mo > V > Ti > Cu > Zn > Mn > Fe. Physical parameters like pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and conductivity were also measured for the fresh and pregnant lixiviants. It was found that the leaching of uranium is directly related to the concentration of native soluble hexavalent uranium, contact time of the lixiviant and ore and to some extent with the total concentration of uranium as well as the porosity and permeability of the ore. (author)

  9. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: III. Interrelations between respirable elemental carbon and gaseous and particulate components of diesel exhaust derived from area sampling in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Yereb, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H; Blair, Aaron; Portengen, Lützen; Stewart, Patricia A; Attfield, Michael; Silverman, Debra T

    2010-10-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been implicated as a potential lung carcinogen. However, the exact components of DE that might be involved have not been clearly identified. In the past, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon oxides (CO(x)) were measured most frequently to estimate DE, but since the 1990s, the most commonly accepted surrogate for DE has been elemental carbon (EC). We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposure levels of respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, particularly lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners by back-extrapolating 1998-2001 REC exposure levels using historical measurements of carbon monoxide (CO). The choice of CO was based on the availability of historical measurement data. Here, we evaluated the relationship of REC with CO and other current and historical components of DE from side-by-side area measurements taken in underground operations of seven non-metal mining facilities. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the natural log-transformed (Ln)REC measurements with the Ln(CO) measurements was 0.4. The correlation of REC with the other gaseous, organic carbon (OC), and particulate measurements ranged from 0.3 to 0.8. Factor analyses indicated that the gaseous components, including CO, together with REC, loaded most strongly on a presumed 'Diesel exhaust' factor, while the OC and particulate agents loaded predominantly on other factors. In addition, the relationship between Ln(REC) and Ln(CO) was approximately linear over a wide range of REC concentrations. The fact that CO correlated with REC, loaded on the same factor, and increased linearly in log-log space supported the use of CO in estimating historical exposure levels to DE.

  10. 75 FR 49429 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... internal water pressures. Pressures beyond a certain level would lead to structural instability. In the 18... foundation and embankment material strengths, and stability analyses to verify that the slopes of the dam..., rationales, benefits to miners, technological and economic feasibility, impact on small mines, and supporting...

  11. Nonmetal effect on ordering structures in titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Ehm, V.T.; Savenko, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of oxygen and nitrogen atoms on formation of intermediate, cubic and trigonal ordering structures in the titanium carbide is studied through the roentgenography and neutron radiography methods. Metal atoms in the TiC 0.545 O 0.08 , TiC 0.545 N 0.09 samples under study are shifted from ideal positions in the direction from vacancies to metalloid atoms. In the intermediate cubic phase the values of the titanium atoms free parameter in both samples are identical, but they differ from analogous values in the titanium carbide

  12. Buckminsterfullerenes: a non-metal system for nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Makoto; Uemura, Sakae; Takekuma, Shin-Ichi; Takekuma, Hideko; Yoshida, Zen-Ichi

    2004-03-18

    In all nitrogen-fixation processes known so far--including the industrial Haber-Bosch process, biological fixation by nitrogenase enzymes and previously described homogeneous synthetic systems--the direct transformation of the stable, inert dinitrogen molecule (N2) into ammonia (NH3) relies on the powerful redox properties of metals. Here we show that nitrogen fixation can also be achieved by using a non-metallic buckminsterfullerene (C60) molecule, in the form of a water-soluble C60:gamma-cyclodextrin (1:2) complex, and light under nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. This metal-free system efficiently fixes nitrogen under mild conditions by making use of the redox properties of the fullerene derivative.

  13. Facilities for studying radiation damage in nonmetals during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.

    1984-08-01

    Two facilities have been developed for making optical absorption, luminescence and other measurements on a single sample before, during and after irradiation. One facility uses 60 Co gamma rays and the other 0.5 to 3 MeV electrons from an accelerator. Optical relays function as spectrophotometers, luminescenc detectors, etc. All radiation sensitive components are outside of walk-in irradiation chambers; all measurement control and data recording is computerized. Irradiations are made at controlled temperatures between 5K and 900 0 C. The materials studied include glasses, quartz, alkali halides (especially natural rock salt), organic crystals, etc. As determined from color center measurements the damage formation rate in all materials studied at 25 0 C or above is strongly temperature dependent. The defect concentration during irradiation is usually much greater than that measured after irradiation. The fraction of defects annealing after irradiation and the annealing rate usually increases as the irradiation temperature increases. The completed studies demonstrate that, in most cases, the extent of maximum damage and the damage formation and annealing kinetics can be determined only by making measurements during irradiation

  14. Comparative corrosion resistance of selected metals and nonmetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The relative corrosion resistance to 140 corrosive media is tabulated for the following substances: stainless steels 302, 303, 304, 305, 316, 410, 416, and 430, brass, silicon bronze, copper alloy 110, monel alloy 400, aluminum, and nylon (type 6/6)

  15. Metal non-metal transitions in doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezini, A.

    1989-12-01

    A disordered Hubbard model with diagonal disorder is used to examine the electron localization effects associated with both disorder and electron-electron interaction. Extensive results are reported on the ground state properties and compared with other theories. In particular two regimes are observed; when the electron-electron interaction U is greater than the disorder parameter and when is smaller. Furthermore the effect of including conduction-band minima into the calculation of metal-insulator transitions in doped Si and Ge is investigated with use of Berggren approach. Good agreement with experiments are found when both disorder and interactions are included. (author). 37 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Non-metals in metals `98; Nichtmetalle in Metallen `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschfeld, D. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The major topics discussed at the symposium are: (1) Thermodynamics and cinetics, (2) chemical, physical and physico-chemical examination methodology, (3) materials properties. 13 of the 25 papers presented at the symposium have been analysed and indexed for separate retrieval from the database. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Themenschwerpunkte des diesjaehrigen Symposiums `Nichtmetalle in Metallen` sind: 1. Thermodynamik und Kinetik, 2. Chemische, physikalische und physikalisch-chemische Untersuchungsmethoden, und 3. Werkstoffeigenschaften. Von den insgesamt 25 Vortraegen wurden 13 Beitraege separat aufgenommen. (orig./MM)

  17. Local-moment formation and metal–nonmetal transition in Ca1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Electron-doped metallic states of Ca1−x Yx VO3 and Ca1−x Yx TiO3 change into non- metallic states around x ∼ 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. The residual resistivity in the metallic states increases with increasing effective magnetic moment or coefficient of T2 term of resistivity. The effective moment reaches ∼ 0.5 ...

  18. Parametric study of an acoustic levitation system. [for thermophysical properties determination of nonmetal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, W. A.; Berge, L. H.; Parker, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of an acoustic levitation system designed for the containerless processing of materials and consisting of a St. Clair generator and a reflector arranged in a six-axis configuration, is examined in order to define critical parameters of high-temperature systems and limitations of earth-based devices. The fields and forces along the axis of the system are measured and the forces are plotted versus body volume. It is found that for a range of shapes and sizes the levitation force is roughly proportional to body volume until the characteristic 'diameter' reaches a value of about lambda/2. A significant (i.e., factor of four) enhancement in the levitation force is obtained by curving the faces of the driver and reflector. In addition, the behavior of liquid materials in the acoustic fields is studied, and the radius at which the deformation of a levitated drop occurs is calculated.

  19. Empirical pKb and pKa for Nonmetal Hydrides from Periodic Table Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Provides and discusses an equation which, when combined with the well-known Ricci equation for oxyacids, results in a generally useful equation for dealing with acid dissociation experiments and analyses. (JN)

  20. Development of a Flexible Non-Metal Electrode for Cell Stimulation and Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method of producing flexible electrodes for potentially simultaneously stimulating and measuring cellular signals in retinal cells. Currently, most multi-electrode applications rely primarily on etching, but the metals involved have a certain degree of brittleness, leaving them prone to cracking under prolonged pressure. This study proposes using silver chloride ink as a conductive metal, and polydimethysiloxane (PDMS as the substrate to provide electrodes with an increased degree of flexibility to allow them to bend. This structure is divided into the electrode layer made of PDMS and silver chloride ink, and a PDMS film coating layer. PDMS can be mixed in different proportions to modify the degree of rigidity. The proposed method involved three steps. The first segment entailed the manufacturing of the electrode, using silver chloride ink as the conductive material, and using computer software to define the electrode size and micro-engraving mechanisms to produce the electrode pattern. The resulting uniform PDMS pattern was then baked onto the model, and the flow channel was filled with the conductive material before air drying to produce the required electrode. In the second stage, we tested the electrode, using an impedance analyzer to measure electrode cyclic voltammetry and impedance. In the third phase, mechanical and biocompatibility tests were conducted to determine electrode properties. This study aims to produce a flexible, non-metallic sensing electrode which fits snugly for use in a range of measurement applications.

  1. Embedding of solid high-level wastes into metal and non-metal matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geel, J. van; Eschrich, H.; Dobbels, F.; Favre, P.; Sterner, H.

    1980-03-01

    The primary objective of embedding solidification high-level waste forms of high specific activity into a matrix material is to obtain final waste composites with moderate inner temperatures, even at large waste loadings per meter cylinder length. Secondary objectives are to produce a non-porous, crack-free composite product with a durability superior to that of the embedded waste form itself. The temperature distribution in composite material composed of vitreous beads embedded into a metal matrix (vitromets) are compared with that in a vitreous block, of equal heat generation per meter height, during short- and long-term storage. It was found that for storage under water, inner temperatures below 100 0 C are assured in vitromets, produced from short-cooled high-level wastes, and containing high waste loadings per metercanister height. The chemical and mechanical stability, as well as the thermal conductivity have been examined for vitromets containing various matrix materials whereby emphasis is imparted to lead- and aluminum alloys. The corrosion of lead- and aluminum alloys in distilled water, brine solution and dry salt has been examined at temperatures up to 230 0 C and pressures up to 3.5 MPa. Some lead alloys were found to exhibit superior corrosion resistance in these chemical environments than certain reference borosilicate glasses. The deformation behavior of vitromets under axial compression has been investigated at different temperatures and varying height diameter ratios. The maturity of the vitromet production is finally demonstrated by presenting process data from hot-laboratory scale and cold semi-industrial scale production units. (author)

  2. Electronic and magnetic properties of nonmetal atoms doped blue phosphorene: First-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Huiling; Yang, Hui [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Hongxia [College of Mathematics, Physics and Information Science, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316000 (China); Du, Xiaobo [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yan, Yu, E-mail: yanyu@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Using first-principles calculations, we study the geometrical structure, electronic structure and magnetic properties of substitutionally doped blue phosphorene with a series of nonmetallic atoms, including F, Cl, B, N, C, Si and O. The calculated formation energies and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that F, Cl, B, N, C, Si and O doped blue phosphorene are stable. Moreover, the substitutional doping of F, Cl, B and N cannot induce the magnetism in blue phosphorene due to the saturation or pairing of the valence electron of dopant and its neighboring P atoms. In contrast, ground states of C, Si and O doped blue phosphorene are spin-polarized and the magnetic moments induced by a doping atom are all 1.0 μ{sub B}, which is attributed to the appearance of an unpaired valence electron of C and Si and the formation of a nonbonding 3p electron of a neighboring P atom around O. Furthermore, the magnetic coupling between the moments induced by two C, Si and O are found to be long-range anti-ferromagnetic and the origin of the coupling can be attributed to the p–p hybridization interaction involving polarized electrons. - Highlights: • F, Cl, B, N, C, Si and O doped blue phosphorene are stable. • Substitutional doping of C, Si and O can produce the magnetism in blue phosphorene. • Magnetic coupling between two C, Si and O is long-range anti-ferromagnetic.

  3. Research on interaction of laser light and non-metals. Evaluation of laser irradiation behavior to concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tomonori; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2015-02-01

    In this study the response of hardened cement pastes, which are a major component of concrete, to laser irradiation was investigated under various experimental conditions aiming at the future application to “laser-processing” of concrete. (1) 75 tests were performed with combinations of following experimental conditions: (a) a water/cement ratio of the hardened cement pastes was either of 0.25, 0.30, or 0.35; (b) a laser power density was either of 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 W/cm 2 ; and (c) laser irradiation duration was ranging from 1 to 40 seconds. It was found that hardened cement paste subjected to laser irradiation explodes very easily to be hollowed in all the experimental conditions; this response is applicable to “laser-drilling” of a hardened cement paste. The “laser-drilling” speeds up following to laser power increment or to irradiation time extension. It was also found that samples tend to melt rather than explode under the irradiation with a smaller laser power density (100 W/cm 2 ) at a high water/cement ratio (0.35). (2) Totally 75 laser irradiation tests for fixed mortar blocks were performed with combinations of following experimental conditions: (a) fine aggregate in the mortar blocks was either of quartz, limestone, or Nachiguro-ishi; (b) a laser power density was either of 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 W/cm 2 ; and (c) laser irradiation duration was ranging from 0.2 to 40 seconds. Although it was found that all kinds of the mortar fuse under laser irradiation after all, difference in the response to laser irradiation among the mortars was also found; energy density required to fuse the mortar including limestone was larger than that required to fuse the mortar including quartz or Nachiguro-ishi. (author)

  4. Non-metal single/dual doped carbon quantum dots: a general flame synthetic method and electro-catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuzhi; Tang, Di; Yang, Yanmei; Li, Chuanxi; Kong, Weiqian; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2015-03-01

    A combustion flame method is developed for the convenient and scalable fabrication of single- and dual-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) (N-CQDs, B-CQDs, P-CQDs, and S-CQDs and dual-doped B,N-CQDs, P,N-CQDs, and S,N-CQDs), and the doping contents can be easily adjusted by simply changing the concentrations of precursors in ethanol. These single/dual-doped CQDs, especially B,N-CQDs, show high catalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction.A combustion flame method is developed for the convenient and scalable fabrication of single- and dual-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) (N-CQDs, B-CQDs, P-CQDs, and S-CQDs and dual-doped B,N-CQDs, P,N-CQDs, and S,N-CQDs), and the doping contents can be easily adjusted by simply changing the concentrations of precursors in ethanol. These single/dual-doped CQDs, especially B,N-CQDs, show high catalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images, UV-Vis absorption, PL, Raman, FTIR, XPS, CV, and LSV data of single/dual doped CQDs, a table for the calculated mass concentrations of different atoms in various B, N, P or S containing CQDs and a table for summary of the ORR performance of various catalysts in an O2-saturated 0.1 M KOH solution. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07116f

  5. Thermophysical, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Selected Metal-Nonmetal Transition Materials: Comprehensive Bibliography with Typical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    Brueckner, G., " Positron Annihilation in Vanadium(IV) Oxide and Vanadium(III) Oxide," Zentralinst. Kernforsch., Rossendorf, Dresden, ZEK-295, 93-4, 1975...Phys.-Solid State, 17(5), 851-5, 1975. A000130. Andreeff, A. and Brauer, G., " Positron Annihilation Study of the Metal- Insulator Transition in V20 3...thermal expansion at 298 K. Sample N o. a TH l Mkta1 l c phase X - 0 . 0 0 20.2 0.3 - b6 . 0.3 0.04 TI 24.4 -5.6 4-moleli Mgo 25.5 2.0 -9.5 * 2.0 16

  6. Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence and Ionization in a Graphite Furnace for the Determination of Metals and Nonmetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, David James

    1990-01-01

    Here is reported novel instrumentation for atomic spectrometry that combined the use of a pulsed laser system as the light source and an electrothermal atomizer as the atom cell. The main goal of the research was to develop instrumentation that was more sensitive for elemental analysis than commercially available instruments and could be used to determine elements in real sample matrices. Laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry (LEAFS) in an electrothermal atomizer (ETA) was compared to ETA atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for the determination of thallium, manganese, and lead in food and agricultural standard reference materials (SRMs). Compared to ETA AAS, ETA LEAFS has a longer linear dynamic range (LDR) (5-7 orders of magnitude compared to 2-3 orders of magnitude) and higher sensitivity (10 ^{-16} to 10^{ -14} g as compared to 10^{ -13} to 10^{-11} g). Consequently, ETA LEAFS allows elemental analysis to be done over a wider range of concentrations with less dilution steps. Thallium was accurately determined in biological samples by ETA LEAFS at amounts five to one hundred times below the ETA AAS detection limit. ETA AAS and ETA LEAFS were compared for the determination of lead and manganese, and in general, the accuracies and precisions of ETA AAS were the same, with typical precisions between 3% and 6%. Fluorine was determined using laser excited molecular fluorescence spectrometry (LEMOFS) in an ETA. Molecular fluorescence from magnesium fluoride was collected, and the detection limit of 0.3 pg fluorine was two to six orders of magnitude more sensitive than other methods commonly used for the determination of fluorine. Significant interferences from ions were observed, but the sensitivity was high enough that fluorine could be determined in freeze dried urine SRMs by diluting the samples by a factor of one hundred to remove the interferences. Laser enhanced ionization (LEI) in an ETA was used for the determination of metals. For thallium, indium, and lithium, detection limits between 0.7 and 2 pg were obtained, with an LDR of 3.5 orders of magnitude. Sodium was shown to severely depress the indium LEI signal in an ETA.

  7. Influence of Femtosecond Laser Parameters and Environment on Surface Texture Characteristics of Metals and Non-Metals - State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharatish, A.; Soundarapandian, S.

    2018-04-01

    Enhancing the surface functionality by ultrashort pulsed laser texturing has received the considerable attention from researchers in the past few decades. Femtosecond lasers are widely adopted since it provides high repeatability and reproducibility by minimizing the heat affected zone (HAZ) and other collateral damages to a great extent. The present paper reports some recent studies being made worldwide on femtosecond laser surface texturing of metals, ceramics, polymers, semiconductors, thinfilms and advanced nanocomposites. It presents the state of the art knowledge in femtosecond laser surface texturing and the potential of this technology to improve properties in terms of biological, tribological and wetting performance. Since the texture quality and functionality are enhanced by the proper selection of appropriate laser parameters and ambient conditions for individual application, reporting the influence of laser parameters on surface texture characteristics assume utmost importance.

  8. Gas-phase sample introduction techniques for the determination of some non-metals by ICP-AES, MIP-AES AND ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Taketoshi

    2003-01-01

    Various gas-phase sample introduction methods in analytical atomic spectrometry have been documented for up to 30 elements, but only a few of these methods with less than one-third of the analytes exhibit adequate, competitive performance characteristics. Most attractive are the chemical systems based on (i) reactions in aqueous media, (ii) with fast kinetics of chemical vapor generation and easy stripping off of vapors from solution, (iii) reliable interference control, (iv) with high and reducible chemical yields of volatile products which are (v) readily atomized, excited or ionized in a plasma, so as to provide adequate sensitivity and low limits of detection (LOD). Some significant advantage of gas-phase sample introduction over the widely-used pneumatic nebulization of liquid (solution) samples are (1) high chemical yields and transport efficiency, (2) separation from troublesome matrices, (3) enrichment, (4) automation in flow injection and continuous flow mode, (5) good sample throughput rates, (6) competitive LODs and RSDs, (7) commercially available accessories, (8) economically affordable and (9) speciation potentialities. To the contrary, the major disadvantages and limitations are (1) complex, on line-chemistry involved, (2) specific sample pre-treatment required, (3) effect of oxidation and binding state of analyte, (4) chemical interferences, (5) foaming and aerosol formation, (6) numerous instrumental and chemical parameters for optimization, (7) applicability to a limited number of analytes, (8) limited linear ranges and (9) poor-multi-element capabilities.

  9. Actinide-pnictide (An-Pn) bonds spanning non-metal, metalloid, and metal combinations (An=U, Th; Pn=P, As, Sb, Bi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rookes, Thomas M.; Wildman, Elizabeth P.; Gardner, Benedict M.; Wooles, Ashley J.; Gregson, Matthew; Tuna, Floriana; Liddle, Stephen T. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Balazs, Gabor; Scheer, Manfred [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2018-01-26

    The synthesis and characterisation is presented of the compounds [An(Tren{sup DMBS}){Pn(SiMe_3)_2}] and [An(Tren{sup TIPS}){Pn(SiMe_3)_2}] [Tren{sup DMBS}=N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NSiMe{sub 2}Bu{sup t}){sub 3}, An=U, Pn=P, As, Sb, Bi; An=Th, Pn=P, As; Tren{sup TIPS}=N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NSiPr{sup i}{sub 3}){sub 3}, An=U, Pn=P, As, Sb; An=Th, Pn=P, As, Sb]. The U-Sb and Th-Sb moieties are unprecedented examples of any kind of An-Sb molecular bond, and the U-Bi bond is the first two-centre-two-electron (2c-2e) one. The Th-Bi combination was too unstable to isolate, underscoring the fragility of these linkages. However, the U-Bi complex is the heaviest 2c-2e pairing of two elements involving an actinide on a macroscopic scale under ambient conditions, and this is exceeded only by An-An pairings prepared under cryogenic matrix isolation conditions. Thermolysis and photolysis experiments suggest that the U-Pn bonds degrade by homolytic bond cleavage, whereas the more redox-robust thorium compounds engage in an acid-base/dehydrocoupling route. (copyright 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.)

  10. Tuning metal–graphene interaction by non-metal intercalation: a case study of the graphene/oxygen/Ni (1 1 1) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei-Bing; Chen, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces has been proposed as one of the most promising methods for large-scale preparation of high-quality graphene. However, the presence of the substrate could significantly affect the intrinsic electronic structure of graphene and intercalation of metals is an established route for decoupling the graphene from the substrate. Taking a graphene/Ni(1 1 1) surface as an example, we suggest reactive oxygen as an effective intercalation element to recover the linear dispersion of graphene based on density functional theory calculation, in which vdW interactions are treated using the optB88-vdW functional. The possible intercalation configurations at different coverage are considered and the geometry and electronic structure are analyzed in detail. Our results indicate that the energy favorable structures change from top-fcc to bridge-top configuration after oxygen intercalation and the binding between the graphene and the O/Ni(1 1 1) substrate becomes stronger at high oxygen coverage even than pure Ni(1 1 1) substrate. Most interestingly, the electronic structure of pristine graphene is found to be almost restored, especially for the bridge-top configuration after oxygen intercalation, and the Dirac points move towards the high energy region relative to the Fermi level. A graphene/oxygen/Ni (1 1 1) system is thus suggested as a p-type doped strongly bound Dirac system. Detailed analysis using projected energy band and differential charge density indicates that the intercalated oxygen atoms react with the Ni (1 1 1) surface strongly, which not only blocks the strong interaction between Ni and graphene but also passivates oxygen 2p states. The intercalation mechanisms distinguished from the conventional metal intercalation will be useful to understand other complex intercalation systems. (paper)

  11. Kinetics, morphology and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition of non-metals. Progress report, March 1, 1979-February 28, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekerka, R.F.

    1979-08-01

    Some previous work on Internal Centrifugal Zone Growth was documented. New calculations have been made to show that for large rf skin depths, the temperature of the sample depends in a systematic way on only three dimensionless parameters; these characterize the rf power level, the surface heat transfer coefficient, and the ambient temperature. Critical values are given for the ambient temperature below which curves of sample temperature versus RF power level are S-shaped. Based on this improvement in understanding, our previous numerical results, valid for arbitrary skin depths, are being prepared for publication. Work continues toward the measurement of the solid-liquid surface tensions of non-metallic materials via the grain-boundary groove technique. Degassed samples of GeO 2 have been obtained, but the necessary temperature caused damage to the quartz tube in our present apparatus, necessitating a new design. While the new apparatus is under construction, sodium sulfate will be used as a prototype material to enable work on the optical system. Use of an astronomical telescope in conjunction with the optical viewpoint leads to poor image quality so we are considering the substitution of a microscope with a large working distance. Previous difficulties with numerical calculation of the temperature profiles in the system have been alleviated by using finer grid sizes for the finite difference scheme. Further effort has been expended to form the basis of new work on the application of Onsager's theory of reciprocity to transport phenomena in solids

  12. 30 CFR 57.22106 - Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22106...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22103 - Open flames (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22103...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22101 - Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22101...

  15. Manganese-bearing deposits near Lake Crescent and Humptulips, Washington: Chapter A in Contributions to economic geology (short papers and preliminary reports), 1927: Part I - Metals and nonmetals except fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, J.T.

    1927-01-01

    The Crescent mine, situated a short distance west of Lake Crescent, in the Olympic Mountains of Washington, yields an unusually high grade of manganese ore, which is suitable for making steel. Several manganiferous lodes of promising appearance have been found in the same area, and some near Humptulips, on the south side of the mountains. These and deposits on Skokomish River and at other places in the Olympic region are distributed around three sides of the mountains through a distance of 110 miles.The characteristic and generally the most abundant manganese mineral in this belt is bementite, a silicate of manganese that is rare elsewhere. Hausmannite, a suboxide of manganese (Mn3O4) that is also rather uncommon, occurs in several of the deposits and is locally abundant in the Crescent mine, where it forms the most valuable constituent of the ore. In addition more or less of a manganiferous carbonate is present, and bodies composed of fine-grained quartz and iron oxides form a large but separate part of the lodes.The deposits are associated with an impure red limestone of marine origin, which is probably to be correlated with the Franciscan formation of California. The limestone is overlain by a thick series of basaltic flows and tuff of Tertiary age that are partly altered to greenstone. The manganese is thought to have been deposited originally with the limestone as a carbonate. The concentration and change of much of it from the carbonate into bementite and hausmannite are believed to have been caused by warm solutions charged with silica that were expressed from the lavas or their magma. Afterward mountain-building movements and erosion elevated and exposed the manganiferous beds.The beds at the horizon of the manganiferous deposits are very incompletely explored and are to be regarded as the possible source of large quantities of ore.

  16. The diesel exhaust in miners study: III. Interrelations between respirable elemental carbon and gaseous and particulate components of diesel exhaust derived from area sampling in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Yereb, D.; Lubin, J.H.; Blair, A.; Portengen, L.; Stewart, P.A.; Attfield, M.; Silverman, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been implicated as a potential lung carcinogen. However, the exact components of DE that might be involved have not been clearly identified. In the past, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon oxides (CO(x)) were measured most frequently to estimate DE, but since the 1990s, the

  17. The role of nuclear methods in the study of surface compositions. Their use in the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). Project on 'RMs for non-metals in non-ferrous metals'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaglia, L.; Weber, G.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of high-purity materials poses the problem of the analysis of the elements present at very low concentrations, even below 1 μg/g. For different analysis methods an important source of systematic errors is surface pollution. Although nuclear methods have shown to be well suited for the quantitative study of surfaces, their possibilities remain insufficiently known for most non-nuclear laboratories. Therefore, the first part of this report was conceived as a simple but complete as possible review of the existing nuclear techniques and gives also a description of their principal characteristics. The second part treats special uses of some of these techniques, especially the study of surface-mass interferences in the case of the assay of light elements in metals and alloys. This problem is discussed in the framework of the certification of reference materials, and is based upon experiences collected in a ten-year Community effort, which enabled the expression of general considerations concerning the treatment, conditioning and storage of reference materials

  18. 30 CFR 57.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads...

  19. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and...

  20. 30 CFR 57.9316 - Notifying the equipment operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and...

  1. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and...

  2. 30 CFR 57.9318 - Getting on or off moving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and...

  3. 30 CFR 57.9319 - Going over, under, or between railcars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and...

  4. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery... uncoupling shall not be attempted from the inside of curves unless the railroad and cars are designed to...

  6. Radiation damage of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    A review of data and information on radiation damage in nonmetallic solids is presented. Discussions are included on defects in nonmetals, radiation damage processes in nonmetals, electronic damage processes, physical damage processes, atomic displacement, photochemical damage processes, and ion implantation

  7. 30 CFR 56.4130 - Electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4130 Electric substations...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4130 Surface electric...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL... when closed to fire the blast. (b) Lead wires shall not be connected to the blasting switch until the...

  10. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL... dangerous accumulations of water, gas, mud, or fire atmosphere could be encountered, persons shall be...

  11. Application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    terest because of the increased awareness about environmental pollution and human health as some ... The presence of heavy elements indicates .... technique applicable to metals and nonmetals equally, both metals and nonmetals present.

  12. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 57.22105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22105 Smoking and open...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22104 Open flames (I-C...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be isolated and insulated from power conductors, pipelines, and railroad tracks, and...

  16. 30 CFR 57.9261 - Transporting tools and materials on locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL... underground except for secured rerailing devices located in a manner which does not create a hazard to persons. Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites ...

  17. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and... the farthest projection of moving railroad equipment shall be provided on at least one side of the...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19019 - Guide ropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes... than shaft development, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of the guide...

  19. 30 CFR 56.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. 56.12005 Section 56.12005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12027 - Grounding mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding mobile equipment. 57.12027 Section 57.12027 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity...

  1. 30 CFR 56.12027 - Grounding mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding mobile equipment. 56.12027 Section 56.12027 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56...

  2. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001 Section 57.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001 Section 56.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 56.19096 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel... signals for cages, skips, and mantrips when persons or materials are being transported shall be familiar...

  5. 30 CFR 56.9310 - Chute hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety... hangups shall be experienced and familiar with the task, know the hazards involved, and use the proper...

  6. 30 CFR 57.9310 - Chute hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping... free chute hangups shall be experienced and familiar with the task, know the hazards involved, and use...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 57.19096 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel... signals for cages, skips, and mantrips when persons or materials are being transported shall be familiar...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... shall be separated from combustible materials if a fire hazard could be created. ...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4200 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4200 General requirements. (a) For fighting fires that could endanger...

  10. 30 CFR 56.4100 - Smoking and use of open flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 56.4100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... flammable gases are— (a) Used or transported in a manner that could create a fire hazard; or (b) Stored or...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4660 - Work in shafts, raises, or winzes and other activities involving hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4660... noncombustible material. (3) Shield the activity so that hot metal and sparks cannot cause a fire. (4) Provide a...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4000 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 57.4000 Section 57.4000 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control § 57...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... toxic gases from a fire originating in an underground shop where maintenance work is routinely done on...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4532 - Blacksmith shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... combustion; and (c) Inspected for smoldering fires at the end of each shift. ...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... shall be separated from combustible materials if a fire hazard could be created. ...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4261 - Shaft-station waterlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4261 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention... located at underground shaft stations and are part of the mine's fire protection system shall have at...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention... provided with fire protection of a type, size, and quantity that can extinguish fires of any class in their...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4560 - Mine entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... escapeways shall be— (a) Provided with a fire suppression system, other than fire extinguishers and water...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 56.4202 Section 56.4202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control...

  20. 30 CFR 56.4501 - Fuel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... stopping the flow of fuel at the source and shall be located and maintained to minimize fire hazards. This...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... open flames shall be posted where a fire or explosion hazard exists. ...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... following means to control the spread of fire, smoke, and toxic gases underground in the event of a fire...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 57.4202 Section 57.4202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4230 - Self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4230 Self-propelled equipment. (a)(1) Whenever a fire or its effects...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4263 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4230 - Surface self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 57.4230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... fire or its effects could impede escape from self-propelled equipment, a fire extinguisher shall be on...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section 57.4161 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Until disposed of...

  9. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and...

  10. 30 CFR 56.4201 - Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... following schedules: (1) Fire extinguishers shall be inspected visually at least once a month to determine...

  11. 30 CFR 56.4530 - Exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... a sufficient number of exits to permit prompt escape in case of fire. ...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4201 - Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... following schedules: (1) Fire extinguishers shall be inspected visually at least once a month to determine...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4200 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4200 General requirements. (a) For fighting fires that could endanger...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... open flames shall be posted where a fire or explosion hazard exists. ...

  15. 30 CFR Appendix I to Subpart C of... - National Consensus Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart C of Part 56 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... Standards Mine operators seeking further information in the area of fire prevention and control may consult...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4000 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 56.4000 Section 56.4000 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control § 56.4000...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....12080 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity... conductors are less than 7 feet above the rail, they shall be guarded at all points where persons work or...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 56.19110 Section 56.19110 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL... bulkhead or equivalent protection shall be provided above persons at work deepening a shaft. ...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from...

  20. 30 CFR 57.9308 - Switch throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57...

  1. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  2. 30 CFR 57.9313 - Roadway maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  3. 30 CFR 57.9300 - Berms or guardrails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  4. 30 CFR 57.9305 - Truck spotters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57...

  5. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  6. 30 CFR 57.9304 - Unstable ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  7. 30 CFR 57.9312 - Working around drawholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and...

  8. 30 CFR 57.9315 - Dust control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57...

  9. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... metal and non-metal atoms have found a great research interest in recent years. ... Stability function, dissociation energy and LUMO-HOMO gap analysis reveal the ... LUMO and HOMO orbital analysis suggests that electronic redistribution ...

  10. A simple method to assess bacterial attachment to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The crystal violet microplate adhension assay was modified to evaluate bacterial adhesion to metal and non-metal surfaces. Both viable cell count and the absorbance of the crystal violet stained cells attached to aluminium increased over the period...

  11. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    This extensive survey covers defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids, plus dislocations and grain boundaries. 1985 edition.

  12. Study on low frequency probe characterization for concrete application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Pauzi Ismail

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing has been widely used in metal and non-metal material. For non-metal material such as concrete, a probe emitting low frequency ultrasonic wave is applied. This paper describes the comparison between three custom made probes using same design and piezoelectric crystal. The only difference is the backing material, which comprise of three different materials. Characterization of each transducer is compared in order to understand the effects of backing material in the probe. (Author)

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium with chlorophosphonazo III in n-pentanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saponara, N.M.; Marsh, S.F.

    1982-03-01

    Microgram amounts of plutonium are measured spectrophotometrically as the plutonium-chlorophosphonazo III complex after extraction into n-pentanol from 1.5 M HCl. The relative standard deviation is 1.5% for the range of 2.5 to 17.5 μg. The tolerance is excellent for many metals and nonmetals present in nuclear fuel-cycle materials. A preceding anion-exchange-column separation increases tolerance for certain metals and nonmetals

  14. 30 CFR 57.9307 - Design, installation, and maintenance of railroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... railroads. 57.9307 Section 57.9307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND..., Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9307 Design, installation, and maintenance of railroads...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9361 - Drawholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9361 Drawholes. To prevent hazards to persons underground, collars of open drawholes shall be free of...

  16. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted with...

  17. 30 CFR 57.9362 - Protection of signalmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9362 Protection of signalmen. Signalmen used during slushing operations underground...

  18. 30 CFR 56.18006 - New employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... New employees. New employees shall be indoctrinated in safety rules and safe work procedures. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New employees. 56.18006 Section 56.18006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19035 - Headframe design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Headframe design. 56.19035 Section 56.19035 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19035 Headframe design. All headframes shall be constructed with suitable design...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19035 - Headframe design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Headframe design. 57.19035 Section 57.19035 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19035 Headframe design. All headframes shall be constructed with suitable design...

  1. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all shifts. The individual shall...

  2. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  3. 30 CFR 57.19028 - End attachment replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false End attachment replacement. 57.19028 Section 57.19028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 57.19028 End attachment replacement. Wire rope attachments shall be replaced when...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19028 - End attachment replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false End attachment replacement. 56.19028 Section 56.19028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Wire Ropes § 56.19028 End attachment replacement. Wire rope attachments shall be replaced when cracked...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement parts. 57.19122 Section 57.19122 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have properties...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement parts. 56.19122 Section 56.19122 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have properties...

  7. [The clinical application of zirconium-dioxide-ceramics. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somfai, Dóra; Zsigmond, Ágnes; Károlyházy, Katalin; Kispély, Barbara; Hermann, Péter

    2015-12-01

    Due to its outstanding physical, mechanical and esthetic properties, zirconium-dioxide is one of the most popular non-metal denture, capable of surpassing PFM in most cases. The recent advances of CAD/CAM technology makes it a good alternitve. Here we show the usefulness of zirconium-dioxide in everyday dental practice through three case reports.

  8. Nasrin et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2011) 8(S):170 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Chondrokola Rosh (CKR) is a traditional metallic Ayurvedic preparation widely used by the rural and ethnic people of. Bangladesh in dysuria. It is a preparation of various roasted metals (Hg and Cu), non-metal (sulphur and Mica) and medicinal herbs. Considering the controversy over the risk of toxic heavy metals in ...

  9. Matematické modelování interakce laserového záření s nekovovými materiály

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Marek; Chmelíčková, Hana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2003), s. 47-54 ISSN 1335-0803 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1010353; GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920; CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser * mathematical model * cutting * drilling * non-metal Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  10. 30 CFR 57.9309 - Chute design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chute design. 57.9309 Section 57.9309 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....9309 Chute design. Chute-loading installations shall be designed to provide a safe location for persons...

  11. 30 CFR 56.9309 - Chute design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chute design. 56.9309 Section 56.9309 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... design. Chute-loading installations shall be designed to provide a safe location for persons pulling...

  12. The diesel exhaust in miners study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coble, J.B.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Yereb, D.; Stanevich, R.; Blair, A.; Silverman, D.T.; Attfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a

  13. Corrosion and chemical resistant masonry materials handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheppard, Walter Lee

    1986-01-01

    ... and other equipment. But few other than chemists and chemical engineers identify "corrosion" as chemical degradation or destruction of a material, and therefore, something that can happen to nonmetals (concrete, plastics, brick, timber, etc.) as well as to nletals. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers so defined "corrosion" over thirty years ago but this f...

  14. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5002 Section 57.5002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as frequently as necessary to determine the...

  15. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 56.5002 Section 56.5002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as...

  16. 30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13015 Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels...

  17. 30 CFR 57.13020 - Use of compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of compressed air. 57.13020 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13020 Use of compressed air. At no time shall compressed air be directed toward a...

  18. 30 CFR 56.13020 - Use of compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of compressed air. 56.13020 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13020 Use of compressed air. At no time shall compressed air be directed toward a person...

  19. 30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and...-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13015 Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure...

  20. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure gauges...

  1. 30 CFR 57.13001 - General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for boilers and pressure... NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13001 General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  2. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a repair...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill...

  6. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder...

  7. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  8. 30 CFR 56.4430 - Storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage facilities. 56.4430 Section 56.4430 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 56.4430 Storage facilities. (a) Storage tanks for...

  9. 30 CFR 57.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... NONMETAL MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled...

  10. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers...

  11. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15001 First-aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  13. Observation of Antiferromagnetic Resonance in an Organic Superconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrance, J. B.; Pedersen, H. J.; Bechgaard, K.

    1982-01-01

    Anomalous microwave absorption has been observed in the organic superconductor TMTSF2AsF6 (TMTSF: tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene) below its metal-nonmetal transition near 12 K. This absorption is unambiguously identified as antiferromagnetic resonance by the excellent agreement between a spin...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and... water consumption value shall be rounded to one decimal place for non-metered faucets, or two decimal...

  15. 30 CFR 57.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. 57.12005 Section 57.12005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12069 - Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning protection for telephone wires and... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12069 Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors... lightning shall be equipped with suitable lightning arrestors of approved type within 100 feet of the point...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12069 - Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning protection for telephone wires and... AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12069 Lightning protection for telephone wires and... exposed to lightning shall be equipped with suitable lightning arrestors of approved type within 100 feet...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12035 - Weatherproof lamp sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weatherproof lamp sockets. 57.12035 Section 57.12035 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12035 Weatherproof lamp sockets. Lamp sockets shall be of a weatherproof type...

  19. 30 CFR 56.12035 - Weatherproof lamp sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weatherproof lamp sockets. 56.12035 Section 56.12035 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12035 Weatherproof lamp sockets. Lamp sockets shall be of a weatherproof type where they are exposed to...

  20. Characterization of the structure and chemistry of defects in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Ruehle, M.; Seidman, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    Research programs, presented at the materials research symposium, on defects in materials are presented. Major areas include: point defects, defect aggregates, and ordering; defects in non-metals and semiconductors; atomic resolution imaging of defects; and gain boundaries, interfaces, and layered materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  1. 30 CFR 57.9102 - Movement of independently operating rail equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movement of independently operating rail... NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9102 Movement of independently operating rail equipment. Movement of two or more pieces of rail equipment operating independently on the same...

  2. 40 CFR 761.350 - Subsampling from composite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical extraction and analysis laboratory for further subsampling. There are two options for the... container, approved for shipment of the sample, to the chemical extraction and analysis laboratory, for the..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of...

  3. 40 CFR 761.353 - Second level of sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... At the chemical extraction and analysis laboratory, pour the 19-liter subsample onto a plastic sheet..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off...

  4. 76 FR 3178 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Rock Burst Control Plan, Metal and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Rock Burst Control Plan, Metal and Nonmetal Mines AGENCY: Mine... extension of the information collection for 30 CFR 57.3461 Rock Bursts. DATES: All comments must be received... contains the request for an extension of the existing collection of information in 30 CFR 57.3461 Rock...

  5. 76 FR 28460 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Rock Burst...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Rock Burst Control Plan--Pertains to Underground Metal and Nonmetal... develop a rock burst plan within 90 days after a rock burst has been experienced. Stress data are normally... Administration (MSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Burst Control Plan--Pertains to...

  6. Toxicological Studies of “Chondrokola rosh”, an Ayurvedic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chondrokola Rosh (CKR) is a traditional metallic Ayurvedic preparation widely used by the rural and ethnic people of Bangladesh in dysuria. It is a preparation of various roasted metals (Hg and Cu), non-metal (sulphur and Mica) and medicinal herbs. Considering the controversy over the risk of toxic heavy metals in ...

  7. 30 CFR 57.17010 - Electric lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric lamps. 57.17010 Section 57.17010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....17010 Electric lamps. Individual electric lamps shall be carried for illumination by all persons...

  8. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be...

  9. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be operated at high potential...

  10. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  11. 30 CFR 57.8525 - Main fan maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan maintenance. 57.8525 Section 57.8525 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8525 Main fan maintenance. Main fans shall be maintained according to either the...

  12. 77 FR 42004 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Main Fan Operation and Inspection in Gassy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Main Fan Operation and Inspection in Gassy Underground Metal...) conditions in underground metal and nonmetal mines are largely controlled by the main mine fans. When accumulations of explosive gases, such as methane, are not swept from the mine by the main fans, they may...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress. ...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material. ...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material. ...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded. ...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent persons...

  18. Study on the ionization chamber for thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shili; Miao Qiangwen

    1988-01-01

    The principle, construction and performances of ionization chambers for measuring the thickness of metal and nonmetal materials are introduced. With them the thickness of thin materials (thickness ranging from 10 to 6000 g/m 2 ), the surface layer thickness of composed materials and the thickness of steel plate (thickness ranging from 0 to 32 kg/m 2 ) are measured effectively

  19. 30 CFR 57.12023 - Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding electrical connections and resistor... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12023 Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids. Electrical connections and resistor grids that are difficult or impractical to insulate shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6304 - Primer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primer protection. 56.6304 Section 56.6304 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives...

  3. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face...

  4. LCAO fitting of positron 2D-ACAR momentum densities of non-metallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, T.

    2001-01-01

    We present a least-squares fitting method to fit and analyze momentum densities obtained by 2D-ACAR. The method uses an LCAO-MO as a fitting basis and thus is applicable to non-metals. Here we illustrate the method by taking MgO as an example. (orig.)

  5. LCAO fitting of positron 2D-ACAR momentum densities of non-metallic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, T. [National Inst. for Research in Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We present a least-squares fitting method to fit and analyze momentum densities obtained by 2D-ACAR. The method uses an LCAO-MO as a fitting basis and thus is applicable to non-metals. Here we illustrate the method by taking MgO as an example. (orig.)

  6. Laser-induced acoustic landmine detection with experimental results on buried landmines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Putten, F.J.M. van; Koersel, A.C. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic landmine detection (ALD) is a technique for the detection of buried landmines including non-metal mines. Since it gives complementary results with GPR or metal detection, sensor fusion of these techniques with acoustic detection would give promising results. Two methods are used for the

  7. Exploring metal artifact reduction using dual-energy CT with pre-metal and post-metal implant cadaver comparison: are implant specific protocols needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Ruud H. H.; Donders, Johanna C. E.; Kloen, Peter; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Kleipool, Roeland P.; Maas, Mario; Streekstra, Geert J.

    2017-01-01

    To quantify and optimize metal artifact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-energy CT for different metal implants compared to non-metal reference scans. Dual-energy CT scans of a pair of human cadaver limbs were acquired before and after implanting a titanium tibia plate, a stainless-steel

  8. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gold–gold sulfide core-shell nanorods exhibited a number of optical absorption peaks which arose because of their structural characteristics. ... Optical properties of iron core–iron oxide shell nanocomposites when analysed by effective medium theory led to the result of a metal non-metal transition for particle diameters ...

  9. Electron dynamics in films made of transition metal nanograins embedded in SiO[sub 2]: Infrared reflectivity and nanoplasma infrared resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Massa, Néstor E.; Denardin, Juliano C.; Socolovsky, Leandro M.; Knobel, Marcelo; Zhang, Xixiang

    2009-01-01

    polaron fits we identify those phonons as glass vibrational modes. Ni0.61(SiO2)0.39, with a metal fraction closer to the percolation threshold, undergoes a metal-nonmetal transition at ∼77 K. Here, as it is suggested by the scattering rate nearly quadratic

  10. 40 CFR 761.346 - Three levels of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Three levels of sampling. 761.346... PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site Disposal...

  11. 40 CFR 761.348 - Contemporaneous sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contemporaneous sampling. 761.348... PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site Disposal...

  12. 30 CFR 56.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 56.7050 Section 56.7050 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for...

  13. 30 CFR 57.8531 - Construction and maintenance of ventilation doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction and maintenance of ventilation... NONMETAL MINES Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8531 Construction and maintenance of ventilation doors... constructed of wood; (c) Maintained in good condition; (d) Self-closing, if manually operated; and (e...

  14. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    used as building blocks for the formation of metal– non-metal clusters. In this study, we report the pos- sible existence and reactivity of a variety of all- metal and ..... 9. (a) Sen K D and Jorgenson C K 1987 Structure and bonding, electronegativity (eds Berlin: Springer) vol. 66; (b) Parr R G, Donnelly R A, Levy M and Palke W.

  15. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6405 - Firing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56... all electric detonators to be fired with the type of circuits used. Storage or dry cell batteries are not permitted as power sources. (b) Blasting machines shall be tested, repaired, and maintained in...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6405 - Firing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting... sufficient current to energize all electric detonators to be fired with the type of circuits used. Storage or dry cell batteries are not permitted as power sources. (b) Blasting machines shall be tested, repaired...

  18. 30 CFR 56.15003 - Protective footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective footwear. 56.15003 Section 56.15003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15003 Protective footwear. All persons shall wear suitable protective footwear when in or around an area...

  19. Density functional theory study of structure, electronic and magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHIJIT DUTTA

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... magnetic properties of non-metal (Group 13) doped stable. Rhn(n = 2−8) ... Deformed electron density was found to be higher in the case of Rh5B, Rh4Al, Rh7Al and ...... systems: Modeling of surface alloys and alloy surfaces.

  20. 30 CFR 56.6401 - Shunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6401 Shunting. Except during testing— (a) Electric detonators shall be kept shunted until connected to the blasting line or wired into a blasting round; (b) Wired rounds shall be kept shunted until...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6401 - Shunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6401 Shunting. Except during testing— (a) Electric detonators shall be kept shunted until connected to the blasting line or wired into a blasting round; (b) Wired rounds shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-millisecond delay electric detonator. ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be...

  3. 30 CFR 56.9315 - Dust control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dust control. 56.9315 Section 56.9315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... control. Dust shall be controlled at muck piles, material transfer points, crushers, and on haulage roads...

  4. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of self-propelled...

  5. Foundations of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libenson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to physicochemical foundations and technology of metal powders, moulding and sintering of bars, made of them or their mixtures with nonmetal powders. Data on he design of basic equipment used in the processes of powder metallurgy and its servicing are presented. General requirements of safety engineering when fabricating metal powders and products of them are mentioned

  6. 30 CFR 57.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation. 57.19107 Section 57.19107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation. 56.19107 Section 56.19107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected by...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Boreholes shall be drilled in such a manner to insure that the advancing face will not accidently break into... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 57.19110 Section 57.19110 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND... substantial bulkhead or equivalent protection shall be provided above persons at work deepening a shaft. ...

  10. 30 CFR 56.12071 - Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voltage power lines. 56.12071 Section 56.12071 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12071 Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines. When equipment must be moved or operated near energized high-voltage powerlines (other than trolley...

  11. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5% were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078. However, the mean maximum heart (MHR rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min (P<0.001. In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033 and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001. The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004 with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  12. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nezafati, Pouya; Shafie, Davood; Aghababaei, Esmaeil; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III) definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5%) were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR) was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078). However, the mean maximum heart (MHR) rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min) compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min) (P<0.001). In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033) and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001). The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004) with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  13. On the occurrence of metallic character in the periodic table of the chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Friedrich; Slocombe, Daniel R; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    The classification of a chemical element as either 'metal' or 'non-metal' continues to form the basis of an instantly recognizable, universal representation of the periodic table (Mendeleeff D. 1905 The principles of chemistry, vol. II, p. 23; Poliakoff M. & Tang S. 2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 373: , 20140211). Here, we review major, pre-quantum-mechanical innovations (Goldhammer DA. 1913 Dispersion und Absorption des Lichtes; Herzfeld KF. 1927 Phys. Rev. 29: , 701-705) that allow an understanding of the metallic or non-metallic status of the chemical elements under both ambient and extreme conditions. A special emphasis will be placed on recent experimental advances that investigate how the electronic properties of chemical elements vary with temperature and density, and how this invariably relates to a changing status of the chemical elements. Thus, the prototypical non-metals, hydrogen and helium, becomes metallic at high densities; and the acknowledged metals, mercury, rubidium and caesium, transform into their non-metallic forms at low elemental densities. This reflects the fundamental fact that, at temperatures above the absolute zero of temperature, there is therefore no clear dividing line between metals and non-metals. Our conventional demarcation of chemical elements as metals or non-metals within the periodic table is of course governed by our experience of the nature of the elements under ambient conditions. Examination of these other situations helps us to examine the exact divisions of the chemical elements into metals and non-metals (Mendeleeff D. 1905 The principles of chemistry, vol. II, p. 23). © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Major inorganic elements in tap water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrina, A; Khoo, H E; Idris, M A; Amin, I; Razman, M R

    2011-08-01

    Quality drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities such as heavy metals and other inorganic elements. Samples of tap water collected from 24 locations in Peninsular Malaysia were determined for inorganic element content. Minerals and heavy metals were analysed by spectroscopy methods, while non-metal elements were analysed using test kits. Minerals and heavy metals determined were sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead while the non-metal elements were fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Most of the inorganic elements found in the samples were below the maximum permitted levels recommended by inter-national drinking water standard limits, except for iron and manganese. Iron concentration of tap water from one of the locations was higher than the standard limit. In general, tap water from different parts of Peninsular Malaysia had low concentrations of heavy metals and inorganic elements.

  15. Silicene Catalyzed Reduction of Nitrobenzene to Aniline: a Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christopher; He, Haiying

    The reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline has a broad range of applications in the production of rubbers, dyes, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Currently, use of metal catalysts is the most popular method of performing this reaction on a large scale. These metal catalysts usually require high-temperature and/or high-pressure reaction conditions, and produce hazardous chemicals. This has led to a call for more environmentally friendly nonmetal catalysts. Recent studies suggest that silicene, the recently discovered silicon counterpart of graphene, could potentially work as a nonmetal catalyst due to its unique electronic property and strong interactions with molecules containing nitrogen and oxygen. In this computational study, we have investigated the plausibility of using silicene as a catalyst for the reduction of nitrobenzene. Possible reaction mechanisms will be discussed with a highlight of the difference between silicene and metal catalysts. . All calculations were performed in the framework of density functional theory.

  16. Study of near-critical states of liquid-vapor phase transition of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelyanov, A N; Shakhray, D V; Golyshev, A A

    2015-01-01

    Study of thermodynamic parameters of magnesium in the near-critical point region of the liquid-vapor phase transition and in the region of metal-nonmetal transition was carried out. Measurements of the electrical resistance of magnesium after shock compression and expansion into gas (helium) environment in the process of isobaric heating was carried out. Heating of the magnesium surface by heat transfer with hot helium was performed. The registered electrical resistance of expanded magnesium was about 10 4 -10 5 times lower than the electrical resistance of the magnesium under normal condition at the density less than the density of the critical point. Thus, metal-nonmetal transition was found in magnesium. (paper)

  17. Surface changes of poly-L-lactic acid due to annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juřík, P.; Michaljaničová, I.; Slepička, P.; Kolskáa, Z.; Švorčík, V.

    2017-11-01

    Surface modifications are very important part of both current cutting-edge research and modern manufacturing. Our research is focused on poly-L-lactic acid, which is biocompatible and biodegradable polymer that offers applications in modern medicine. We observed morphological changes of the surface of metalized samples due to annealing and studied effect of modifications on total surface area and pore surface and volume. We observed that annealing of non-metalized samples had most pronounced effect up to the 70°C, after which all observed parameters dropped significantly. Metallization has changed behaviour of the samples significantly and resulted in generally lower surface area and porosity when compared to non-metalized samples.

  18. Design and Implementation of Image Research for the Columbia Mets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    the other hand, developed an unusual camaraderie through identifying with their underdog Mets." (7) Teams are finding good public relations programs do...supports the club. Question 24 was designed to measure brand loyalty by respondents to Mets sponsors versus non-Mets sponsors. Finally, question 27...be done to attract crowds. Especially with a brand new stadium. The Carolinas, in my opinion, are big minor league baseball states. Let’s get people

  19. Tellurium: providing a bright future for solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Tellurium is one of the least common elements on Earth. Most rocks contain an average of about 3 parts per billion tellurium, making it rarer than the rare earth elements and eight times less abundant than gold. Grains of native tellurium appear in rocks as a brittle, silvery-white material, but tellurium more commonly occurs in telluride minerals that include varied quantities of gold, silver, or platinum. Tellurium is a metalloid, meaning it possesses the properties of both metals and nonmetals.

  20. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic studies of Cu , Sn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    method. Metal ions (Cu2+ and Sn2+), and non-metal anion, N3−, were substituted into the K5Sb5P2O20 for pos- ... in the photocatalytic reaction was studied using their appropriate scavengers. Keywords. ... K5Sb5P2O20 and exchange of its potassium with copper and tin ions ... distilled water and dried in air at 100. ◦. C.

  1. Classical fracture mechanics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, K.H.; Heerens, J.; Landes, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive Structural Integrity is a reference work which covers all activities involved in the assurance of structural integrity. It provides engineers and scientists with an unparalleled depth of knowledge in the disciplines involved. The new online Volume 11 is dedicated to the mechanical characteristics of materials. This paper contains the chapter 11.02 of this volume and is structured as follows: Test techniques; Analysis; Fracture behavior; Fracture toughness tests for nonmetals

  2. Ionic liquids in the synthesis of nanoobjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasova, Natalia P; Smetannikov, Yurii V; Zanin, A A

    2010-01-01

    Data on the usage of the novel green solvents, ionic liquids, in the synthesis of nanoobjects and their stabilization are considered. The information is structured according to the resulting products of the synthetic processes: nanoparticles of noble metals, nanoparticles of non-metals, nanoparticles of metal oxides and chalcogenides, nanocomposites, and highly dispersed polymers. The conclusion is made that the ionic liquids might determine the structure and the properties of the nanoobjects, thus opening new fundamental and technological horizons in nanochemistry.

  3. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  4. Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

    1984-08-01

    Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

  5. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, A.T.; Hosford, C.D.

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simltaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets is machined out to form a dimple. Glass microballoons,, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  6. Identification of an operon involved in fluoride resistance in Enterobacter cloacae FRM

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Tian, Jian; Liu, Lihui; Zhu, Tao; Yu, Xiaoxia; Chu, Xiaoyu; Yao, Bin; Wu, Ningfeng; Fan, Yunliu

    2017-01-01

    Fluorine is ubiquitous and the most active non-metal element in nature. While many microorganisms have developed fluoride resistance as a result of the widespread and prolonged application of oral hygiene products, the mechanisms used by these organisms to overcome fluoride toxicity are incompletely understood. In this study, a fluoride-resistant strain, Enterobacter cloacae FRM, was identified which could grow well at a fluoride concentration of 4,000?mg/L. According to comparative genomics,...

  7. Photoemission spectroscopy of the charge-ordering transition in Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chainani, A.; Kumigashira, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tomioka, Y.; Kuwahara, H.; Tokura, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the electronic structure of the magnetite Pr 0.5 Sr 0.5 MnO 3 across the charge ordering transition is studied using temperature-dependent photoemission spectroscopy. Ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy have been performed as a function of temperature (25-300K) to investigate the changes in the single-particle density of states across the metal-nonmetal and the para-ferro transitions

  8. μ+SR spectroscopy: the positive muon as a magnetic probe in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, J.H.; Fleming, D.G.; Crowe, K.M.; Johnson, R.F.; Patterson, B.D.; Portis, A.M.; Gygax, F.N.; Schenck, A.

    1974-06-01

    Through its asymmetric decay, the positive muon acts as a sensitive detector of the interactions of its spin with the medium in which it comes to rest. Development of the μ + SR spectroscopy technique is described, and recent applications of the μ + as a probe are discussed. Results for hyperfine fields in ferromagnets and impurity states in nonmetals are presented with suggestions for future studies. 6 figures

  9. Interaction effects in liquids with low electron densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, W.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses two complementary classes of systems in which strong electron-electron or electron-ion interactions appear at low electron densities. The first are the expanded liquid alkali metals (cesium) in which electron correlation effects have a profound effect on the magnetic properties on the metallic side of the metal-nonmetal transition. The second group are molten alkali halides containing low densities of localized electrons introduced, say, by dissolution of small amounts of excess metal. (Auth.)

  10. Treatment of low-temperature tar-gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schick, F

    1928-07-04

    Process for the treating and conversion of low-temperature tar-vapor and gas mixtures in the presence of metals or metal oxides as well as bodies of large surface, without previous condensation of the liquid material to be treated, characterized by the treatment taking place with a mixture of desulfurizing metals and metal oxides which, if necessary, are precipitated on carriers and large surface nonmetal cracking catalysts, such as active carbon and silica gel.

  11. Nuclear criticality safety practices in digestion systems of the large scale production facility of the Department of Energy at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear criticality safety practices used at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio in conjunction with its metal dissolving and nonmetal, e.g., ash and ore concentrates, digesting operations are reviewed. Operating procedures with several different types of dissolver or digestor systems, i.e., metal dissolver, continuous, drum and safe geometry, are discussed. Calculations performed to verify the criticality safety of the operations are described

  12. Hydrogen diffusion, dissolution and permeation of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleman, T.S.; Rao, D.; Verghese, K.; Zumwalt, L.

    1979-01-01

    A review of hydrogen diffusion, dissolution and permeation in metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, halides and hydrides is presented. Results are organized by compound and an effort has been made to resolve differences between measured results where wide disparities exist. The document has been prepared to provide needed data for the development of fusion reactor blankets but the results should be generally useful in technologies that involve interactions between hydrogen and non-metals

  13. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of thermophysical properties of fluid ethane

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Cong; Zheng, Fawei; Zhang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    We have performed first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations based on density-functional theory to study the thermophysical properties of ethane under extreme conditions. We present new results for the equation of state of fluid ethane in the warm dense region. The optical conductivity is calculated via the Kubo-Greenwood formula from which the dc conductivity and optical reflectivity are derived. The close correlation between the nonmetal-metal transition of ethane and its decomposition...

  14. Core level shifts in group IV semiconductors and semimetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, S.; Tosatti, E.

    1981-08-01

    We calculate the core level binding energy shift from the isolated atom to the crystalline solid, for group IV elemental semiconductors. This is done by simple extension of Johansson and Martensson's scheme for metals. We show that the core level energy in a nonmetal must be measured by the photo absorption (''core exciton'') threshold rather than by photo emission. As a byproduct, a simple scheme is also devised to evaluate impurity heats of solutions in semiconductors. (author)

  15. Self-diffusion of plutonium in uranium-plutonium mononitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Matzke, H.

    1978-01-01

    In the following, first data on the tracer diffusion of Pu-238 in (Usub(0.8)Pusub(0.2)N are reported and some aspects of the diffusion mechanism are discussed. Two sets of specimens with different non-metal to metal ratios were used, and on one of the materials the Pu diffusion rates were measured as a function of nitrogen partial pressure at three different temperatures

  16. Os semimetais na origem e evolução da vida

    OpenAIRE

    Aureliano, M.; Nolasco, Pedro A.; Silva, João J. R. Fraústo da; Silva, José Armando L.

    2012-01-01

    Metalloids in origin and evolution of life. Metalloids have characteristics between metals and non-metals which give them, in some cases, specific properties. At least two of this chemical elements, boron and silicon, are essential to a significant number of living organisms and since some years ago it has been observed that the same metalloids may be involved in the synthesis and stabilization of some molecules relevant to the origin of life.

  17. Os semimetais na origem e evolução da vida

    OpenAIRE

    Aureliano, Manuel; Nolasco, Pedro A.; Silva, João J. R. Fraústo da; Silva, José Armando L. da

    2012-01-01

    Metalloids have characteristics between metals and non-metals which give them, in some cases, specific properties. At least two of this chemical elements, boron and silicon, are essential to a significant number of living organisms and since some years ago it has been observed that the same metalloids may be involved in the synthesis and stabilization of some molecules relevant to the origin of life.

  18. Os semimetais na origem e evolução da vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aureliano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metalloids have characteristics between metals and non-metals which give them, in some cases, specific properties. At least two of this chemical elements, boron and silicon, are essential to a significant number of living organisms and since some years ago it has been observed that the same metalloids may be involved in the synthesis and stabilization of some molecules relevant to the origin of life.

  19. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji-Won; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2017-09-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component comprising at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  20. Evaluation of ΔGsub(f) values for unstable compounds: a Fortran program for the calculation of ternary phase equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throop, G.J.; Rogl, P.; Rudy, E.

    1978-01-01

    A Fortran IV program was set up for the calculation of phase equilibria and tieline distributions in ternary systems of the type: transition metal-transition metal-nonmetal (interstitial type of solid solutions). The method offers the possibility of determining the thermodynamic values for unstable compounds through their influence upon ternary phase equilibria. The variation of the free enthalpy of formation of ternary solid solutions is calculated as a function of nonmetal content, thus describing the actual curvature of the phase boundaries. The integral and partial molar free enthalpies of formation of binary nonstoichiometric compounds and of phase solutions are expressed as analytical functions of the nonmetal content within their homogeneity range. The coefficient of these analytical expressions are obtained by the use either of the Wagner-Schottky vacancy model or polynomials second order in composition (parabolic approach). The free energy of formation, ΔGsub(f) has been calculated for the systems Ti-C, Zr-C, and Ta-C. Calculations of the ternary phase equilibria yielded the values for ΔGsub(f) for the unstable compounds Ti 2 C at 1500 0 C and Zr 2 C at 1775 0 C of -22.3 and 22.7 kcal g atom metal respectively. These values were used for the calculation of isothermal sections within the ternary systems Ti-Ta-C (at 1500 0 C) and Zr-Ta-C (at 1775 0 C). The ideal case of ternary phase solutions is extended to regular solutions. (author)

  1. Aesthetic appreciation of poetry correlates with ease of processing in event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Christian; Kotz, Sonja A; Jessen, Sarah; Raettig, Tim; von Koppenfels, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2016-04-01

    Rhetorical theory suggests that rhythmic and metrical features of language substantially contribute to persuading, moving, and pleasing an audience. A potential explanation of these effects is offered by "cognitive fluency theory," which stipulates that recurring patterns (e.g., meter) enhance perceptual fluency and can lead to greater aesthetic appreciation. In this article, we explore these two assertions by investigating the effects of meter and rhyme in the reception of poetry by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants listened to four versions of lyrical stanzas that varied in terms of meter and rhyme, and rated the stanzas for rhythmicity and aesthetic liking. The behavioral and ERP results were in accord with enhanced liking and rhythmicity ratings for metered and rhyming stanzas. The metered and rhyming stanzas elicited smaller N400/P600 ERP responses than their nonmetered, nonrhyming, or nonmetered and nonrhyming counterparts. In addition, the N400 and P600 effects for the lyrical stanzas correlated with aesthetic liking effects (metered-nonmetered), implying that modulation of the N400 and P600 has a direct bearing on the aesthetic appreciation of lyrical stanzas. We suggest that these effects are indicative of perceptual-fluency-enhanced aesthetic liking, as postulated by cognitive fluency theory.

  2. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji Won; Rondinone, Adam J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2014-06-24

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component containing at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  3. The association between adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and α1-antitrypsin-LDL in female subjects without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2010-12-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may act as an atheroprotective (anti-atherosclerotic) agent under some conditions. While the α1-antitrypsin (AT)-LDL complex is considered a type of oxidized LDL, its clinical relevance remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between AT-LDL and anti-atherosclerotic variables such as HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). In asymptomatic females (n = 194; mean age, 54 years) who were divided into non-MetS (n = 108) and MetS groups (n = 86), the fasting levels of serum AT-LDL, adiponectin and glucose/lipid panels were measured, in addition to body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. The MetS group showed significantly higher BMI, blood pressure, glucose and triglyceride levels as well as significantly lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin than the non-MetS group. A multivariate-adjusted analysis revealed that in the non-MetS group, AT-LDL was significantly, independently and positively correlated with adiponectin (β = 0.297, P cholesterol (β = 0.217, P LDL was significantly, independently and positively correlated with LDL-cholesterol only (β = 0.342, P LDL may exert anti-atherosclerotic effects in female subjects without MetS. More studies are required to clarify the clinical roles of AT-LDL in relation to the pathophysiology of MetS.

  4. Determination of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens using high-temperature molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welz, Bernhard; Lepri, Fabio G.; Araujo, Rennan G.O.; Ferreira, Sergio L.C.; Huang Maodong; Okruss, Michael; Becker-Ross, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    The literature about the investigation of molecular spectra of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens in flames and furnaces, and the use of these spectra for the determination of these non-metals has been reviewed. Most of the investigations were carried out using conventional atomic absorption spectrometers, and there were in essence two different approaches. In the first one, dual-channel spectrometers with a hydrogen or deuterium lamp were used, applying the two-line method for background correction; in the second one, a line source was used that emitted an atomic line, which overlapped with the molecular spectrum. The first approach had the advantage that any spectral interval could be accessed, but it was susceptible to spectral interference; the second one had the advantage that the conventional background correction systems could be used to minimize spectral interferences, but had the problem that an atomic line had to be found, which was overlapping sufficiently well with the maximum of the molecular absorption spectrum. More recently a variety of molecular absorption spectra were investigated using a low-resolution polychromator with a CCD array detector, but no attempt was made to use this approach for quantitative determination of non-metals. The recent introduction and commercial availability of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometers is offering completely new possibilities for molecular absorption spectrometry and its use for the determination of non-metals. The use of a high-intensity continuum source together with a high-resolution spectrometer and a CCD array detector makes possible selecting the optimum wavelength for the determination and to exclude most spectral interferences.

  5. Metal/dielectric thermal interfacial transport considering cross-interface electron-phonon coupling: Theory, two-temperature molecular dynamics, and thermal circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zexi; Wang, Yan; Ruan, Xiulin

    2016-02-01

    The standard two-temperature equations for electron-phonon coupled thermal transport across metal/nonmetal interfaces are modified to include the possible coupling between metal electrons with substrate phonons. The previous two-temperature molecular dynamics (TT-MD) approach is then extended to solve these equations numerically at the atomic scale, and the method is demonstrated using Cu/Si interface as an example. A key parameter in TT-MD is the nonlocal coupling distance of metal electrons and nonmetal phonons, and here we use two different approximations. The first is based on Overhauser's "joint-modes" concept, while we use an interfacial reconstruction region as the length scale of joint region rather than the phonon mean-free path as in Overhauser's original model. In this region, the metal electrons can couple to the joint phonon modes. The second approximation is the "phonon wavelength" concept where electrons couple to phonons nonlocally within the range of one phonon wavelength. Compared with the original TT-MD, including the cross-interface electron-phonon coupling can slightly reduce the total thermal boundary resistance. Whether the electron-phonon coupling within the metal block is nonlocal or not does not make an obvious difference in the heat transfer process. Based on the temperature profiles from TT-MD, we construct a new mixed series-parallel thermal circuit. We show that such a thermal circuit is essential for understanding metal/nonmetal interfacial transport, while calculating a single resistance without solving temperature profiles as done in most previous studies is generally incomplete. As a comparison, the simple series circuit that neglects the cross-interface electron-phonon coupling could overestimate the interfacial resistance, while the simple parallel circuit in the original Overhauser's model underestimates the total interfacial resistance.

  6. Recent progress on doped ZnO nanostructures for visible-light photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadi, Morasae; Zirak, Mohammad; Naseri, Amene; Khorashadizade, Elham; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental pollution and energy supply demand have been regarded as important concerns in recent years. Metal oxide semiconductor photocatalysts is a promising approach to apply environmental remediation as well as fuel generation from water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. ZnO nanostructures have been shown promising photocatalytic activities due to their non-toxic, inexpensive, and highly efficient nature. However, its wide band gap hinders photo-excitation for practical photocatalytic applications under solar light as an abundant, clean and safe energy source. To overcome this barrier, many strategies have been developed in the last decade to apply ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. In this review, we have classified different approaches to activate ZnO as a photocatalyst in visible-light spectrum. Utilization of various nonmetals, transition metals and rare-earth metals for doping in ZnO crystal lattice to create visible-light-responsive doped ZnO photocatalysts is discussed. Generation of localized energy levels within the gap in doped ZnO nanostructures has played an important role in effective photocatalytic reaction under visible-light irradiation. The effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically. Finally, a comparative study is performed to evaluate two classes of metals and nonmetals as useful dopants for ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. - Highlights: • Metals and nonmetals used as a dopant to shift ZnO band gap toward visible-light. • Modification of electronic structure played a crucial role in doped ZnO activity. • Correlation between dopant's characteristics and ZnO visible activity was reviewed. • Photo-degradation of doped ZnO was studied and compared for different dopants.

  7. Recent progress on doped ZnO nanostructures for visible-light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Morasae; Zirak, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naseri, Amene [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorashadizade, Elham [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moshfegh, Alireza Z., E-mail: moshfegh@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-30

    Global environmental pollution and energy supply demand have been regarded as important concerns in recent years. Metal oxide semiconductor photocatalysts is a promising approach to apply environmental remediation as well as fuel generation from water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. ZnO nanostructures have been shown promising photocatalytic activities due to their non-toxic, inexpensive, and highly efficient nature. However, its wide band gap hinders photo-excitation for practical photocatalytic applications under solar light as an abundant, clean and safe energy source. To overcome this barrier, many strategies have been developed in the last decade to apply ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. In this review, we have classified different approaches to activate ZnO as a photocatalyst in visible-light spectrum. Utilization of various nonmetals, transition metals and rare-earth metals for doping in ZnO crystal lattice to create visible-light-responsive doped ZnO photocatalysts is discussed. Generation of localized energy levels within the gap in doped ZnO nanostructures has played an important role in effective photocatalytic reaction under visible-light irradiation. The effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically. Finally, a comparative study is performed to evaluate two classes of metals and nonmetals as useful dopants for ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. - Highlights: • Metals and nonmetals used as a dopant to shift ZnO band gap toward visible-light. • Modification of electronic structure played a crucial role in doped ZnO activity. • Correlation between dopant's characteristics and ZnO visible activity was reviewed. • Photo-degradation of doped ZnO was studied and compared for different dopants.

  8. Characterisation of polymers, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Crompton, Roy

    2008-01-01

    This essential guide to Polymer Characterisation is a complete compendium of methodologies that have evolved for the determination of the chemical composition of polymers. This 478-page book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the state-of-the-art theories and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. This is supported by approximately 1200 references. Volume 1 covers the methodology used for the determination of metals, non-metals and organic functional groups in polymers, and for the determination of the ratio in which different m

  9. Report for the ability to manage research works; Rapport d'habilitation a diriger des recherches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, P.

    2001-06-15

    This document summarizes the research work carried out by the author between 1992 and 2001 in the domain of electric arcs and hot plasmas. His participation to 4 research projects are detailed. These projects deals with: the calculation of the composition and transport coefficients in out of equilibrium plasmas; the detection of pollutant emissions; the electric discharge in the air between two non-metal liquid electrodes at atmospheric pressure; and the plasma-insulating material interaction at high pressures and temperatures. A curriculum vitae and a detailed list of publications are given. (J.S.)

  10. Electronic transport coefficients from ab initio simulations and application to dense liquid hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, Bastian; French, Martin; Redmer, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Using Kubo's linear response theory, we derive expressions for the frequency-dependent electrical conductivity (Kubo-Greenwood formula), thermopower, and thermal conductivity in a strongly correlated electron system. These are evaluated within ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in order to study the thermoelectric transport coefficients in dense liquid hydrogen, especially near the nonmetal-to-metal transition region. We also observe significant deviations from the widely used Wiedemann-Franz law, which is strictly valid only for degenerate systems, and give an estimate for its valid scope of application toward lower densities.

  11. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  12. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed

  13. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed.

  14. Use of X-ray fluorescence for metal determination in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidorizzi, Lorenza

    1996-01-01

    X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry was used to determine metals and non-metals in polyester polymers. The greatest advantage of this technique over others like Atomic Absorption or Plasma Emission is that no sample previous treatment (like calcination or acid digestion) is required. Other advantage of this method is its fastness allowing a complete analysis in just few minutes. On the other hand, this method requires metals higher than 15 ppm. Below those values there is a loss of the analysis' precision. Another advantage of this technique is the possibility of making qualitative metal analysis, scanning unknown samples and identifying the found peaks automatically. (author)

  15. Solvent Handbook Database System user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Industrial solvents and cleaners are used in maintenance facilities to remove wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold release, and various other contaminants from parts, and to prepare the surface of various metals. However, because of growing environmental and worker-safety concerns, government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals and have restricted the use of halogenated hydrocarbons because they affect the ozone layer and may cause cancer. The Solvent Handbook Database System lets you view information on solvents and cleaners, including test results on cleaning performance, air emissions, recycling and recovery, corrosion, and non-metals compatibility. Company and product safety information is also available

  16. The electronic and optical properties of warm dense nitrous oxide using quantum molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yujuan; Wang Cong; Zhang Ping

    2012-01-01

    First-principles molecular-dynamics simulations based on density-functional theory have been used to study the electronic and optical properties of fluid nitrous oxide under extreme conditions. Systematic descriptions of pair-correlation function, atomic structure, and the charge density distribution are used to investigate the dissociation of fluid nitrous oxide. The electrical and optical properties are derived from the Kubo-Greenwood formula. It is found that the nonmetal-metal transition for fluid nitrous oxide can be directly associated to the dissociation and has significant influence on the optical properties of the fluid.

  17. Selective two-step titration of thorium by sulfate displacement of the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, P.

    1980-07-01

    Thorium and other metals are complexed with excess diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) at pH 1.4, the excess DTPA is titrated with Bi(III) to a xylenol orange end point, sulfate is added to complex Th(IV), and the displaced DTPA again is titrated with Bi(III). Of 61 metal ions and nonmetal anions tested, only Ga(III), Sc(III), tungstate, citrate, oxalate, and thiosulfate interfere seriously. Lesser interferences are In(III), Zr(IV), V(IV), and permanganate. The standard deviation is 2 μg for 56 to 840 μg Th

  18. Chemomechanical phenomena in the grinding of coal. Final report, February 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macmillan, N.H.

    1977-08-01

    Vickers microhardness, drilling rate, grinding rate and zeta-potential measurements have been made on coals of various rank in both aqueous and organic environments in order to determine whether: (a) chemomechanical (Rebinder) effects exist in coal; and (b) any such effects as do exist can be used to improve the comminution of coal. The results reveal the mechanical behavior of coal to be remarkably environment-insensitive as compared to inorganic non-metals. As a result, it is concluded that chemomechanical phenomena offer little prospect of reducing the cost of comminuting coal.

  19. Using geoelectrochemical technique to extract uranium and other metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yulong

    1990-10-01

    The geoelectrochemical extraction technique, which is a direct deep exploring method, is one of the geoelectrochemical exploring methods. It is developed recently to explore basic metals, precious metals, rare metals and some nonmetal mineral products. It is also a combination of electrical surveying and geochemical surveying. This method is more useful in the seeking of gold ore deposit. The principle and technique of this method and the results in seeking gold, uranium, lead, nickel and tin ore deposits are introduced. The equipment and instruments used in this method are also given

  20. Research and development of treatment techniques for LLW from decommissioning: Decontamination and volume reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, T.; Kameo, Y.; Nakashio, N.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the amount and/or volume of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) arising from decommissioning of nuclear reactor, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing four decontamination techniques. They are: (a) Gas-carrying abrasive method, (b) In-situ remote electropolishing method for pipe system before dismantling, (c) Bead reaction - thermal shock method, and (d) Laser induced chemical method for components after dismantling. JAERI in developing techniques are also carrying out melting tests of metal and non-metal. Melting was confirmed to be effective in reducing the volume, homogenizing, and furthermore stabilizing non-metallic wastes. (author)

  1. Verification calculation of drum and pulley overhead travelling crane on gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsurrijal Ramdja; Ari Satmoko; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    Having verified the calculation of dam drum pulleys found on cranes to facilitate the gamma irradiator. Drum is a device for rolling steel ropes while the pulley is a circular pieces called disks, which are made from metal or non-metal to transmit motion and force. Having verified calculation of forces acting style on drums, drum diameter and length and style of press that occurred on drums. Likewise, the pulley, pulley diameter verified calculations, measures of disc and shaft power pulleys. From the verification results will be obtained whether the data drums and pulley device is safe or not safe to use. (author)

  2. PELATIHAN TEKNIK PELAPISAN LOGAM DENGAN METODE ELEKTROPLATING UNTUK INDUSTRI KERAJINAN LOGAM DI KAMASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIAMBADI PRIAMBADI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Electroplating is a metal or non-metal coating process with electrolyze that use direct current (DC and electrolyte (chemical solution that has a function as medium to supply metal ions. The function of electroplating are protecting metal from corrotion attack, adding surface hardness and improving quality of metal surface. Electroplating process basically has four steps; cleaning, washing, coating and protecting. For a quality result, the coating process need a right and optimum condition of operation, such as, a right concentration of electrolyte, a right voltage or current, and a right temperature.

  3. Elevated Serum Cyclophilin B Levels Are Associated with the Prevalence and Severity of Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hang; Fan, Qin; Xie, Hongyang; Lu, Lin; Tao, Rong; Wang, Fang; Xi, Rui; Hu, Jian; Chen, Qiujing; Shen, Weifeng; Zhang, Ruiyan; Yan, Xiaoxiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective Inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cyclophilin B (CypB) can be constitutively secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress, participating in tissue or systemic inflammation. We investigated the relationship between CypB and MetS in both humans and mice. Methods Serum CypB levels were determined in 211 subjects with MetS and 292 subjects without MetS (non-MetS) (133 healthy controls and 159 high-risk subjects with ...

  4. Elevated Serum Cyclophilin B Levels Are Associated with the Prevalence and Severity of Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Zhang; Hang Zhang; Qin Fan; Qin Fan; Hongyang Xie; Hongyang Xie; Lin Lu; Lin Lu; Rong Tao; Fang Wang; Rui Xi; Jian Hu; Qiujing Chen; Weifeng Shen; Ruiyan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    ObjectiveInflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cyclophilin B (CypB) can be constitutively secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress, participating in tissue or systemic inflammation. We investigated the relationship between CypB and MetS in both humans and mice.MethodsSerum CypB levels were determined in 211 subjects with MetS and 292 subjects without MetS (non-MetS) (133 healthy controls and 159 high-risk subjects with one...

  5. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  6. Classificação periódica: um exemplo didático para ensinar análise de componentes principais Periodic classification: a didactic example to teach principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington da Silva Lyra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A dataset of chemical properties of the elements is used herein to introduce principal components analysis (PCA. The focus in this article is to verify the classification of the elements within the periodic table. The reclassification of the semimetals as metals or nonmetals emerges naturally from PCA and agrees with the current SBQ/IUPAC periodic table. Dataset construction, basic preprocessing, loading and score plots, and interpretation have been emphasized. This activity can be carried out even when students with distinct levels of formation are together in the same learning environment.

  7. Structure and properties of novel cobaltates Ln.sub.0.3./sub.CoO.sub.2./sub. (Ln = La, Pr, and Nd)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knížek, Karel; Jirák, Zdeněk; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Maryško, Miroslav; Buršík, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 7 (2012), "07D707-1"-"07D707-3" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1036; GA ČR GA202/09/0421 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects * heat capacity * saturation moments and magnetic susceptibilities * nonmetals * Insulators * low-field transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.210, year: 2012

  8. Hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, W.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds of metals with non-metals such as C, N, and B show different hardness. Wagner's interaction parameter characterizes manner and extent of the interaction between the atoms of the substance dissolved and the additional elements in metallic mixed phases. An attempt has been made to correlate the hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides (data taken from literature) with certain interaction parameters and associated thermodynamic quantities (ΔH, ΔG). For some metals of periods 4, 5, and 6 corresponding relations were found between microhardness, interaction parameters, heat of formation, and atomic number

  9. P(NMe2)3-Mediated Umpolung Alkylation and Nonylidic Olefination of α-Keto Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunewang Rixin; Radosevich, Alexander T

    2015-08-07

    A commercial phosphorus-based reagent (P(NMe2)3) mediates umpolung alkylation of methyl aroylformates with benzylic and allylic bromides, leading to either Barbier-type addition or ylide-free olefination products upon workup. The reaction sequence is initiated by a two-electron redox addition of the tricoordinate phosphorus reagent with an α-keto ester compound (Kukhtin-Ramirez addition). A mechanistic rationale is offered for the chemoselectivity upon which the success of this nonmetal mediated C-C bond forming strategy is based.

  10. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  11. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  12. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, includimg uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  13. Thermophysical properties of liquid carbon dioxide under shock compressions: quantum molecular dynamic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping

    2010-10-07

    Quantum molecular dynamics were used to calculate the equation of state, electrical, and optical properties of liquid carbon dioxide along the Hugoniot at shock pressures up to 74 GPa. The principal Hugoniot derived from the calculated equation of state is in good agreement with experimental results. Molecular dissociation and recombination are investigated through pair correlation functions and decomposition of carbon dioxide is found to be between 40 and 50 GPa along the Hugoniot, where nonmetal-metal transition is observed. In addition, the optical properties of shock compressed carbon dioxide are also theoretically predicted along the Hugoniot.

  14. The latest general chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Geun Bae; Choi, Se Yeong; Kim, Chin Yeong; Yoon, Gil Jung; Lee, Eun Seok; Seo, Moon Gyu

    1995-02-01

    This book deals with the latest general chemistry, which is comprised of twenty-three chapters, the contents of this book are introduction, theory of atoms and molecule, chemical formula and a chemical reaction formula, structure of atoms, nature of atoms and the periodic table, structure of molecule and spectrum, gas, solution, solid, chemical combination, chemical reaction speed, chemical equilibrium, thermal chemistry, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, acid-base, complex, aquatic chemistry, air chemistry, nuclear chemistry, metal and nonmetal, organic chemistry and biochemistry. It has exercise in the end of each chapter.

  15. [Gas chromatography in quantitative analysis of hydrocyanic acid and its salts in cadaveric blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iablochkin, V D

    2003-01-01

    A direct gas chromatography method was designed for the quantitative determination of cyanides (prussic acid) in cadaveric blood. Its sensitivity is 0.05 mg/ml. The routine volatile products, including substances, which emerge due to putrefaction of organic matters, do not affect the accuracy and reproducibility of the method; the exception is H-propanol that was used as the internal standard. The method was used in legal chemical expertise related with acute cyanide poisoning (suicide) as well as with poisoning of products of combustion of nonmetals (foam-rubber). The absolute error does not exceed 10% with a mean quadratic deviation of 0.0029-0.0033 mg.

  16. β-Rhombohedral Boron: At the Crossroads of the Chemistry of Boron and the Physics of Frustration [Boron: a frustrated element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogitsu, Tadashi [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schwegler, Eric [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    In the periodic table boron occupies a peculiar, crossover position: on the first row, it is surrounded by metal forming elements on the left and by non-metals on the right. In addition, it is the only non-metal of the third column. Therefore it is perhaps not surprising that the crystallographic structure and topology of its stable allotrope at room temperature (β-boron) are not shared by any other element, and are extremely complex. The formidable intricacy of β- boron, with interconnecting icosahedra, partially occupied sites, and an unusually large number of atoms per unit cell (more than 300) has been known for more than 40 years. Nevertheless boron remains the only element purified in significant quantities whose ground state geometry has not been completely determined by experiments. However theoretical progress reported in the last decade has shed light on numerous properties of elemental boron, leading to a thorough characterization of its structure at ambient conditions, as well as of its electronic and thermodynamic properties. This review discusses in detail the properties of β-boron, as inferred from experiments and the ab-initio theories developed in the last decade.

  17. Production and Characterization of Alkaline Protease from a High Yielding and Moderately Halophilic Strain of SD11 Marine Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A marine bacterium SD11, which was isolated from sea muds (Geziwo Qinhuangdao Sea area, China, was used to produce thermostable alkaline serine nonmetal protease in the skim milk agar plate medium with 10% NaCl. The optimal temperature about the manufacture of the extracellular protease was ~60°C. The crude enzyme was stable at 20–50°C. The activity was retained to 60% and 45% after heating for 1 h at 60 and 70°C, respectively. The protease was highly active in a wide pH scope (8.0–10.0 and maximum protease activity exhibited at pH 10.0. The activity was restrained by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF but mildly increased (~107% in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, indicating that the production contains serine-protease(s and nonmetal protease(s. Moreover, the crude alkaline protease was active with the 5 mM Ca2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Na+, and K+ that existed separately. In addition, the protease showed superduper stability when exposed to an anionic surfactant (5 mM SDS, an oxidizing agent (1% H2O2, and several organic solvents (methanol, isopropanol, and acetone. These results suggest that the marine bacterium SD11 is significant in the industry from the prospects of its ability to produce thermally stable alkaline protease.

  18. Probing the interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingyu; Qian, Yong, E-mail: qianyong86@163.com; Deng, Yonghong; Liu, Di; Li, Hao; Qiu, Xueqing, E-mail: xueqingqiu66@163.com

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: The interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides are quantitatively probed by atomic force microscopy, which is fundamental but beneficial for understanding and optimizing the absorption-dispersion and catalytic degradation processes of lignin. - Highlights: • The interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides are measured using AFM. • The adhesion forces between lignin and metal oxides are larger than that in nonmetal systems. • Hydrogen bond plays an important role in lignin-inorganic oxides system. - Abstract: Understanding the interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides has both fundamental and practical importance in industrial and energy fields. In this work, the specific interactions between alkali lignin (AL) and three inorganic oxide substrates in aqueous environment are quantitatively measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the average adhesion force between AL and metal oxide such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or MgO is nearly two times bigger than that between AL and nonmetal oxide such as SiO{sub 2} due to the electrostatic difference and cation-π interaction. When 83% hydroxyl groups of AL is blocked by acetylation, the adhesion forces between AL and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO and SiO{sub 2} decrease 43, 35 and 75% respectively, which indicate hydrogen bonds play an important role between AL and inorganic oxides, especially in AL-silica system.

  19. Mussels as a bio-indicator of the environmental quality of the coastal water of the Boka Kotorska Bay (Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAJLO JOVIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was used as a pollution level indicator in the Boka Kotorska Bay of the southeastern Adriatic on the Montenegrin coast. The ever-increasing urbanization and industrialization, combined with a poor sewage system, an increase in both marine and inland traffic, as well as insufficient water circulation in the Bay itself have resulted in some level of pollution. Since heavy metals are extremely toxic and do not easily undergo biodecomposition, the results of this study supply valuable information concerning the metal pollution of the marine environment in Boka Kotorska Bay. The concentrations of the investigated metals and non-metals accumulated in the mussels were determined during the fall of 2007 using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS for Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sn and V, and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED–XRF to determine the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Si, P, S, Cl, K and Ca. ED–XRF was also used to determine the levels of non-metals and elements present in high concentrations. Comparing the data from this study in relation to data from other regions for Mytilus galloprovincialis, the mussel sampled from the Boka Kotorska Bay showed a moderate level of pollution.

  20. X-ray beam penetration in TXRF measurement of polycrystalline and amorphous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak-Roy, A.R.; Hossain, T.Z.

    2000-01-01

    For TXRF measurement on single crystal silicon surface, it is generally agreed that the x-ray beam penetration is of the order of a few hundred Angstroms from the surface. However, for polycrystalline and amorphous surfaces - frequently used in semiconductor manufacturing there are evidences that x-rays penetrate much deeper revealing underlying layers. The evidences come from various measurements done with films such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and metal films such as aluminum, titanium and cobalt. A systematic study was carried out to help understand the issue further. Four sets of samples (on 8 inch wafers) were prepared to create layers buried under various deposited metal and non-metal layers. The metal layers created were aluminum, titanium and cobalt and the non-metal layers were silicon dioxide and silicon nitride. These samples were analyzed by TXRF under various angles and energies and the data were analyzed for signals from various buried layers along with their angular dependence. The results indicated deep penetration of x-ray beams. The samples were further analyzed by SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) and some of them by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) to obtain information about their depth profiles. This was done in order to rule out the possibility of intermixing of layers during deposition. (author)

  1. Molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, David J., E-mail: butcher@email.wcu.edu

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Theory and analytical considerations for molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS). •Critical review of low resolution MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) flame MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of HR-CS graphite furnace MAS. •Current status of HR-CS MAS and its future prospects for elemental analysis. -- Abstract: Molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS), originally developed in the 1970s, is a technique to determine non-metals in flames and graphite furnaces by monitoring the absorbance of diatomic molecules. Early studies employed low resolution instruments designed for line source atomic absorption, which provided a limited choice of analytical wavelengths, insufficient spectral resolution, and spectral interferences. However, the development of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) instrumentation has allowed the analysis of challenging samples for non-metals as well as some difficult elements to determine by AAS, such as aluminum and phosphorus. In this review, theory and analytical considerations for MAS are discussed. The principles and limitations of low resolution MAS are described, along with its applications. HR-CS AAS instrumentation is reviewed, emphasizing performance characteristics most relevant for MAS. Applications of flame and HR-CS GFMAS are reviewed, highlighting the most significant work to date. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the enhanced analytical capabilities provided by HR-CS MAS.

  2. Waste processing system for product contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotoyama, Koichi; Takaya, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Suehiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to processing contaminated products while separating them into metals at high contamination level and non-metals at low contamination level. Constitution: Pulverized radioactive wastes conveyed on a conveyor belt are uniformly irradiated by a ring-illumination device and then they are picked-up by a television camera or the like. The picked-up signals are sent to an image processing device, applied with appropriate binarization and metal objects are separated by utilizing the light absorbing property of non-metal and light reflection property of metals. The graviational center for the metal object is calculated from the binarized image, the positional information is provided to a robot controller and the metal object is transferred to another position by a robot. Since only the metal object at high radioactive contamination level can be taken out separately, it is no more necessary to process the entire wastes as the high level decontamination products, to thereby provide an economical advantage. (Sekiya, K.)

  3. Applicability of gassy mine regulations: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study reviewed three bodies of current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) gassy mine regulations, to address whether the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 30, Part 57 Safety and Health Standards - Metal and Nonmetal Underground Mines, Section 21-Gassy Mines, or Parts 75 Mandatory Safety Standards - Underground Coal Mines, and Part 77 Mandatory Safety Standards - Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines, are more applicable to a subsurface repository design. Part 57.21 is determined to be most applicable. There are, however, three sections in Parts 75 and 77 which address certain applicable items in greater detail and, therefore, will provide a more conservative design approach in these areas than Part 57.21, and should be incorporated into the basis for design. Study work also revealed that proposed CFR Title 30, Part 58 Mine Safety and Health - Metal and Nonmetal Standards, will have to be considered during design work if and when these have been promulgated. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Preparation, structure and properties of hafnium compounds in the system Hf-C-N-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundiers, G.D.

    1975-08-01

    Highly dense, homogenous and single phase hafnium carbonitride samples (with low oxygen content) were prepared in the whole concentration range of the ternary cubic carbonitrides. Stoichiometric hafnium oxicarbides were also prepared within the range of solubility. The procedure involved the hot pressing of powders of HfC, HfN, Hf, Hf-Oxide and carbon at temperatures of 3,000 0 C and pressures up to 550 kpf/cm 2 using a novel technique. Small single crystals of slightly substoichiometric HfN were also repared. The densification of the powders was studied as a function of the non-metal concentration. Carbonitrides with N/Hf ratio of 0.37 were prepared in a high temperature autoclave operating at medium pressures by the reaction of HfC with nitrogen. All the samples were characterized by density measurements, chemical, X-ray and metallographic analysis and in some cases with the aid of quantitative metallography and microprobe analysis. Typical properties investigated were lattice parameter, thermal expansion, microhardness and electrical resistivity as function of the non-metal content. For specific concentrations extreme values in the properties are attained. With the aid of the valence electron concentration (VEC) parameter, the properties can be correlated with the density of states of electrons at the Fermi level. (orig./HK) [de

  5. Exploring metal artifact reduction using dual-energy CT with pre-metal and post-metal implant cadaver comparison: are implant specific protocols needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, Ruud H H; Donders, Johanna C E; Kloen, Peter; Beenen, Ludo F M; Kleipool, Roeland P; Maas, Mario; Streekstra, Geert J

    2017-08-25

    To quantify and optimize metal artifact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-energy CT for different metal implants compared to non-metal reference scans. Dual-energy CT scans of a pair of human cadaver limbs were acquired before and after implanting a titanium tibia plate, a stainless-steel tibia plate and a titanium intramedullary nail respectively. Virtual monochromatic images were analyzed from 70 to 190 keV. Region-of-interest (ROI), used to determine fluctuations and inaccuracies in CT numbers of soft tissues and bone, were placed in muscle, fat, cortical bone and intramedullary tibia canal. The stainless-steel implant resulted in more pronounced metal artifacts compared to both titanium implants. CT number inaccuracies in 70 keV reference images were minimized at 130, 180 and 190 keV for the titanium tibia plate, stainless-steel tibia plate and titanium intramedullary nail respectively. Noise, measured as the standard deviation of pixels within a ROI, was minimized at 130, 150 and 140 keV for the titanium tibia plate, stainless-steel tibia plate and titanium intramedullary nail respectively. Tailoring dual-energy CT protocols using implant specific virtual monochromatic images minimizes fluctuations and inaccuracies in CT numbers in bone and soft tissues compared to non-metal reference scans.

  6. Design and development of a highly sensitive, field portable plasma source instrument for on-line liquid stream monitoring and real-time sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yixiang; Su, Yongxuan; Jin, Zhe; Abeln, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a highly sensitive, field portable, low-powered instrument for on-site, real-time liquid waste stream monitoring is described in this article. A series of factors such as system sensitivity and portability, plasma source, sample introduction, desolvation system, power supply, and the instrument configuration, were carefully considered in the design of the portable instrument. A newly designed, miniature, modified microwave plasma source was selected as the emission source for spectroscopy measurement, and an integrated small spectrometer with a charge-coupled device detector was installed for signal processing and detection. An innovative beam collection system with optical fibers was designed and used for emission signal collection. Microwave plasma can be sustained with various gases at relatively low power, and it possesses high detection capabilities for both metal and nonmetal pollutants, making it desirable to use for on-site, real-time, liquid waste stream monitoring. An effective in situ sampling system was coupled with a high efficiency desolvation device for direct-sampling liquid samples into the plasma. A portable computer control system is used for data processing. The new, integrated instrument can be easily used for on-site, real-time monitoring in the field. The system possesses a series of advantages, including high sensitivity for metal and nonmetal elements; in situ sampling; compact structure; low cost; and ease of operation and handling. These advantages will significantly overcome the limitations of previous monitoring techniques and make great contributions to environmental restoration and monitoring. (c)

  7. Stable iodide doping induced by photonic curing for carbon nanotube transparent conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachi, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Zhou, Ying; Azumi, Reiko

    2018-06-01

    Doping has become crucial for achieving stable and high-performance conductive transparent carbon nanotube (CNT) films. In this study, we systematically investigate the doping effects of a few materials including alkali metal iodides, nonmetal iodide, and metals. We demonstrate that photonic curing can enhance the doping effects, and correspondingly improve the conductivity of CNT films, and that such iodides have better doping effects than metals. In particular, doping with a nonmetal compound (NH4I) shows the largest potential to improve the conductivity of CNT films. Typically, doping with metal iodides reduces the sheet resistance (R S) of CNT films with 70–80% optical transmittances at λ = 550 nm from 600–2400 to 250–440 Ω/square, whereas doping with NH4I reduces R S to 57 and 84 Ω/square at 74 and 84% optical transmittances, respectively. Interestingly, such a doped CNT film exhibits only a slight increase in sheet resistance under an extreme environment of high temperature (85 °C) and high relative humidity (85%) for 350 h. The results suggest that photonic-curing-induced iodide doping is a promising approach to producing high-performance conductive transparent CNT films.

  8. Sectoral linkage analysis of three main air pollutants in China's industry: Comparing 2010 with 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiwei; Wang, Yuan; Zuo, Jian; Luo, Yincheng

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the driving forces of air pollution in China, the changes in linkages amongst inter-industrial air pollutant emissions were analyzed by hypothetical extraction method under the input-output framework. Results showed that the emissions of SO 2 , soot and dust from industrial sources increased by 56.46%, 36.95% and 11.69% respectively in 2010, compared with 2002. As major contributors to emissions, the power and gas sectors were responsible for the growing SO 2 emissions, the nonmetal products sector for soot emissions, and the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors for dust emissions. The increasing volume of emissions was mainly driven by the growing demand in the transport equipment and electrical equipment sectors. In addition, the expansion in the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors could result in even more severe air pollution. Therefore, potential effective strategies to control air pollution in China are: (1) reducing the demand of major import sectors in the equipment manufacturing industry; (2) promoting R&D in low-emissions-production technologies to the power and gas sectors, the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors, and the nonmetal products sector, and (3) auditing the considerable industrial scale expansion in the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors and optimizing the industrial structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Strategies of making TiO2 and ZnO visible light active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Shama; Ullah, Ruh; Butt, A.M.; Gohar, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    In modern purification techniques employing semiconductor mediated photooxidation of toxic substances, zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) are the most widely used metal oxides due to their unique blend of properties. However, the band edges of these semiconductors lie in the UV region which makes them inactive under visible light irradiation. Researchers have been interested in the modification of electronic and optical properties of these metal oxides for their efficient use in water and air purification under visible light irradiation. Visible light activity has been induced in TiO 2 and ZnO by surface modification via organic materials/semiconductor coupling and band gap modification by doping with metals and nonmetals, co-doping with nonmetals, creation of oxygen vacancies and oxygen sub-stoichiometry. This paper encompasses the progress and developments made so far through these techniques in the visible light photocatalysis with TiO 2 and ZnO. Recently, nitrogen doping in titania has been extensively carried out and therefore somewhat detailed discussion in this respect has been presented. Visible light activation of titania clusters encapsulated in zeolite-Y by nitrogen doping and incorporation of dye or organic sensitizers inside the zeolite framework, has also been highlighted in this review.

  10. Morphology, optical and electrical properties of Cu-Ni nanoparticles in a-C:H prepared by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodselahi, T., E-mail: ghodselahi@ipm.ir [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vesaghi, M.A. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gelali, A.; Zahrabi, H.; Solaymani, S. [Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-01

    We report optical and electrical properties of Cu-Ni nanoparticles in hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Cu-Ni NPs - a-C:H) with different surface morphology. Ni NPs with layer thicknesses of 5, 10 and 15 nm over Cu NPs - a-C:H were prepared by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF-PECVD) from acetylene gas and Cu and Ni targets. A nonmetal-metal transition was observed as the thickness of Ni over layer increases. The surface morphology of the sample was described by a two dimensional (2D) Gaussian self-affine fractal, except the sample with 10 nm thickness of Ni over layer, which is in the nonmetal-metal transition region. X-ray diffraction profile indicates that Cu NPs and Ni NPs with fcc crystalline structure are formed in these films. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) peak of Cu NPs is observed around 600 nm in visible spectra, which is widen and shifted to lower wavelengths as the thickness of Ni over layer increases. The variation of LSPR peak width correlates with conductivity variation of these bilayers. We assign both effects to surface electron delocalization of Cu NPs.

  11. Fabrication, modification and application of (BiO)_2CO_3-based photocatalysts: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Zilin; Sun, Yanjuan; Zhang, Yuxin; Dong, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The (BiO)_2CO_3 with Aurivillius structure y is an emergent material. • Synthesis of (BiO)_2CO_3 micro/nano structures was reviewed. • The mechanisms of (BiO)_2CO_3 based nanocomposites were discussed. • Doping (BiO)_2CO_3 with nonmetals for enhanced activity was highlighted. • Multi-functional applications of (BiO)_2CO_3 based derivatives was demonstrated. - Abstract: (BiO)_2CO_3 (BOC), a fascinating material, belongs to the Aurivillius-related oxide family with an intergrowth texture in which Bi_2O_2"2"+ layers and CO_3"2"− layers are orthogonal to each other. BOC is a suitable candidate for various fields, such as healthcare, photocatalysis, humidity sensor, nonlinear optical application and supercapacitors. Recently, the photocatalysis properties of (BiO)_2CO_3 have been gained increased attention. BOC has a wide band gap (3.1–3.5 eV), which constrains its visible light absorption and utilization. In order to enhance the visible light driven photocatalytic performance of BOC, many modification strategies have been developed. According to the discrepancies of different coupling mechanisms, six primary systems of BOC-based nanocomposites can be classified and summarized: namely, metal/BOC heterojunction, single metal oxides (metal sulfides)/BOC heterostructure, bismuth-based metallic acid salts (Bi_xMO_y)/BOC, bismuth oxyhalides (BiOX)/BOC, metal-free semiconductor/BOC and the BOC-based complex heterojunction. Doping BOC with nonmetals (C, N and oxygen vacancy) is unique strategy and warrants a separate categorization. In this review, we first give a detailed description of the strategies to fabricate various BOC micro/nano structures. Next, the mechanisms of photocatalytic activity enhancement are elaborated in three parts, including BOC-based nanocomposites, nonmetal doping and formation of oxygen vacancy. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of BOC-based systems can be attributed to the unique interaction of

  12. The Influence of Epicardial Fat and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Heart Rate Recovery in Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Jo, Eun Ah; Cho, Sang Hoon; Kim, Bo Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Epicardial adipose tissues reflecting visceral fat accumulations of the heart are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and can be a predictor of other cardiometabolic diseases. It can adversely influence autonomic nervous system (ANS) of heart. Heart rate recovery (HRR) is an easy method for measuring ANS dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are related to HRR in patients with MetS. We enrolled 772 consecutive patients from a health-screening center who underwent abdominal ultrasonography, treadmill test, and cardiac echocardiography. EFT using echocardiography and HRR by symptom-limited exercise testing was assessed. According to the presence of MetS and NAFLD, patients were classified into the four groups. In NAFLD patients, EFT was higher and HRR was lower, especially in patients with MetS and NAFLD, compared to non-MetS participants without NAFLD (MetS with NAFLD, EFT 7.5 ± 4.4 mm, HRR 31.9 ± 12.7; MetS without NAFLD, EFT 4.9 ± 3.0 mm, HRR 39.5 ± 11.1; non-MetS with NAFLD, EFT 5.9 ± 3.6 mm, HRR 36.6 ± 12.7; and non-MetS without NAFLD, EFT 4.4 ± 3.5 mm, HRR 43.4 ± 14.5, p < 0.001). Patients with severe liver steatosis (LS) showed significantly higher EFT than those with moderate LS (14.2 ± 2.0 vs. 7.5 ± 3.1 mm, P < 0.001), and EFT was positively correlated with severity of LS (r = 0.431, P < 0.001). HRR was significantly correlated with EFT (r = -0.386, P < 0.001) and severity of LS (r = -0.324, P < 0.001). EFT and NAFLD were significantly correlated with HRR in patients with MetS and they may be highly related to increased cardiovascular risk. These results suggest a cross-link among EFT, NAFLD, and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with MetS.

  13. Establishing comparability and compatibility in the purity assessment of high purity zinc as demonstrated by the CCQM-P149 intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen; Kipphardt, Heinrich; Richter, Silke; Bremser, Wolfram; del Rocío Arvizu Torres, María; Manzano, Judith Velina Lara; Buzoianu, Mirella; Hill, Sarah; Petrov, Panayot; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Sargent, Mike; Fisicaro, Paola; Labarraque, Guillaume; Zhou, Tao; Turk, Gregory C.; Winchester, Michael; Miura, Tsutomu; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph; Jährling, Reinhard; Rienitz, Olaf; Mariassy, Michal; Hankova, Zuzana; Sobina, Egor; Ivanovich Krylov, Anatoly; Anatolievich Kustikov, Yuri; Vladimirovich Smirnov, Vadim

    2018-04-01

    For the first time, an international comparison was conducted on the determination of the purity of a high purity element. Participants were free to choose any analytical approach appropriate for their institute’s applications and services. The material tested was a high purity zinc, which had earlier been assessed for homogeneity and previously used in CCQM-K72 for the determination of six defined metallic impurities. Either a direct metal assay of the Zn mass fraction was undertaken by EDTA titrimetry, or an indirect approach was used wherein all impurities, or at least the major ones, were determined and their sum subtracted from ideal purity of 100%, or 1 kg kg-1. Impurity assessment techniques included glow discharge mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and carrier gas hot extraction/combustion analysis. Up to 91 elemental impurities covering metals, non-metals and semi-metals/metalloids were quantified. Due to the lack of internal experience or experimental capabilities, some participants contracted external laboratories for specific analytical tasks, mainly for the analysis of non-metals. The reported purity, expressed as zinc mass fraction in the high purity zinc material, showed excellent agreement for all participants, with a relative standard deviation of 0.011%. The calculated reference value, w(Zn)  =  0.999 873 kg kg-1, was assigned an asymmetric combined uncertainty of  +0.000 025 kg kg-1 and  -0.000 028 kg kg-1. Comparability amongst participating metrology institutes is thus demonstrated for the purity determination of high purity metals which have no particular difficulties with their decomposition/dissolution process when solution-based analytical methods are used, or which do not have specific difficulties when direct analysis approaches are used. Nevertheless, further development is required in terms of uncertainty assessment, quantification of non-metals and the determination of purity

  14. Demonstration of a dust control system for boom-type roadheader. Open-file report September 1979-July 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, M.; Pokora, R.J.; Muldoon, T.

    1981-09-01

    This program was initiated by the Bureau of Mines to quantify the respirable dust problem caused by the use of roadheaders in underground metal-nonmetal mines with special emphasis on this problem in uranium mines. The objective was to develop methods or equipment to alleviate respirable dust and to implement a solution in a mine. Attempts to quantify the dust problem were made by a survey of MSHA records, a survey of State nine enforcement agencies, a survey of mine records, and dust measurements taken at two mines using roadheaders. The results are not conclusive because of limited and sometimes less than useful data; however, the study does indicate that a serious dust problem could and may exist. The report discusses the available data concerning respirable dust problems and presents a solution that can potentially help to solve the problem. The solution requires the use of blowing ventilation, onboard dust extraction at the source, filtration, and continued continued use of water sprays

  15. Rubber industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Following chapter presents short introductory description of rubber and rubber industry. The main problem of rubber industry is the way of the usage of spent tires. Furthermore very important group of problems arise considering the metal and nonmetal additives which are significant component of the vulcanized rubber. The key attention is dedicated to typical ways of rubber usage in utilization and recovery of metals from spent rubber materials concentrating specifically on used tires processing. The method of recovery of rare metals from rubber tires was described. The rubber debris finds widest use in the field of waste metal solutions processing. The environmental pollution caused by metals poses serious threat to humans. Several applications of the use of waste rubber debris to remove metals from environmental waters were described. Moreover, the agriculture usage of waste tire rubber debris is described, presenting systems where the rubber material can be useful as a soil replacement.

  16. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  17. Advances in brazing science, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Brazing processes offer enhanced control, adaptability and cost-efficiency in the joining of materials. Unsurprisingly, this has lead to great interest and investment in the area. Drawing on important research in the field, Advances in brazing provides a clear guide to the principles, materials, methods and key applications of brazing. Part one introduces the fundamentals of brazing, including molten metal wetting processes, strength and margins of safety of brazed joints, and modeling of associated physical phenomena. Part two goes on to consider specific materials, such as super alloys, filler metals for high temperature brazing, diamonds and cubic boron nitride, and varied ceramics and intermetallics. The brazing of carbon-carbon (C/C) composites to metals is also explored before applications of brazing and brazed materials are discussed in part three. Brazing of cutting materials, use of coating techniques, and metal-nonmetal brazing for electrical, packaging and structural applications are reviewed, alon...

  18. Characterizing cemented TRU waste for RCRA hazardous constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeamans, D.R.; Betts, S.E.; Bodenstein, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized drums of solidified transuranic (TRU) waste from four major waste streams. The data will help the State of New Mexico determine whether or not to issue a no-migration variance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) so that WIPP can receive and dispose of waste. The need to characterize TRU waste stored at LANL is driven by two additional factors: (1) the LANL RCRA Waste Analysis Plan for EPA compliant safe storage of hazardous waste; (2) the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) The LANL characterization program includes headspace gas analysis, radioassay and radiography for all drums and solids sampling on a random selection of drums from each waste stream. Data are presented showing that the only identified non-metal RCRA hazardous component of the waste is methanol

  19. Separation and spectrophotometric determination of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczenko, Z.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a useful text intended as a reference for the laboratory that is either involved in spectrophotometric analysis or requires separations prior to analysis by any method. It attempts to cover a diverse series of topics in fewer than 700 pages. Part I of the book covers general topics such as separation schemes (solvent extraction, precipitation, volatility, ion exchange), principles and instrumentation used for spectrophotometry, and color reagents in only 119 pages. Entire books have been written on each of those subjects. The author must therefore resort to extensive referencing to cover each subject adequately. Part II, Methods for Separation and Determination of Individual Elements, discusses all elements - both nonmetals and metals and major procedures for the separation and spectrophotometric determination of each element are adequately covered

  20. Use of radioactive indicators for the quantitative determination of non-metall inclusions in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewienska-Kosciuk, B.; Michalik, J.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of determining and investigating the sources of non-metal inclusions in steel are presented together with some results of radiometric investigations. The experience of several years of research in industries as well as profound studies of world literature were used as a basis for systematic and critical discussion of the methods used. Optimum methods have been chosen for the quantitative determination of oxide inclusions and for the identification of their origin (e.g. from the refractory furnace lining, the tap-hole, the runner, the ladle or mold slag). Problems of tracers (type, quantity, condition, activity), of the labelling method suitable for the various origins of inclusions, of sampling, of chemical processing of the material sampled, as well as of radiometric measuring techniques (including possible activation) are discussed. Finally, a method for the determination of inclusions resulting from the deoxidation of steel is briefly outlined. (author)

  1. The large second-harmonic generation of LiCs{sub 2}PO{sub 4} is caused by the metal-cation-centered groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiyue; Guo, Guo-Cong; Hong, Maochun; Deng, Shuiquan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter (FJIRSM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Fuzhou (China); Whangbo, Myung-Hwan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter (FJIRSM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Fuzhou (China); Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2018-04-03

    We evaluated the individual atom contributions to the second harmonic generation (SHG) coefficients of LiCs{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (LCPO) by introducing the partial response functionals on the basis of first principles calculations. The SHG response of LCPO is dominated by the metal-cation-centered groups CsO{sub 6} and LiO{sub 4}, not by the nonmetal-cation-centered groups PO{sub 4} expected from the existing models and theories. The SHG coefficients of LCPO are determined mainly by the occupied orbitals O 2p and Cs 5p as well as by the unoccupied orbitals Cs 5d and Li 2p. For the SHG response of a material, the polarizable atomic orbitals of the occupied and the unoccupied states are both important. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Chemical properties of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H + , Na + , K + , Cs + , Ca 2+ , and Ba 2+ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs

  3. Atomic and electronic structure of clusters from car-Parrinello method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1994-06-01

    With the development of ab-initio molecular dynamics method, it has now become possible to study the static and dynamical properties of clusters containing up to a few tens of atoms. Here I present a review of the method within the framework of the density functional theory and pseudopotential approach to represent the electron-ion interaction and discuss some of its applications to clusters. Particular attention is focussed on the structure and bonding properties of clusters as a function of their size. Applications to clusters of alkali metals and Al, non-metal - metal transition in divalent metal clusters, molecular clusters of carbon and Sb are discussed in detail. Some results are also presented on mixed clusters. (author). 121 refs, 24 ifigs

  4. Ambiguity effects of rhyme and meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2018-04-23

    Previous research has shown that rhyme and meter-although enhancing prosodic processing ease and memorability-also tend to make semantic processing more demanding. Using a set of rhymed and metered proverbs, as well as nonrhymed and nonmetered versions of these proverbs, the present study reveals this hitherto unspecified difficulty of comprehension to be specifically driven by perceived ambiguity. Roman Jakobson was the 1st to propose this hypothesis, in 1960. He suggested that "ambiguity is an intrinsic, inalienable feature" of "parallelistic" diction of which the combination of rhyme and meter is a pronounced example. Our results show that ambiguity indeed explains a substantial portion of the rhyme- and meter-driven difficulty of comprehension. Longer word-reading times differentially reflected ratings for ambiguity and comprehension difficulty. However, the ambiguity effect is not "inalienable." Rather, many rhymed and metered sentences turned out to be low in ambiguity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Laser-induced chemical vapor deposition reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teslenko, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of investigation of chemical reactions of deposition of different substances from the gas phase when using the energy of pulse quasicontinuous and continuous radiation of lasers in the wave length interval from 0.193 to 10.6 μm are generalized. Main attetion is paid to deposition of inorganic substances including nonmetals (C, Si, Ge and others), metals (Cu, Au, Zn, Cd, Al, Cr, Mo, W, Ni) and some simple compounds. Experimental data on the effect of laser radiation parameters and reagent nature (hydrides, halogenides, carbonyls, alkyl organometallic compounds and others) on the deposition rate and deposit composition are described in detail. Specific features of laser-chemical reactions of deposition and prospects of their application are considered

  6. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  7. Synthesis of silicon containing materials using liquid hydrosilane compositions through direct injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Guruvenket; Sailer, Robert A.; Hoey, Justin

    2018-03-13

    An apparatus and a non-vapor-pressure dependent method of chemical vapor deposition of Si based materials using direct injection of liquid hydrosilane(s) are presented. Liquid silane precursor solutions may also include metal, non-metal or metalloid dopants, nanomaterials and solvents. An illustrative apparatus has a precursor solution and carrier gas system, atomizer and deposit head with interior chamber and a hot plate supporting the substrate. Atomized liquid silane precursor solutions and carrier gas moves through a confined reaction zone that may be heated and the aerosol and vapor are deposited on a substrate to form a thin film. The substrate may be heated prior to deposition. The deposited film may be processed further with thermal or laser processing.

  8. Insulator-metal transition of fluid molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamically compressed fluid hydrogen shows evidence for metallization at the relatively low pressure of 140 GPa (1.4 Mbar) while experiments on solid hydrogen made in a diamond-anvil cell have failed to detect any evidence for gap closure up to a pressure of 230 GPa (2.3 Mbar). Two possible mechanisms for metal- liclike resistivity are put forward. The first is that as a consequence of the large thermal disorder in the fluid (kT∼0.2 endash 0.3 eV) short-range molecular interactions lead to band tailing that extends the band edge into the gap, resulting in closure at a lower pressure than in the solid. The second mechanism argues that molecular dissociation creates H atoms that behave similar to n-type donors in a heavily doped semiconductor and undergo a nonmetal-metal Mott-type transition. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 photocatalyst doped by transition metal ions (Fe3+, Cr3+ and V5+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Vu, Anh; Linh Bui, Thi Hai; Cuong Tran, Manh; Phuong Dang, Tuyet; Hoa Tran, Thi Kim; Tuan Nguyen, Quoc

    2010-01-01

    Nano TiO 2 was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The sample was doped with transition metal ions (V, Cr and Fe) and non-metal (N). Doped TiO 2 samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Photocatalytic activity in the mineralization of xylene (vapor phase), methylene blue and active dyer PR (liquid phase) was tested. In comparison with non-doped TiO 2 , V-, Cr-, Fe-doped TiO 2 and N-doped TiO 2 samples exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity using visible light instead of UV

  10. Space optical materials and space qualification of optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    The present conference on space optical materials discusses current metals and nonmetals-related processing R&D efforts, investigations of space optical effects, and the spaceborne qualification of optical components and systems. Attention is given to CVD SiC for optical applications, optical materials for space-based lasers, the high-efficiency acoustooptic and optoelectronic crystalline material Tl3AsSe3, HIPed Be for low-scatter cryogenic optics, durable solar-reflective surfacing for Be optics, thermal effects on Be mirrors, contamination effects on optical surfaces in the monolayer regime, and IR background signature survey experiment results. Also discussed are the contamination-control program for the EUE instrument, an optical multipass radiation system for the heating of levitated samples, optical sample-position sensing for electrostatic levitation, and the qualification of space lighting systems.

  11. Institut fuer Materialforschung. Research and development activities in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The IMF consists of three institutes with different tasks: IMF I works mainly on the development of metals, nonmetals and composite materials and on problems concerning the structure and properties of interfaces and protective layers. IMF II works on component reliablility, failure mechanisms and damage analysis. IMF III works on problems of process engineering in the production of ceramic powders and ceramic, metallic and polymeric microstructures, as well as on the design of nuclear components and the optimisation of corrosive materials. The IMF supports the research activities of Karlsruhe Research Center, especially in nuclear fusion research, microsystems engineering, nuclear safety, superconductivity, and low-pollution and low-waste processes. Materials and strength problems are investigated for future fusion reactors, high-performance microsystems, and safety problems in nuclear engineering. (orig./MM) [de

  12. Fibre-tree network for water-surface ranging using an optical time-domain reflectometry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Yamabayashi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To monitor water level at long distance, a fibre-based time-domain reflectometry network is proposed. A collimator at each fibre end of a tree-type network retrieves 1.55 μm wavelength pulses that are reflected back from remote surfaces. Since this enables a power-supply-free sensor network with non-metal media, this system is expected to be less susceptible to lightning strikes and power cuts than conventional systems that use electrically powered sensors and metal cables. In the present Letter, a successful simultaneous monitoring experiment of two water levels in the laboratory, as well as a trial for detecting a disturbed surface by beam-expanding is reported.

  13. Status of decommissioning and waste management in the Nuclear Science Research Institute of JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of JAEA has some experiences of the decommissioning of research reactors and research laboratories including a reprocessing test facility. In order to dismantle those facilities safely, we paid much attention for the radiological protection of radiation workers taking into consideration of characteristics of each facility, especially to protect internal exposures. As the results of decommissioning activities, several thousands tons of solid radioactive wastes were generated. In the near future, we will start the treatment of these stored wastes by a super compactor, metal melting furnace and non-metal waste melting furnace to gain high volume reduction and to prepare stable waste forms for final disposal. In Japan, the clearance system was established in 2005 by amending the Nuclear Regulatory Law. The NSRI plans to release very slightly contaminated concrete debris for recycling, which was generated from the replacement of reactor core of research reactor (JRR-3), according to the clearance system. (author)

  14. Ecological problems of oil wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsun, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text : Pollution of the environment with different wastes is one the main problems in the world. So that is why this article is devoted to consideration of questions, related to oil and its industry. During oil production (extraction, transportation, refining) different wastes (homogeneous and solid wastes) are taken out from a place of production to the environment and after this environment undergoes the pollution because of these wastes. These wastes contain first of all harmful for environment radioactive elements, then different groups of metals, non-metals and other combinations. All these forms technical pollution zones and can cause serious danger for health of people. So taking into consideration all mentioned above we must make all efforts in order to prevent such accidents

  15. Silicene catalyzed reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline: A mechanistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christopher; He, Haiying

    2018-03-01

    The reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline has broad applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The high reaction temperatures and pressures and unavoidable hazardous chemicals of current metal catalysts call for more environmentally friendly non-metal catalysts. In this study, the plausibility of silicene as a potential catalyst for nitrobenzene reduction is investigated with a focus on the distinct reaction mechanism based on the density functional theory. The direct reaction pathway was shown to be distinctly different from the Haber mechanism following PhNO2∗ → PhNO∗ → PhNHO∗ → PhNH2O∗ → PhNH2∗. The hydroxyl groups remain bound to silicene after aniline is formed and acquire a high activation barrier to remove.

  16. Evolution of ESR Technology and Equipment for Long Hollow Ingots Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medovar, Lev; Stovpchenko, Ganna; Dudka, Grigory; Kozminskiy, Alexander; Fedorovskii, Borys; Lebid, Vitalii; Gusiev, Iaroslav

    In this paper development of both ESR technology and equipment for hollow ingot manufacture review and analysis are presented. The real complications of hollow ingot manufacture and some tendentious issues which restrict process dissemination are discussed. An actual data of modern manufacture of as-cast pipes for heat and power engineering by traditional ESR with consumable electrode are given. Results of microstructure and nonmetal inclusion investigations have shown the high quality of as-cast ESR pipes. On the basis of these results the possibility to produce huge ESR hollows (up 5000 mm in dia) with final goal drastically to reduce setting ratio on forged shells and rings or even replace it by ESR hollows as-cast is grounded. Two new ESR technologies — consumable electrodes change and liquid metal usage — have passed pilot tests for heavy hollow production and shown very prospective results to be presented.

  17. A study on heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of various organic compounds using N-Tio2 under Uv-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srujana, Dhegam; Sailu, Chinta

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the photocatalytic degradation of mixture of four selected organic compounds are Congo Red (CR), Methylene Blue (MB), Diclofenaec (DC), 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) have been subjected to Photo catalytic degradation by Ultraviolet (λ=254nm) radiation in presence of Nitrogen-doped Titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) catalyst. This paper focused on the enhancement of photo catalysis by modification of TiO2 employing non-metal ion (Nitrogen) doping. Experiments are conducted with a mixture of equal proportions of organic compounds (CR, MB, DC, and 4-CP) with combined concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/l in water in a batch reactor in presence of N-TiO2catalyst with UV light (λ=254nm). The rate of degradation of each compound is determined by using spectrophotometer. The kinetics of degradation of the selected organic compounds is followed first order rate.

  18. C-14/I-29 Preservation and Hold Time Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-08

    Preservation and hold time of radionuclides must account for both nuclear half-lives and nonnuclear loss mechanisms, but variations in the latter are often neglected. Metals-based defaults are inappropriate for long-lived non-metals C-14 and I-129, which are vulnerable to chemical and biological volatilization. Non-acidification is already widely practiced for them. Recommended addition measures from radiological and chemical literature include glass containers where possible, water filtration where possible, headspace minimization, light shielding, cold (4°C) storage and unfiltered water hold time of 28 days. Soil hold time may need to be shortened when water-logged, excessively sandy, or still adjusting to significant new contamination.

  19. Estimation of product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills for the inventory phase in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    is frequently given as a quantity of solid wasteand possibly some recovered energy from waste incineration.Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modeling oflandfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large......), and inorganic non-metals (e.g. chlorine,) which are considered individually. The computer toolLCA-LAND is useful for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in Europeancountries (for the present Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands). Input data...... of materials and components and the manufacture, transportation and use of the product to thefinal disposal and possible recycling of the product. Although LCA has developed significantly during recent years, product specific emissions from disposed waste have only got minorattention in the literature leaving...

  20. Electron spectroscopy studies in heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1986-02-01

    Photoemission experiments (whereby an electron absorbs a packet of light energy and is able to escape from the host material due to its increased energy) can measure directly the energy distribution of electrons in various materials. Our measurements on a recently-discovered class of metallic materials called ''heavy fermions'' show that the electrons that actually carry the electric current in these metals exist only within an extremely narrow range of energies. This range, which we will call the bandwidth, is narrower than that found in ordinary metals like copper by at least a factor of 10. Indeed it is surprising that they can carry electric current at all since such narrow energy ranges (or band widths) are characteristic of electrons confined to their host atoms, as in a non-metal, rather than of electrons that are free to wander through a metal. 8 refs

  1. Mine shaft fire and smoke protection systems - an update on hardware development and in-mine testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    In 1976, The Bureau of Mines developed a prototype system to sense and extinguish fires in shafts and shaft stations in underground metal and nonmetal mines. Subsequent work modified this technology to include fueling areas, spontaneous combustion zones and coal mines. This paper updates IC-8783 ''In-mine Fire Tests of Mine Shaft Fire and Smoke Protection Systems'', which was published in 1978 and summarized the design and in-mine, actual fire testing of the first prototype mine shaft fire and smoke protection system. This paper also updates related work from IC-8775 ''Spontaneous Oxidation and Combustion of Sulfide Ores in Underground Mines, (also published in 1978) and IC-8808 ''In-mine Evaluation of Underground Fire and Smoke Detectors'', (published in early 1979)

  2. Heat exchangers for automotive gas turbine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, R.N.

    1974-01-01

    Automotive gas turbine power plants are now in the final stages of development for quantity manufacture. A crucial factor in this development is the regenerative heat exchanger. The relative merits of the rotary regenerative and static recuperative heat exchanger are compared. Thermal efficiency and initial cost are two vital issues involved in the design of small gas turbines for the commercial establishment of gas turbine vehicles. The selection of a material for the rotaty regenerator is essentially related to resolving the two vital issues of future small gas turbines and is, therefore, analysed. The account of the pioneering work involved in engineering the glass ceramic and other non-metal regenerators includes a complete failure analysis based on running experience with over 200 ceramic regenerators. The problems of sealing, supporting and manufacturing the ceramic regenerator are discussed and future practical designs are outlined. Heat exchange theory applied to small gas turbines is also reviewed

  3. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  4. A verification calculation of drum and pulley overhead travelling crane on gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsurrijal Ramdja; Ari Satmoko; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    It has been verified the calculation of drum and pulleys on cranes as facility the gamma irradiator ISG-500. Drum is a device for rolling steel ropes while the pulley is a circular pieces called disks, and both of which are made from metal or non-metal to transmit motion and force. It has been verified the calculation of forces on the drum, drum diameter and length, and pressuring force occurred on the drums. Likewise to the pulley, the pulley diameter calculations verification, size of disc and shaft power pulleys. From the verification results, it will be obtained whether the data drums and pulley device are safe or not safe to be used. (author)

  5. Electronic and thermodynamic properties of the transition between metallic and nonmetallic states in dense media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, Xavier

    1971-01-01

    The effects of thermal excitation are introduced in the study of a simple electronic structure model for condensed media. The choice of a particle-interaction potential leads to a self-consistent calculation performed on a computer. This calculation gives a metal - nonmetal transition similar to the MOTT transition. We consider the effects of temperature and density variations upon this transition. It is possible to make use of this electronic structure to obtain the thermodynamic properties near the transition: pressure, free energy, sound velocity. The numerical results of this simple model are satisfactory. Particularly, if a dielectric constant is taken into account, the transition temperature and density are of the same order of magnitude as those observed experimentally in semiconductors. (author) [fr

  6. Re-Examining Embodied SO2 and CO2 Emissions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available CO2 and SO2, while having different environmental impacts, are both linked to the burning of fossil fuels. Research on joint patterns of CO2 emissions and SO2 emissions may provide useful information for decision-makers to reduce these emissions effectively. This study analyzes both CO2 emissions and SO2 emissions embodied in interprovincial trade in 2007 and 2010 using multi-regional input–output analysis. Backward and forward linkage analysis shows that Production and Supply of Electric Power and Steam, Non-metal Mineral Products, and Metal Smelting and Pressing are key sectors for mitigating SO2 and CO2 emissions along the national supply chain. The total SO2 emissions and CO2 emissions of these sectors accounted for 81% and 76% of the total national SO2 emissions and CO2 emissions, respectively.

  7. 2XIIB vacuum vessel: a unique design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Calderon, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror confinement experiment makes unique demands on its vacuum system. The confinement coil set encloses a cavity whose surface is comprised of both simple and compound curves. Within this cavity and at the core of the machine is the operating vacuum which is on the order of 10 -9 Torr. The vacuum container fits inside the cavity, presenting an inside surface suitable for titanium getter pumping and a means of removing the heat load imposed by incandescent sublimator wires. In addition, the cavity is constructed of nonmagnetic and nonconducting materials (nonmetals) to avoid distortion of the pulsed confinement field. It is also isolated from mechanical shocks induced in the machine's main structure when the coils are pulsed. This paper describes the design, construction, and operation of the 2XIIB high-vacuum vessel that has been performing successfully since early 1974

  8. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  9. Electrical resistivity measurements in superconducting ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.; Bressiani, A.H.A.; Muccillo, E.N.S.; Bressiani, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements have been done in (Y, Ba, Cu, O) - and (Y, A1, Ba, Cu, O) - based superconducting ceramics. The sintered specimens were prepared by applying gold electrodes and winding on the non-metalized part with a copper strip to be immersed in liquid nitrogen for cooling. The resistivity measurements have been done by the four-probe method. A copper-constantan or chromel-alumel thermocouple inserted between the specimen and the copper cold finger has been used for the determination of the critical temperature T c . Details of the experimental set-up and resistivity versus temperature plots in the LNT-RT range for the superconducting ceramics are the major contributions of this communication. (author) [pt

  10. Electrical resistivity measurements in superconducting ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.; Bressiani, A.H.A.; Muccillo, E.N.S.; Bressian, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements have been done in (Y,Ba,Cu,O)- and (Y,Al,Ba,Cu,O)-based superconducting ceramics. The sintered specimens were prepared by applying gold electrodes and winding on the non-metalized part with a copper strip to be immersed in liquid nitrogen for cooling. The resistivity measurements have been done by the four-probe method. A copper constantan or chromel-alumel thermocouple inserted between the specimen and the copper cold finger has been used for the determination of the critical temperature T c . Details of the experimental set-up and resistivity versus temperature plots in the LNT-RT range for the superconducting ceramics are the major contributions of this communication. (author) [pt

  11. Optimization of the irradiation conditions of some control components and materials for the nuclear power plants and the radiation stability of certain types of plastic lubricants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Rerichova, M.; Trebicky, V.; Chvojka, M.

    1989-01-01

    Fail-safe operation of various safeguard devices, operational and auxiliary equipments and control components, e.g. servomotors other engines and various appliances, is required for a safe operation of nuclear power plants. Non-metal materials, control components, motors and other appliances have to be tested and their properties evaluated after γ-irradiation with doses corresponding to the assumed long term radiation commitment and also to the irradiation caused by an eventual accident. The radiation stability of greases used in devices exposed to high doses of the ionizing radiation presents a rather serious and important problem. The results of some tests and the evaluation of the properties of irradiated plastic lubricants are described. (author)

  12. Organic synthesis with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, V.W.

    1988-01-01

    Chemistry with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes of the non-metals, principally 11 C, 13 N and 18 F, has burgeoned over the last decade. This has been almost entirely because of the emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) as a powerful non-invasive technique for investigating pathophysiology in living man. PET is essentially an external technique for the rapid serial reconstruction of the spatial distribution of any positron-emitting radioisotope that has been administered in vivo. Such a distribution is primarily governed by the chemical form in which the positron-emitting radioisotope is incorporated, and importantly for clinical research, is often perturbed by physical, biological or clinical factors. Judicious choice of the chemical form enables specific biological information to be obtained. For example, the labelling of glucose with a positron-emitting radioisotope could be expected to provide a radiopharmaceutical for the study of glucose utilisation in both health and disease. (author)

  13. Morbidity and Health Risk Factors Among New Mexico Miners: A Comparison Across Mining Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, Alice M; Yeoman, Kristin; Victoroff, Tristan; Evans, Kandace; Karr, Roger; Sanchez, Tami; Sood, Akshay; Laney, Anthony Scott

    2017-08-01

    This study examines differences in chronic health outcomes between coal, uranium, metal, and nonmetal miners. In a cross-sectional study using data from a health screening program for current and former New Mexico miners, log-binomial logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risks of respiratory and heart disease, cancer, osteoarthritis, and back pain associated with mining in each sector as compared with coal, adjusting for other relevant risk factors. Differential risks in angina, pulmonary symptoms, asthma, cancer, osteoarthritis, and back pain between mining sectors were found. New Mexico miners experience different chronic health challenges across sectors. These results demonstrate the importance of using comparable data to understand how health risks differ across mining sectors. Further investigation among a broader geographic population of miners will help identify the health priorities and needs in each sector.

  14. Miniaturized preconcentration methods based on liquid-liquid extraction and their application in inorganic ultratrace analysis and speciation: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is widely used as a pre-treatment technique for separation and preconcentration of both organic and inorganic analytes from aqueous samples. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks, such as emulsion formation or the use of large volumes of solvents, which makes LLE expensive and labour intensive. Therefore, miniaturization of conventional liquid-liquid extraction is needed. The search for alternatives to the conventional LLE using negligible volumes of extractant and the minimum number of steps has driven the development of three new miniaturized methodologies, i.e. single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of these novel preconcentration approaches and their potential use in analytical labs involved in inorganic (ultra)trace analysis and speciation. Relevant applications to the determination of metal ions, metalloids, organometals and non-metals are included

  15. Separating and recycling metals from mixed metallic particles of crushed electronic wastes by vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-09-15

    During the treatment of electronic wastes, a crushing process is usually used to strip metals from various base plates. Several methods have been applied to separate metals from nonmetals. However, mixed metallic particles obtained from these processes are still a mixture of various metals, including some toxic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. With emphasis on recovering copper and other precious metals, there have hitherto been no satisfactory methods to recover these toxic metals. In this paper, the criterion of separating metals from mixed metallic particles by vacuum metallurgy is built. The results show that the metals with high vapor pressure have been almost recovered completely, leading to a considerable reduction of environmental pollution. In addition, the purity of copper in mixed particles has been improved from about 80 wt % to over 98 wt %.

  16. Physico-chemical investigations of limestones from different localities in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabadzhiev, Dimitrios M.; Stefov, Viktor; Boev, Blazho

    2001-01-01

    Physico-chemical investigations were carried out for limestone samples at different localities in the Republic of Macedonia: mine for nonmetals O graiden , Strumica (sample-granulation below: 4, 10, 20, 32, 40, 63 and 90 gm), A.D. M ikrogranulat , Gostivar, mine 'Banjani' - Skopje, mine 'Toplica' near Demir Hisar and from the separation of GP Mavrovo, Skopje, located near Pletvar. Investigation of samples from the previously mentioned localities were carried out using different methods: volumetry, gravimetry, UV-VIS and infrared spectroscopy, as well as atomic absorption and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and flame photometry. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that all granulometric classes of the limestone samples from 'Ograzhden', Strumica, are of the best quality. (Original)

  17. Development of divertor pumping system with superpermeable membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Ohyabu, N.; Suzuki, H.; Nakahara, Y.; Livshits, A.; Notkin, M.; Alimov, V.; Busnyuk, A.

    2000-01-01

    A new divertor pumping system with superpermeable membranes of group Va-metals (Nb, V) is now under research and development. Properties of membrane pumping were investigated with the use of a plasma device simulating divertor plasma conditions. The deposition of metal (Fe) and non-metal (C) impurities on the membrane upstream surface results in a degradation of plasma driven superpermeation at the membrane temperature T m m ≥800 deg. C. The same temperature effect on superpermeation is observed at sputtering of membrane surface by energetic plasma ions. In addition, the first application of the membrane pumping to fusion devices has been carried out and a deuterium pumping through the membrane was demonstrated under the conditions of divertor plasma in the JFT-2M tokamak

  18. PERSPECTIVE NONMETALLIC RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Jaroslav

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available It is the existence of the domestic base of raw materials and stable or growing markets that are a precondition for the prospectiveness industrial minerals. Traditional and non-traditional prospective nonmetal-liferous raw materials can be distinguished. The main trends in new industrial applications of industrial minerals are being stated. In the Czech Republic, the following may be ranked among the traditional prospective nonme-talliferous raw materials: kaoline, refractory clays, ceramic and expandable clays, glass and foundry sands, li-mestones, building stones, gypsum, cast basalt, bentonite, diatomite, feldspars, graphite. Alkali rocks, industrial garnets, flaky mica, wollastonite and yet unmined staurolite, minerals of the sillimanite group and others belong to the non-traditional prospective industrial minerals.

  19. The Kubo-Greenwood calculation of conductivity of the simple and non-simple liquid metals in a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, A N; Mirzoev, A A

    2008-01-01

    We calculated the temperature dependences of electroconductivity for the different metals, such as alkalis (caesium), transition metals (iron), and mercury by Kubo-Greenwood formula. Atomic models of 1000-4000 atoms were obtained by Shommers method using the data of diffractional experiments for the wide temperature range. The electronic structure and interaction parameters for supercells of 30-50 atoms were got by LMTO method. The recursion method was used for the calculation of DOS and diffusivity quotients. The lowering of the DOS at the Fermi level was carefully examined. The results obtained are in good agreement with other authors' in views on the nature of the metal-nonmetal transition in different liquid metals. The calculated DOS and conductivity for all metals match the experimental data well

  20. Chemistry Cube Game - Exploring Basic Principles of Chemistry by Turning Cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus T

    2018-02-01

    The Chemistry Cube Game invites students at secondary school level 1 and 2 to explore basic concepts of chemistry in a playful way, either as individuals or in teams. It consists of 15 different cubes, 9 cubes for different acids, their corresponding bases and precursors, and 6 cubes for different reducing and oxidising agents. The cubes can be rotated in those directions indicated. Each 'allowed' vertical or horizontal rotation of 90° stands for a chemical reaction or a physical transition. Two different games and playing modes are presented here: First, redox chemistry is introduced for the formation of salts from elementary metals and non-metals. Second, the speciation of acids and bases at different pH-values is shown. The cubes can be also used for games about environmental chemistry such as the carbon and sulphur cycle, covering the topic of acid rain, or the nitrogen cycle including ammoniac synthesis, nitrification and de-nitrification.

  1. Static gas-liquid interfacial direct current discharge plasmas using ionic liquid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, T.; Baba, K.; Hatakeyama, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the unique properties of ionic liquids such as their extremely low vapor pressure and high heat capacity, we have succeeded in creating the static and stable gas (plasmas)-liquid (ionic liquids) interfacial field using a direct current discharge under a low gas pressure condition. It is clarified that the ionic liquid works as a nonmetal liquid electrode, and furthermore, a secondary electron emission coefficient of the ionic liquid is larger than that of conventional metal electrodes. The plasma potential structure of the gas-liquid interfacial region, and resultant interactions between the plasma and the ionic liquid are revealed by changing a polarity of the electrode in the ionic liquid. By utilizing the ionic liquid as a cathode electrode, the positive ions in the plasma region are found to be irradiated to the ionic liquid. This ion irradiation causes physical and chemical reactions at the gas-liquid interfacial region without the vaporization of the ionic liquid.

  2. Structure, preparation and properties of refractory compounds and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Thuemmler, F.

    1977-01-01

    At the beginning of this report the possibilities of hardness optimization of refractory carbides are generally discussed. Three papers deal with TaC-basis refractories and hard metals. In particular, carbides with very low nonmetal/metal ratios and composites with hard phases formed by decomposition of tantalum carbonitrides are discussed. Another contribution reports investigations concerning the influence of the microstructure on the hardness of polycristaline mixed carbides. In a series of four papers, results are presented on the work of optimization conventional WC hard metals by introduction of a Fe,Co,Ni-binder: The influence of composition, carbon content and sintering conditions, as well as the wetting behaviour between carbides and binder metals are discussed. Phase relations in the refractory nitride and refractory nitride-binder metal systems as well as phase stabilities of ordered transition metal phases are reported in three papers, fundamental in character. Finally, the work concerning chemical analysis of refractory systems is described. (orig.) [de

  3. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of thermophysical properties of fluid ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Cong; Zheng, Fawei; Zhang, Ping

    2012-12-01

    We have performed first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations based on density-functional theory to study the thermophysical properties of ethane under extreme conditions. We present results for the equation of state of fluid ethane in the warm dense region. The optical conductivity is calculated via the Kubo-Greenwood formula from which the dc conductivity and optical reflectivity are derived. The close correlation between the nonmetal-metal transition of ethane and its decomposition, that ethane dissociates significantly into molecular and/or atomic hydrogen and some long alkane chains, has been systematically studied by analyzing the optical conductivity spectra, pair correlation functions, electronic density of states, and charge density distribution of fluid ethane.

  4. Spin Dependent Electronic Structure of Doped Manganese Perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.-H.

    1999-01-01

    The spin-resolved photoemission spectra were successfully obtained from La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 190 nm thick epitaxial film on SrTiO3(001). Well below Tc the results clearly manifest the half-metallic nature, i.e., for the majority spin, the photoemission spectrum clearly shows a metallic Fermi cut-off, whereas for the minority spin, it shows an insulating gap with disappearance of the spectral weight at ∼0.6 eV binding energy. On heating through Tc the spectra show no difference for different spins and the spectra weight at the Fermi level (EF disappears, indicating that the Mn 3d spins become disordered) and the system undergoes the ferromagnetic metal to paramagnetic non-metal transition. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society

  5. Electron spin resonance study of electron localization and dynamics in metal-molten salt solutions: comparison of M-MX and Ln-LnX sub 3 melts (M alkali metal, Ln = rare earth metal, X = halogen)

    CERN Document Server

    Terakado, O; Freyland, W

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra in liquid K-KCl and M-(NaCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t mixtures at different concentrations in salt-rich melts approaching the metal-nonmetal transition region. In both systems F-centre-like characteristics are found. Strongly exchange narrowed signals clearly indicate that fast electron exchange occurs on the picosecond timescale. In contrast, the ESR spectra of a (NdCl sub 2)(NdCl sub 3)-(LiCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t melt are characterized by a large line width of the order of 10 sup 2 mT which decreases with increasing temperature. In this case, the g-factor and correlation time are consistent with the model of intervalence charge transfer, which is supported by recent conductivity and optical measurements. The different transport mechanisms will be discussed.

  6. Using LMDI method to analyze the change of China's industrial CO2 emissions from final fuel use: An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lancui; Fan Ying; Wu Gang; Wei Yiming

    2007-01-01

    Based on time series decomposition of the Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI), this paper analyzes the change of industrial carbon emissions from 36 industrial sectors in China over the period 1998-2005. The changes of industrial CO 2 emission are decomposed into carbon emissions coefficients of heat and electricity, energy intensity, industrial structural shift, industrial activity and final fuel shift. Our results clearly show that raw chemical materials and chemical products, nonmetal mineral products and smelting and pressing of ferrous metals account for 59.31% of total increased industrial CO 2 emissions. The overwhelming contributors to the change of China's industrial sectors' carbon emissions in the period 1998-2005 were the industrial activity and energy intensity; the impact of emission coefficients of heat and electricity, fuel shift and structural shift was relatively small. Over the year 1998-2002, the energy intensity change in some energy-intensive sectors decreased industrial emissions, but increased emissions over the period 2002-2005. The impact of structural shift on emissions have varied considerably over the years without showing any clear trend, and the final fuel shift increased industrial emissions because of the increase of electricity share and higher emissions coefficient. Therefore, raw chemical materials and chemical products, nonmetal mineral products and smelting and pressing of ferrous metals should be among the top priorities for enhancing energy efficiency and driving their energy intensity close to the international advanced level. To some degree, we should reduce the products waste of these sectors, mitigate the growth of demand for their products through avoiding the excessive investment highly related to these sectors, increasing imports or decreasing the export in order to avoid expanding their share in total industrial value added. However, all these should integrate economic growth to harmonize industrial development and CO 2

  7. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via dye-sensitized solar cells, photokilling and self-cleaning effect, photo-oxidation of organic pollutant, wastewater management, and

  8. Liquid oil and residual characteristics of printed circuit board recycle by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis is a technology for recycling of the non-metal fraction of PCBs. • Liquid product constituents were analyzed for PCB pyrolysis. • Water-soluble ionic species were determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. - Abstract: Non-metal fractions of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were thermally treated (200–500 °C) under nitrogen atmosphere. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen were determined by elemental analyzer, bromine by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), phosphorus by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and 29 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for raw material and pyrolysis residues. Organic compositions of liquid oil were identified by GC (gas chromatography)–MS, trace element composition by ICP system, and 12 water-soluble ions by IC (ionic chromatography). Elemental content of carbon was >450 mg/g, oxygen 300 mg/g, bromine and hydrogen 60 mg/g, nitrogen 30 mg/g, and phosphorus 28 mg/g. Sulfur was trace in PCBs. Copper content was 25–28 mg/g, iron 1.3–1.7 mg/g, tin 0.8–1.0 mg/g and magnesium 0.4–1.0 mg/g; those were the main metals in the raw materials and pyrolytic residues. In the liquid products, carbon content was 68–73%, hydrogen was 10–14%, nitrogen was 4–5%, and sulfur was less than 0.05% at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 500 °C. Phenol, 3-bromophenol, 2-methylphenol and 4-propan-2-ylphenol were major species in liquid products, accounting for >50% of analyzed organic species. Bromides, ammonium and phosphate were the main species in water sorption samples for PCB pyrolysis exhaust.

  9. Handbook of welding engineering. Vol. 1 and Vol. 2. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruge, J.

    1980-01-01

    This second edition of the handbook still has been guided by the principle of presenting as comprehensive information as possible on the whole subject field of welding engineering as concisely as seems adequate. The task of completely revising the first edition has not been restricted to up-dating the standards, guidelines and instruction sheets. It rather also seemed appropriate to amend the text in many cases in order to incorporate the latest results of research in science and technology. This inevitably enlarged the material to an extent recommending a publication in two volumes. Volume I deals with materials problems, and the sections discussing technical aspects of fracture mechanics and the welding of high-alloy steels have been enlarged. The section on nonmetals has been supplemented by a more detailed treatment of plastics and by chapters on other nonmetals such as glass, ceramics, graphite, and biological substances. Volume II deals with welding techniques, fabrication and quality assurance. Apart from the methods of welding, cutting, soldering, bonding (adhesives), and thermal spray coating, methods of improving the efficiency of fabrication by means of numerically controlled welding and process control are discussed in detail. Taking into account the growing importance of quality assurance, new chapters on modern control methods have been incorporated, methods such as control by neutron radiation, xeroradiography and acoustic and optical holography, as well as a section on distortion and buckling. The chapters on welding and cutting under water in marine technology, on occupational safety and economic aspects have been considerably enlarged. (orig./IHOE) [de

  10. Effect of fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia: MRS-ROZE (Multicenter Randomized Study of ROsuvastatin and eZEtimibe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Yoon, Young Won; Rha, Seung-Woon; Hong, Soon-Jun; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Kim, Weon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Rhee, Moo-Yong; Park, Tae-Ho; Hong, Taek-Jong; Park, Sungha; Ahn, Youngkeun; Lee, Namho; Jeon, Hui-Kyung; Jeon, Dong-Woon; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Moon, Keon-Woong; Chae, In-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to compare the effects of fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin to rosuvastatin alone in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, including a subgroup analysis of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MetS). This multicenter eight-week randomized double-blind phase III study evaluated the safety and efficacy of fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe 10 mg plus rosuvastatin, compared with rosuvastatin alone in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Four hundred and seven patients with primary hypercholesterolemia who required lipid-lowering treatment according to the ATP III guideline were randomized to one of the following six treatments for 8 weeks: fixed-dose combinations with ezetimibe 10 mg daily plus rosuvastatin (5, 10, or 20 mg daily) or rosuvastatin alone (5, 10, or 20 mg daily). Fixed-dose combination of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin significantly reduced LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels compared with rosuvastatin alone. Depending on the rosuvastatin dose, these fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin provided LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride reductions of 56%-63%, 37%-43%, and 19%-24%, respectively. Moreover, the effect of combination treatment on cholesterol levels was more pronounced in patients with DM or MetS than in non-DM or non-MetS patients, respectively, whereas the effect of rosuvastatin alone did not differ between DM vs non-DM or MetS vs non-MetS patients. Fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe and rosuvastatin provided significantly superior efficacy to rosuvastatin alone in lowering LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Moreover, the reduction rate was greater in patients with DM or MetS. © 2016 The Authors Cardiovascular Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Corrosion of vanadium and V 3Ti 1Si in flowing lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konys, J.

    1986-01-01

    A pumped Li loop fabricated from a titanium stabilized Type 316 steel was designed and constructed. At temperatures of about 823 K, experiments over a duration of more than 7500 h were performed. A magnetic trap had to be incorporated just before the flowmeter to avoid the precipitation of magnetic particles. Therefore it was possible to investigate the influence of the magnetic trap on the corrosion behaviour of V in flowing Li. The results are as follows: - The corrosion rate of V is about 14 μm/year and independent of the nitrogen content of Li. The corrosion rate of V 3Ti 1Si depends on the N concentration of Li. At about 30 wppm N in Li a vanadium-titanium-nitride is formed at the surface of the specimens. Hence, a low rate of 4 μm/year can be stated. - Both materials pick-up more N than C from Li, pure vanadium double as much nitrogen as the alloy V 3Ti 1Si. - N diffuses into the bulk of both materials, whilst C is bound near the surface. The hardening at the surface is due to the up-take of N. - The vanadium-carbonitride-, respectively the vanadium-titanium-nitride-layers have a strong influence on the weight loss and the up-take of non-metals. - The magnetic trap reduces the weight loss of vanadium in a significant way. The positive influence of the magnetic trap is supposed to be due to the reduction of the nitrogen content of Li. - The corrosion rates of the alloy V 3Ti 1Si show, that the dissolution due to V loss does not affect the lifetime of the alloy. The comparison with steels and nickle-base-alloys demonstrates the advantages of this material. Nevertheless, the purification of the Li and the control of its nonmetal-levels is indispensable. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Development of Low-Cost Solar Water Heater Using Recycled Solid Waste for Domestic Hot Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Din Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the development of a low-cost solar water heater (SWH system by utilizing solid waste material as part of system elements. Available technologies of the solar water heater systems, heat collectors and its components were reviewed and the best system combinations for low cost design were chosen. The passive-thermosiphon system have been chosen due to its simplicity and independency on external power as well as conventional pump. For the heat collector, flat plate type was identified as the most suitable collector for low cost design and suits with Malaysia climate. Detail study on the flat plate collector components found that the heat absorber is the main component that can significantly reduce the solar collector price if it is replaced with recycled solid waste material. Review on common solid wastes concluded that crushed glass is a non-metal material that has potential to either enhance or become the main heat absorber in solar collector. A collector prototype were then designed and fabricated based on crashed glass heat collector media. Thermal performance test were conducted for three configurations where configuration A (black painted aluminum absorber used as benchmark, configuration B (crushed glass added partially that use glass for improvement, and lastly configuration C (black colored crushed glass that use colored glass as main absorber. Result for configuration B have shown a negative effect where the maximum collector efficiency is 26.8% lower than configuration A. Nevertheless, configuration C which use black crushed glass as main heat absorber shown a comparable maximum efficiency which is at 82.5% of the maximum efficiency for configuration A and furthermore have shown quite impressive increment of efficiency at the end of the experiment. Hence, black colored crushed glass is said to have quite a good potential as the heat absorber material and therefore turn out to be a new contender to other non-metal

  13. Effect of oxide charge trapping on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of HfO2/SiO2/Si structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yasuhiro; Miyata, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Haruhiko; Kitamura, Koji; Igarashi, Satoru; Nohira, Hiroshi; Ikenaga, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of interfacial SiO 2 layers and a surface metal layer on the photoelectron spectra of HfO 2 /SiO 2 /Si structures by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation as well as conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Hf 4f and Hf 3d photoelectron peaks broadened and shifted toward a higher binding energy with increasing thickness of the interfacial SiO 2 layer, even though photoelectrons may have been emitted from the HfO 2 layer with the same chemical composition. Thinning the interfacial Si oxide layer to approximately one monolayer and depositing a metal layer on the HfO 2 surface suppressed these phenomena. The O 1s photoelectron spectra revealed marked differences between the metal- and nonmetal-deposited HfO 2 /SiO 2 /Si structures; HfO 2 and SiO 2 components in the O 1s photoelectron spectra for the metal-deposited structures were observed at reasonably separated binding energies, but those for the nonmetal-deposited structures were not separated clearly. From this behavior concerning the effects of interfacial SiO 2 and surface metal layers, we concluded that the Hf 4f, Hf 3d, and O 1s spectra measured from the HfO 2 /SiO 2 /Si structures did not reflect actual chemical bonding states. We consider that potential variations in the HfO 2 film owing to charge trapping strongly affect the measured photoelectron spectra. On the basis of angle-resolved XPS measurements, we propose that positive charges are trapped at the HfO 2 surface and negative charges are trapped inside the HfO 2 layer. (author)

  14. Propagation and diffusion-limited extinction of nonadiabatic heterogeneous flame in the SHS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Atsushi

    1994-01-01

    Nonadiabatic heterogeneous flame propagation and extinction in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) are analyzed based on a premixed mode of propagation for the bulk flame supported by the nonpremixed reaction of dispersed nonmetals in the liquid metal. The formulation allows for volumetric heat loss throughout the bulk flame, finite-rate Arrhenius reaction at the particle surface, and temperature-sensitive Arrhenius mass diffusion in the liquid. Results show that, subsequent to melting of the metal, the flame structure consists of a relatively thin diffusion-consumption/convection zone followed by a relatively thick convection-loss zone, that the flame propagation rate decreases with increasing heat loss, that at a critical heat-loss rate the flame extinguishes as indicated by the characteristic turning-point behavior, that the surface reaction is diffusion limited such that the nonlinear, temperature-sensitive nature of the system is actually a consequence of the Arrhenius mass diffusion, and that extinction is sensitively affected by the mixture ratio, the degree of dilution, the initial temperature of the compact, and the size of the nonmetal particles. An explicit expression is derived for the normalized mass burning rate, which exhibits the characteristic turning point and shows that extinction occurs when this value is reduced to e -1/2 , which is the same as that for the nonadiabatic gaseous premixed flame. It is further shown that the theoretical results agree well with available experimental data, indicating that the present formulation captures the essential features of the nonadiabatic heterogeneous SHS processes and its potential for extension to describe other SHS phenomena

  15. Experimental study on source efficiencies for estimating surface contamination level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiji, Takeshi; Ogino, Haruyuki

    2008-01-01

    Source efficiency was measured experimentally for various materials, such as metals, nonmetals, flooring materials, sheet materials and other materials, contaminated by alpha and beta emitter radioactive nuclides. Five nuclides, 147 Pm, 60 Co, 137 Cs, 204 Tl and 90 Sr- 90 Y, were used as the beta emitters, and one nuclide 241 Am was used as the alpha emitter. The test samples were prepared by placing drops of the radioactive standardized solutions uniformly on the various materials using an automatic quantitative dispenser system from Musashi Engineering, Inc. After placing drops of the radioactive standardized solutions, the test materials were allowed to dry for more than 12 hours in a draft chamber with a hood. The radioactivity of each test material was about 30 Bq. Beta rays or alpha rays from the test materials were measured with a 2-pi gas flow proportional counter from Aloka Co., Ltd. The source efficiencies of the metals, nonmetals and sheet materials were higher than 0.5 in the case of contamination by the 137 Cs, 204 Tl and 90 Sr- 90 Y radioactive standardized solutions, higher than 0.4 in the case of contamination by the 60 Co radioactive standardized solution, and higher than 0.25 in the case of contamination by the alpha emitter the 241 Am radioactive standardized solution. These values were higher than those given in Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) documents. In contrast, the source efficiencies of some permeable materials were lower than those given in JIS documents, because source efficiency varies depending on whether the materials or radioactive sources are wet or dry. This study provides basic data on source efficiency, which is useful for estimating the surface contamination level of materials. (author)

  16. Preparation, structure and thermal stability of Cu/LDPE nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xianping; Cai Shuizhou; Xie Changsheng

    2006-01-01

    Copper/low-density-polyethylene (Cu/LDPE) nanocomposites have been prepared using a melt-blending technique in a single-screw extruder. Their structure and thermal characteristics are characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results of XRD, SEM and SEM-EDS Cu-mapping show that the nanocomposites are a hybrid of the polymer and the copper nanoparticles, and the copper nanoparticles aggregates were distributed uniformly in general. The results also show that the nanocomposites and the base resin, the pure LDPE, have a different crystalline structure and the same oriented characteristics owing to the presence of copper nanoparticles and the same cooling condition. The results of DSC show that the incorporation of copper nanoparticles can decrease the melting temperatures but increase the crystallization temperatures, and can lower the crystallinity degree of the matrix of the composites. The results of TGA show that the presence of copper nanoparticles can improve the thermal stability of the nanocomposites, a maximum increment of 18 deg. C is obtained comparing with the pure LDPE in this experiment. The results of TGA also show that the influence of the incorporation of the copper nanoparticles on the thermal stability of the Cu/LDPE nanocomposites is different from that of the non-metal nanoparticles on the polymer/non-metal nanocomposites and the copper microparticles on the Cu/LDPE microcomposites. The increase of the thermal stability of the Cu/LDPE nanocomposites will decrease when the content of the copper nanoparticles is more than 2 wt.%. The difference might be caused by the fact that the activity of the metal nanoparticles is much more higher than that of the non-metal nanoparticles, and the different size effect the different copper particles has

  17. Metallization and stiffness of the Li-intercalated MoS{sub 2} bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, N.V. [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prospect Nauki 46, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Yakovkin, I.N., E-mail: yakov@iop.kiev.ua [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prospect Nauki 46, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Zeze, D.A. [School of Engineering & Computing Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: The band structures, DOS, and Fermi surfaces for the MoS{sub 2} bilayer with adsorbed (a, c, e) and intercalated (b, d, f) Li (1 × 1) layer. - Highlights: • Adsorbed or intercalated Li monolayer makes the MoS{sub 2} surface metallic. • Increasing density of adsorbed Li leads to the nonmetal-to-metal transition in the layer. • Lithium inserted into MoS{sub 2} bilayers increases the interlayer interaction. - Abstract: Performed density-functional theory (DFT) calculations have shown that the Li adsorption on the MoS{sub 2} (0 0 0 1) surface, as well as Li intercalation into the space between MoS{sub 2} layers, transforms the semiconductor band structure of MoS{sub 2} into metallic. For the (√3 × √3) – R30° Li layer, the band structures of the MoS{sub 2} bilayer with adsorbed and intercalated Li are very similar, while for higher Li concentrations, the character of metallization for the adsorbed layer substantially differs from that of the MoS{sub 2}–Li–MoS{sub 2} layered system. In particular, for the adsorbed (1 × 1) Li monolayer, the increased density of the layer leads to the nonmetal-to-metal transition, which is evident from the appearance of the band crossing E{sub F} with an upward dispersion, pertinent to simple metals. It has been demonstrated that intercalated Li substantially increases the interlayer interaction in MoS{sub 2}. Specifically, the estimated 0.12 eV energy of the interlayer interaction in the MoS{sub 2} bilayer increases to 0.60 eV. This result is also consistent with results of earlier DFT calculations and available experimental results for alkali-intercalated graphene layers, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in the stiffness due to intercalation of alkalis.

  18. Investigation of multiphase equilibria in the subsolidus of BaO–CoO–Fe2O3–Al2O3 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyrkin Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems related to the development of new nonmetal materials and their performance characteristics is to predict the phase composition. The most comprehensive information on phase interactions and the thermodynamic stability of phase combinations is given by the state diagrams. The materials synthesized in the system subsolidus domain can be predicted the most accurately, because their sintering occurs without participation of the melt. Due to the above fact, the studies of the subsolidus structure of BaO – CoO – Fe2O3 – Al2O3 system are of great interest, because on the basis of this system we can obtain a huge amount of nonmetal materials with prescribed properties, for example ferrimagnetic materials to protect from electromagnetic radiation, because the system compounds have cementing, refractory and ferrimagnetic properties. To study the structure of BaO – CoO – Fe2O3 – Al2O3 system in detail the authors summed up already known data on the thermodynamic constants of system compounds. This allowed us to do the thermodynamic analysis of multiphase equilibrium processes that occur in the subsolidus of BaO – CoO – Fe2O3 – Al2O3 system that was used as a basis for the plotting of the state diagram for the subsolidus domain of the system. A promising field for the application of obtained data is the cement production technology. The produced cement can be used independently and as a binding material to produce special cements and materials that retain their properties when exposed to the action of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

  19. Fabrication, modification and application of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based photocatalysts: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Zilin; Sun, Yanjuan [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Functional Organic Molecules, College of Environment and Resources, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067 (China); Zhang, Yuxin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Dong, Fan, E-mail: dfctbu@126.com [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Functional Organic Molecules, College of Environment and Resources, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} with Aurivillius structure y is an emergent material. • Synthesis of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} micro/nano structures was reviewed. • The mechanisms of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} based nanocomposites were discussed. • Doping (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} with nonmetals for enhanced activity was highlighted. • Multi-functional applications of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} based derivatives was demonstrated. - Abstract: (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} (BOC), a fascinating material, belongs to the Aurivillius-related oxide family with an intergrowth texture in which Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} layers and CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} layers are orthogonal to each other. BOC is a suitable candidate for various fields, such as healthcare, photocatalysis, humidity sensor, nonlinear optical application and supercapacitors. Recently, the photocatalysis properties of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} have been gained increased attention. BOC has a wide band gap (3.1–3.5 eV), which constrains its visible light absorption and utilization. In order to enhance the visible light driven photocatalytic performance of BOC, many modification strategies have been developed. According to the discrepancies of different coupling mechanisms, six primary systems of BOC-based nanocomposites can be classified and summarized: namely, metal/BOC heterojunction, single metal oxides (metal sulfides)/BOC heterostructure, bismuth-based metallic acid salts (Bi{sub x}MO{sub y})/BOC, bismuth oxyhalides (BiOX)/BOC, metal-free semiconductor/BOC and the BOC-based complex heterojunction. Doping BOC with nonmetals (C, N and oxygen vacancy) is unique strategy and warrants a separate categorization. In this review, we first give a detailed description of the strategies to fabricate various BOC micro/nano structures. Next, the mechanisms of photocatalytic activity enhancement are elaborated in three parts, including BOC-based nanocomposites, nonmetal doping and formation of oxygen vacancy. The

  20. Copper Vapor Laser with One-Beam Radiation of Diffraction Quality and Its Capabilities for Microprocessing of Materials for Electronic Engineering Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Lyabin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, spatial, time and energy characteristics of copper vapor laser radiation (CVL with optical resonators possessing high spatial selectivity have been investigated: with an unstable resonator (UR with two convex mirrors and telescopic UR, and the conditions to form one-beam radiation with diffraction divergence and high stability of directivity pattern axis have been defined.The most weighty and prospective application of CVL with UR with two convex mirrors is to use it as a driving oscillator (DO in a copper vapor laser system (CVLS of the type: driving oscillator – power amplifier (DO – PA when diffraction beam radiating power and power density in a focused spot of 10-20 µm in diameter increases by 1-2 orders. Using industrial sealed-off active elements (AE of “Kulon” series with an average radiation power of 15-25 W as PAs the peak power density increases up to 1011 W/cm 2 while an application of AE “Crystal” with 30- 50 W power gives up to 1012 W/cm 2 , which is sufficient for efficient and qualitative microprocessing of materials up to 1…2 mm thick. Such a CVLS has become the basis for creating up-to-date automated laser technological installations (ALTI of “Karavella-1” and “Karavella-1M” types to manufacture precision parts of electronic engineering products (EEP of metal up to 0.5 mm thick and of non-metal up to 1.5…1.8 mm thick.CVL with a telescopic UR with an average power of 5-6 W diffraction radiation beam has become the basis for creating industrial ALTI “Karavella-2” and “Karavella-2M” to manufacture precision parts of electronic engineering products (EEP of metal up to 0.3 mm thick and of non-metal up to 0.5 – 0.7 mm thick.Practical work on all types of ALTI “Karavella” has shown a set of significant advantages of a laser way of pulsed microprocessing over the traditional ones, including electro-erosion machining: a wide range of structural metal and non-metal materials to be

  1. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Narayan Banerjee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arghya Narayan BanerjeeSchool of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South KoreaAbstract: Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via

  2. Carotid intima-media thickness and plasma fibrinogen among subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bayanfar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of plasma fibrinogen, a key regulator of inflammation processes and increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT to predict metabolic syndrome (MetS is currently under investigation. We assessed differences in the indicators of cIMT and also plasma fibrinogen level between MetS and non-MetS subjects. We also assessed the role of these two parameters for independently relationship with MetS state. METHODS: The subjects in this cross-sectional survey were population-based samples of 93 men and women aged ≥ 35 years and over who were selected from the Isfahan cohort study, Isfahan, Iran. Fibrinogen was measured by the clotting assay of Clauss. Ultrasound studies of the carotid artery were performed to measure cIMT. MetS defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III. RESULTS: The mean level of plasma fibrinogen was not different in the two groups with and without MetS (240.10 ± 27.80 vs. 242.56 ± 35.82, P = 0.714, but the mean of cIMT was considerably higher in MetS group than in non-MetS group (0.85 ± 0.06 mm vs. 0.66 ± 0.09 mm, P < 0.001. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, high cIMT could effectively predict MetS state with the presence of different components of MetS (odds ratio = 17.544, 95% confidence interval: 2.151-142.860, P = 0.008. The optimal cutoff point of cIMT for discriminating these two clinical states was 0.6 mm yielding a sensitivity of 61.5% and a specificity of 59.6%. CONCLUSION: Individuals with MetS demonstrated increased cIMT values compared with those without MetS. However, high plasma fibrinogen level may not be associated with MetS state.   Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Fibrinogen, Prediction 

  3. Elemental composition of current automotive braking materials and derived air emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulskotte, J. H. J.; Roskam, G. D.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Wear-related PM emissions are an important constituent of total PM emissions from road transport. Due to ongoing (further) exhaust emission reduction wear emissions may become the dominant PM source from road transport in the near future. The chemical composition of the wear emissions is crucial information to assess the potential health relevance of these PM emissions. Here we provide an elemental composition profile of brake wear emissions as used in the Netherlands in 2012. In total, 65 spent brake pads and 15 brake discs were collected in car maintenance shops from in-use personal cars vehicles and analyzed with XRF for their metal composition (Fe, Cu, Zn, Sn, Al, Si, Zr, Ti, Sb, Cr, Mo, Mn, V, Ni, Bi, W, P, Pb and Co). Since car, engine and safety regulations are not nationally determined but controlled by European legislation the resulting profiles will be representative for the European personal car fleet. The brake pads contained Fe and Cu as the dominant metals but their ratio varied considerably, other relatively important metals were Sn, Zn and Sb. Overall a rather robust picture emerged with Fe, Cu, Zn and Sn together making up about 80-90% of the metals present in brake pads. Because the XRF did not give information on the contents of other material such as carbon, oxygen and sulphur, a representative selection of 9 brake pads was further analyzed by ICP-MS and a carbon and sulphur analyzer. The brake pads contained about 50% of non-metal material (26% C, 3% S and the remainder mostly oxygen and some magnesium). Based on our measurements, the average brake pad profile contained 20% Fe, 10% Cu, 4% Zn and 3% Sn as the dominant metals. The brake discs consisted almost entirely of metal with iron being the dominant metal (>95%) and only traces of other metals (<1% for individual metals). Non-metal components in the discs were 2-3% Silicon and, according to literature, ∼3% carbon. The robust ratio between Fe and Cu as found on kerbsides has been used to

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} under visible light irradiation: Effective separation of photogenerated carriers resulted from inhomogeneous lattice distortion and improved electron capturing ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuguang, E-mail: csustcsg@yahoo.com; Li, Yuhan; Wu, Zixu; Wu, Baoxin; Li, Haibin; Li, Fujin

    2017-05-15

    Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalyst was hydrothermally synthesized, and nonmetal atoms Te were homogeneously incorporated into Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} lattice with the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+}. With increasing Te-doping concentration in Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}, no detectable band-gap narrowing but more and more severe inhomogeneous lattice distortions were determined. The activity of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalyst was evaluated through methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation (λ>410 nm) and was greatly enhanced by Te-doping. When Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} was synthesized at Te/Mo molar ratio of 7.5%, a maximum first-order rate constant of methylene blue degradation was obtained. The inhomogeneous lattice distortion generated an internal dipole moment, and the holes generated with the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+} acted as the capturing centers of photogenerated electrons, thus the effective separation of photogenerated carriers was facilitated to result in a relatively high concentration of holes on the surface of Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} to be favorable for the efficient methylene blue degradation. - Graphical abstract: With the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+}, effective separation of photogenerated carriers resulted from inhomogeneous lattice distortion and improved electron capturing ability is achieved to be responsible for enhanced photocatalytic activity of Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. - Highlights: • Nonmetal Te is incorporated into Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} with the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+}. • Revealing inhomogeneous lattice distortion and improved electron capturing ability. • Effective separation of photogenerated carriers in Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} is achieved. • The mechanism of methylene blue degradation over Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} is proposed.

  5. Elevated Serum Cyclophilin B Levels Are Associated with the Prevalence and Severity of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveInflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Cyclophilin B (CypB can be constitutively secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress, participating in tissue or systemic inflammation. We investigated the relationship between CypB and MetS in both humans and mice.MethodsSerum CypB levels were determined in 211 subjects with MetS and 292 subjects without MetS (non-MetS (133 healthy controls and 159 high-risk subjects with one to two MetS components. Additionally, CypB expression in metabolic organs was examined in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD and genetically obese (ob/ob mice.ResultsSerum CypB level was significantly higher in MetS subjects compared with both groups of non-MetS subjects (193.80 ± 83.22 vs. 168.38 ± 65.01 vs. 124.26 ± 47.83 ng/mL, P < 0.001. Particularly, serum CypB level was significantly higher in subjects with hypertension, central obesity, diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia, elevated levels of triglycerides, or reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein than in those without. Moreover, CypB was positively associated with the number of MetS components (r = 0.404, P < 0.001, indicating that a higher serum CypB level reflected more severe MetS. Multivariate regression revealed that a one SD increase in CypB was associated with an odds ratio of 1.506 (1.080–2.101, P = 0.016 for MetS prevalence after adjusting for age, gender, conventional risk factors, and medication. Stratified analyses by age and gender demonstrated that subjects >60 years old with higher CypB levels were more likely to have MetS, and the risk for MetS was higher and more significant in women compared with men. Additionally, CypB expression levels were lower at baseline and dramatically enhanced in metabolic organs (such as the liver and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from HFD-induced obese mice and ob/ob mice.ConclusionIncreased CypB levels were

  6. Elevated Serum Cyclophilin B Levels Are Associated with the Prevalence and Severity of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Fan, Qin; Xie, Hongyang; Lu, Lin; Tao, Rong; Wang, Fang; Xi, Rui; Hu, Jian; Chen, Qiujing; Shen, Weifeng; Zhang, Ruiyan; Yan, Xiaoxiang

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cyclophilin B (CypB) can be constitutively secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress, participating in tissue or systemic inflammation. We investigated the relationship between CypB and MetS in both humans and mice. Serum CypB levels were determined in 211 subjects with MetS and 292 subjects without MetS (non-MetS) (133 healthy controls and 159 high-risk subjects with one to two MetS components). Additionally, CypB expression in metabolic organs was examined in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. Serum CypB level was significantly higher in MetS subjects compared with both groups of non-MetS subjects (193.80 ± 83.22 vs. 168.38 ± 65.01 vs. 124.26 ± 47.83 ng/mL, P  CypB level was significantly higher in subjects with hypertension, central obesity, diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia, elevated levels of triglycerides, or reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein than in those without. Moreover, CypB was positively associated with the number of MetS components ( r  = 0.404, P  CypB level reflected more severe MetS. Multivariate regression revealed that a one SD increase in CypB was associated with an odds ratio of 1.506 (1.080-2.101, P  = 0.016) for MetS prevalence after adjusting for age, gender, conventional risk factors, and medication. Stratified analyses by age and gender demonstrated that subjects >60 years old with higher CypB levels were more likely to have MetS, and the risk for MetS was higher and more significant in women compared with men. Additionally, CypB expression levels were lower at baseline and dramatically enhanced in metabolic organs (such as the liver) and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from HFD-induced obese mice and ob/ob mice. Increased CypB levels were significantly and independently associated with the presence and severity of MetS, indicating that CypB could be

  7. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films containing sulfur and gold: Synthesis, characterization and application to immobilize and direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee-Pour, Hossain-Ali, E-mail: rafieepour@kashanu.ac.ir [Biotechnology Division, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamadanian, Masood [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan , Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Koushali, Samaneh Katebi [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Promoting efficiency of TiO{sub 2} in cyt c immobilization by metal and nonmetal doping. • Synthesis of Au/S-TiO{sub 2} as a novel and efficient for cyt c immobilization. • Investigating structural, chemical and morphological characteristics of prepared TiO{sub 2}, S-TiO{sub 2} and Au/S-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • 4%Au/S-TiO{sub 2} showed high surface area, nanometer size, strong absorbance, high efficiency in cyt c immobilization. • Promoting immobilization efficiency by addition of a small amount of gold at the surface of TiO{sub 2} by photochemistry method. - Abstract: In this paper, nanoporous titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) film was used for cytochrome c (cyt c) immobilization as an electrode substrate for electrochemical redox activity of the adsorbed cyt c. The result of cyclic voltammetry exhibited a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible peaks for direct electron transfer of cyt c (formal potential [E{sup 0}′ = (E{sub pa} + E{sub pc})/2] of 53 mV versus Ag/AgCl). In addition the effect of metal and nonmetal ions (Au, S) co-doping on the efficiency of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (prepared by combining sol–gel and photo-deposition methods) on the cyt c immobilization process was investigated. The results exhibited that the Au, S-co-doped TiO{sub 2} (Au/S-TiO{sub 2}) with a spheroidal shape demonstrates a smaller grain size than the pure TiO{sub 2}. Meanwhile, the UV–vis DRS of Au/S-TiO{sub 2} showed a considerable red shift to the visible region. As a result, it was found that 4% Au/0.1% S-TiO{sub 2} had the highest efficiency for cytochrome c immobilization. The results showed that the peak currents were higher after the annealing of the TiO{sub 2} film. This observation suggests that the use of TiO{sub 2} films may be advantageous for the development of nanoporous biosensors employing reductive electrochemistry.

  8. Code of a Tokamak Fusion Energy Facility ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuhide Asada; Kenzo Miya; Kazuhiko Hada; Eisuke Tada

    2002-01-01

    The technical structural code for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Fusion Reactor) and, as more generic applications, for D-T burning fusion power facilities (hereafter, Fusion Code) should be innovative because of their quite different features of safety and mechanical components from nuclear fission reactors, and the necessity of introducing several new fabrication and examination technologies. Introduction of such newly developed technologies as inspection-free automatic welding into the Fusion Code is rationalized by a pilot application of a new code concept of s ystem-based code for integrity . The code concept means an integration of element technical items necessary for construction, operation and maintenance of mechanical components of fusion power facilities into a single system to attain an optimization of the total margin of these components. Unique and innovative items of the Fusion Code are typically as follows: - Use of non-metals; - Cryogenic application; - New design margins on allowable stresses, and other new design rules; - Use of inspection-free automatic welding, and other newly developed fabrication technologies; - Graded approach of quality assurance standard to cover radiological safety-system components as well as non-safety-system components; - Consideration on replacement components. (authors)

  9. Atomic dynamics in fluids studied by inelastic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Masanori; Kajihara, Yukio; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on atomic dynamics in supercritical fluids at high temperature and high pressure have remarkably been advanced by using an inelastic x-ray scattering technique that achieved a meV-energy resolution in the middle of 1990's. In this article, we describe a brief review of the theoretical background on liquid dynamics, our own high-temperature high-pressure technique and recent results of atomic dynamics in supercritical fluids. In particular, we report the results of inelastic x-ray scattering measurements for expanding fluid Hg at high temperature and high pressure, which were conduced at BL35XU/SPring-8. We found that in the metal-nonmetal transition in fluid Hg, the excitation energy of the acoustic mode disperses three times faster than the adiabatic sound velocity obtained by ultrasonic measurements. This phenomenon must be crucial to understand how a metallic state is formed during atomic condensation accurately. Finally we put a future development of this field in perspective. (author)

  10. Laser ablation ICP-MS for quantitative biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konz, Ioana; Fernandez, Beatriz; Fernandez, M.L.; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    LA-ICP-MS allows precise, relatively fast, and spatially resolved measurements of elements and isotope ratios at trace and ultratrace concentration levels with minimal sample preparation. Over the past few years this technique has undergone rapid development, and it has been increasingly applied in many different fields, including biological and medical research. The analysis of essential, toxic, and therapeutic metals, metalloids, and nonmetals in biomedical tissues is a key task in the life sciences today, and LA-ICP-MS has proven to be an excellent complement to the organic MS techniques that are much more commonly employed in the biomedical field. In order to provide an appraisal of the fast progress that is occurring in this field, this review critically describes new developments for LA-ICP-MS as well as the most important applications of LA-ICP-MS, with particular emphasis placed on the quantitative imaging of elements in biological tissues, the analysis of heteroatom-tagged proteins after their separation and purification by gel electrophoresis, and the analysis of proteins that do not naturally have ICP-MS-detectable elements in their structures, thus necessitating the use of labelling strategies. (orig.)

  11. Carbon Nitrogen Co-Doped P25: Parameter Study on Photodegradation of Reactive Red 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azami M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation rate of reactive red 4 (RR4 using carbon coated nitrogen doped TiO2 (C N co-doped TiO2 in photocatalysis process is main goal on this research. The main operating the parameters such as effect of initial dye concentration, catalyst loading, aeration flow rate and initial pH on degradation of RR4 under 45 W fluorescent lamp was investigated. photocatalytic activity of RR4 dye decreased with increasing RR4 dye concentration. The optimum loading is around 0.04 g and optimum aeration rate is about 25 mL min-1 of C N co-doped TiO2. Effect of pH was conducted based on the optimum loading and conclude that the photocatalytic degradation of RR4 became faster at pH 2 - 7. For the future work, the modification of doping with others element like non-metal or metal with C N co-doped TiO2 can be enhanced toward the higher efficieny of photodegradation under visible light. Moreover, the immobilized technique can be used in future to overcome the difficulty of filtration on suspension.

  12. Hydrogeochemical processes affecting the migration of radionuclides in a fluvial sand aquifer at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.E.; Inch, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the mid-1950's two experimental disposals of liquid radioactive waste containing about 700 curries of strontium-90 and cesium-137 were made into pits in sandy ground at one of the disposal areas at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Since then, the wastes have migrated into two nearby aquifers and have chromatographically separated into strontium-90 and cesium-137 plumes moving at velocities less than that of the transporting groundwater. Analysis of radioactively contaminated aquifer sediments showed that most of the strontium-90 is exchangeably adsorbed, primarily to feldspars and layer silicates (mainly biotite); the rest is either specifically adsorbed to iron (III) and perhaps manganese (IV) oxhydroxides or fixed to unknown sinks. Less than one half of adsorbed cesium-137 is exchangeable with 0.5 m calcium chloride; the high levels of cesium-137 adsorption and fixation are probably due to its reaction with micaceous minerals. Complexation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 does not appear to be an important factor affecting their transport or adsorption. In studies of groundwater quality or pollution, dissolved oxygen and sulfide should be measured in addition to the redox potential since it allows independent assessment of the redox levels. The latter were found to affect the mobility of multivalent transition metals and nonmetals. (DN)

  13. Characterization study of heavy metal-bearing phases in MSW slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Motomura, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2009-01-01

    Slag products derived from the pyrolysis/melting and plasma/melting treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Japan were examined for the characterization study of heavy metal-bearing phases using petrographic techniques. Detailed microscopic observations revealed that the shapes of heavy metal-rich inclusions are generally spherical to semi-spherical and their sizes range from submicron to scarcely large size spheres (over 100 μm). The experiments (both optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis) indicated that Fe and Cu participate in mutual substitution and different proportions, and form mainly two-phase Fe-Cu alloys that bound in the silicate glass. This alloy characterizes the composition of more than 80% of the metal-rich inclusions. Other metals and non-metals (such as Pb, Ni, Sb, Sn, P, Si, Al and S) with variable amounts and uneven distributions are also incorporated in the Fe-Cu alloy. In average, the bulk concentration of heavy metals in samples from pyrolysis/melting type is almost six times greater than samples treated under plasma/arc processing. The observations also confirmed that slag from pyrolysis origin contains remarkably higher concentration of metallic inclusions than slag from plasma treatment. In the latter, the metallic compounds are separately tapped from molten slag during the melting treatment that might lead to the generation of safer slag product for end users from environmental viewpoint.

  14. The Onium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazarov, Dobri

    1997-06-01

    The onium salts are of a big interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis. Some representatives of the group (e.g. ammonium salts) were known from the oldest times. Many onium salts are met the nature: ammonium salts (either as inorganic salts, and organic derivatives, e.g. aminoacids, salts of biogenic amines and alkaloids, etc.); oxonium salts (plant pigments as anthocyans are organic oxonium compounds), etc. In 1894 C. Hartmann and V. Meyer prepared the first iodonium salts - 4-iododiphenyliodonium hydrogensulfate and diphenyliodonium salts, and suggested the ending -onium for all compounds with properties similar to those of ammonium salts. Nowadays onium compounds of almost all nonmetals are synthesised and studied. A great variety of physical methods: diffraction (e.g. XRD) and spectral methods (IR-, NMR-, and UV-spectra), as well as the chemical properties and methods of preparation of onium salts have been used in determination of the structure of these compounds. The application of different onium salts is immense. Ammonium, phosphonium and sulfonium salts are used as phase-transfer catalysts; diazonium salts - for the preparation of dyes, metalochromic and pH-indicators. All the onium salts and especially diazonium and iodonium salts are very useful reagents in organic synthesis.

  15. 3D-printed fusion components concepts and validation for the UST-2 stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, V., E-mail: vicentemanuel.queral@ciemat.es

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A fabrication method for fusion components is developed and validated. • Synergies obtained from additive manufacturing and non-metal casting. • 3D-printed polyamide hollow truss structure and casting of acrylic resin tested. • UST- 2 stellarator coil frame fabricated to validate the method performance. - Abstract: The geometric complexity and high accuracy simultaneously required in magnetic fusion devices, particularly stellarators and tokamaks, hampers the production of fusion components and devices. Rapid manufacturing construction methods, particularly enhanced for fusion, may contribute to a faster cycle and lower cost production of certain components for tokamaks and stellarators. Casting, cutting, forming, welding and mechanising are conventional production techniques for major fusion components, i.e. coil casings, coil frames, vacuum vessels and blankets. Synergies may emerge by combination of additive manufacturing (3D printing) with conventional manufacturing methods. 3D printing combined with resin moulding is tested by construction of the coil frame and the vacuum vessel of a small stellarator, UST-2. Satisfactory coil frames have been obtained by moulding acrylic resin in a special 3D printed polyamide hollow three-dimensional structure. The conceptual engineering design, construction process and validation of the components are described. The presented manufacturing method might contribute to advance the future 3D printing of larger metallic components for fusion.

  16. Boron-Based Nanostructures, Stability, Functionality and Synthetic Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakobson, Boris I. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Ajayan, Pulickel M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-08-04

    Boron (B) is one of the most intriguing elements not only because of its position between metals and nonmetals in periodic table but also because of its ability to form an enormous number of allotropes. Apart from several bulk three-dimensional (3D) phases, boron can form 0D clusters, 1D nanotubes and nanowires, and 2D layers. In particular, boron sheets of monoatomic thickness have raised interest as a potential new 2D-material and as a (conceptual) precursor, for example, so-called α-sheets, from which other boron structures - fullerene cages and tubes - might be constructed. In fact, a number of planar B clusters up to tens of atoms, found in experiments, appear as seeds for extended sheets. In this project we developed theoretical methods to guide synthesis, have successfully identified the material substrates (Ag, Au, Cu) to producing the pure boron layers, and further even predicted what atomistic structures should be expected. These guidelines have successfully led to discoveries in several labs and now have grown into an active line of research worldwide.

  17. Exploring the use of situation awareness in behaviors and practices of health and safety leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, D R

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of how health and safety management systems (HSMS) reduce worksite injuries, illnesses and fatalities may be gained in studying the behaviors of health and safety leaders. These leaders bear the accountability for identifying, understanding and managing the risks of a mining operation. More importantly, they have to transfer this knowledge of perception, recognition and response to risks in the mining environment to their workers. The leaders' efforts to build and maintain a mining operation's workforce that consistently executes safe work practices may be captured through more than just lagging indicators of health and safety performance. This exploratory study interviewed six leaders in occupations such as site-level safety supervisors, mine superintendents and/or general managers at surface and underground stone, sand and gravel and metal/nonmetal mine sites throughout the United States, with employee populations ranging from 40 to 175. In exploring leaders' perspectives on how they systematically manage health and safety, examples such as approaches to task training, handling near-miss incidents, identifying future leaders and providing workers with feedback offer insights into how leaders translate their knowledge and management of site-level risks to others.

  18. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that 137 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg -1 dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 210 Po and 210 Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 210 Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate 210 Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br

  19. Instrumentation for mine safety: fire and smoke problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Underground fires continue to be one of the most serious hazards to life and property in the mining industry. Although underground mines are analogous to high-rise buildings where persons are isolated from immediate escape or rescue, application of technology to locate and control fire hazards while still in their controllable state is slow to be implemented in underground mines. This paper describes several USBM (Bureau of Mines) safety programs which included in-mine testing with mine fire and smoke sensors, telemetry and instrumentation to develop recommendations for improving mine fire safety. It is hoped that the technology developed during these programs can be added to other programs to provide the mining industry with the necessary fire safety facts. By recognizing fire potentials and being provided with cost-effective, proven components that will perform reliably under the poor environmental conditions of mining, mine operators can provide protection for their working life and property equal to that which they provide for themselves and their families at home. The basis of this report is two USBM programs for fire protection in metal and nonmetal mines and one coal program. The data was collected beginning in May 1974 and continuing through the present with underground tests of a South African fire system installed at Magma Mine in Superior, Arizona, and a computer-assisted, experimental system at Peabody Coal Mine in Pawnee, Illinois

  20. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Liquid Phosphorus at High Temperature and Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yanning; Zhao Gang; Liu Changsong; Zhu Zhengang

    2008-01-01

    By performing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated the microstructure, dynamical and electronic properties of liquid phosphorus (P) under high temperature and pressure. In our simulations, the calculated coordination number (CN) changes discontinuously with density, and seems to increase rapidly after liquid P is compressed to 2.5 g/cm 3 . Under compression, liquid P shows the first-order liquid-liquid phase transition from the molecular liquid composed of the tetrahedral P 4 molecules to complex polymeric form with three-dimensional network structure, accompanied by the nonmetal to metal transition of the electronic structure. The order parameters Q 6 and Q 4 are sensitive to the microstructural change of liquid P. By calculating diffusion coefficients, we show the dynamical anomaly of liquid P by compression. At lower temperatures, a maximum exists at the diffusion coefficients as a function of density; at higher temperatures, the anomalous behavior is weakened. The excess entropy shows the same phenomena as the diffusion coefficients. By analysis of the angle distribution functions and angular limited triplet correlation functions, we can clearly find that the Peierls distortion in polymeric form of liquid P is reduced by further compression

  1. High performance sulfur, nitrogen and carbon doped mesoporous anatase–brookite TiO2 photocatalyst for the removal of microcystin-LR under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, Said M.; Zhang, Geshan; El-Hosainy, Hamza M.; Ismail, Adel A.; O'Shea, Kevin E.; Falaras, Polycarpos; Kontos, Athanassios G.; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of tailor-designed C, N and S doped titania anatase–brookite nano-heterojunction photocatalyst. • Microcystin-LR was completely removed in the presence of doped sample under visible light. • The MC-LR degradation rate achieved by the doped sample was much better than that of un-doped sample under visible light. - Abstract: Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur (C, N and S) doped mesoporous anatase–brookite nano-heterojunction titania photocatalysts have been synthesized through a simple sol–gel method in the presence of triblock copolymer Pluronic P123. XRD and Raman spectra revealed the formation of anatase and brookite mixed phases. XPS spectra indicated the presence of C, N and S dopants. The TEM images demonstrated the formation of almost monodisperse titania nanoparticles with particle sizes of approximately 10 nm. N 2 isotherm measurements confirmed that both doped and undoped titania anatase–brookite materials have mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic degradation of the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been investigated using these novel nanomaterials under visible light illumination. The photocatalytic efficiency of the mesoporous titania anatase–brookite photocatalyst dramatically increased with the addition of the C, N and S non-metal, achieving complete degradation (∼100%) of MC-LR. The results demonstrate the advantages of the synthetic approach and the great potential of the visible light activated C, N, and S doped titania photocatalysts for the treatment of organic micropollutants in contaminated waters under visible light

  2. Corrosion resistant materials for fluorine and hydrogen fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauffe, K.

    1984-12-01

    Aluminum and Duralumin are resistant against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride up to 600 and 700 K, respectively. The resistance of nickel and its alloys, particularly monel, against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride is fairly good up to 900 and 800 K. During the attack of nickel-chromium alloys by fluorine between 1000 and 1300 K, it appears an inner fluorination similarly to the inner oxidation. The resistance of titanium in water-free liquid fluorine at lower temperatures with <0,3 mm.a/sup -1/ is comparable to that of nickel and monel. However, the corrosion of titanium in gaseous fluorine amounts at 377 K only 0,0082 mm.a/sup -1/. In spite of their limited resistance against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride, very pure molybdenum and tungsten are employed as construction materials in the rocket technology because of their large strength at high temperatures if fluorine-hydrogen and fluorine-hydrazine flames are used. Lanthanum and calcium borides are only little attacked by fluorine hydrazine flames between 1400 and 1800 K; they are superior to all special grade alloys. The same is true in a lower temperature region (290-400 K) with fluorcarbon resins. Organic materials substitute in increasing extent metal alloys and non-metal inorganic materials.

  3. Corrosion resistant materials for fluorine and hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauffe, K.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum and Duralumin are resistant against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride up to 600 and 700 K, respectively. The resistance of nickel and its alloys, particularly monel, against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride is fairly good up to 900 and 800 K. During the attack of nickel-chromium alloys by fluorine between 1000 and 1300 K, it appears an inner fluorination similarly to the inner oxidation. The resistance of titanium in water-free liquid fluorine at lower temperatures with -1 is comparable to that of nickel and monel. However, the corrosion of titanium in gaseous fluorine amounts at 377 K only 0,0082 mm.a -1 . In spite of their limited resistance against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride, very pure molybdenum and tungsten are employed as construction materials in the rocket technology because of their large strength at high temperatures if fluorine-hydrogen and fluorine-hydrazine flames are used. Lanthanum and calcium borides are only little attacked by fluorine hydrazine flames between 1400 and 1800 K; they are superior to all special grade alloys. The same is true in a lower temperature region (290-400 K) with fluorcarbon resins. Organic materials substitute in increasing extent metal alloys and non-metal inorganic materials. (orig.) [de

  4. IBA studies of helium mobility in nuclear materials revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocellier, P., E-mail: patrick.trocellier@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Agarwal, S.; Miro, S. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Leprêtre, F.; Serruys, Y. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to point out and to discuss some features extracted from the study of helium migration in nuclear materials performed during the last fifteen years using ion beam analysis (IBA) measurements. The first part of this paper is devoted to a brief description of the two main IBA methods used, i.e. deuteron induced nuclear reaction for {sup 3}He depth profiling and high-energy heavy-ion induced elastic recoil detection analysis for {sup 4}He measurement. In the second part, we provide an overview of the different studies carried out on model nuclear waste matrices and model nuclear reactor structure materials in order to illustrate and discuss specific results in terms of key influence parameters in relation with thermal or radiation activated migration of helium. Finally, we show that among the key parameters we have investigated as able to influence the height of the helium migration barrier, the following can be considered as pertinent: the experimental conditions used to introduce helium (implanted ion energy and implantation fluence), the grain size of the matrix, the lattice cell volume, the Young's modulus, the ionicity degree of the chemical bond between the transition metal atom M and the non-metal atom X, and the width of the band gap.

  5. A preliminary study on the behavior of trace elements in sediment cores from Ilha Grande (Rio de Janeiro State) by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, Julio Cesar [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Andre Luiz [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral

    2002-07-01

    The present work aims to identify atmospheric and marine inputs of 9 metals (Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Zn), 8 rare earths (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb e Lu), 2 actinides (U, Th) and 3 non-metals (As, Sb, Se) in sediment cores from a remote area, the Biological Reserve of Praia do Sul, Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sediment cores were sampled in a peat bog (out of the tidal reach) and in a mangrove, downstream of the peat bog. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The samples were irradiated for 16 hours at a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN. The measurements of the induced gamma-ray activity were carried out by high resolution gamma spectrometry, with an hyperpure Ge detector. A preliminary sediment dating with Po-210 was also carried out by applying radiochemical procedures and measurements were done in an Alfa spectrometer The results indicate that the peat bog core present a slight surface enrichment that can be attributed to atmospheric inputs. Increasing concentrations of metals with age is probably due to history of soil occupation. In the mangrove core, no significant increase in concentration could be detected in the surface sediments (except for Zn) confirming the suitability of the peat bog core as a tracer for atmospheric inputs. (author)

  6. A preliminary study on the behavior of trace elements in sediment cores from Ilha Grande (Rio de Janeiro State) by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Figueira, Andre Luiz; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2002-01-01

    The present work aims to identify atmospheric and marine inputs of 9 metals (Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Zn), 8 rare earths (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb e Lu), 2 actinides (U, Th) and 3 non-metals (As, Sb, Se) in sediment cores from a remote area, the Biological Reserve of Praia do Sul, Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sediment cores were sampled in a peat bog (out of the tidal reach) and in a mangrove, downstream of the peat bog. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The samples were irradiated for 16 hours at a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 at the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN. The measurements of the induced gamma-ray activity were carried out by high resolution gamma spectrometry, with an hyperpure Ge detector. A preliminary sediment dating with Po-210 was also carried out by applying radiochemical procedures and measurements were done in an Alfa spectrometer The results indicate that the peat bog core present a slight surface enrichment that can be attributed to atmospheric inputs. Increasing concentrations of metals with age is probably due to history of soil occupation. In the mangrove core, no significant increase in concentration could be detected in the surface sediments (except for Zn) confirming the suitability of the peat bog core as a tracer for atmospheric inputs. (author)

  7. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry: analytical assessment of the technique at the beginning of the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Medel, A.

    1991-01-01

    The main application of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) today is in atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), as an excitation spectrochemical source, although uses of an ICP for fluorescence as just an atomizer, and specially for mass spectrometry, as an ionization source, are rocketing in the last few years. Since its inception, only a quarter of a century ago, ICP-AES has rapidly evolved to one of the preferred routine analytical techniques for convenient determination of many elements with high speed, at low levels and in the most varied samples. Perhaps its comparatively high kinetic temperature (capable of atomizing virtually every compound of any sample), its high excitation and ionization temperatures, and its favourable spatial structure at the core of the ICP success. By now, the ICP-AES can be considered as having achieved maturity in that a huge amount of analytical problems can be tackled with this technique, while no major or fundamental changes have been adopted for several years. Despite this fact, important driving forces are still in operation to further improve the ICP-AES sensitivity, selectivity, precision, sample throughput, etc. Moreover, proposals to extend the scope of the technique to traditionally elusive fields (e.g. non-metals and organic compound analysis) are also appearing in the recent literature. In this paper the 'state of the art', the last developments and the expectations in trying to circumvent the limitations of the ICP-AES (on the light of literature data and personal experience) are reviewed. (author)

  8. Fission of Polyanionic Metal Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S.; Jankowski, A.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Wolfram, M.

    2018-04-01

    Size-selected dianionic lead clusters Pbn2 -, n =34 - 56 , are stored in a Penning trap and studied with respect to their decay products upon photoexcitation. Contrary to the decay of other dianionic metal clusters, these lead clusters show a variety of decay channels. The mass spectra of the fragments are compared to the corresponding spectra of the monoanionic precursors. This comparison leads to the conclusion that, in the cluster size region below about n =48 , the fission reaction Pbn2 -→Pbn-10 -+Pb10- is the major decay process. Its disappearance at larger cluster sizes may be an indication of a nonmetal to metal transition. Recently, the pair of Pb10- and Pbn-10 - were observed as pronounced fragments in electron-attachment studies [S. König et al., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 421, 129 (2017), 10.1016/j.ijms.2017.06.009]. The present findings suggest that this combination is the fingerprint of the decay of doubly charged lead clusters. With this assumption, the dianion clusters have been traced down to Pb212 -, whereas the smallest size for the direct observation was as high as n =28 .

  9. Road geometry as a factor for musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic accidents in Sub-Himalayan State of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTAs kill 1.25 million people each year and injure between 20 and 50 million more people with many incurring a disability as a result of their injury. The road environment (design and geometry can affect driver speed choice, thereby increasing chances of accidents.Materials and Methods: Patients attending tertiary care center for musculoskeletal injuries after an RTA were enrolled in the study. The data were collected using a standard questionnaire. The details on the geometry of the road (type of road; highway or other, metaled or nonmetaled, straight, and curved were obtaine through inspection wherever possible. Results: Majority of the RTAs occurred on state highways (n = 154/313, 49.7% followed by national highways (NH (n = 94/313, 30%. Link roads account for comparatively less number (n = 65/313, 20.7% of cases. Majority of the accidents occurred on metaled road (n = 268, 85.6%; however, the association of different vehicles involved in RTA with the condition of road was not found to be significant statistically (P > 0.5. Further, the majority of the RTA occurred on straight roads (n = 204, 65.1%. Conclusion: Road geometry is an important factor in RTAs as drivers generally tend to choose their speed based on their perception of the appropriate speed for the road geometry.

  10. Development of irradiation capabilities to address the challenges of the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leay, L. [The University of Manchester, Dalton Cumbrian Facility, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bower, W. [The University of Manchester, Dalton Cumbrian Facility, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Horne, G.; Wady, P.; Baidak, A. [The University of Manchester, Dalton Cumbrian Facility, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, School of Chemistry, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Pottinger, M. [The University of Manchester, Dalton Cumbrian Facility, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Nancekievill, M. [The University of Manchester, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Smith, A.D. [The University of Manchester, Dalton Cumbrian Facility, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); Watson, S. [The University of Manchester, Dalton Cumbrian Facility, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Green, P.R. [The University of Manchester, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-01-15

    With the announcement of the U.K. new nuclear build and the requirement to decommission old facilities, researchers require bespoke facilities to undertake experiments to inform decision making. This paper describes development of The University of Manchester’s Dalton Cumbrian Facility, a custom built research environment which incorporates a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator as well as a self-shielded {sup 60}Co irradiator. The ion accelerator allows the investigation into the radiolytic consequences of various charged particles, including protons, alpha particles and a variety of heavier (metal and nonmetal) ions, while the {sup 60}Co irradiator allows the effects of gamma radiation to be studied. Some examples of work carried out at the facility are presented to demonstrate how this equipment can improve our mechanistic understanding of various aspects of the deleterious effects of radiation in the nuclear industry. These examples include applications in waste storage and reprocessing as well as geological storage and novel surveying techniques. The outlook for future research is also discussed.

  11. MANTECH project book

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effective integration of processes, systems, and procedures used in the production of aerospace systems using computer technology is managed by the Integration Technology Division (MTI). Under its auspices are the Information Management Branch, which is actively involved with information management, information sciences and integration, and the Implementation Branch, whose technology areas include computer integrated manufacturing, engineering design, operations research, and material handling and assembly. The Integration Technology Division combines design, manufacturing, and supportability functions within the same organization. The Processing and Fabrication Division manages programs to improve structural and nonstructural materials processing and fabrication. Within this division, the Metals Branch directs the manufacturing methods program for metals and metal matrix composites processing and fabrication. The Nonmetals Branch directs the manufacturing methods programs, which include all manufacturing processes for producing and utilizing propellants, plastics, resins, fibers, composites, fluid elastomers, ceramics, glasses, and coatings. The objective of the Industrial Base Analysis Division is to act as focal point for the USAF industrial base program for productivity, responsiveness, and preparedness planning.

  12. Direct CVD Graphene Growth on Semiconductors and Dielectrics for Transfer-Free Device Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Yu, Gui

    2016-07-01

    Graphene is the most broadly discussed and studied two-dimensional material because of its preeminent physical, mechanical, optical, and thermal properties. Until now, metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been widely employed for the scalable production of high-quality graphene. However, in order to incorporate the graphene into electronic devices, a transfer process from metal substrates to targeted substrates is inevitable. This process usually results in contamination, wrinkling, and breakage of graphene samples - undesirable in graphene-based technology and not compatible with industrial production. Therefore, direct graphene growth on desired semiconductor and dielectric substrates is considered as an effective alternative. Over the past years, there have been intensive investigations to realize direct graphene growth using CVD methods without the catalytic role of metals. Owing to the low catalytic activity of non-metal substrates for carbon precursor decomposition and graphene growth, several strategies have been designed to facilitate and engineer graphene fabrication on semiconductors and insulators. Here, those developed strategies for direct CVD graphene growth on semiconductors and dielectrics for transfer-free fabrication of electronic devices are reviewed. By employing these methods, various graphene-related structures can be directly prepared on desired substrates and exhibit excellent performance, providing versatile routes for varied graphene-based materials fabrication. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a mesophilic heavy-metals-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfomicrobium sp. from an enrichment culture using phosphogypsum as a sulfate source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azabou, Samia; Mechichi, Tahar; Patel, Bharat K.C.; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, was isolated from a 6 month trained enrichment culture in an anaerobic media containing phosphogypsum as a sulfate source, and, designated strain SA2. Cells of strain SA2 were rod-shaped, did not form spores and stained Gram-negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed that it was related to members of the genus Desulfomicrobium (average sequence similarity of 98%) with Desulfomicrobium baculatum being the most closely related (sequence similarity of 99%). Strain SA2 used thiosulfate, sulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors and produced sulfide. Strain SA2 reduced sulfate contained in 1-20 g/L phosphogypsum to sulfide with reduction of sulfate contained in 2 g/L phosphogypsum being the optimum concentration. Strain SA2 grew with metalloid, halogenated and non-metal ions present in phosphogypsum and with added high concentrations of heavy metals (125 ppm Zn and 100 ppm Ni, W, Li and Al). The relative order for the inhibitory metal concentrations, based on the IC 50 values, was Cu, Te > Cd > Fe, Co, Mn > F, Se > Ni, Al, Li > Zn

  14. Neutron flux characterization of californium-252 Neutron Research Facility at the University of Texas - Pan American by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Kareem; Sanchez, Patrick; Hannan, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    In the field of nuclear science, neutron flux is an intrinsic property of nuclear reaction facilities that is the basis for experimental irradiation calculations and analysis. In the Rio Grande Valley (Texas), the UTPA Neutron Research Facility (NRF) is currently the only neutron facility available for experimental research purposes. The facility is comprised of a 20-microgram californium-252 neutron source surrounded by a shielding cascade containing different irradiation cavities. Thermal and fast neutron flux values for the UTPA NRF have yet to be fully investigated and may be of particular interest to biomedical studies in low neutron dose applications. Though a variety of techniques exist for the characterization of neutron flux, neutron activation analysis (NAA) of metal and nonmetal foils is a commonly utilized experimental method because of its detection sensitivity and availability. The aim of our current investigation is to employ foil activation in the determination of neutron flux values for the UTPA NSRF for further research purposes. Neutron spectrum unfolding of the acquired experimental data via specialized software and subsequent comparison for consistency with computational models lends confidence to the results.

  15. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  16. Role of Manufacturing Sector and Trade, Hotel, Restaurant Sector In East Java’s Economy: Input Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggari Marya Kresnowati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to (1 analyze the relationship the manufacturing sector and the trade, hotel, and restaurant sector with other sectors in East Java, (2 to analyze the economic impact caused the two sectors based on the multiplier effect, (3 and analyze the economic impact caused by these two sectors if there additional investment funds. This study uses data analysis input output 2010 East Java 19x19 aggregation sector.The results indicate that base metals subsector has the highest linkages to other sectors. Based on household income multiplier effect, trade subsector has the greatest multiplier. Employment multiplier in trade and industrial sectors are in medium rank. This is indicates that the labor has been absorbed well in both sectors. The output multiplier effect, subsector non-metal goods, except petroleum and coal has the highest multiplier. The last, according to the analysis of investment injection simulations Input-Output East Java in 2010, subsector other processing industries has a best value added. Overall, the manufacturing sector has a better influence to East Java's economy than trade, hotel, and restaurant sector.

  17. Theory-driven design of high-valence metal sites for water oxidation confirmed using in situ soft X-ray absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueli; Zhang, Bo; de Luna, Phil; Liang, Yufeng; Comin, Riccardo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Han, Lili; García de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Liu, Min; Dinh, Cao Thang; Regier, Tom; Dynes, James J.; He, Sisi; Xin, Huolin L.; Peng, Huisheng; Prendergast, David; Du, Xiwen; Sargent, Edward H.

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency with which renewable fuels and feedstocks are synthesized from electrical sources is limited at present by the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in pH-neutral media. We took the view that generating transition-metal sites with high valence at low applied bias should improve the activity of neutral OER catalysts. Here, using density functional theory, we find that the formation energy of desired Ni4+ sites is systematically modulated by incorporating judicious combinations of Co, Fe and non-metal P. We therefore synthesized NiCoFeP oxyhydroxides and probed their oxidation kinetics with in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). In situ sXAS studies of neutral-pH OER catalysts indicate ready promotion of Ni4+ under low overpotential conditions. The NiCoFeP catalyst outperforms IrO2 and retains its performance following 100 h of operation. We showcase NiCoFeP in a membrane-free CO2 electroreduction system that achieves a 1.99 V cell voltage at 10 mA cm-2, reducing CO2 into CO and oxidizing H2O to O2 with a 64% electricity-to-chemical-fuel efficiency.

  18. Analysis of medical device materials with the local electrode atom probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, S.L.; Mengelt, T.J.; Ali, M.; Ulfig, R.M.; Martens, R.M.; Kelly, T.F.; Kostrna, S.L.P.; Kostrna, M.S.; Carmichael, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: As medical technology advances towards microsurgical and minimally invasive techniques, there is a drive to produce ever-smaller devices that demand higher material performance and hence enhanced nano and micro-scale control of material structure. These devices are made from stainless steel alloys, Nitinol, titanium, CoCrMo, and non-metals such as pyrolytic carbon and silicon. These applications are made possible due to suitable physical and mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance in biological environments, reasonable biocompatibility, and good manufacturability. With respect to the metals, the nano-structure and composition of the material surface, typically an oxide, is especially critical since biological responses and corrosion occur at the material-environment interface. Thus, there is an increasing need to understand the 3-D structure and composition of metallic biomaterials at the atomic scale. Three-dimensional atom probe microscopy can uniquely provide such atomic-level structural information. In the present study several of these medical device materials were examined. These include a 316L stainless steel alloy which is widely used in implanted spinal fixation devices, bone screws, cardiovascular and neurological stents, a cast CoCrMo acetabular hip cup of a Cormet metal-on-metal Hip Resurfacing System (Corin Group, Cirencester, England) that was rejected for clinical use, Nitinol wires specimens such as are used for stents and guide wires, and low temperature pyrolytic carbon as used in clinical heart valve prosthetics. (author)

  19. Optimizing the operating parameters of corona electrostatic separation for recycling waste scraped printed circuit boards by computer simulation of electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lu, Hongzhou; Liu, Shushu; Xu, Zhenming

    2008-05-01

    The printed circuit board (PCB) has a metal content of nearly 28% metal, including an abundance of nonferrous metals such as copper, lead, and tin. The purity of precious metals in PCBs is more than 10 times that of rich-content minerals. Therefore, the recycling of PCBs is an important subject, not only from the viewpoint of waste treatment, but also with respect to the recovery of valuable materials. Compared with traditional process the corona electrostatic separation (CES) had no waste water or gas during the process and it had high productivity with a low-energy cost. In this paper, the roll-type corona electrostatic separator was used to separate metals and nonmetals from scraped waste PCBs. The software MATLAB was used to simulate the distribution of electric field in separating space. It was found that, the variations of parameters of electrodes and applied voltages directly influenced the distribution of electric field. Through the correlation of simulated and experimental results, the good separation results were got under the optimized operating parameter: U=20-30 kV, L=L(1)=L(2)=0.21 m, R(1)=0.114, R(2)=0.019 m, theta(1)=20 degrees and theta(2)=60 degrees .

  20. Development of high efficient visible light-driven N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Liu, Peihong; Wu, Honghai

    2015-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanowire material (especially nonmetal doped 1D nanowires) synthesized by a facile way is of great significance and greatly desired as it has higher charge carrier mobility and lower carrier recombination rate. N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires were synthesized using titanium sulfate as a precursor and isopropanol as a protective capping agent by a hydrothermal route. The obtained doped nanowires were characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, XPS, BET and UV-vis absorption spectrum. The incorporation of N and S into TiO2 NWs can lead to the expansion of its lattice and remarkably lower its electron-transfer resistance. Photocatalytic activity measurement showed that the N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires with high quantum efficiency revealed the best photocatalytic performance for atrazine degradation under visible light irradiation compared to N, S-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles and S-doped TiO2 nanowires, which was attributed to (i) the synergistic effect of N and S doping in narrowing the band gap, separating electron-hole pairs and increasing the photoinduced electrons, and (ii) extending the anatase-to-rutile transformation temperature above 600 °C.

  1. Interrelationships between man, energy, and water quality: a new methodology for integrative analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The STORET/MSP option was used to obtain county aggregated information on ambient water quality for sixty parameters during the period 1950 to 1978. Masks, extended EXTRACT specifications and bounds on allowable values limited inclusion of erroneous data. Remark codes were required to aggregate STORET parameters to obtain increased numbers of observations. Numerous statistical analyses led to the conclusions that medians were more useful than means, that trimming on number of observations was required to eliminate counties with extreme values, and that many parameters required logarithmic transformation to be useful in regional analyses. County aggregated data for nineteen water quality parameters were examined in terms of their ability to describe qualitative chemical characteristics of water. Anion--cation balances as well as expected relationships between conductivity and other parameters were correctly accounted for. Factor analysis indicated the existence of three principal components describing patterns between metal ions, non-metal ions, and alkalinity-bicarbonate, respectively. These factors were used in place of the original complete set of water quality parameters in a structural equation approach describing relationships between variables of mans activites. It was found that counties with high industrial electric consumption, farming and mineral shipments tended to have increased levels of most water quality parameters. It was also found that simpler path diagrams may be indicated to reduce the effects of redundancy in adequately describing energy--water relationships

  2. If technological intelligent extraterrestrials exist, what biological traits are de rigueur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E. R.

    2018-05-01

    If extraterrestrials exist in the depths of cosmic space, and are capable of interstellar communications, even space flight, there is no requirement that they be humanoid in form. However, certain humanoid capabilities would be advantageous for tool fashioning and critical to operating space craft as well as functioning under the disparate extreme conditions under which they may be forced to operate. They would have to be "gas breathing". The reasonable assumption that life based upon the same elements as Earth life requiring water stems from the unique properties of water that no other similar low molecular weight nonmetal hydride offers. Only water offers the diversity of chemical properties and reactivity, including the existence of the three common physical states within a limited temperature range of service to life, avoiding the issues presented by any alternatives. They must, like us, possess a large, abstract-thinking brain, and probably possess at least all the fundamental senses that humankind possess. They would also be carbon-based life, using oxygen as the electron sink of their biochemistry for the reasons considered. They most likely are homeothermic as us, though they may not necessarily be mammalian as we are. Their biochemistry could differ some from ours, perhaps presenting contact hazards for both species as discussed.

  3. Nano-nitride cathode catalysts of Ti, Ta, and Nb for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: Temperature-programmed desorption investigation of molecularly adsorbed oxygen at low temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Ohnishi, Ryohji

    2013-01-10

    TiN, NbN, TaN, and Ta3N5 nanoparticles synthesized using mesoporous graphitic (mpg)-C3N4 templates were investigated for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of molecularly adsorbed O2 at 120-170 K from these nanoparticles was examined, and the resulting amount and temperature of desorption were key factors determining the ORR activity. The size-dependent TiN nanoparticles (5-8 and 100 nm) were then examined. With decreasing particle size, the density of molecularly adsorbed O2 per unit of surface area increased, indicating that a decrease in particle size increases the number of active sites. It is hard to determine the electrochemical active surface area for nonmetal electrocatalysts (such as oxides or nitrides), because of the absence of proton adsorption/desorption peaks in the voltammograms. In this study, O2-TPD for molecularly adsorbed O2 at low temperature demonstrated that the amount and strength of adsorbed O2 were key factors determining the ORR activity. The properties of molecularly adsorbed O2 on cathode catalysts are discussed against the ORR activity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. An Enthusiastic Glance in to the Visible Responsive Photocatalysts for Energy Production and Pollutant Removal, with Special Emphasis on Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padikkaparambil Silija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the rapid growth of industry, major problems are created related to energy and environment. Sunlight being one of the most potential alternative source of energy, the development of efficient solar-energy storage systems is an important subject in the fields of science and technology. Here we have reviewed and summarized some of the recent reports on visible responsive photocatalysts. In this review, the influence of various metal oxide photocatalysts on energy production and pollutant removal are presented with special emphasis on titania based photocatalysts. The photoactivity of titania for various pollutant degradation, modified titania (TiO2 systems, their physical and chemical characteristics, and so forth, are described in detail at this juncture. Different methods used to enhance the visible light absorption of TiO2, like doping with metals and nonmetals, coupling with other metal oxides, and so forth, have been discussed. Various applications of photocatalysts including photocatalytic treatment of waste water, pesticide degradation and water splitting to produce hydrogen are summarized. The development of photocatalysts that function under visible light for the efficient utilization of sunlight is an area of current interest and thus the different methods of preparation for the visible active photocatalysts are also explored.

  5. 3D-printed fusion components concepts and validation for the UST-2 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queral, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A fabrication method for fusion components is developed and validated. • Synergies obtained from additive manufacturing and non-metal casting. • 3D-printed polyamide hollow truss structure and casting of acrylic resin tested. • UST- 2 stellarator coil frame fabricated to validate the method performance. - Abstract: The geometric complexity and high accuracy simultaneously required in magnetic fusion devices, particularly stellarators and tokamaks, hampers the production of fusion components and devices. Rapid manufacturing construction methods, particularly enhanced for fusion, may contribute to a faster cycle and lower cost production of certain components for tokamaks and stellarators. Casting, cutting, forming, welding and mechanising are conventional production techniques for major fusion components, i.e. coil casings, coil frames, vacuum vessels and blankets. Synergies may emerge by combination of additive manufacturing (3D printing) with conventional manufacturing methods. 3D printing combined with resin moulding is tested by construction of the coil frame and the vacuum vessel of a small stellarator, UST-2. Satisfactory coil frames have been obtained by moulding acrylic resin in a special 3D printed polyamide hollow three-dimensional structure. The conceptual engineering design, construction process and validation of the components are described. The presented manufacturing method might contribute to advance the future 3D printing of larger metallic components for fusion.

  6. A real-time, wearable elemental carbon monitor for use in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiff, L. [ICx Technologies, Cambridge, MA (United States); Aiken, G. [ICx Technologies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A real-time, wearable elemental carbon monitor has been developed to determines the exposure of workers in underground mines to diesel particulate material (DPM). ICx Technologies designed the device in an effort to address the health hazards associated with DPM exposure. Occupational exposure to DPM in underground metal and nonmetal mines is regulated by the Mine Safety and Health Administration. The most common method of measuring exposure to elemental or total carbon nanoparticles involves capturing the particles on a filter followed by a thermo-optical laboratory analysis, which integrates the exposure spatially and in time. The ICx monitor is based on a design developed and tested by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The ICx monitor uses a real-time particle capture and light transmission method to yield elemental carbon values that are displayed for the wearer and are stored internally in a compact device. The ICx monitoring results were found to be in good agreement with the established laboratory method (NIOSH Method 5040) for elemental carbon emissions from a diesel engine. The monitors are compact and powered by a rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Examples of DPM monitoring in mines demonstrated how the real-time data can be more useful that time-averaged results. The information can be used to determine ventilation rates needed at any given location to lower the DPM concentrations.15 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Carbon emissions and resources use by Chinese economy 2007: A 135-sector inventory and input-output embodiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. Q.; Chen, Z. M.

    2010-11-01

    A 135-sector inventory and embodiment analysis for carbon emissions and resources use by Chinese economy 2007 is presented in this paper by an ecological input-output modeling based on the physical entry scheme. Included emissions and resources belong to six categories as: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) in terms of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O; (2) energy in terms of coal, crude oil, natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, and firewood; (3) water in terms of freshwater; (4) exergy in terms of coal, crude oil, natural gas, grain, bean, tuber, cotton, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, jute, sugarcane, sugar beet, tobacco, silkworm feed, tea, fruits, vegetables, wood, bamboo, pulp, meat, egg, milk, wool, aquatic products, iron ore, copper ore, bauxite, lead ore, zinc ore, pyrite, phosphorite, gypsum, cement, nuclear fuel, and hydropower; (5) and (6) solar and cosmic emergies in terms of sunlight, wind power, deep earth heat, chemical power of rain, geopotential power of rain, chemical power of stream, geopotential power of stream, wave power, geothermal power, tide power, topsoil loss, coal, crude oil, natural gas, ferrous metal ore, non-ferrous metal ore, non-metal ore, cement, and nuclear fuel. Accounted based on the embodied intensities are carbon emissions and resources use embodied in the final use as rural consumption, urban consumption, government consumption, gross fixed capital formation, change in inventories, and export, as well as in the international trade balance. The resulted database is basic to environmental account of carbon emissions and resources use at various levels.

  8. TECHNIQUES FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT USING APPROPRIATE LOW COST NATURAL MATERIALS IN THE TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sila Onesmus Nzung’a

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of mechanical filtration and solar irradiation in water treatment was evaluated. Selected metals and non-metals ions before and after treatment were determined colorimetrically while turbidity was measured using a turbidimeter. pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO and temperature were measured using a portable universal multiline P4 WTW meter while total alkalinity was determined titrimetrically. The load of coliform bacteria contamination before and after treatment was determined by Millipore filtration method. Screening for the presence of pathogenic bacteria was carried out using standard methods. The levels of the properties before and after treatment were each compared with the recommended drinking water standards according to Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS and World Health Organization (WHO. The water was treated by being subjected to mechanical filtration and solar irradiation and changes in their physico-chemical properties and bacteriological load determined. The results obtained after treatment revealed that solar irradiation killed most of the pathogenic bacteria after exposure for eight hours but had no impact on the physico-chemical properties except nitrates (from 24.5 to 8.0 mg.L-1. Mechanical filtration reduced total coliforms and E. coli by 30 %. It also reduced the loads of Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Fe, nitrate nitrogen and turbidity of the water treated to an almost potable state. Water treatment using a combination of mechanical filtration system and solar disinfection was found to be very effective in reducing the bacterial load.

  9. Material Testing in Support of the ISS Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Anna; Shindo, David; Modica, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. With the end of the Space Shuttle Program, the ability to send up shock-kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak becomes even more difficult. Currently, the US Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns. To date, several small cases of contamination have occurred which have been remediated. NASA, however, realizes that having a secondary method of combating a microbial outbreak is a prudent investment. NASA is looking into developing hardware that can generate biocides electrochemically, and potentially deploying that hardware. The specific biocides that the technology could generate include: hydrogen peroxide, oxone, hypochlorite and peracetic acid. In order to use these biocides on deployed water systems, the project must determine that all the materials in the potential application are compatible with the biocides at their anticipated administered concentrations. This paper will detail the materials test portion of the feasibility assessment including the plan for both metals and non-metals along with results to date.

  10. Sub-surface defect detection using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaki Umar; Huda Abdullah; Abdul Razak Hamzah; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Ibrahim Ahmad; Vavilov, Vladimir

    2009-04-01

    An experimental research had been carried out to study the potential of transient thermography in detecting sub-surface defect of non-metal material. In this research, eight pieces of bakelite material were used as samples. Each samples had a sub-surface defect in the circular shape with different diameters and depths. Experiment was conducted using one-sided Pulsed Thermal technique. Heating of samples were done using 30 k Watt adjustable quartz lamp while infra red (IR) images of samples were recorded using THV 550 IR camera. These IR images were then analysed with thermo fit TM Pro software to obtain the Maximum Absolute Differential Temperature Signal value, ΔT max and the time of its appearance, τ max (ΔT). Result showed that all defects were able to be detected even for the smallest and deepest defect (diameter = 5 mm and depth = 4 mm). However the highest value of Differential Temperature Signal (ΔT max ), were obtained at defect with the largest diameter, 20 mm and at the shallowest depth, 1 mm. As a conclusion, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique to detect sub-surface defects of bakelite material is proportionately related with the size of defect diameter if the defect area at the same depth. On the contrary, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique inversely related with the depth of defect if the defects have similar diameter size. (author)

  11. Defect detection using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaki Umar; Ibrahim Ahmad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2008-08-01

    An experimental research had been carried out to study the potential of transient thermography in detecting sub-surface defect of non-metal material. In this research, eight pieces of bakelite material were used as samples. Each samples had a sub-surface defect in the circular shape with different diameters and depths. Experiment was conducted using one-sided Pulsed Thermal technique. Heating of samples were done using 30 kWatt adjustable quartz lamp while infra red (IR) images of samples were recorded using THV 550 IR camera. These IR images were then analysed with ThermofitTMPro software to obtain the Maximum Absolute Differential Temperature Signal value, ΔΤ m ax and the time of its appearance, τ m ax (ΔΤ). Result showed that all defects were able to be detected even for the smallest and deepest defect (diameter = 5 mm and depth = 4 mm). However the highest value of Differential Temperature Signal (ΔΤ m ax), were obtained at defect with the largest diameter, 20 mm and at the shallowest depth, 1 mm. As a conclusion, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique to detect sub-surface defects of bakelite material is proportionately related with the size of defect diameter if the defects are at the same depth. On the contrary, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique inversely related with the depth of defect if the defects have similar diameter size. (Author)

  12. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  13. Are bio-absorbable stents the future of SFA treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, P; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Deloose, K; Bosiers, M

    2010-02-01

    Several limitations inherent to the implantation of a metallic device, such as the occurrence of in-stent re-stenosis, in an arterial lumen intuitively explain the interest for developing bio-absorbable stents. Two main types of bio-absorbable stents currently exist: polymer stents and metallic stents. To date, no studies with bio-absorbable stents have been conducted in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Because of their strut thickness and lack of radial force, polymer stents are no good candidates for endovascular use. Absorbable metal stents (AMS) do have the potential to perform well for artery treatment, although current evidence from in-human coronary and infrapopliteal studies yield unsatisfactory results. Drastic technological improvements are mandatory before AMS can be considered for every day practice. Yet, it is our belief that further development of other metal and non-metal bio-absorbable stents, with or without drug-coating, may lead to the creation of the ultimate SFA stent.

  14. Hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of mine drainage: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Blowes, D.W; Ptacek, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of mineral resources requires access through underground workings, or open pit operations, or through drillholes for solution mining. Additionally, mineral processing can generate large quantities of waste, including mill tailings, waste rock and refinery wastes, heap leach pads, and slag. Thus, through mining and mineral processing activities, large surface areas of sulfide minerals can be exposed to oxygen, water, and microbes, resulting in accelerated oxidation of sulfide and other minerals and the potential for the generation of low-quality drainage. The oxidation of sulfide minerals in mine wastes is accelerated by microbial catalysis of the oxidation of aqueous ferrous iron and sulfide. These reactions, particularly when combined with evaporation, can lead to extremely acidic drainage and very high concentrations of dissolved constituents. Although acid mine drainage is the most prevalent and damaging environmental concern associated with mining activities, generation of saline, basic and neutral drainage containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals, non-metals, and metalloids has recently been recognized as a potential environmental concern. Acid neutralization reactions through the dissolution of carbonate, hydroxide, and silicate minerals and formation of secondary aluminum and ferric hydroxide phases can moderate the effects of acid generation and enhance the formation of secondary hydrated iron and aluminum minerals which may lessen the concentration of dissolved metals. Numerical models provide powerful tools for assessing impacts of these reactions on water quality.

  15. A real-time, wearable elemental carbon monitor for use in underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiff, L.; Aiken, G.

    2010-01-01

    A real-time, wearable elemental carbon monitor has been developed to determines the exposure of workers in underground mines to diesel particulate material (DPM). ICx Technologies designed the device in an effort to address the health hazards associated with DPM exposure. Occupational exposure to DPM in underground metal and nonmetal mines is regulated by the Mine Safety and Health Administration. The most common method of measuring exposure to elemental or total carbon nanoparticles involves capturing the particles on a filter followed by a thermo-optical laboratory analysis, which integrates the exposure spatially and in time. The ICx monitor is based on a design developed and tested by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The ICx monitor uses a real-time particle capture and light transmission method to yield elemental carbon values that are displayed for the wearer and are stored internally in a compact device. The ICx monitoring results were found to be in good agreement with the established laboratory method (NIOSH Method 5040) for elemental carbon emissions from a diesel engine. The monitors are compact and powered by a rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Examples of DPM monitoring in mines demonstrated how the real-time data can be more useful that time-averaged results. The information can be used to determine ventilation rates needed at any given location to lower the DPM concentrations.15 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Superconductivity of ternary metal compounds prepared at high pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Shirotani, I

    2003-01-01

    Various ternary metal phosphides, arsenides, antimonides, silicides and germanides have been prepared at high temperatures and high pressures. These ternary metal compounds can be classified into four groups: [1] metal-rich compounds MM' sub 4 X sub 2 and [2] MM'X, [3] non-metal-rich compounds MXX' and [4] MM' sub 4 X sub 1 sub 2 (M and M' = metal element; X and X' = non-metal element). We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these materials at low temperatures, and found many new superconductors with the superconducting transition temperature (T sub c) of above 10 K. The metal-rich compound ZrRu sub 4 P sub 2 with a tetragonal structure showed the superconducting transition at around 11 K, and had an upper critical field (H sub c sub 2) of 12.2 tesla (T) at 0 K. Ternary equiatomic compounds ZrRuP and ZrRuSi crystallize in two modifications, a hexagonal Fe sub 2 P-type structure [h-ZrRuP(Si)] and an orthorhombic Co sub 2 P-type structure [o-ZrRuP(Si)]. Both h-ZrRuP and h-ZrRuSi have rather h...

  17. Real-time monitoring system for improving corona electrostatic separation in the process of recovering waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhou, Quan; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-01

    Although corona electrostatic separation is successfully used in recycling waste printed circuit boards in industrial applications, there are problems that cannot be resolved completely, such as nonmetal particle aggregation and spark discharge. Both of these problems damage the process of separation and are not easy to identify during the process of separation in industrial applications. This paper provides a systematic study on a real-time monitoring system. Weight monitoring systems were established to continuously monitor the separation process. A Virtual Instrumentation program written by LabVIEW was utilized to sample and analyse the mass increment of the middling product. It includes four modules: historical data storage, steady-state analysis, data computing and alarm. Three kinds of operating conditions were used to verify the applicability of the monitoring system. It was found that the system achieved the goal of monitoring during the separation process and realized the function of real-time analysis of the received data. The system also gave comprehensible feedback on the accidents of material blockages in the feed inlet and high-voltage spark discharge. With the warning function of the alarm system, the whole monitoring system could save the human cost and help the new technology to be more easily applied in industry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Photocatalytic Water Treatment by Titanium Dioxide: Recent Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj A. Lazar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic water treatment using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (NTO is a well-known advanced oxidation process (AOP for environmental remediation. With the in situ generation of electron-hole pairs upon irradiation with light, NTO can mineralize a wide range of organic compounds into harmless end products such as carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic ions. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics of pollutants by NTO is a topic of debate and the mostly reporting Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics must accompanied with proper experimental evidences. Different NTO morphologies or surface treatments on NTO can increase the photocatalytic efficiency in degradation reactions. Wisely designed photocatalytic reactors can decrease energy consumption or can avoid post-separation stages in photocatalytic water treatment processes. Doping NTO with metals or non-metals can reduce the band gap of the doped catalyst, enabling light absorption in the visible region. Coupling NTO photocatalysis with other water-treatment technologies can be more beneficial, especially in large-scale treatments. This review describes recent developments in the field of photocatalytic water treatment using NTO.

  19. Visible light induced electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO2 nanocrystals prepared by oxidation of titanium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhongbiao; Dong Fan; Zhao Weirong; Guo Sen

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanocrystals with anatase and rutile mixed phases were prepared by incomplete oxidation of titanium nitride at different temperatures. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CL XPS), valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VB XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), and visible light excited photoluminescence (PL). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of toluene in gas phase under visible light irradiation. The visible light absorption and photoactivities of these nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanocrystals can be clearly attributed to the change of the additional electronic (N - ) states above the valence band of TiO 2 modified by N dopant as revealed by the VB XPS and visible light induced PL. A band gap structure model was established to explain the electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanocrystals under visible light irradiation, which was consistent with the previous theoretical and experimental results. This model can also be applied to understand visible light induced photocatalysis over other nonmetal doped TiO 2

  20. Metal stress in zooplankton diapause production: post-hatching response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aránguiz-Acuña, Adriana; Pérez-Portilla, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic organisms commonly respond to harsh conditions by forming diapausing stages, which enable populations to survive adverse periods forming egg banks. Production of diapausing eggs is frequently observed in monogonont rotifers, previously changing from asexual to partial sexual reproduction (mixis). In despite that zooplankton are frequently used in ecotoxicological assessment because of their sensitivity to various toxicants and their important role in the ecosystems, toxicity evaluations often consider the directly exposed population produced by parthenogenetic reproduction, exclusively. We assessed experimentally effects of exposure to metals on mixis delay and fitness of hatchlings of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis obtained from a brackish water lagoon with high metal content, especially copper. We show that sub-lethal concentrations of copper affected traits related to sexual reproduction and diapausing egg production in the rotifer. Copper addition did not delay the start of mixis, suggesting that rapid initiation of mixis is promoted in risky environments, according to the hypothesis of mixis as an escape strategy. Higher investment in mixis was obtained when individuals were exposed to metal. Addition of copper negatively affected the hatching success of diapausing eggs and performance of hatchlings. Nevertheless, these effects were greater for individuals formed in non-metal conditions, suggesting an adaptive advantage of populations from natural sediments exposed to copper. These results highlight the ecological and evolutionary consequences of the presence of metals in freshwater environments by modulating diapause adaptive efficacy and the selective process in egg banks.

  1. Investigation of Tribological Properties of Friction Pairs Duralumin – Fluoropolymer Used for Design and Manufacturing of Biomechatronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kovalenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the processes occurring on the surfaces of materials during the interaction between metal and non-metal parts of various biomechatronic devices, such as prostheses, orthoses and exoskeletons. These mechatronic systems require careful selection of materials for design and manufacturing of their parts taking into consideration not only mechanical properties of the materials, but also their tribological characteristics. Friction pairs duralumin – fluoropolymer and stainless steel 100CrMn6 – fluoropolymer were chosen for the research as the samples. Experimental research was carried out with the use of the universal friction machine MTU-1. For this research, the scheme “plate-on-plate” was used without lubricants. Friction torque, friction coefficient and the temperature in the contact area versus the runtime were obtained as a result of the experiments. Furthermore, estimation of wear of contacting samples was performed. Analysis of the results allowed us to choose suitable materials for design and manufacturing of orthoses, prostheses and exoskeletons.

  2. Experimental studies in solid state and low temperature physics. Final report for 1966-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.M.; Weyhmann, W.V.; Zimmermann, W. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out in a broad area of low temperature and solid state physics which includes superconductivity, theory of quantum crystals (through 1973), magnetism in metals, and liquid helium. The work in superconductivity has involved investigations of the Josephson effect, studies of the pair-field susceptibility of superconductors and investigations of the thermodynamics of the superconducting phase transition. The competition between the metal-nonmetal transition and superconductivity has also been studied in random metal-rare gas systems. In the area of magnetism, magnetically ordered materials and dilute magnetic alloys have been investigated. Enhanced hyperfine nuclear magnetic ordering was discovered in PrCu 6 at about 2.5 mK. The research on liquid 4 He and 3 He/ 4 He mixtures has been directed at the quantum aspects of superfluid flow and rotation, the critical behavior near the lambda transition and the properties of the tricritical point. The theoretical program (through 1973) encompassed a broad spectrum of research on the properties of quantum liquids and solids with particular emphasis on crystalline 3 He

  3. Secondary defects in non-metallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashbee, K.H.G.; Hobbs, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper points out features of secondary defect formation which are peculiar to non-metallic solids (excluding elemental semiconductors). Most of the materials of interest are compounds of two or more (usually more or less ionic) atomic species, and immediate consequence of which is a need to maintain both stoichiometry (or accommodate non-stoichiometry) and order. Primary defects in these solids, whether produced thermally, chemically or by irradiation, seldom are present or aggregate in exactly stoichiometric proportions, and the resulting extending defect structures can be quite distinct from those found in metallic solids. Where stoichiometry is maintained, it is often convenient to describe extended defects in terms of alterations in the arrangement of 'molecular' units. The adoption of this procedure enables several novel features of extended defect structures in non-metals to be explained. There are several ways in which a range of non-stoichiometry can be accommodated, which include structural elimination of point defects, nucleation of new coherent phases of altered stoichiometry, and decomposition. (author)

  4. Anionic Redox Chemistry in Polysulfide Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayfer, Ekaterina D; Pazhetnov, Egor M; Kozlova, Mariia N; Artemkina, Sofya B; Fedorov, Vladimir E

    2017-12-22

    Classical Li-ion battery technology is based on the insertion of lithium ions into cathode materials involving metal (cationic) redox reactions. However, this vision is now being reconsidered, as many new-generation electrode materials with enhanced reversible capacities operate through combined cationic and anionic (non-metal) reversible redox processes or even exclusively through anionic redox transformations. Anionic participation in the redox reactions is observed in materials with more pronounced covalency, which is less typical for oxides, but quite common for phosphides or chalcogenides. In this Concept, we would like to draw the reader's attention to this new idea, especially, as it applies to transition-metal polychalcogenides, such as FeS 2 , VS 4 , TiS 3 , NbS 3 , TiS 4 , MoS 3 , etc., in which the key role is played by the (S-S) 2- /2 S 2- redox reaction. The exploration and better understanding of the anion-driven chemistry is important for designing advanced materials for battery and other energy-related applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Case study of a non-destructive treatment method for the remediation of military structures containing polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Erin K H; Gittings, Michael J; Novaes-Card, Simone; Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian; O'Hara, Suzanne; Yestrebsky, Cherie L

    2015-08-01

    Restricted by federal regulations and limited remediation options, buildings contaminated with paint laden with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have high costs associated with the disposal of hazardous materials. As opposed to current remediation methods which are often destructive and a risk to the surrounding environment, this study suggests a non-metal treatment system (NMTS) and a bimetallic treatment system (BTS) as versatile remediation options for painted industrial structures including concrete buildings, and metal machine parts. In this field study, four areas of a discontinued Department of Defense site were treated and monitored over 3 weeks. PCB levels in paint and treatment system samples were analyzed through gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations were reduced by 95 percent on painted concrete and by 60-97 percent on painted metal with the majority of the PCB removal occurring within the first week of application. Post treatment laboratory studies including the utilization of an activated metal treatment system (AMTS) further degraded PCBs in BTS and NMTS by up to 82 percent and 99 percent, respectively, indicating that a two-step remediation option is viable. These findings demonstrate that the NMTS and BTS can be an effective, nondestructive, remediation process for large painted structures, allowing for the reuse or sale of remediated materials that otherwise may have been disposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of structural transition on magnetic susceptibility of tantalum carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatnikov, V.N.; Gusev, A.I.; Rempel', A.A.; Shvejkin, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Ordering of carbon atoms and vacancies in nonmetal sublattice of TaC y is investigated for the first time by methods of magnetic susceptibility and structural neutron diffraction analysis. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility were conducted on high-sensitive magnetic scales in temperature interval of 300 - 1300 K with holding at each temperature up to the establishment of constant, nonchanging in the course of time value of susceptibility x. When investigating x-hardened tantalum carbide within the interval of TaC 0.82 - TaC 0.85 compositions under the conditions of slow heating, it was observed nonrecorded earlier irreversible decrease of susceptibility at temperature of 960 - 1000 K. With further temperature increase T>T tr it was observed at first even and than uneven increase of x value at a temperature of T tr equal to 1090, 1130 and 1150 K for TaC 0.82 , TaC 0.83 and TaC 0.85 respectively. The measuring of magnetic susceptibility of the same samples at temperature decrease reveals the presence of susceptibility temperature hysteresis in the interval of 1070 - 1090, 1100 - 1130 and 1120 - 1150 for TaC 0.82 , TaC 0.83 and TaC 0.85 . Reversible susceptibility jump corresponding to the temperature hysteresis range at dependences of x(T), is connected with equilibrium structural phase transition of order-disorder

  7. Ionic Liquids in Selective Oxidation: Catalysts and Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chengna; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Chongpin; Lei, Zhigang

    2017-05-24

    Selective oxidation has an important role in environmental and green chemistry (e.g., oxidative desulfurization of fuels and oxidative removal of mercury) as well as chemicals and intermediates chemistry to obtain high-value-added special products (e.g., organic sulfoxides and sulfones, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, epoxides, esters, and lactones). Due to their unique physical properties such as the nonvolatility, thermal stability, nonexplosion, high polarity, and temperature-dependent miscibility with water, ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted considerable attention as reaction solvents and media for selective oxidations and are considered as green alternatives to volatile organic solvents. Moreover, for easy separation and recyclable utilization, IL catalysts have attracted unprecedented attention as "biphasic catalyst" or "immobilized catalyst" by immobilizing metal- or nonmetal-containing ILs onto mineral or polymer supports to combine the unique properties of ILs (chemical and thermal stability, capacity for extraction of polar substrates and reaction products) with the extended surface of the supports. This review highlights the most recent outcomes on ILs in several important typical oxidation reactions. The contents are arranged in the series of oxidation of sulfides, oxidation of alcohols, epoxidation of alkenes, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation reaction, oxidation of alkanes, and oxidation of other compounds step by step involving ILs as solvents, catalysts, reagents, or their combinations.

  8. Mechanical and Tribological Characteristics of TIG Hardfaced Dispersive Layer by Reinforced with Particles Extruded Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dimitrova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the implemented technology for generation of hardfaced dispersive layers obtained by additive material containing reinforcing phase of non-metal particles. The wear resistant coatings are deposited on pure aluminium metal matrix by shielded gas metal-arc welding applying tungsten inert gas (TIG with extruded aluminium wire reinforced by particles as additive material. Wire filler is produced by extrusion of a pack containing metalized and plated by flux micro/nano SiC particles. The metalized particles implanting in the metal matrix and its dispersive hardfacing are realized by solid-state welding under conditions of hot plastic deformation. Tribological characteristics are studied of the hardfaced layers of dispersive reinforced material on pure aluminium metal matrix with and without flux. Hardness profiles of the hardfaced layers are determined by nanoindentation. The surface layers are studied by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. Increase by 15-31 % of the wear resistance of the hardfaced layers and 30-40 % of their hardness was found, which is due to the implanted in the layer reinforcing phase of metalized micro/nano SiC particles.

  9. Optimization of key factors of the electrostatic separation for crushed PCB wastes using roll-type separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiang; Li Jia; Xu Zhenming

    2008-01-01

    For the electrostatic separation process, the separator is most crucial. As a classical one, the roll-type corona-electrostatic separator has some advantages in recycle of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Some researches have been done in this field and shown that there was a complex correlation between its configuration and the efficiency of the separation. In this paper, a fractional factorial design (2 v 1-5 ) was built and 32 tests were performed on a roll-type corona-electrostatic separator. The sample of granular mixture got from crushed PCB wastes (size 0.3-0.45 mm, containing 25% metal and 75% nonmetal). The experimental data were discussed and used to analyze the factors' main effect, interaction and optimization of the process. Three liner-interaction mathematical models were derived to describe the mass of middling fraction (M), conductor fraction (C) and Nonconductor fraction (NC), respectively. The results show that the efficiency of the PCB waste electrostatic separation process has a significant correlation with not only factors' main effects, but also the interaction between them

  10. Trace element characterisation and purification of quartz powder of Indian origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, K.; Thangavel, S.; Dhavile, S.M.; Sahayam, A.C.; Chaurasia, S.C.

    2002-11-01

    Analytical methodologies for the trace element characterisation and purification of quartz powder of Indian origin have been described. Metallic impurities (11 elements) in ∼700 quartz samples have been analysed using different instrumental techniques. The values are cross-validated by American and British analytical laboratories. A special multi channel vapour phase digestion (MCVPD) chamber has been designed to reduce the process blank levels for the determination of ultra trace impurities in high purity silicon matrix. In this vessel 21 samples can be digested at a time in a period of 8 hrs. at normal pressure and low temperature (∼ 80 degC). Analytical methodologies for the determination of non-metals (phosphorus, boron and chloride) at very low levels <1 ppm) have also been described. A highly cost effective, single step, room temperature purification procedure is developed based on chemical leaching. Around 300 raw quartz powders (3-4N) from various mines have been purified to 5N pure ( optical grade ). (author)

  11. Sulfur analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giner Martínez-Sierra, J.; Galilea San Blas, O.; Marchante Gayón, J.M.; García Alonso, J.I., E-mail: jiga@uniovi.es

    2015-06-01

    In recent years the number of applications of sulfur (S) analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector has increased significantly. In this article we describe in some depth the application of ICP-MS for S analysis with emphasis placed on the sulfur-specific detection by hyphenated techniques such as LC, GC, CE and LA coupled on-line to ICP-MS. The different approaches available for sulfur isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS are also detailed. Particular attention has been paid to the quantification of peptides/proteins and the analysis of metallopeptides/metalloproteins via sulfur by LC–ICP-MS. Likewise, the speciation analysis of metal-based pharmaceuticals and metallodrugs and non-metal selective detection of pharmaceuticals via S are highlighted. Labeling procedures for metabolic applications are also included. Finally, the measurement of natural variations in S isotope composition with multicollector ICP-MS instruments is also covered in this review. - Highlights: • Emphasis placed on the sulfur-specific detection by chromatographic techniques coupled on-line to ICP-MS. • Different instrumental approaches available for sulfur measurements by ICP-MS. • Quantification of proteins and the analysis of metalloproteins via sulfur by LC-ICP-MS. • Labelling procedures for metabolic applications are also included. • The measurement of natural variations in S isotope composition with multicollector ICP-MS.

  12. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  13. Effects of financial crisis on the industry sector of Chinese stock market — from a perspective of complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yanhua; Hao, Weiwei; Shen, Ying; Tang, Minxuan; Niu, Lei

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we use mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between 23 industry sectors of Shanghai stock market and construct corresponding correlation network to analyze the shock of 2008 financial crisis on industry sectors. The obtained meaningful facts are as follows. First, such crisis has only a limited impact on leading industries such as Manufacturing, Commercial trade and Machinery & Equipment, which still play an important role in Chinese economy. Second, the crisis badly attacks China's export industries like Electronics, Wood & Furniture and Textile & Clothing. The damage further hurts other industries, and then export industries' influence becomes larger. Third, the crisis adversely impacts the import industries like Petrochemical, Metal & Nonmetal and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. While due to the stimulation of macroeconomic policies, the influence of crisis on import industries is limited. Similarly, due to relatively strict capital control and the macroeconomic policies stimulating the domestic demand, those industries like Construction, Real Estate and Financial Services are slightly wounded. All these findings suggest that Chinese government should transform from the external demand to the domestic consumption to sustain economic growth.

  14. Photoassisted oxygen reduction reaction on mpg-C3N4: The effects of elements doping on the performance of ORR

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiuchen; Zhou, Feng; Zhan, Su; Huang, Naibao; Tian, Yu

    2018-02-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a crux step in the fuel cells, which is limited to the catalysts. Low-cost nonmetal inorganic catalysts were considered to be the best prospect that may replace platinum. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), which has wide prospect in photocatalysis, was found with the activity of ORR. In calculation work, we used the elements of the VIA family (O, S, and Se) to dope g-C3N4 and investigated the electronic properties and the ability of O2 adsorption in details based on the first principle. The result suggested that the performance of ORR of g-C3N4 may be enhanced by O doping, which can uplift the Fermi level of g-C3N4 and weaken the OH- absorption ability to enhance the O2 adsorption ability. After that, we synthetised O/g-C3N4 and S/g-C3N4 to test their ORR performance. According to the result, O doping can significantly enhance the performance of ORR of g-C3N4 which correspond with the calculation result. Then, the photo-assistant method was used to further enhance the ORR of g-C3N4 which was caused by the transition of the photo-induced electrons of g-C3N4 from VB to CB.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions in China 2007: Inventory and input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.Q.; Zhang Bo

    2010-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the Chinese economy in 2007 with the most recent statistics availability, a concrete inventory covering CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O is composed and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the emission embodiment in final consumption and international trade. The estimated total direct GHG emission amounts to 7456.12 Mt CO 2 -eq by the commonly referred IPCC global warming potentials, with 63.39% from energy-related CO 2 , 22.31% from non-energy-related CO 2 , 11.15% from CH 4 and 3.15% from N 2 O. Responsible for 81.32% of the total GHG emissions are the five sectors of the Electric Power/Steam and Hot Water Production and Supply, Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals, Nonmetal Mineral Products, Agriculture, and Coal Mining and Dressing, with distinctive emission structures. The sector of Construction holds the top GHG emissions embodied in both domestic production and consumption, and the emission embodied in gross capital formation is prominently more than those in other components of the final consumption characterized by extensive investment in contrast to limited household consumption. China is a net exporter of embodied GHG emissions, with emissions embodied in exports of 3060.18 Mt CO 2 -eq, in magnitude up to 41.04% of the total direct emission.

  16. Metal artifact reduction method using metal streaks image subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, Rizza D.; Cho, Seung Ryong

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have been dedicated for metal artifact reduction (MAR); however, the methods are successful to varying degrees depending on situations. Sinogram in-painting, filtering, iterative method are some of the major categories of MAR. Each has its own merits and weaknesses. A combination of these methods or hybrid methods have also been developed to make use of the different benefits of two techniques and minimize the unfavorable results. Our method focuses on the in-paitning approach and a hybrid MAR described by Xia et al. Although in-painting scheme is an effective technique in reducing the primary metal artifacts, a major drawback is the reintroduction of new artifacts that can be caused by an inaccurate interpolation process. Furthermore, combining the segmented metal image to the corrected nonmetal image in the final step of a conventional inpainting approach causes an issue of incorrect metal pixel values. Our proposed method begins with a sinogram in-painting approach and ends with an image-based metal artifact reduction scheme. This work provides a simple, yet effective solution for reducing metal artifacts and acquiring the original metal pixel information. The proposed method demonstrated its effectiveness in a simulation setting. The proposed method showed image quality that is comparable to the standard MAR; however, quantitatively more accurate than the standard MAR

  17. Annual electricity consumption forecasting by neural network in high energy consuming industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Sohrabkhani, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for annual electricity consumption in high energy consumption industrial sectors. Chemicals, basic metals and non-metal minerals industries are defined as high energy consuming industries. It is claimed that, due to high fluctuations of energy consumption in high energy consumption industries, conventional regression models do not forecast energy consumption correctly and precisely. Although ANNs have been typically used to forecast short term consumptions, this paper shows that it is a more precise approach to forecast annual consumption in such industries. Furthermore, the ANN approach based on a supervised multi-layer perceptron (MLP) is used to show it can estimate the annual consumption with less error. Actual data from high energy consuming (intensive) industries in Iran from 1979 to 2003 is used to illustrate the applicability of the ANN approach. This study shows the advantage of the ANN approach through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the ANN forecast is compared with actual data and the conventional regression model through ANOVA to show its superiority. This is the first study to present an algorithm based on the ANN and ANOVA for forecasting long term electricity consumption in high energy consuming industries

  18. A conceptual chemical solidification/stabilization system to remediate radioactive raffinate sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.J.; Ansted, J.P.; Foldyna, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Past operations at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring, Missouri, Superfund Site included the manufacture of nitroaromatic-based munitions and the production of uranium and thorium metal from ore concentrates. These operations generated a large quantity of diverse contaminated waste media including raffinate sludge, soil, sediment, and building debris. These various waste media are contaminated with varying amounts of radionuclides nitroaromatics, metals, metalloids, non-metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and asbestos. The volumes and diversity of contaminants and waste media pose significant challenges in identifying applicable remedial technologies, particularly for the excavation and treatment of the water-rich raffinate sludge. This paper presents the results of comprehensive efforts to develop a conceptual chemical solidification/stabilization (CSS) system to treat a variety of waste media. The emphasis of this paper is the treatment of a water-rich refractory raffinate sludge and site contaminated soils both radioactive and nonradioactive. The conceptual system design includes raffinate sludge excavation, dewatering, and CSS processing (reagent selection and formulation, reagent and waste storage and metering, and product mixing). Many innovations were incorporated into the design, producing a system that can process the various waste types. Additionally, the radioactive and hazardous constituents are sufficiently immobilized to allow the secured disposal in a waste cell of the treated product. The conceptual CSS system can also produce a variety of treated product types, ranging from a monolithic form to a compactible soil-like medium. The advantages of this system flexibility are also presented

  19. Ecological and health risks assessment and spatial distribution of residual heavy metals in the soil of an e-waste circular economy park in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Gao, Guanghai; Geng, Jinyao; Li, Yao; Wang, Yingying

    2018-04-01

    Ziya Circular Economy Park is the biggest e-waste recycle park in North China before 2011, its function was then transformed in response to regulations and rules. In this paper, investigation was conducted to research the residual concentrations of 14 analytes (12 heavy metals and 2 non-metals) in the surface soil of Ziya Circular Economy Park and surrounding area. Both ecological and health assessments were evaluated using GI (geo-accumulation index) and NPI (Nemerow pollution index), and associated health risk was assessed by using USEPA model. According to the ecological risk assessment, Cu, Sb, Cd, Zn and Co were seriously enriched in the soil of the studied area. The health risk assessment proposed by USEPA indicated no significant health risks to the population. Soil properties, such as pH and organic matter, were found to correlate with the enrichment of heavy metals. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were found positively correlated to dead bacteria concentrations. Spatial distribution of heavy metals revealed that Ziya Circular Economy Park was the dominant pollution source in the studied area. Findings in this study suggest that enough attention should be payed to the heavy metal pollution in Ziya Circular Economy Park. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on characteristics of printed circuit board liberation and its crushed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Cui; Li, Aimin; Gao, Ningbo

    2012-11-01

    Recycling printed circuit board waste (PCBW) waste is a hot issue of environmental protection and resource recycling. Mechanical and thermo-chemical methods are two traditional recycling processes for PCBW. In the present research, a two-step crushing process combined with a coarse-crushing step and a fine-pulverizing step was adopted, and then the crushed products were classified into seven different fractions with a standard sieve. The liberation situation and particle shape in different size fractions were observed. Properties of different size fractions, such as heating value, thermogravimetric, proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis were determined. The Rosin-Rammler model was applied to analyze the particle size distribution of crushed material. The results indicated that complete liberation of metals from the PCBW was achieved at a size less than 0.59 mm, but the nonmetal particle in the smaller-than-0.15 mm fraction is liable to aggregate. Copper was the most prominent metal in PCBW and mainly enriched in the 0.42-0.25 mm particle size. The Rosin-Rammler equation adequately fit particle size distribution data of crushed PCBW with a correlation coefficient of 0.9810. The results of heating value and proximate analysis revealed that the PCBW had a low heating value and high ash content. The combustion and pyrolysis process of PCBW was different and there was an obvious oxidation peak of Cu in combustion runs.

  1. Multi-objective robust optimization method for the modified epoxy resin sheet molding compounds of the impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhang Qu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A kind of modified epoxy resin sheet molding compounds of the impeller has been designed. Through the test, the non-metal impeller has a better environmental aging performance, but must do the waterproof processing design. In order to improve the stability of the impeller vibration design, the influence of uncertainty factors is considered, and a multi-objective robust optimization method is proposed to reduce the weight of the impeller. Firstly, based on the fluid-structure interaction,the analysis model of the impeller vibration is constructed. Secondly, the optimal approximate model of the impeller is constructed by using the Latin hypercube and radial basis function, and the fitting and optimization accuracy of the approximate model is improved by increasing the sample points. Finally, the micro multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied to the robust optimization of approximate model, and the Monte Carlo simulation and Sobol sampling techniques are used for reliability analysis. By comparing the results of the deterministic, different sigma levels and different materials, the multi-objective optimization of the SMC molding impeller can meet the requirements of engineering stability and lightweight. And the effectiveness of the proposed multi-objective robust optimization method is verified by the error analysis. After the SMC molding and the robust optimization of the impeller, the optimized rate reached 42.5%, which greatly improved the economic benefit, and greatly reduce the vibration of the ventilation system.

  2. 共价键的离子化%Ionization of Covalent Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王稼国; 荆西平

    2017-01-01

    本文用化学键理论分析和推导了共价键离子化的几种方式,包括金属和非金属单质中共价键的诱导离子化、化合物中共价键的降温和自诱导离子化以及含氢化合物和金属化合物的诱导离子化.从能量角度分析了离子化趋势的规律性,并且讨论了共价键的离子化的一些重要应用.%Several ionization patterns of covalent bond,including induced-ionization of covalent bond in metals and nonmetals,induced-ionization of covalent bond in hydrogen compounds and metal compounds,lowering temperature and self-induced ionization of compound,and so on,were dedueed and analyzed by using chemical bond theory.The trend of ionization was also analyzed on energy changing and several important applications of the ionization of covalent bond were discussed.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met genotype modulates amygdala habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; New, Antonia S; Goldstein, Kim E; Rosell, Daniel; Yuan, Qiaoping; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Siever, Larry J; Hazlett, Erin A

    2017-05-30

    A deficit in amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli may be an endophenotype of disorders characterized by emotion dysregulation, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). Amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli is genetically modulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants. Whether amygdala habituation itself is also modulated by BDNF genotypes remains unknown. We used imaging-genetics to examine the effect of BDNF Val66Met genotypes on amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 57 subjects (19 BPD patients, 18 patients with schizotypal personality disorder [SPD] and 20 healthy controls [HC]) during a task involving viewing of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures, each presented twice to measure habituation. Amygdala responses across genotypes (Val66Met SNP Met allele-carriers vs. Non-Met carriers) and diagnoses (HC, BPD, SPD) were examined with ANOVA. The BDNF 66Met allele was significantly associated with a deficit in amygdala habituation, particularly for emotional pictures. The association of the 66Met allele with a deficit in habituation to unpleasant emotional pictures remained significant in the subsample of BPD patients. Using imaging-genetics, we found preliminary evidence that deficient amygdala habituation may be modulated by BDNF genotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis flammable range and dominant parameters for synthesizing several ceramics and intermetallic compounds under heat-loss condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Atsushi

    1996-01-01

    Extensive comparisons have been conducted between experimental and theoretical results for the nonadiabatic self-propagating high-temperature synthesis combustion characteristics of many solid-solid systems subjected to volumetric heat loss. The nonadiabatic flame propagation theory--which describes the premixed mode of bulk flame propagation supported by the nonpremixed reaction of dispersed nonmetal (or higher-melting point metal) particles in the liquid metal, with finite-rate reaction at the particle surface and temperature-sensitive Arrhenius-type condensed-phase mass diffusivity--is used to compare with experimental results with heat loss. Systems examined are ceramics (TiC, TiB 2 , and ZrB 2 ) and intermetallic compounds (NiAl, TiCo, and TiNi). By using a consistent set of physicochemical parameters for these systems, satisfactory quantitative agreement is demonstrated for the flammable range (defined in terms of the mixture ratio, degree of dilution, particle size, and/or compact diameter)

  5. Burning velocity of the heterogeneous flame propagation in the SHS process expressed in explicit form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, A.; Law, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The combustion behavior of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process has been the subject of many analytical and experimental investigations. Recently, a theory based on spray combustion was proposed for the SHS flame structure and propagation. In contrast to previous studies based on the homogeneous premixed flame, this theory accounts for the premixed-mode of propagation of the bulk flame and the non-premixed reaction of the dispersed nonmetal (or higher melting-point metal) particles which supports the bulk flame. Finite-rate reaction at the particle surface and the temperature-dependent, Arrhenius nature of mass diffusion are both incorporated. The heterogeneous nature of the theory has satisfactorily captured the effects of particle size on the flame propagation speed. The final solution of Makino and Law was obtained numerically and hence presented parametrically. The authors have since then derived an approximate analytical expression for the burning velocity, which explicitly displays the functional dependence of the burning velocity on the various system parameters. This result is presented herein. Applicability of this expression is examined by comparing it with the numerical results for Ti-C, Ti-B, Zr-B, Hf-B, and Co-Ti systems. A fair degree of agreement has been shown as far as the general trend and approximate magnitude are concerned

  6. Effect of fiber content on flexural properties of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 prepared by injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Manamu; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2017-07-26

    The use of non-metal clasp denture (NMCD) materials may seriously affect the remaining tissues because of the low rigidity of NMCD materials such as polyamides. The purpose of this study was to develop a high-rigidity glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (GFRTP) composed of E-glass fiber and polyamide-6 for NMCDs using an injection molding. The reinforcing effects of fiber on the flexural properties of GFRTPs were investigated using glass fiber content ranging from 0 to 50 mass%. Three-point bending tests indicated that the flexural strength and elastic modulus of a GFRTP with a fiber content of 50 mass% were 5.4 and 4.7 times higher than those of unreinforced polyamide-6, respectively. The result showed that the physical characteristics of GFRTPs were greatly improved by increasing the fiber content, and the beneficial effects of fiber reinforcement were evident. The findings suggest that the injection-molded GFRTPs are adaptable to NMCDs because of their excellent mechanical properties.

  7. Real-time diesel particulate monitor for underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, James; Janisko, Samuel; Mischler, Steven E

    The standard method for determining diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposures in underground metal/ nonmetal mines provides the average exposure concentration for an entire working shift, and several weeks might pass before results are obtained. The main problem with this approach is that it only indicates that an overexposure has occurred rather than providing the ability to prevent an overexposure or detect its cause. Conversely, real-time measurement would provide miners with timely information to allow engineering controls to be deployed immediately and to identify the major factors contributing to any overexposures. Toward this purpose, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a laser extinction method to measure real-time elemental carbon (EC) concentrations (EC is a DPM surrogate). To employ this method, NIOSH developed a person-wearable instrument that was commercialized in 2011. This paper evaluates this commercial instrument, including the calibration curve, limit of detection, accuracy, and potential interferences. The instrument was found to meet the NIOSH accuracy criteria and to be capable of measuring DPM concentrations at levels observed in underground mines. In addition, it was found that a submicron size selector was necessary to avoid interference from mine dust and that cigarette smoke can be an interference when sampling in enclosed cabs.

  8. Surface temperature measurement using infrared radiometer. 2nd Report. Applicability of pseudo gray body approximation. Sekitaisen eizo sochi wo riyoshita jitsuyoteki ondo keisoku ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Giji Haiiro kinji no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, T; Sekiya, M; Ishibashi, H; Okamoto, Y [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurokawa, K [NEC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-06-25

    Establishment of a simple and reasonable technique and its application to the metallic surface in addition to the nonmetallic surface in the room-temperature measurement using infrared picture equipment have been studied. It was found, as published in the previous paper, in the investigation of radiation temperature, radiosity coefficient, their wave-length dependence and the dispersiveness of these parameters about the surfaces of various kinds of material that the assumption of gray body approximation does not hold in the surfaces of metal and part of nonmetal. In the present work, applicability of pseudo-gray body approximation to the metal surface in a system surrounded by black body surfaces was studied in consideration of directivity of emissivity and reflectance while, in actual, a measuring angle of 15 degrees giving a small directivity effect was used based on experimental results. As in the previous paper, three kinds of sensors different in the detectable wave-length range were used to evaluate the radiation temperature, emissivity, radiosity coefficient, and their dispersiveness. The experimental results proved the applicability of pseudo-gray body approximation. 3 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Graphene–Noble Metal Nano-Composites and Applications for Hydrogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Basu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene based nano-composites are relatively new materials with excellent mechanical, electrical, electronic and chemical properties for applications in the fields of electrical and electronic devices, mechanical appliances and chemical gadgets. For all these applications, the structural features associated with chemical bonding that involve other components at the interface need in-depth investigation. Metals, polymers, inorganic fibers and other components improve the properties of graphene when they form a kind of composite structure in the nano-dimensions. Intensive investigations have been carried out globally in this area of research and development. In this article, some salient features of graphene–noble metal interactions and composite formation which improve hydrogen gas sensing properties—like higher and fast response, quick recovery, cross sensitivity, repeatability and long term stability of the sensor devices—are presented. Mostly noble metals are effective for enhancing the sensing performance of the graphene–metal hybrid sensors, due to their superior catalytic activities. The experimental evidence for atomic bonding between metal nano-structures and graphene has been reported in the literature and it is theoretically verified by density functional theory (DFT. Multilayer graphene influences gas sensing performance via intercalation of metal and non-metal atoms through atomic bonding.

  10. Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    1994-06-01

    Spray forming is a near- net- shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or pattern to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, often while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming is applicable to a wide range of metals and nonmetals and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g., refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities, and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray forming technology for producing near- net- shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. This article briefly describes the atomization behavior of liquid metals in linear de Laval nozzles and illustrates the versatility of the process by summarizing results from two spray forming programs. In one program, low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm thick was produced; in the other, polymer membranes ˜5 μm thick were spray formed.

  11. Recycling of spent lithium-ion battery with polyvinyl chloride by mechanochemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Meng; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, cathode materials (C/LiCoO 2 ) of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and waste polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were co-processed via an innovative mechanochemical method, i.e. LiCoO 2 /PVC/Fe was co-grinded followed by water-leaching. This procedure generated recoverable LiCl from Li by the dechlorination of PVC and also generated magnetic CoFe 4 O 6 from Co. The effects of different additives (e.g. alkali metals, non-metal oxides, and zero-valent metals) on (i) the conversion rates of Li and Co and (ii) the dechlorination rate of PVC were investigated, and the reaction mechanisms were explored. It was found that the chlorine atoms in PVC were mechanochemically transformed into chloride ions that bound to the Li in LiCoO 2 to form LiCl. This resulted in reorganization of the Co and Fe crystals to form the magnetic material CoFe 4 O 6 . This study provides a more environmentally-friendly, economical, and straightforward approach for the recycling of spent LIBs and waste PVC compared to traditional processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Hall Thruster Thermal Modeling and Test Data Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-01-01

    HERMeS - Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding. Developed through a joint effort by NASA/GRC and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Design goals: High power (12.5 kW) high Isp (3000 sec), high efficiency (> 60%), high throughput (10,000 kg), reduced plasma erosion and increased life (5 yrs) to support Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). Further details see "Performance, Facility Pressure Effects and Stability Characterization Tests of NASAs HERMeS Thruster" by H. Kamhawi and team. Hall Thrusters (HT) inherently operate at elevated temperatures approx. 600 C (or more). Due to electric magnetic (E x B) fields used to ionize and accelerate propellant gas particles (i.e., plasma). Cooling is largely limited to radiation in vacuum environment.Thus the hardware components must withstand large start-up delta-T's. HT's are constructed of multiple materials; assorted metals, non-metals and ceramics for their required electrical and magnetic properties. To mitigate thermal stresses HT design must accommodate the differential thermal growth from a wide range of material Coef. of Thermal Expansion (CTEs). Prohibiting the use of some bolted/torqued interfaces.Commonly use spring loaded interfaces, particularly at the metal-to-ceramic interfaces to allow for slippage.However most component interfaces must also effectively conduct heat to the external surfaces for dissipation by radiation.Thus contact pressure and area are important.

  13. PENGEMBANGAN POTENSI SUMBER DAYA ALAM FOSIL KAYU DI DAERAH GORONTALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarty Suly Eraku

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gorontalo area is part of the arc volcano - plutonic North Sulawesi predominantly volcanic rocks and intrusif rock Eocene to Quaternary. The tectonic position makes the Gorontalo area of natural resource mining prospects both metallic and non metallic minerals. One of them is a non-metal potential of petrified wood. The purpose of this study to analyze the condition of geomorphology, lithology, stratgraphy, and determine the nature of the physical characteristics of petrified wood in order to formulate feasibility as gemstones. The method used qualitative and quantitative results of the field survey which is then compiled the results of the laboratory. Field analysis in the form of geological mapping, sampling and documentation of geological data. The laboratory analysis conducted mineralogical and geochemistry analysis in the form of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF. Dissemination of research results, the petrified wood in Tohupo River and Molannihu River. Petrified wood found in fluvial and alluvial sediment in tuffaceous sandstone layer with two types of  insitu and transported. Results of laboratory analysis both mineralogy and gochemistry indicates that the mineral constituent of petrified wood are Quartz (SiO2 with good quality so worty as a gemstone because of its aesthetic, translucent and hardness 7 Mohs Scale.

  14. Oxide-supported metal clusters: models for heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, A K; Goodman, D W

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the size-dependent electronic, structural and chemical properties of metal clusters on oxide supports is an important aspect of heterogeneous catalysis. Recently model oxide-supported metal catalysts have been prepared by vapour deposition of catalytically relevant metals onto ultra-thin oxide films grown on a refractory metal substrate. Reactivity and spectroscopic/microscopic studies have shown that these ultra-thin oxide films are excellent models for the corresponding bulk oxides, yet are sufficiently electrically conductive for use with various modern surface probes including scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Measurements on metal clusters have revealed a metal to nonmetal transition as well as changes in the crystal and electronic structures (including lattice parameters, band width, band splitting and core-level binding energy shifts) as a function of cluster size. Size-dependent catalytic reactivity studies have been carried out for several important reactions, and time-dependent catalytic deactivation has been shown to arise from sintering of metal particles under elevated gas pressures and/or reactor temperatures. In situ STM methodologies have been developed to follow the growth and sintering kinetics on a cluster-by-cluster basis. Although several critical issues have been addressed by several groups worldwide, much more remains to be done. This article highlights some of these accomplishments and summarizes the challenges that lie ahead. (topical review)

  15. A plasma model combined with an improved two-temperature equation for ultrafast laser ablation of dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lan; Tsai, H.-L.

    2008-01-01

    It remains a big challenge to theoretically predict the material removal mechanism in femtosecond laser ablation. To bypass this unresolved problem, many calculations of femtosecond laser ablation of nonmetals have been based on the free electron density distribution without the actual consideration of the phase change mechanism. However, this widely used key assumption needs further theoretical and experimental confirmation. By combining the plasma model and improved two-temperature model developed by the authors, this study focuses on investigating ablation threshold fluence, depth, and shape during femtosecond laser ablation of dielectrics through nonthermal processes (the Coulomb explosion and electrostatic ablation). The predicted ablation depths and shapes in fused silica, by using (1) the plasma model only and (2) the plasma model plus the two-temperature equation, are both in agreement with published experimental data. The widely used assumptions for threshold fluence, ablation depth, and shape in the plasma model based on free electron density are validated by the comparison study and experimental data

  16. On the phase formation of sputtered hafnium oxide and oxynitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarakinos, K.; Music, D.; Mraz, S.; Baben, M. to; Jiang, K.; Nahif, F.; Braun, A.; Zilkens, C.; Schneider, J. M.; Konstantinidis, S.; Renaux, F.; Cossement, D.; Munnik, F.

    2010-01-01

    Hafnium oxynitride films are deposited from a Hf target employing direct current magnetron sputtering in an Ar-O 2 -N 2 atmosphere. It is shown that the presence of N 2 allows for the stabilization of the transition zone between the metallic and the compound sputtering mode enabling deposition of films at well defined conditions of target coverage by varying the O 2 partial pressure. Plasma analysis reveals that this experimental strategy facilitates control over the flux of the O - ions which are generated on the oxidized target surface and accelerated by the negative target potential toward the growing film. An arrangement that enables film growth without O - ion bombardment is also implemented. Moreover, stabilization of the transition sputtering zone and control of the O - ion flux without N 2 addition is achieved employing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering. Structural characterization of the deposited films unambiguously proves that the phase formation of hafnium oxide and hafnium oxynitride films with the crystal structure of HfO 2 is independent from the O - bombardment conditions. Experimental and theoretical data indicate that the presence of vacancies and/or the substitution of O by N atoms in the nonmetal sublattice favor the formation of the cubic and/or the tetragonal HfO 2 crystal structure at the expense of the monoclinic HfO 2 one.

  17. Position Control Method For Pick And Place Robot Arm For Object Sorting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Moe Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The more increase the number of industries in developing countries the more require labourers or workers in that. To reduce the cost of labour force and to increase the manufacturing capacity of industries the advanced robot arms are more needed. The aim of this journal is to eliminate the manual control for object sorting system.Robot arm design in this research uses two joints three links and servo motors to drive. Microcontroller is used to generate required PWM signal for servo motors. In this research the position control of robot arm was designed by using kinematic control methods. There are two types of kinematic control methods which are forward and reverse kinematic methods. In forward kinematic method the input parameters are the joint angles and link length of robot arm and then the output is the position at XYZ coordinate of tool or gripper. In inverse kinematic the input parameters are position at XYZ coordinate of gripper and the link length of robot arm and then the output parameters are the joint angles. So kinematic methods can explain the analytical description of the geometry motion of the manipulator with reference to a robot coordinate system fixed to a frame without consideration of the forces or the moments causing the movements. For sorting system Metal detector is used to detect the metal or non-metal. This position control of pick and place robot arm is fully tested and the result is obtained more precisely.

  18. Determination of trace concentrations of chlorine in aqueous solutions by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machyňák, Ľubomír; Čacho, František; Němeček, Martin; Beinrohr, Ernest

    2016-11-01

    Trace concentrations of total chlorine were determined by means of molecular absorption of indium mono-chloride (InCl) at 267.217 nm using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry. The effects of chemical modifiers and the amount of In on the sensitivity and accuracy were investigated. The optimum pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 600 °C and 1400 °C, respectively. The limit of detection and characteristic mass were found to be 0.10 ng and 0.21 ng, respectively. Potential non-spectral and spectral interferences were tested for various metals and non-metals at concentrations up to 50 mg L- 1 and for phosphoric, sulphuric and nitric acids. No spectral interferences were observed. Significant non-spectral interferences were observed with F, Br, and I at concentrations higher than 1 mg L- 1, 5 mg L- 1 and 25 mg L- 1, respectively, which is probably caused by formation of competitive indium halogen molecules. Higher concentrations of mineral acids depressed the signal owing to the formation of volatile HCl. The calibration curve was linear in the range between 0.3 and 10 ng with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.993. The elaborated method was used for the chlorine determination in various waters and a drug sample.

  19. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  20. Segregation of metals-containing wastewater by pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; McTaggart, D.R.

    1990-10-01

    A pH-based sampling system has shown that there is a high correlation between low pH and metals contamination for the wastewater from the 4500 area (manhole 190) and the 2000 area (pump station). Wastewater from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has not shown any metals concentrations above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits for the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). It is recommended that pH be used as the diversion criteria for wastewater from manhole 190 and the pump station to be sent to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Any wastewater with a pH less than 6.0 or greater than 10.0 should be sent to the metals tank. Based on the results of 29 weeks of sampling, it is expected that on the order of 36m 3 /wk (9500 gal/wk) of wastewater will be diverted to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Wastewater from REDC and HFIR can be sent to the nonmetals tank, but it should be sampled periodically and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrophotometer to confirm that the metals concentration is not increasing. 1 ref., 2 figs., 9 tabs