WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonmelanomatous skin cancer

  1. Breast cancer in postmenopausal women after non-melanomatous skin cancer: the Women's Health Initiative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Mary; Rosenberg, Carol A; Derman, Benjamin A; Greenland, Philip; Khandekar, Janardan; Rodabough, Rebecca J; McTiernan, Anne; Simon, Michael S

    2013-06-01

    An increased risk of breast cancer has been reported in patients with non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC), but this association has not been studied in a large, multi-geographic population. We utilized data from the Women's Health Initiative observational study to assess whether history of NMSC is associated with breast cancer risk. This analysis included 70,246 postmenopausal White and Hispanic women aged 50-79, in which 4,247 breast cancer cases were identified over a mean (SD) of 11.3 (3.2) years. Baseline information was collected on demographics, medical history, sun exposure, and vitamin D intake. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). The relationship between NMSC and breast cancer was examined as a time-dependent exposure using updated information on NMSC gathered during follow-up visits. All statistical tests were two sided. There were 5,595 women diagnosed with NMSC at study entry. The annualized rate of breast cancer was 0.64 % among women with a history of NMSC and 0.55 % among women with no history of NMSC. The multivariable-adjusted HR for breast cancer among women with a history of NMSC versus no history of NMSC was 1.07 (95 % CI 0.95-1.20, P = 0.27). Further evaluation stratified by tumor characteristics showed an increased risk of lymph node-positive disease, HR = 1.30 (95 % CI 1.01-1.67, P = 0.04), and regional-stage disease, HR = 1.33 (95 % CI 1.05-1.70, P = 0.02), among women with NMSC. There was no significant overall association between NMSC and breast cancer; however, there was an increased risk of more advanced-stage breast cancer which needs further exploration.

  2. Neglected skin cancer in the elderly: a case of basosquamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Bisgaard, Erika; Tarakji, Michael; Lau, Frank; RIKER, ADAM

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and basal cell carcinoma represents the largest portion of non-melanomatous skin cancers with over 3 million cases diagnosed annually. Locally advanced disease is frequently seen in the elderly posing clinical challenges regarding proper treatment. We report on an 86-year-old female presenting with fatigue, anemia and a large ulcerated skin lesion along the right upper back. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a basosquamous cell carcinoma. Sh...

  3. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  4. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  5. Neglected skin cancer in the elderly: a case of basosquamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, Erika; Tarakji, Michael; Lau, Frank; Riker, Adam

    2016-08-17

    Skin cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and basal cell carcinoma represents the largest portion of non-melanomatous skin cancers with over 3 million cases diagnosed annually. Locally advanced disease is frequently seen in the elderly posing clinical challenges regarding proper treatment.We report on an 86-year-old female presenting with fatigue, anemia and a large ulcerated skin lesion along the right upper back. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a basosquamous cell carcinoma. She underwent a wide local excision with complex wound reconstruction.Neglected skin cancers in the elderly can present difficult clinical scenarios. There are associated adjuvant therapies that should be considered following resection, such as local radiation therapy and other novel therapies. Newer therapies, such as with vismodegib, may also be considered. A comprehensive, multimodal approach to treatment should be considered in most cases of locally advanced, non-melanoma skin cancers.

  6. Neglected skin cancer in the elderly: a case of basosquamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, Erika; Tarakji, Michael; Lau, Frank; Riker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and basal cell carcinoma represents the largest portion of non-melanomatous skin cancers with over 3 million cases diagnosed annually. Locally advanced disease is frequently seen in the elderly posing clinical challenges regarding proper treatment. We report on an 86-year-old female presenting with fatigue, anemia and a large ulcerated skin lesion along the right upper back. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a basosquamous cell carcinoma. She underwent a wide local excision with complex wound reconstruction. Neglected skin cancers in the elderly can present difficult clinical scenarios. There are associated adjuvant therapies that should be considered following resection, such as local radiation therapy and other novel therapies. Newer therapies, such as with vismodegib, may also be considered. A comprehensive, multimodal approach to treatment should be considered in most cases of locally advanced, non-melanoma skin cancers. PMID:27534889

  7. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  8. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  9. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The ...

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The ...

  11. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  12. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  13. Talimogene Laherparepvec and Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Lymphomas or Advanced or Refractory Non-melanoma Skin Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Adnexal Carcinoma; Apocrine Carcinoma; Eccrine Porocarcinoma; Extraocular Cutaneous Sebaceous Carcinoma; Hidradenocarcinoma; Keratoacanthoma; Malignant Sweat Gland Neoplasm; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma; NK-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable; Non-Melanomatous Lesion; Paget Disease; Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Primary Cutaneous Mucinous Carcinoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome; Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basal Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Spiradenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Stage III Skin Cancer; Stage IV Skin Cancer; Sweat Gland Carcinoma; Trichilemmocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  14. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are round and lie directly under squamous cells. Melanocytes are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. It also protects the ...

  15. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information, in skin cells, creating "misspellings" in their genetic code and, as a result, alter the function of those cells. Cancers generally are caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. With skin cancer, the environment plays a ...

  16. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ... Policy . About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ...

  17. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Partners for Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions References Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A ...

  18. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... removed. That is the most common form of skin cancer and not as dangerous as melanoma. Photo: Corbis ...

  19. Skin Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Skin Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cáncer de piel: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Skin Cancer - українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Characters ...

  20. Skin Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Durga Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available : In recent days, skin cancer is seen as one of the most Hazardous form of the Cancers found in Humans. Skin cancer is found in various types such as Melanoma, Basal and Squamous cell Carcinoma among which Melanoma is the most unpredictable. The detection of Melanoma cancer in early stage can be helpful to cure it. Computer vision can play important role in Medical Image Diagnosis and it has been proved by many existing systems. In this paper, we present a survey on different steps which are being to detect the Melanoma Skin Cancer using Image Processing tools. In every step, what are the different methods are be included in our paper

  1. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and ...

  2. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cracking, bleeding, or ulceration. Frequently, individuals discover their skin cancer after unrelated ailments near the affected site. Causes We often view the sun's harmful rays as the primary cause of skin cancer; the condition is often found on parts of ...

  3. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  4. How Is Melanoma Skin Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Melanoma Skin Cancer Most melanomas are brought to a doctor’s attention ... Melanoma Skin Cancer, by Stage More In Melanoma Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  5. A REVIEW ON SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ramya Silpa; Chidvila V

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer can be of 2 types mainly. They are malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma. Skin cancer mainly occurs due to exposure of sunlight. Ozone depletion and chemical exposures are other factors involved in precipitating skin cancer. Mutations of p53 gene are involved in UV- induced carcinogenesis. P53 gene acts vital in development of SCC. So, prevention of skin cancer is the main criteria. Regular application of sunscreens could be one of the primary prevention. The purpose of pr...

  6. Skin cancer: Etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, occurrence of skin cancer is very common in humans. It is reported that the most common cause of the skin cancer is excessive exposure to sunlight as it contains harmful radiations; the ultra violet rays. Different management strategies are used for different types of skin cancers, which are chemotherapy, radiation therapy.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Deevya L; Saladi, Rao N; Fox, Joshua L

    2010-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations in many parts of the world. The incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of skin cancers are increasing and, therefore, pose a significant public health concern. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic agent in the development of skin cancers. UVR causes DNA damage and genetic mutations, which subsequently lead to skin cancer. A clearer understanding of UVR is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer. This article reviews UVR, its damaging effects on the skin and its relationship to UV immunosuppression and skin cancer. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the earth's surface, including ozone depletion, UV light elevation, latitude, altitude, and weather conditions. The current treatment modalities utilizing UVR (i.e. phototherapy) can also predispose to skin cancers. Unnecessary exposure to the sun and artificial UVR (tanning lamps) are important personal attributable risks. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR-induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives. © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  9. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  10. Nicotinamide for skin cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Diona L

    2017-03-20

    Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 ) has a range of photoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo; it enhances DNA repair, reduces UV radiation-induced suppression of skin immune responses, modulates inflammatory cytokine production and skin barrier function and restores cellular energy levels after UV exposure. Pharmacological doses of nicotinamide have been shown to reduce actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals, making this a nontoxic and accessible option for skin cancer chemoprevention in this population.

  11. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complete chart of side effects. Side effects of Skin Cancer Treatment OrganSystem General Body • cTo ( i D rme ... scrilineesnr/ desbuaoocrnfettedhh) e( ersatkrrieena) tment HELPFUL WEBSITES ON SKIN CANCER TARG E T I NG C A NC ...

  12. What Happens after Treatment for Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer After Treatment Living as a Melanoma Skin Cancer Survivor For many people with melanoma, treatment can ... Cancers After Melanoma Skin Cancer More In Melanoma Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  13. Validating the use of Medicare Australia billing data to examine trends in skin cancer [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshini Perera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Epidemiological data surrounding non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC is highly variable, in part due to the lack of government cancer registries. Several studies employ the use of Medical Australia (MA rebate data in assessing such trends, the validity of which has not been studied in the past. Conversely, melanoma skin cancer is a notifiable disease, and thus, MA and cancer registry data is readily available. The aim of the current study is to assess the use of MA for epidemiological measures for skin cancers, by using melanoma as a disease sample.   Methods:  Following ethics approval, data from MA and Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR from 2004-2008 were extracted. Incidence of MA and VCR unique melanoma cases were compared and stratified by age and local government area (LGA. Regression and a paired-samples t-test were performed.   Results: During the study period; 15,150 and 13,886 unique melanoma patients were identified through VCR and MA data sources respectively. An outlier in the >80­ year age group was noted between MA and VCR data. When stratified by age, significant correlation between MA and VCR was observed for all patients (gradient 0.91, R²= 0.936 and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.96, R²= 0.995. When stratified by LGA, a high degree of observation was observed for all patients (gradient 0.94, R²= 0.977 and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.996, R²= 0.975.   Conclusion: Despite the inclusion of outlier data groups, acceptable correlation between MA and VCR melanoma data was observed, suggesting that MA may be suitable for assessing epidemiological trends. Such principals may be used to validate the use of MA data for similar calculations assessing NMSC trends.

  14. Vitamin D and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin M; Elmets, Craig A; Yusuf, Nabiha

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D signaling plays a key role in many important processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, immune regulation, hormone secretion and skeletal health. Furthermore, vitamin D production and supplementation have been shown to exert protective effects via an unknown signaling mechanism involving the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in several diseases and cancer types, including skin cancer. With over 3.5 million new diagnoses in 2 million patients annually, skin cancer is the most common cancer type in the United States. While ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is the main etiologic factor for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), UVB also induces cutaneous vitamin D production. This paradox has been the subject of contradictory findings in the literature in regards to amount of sun exposure necessary for appropriate vitamin D production, as well as any beneficial or detrimental effects of vitamin D supplementation for disease prevention. Further clinical and epidemiological studies are necessary to elucidate the role of vitamin D in skin carcinogenesis.

  15. Dark Skin No Shield from Deadly Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166194.html Dark Skin No Shield From Deadly Skin Cancer Death rates from melanoma are higher for people of color, skin expert says To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Chemoprevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tina I; Spencer, James M; Flowers, Franklin P

    2006-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in human beings. The increased incidence of skin cancer has brought much attention to the process by which these tumors develop and how they can be prevented. Efforts have been made to educate the public about the importance of protecting skin from excessive ultraviolet light. Despite this work, the incidence of skin cancer continues to increase. Available compounds may be useful in the chemoprevention of skin cancer. Chemoprevention is defined as oral or topical use of dietary or pharmacologic agents to inhibit or reverse the development of cancer. Potential agents included are the retinoids; difluoromethylornithine; T4 endonuclease V; polyphenolic antioxidants, such as (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, found in green tea and grape seed extract; silymarin; isoflavone genestein; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; curcumin; lycopene; vitamin E; beta-carotene; and selenium. Many of these agents are available over the counter as topical or oral preparations. At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be familiar with the chemopreventive agents and their efficacy, as well as any significant side effects associated with them.

  17. Burden of malignancy after a primary skin cancer: recurrence, multiple skin cancers and second primary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Hans; Williams, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The current paper summarizes relevant recent research on the high risk of recurrence, multiple skin cancers and second primary cancers in the growing number of people with a history of skin cancer; the ultimate purpose is to better assess the burden of malignancy following skin cancer. A number of challenges exist in identifying and tracking both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) cases. Most jurisdictions do not routinely track NMSC cases and, even if they do, it is customary to only include the first diagnosis. There are variable rules for counting multiple melanoma cancers, and recurrences are not considered for either major type of skin cancer. Applying insights from recent studies of this issue to Canadian cancer statistics would increase reported diagnoses of NMSC by about 26% and melanoma by 10% in this country. This approach to a fuller assessment of the burden of skin cancers has been called a "diagnosis-based incidence approach" as compared with a "patient-based incidence approach". A further issue that is not usually taken into account when assessing the burden of skin cancers is the 20% to 30% elevated risk of noncutaneous second primary cancers following a primary skin tumour. In summary, individuals with skin cancer are subject to a high risk of recurrence, multiple skin cancers and second primary cancers. This burden should be a special concern in the large and growing pool of individuals with a history of skin cancer, as well as among prevention planners.

  18. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  19. [Skin cancer as occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  20. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  1. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer . The recommendation in this statement is for children, ...

  2. Skin Cancer: NIH Research to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... making a person immune to his or her skin cancer cells. Another method is to train a person's ...

  3. Occupational skin cancer may be underreported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period.......Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period....

  4. Occupational skin cancer may be underreported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period.......Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period....

  5. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  6. What's New in Research and Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ... Policy . About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ...

  7. Environmental pollutants and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, C; Charveron, M; Tarroux, R; Gall, Y

    2002-01-01

    We are increasingly exposed to environmental pollution. Pollutants can be inhaled, ingested or come into contact with the skin depending on the form in which they occur. On metabolization, activation, or accumulation, pollutants can become extremely toxic for the vital organs and this is often related to a strong genotoxic effect. Since the skin acts as a barrier between the organism and the environment, it is frequently directly exposed to pollution. It is very often degraded by polluting agents and acts as an inlet toward other tissues. Numerous studies in man recognize and demonstrate the carcinogenic power of certain pollutants in the digestive and respiratory tracts. The "pollutants" that react most specifically with the skin are: ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene), volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene), heavy metals, and ozone. Ultraviolet radiation, a "physical" pollutant, has been described as being the factor responsible for most skin cancers in man. The genotoxicity of UV light is well documented (type of lesion or mutation, etc.) and its carcinogenic effect is clearly demonstrated in vivo in man. A few epidemiological studies describe the carcinogenicity of certain pollutants such as arsenic or lead on the skin. However, most of the evidence for the role of pollutants in skin cancers comes from in vivo animal studies or from in vitro studies (e.g., PAHs). In this report, different studies are presented to illustrate the research strategies developed to investigate the mechanism of action of "chemical" pollutants and their potential role in human skin pathology. All the study models and the associated techniques of investigation are tools for a better understanding and thus more efficient prevention of the deleterious effects caused by the environment.

  8. Skin Cancer of the Head and Neck

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Yun-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    The majority of skin cancers of the head and neck are nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most frequent types of NMSC. Malignant melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm of skin, and the ideal adjuvant therapy has not yet been found, although various options for treatment of skin cancer are available to the patient and physician, allowing high cure rate and excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes. Sunscreen protection and early evaluation of ...

  9. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Thyssen, J P; Gislason, G H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is commonly treated with ultraviolet phototherapy and systemic immunosuppressant drugs, which may confer a risk of skin cancer. Previous studies on the risk of skin cancer in patients with psoriasis have shown conflicting results....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated the risk of new-onset melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), respectively, in a large cohort of patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: Data on all Danish individuals aged ≥18 years between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012 were linked at individual...... of skin cancer is only modestly increased in patients with psoriasis, clinicians should remain vigilant....

  10. Burden and Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hollestein, Loes

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the Netherlands since 1989, the first year of the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). In 2010 more than 43,000 patients were newly diagnosed with skin cancer in the Netherlands. During a life time at least 1 in 5 persons living in the Netherlands will develop skin cancer. The most common skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma (BCC), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma. BCC and SCC combined are often refe...

  11. With Summer Sun Comes Heightened Skin Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166481.html With Summer Sun Comes Heightened Skin Cancer Risk Doctor shares tips for prevention, recognition To ... skies comes a warning to protect yourself from skin cancer. "Skin cancer, like all types of cancer, is ...

  12. Human papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smola, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect squamous epithelia and can induce hyperproliferative lesions. More than 120 different HPV types have been characterized and classified into five different genera. While mucosal high-risk HPVs have a well-established causal role in anogenital carcinogenesis, the biology of cutaneous HPVs is less well understood. The clinical relevance of genus beta-PV infection has clearly been demonstrated in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited disease associated with ahigh rate of skin cancer. In the normal population genus beta-PV are suspected to have an etiologic role in skin carcinogenesis as well but this is still controversially discussed. Their oncogenic potency has been investigated in mouse models and in vitro. In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the genus beta HPV types 5 and 8 as "possible carcinogenic" biological agents (group 2B) in EV disease. This chapter will give an overview on the knowns and unknowns of infections with genus beta-PV and discuss their potential impact on skin carcinogenesis in the general population.

  13. Burden and Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Hollestein (Loes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractThe incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the Netherlands since 1989, the first year of the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). In 2010 more than 43,000 patients were newly diagnosed with skin cancer in the Netherlands. During a life time at least 1 in 5 persons living in

  14. Burden and Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Hollestein (Loes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the Netherlands since 1989, the first year of the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). In 2010 more than 43,000 patients were newly diagnosed with skin cancer in the Netherlands. During a life time at least 1 in 5 persons livi

  15. Outdoor sports and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.

  16. Skin Cancer Surveillance Behaviors Among Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Tatum, Kristina L; Devine, Katie A; Stephens, Sue; Masterson, Margaret; Baig, Amna; Hudson, Shawna V; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-03-01

    The risk of developing skin cancer is elevated among childhood cancer survivors (CCS), particularly among those treated with radiation. This survey study examined the skin cancer surveillance behaviors of 94 CCS. Approximately 48% of CCS had ever conducted skin self-examination (SSE) and 31% had ever received a physician skin examination. Rates of physician skin examination were 2.5 times higher among CCS treated with radiation compared to those without radiation. However, rates of SSEs did not differ based on treatment history. These findings highlight the need to promote skin cancer surveillance as an important aspect of CCS survivorship care.

  17. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Partners for Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions References Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A ...

  18. Can You Recognize the Signs of Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166922.html Can You Recognize the Signs of Skin Cancer? First step: Get to know your own skin ... 2017 WEDNESDAY, June 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- With skin cancer the most common type of cancer in the ...

  19. Do We Know What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer? Many risk factors for melanoma have been found, ... at High Risk of Melanoma More In Melanoma Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  20. Histology of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Cornelia S L

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of skin tumors is increasing among elderly patients, and the multi-morbidities which occur in the elderly are a great challenge for dermatologists. Basis of every treatment of skin cancer patients is a reliable diagnosis. Therefore, histopathology serves as the gold standard in clinical dermatooncology and dermatologic surgery. This chapter provides a comprehensive review on the main types of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers, including precursor lesions.

  1. Need For Improved Skin Cancer Surveillance in Pediatric Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Lee, Thomas; Friedman, Adam J; Redbord, Kelley Pagliai

    2017-04-01

    Survivors of pediatric cancer are at increased risk of developing secondary malignancies, with non-melanoma skin cancer being the most common. These patients are also at increased risk of melanoma. Currently, guidelines provided by the National Cancer Institute and Children's Oncology Group emphasize the importance of annual clinical examination for skin cancer screening; however, the literature reports that less than one-third of survivors of pediatric cancer have ever had a clinical skin exam by a physician. In this article, we review the risk factors for skin cancer in survivors of pediatric cancer as well as the current evidence and recommendations for their care. We suggest that dermatologists collectively establish guidelines for skin cancer surveillance in survivors of pediatric cancer.

  2. Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey

    2009-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant melanoma is especially needed. In addition, in order for the diagnostic tool to be useful, it must be able to differentiate melanoma from common skin conditions such as seborrheic keratosis, a benign skin disease that resembles melanoma according to the well known clinical-assessment ABCD rule. The key diagnostic feature between these two diseases is surface roughness. Based on laser speckle contrast, our research team has recently developed a portable, optical, non-invasive, in-vivo diagnostic device for quantifying skin surface roughness. The methodology of our technique is described in details. Examining the preliminary data collected in a pilot clinical study for the prototype, we found that there was a difference in roughness between melanoma and seborrheic keratosis. In fact, there was a perfect cutoff value for the two diseases based on our initial data.

  3. Cellular reprogramming in skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ihn Young; Balmain, Allan

    2015-06-01

    Early primitive stem cells have long been viewed as the cancer cells of origin (tumor initiating target cells) due to their intrinsic features of self-renewal and longevity. However, emerging evidence suggests a surprising capacity for normal committed cells to function as reserve stem cells upon reprogramming as a consequence of tissue damage resulting in inflammation and wound healing. This results in an alternative concept positing that tumors may originate from differentiated cells that can re-acquire stem cell properties due to genetic or epigenetic reprogramming. It is likely that both models are correct, and that a continuum of potential cells of origin exists, ranging from early primitive stem cells to committed progenitor or even terminally differentiated cells. A combination of the nature of the target cell and the specific types of gene mutations introduced determine tumor cell lineage, as well as potential for malignant conversion. Evidence from mouse skin models of carcinogenesis suggests that initiated cells at different stages within a stem cell hierarchy have varying degrees of requirement for reprogramming (e.g. inflammation stimuli), depending on their degree of differentiation. This article will present evidence in favor of these concepts that has been developed from studies of several mouse models of skin carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents...... a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. STUDY POPULATION: The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen......'s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. MAIN VARIABLES: Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables...

  5. Choroidal and skin metastases from colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Joo Young; Oh, Edward Hynseung; Jung, Moon Ki; Park, Song Ee; Kim, Ji Tak; Hwang, In Gyu

    2016-11-21

    Choroidal and skin metastasis of colon cancer is rare. In women, the frequency of cutaneous metastasis from colon cancer as the primary lesion in is 9% and skin metastasis occurs in 0.81% of all colorectal cancers. We report a patient with colonic adenocarcinoma who presented with visual disorder in her right eye and scalp pain as her initial symptoms. Contrast-enhance orbital magnetic resonance imaging with fat suppression revealed an infrabulbar mass, and skin biopsy of the posterior parietal scalp confirmed adenocarcinoma. These symptoms were diagnosed as being caused by choroidal and skin metastases of colonic adenocarcinoma. We started palliative chemotherapy with oral capecitabine (1000 mg/m(2), twice a day, on days 1-14) every 3 wk, which was effective at shrinking the brain masses and improving the visual disorder. This is the first report that capecitabine is effective at reducing a choroidal and cutaneous metastatic lesion from right-sided colorectal cancer.

  6. Dosimetry for Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Sung Sil; Loh, John J. K.; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-06-15

    Increasing frequency of skin cancer, mycosis fungoides, Kaposi sarcoma etc, it need to treatment dose planning for total skin electron beam (TSEB) therapy. Appropriate treatment planning for TSEB therapy is needed to give homogeneous dose distribution throughout the entire skin surface. The energy of 6 MeV electron from the 18 MeV medical linear accelerator was adapted for superficial total skin electron beam therapy. The energy of the electron beam was reduced to 4.2 MeV by a 0.5cmx90cmx180cm acryl screen placed in a feet front of the patient. Six dual field beam was adapted for total skin irradiation to encompass the entire body surface from head to toe simultaneously. The patients were treated behind the acryl screen plate acted as a beam scatterer and contained a parallel-plate shallow ion chamber for dosimetry and beam monitoring. During treatment, the patient was placed in six different positions due to be homogeneous dose distribution for whole skin around the body. One treatment session delivered 400 cGy to the entire skin surface and patients were treated twice a week for eight consecutive weeks, which is equivalent to TDF value 57. Instrumentation and techniques developed in determining the depth dose, dose distribution and bremsstrahlung dose are discussed.

  7. Photodynamic therapy for skin field cancerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braathen, L R; Morton, C A; Basset-Seguin, N

    2012-01-01

    in this area. With respect to the skin, this term is used to define the presence of multiple non-melanoma skin cancer, its precursors, actinic keratoses and dysplastic keratinocytes in sun exposed areas. The multiplicity of the lesions and the extent of the area influence the treatment decision. Providing...... at least equivalent efficacy and tolerability, field directed therapies are therefore often more worthwhile than lesion targeted approaches. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with its selective sensitization and destruction of diseased tissue is one ideal form of therapy for this indication. In the following...... paper the use of PDT for the treatment of field cancerized skin is reviewed and recommendations are given for its use....

  8. Zosteriform skin metastasis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hao; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Wu, Po-Yuan

    2012-12-01

    Skin metastasis from internal organ malignancy has a 5% to about 10% incidence, and zosteriform metastasis is much rarer. We present the case of a 51-year-old male smoker initially given a diagnosis of right lower lung adenocarcinoma T2N3M0 who developed new-onset zosteriform skin metastasis over the right-side T3∼T5 dermatomes documented by skin biopsy specimen. The probable mechanism for this band-distributed skin metastasis is the retrograde flow of lymph after obstruction by cancer cells. Such a phenomenon may be demonstrated by lymphoscintigraphy.

  9. Targets for molecular therapy of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cheryl L; Khavari, Paul A

    2004-02-01

    Cancers of the skin encompass the first and second most common neoplasms in the United States, epidermal basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively, as well as the melanocytic malignancy, malignant melanoma (MM). Recently identified alterations in the function of specific genes in these cancers provide new potential therapeutic targets. These alterations affect conserved regulators of cellular proliferation and viability, including the Sonic Hedgehog, Ras/Raf, ARF/p53, p16(INK4A)/CDK4/Rb and NF-kappaB pathways. New modalities designed to target these specific proteins may represent promising approaches to therapy of human skin cancers.

  10. Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a skin exam to screen for skin cancer has not been shown to decrease your chance of dying from skin cancer. Learn about this and other tests that have been studied to detect or screen for skin cancer in this expert reviewed summary.

  11. Anatomical and molecular imaging of skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Hao Hong1, Jiangtao Sun1, Weibo Cai1,21Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 2University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USAAbstract: Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer types. It is generally divided into two categories: melanoma (∼5%) and nonmelanoma (∼95%), which can be further categorized into basal cell...

  12. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Katta; Danielle Nicole Brown

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO...

  13. DNA repair, immunosuppression, and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarosh, Daniel B

    2004-11-01

    UV radiation (UVR) produces erythema within the first 24 hours of exposure, suppression of the immune system within the first 10 days, and, for many people, over the course of decades, skin cancer. Although UVR damages many skin targets, DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) is an important mediator of these sequelae. The action spectrum for erythema parallels the action spectrum for CPD formation in skin, and in the absence of repair, as in the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), skin cancer rates are dramatically increased. DNA repair in skin can be enhanced by the delivery of DNA repair enzymes encapsulated in liposomes. Used in this way, photoreactivation of CPDs greatly diminishes erythema and the suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). UV endonucleases delivered by liposomes also prevent UV-induced suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity. In a clinical study of patients with XP, T4 endonuclease V (T4N5) liposome lotion applied for one year reduced the rates of actinic keratosis (AK) and skin cancer compared with placebo. These results showed that strategies to increase sun protection should include measures to reduce DNA damage and increase the rate of DNA repair.

  14. Dermatology of the head and neck: skin cancer and benign skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, Monica; Karimkhani, Chanté

    2012-10-01

    Skin lesions are extremely common, and early detection of dangerous lesions makes skin cancer one of the most highly curable malignancies. By simply becoming aware of common lesions and their phenotypic presentation, dental professionals are empowered to detect suspicious dermatologic lesions in unaware patients. This article serves as an introduction to skin cancer and benign skin lesions for dental professionals.

  15. Investigation of skin cancer treatment efficiency by raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. S.; Kim, D. W. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    From the successful perform of the molecular structures of various kinds of human skin cancer. We can predict the types of cancer when a small abnormal change change occurs on skin by raman spectrum. When we applied the cancer causing chemicals, bezopyrene, to nude mouse, it did not develop to cancer. But we had radiated UV light after developed to skin cancer in a few days. We can deduce the development of human skin cancer from the result of nude mouse skin cancer, because the two skin are structurally very similar to each other. From the results of own research we could conform the UV light is essential for the development of skin cancer. The results of own research can be directly apply to early detection and proper treatment of skin cancer in hospital. 32 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  16. Skin Cancer Cream Linked to 5 Dog Deaths:

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163145.html Skin Cancer Cream Linked to 5 Dog Deaths: FDA Even ingesting ... have died from exposure to a skin cancer cream prescribed for people, according to the U.S. Food ...

  17. Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common types of skin cancer. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for skin cancer.

  18. A Little Training Helps Couples Ease into Skin Cancer Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html A Little Training Helps Couples Ease Into Skin Cancer Checks Study finds the potentially life-saving routine ... 14, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Skin cancer checks between couples don't have to be ...

  19. Skin Cancer of the Hand and Upper Extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Skin Cancer of the Hand and Upper Extremity Email to ... E – Evolving (changing in any way) How is Skin Cancer Diagnosed? Diagnosis starts with you asking your doctor ...

  20. Skin Cancer Recognition by Using a Neuro-Fuzzy System

    OpenAIRE

    Bareqa Salah; Mohammad Alshraideh; Rasha Beidas; Ferial Hayajneh

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the light-skinned population and it is generally caused by exposure to ultraviolet light. Early detection of skin cancer has the potential to reduce mortality and morbidity. There are many diagnostic technologies and tests to diagnose skin cancer. However many of these tests are extremely complex and subjective and depend heavily on the experience of the clinician. To obviate these problems, image processing techniques, a neural network system (NN) ...

  1. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy.

  2. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  3. Early Detection of Skin Cancer by Microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen López-Pacheco, María; Acevedo-Martínez, Claudia; Pereira da Cunha Martins Costa, Manuel Filipe; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Pichardo, Patricia; Pérez-Zapata, Aura Judith; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the ruggedness of the skin with benign and malignant lesions. Latex impressions were taken from lesions of skin's patients and were analyzed by the MICROTOP 03.MFC inspection system. For the melanoma lesion it was observed that the average rugosity of this tumor was increased 67% compared with the rugosity of healthy skin. These measures allow us to distinguish significantly from other tumors, as it is the case of the basal cell carcinoma (49%), and benign lesions as the epidermoid cyst (37%) and the seborrhea keratosis (4%). It was observed a direct relation between the rugosity and the malignancy of the lesions. These results indicate that the rugosity is a characteristic that could be useful in the diagnosis of skin cancer.

  4. Non melanoma skin cancer and subsequent cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy R Rees

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer. METHODS: Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk. RESULTS: Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71] than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46] compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking. After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]. An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11 and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51 was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors.

  5. Non Melanoma Skin Cancer and Subsequent Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot; Gui, Jiang; Celaya, Maria O.; Riddle, Bruce L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer. Methods Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk. Results Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC) was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71]) than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46]) compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking). After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]). An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11) and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51) was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46). Conclusions Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors. PMID:24937304

  6. Immune response associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, F M; Kripke, M L

    1997-10-01

    It is now clear that UV radiation causes nonmelanoma skin cancer in at least two ways: by causing permanent changes in the genetic code and by preventing immunologic recognition of mutant cells. These are interacting rather than separate mechanisms. Damage to DNA results in disregulation of cellular proliferation and initiates immune suppression by stimulating the production of suppressive cytokines. These cytokines contribute to the loss of immunosurveillance. Ultraviolet radiation has both local and systemic immunosuppressive effects. Locally, it depletes and alters antigen-presenting LC at the site of UV irradiation. Systemic suppression results when Ts cells are induced, by altered LC, by inflammatory macrophages that enter the skin following UV irradiation, or by the action of cytokines. Damage to DNA appears to be one of the triggering events in inducing systemic immunosuppression via the release of immunosuppressive cytokines and mediators. Immunologic approaches to treating skin cancers so far have concentrated on nonspecifically stimulating immune cells that infiltrate these tumors, but induction of specific immune responses against these tumors with antitumor vaccines has received little attention as yet. Preventive measures include sun avoidance and the use of sunscreens to prevent DNA damage by UV light. Future strategies may employ means to reverse UV-induced immunosuppression by using anti-inflammatory agents, biologicals that accelerate DNA repair or prevent the generation of immunosuppressive cytokines, and specific immunotherapy with tumor antigens. New approaches for studying the immunology of human skin cancers are needed to accelerate progress in this field.

  7. Hyperspectral imaging of skin and lung cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Alonova, Marina V.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of cancer control requires design of new approaches for instrumental diagnostics, as the accuracy of cancer detection on the first step of diagnostics in clinics is slightly more than 50%. In this study, we present a method of visualization and diagnostics of skin and lung tumours based on registration and processing of tissues hyperspectral images. In a series of experiments registration of hyperspectral images of skin and lung tissue samples is carried out. Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, nevi and benign tumours are studied in skin ex vivo and in vivo experiments; adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas are studied in ex vivo lung experiments. In a series of experiments the typical features of diffuse reflection spectra for pathological and normal tissues were found. Changes in tissues morphology during the tumour growth lead to the changes of blood and pigments concentration, such as melanin in skin. That is why tumours and normal tissues maybe differentiated with information about spectral response in 500-600 nm and 600 - 670 nm areas. Thus, hyperspectral imaging in the visible region may be a useful tool for cancer detection as it helps to estimate spectral properties of tissues and determine malignant regions for precise resection of tumours.

  8. Sunlight and skin cancer: lessons from the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Stephen E

    2007-08-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight induces skin cancer development. Skin cancer is the most common form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of 1.5 million new cases of skin cancer (www.cancer.org/statistics) will be diagnosed in the United States this year. Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer, and the cost of treating skin cancer in the United States (both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer) is estimated to be in excess of $2.9 billion a year. In addition to causing skin cancer, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. Recent studies in my laboratory have focused on understanding the initial molecular events that induce immune suppression. We made two novel observations: first UV-induced keratinocyte-derived platelet activating factor plays a role in the induction of immune suppression. Second, cis-urocanic acid, a skin-derived immunosuppressive compound mediates immune suppression by binding to serotonin receptors on target cells. Recent findings suggest that blocking the binding of these compounds to their receptors not only inhibits UV-induced immune suppression but it also interferes with skin cancer induction.

  9. Skin Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sumul Ashok; Kampp, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Although the signs and symptoms of the 3 most common skin malignancies are well known to physicians, any new or changing lesions should be monitored and worked up to rule out varying forms of cutaneous malignancy. Classic presenting features of each condition exist, but patients may present with overlapping or atypical features, and a biopsy is almost always required to definitively determine the true nature of each disorder. Given the intense psychosocial ramifications of skin cancer diagnosis and treatment, early detection remains the hallmark in producing favorable outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spallone, Giulia; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.costanzo@uniroma2.it [Department of Dermatology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via Montpellier 1, 00199, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-03

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC), representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC). The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  11. Optical mapping of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Neel, Victor; Anderson, Richard R.

    2004-07-01

    More than two million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancers are diagnosed every year. Therefore, there is a strong need for practical, reliable, rapid, and precise methods for tumor delineation, to guide surgery and other treatments of skin cancer. Once developed, such methods may be useful for squamous cell carcinomas of other organs. Non-invasive optical imaging techniques including polarization sensitive reflectance and fluorescence imaging were evaluated for the demarcation of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Thick freshly excised tumor specimens obtained from Mohs surgery were used for the experiments. Imaging was performed using linearly polarized incident light in the visible and near infrared spectral range from 577 nm to 750 nm. Non-toxic absorbing and fluorescent dyes (Toluidine Blue O, Methylene Blue) were employed to enhance tumor contrast in the images. The images were acquired using the remitted light polarized in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the polarization of incident light. Reflectance and fluorescence polarization images were evaluated. The data were processed and analyzed for dependence of the remitted light polarization on the tissue type (cancerous/normal). The data obtained so far from fresh tumor specimens in vitro using dye-enhanced polarized light reflectance, and exogenous fluorescence polarization imaging suggest that optical mapping can become a valuable guidance tool in nonmelanoma cancer surgery.

  12. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Spallone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC, representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC. The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  13. The cutting edge of skin cancer in transplant recipients: scientific retreat of international transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative and Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Patients Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, A; Colegio, O R

    2014-05-01

    The International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC) is an organization of more than 300 physicians and scientists focused on the study of dermatologic changes following solid organ transplantation. Transplant patients have a 100-fold increased risk of developing skin cancer. In October 2012, ITSCC and its European counterpart Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Patients Europe held a joint biennial retreat in Essex, MA to discuss novel findings in the pathogenesis and management of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients. This meeting report is a summary of the novel findings discussed.

  14. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke;

    2016-01-01

    a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. STUDY POPULATION: The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen......'s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. MAIN VARIABLES: Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables...... in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen's disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. CONCLUSION: The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after...

  15. Sunlight and Skin Cancer: Lessons from the Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrich, Stephen E

    2007-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight induces skin cancer development. Skin cancer is the most common form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of 1.5 million new cases of skin cancer (www.cancer.org/statistics) will be diagnosed in the United States this year Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from sk...

  16. Sunlight and Skin Cancer: Lessons from the Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrich, Stephen E

    2007-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight induces skin cancer development. Skin cancer is the most common form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of 1.5 million new cases of skin cancer (www.cancer.org/statistics) will be diagnosed in the United States this year Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from sk...

  17. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. Study population The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen’s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Main variables Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. Descriptive data In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen’s disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. Conclusion The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance. PMID:27822110

  18. Epithelial ovarian cancer and the occurrence of skin cancer in the Netherlands: histological type connotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, G.C. van; Bulten, J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the

  19. Epithelial ovarian cancer and the occurrence of skin cancer in the Netherlands: histological type connotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, G.C. van; Bulten, J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the epit

  20. Non-melanoma skin cancer incidence and impact of skin cancer screening on incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemann, Nora; Waldmann, Annika; Geller, Alan C; Weinstock, Martin A; Volkmer, Beate; Greinert, Ruediger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Katalinic, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy, whose public health significance is often unrecognized. This analysis has two objectives: first, to provide up-to-date incidence estimates by sex, age group, histological type, and body site; and second, to study the impact of skin cancer screening. The impact of screening on NMSC incidence in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, is analyzed by comparing four time periods of different screening settings (no screening (1998-2000), pilot project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany, SCREEN, 2003-2004), after SCREEN (2004-2008), and nation-wide skin cancer screening (2008-2010)) to a reference region (Saarland, Germany). Age-standardized (Europe) NMSC incidence was 119/100,000 for women and 145/100,000 for men in the most recent screening period in Schleswig-Holstein (2008-2010). During implementation of SCREEN (2003-2004), incidence increased from 81.5/100,000 to 111.5/100,000 (1998-2000) by 47% for women and 34% for men. All age groups in women were affected by the increase, but increases for men were mostly limited to the older age groups. Incidence in Saarland first increased slowly, but increased steeply with the introduction of the nation-wide skin cancer screening in 2008 (+47% for women and +40% for men, reference 2004-2008). Observed changes are most likely attributed to screening activities.

  1. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberg AL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anna Lei Lamberg,1 Henrik Sølvsten,2 Ulrikke Lei,3 Gabrielle Randskov Vinding,3 Ida Marie Stender,4 Gregor Borut Ernst Jemec,5 Tine Vestergaard,6 Henrik Thormann,7 Merete Hædersdal,8 Tomas Norman Dam,9 Anne Braae Olesen10 1Dermatology Clinic, Grenaa, Central Denmark Region, 2Dermatology Clinic, Aalborg, North Denmark Region, 3Department of Dermato-Allergology, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Gentofte, 4Dermatology Clinic, Charlottenlund, Capital Region of Denmark, 5Department of Dermatology, Roskilde Hospital, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, Zealand Region, 6Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 7Dermatology Clinic, Vejle, Region of Southern Denmark, 8Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, 9Dermatology Clinic, Nykøbing Falster, Zealand Region, 10Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus, Central Denmark Region, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. Study population: The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC, squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Main variables: Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and

  2. The immune system and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sherry H; Bordeaux, Jeremy S; Baron, Elma D

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenesis involves multiple mechanisms that disturb genomic integrity and encourage abnormal proliferation. The immune system plays an integral role in maintaining homeostasis and these mechanisms may arrest or enhance dysplasia. There exists a large body of evidence from organ transplantation literature supporting the significance of the immune suppression in the development of skin cancer. Nonmelanoma skin cancers are the most frequent neoplasms after organ transplantation, with organ transplant recipients having a 65-fold increase in squamous cell carcinoma incidence and 10-fold increase in basal cell carcinoma incidence. Similarly, UV-radiation (UVR) induced immunosuppression is correlated with the development of cutaneous malignancies in a dose-dependent manner. This was first shown several decades ago by Margaret Kripke, when transplanted tumors were rejected in mice with competent immune systems, but grew unchecked in immunosuppressed specimens. After UV exposure, chromophores initiate a cascade that leads to immunosuppression via derangement of Langerhans cells' antigen-presenting capacity. UV-irradiated Langerhans cells present antigens to Th2 cells, but fail to stimulate Th1 cells. A subset of T regulatory cells, specific for the antigen encountered after UVR, is also stimulated to proliferate. In general UV irradiation leads to a greater number of T regulatory cells and fewer effector T cells in the skin, shiftingthe balance from T-cell-mediated immunity to immunosuppression. These regulatory cells have the phenotype CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+, CTLA-4+. These and many other changes in local immunity lead to a suppressed immune state, which allow for skin cancer development.

  3. Diagnostic competence of Swiss general practitioners in skin cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Badertscher, Nina; Braun, Ralph P; Held, Ulrike; Kofmehl, Reto; Senn, Oliver; Hofbauer, Günther F L; Rossi, Pascal O; Wensing, Michel; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    ...) are often faced with suspicious skin lesions in their patients. The aim of our study was to assess GPs' competence to diagnose skin cancer and to examine whether this can be improved by a one-day dermatologic education programme...

  4. Radiation Therapy in Elderly Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the long term results (local control, survival, failure, and complications) after radiation therapy for skin cancer in elderly patients. The study spanned from January 1990 to October 2002. Fifteen elderly patients with skin cancer were treated by radiotherapy at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The age distribution of the patients surveyed was 72 to 95 years, with a median age of 78.8 years. The pathologic classification of the 15 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (10 patients), basal cell carcinoma (3 patients), verrucous carcinoma (1 patient) and skin adnexal origin carcinoma (1 patient). The most common tumor location was the head (13 patients). The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm (range 2 to 9 cm). The radiation dose was delivered via an electron beam of 6 to 15 MeV. The dose range was adjusted to the tumor diameter and depth of tumor invasion. The total radiation dose ranged from 50{approx}80 Gy (mean: 66 Gy) with a 2 Gy fractional dose prescribed to the 80% isodose line once a day and 5 times a week. One patient with lymph node metastasis was treated with six MV photon beams boosted with electron beams. The length of the follow-up periods ranged from 10 to 120 months with a median follow-up period of 48 months. The local control rates were 100% (15/15). In addition, the five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 80% and twelve patients (80%) had no recurrence and skin cancer recurrence occurred in 3 patients (20%). Three patients have lived an average of 90 months (68{approx}120 months) without recurrence or metastasis. A total of 9 patients who died as a result of other causes had a mean survival time of 55.8 months after radiation therapy. No severe acute or chronic complications were observed after radiation therapy. Only minor complications including radiation dermatitis was treated with supportive care. The results suggest that radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment method for the treatment of skin

  5. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.

  6. Skin cancer in skin of color: an update on current facts, trends, and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie, Claire; Gohara, Mona; Verschoore, Michèle; Roberts, Wendy

    2013-02-01

    For many fair-skinned individuals around the world, skin cancer is the leading malignancy. Although skin cancer comprises only 1% to 2% of all malignancies in those with darker complexions, the mortality rates in this subgroup are substantially higher when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This discrepancy is largely as a result of delayed detection/treatment, and a false perception among patient and physician that brown skin confers complete protection against skin cancer. Recent studies show that 65% of surveyed African Americans never wore sunscreen, despite living in sunny climates, and that more than 60% of minority respondents erroneously believed that they were not at risk for skin cancer. Dark skin offers some protection from ultraviolet (UV) light. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in skin of color, a phenomenon that is accentuated by mixed heritage. Ethnicity does not confer skin type anymore. People of color do experience sunburn, and from a biological point of view, all skin types appear to be sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage, with an inverse relationship between skin color and sensitivity to UV light. Our population is changing rapidly, and within the next few decades minority populations will become the majority. It is therefore imperative to educate both physicians and patients on the perceived immunity against cutaneous malignancies, the need for sun protection, and the clinical signs of skin cancer in non-Caucasian people, so that future unnecessary mortality can be avoided.

  7. Decreased risk of prostate cancer after skin cancer diagnosis: A protective role of ultraviolet radiation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); S. Houterman (Saskia); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractUltraviolet radiation causes skin cancer but may protect against prostate cancer. The authors hypothesized that skin cancer patients had a lower prostate cancer incidence than the general population. In the southeastern part of the Netherlands, a population-based cohort of male skin

  8. Decreased risk of prostate cancer after skin cancer diagnosis: A protective role of ultraviolet radiation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); S. Houterman (Saskia); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractUltraviolet radiation causes skin cancer but may protect against prostate cancer. The authors hypothesized that skin cancer patients had a lower prostate cancer incidence than the general population. In the southeastern part of the Netherlands, a population-based cohort of male skin canc

  9. Epidermoid carcinoma of the skin mimicking breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Neto, Baltasar; Oliveira, Giuliano da Paz; Vieira, Sabas Carlos; Leal, Livio Rodrigues; Melo Junior, José Andrade de Carvalho; Vieira, Cyro Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most frequent cancer in the world. Squamous cell cancer often occurs in sun-exposed areas, such as the head and neck. When it involves the breast and ulce-rates, invading the glandular parenchyma, it may mimic breast cancer. Confirmation by means of histopathological examination, combined with clinical examination, is a critical instrument for the accuracy of the diagnosis. We report a case of an epidermoid carcinoma located on the breast skin, initially diagnosed as breast cancer.

  10. Cognitive adaptation to nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska, Zofia; Radiotis, George; Roberts, Nicole; Körner, Annett

    2013-01-01

    Taylor's (1983) cognitive adaptation theory posits that when people go through life transitions, such as being diagnosed with a chronic disease, they adjust to their new reality. The adjustment process revolves around three themes: search for positive meaning in the experience or optimism, attempt to regain a sense of mastery in life, as well as an effort to enhance self-esteem. In the sample of 57 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer the Cognitive Adaptation Index successfully predicted participants' distress (p accounting for 60% of the variance and lending support for the Taylor's theory of cognitive adaptation in this population.

  11. [Clinicopathological confrontation. Was the skin cancer eradicated?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese, J E; Piérard, G E; Ruiz Ballon, M; Quatresooz, P

    2007-09-01

    Distinguishing complete removal of a skin cancer and its partial destruction is frequently requested by the clinicians and their patients. The information is awaited from the laboratory, but it is not always correctly interpreted by the information-seekers. The factors influencing this assessment include the combination of the nature of the antineoplastic therapy, the sampling modality of the area to be examined, and the quality of the dermatopathology procedure. In addition, the possibility of neoplastic regression linked to scarring or, conversely, the existence of a possible field cancerisation should be taken into consideration.

  12. Recognition of skin cancer and sun protective behaviors in skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Chikoti M; Wesley, Naissan O; Jackson, Brooke A

    2013-09-01

    Sun protective behaviors are not as frequently practiced in skin of color as they are amongst Caucasians.1 Thus providing a reasonable assumption this behavior, or lack thereof, increases the risk of skin cancer in this skin of color populations. The aim of this study was two-fold-- the first was to understand whether patients with skin of color, when categorized by ethnicity or skin type, are able to recognize skin cancer lesions. The second was to examine the correlation between ethnicity and/or skin type and practice of sun protective behaviors. We surveyed 105 respondents presenting for various skin problems in a dermatology office in Chicago, IL. Topics covered in the survey included recognition of skin cancer appearance and choice of sun protective behaviors. We show that there is a tendency for patients to potentially recognize atypical pigmented lesions when they are "dark moles with irregular borders" or "new moles". In contrast, there is a reduced ability among darkly pigmented skin types IV to VI, to recognize non-melanoma skin cancers. We also show that in addition to ethnicity, skin type within ethnic groups may also play an influential role on the decision to protect or not protect oneself from the sun.

  13. A regional programme to improve skin cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoch, Graham R; Sycamore, Mark J; Shand, Brett I; Simcock, Jeremy W

    2015-12-01

    In 2008, public specialist and general practice services in Canterbury were unable to manage demand for skin cancer treatment. Local clinicians decided the solution was to develop a see-and-treat skin excision clinic staffed by plastic surgeons and general practitioners (GPs), and the introduction of subsidised excisions in general practice. This paper describes the collaboration between clinicians, managers and funders and the results and quality management measures of these initiatives. There is an increasing incidence of skin cancer. GPs in Canterbury were unable to meet increasing demand for skin cancer treatment because some lacked confidence and competence in skin cancer management. There was no public funding for primary care management of skin cancer, driving patients to fully funded secondary care services. Secondary care services were at capacity, with no coordinated programme across primary and secondary care. The programme has resulted in a greater number of skin cancers being treated by the public health system, a reduction in waiting times for treatment, and fewer minor skin lesions being referred to secondary care. Quality measures have been achieved and are improving steadily. Development of the programme has improved working relationships between primary and secondary care clinicians. The strategy was to facilitate the working relationship between primary and secondary care and increase the capacity for skin lesion excisions in both sectors. Skin cancer management can be improved by a coordinated approach between primary and secondary care.

  14. The role of skin self-examination at the Swiss skin cancer day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Meier, M.; Rosemann, T.; Braun, R.; Cozzio, A.; Tag, B.; Wensing, M.; Tandjung, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of melanoma - Switzerland has the highest incidence in Europe - is a major public health challenge. Swiss dermatologist introduced the "Swiss Skin Cancer Day" (SSCD) in 2006, which provides skin cancer screening at no costs. The aim of the study was to describe the

  15. The role of skin self-examination at the Swiss skin cancer day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Meier, M.; Rosemann, T.; Braun, R.; Cozzio, A.; Tag, B.; Wensing, M.; Tandjung, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of melanoma - Switzerland has the highest incidence in Europe - is a major public health challenge. Swiss dermatologist introduced the "Swiss Skin Cancer Day" (SSCD) in 2006, which provides skin cancer screening at no costs. The aim of the study was to describe the p

  16. The role of skin self-examination at the Swiss skin cancer day

    OpenAIRE

    Badertscher, N; Meier, M.; T. Rosemann; Braun, R.; Cozzio, A.; Tag, B.; Wensing, M.; Tandjung, R

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising incidence of melanoma – Switzerland has the highest incidence in Europe - is a major public health challenge. Swiss dermatologist introduced the “Swiss Skin Cancer Day” (SSCD) in 2006, which provides skin cancer screening at no costs. The aim of the study was to describe the participating subjects and their motivation and investigate factors influencing the probability of a clinical diagnosis of skin malignancy. Methods 150 dermatologists were involved in the SSCD in May...

  17. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, Nicole; Vogt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans. There are several types of skin cancer that include basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). The associations of vDr polymorphisms with skin cancer risk are not well characterized so far. Only a few epidemiologic studies have directly addressed the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and the incidence and prognosis of MM. To make the most of the available information on VDR polymorphisms and skin cancer (MM, BCC and SCC), we undertook a systematic review of published studies. In conclusion, data summarized in this review support the concept that the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) is of importance for pathogenesis and progression of MM and other types of skin cancer. PMID:22110781

  18. Dynamic infrared imaging for skin cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Sebastián E.; Ramirez, David A.; Myers, Stephen A.; von Winckel, Greg; Krishna, Sanchita; Berwick, Marianne; Padilla, R. Steven; Sen, Pradeep; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic thermal imaging (DTI) with infrared cameras is a non-invasive technique with the ability to detect the most common types of skin cancer. We discuss and propose a standardized analysis method for DTI of actual patient data, which achieves high levels of sensitivity and specificity by judiciously selecting pixels with the same initial temperature. This process compensates the intrinsic limitations of the cooling unit and is the key enabling tool in the DTI data analysis. We have extensively tested the methodology on human subjects using thermal infrared image sequences from a pilot study conducted jointly with the University of New Mexico Dermatology Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico (ClinicalTrials ID number NCT02154451). All individuals were adult subjects who were scheduled for biopsy or adult volunteers with clinically diagnosed benign condition. The sample size was 102 subjects for the present study. Statistically significant results were obtained that allowed us to distinguish between benign and malignant skin conditions. The sensitivity and specificity was 95% (with a 95% confidence interval of [87.8% 100.0%]) and 83% (with a 95% confidence interval of [73.4% 92.5%]), respectively, and with an area under the curve of 95%. Our results lead us to conclude that the DTI approach in conjunction with the judicious selection of pixels has the potential to provide a fast, accurate, non-contact, and non-invasive way to screen for common types of skin cancer. As such, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of biopsies performed on suspicious lesions.

  19. Predictors of skin cancer in commercial airline pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Christopher J.; Kilmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skin cancers among commercial airline pilots have been reported to occur at increased rates in pilot populations worldwide. The reasons for these increases are unclear, but postulated factors include ionizing radiation, circadian disruption and leisure sun exposure. Aims To investigate the potential association of these occupational and lifestyle factors, as well as medical history and skin type, with non-melanoma skin cancer in pilots. Methods Data were collected using a confidential Internet survey administered in collaboration with the Air Line Pilots Association International to all active pilots in four US commercial airlines. Pilots with non-melanoma skin cancer were compared to those without using multivariable analysis. Results The response rate was 19%. Among pilots flying <20 years prior to diagnosis, factors associated with increased odds of non-melanoma skin cancer were at-risk skin type, childhood sunburns and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer. Off-duty sunscreen use and family history of melanoma were protective. Among pilots with ≥20 years flight time prior to diagnosis, childhood sunburns and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer persisted as risk factors, with the addition of flight time at high latitude. Conclusions Further investigation regarding the potential health impact of long-term flying at high latitudes is recommended. Additionally, occupational health programmes for pilots should stress awareness of and protection against established risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. PMID:19465434

  20. Early detection of skin cancer: experience of a skin cancer prevention campaign in Piauí-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bandeira Lages

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between the diagnoses of skin cancer and known risk factors through analysis of data from the National Skin Cancer Prevention Campaign held by Brazilian Society of Dermatology in the state of Piauí, Brazil, in recent years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive and analytical report using quantitative data obtained from a prevention campaign in the state of Piauí, in 2009 and 2010. Collected data was submitted to a descriptive analysis, and multivariate logistic regression, using as dependent variable the skin cancer diagnosis. Results: In 2009 and 2010, this campaign was responsible for 1141 consultations, diagnosing 122 (10.7% cases of skin cancer: 108 basal cell carcinomas (BCC, 10 squamous cell (SCC and four melanomas. Of those examined, 35.4% were male, 73.1% reported inadequate sun protection, 16.4% had a family history of skin cancer and 7.2% had personal history. Those with history of skin cancer were 5.24 times more likely to have a new diagnosis of cancer, while those presenting non-black skin were 4.91 times more likely to diagnosis. Conclusion: Personal or family history of epithelial neoplasia, non-colored black skin and the male gender were associated to higher chances of developing skin cancer. In addition, unprotected sun exposure remains routine.

  1. Main types of skin cancer and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rachel Louise

    This first in a two-part series on skin cancer gives an overview of the most common types and outlines the main treatment options. Part 2, to be published next week, discusses the causes of and risk factors for skin cancer, highlighting those people who are most at risk and the importance of early diagnosis.

  2. Diagnostic competence of Swiss general practitioners in skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Badertscher, N; Braun, R P; Held, U; Kofmehl, R; Senn, O; Hofbauer, G.F.; Rossi, P O; Wensing, M.J.; Rosemann, T.; Tandjung, R

    2013-01-01

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: In Switzerland, skin cancer is one of the most prevalent neoplasms. General practitioners (GPs) are often faced with suspicious skin lesions in their patients. The aim of our study was to assess GPs' competence to diagnose skin cancer and to examine whether this can be improved by a one-day dermatologic education programme. METHODS: Study design: Pre / post-intervention study. Study population: 78 GPs in the Canton of Zurich. Intervention: A one day dermatologic educ...

  3. Skin cancer: an overview of epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Randy

    2013-08-01

    To provide a general overview of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and the multiple and varied risk factors associated with skin cancer. Peer-reviewed journal articles, government health reports, book chapters, and Web-based resources. Skin cancer is the most common carcinoma, affecting millions worldwide. Incidence is increasing yearly, making it a pre-eminent public health threat. Myriad factors increase the risk of skin cancer and may serve as important prognostic indicators for the disease. To provide nurses with a clearer understanding of the causative mechanisms of skin cancer and an improved awareness of the risk factors associated with the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aspirin for the primary prevention of skin cancer: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yun; Cheng, Yang; Luo, Rong-Cheng; Li, Ai-Min

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. There are three major skin cancer types: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. General risk factors for skin cancer include fair skin, a history of tanning and sunburn, family history of skin cancer, exposure to ultraviolet rays and a large number of moles. The incidence of skin cancer has increased in the USA in recent years. Aspirin intake is associated with chemoprotection against the development of a ...

  5. The Role of Antioxidants in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Godic; Borut Poljšak; Metka Adamic; Raja Dahmane

    2014-01-01

    Skin cells are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress from exogenous and endogenous sources. UV radiation is the most important environmental factor in the development of skin cancer and skin aging. The primary products caused by UV exposure are generally direct DNA oxidation or generation of free radicals which form and decompose extremely quickly but can produce effects that can last for hours, days, or even years. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin d...

  6. The Role of Antioxidants in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Godic; Borut Poljšak; Metka Adamic; Raja Dahmane

    2014-01-01

    Skin cells are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress from exogenous and endogenous sources. UV radiation is the most important environmental factor in the development of skin cancer and skin aging. The primary products caused by UV exposure are generally direct DNA oxidation or generation of free radicals which form and decompose extremely quickly but can produce effects that can last for hours, days, or even years. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin d...

  7. Parents' perceptions of skin cancer threat and children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alexander D; Aalborg, Jenny; Asdigian, Nancy L; Morelli, Joseph G; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Dellavalle, Robert P; Berwick, Marianne; Box, Neil F; Crane, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer, but without physical activity, children are at risk of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between parental perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in children. This is a cross-sectional analysis nested within the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program sun safety intervention trial. In summer 2007, parent telephone interviews provided data on demographics, perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, and physical activity. Physical examinations provided data on phenotype, freckling, and BMI. Data from 999 Colorado children born in 1998 were included in analysis. We used analysis of variance, Spearman's rho (ρ) correlation, and multivariable linear regression analysis to evaluate relationships with total amount of outdoor physical activity. After controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, skin color, and sun protection, regression analysis showed that each unit increase in perceived severity of nonmelanoma skin cancer was associated with a 30% increase in hours of outdoor physical activity (P = .005). Hours of outdoor physical activity were not related to perceived severity of melanoma or perceived susceptibility to skin cancer. BMI-for-age was not significantly correlated with perceptions of skin cancer threat, use of sun protection, or level of physical activity. The promotion of sun safety is not likely to inhibit physical activity. Skin cancer prevention programs should continue to promote midday sun avoidance and sun protection during outdoor activities.

  8. Clinicopathological evaluation of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Adinarayan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, in combination, are referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs. NMSC is not as extensively studied in the Asian population as it is in the Caucasian population. Aim: This study sought to evaluate the clinical and histopathologic aspects of NMSC from cases of cutaneous malignancies. Materials and Methods: The present study is a descriptive analysis of NMSC specimens seen at Department of Pathology, SSIMS and RC, Davangere. Histologically diagnosed NMSC, i.e. BCC and SCC specimens from January 2005 to December 2009 were analyzed according to site distribution, risk factors and histological variants. Results: Of the various specimens received during the 5year study period, 60 were histologically categorized as skin malignancies, of which 31(51.6% cases were of NMSC. SCC was the most common NMSC constituting 26 (83.9% cases and 5 NMSC cases (16.1% were of BCC. The most common incidence was among the age group 60-80 years (80% for BCC and 40-60 years (50% for SCC. Head and neck was the most common site of presentation with predilection for face. Forty-six percent of SCC was histologically categorized as well differentiated, 42.3% as moderately differentiated and 11.5% as poorly differentiated. Most common histological variant of BCC was solid (nodular type. Conclusion: NMSC often associated with greater morbidity, necessitating increased efforts to assess risk factors in individuals, to encourage periodic self-examination and professional evaluation of skin and to optimize strategies for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-08-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P < 0.0001). The average skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P < 0.0001). Our results show that sunbathing has an impact on skin temperature, which possibly by activation of the heat shock response, is likely to contribute to the immediate and delayed effects of UV in a way that has to be found out in future studies.

  10. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy...... volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when...... indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P skin temperature, which possibly...

  11. Validity of patient skin cancer report among organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybbro, Eric; Mihalis, Eva; Hirose, Ryutaro; Arron, Sarah T

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a common, potentially life-threatening malignancy in organ transplant recipients (OTR), and it is important for transplant physicians to be aware of patient history of skin cancer. Patient self-report represents a quick method of obtaining past medical history of skin cancer but no study has validated the self-report of skin cancer among OTR. Among 339 OTR with a history of skin cancer, the sensitivity and specificity of self-report of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) were 1.00 and 0.92, with a correct classification rate of 0.92. Breakdown of NMSC into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) resulted in a decrease in correct classification, to 0.83 for SCC and 0.74 for BCC. For SCC, sensitivity was 0.81 and specificity was 0.83, while BCC had a sensitivity of 0.52 and specificity of 0.86. Melanoma self-report had a sensitivity of 0.90 and specificity of 0.86, with a correct classification rate of 0.90. Overall, OTR have comparable accuracy of self-report with the general population. Owing to the high prevalence and increased risk of metastatic potential of skin cancer in this population, the ability to distinguish between cancer types is an important consideration in the dermatologic care of OTR.

  12. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumi, K. C.; Gina Shaw-Hallgren; Ramin Massoumi

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins posttranslationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcin...

  13. Early Detection and Classification of Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hanon. Alasadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin. It can affect the skin only, or it may spread to the organs and bones. It is less common, but more serious and aggressive than other types of skin cancer. Melanoma can be of benign or malignant. Malignant melanoma is the dangerous condition, while benign is not. In order to reduce the death rate due to malignant melanoma skin cancer, it is necessary to diagnose it at an early stage. In this paper, a detection system has been designed for diagnosing melanoma in early stages by using digital image processing techniques. The system consists of two phases: the first phase detects whether the pigmented skin lesion is malignant or benign; the second phase recognizes malignant melanoma skin cancer types. Both first and second phases have several stages. The experimental results are acceptable.

  14. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  15. OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini;

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides clinicians and researchers with micrometer-resolution, in vivo, cross-sectional images of human skin up to several millimeter depth. This review of OCT imaging applied within dermatology covers the application of OCT to normal skin, and reports on a lar...... number of applications in the fields of non-melanoma skin cancer, malignant melanomas, psoriasis and dermatitis, infestations, bullous skin diseases, tattoos, nails, haemangiomas, and other skin diseases. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  16. Cumulative life course impairment in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaserico, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Patients with skin cancer remain at risk for disease progression or relapse for many years. Therefore, skin cancer may be considered a chronic, life-threatening disease. It could impact on patients lifestyles and social and professional activities. Although no direct study of cumulative life course impairment (CLCI) in skin cancer patients has been carried out, a few studies suggest that skin cancer may strongly impair quality of life and eventually determine a significant CLCI (melanoma more than nonmelanoma skin cancer). Obviously, the life course of patients with melanoma at an advanced stage of the disease may change considerably. A number of cancer-associated problems may determine a CLCI, including familial or professional changes and a reduction of life expectancy may eventually lead to social withdrawal and depressive disorders. Even patients with a low stage disease may experience an important impairment of quality of life and in some cases a CLCI. Some skin cancer patients may have physical and psychological after effects from their cancer surgery. Several patients complain about lymphedema, discomfort experienced from wearing surgical stockings, and diminished range of physical motion postsurgery. A few are concerned about their body image due to surgical scars, and they may consider changing their job position because of the supposed negative impact of scars in visible sites on their ability to perform their job. Some female melanoma survivors may have a reduced desire of having children in the future.

  17. The role of skin self-examination at the Swiss skin cancer day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badertscher, Nina; Meier, Muriel; Rosemann, Thomas; Braun, Ralph; Cozzio, Antonio; Tag, Brigitte; Wensing, Michel; Tandjung, Ryan

    2014-11-19

    The rising incidence of melanoma - Switzerland has the highest incidence in Europe - is a major public health challenge. Swiss dermatologist introduced the "Swiss Skin Cancer Day" (SSCD) in 2006, which provides skin cancer screening at no costs. The aim of the study was to describe the participating subjects and their motivation and investigate factors influencing the probability of a clinical diagnosis of skin malignancy. 150 dermatologists were involved in the SSCD in May 2012. Dermatologists were not remunerated. Participants had the opportunity to show a single skin lesion to a dermatologist at no cost. A questionnaire for each participating subject collected data about subjects' age, sex, risk factors and reason for encounter; furthermore the dermatologist noted down clinical diagnosis and further management. We used descriptive statistics to report characteristics of participants and skin lesions. We built two multiple logistic regression models, one regarding the clinical diagnosis of skin malignancy and one regarding the further management. 5266 subjects (55.6% female) were assessed; in 308 (5.8%) participants a clinical diagnosis of skin malignancy was found. In 1732 participants (32.9%) a clinical follow up or an excision was recommended. In the multiple logistic regression model age, sex, skin phototype and the reason for participation at the SSCD were found as significant risk factors regarding the clinical diagnosis of skin malignancy. Participants with skin cancer risk factors were more likely to get a clinical follow up recommended even if the clinical diagnosis was benign. A self-perceived suspicious lesion was the strongest predictor for a clinical diagnosis of skin malignancy at the SSCD. This suggests that skin self-examination might also work in general population. Future research should focus on better access to a specialist in case a suspicious skin lesion was discovered. Safety and quality of the SSCD should be further investigated

  18. Inflammation and skin cancer: old pals telling new stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Sabine; Mueller, Margareta M

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and the inflammatory infiltrate essentially contribute to tumor development and progression. For skin cancer, the observation that tumors arise in sites of chronic irritation and inflammation dates back to 1828 and has stimulated a whole field of research. Numerous animal models such as models of UV-induced or chemically induced skin carcinogenesis but also trangenic models support the role of a deregulated inflammation in the development of skin cancer. These models have greatly contributed to our understanding of the multistage process of carcinogenesis and have given important insights in the differences between physiological inflammation in a healing wound and the functional contribution of the deregulated tumor-associated inflammation to skin cancer growth and progression. Data from these models are supported by epidemiological studies that emphasize a connection of inflammatory conditions with the development of melanoma and epithelial skin cancer and give first indications for a beneficial effect of anti-inflammatory treatments in reducing the risk for skin cancer. Consequently, anti-inflammatory drugs might represent a highly interesting approach in the prevention and treatment of skin cancers.

  19. The epidemiology of skin cancer and its trend in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Razi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common cancers is skin cancer worldwide. Since incidence and cost of treatment of the cancer are increasing, it is necessary to further investigate to prevent and control this disease. This study aimed to determine skin cancer trend and epidemiology in Iran. Methods: This study was done based on existing data. Data used in this study were obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2004-2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. Results: Based on the results of this study, the incidence of skin cancer is rising in Iran and the sex ratio was more in men than women in all provinces. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR of skin cancer was highest in males in Semnan, Isfahan, and Hamedan provinces (34.9, 30.80, and 28.84, respectively. The highest ASRs were seen in females in Semnan, Yazd, and Isfahan provinces (26.7, 24.14, and 18.97, respectively. The lowest ASR in male was observed in Sistan and Baluchestan, and in female in Hormozgan provinces. Conclusions: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the country. Therefore, the plan for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers.

  20. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer.

  1. Impact of skin cancer screening and secondary prevention campaigns on skin cancer incidence and mortality: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunssen, Alicia; Waldmann, Annika; Eisemann, Nora; Katalinic, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Benefits of skin cancer screening remain controversial. We sought to update evidence on the impact of skin cancer screening and secondary prevention campaigns on skin cancer incidence, mortality, stage-specific incidence, and interval cancers after negative screening. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies published in English or German between January 1, 2005, and February 4, 2015. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, data extraction, and critical appraisal. Results were described in a narrative synthesis. Of 2066 records identified in databases and 10 records found by manual search, we included 15 articles. Overall, evidence suggests that with implementation of skin cancer screening, incidence of in situ and invasive skin cancer increased; increasing rates of thin and decreasing rates of thick melanoma were observed. After cessation of screening, invasive melanoma incidence decreased. A significant melanoma mortality reduction was shown in a German study; 2 other studies observed fewer deaths than expected. No study on interval cancers was identified. Publication bias cannot be ruled out. Most studies are limited because of their ecological design. Large ecological studies, a cohort study, a case-control study, and a survey indicate benefits of skin cancer screening, but the evidence level is very low. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Automated skin segmentation in ultrasonic evaluation of skin toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Chen, Hao; Torres, Mylin; Yoshida, Emi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Curran, Walter; Liu, Tian

    2013-11-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and -3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 World

  3. Skin metastases from lung cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajaziti, Laura; Hapçiu, Syzana Rexhepi; Dobruna, Shkendije; Hoxha, Naim; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Pajaziti, Artina

    2015-04-11

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies, with high mortality rates. It can metastasize in almost all organs, but more often invades hilar nodes, liver, adrenal glands, bones and brain. There are various data on the incidence of lung cancer metastases in the skin. In 1-12% of patients with lung cancer are developed skin metastases. Metastases in the skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Forty-five years old Albanian male, smoker, was admitted to our department with multiple nodules localized in the skin of the head, neck, back and chest. The nodules measuring 5-15 millimeters in greatest dimension were round and skin-colored, with telangiectasias, firm and tender. They appeared in an eruptive form about two weeks before being admitted at our hospital. In addition, the patient exhibited signs of weight loss, anorexia and fatigue. Excisional biopsy was performed to one of the lesions. Histopathology confirmed metastatic nature of the lesion namely, malignant tumor of neuroendocrine phenotype consistent with small-cell carcinoma. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed an expansive process in the 7(th) segment of the left lung, left hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a suspicious initial secondary deposit in the left adrenal gland. The patient was referred to the department of oncology for further treatment. After the third cycle of chemotherapy, the magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain metastases. The patient passed away four months after the diagnosis of lung cancer first presented with skin metastases. Metastases in skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Although rare appearing, we should raise suspicion in cases of atypical lesions in the skin not only of the smokers, but also of the non-smokers. Skin metastases from small-cell lung carcinoma are a poor prognostic indicator. The appearance of multiple skin metastases with other internal metastases shorten the survival time.

  4. Diagnosis of skin cancer using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Coronel-Beltrán, Ángel

    2014-10-01

    In this papera methodology for classifying skin cancerin images of dermatologie spots based on spectral analysis using the K-law Fourier non-lineartechnique is presented. The image is segmented and binarized to build the function that contains the interest area. The image is divided into their respective RGB channels to obtain the spectral properties of each channel. The green channel contains more information and therefore this channel is always chosen. This information is point to point multiplied by a binary mask and to this result a Fourier transform is applied written in nonlinear form. If the real part of this spectrum is positive, the spectral density takeunit values, otherwise are zero. Finally the ratio of the sum of the unit values of the spectral density with the sum of values of the binary mask are calculated. This ratio is called spectral index. When the value calculated is in the spectral index range three types of cancer can be detected. Values found out of this range are benign injure.

  5. Chemotherapy resistance mechanisms in advanced skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a most dangerous and deadly type of skin cancer, and considered intrinsically resistant to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It has become a major public health concern as the incidence of melanoma has been rising steadily over recent decades with a 5-year survival remaining less than 5%. Detection of the disease in early stage may be curable, but late stage metastatic disease that has spread to other organs has an extremely poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 10 months. Since metastatic melanoma is unresponsive to therapy that is currently available, research is now focused on different treatment strategies such as combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The molecular basis of resistance to chemotherapy seen in melanoma is multifactorial; defective drug transport system, altered apoptotic pathway, deregulation of apoptosis and/or changes in enzymatic systems that mediate cellular metabolic machinery. Understanding of alterations in molecular processes involved in drug resistance may help in developing new therapeutic approaches to treatment of malignant melanoma.

  6. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Ruth M [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cole, Bryan E [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Wallace, Vincent P [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pye, Richard J [Department of Dermatology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Arnone, Donald D [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Linfield, Edmund H [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pepper, Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-07

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Zosteriform skin metastases: Clue to an undiagnosed breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha C Virmani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastases represent the most devastating aspect of malignancy, since the mortality of cancer patients is mainly related to the metastatic behavior of the primary neoplasm. Skin metastases are usually late events in the course of tumor progression. Excluding melanoma, the most common tumor to metastasize to the skin is breast cancer. Patients who develop cutaneous metastases rarely present with a zosteriform distribution. Herein, we present a 60-year-old female, an undiagnosed case of breast cancer, with zosteriform metastases along her right T2-T3 dermatome.

  8. Photosensitizing medication use and risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Boyd, Heather A; Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear.......Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear....

  9. Update on skin cancer incidence and mortality in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of skin cancer shows interplay between host susceptibility, (ultraviolet) environment, socioeconomical conditions and behavioural patterns. Its etiology is not yet fully elucidated and reveals intriguing questions. Fair-skinned populations have experienced over the last 60 years a rapid increase in the incidence of melanoma which is unparalleled by any other cancer, although signs of levelling off and stabilization in incidence have recently been observed in some countries. ...

  10. Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Nonwhite Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Ellen N; Doyle, Alden; Shaver, Christine M; Miller, Brett; Abdelmalek, Mark; Cusack, Carrie Ann; Malat, Gregory E; Chung, Christina Lee

    2016-12-01

    Organ transplant recipients have a higher incidence of skin cancer. This risk is magnified over time and with continued exposure to immunosuppression. Skin cancer in nonwhite patients is associated with greater morbidity and mortality owing to diagnosis at a more advanced stage, which suggests that nonwhite organ transplant recipients are at even higher risk. To describe demographic and clinical factors and the incidence of skin cancer in nonwhite organ transplant recipients. We performed a retrospective medical record review of patients who were organ transplant recipients (154 were white and 259 nonwhite [black, Asian, Hispanic, Pacific Islander]) seen from November 1, 2011, to April 18, 2016 at an academic referral center. Variables were analyzed and compared between racial groups, including sex, age, race/ethnicity, Fitzpatrick type, type and location of skin cancer, type of organ transplanted, time to diagnosis of skin cancer after transplantation, and history of condyloma acuminata and/or verruca vulgaris. Most of the 413 patients (62.7%) evaluated were nonwhite organ transplant recipients; 264 were men, and 149 were women. Their mean (SD) age was 60.09 (13.59) years. Nineteen skin cancers were identified in 15 patients (5.8%) representing 3 racial/ethnic groups: black (6 patients), Asian (5), and Hispanic (4). All squamous cell carcinomas in blacks were diagnosed in the in situ stage, located on sun-protected sites, and occurred in patients whose lesions tested positive for human papilloma virus (HPV) and/or who endorsed a history of condyloma acuminata or verruca vulgaris. Most skin cancers in Asians were located on sun-exposed areas and occurred in individuals who emigrated from equatorial locations. Nonwhite organ transplant recipients are at risk for developing skin cancer posttransplantation. Follow-up in a specialized transplant dermatology center and baseline total-body skin examination should be part of posttransplantation care in all organ

  11. 10th International Symposium on Head And Neck Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Balm, Alfons J M; Lohuis, Peter J F M; van der Veen, J P Wietse

    2011-07-01

    Since 1993, ten multidisciplinary symposia were organized at The Netherlands Cancer Institute on the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies of the head and neck. The symposia are meant to provide up-to-date teaching for physicians by world-renowned speakers. The previous symposia dealt with sarcomas, reconstruction, cancer in young patients, salivary glands, melanoma, unknown primaries, as well as several other topics. This 10th symposium focused on skin cancer of the head and neck. There are many types of skin cancer and the differential diagnosis can often be difficult. In this symposium, diagnosis, molecular biology, epidemiology, staging and the treatment of various skin cancers were discussed by leaders in the field. There were over 200 participants from many different countries in Europe and overseas, representing specialties in the fields of dermatology, maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology, head and neck surgery, general surgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery, and radiotherapy.

  12. Risk of skin cancer following tamoxifen treatment in more than 16,000 breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Andersson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women with breast cancer are at increased risk of developing skin cancer. Little is known about how tamoxifen affects this risk. We aimed to investigate whether tamoxifen treatment following breast cancer is associated with skin cancer. Methods: A cohort consisting of 44,589 women...... diagnosed with breast cancer during 1977–2007 from the nationwide clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, was followed for a primary skin cancer [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or melanoma] in the Danish Cancer Registry supplemented by data on BCC and SCC...... from the Danish Pathology Register. We investigated incidence of skin cancer among 16,214 women treated with tamoxifen compared to 28,375 women not treated with tamoxifen by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in Cox regression models. Results: Tamoxifen users were followed for a median of 2...

  13. Spectral biopsy for skin cancer diagnosis: initial clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin J.; Feng, Xu; Nguyen, Hieu T. M.; Zhang, Yao; Sebastian, Katherine R.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2017-02-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is a recognized public health issue. Diagnosis of skin cancer involves biopsy of the suspicious lesion followed by histopathology. Biopsies, which involve excision of the lesion, are invasive, at times unnecessary, and are costly procedures ( $2.8B/year in the US). An unmet critical need exists to develop a non-invasive and inexpensive screening method that can eliminate the need for unnecessary biopsies. To address this need, our group has reported on the continued development of a noninvasive method that utilizes multimodal spectroscopy towards the goal of a "spectral biopsy" of skin. Our approach combines Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to collect comprehensive optical property information from suspicious skin lesions. We previously described an updated spectral biopsy system that allows acquisition of all three forms of spectroscopy through a single fiber optic probe and is composed of off-the-shelf OEM components that are smaller, cheaper, and enable a more clinic-friendly system. We present initial patient data acquired with the spectral biopsy system, the first from an extensive clinical study (n = 250) to characterize its performance in identifying skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma). We also present our first attempts at analyzing this initial set of clinical data using statistical-based models, and with models currently being developed to extract biophysical information from the collected spectra, all towards the goal of noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis.

  14. Epidemiogic aspects of skin cancer in organ-transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisgerhof, Hermina Christina

    2011-01-01

    The risk of (skin) cancer is highly increased in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immunesuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. This thesis dealt with the epidemiologic aspects and risk factors for cancer focused on cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

  15. Epidemiogic aspects of skin cancer in organ-transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisgerhof, Hermina Christina

    2011-01-01

    The risk of (skin) cancer is highly increased in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immunesuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. This thesis dealt with the epidemiologic aspects and risk factors for cancer focused on cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

  16. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Masoumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins posttranslationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common types of human skin cancer, are instances where the involvement of the deubiquitination enzyme CYLD has been recently highlighted. In basal cell carcinoma, the tumor suppressor protein CYLD is repressed at the transcriptional levels through hedgehog signaling pathway. Downregulation of CYLD in basal cell carcinoma was also shown to interfere with TrkC expression and signaling, thereby promoting cancer progression. By contrast, the level of CYLD is unchanged in squamous cell carcinoma, instead, catalytic inactivation of CYLD in the skin has been linked to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. This paper will focus on the current knowledge that links CYLD to nonmelanoma skin cancers and will explore recent insights regarding CYLD regulation of NF-κB and hedgehog signaling during the development and progression of these types of human tumors.

  17. A Model Community Skin Cancer Prevention Project in Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Hayden

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our program was to create and test a community skin cancer prevention project for replication throughout the state of Maine. The project was a collaborative effort of the Maine Cancer Consortium, American Cancer Society (ACS, and the City of Portland, Health and Human Services Department, Public Health Division. Portland, Me, served as the pilot site. The National Cancer Institute (NCI defines skin cancer as a disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably in the outer layers of the skin (1. The American Cancer Society's Facts and Figures 2001 (the latest year for which these figures are available estimated that more than 1 million cases of highly curable basal cell or squamous cell cancers would be diagnosed in the United States that year (2. An estimated 9800 U.S. deaths from cancer were projected as well: 7800 from melanoma, the most serious form of skin cancer, and 2000 from other skin cancers. Melanoma was expected to be diagnosed in about 51,400 Americans in 2001. The incidence rate of melanoma has increased about 3% per year on average since 1981. In 2002, NCI announced that researchers showed for the first time that individual risk of melanoma is associated with the intensity of sunlight that a person receives over a lifetime (3. Target audiences for our program were newborns and their parents, children between 5 and 14 years old and their caregivers, and all people living in the Portland area. Protecting skin from excess sun exposure during childhood and adolescence is important in reducing the risk of all types of skin cancer during adulthood. From our anecdotal evidence, many parents of newborns are unaware that sunscreen is not recommended for babies under 6 months of age, and they need better information about how to protect their newborns from the sun. Teaching children and their caregivers to follow ACS guidelines will help protect their skin for years to come. It will also help children to develop healthy

  18. Biophysical basis for noninvasive skin cancer detection using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J.; Markey, Mia K.; Fox, Matthew C.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) is proving to be a valuable tool for real time noninvasive skin cancer detection via optical fiber probe. However, current methods utilizing RS for skin cancer diagnosis rely on statistically based algorithms to provide tissue classification and do not elucidate the underlying biophysical changes of skin tissue. Therefore, we aim to use RS to explore skin biochemical and structural characteristics and then correlate the Raman spectrum of skin tissue with its disease state. We have built a custom confocal micro-Raman spectrometer system with an 830nm laser light. The high resolution capability of the system allows us to measure spectroscopic features from individual tissue components in situ. Raman images were collected from human skin samples from Mohs surgical biopsy, which were then compared with confocal laser scanning, two-photon fluorescence and hematoxylin and eosin-stained images to develop a linear model of skin tissue Raman spectra. In this model, macroscopic tissue spectra obtained from RS fiber probe were fit into a linear combination of individual basis spectra of primary skin constituents. The fit coefficient of the model explains the biophysical changes spanning a range of normal and various disease states. The model allows for determining parameters similar to that a pathologist is familiar reading and will be a significant guidance in developing RS diagnostic decision schemes.

  19. Estimating Skin Cancer Risk: Evaluating Mobile Computer-Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaja, Ngadiman; Janda, Monika; Olsen, Catherine M; Whiteman, David C; Chien, Tsair-Wei

    2016-01-22

    Response burden is a major detriment to questionnaire completion rates. Computer adaptive testing may offer advantages over non-adaptive testing, including reduction of numbers of items required for precise measurement. Our aim was to compare the efficiency of non-adaptive (NAT) and computer adaptive testing (CAT) facilitated by Partial Credit Model (PCM)-derived calibration to estimate skin cancer risk. We used a random sample from a population-based Australian cohort study of skin cancer risk (N=43,794). All 30 items of the skin cancer risk scale were calibrated with the Rasch PCM. A total of 1000 cases generated following a normal distribution (mean [SD] 0 [1]) were simulated using three Rasch models with three fixed-item (dichotomous, rating scale, and partial credit) scenarios, respectively. We calculated the comparative efficiency and precision of CAT and NAT (shortening of questionnaire length and the count difference number ratio less than 5% using independent t tests). We found that use of CAT led to smaller person standard error of the estimated measure than NAT, with substantially higher efficiency but no loss of precision, reducing response burden by 48%, 66%, and 66% for dichotomous, Rating Scale Model, and PCM models, respectively. CAT-based administrations of the skin cancer risk scale could substantially reduce participant burden without compromising measurement precision. A mobile computer adaptive test was developed to help people efficiently assess their skin cancer risk.

  20. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one’s overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.

  1. Second primary cancers after anogenital, skin, oral, esophageal and rectal cancers: etiological links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, K; Jiang, Y; Dong, C

    2001-07-15

    The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyze second cancers after oral, esophageal, rectal, cervical, genital and skin (squamous cell carcinoma) cancers. A strong and consistent association of second cancers was observed at all these sites, in men and women. As a novel finding, an association of rectal cancer with the human papillomavirus (HVP)-related cancers was shown. New evidence on an excess of skin cancer with the HPV-related cancers was also provided. As an epidemiological study, the associations were strong and often supported by a number of comparisons. These could not be explained by bias or long-term treatment related effects. However, whether the findings on rectal and skin cancer are due to HPV or other infections, transient or inherited depressed immune function or other constitutional factors remains to be established. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Risk group, skin lesion history, and sun sensitivity reliability in squamous cell skin cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouser, Mary C; Harris, Robin B; Roe, Denise J; Saboda, Kathylynn; Ranger-Moore, James; Duckett, Laura; Alberts, David S

    2006-11-01

    In studies of skin cancer, participants are often classified into risk groups based on self-reported history of sun exposure or skin characteristics. We sought to determine the reliability of self-reported skin characteristics among participants of a study to evaluate markers for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Multiple questionnaires and screening protocols were administered over a 3-month period to individuals from three risk groups: existing sun damage on forearms but no visible actinic keratoses (n = 91), visible actinic keratoses (n = 38), and history of resected squamous cell skin cancer in the last 12 months (n = 35). We assessed consistency of risk group assignment between telephone screen and study dermatologist assignment, self-reported sun sensitivity (telephone recruitment form versus participant completed profile), and self-reported history of NMSC skin lesions (telephone recruitment form versus health history). There was substantial agreement between probable risk group and final assignment (kappa = 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.85) and agreement did not differ by gender. Agreement for self-reported sun sensitivity was moderate (kappa weighted = 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.56) with higher agreement for women. For self-reported NMSC lesion history between two interviews, 24 days apart, kappa estimates ranged from 0.66 to 0.78 and were higher for women than men. Overall, there was evidence for substantial reproducibility related to risk group assignment and self-reported history of NMSC, with self-reported sun sensitivity being less reliable. In all comparisons, women had higher kappa values than men. These results suggest that self-reported measures of skin cancer risk are reasonably reliable for use in screening subjects into studies.

  3. Skin and Colon Cancer Media Campaigns in Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Broadwater

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The mission of the Utah Cancer Action Network is to reduce cancer incidence and mortality in Utah. Established in 2003, the network selected skin and colon cancers as the first priorities in its comprehensive plan. In its first year of operation, the network planned and implemented a cancer awareness campaign that was organized along two tracks: 1 marketing research, consisting of two telephone surveys, and 2 two advertising/awareness campaigns, one for colon cancer and one for skin cancer. The first telephone survey was conducted in January 2003 to obtain a baseline measurement of the Utah population’s knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The advertising campaigns were launched in April 2003, and the second telephone survey was conducted in May. In January 2003, 18% of survey respondents reported seeing or hearing skin cancer prevention or sun protection announcements; in May, this percentage increased to 76%. In January, 36% indicated they had seen, read, or heard colorectal cancer early detection announcements; in May, this percentage increased to 79%.

  4. A life history perspective on skin cancer and the evolution of skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Daniel L; Hames, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    The ancestral state of human skin pigmentation evolved in response to high ultraviolet radiation (UVR) stress. Some argue that pigmentation evolved to limit folate photolysis, therein limiting neural tube defects. Pigmentation also protects against sunburn which decreases the efficiency of sweating and potentiates skin infection. Pigmentation increases the efficacy of skin as a barrier to infection. Skin cancer has been rejected or minimized as a selective pressure because it is believed to have little or no effect on mortality during reproductive years. This argument ignores evidence of human longevity as a derived life history trait and the adaptive value of investment in offspring and kin, particularly during the post-reproductive lifespan. Opponents argue that lifespan in prehistoric hunter-gatherers was too short to be relevant to the evolution of skin pigmentation. This argument is flawed in that it relies on estimates of longevity at birth rather than adolescence. When appropriate estimates are used, it is clear that human longevity has a deep evolutionary history. We use a life history perspective to demonstrate the value of skin pigmentation as an adaptation to skin cancer with the following points: UVR exposure increases dysregulation of gene expression in skin cells leading to immortal cell lines; cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) affects individuals throughout reproductive years; and lifespan was longer than has previously been acknowledged, providing the opportunity for kin selection. This hypothesis is not at odds with the folate or barrier hypotheses. We stress that the evolution of skin pigmentation is complex and is an ongoing process. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  6. P63 marker Expression in Usual Skin Cancers Compared With Non Tumoral Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Esmaili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers in human. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P63 marker in usual skin cancers compared with non-tomoral skin lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sampling was performed from archival blocks of Shahid Mohammadi hospital patients during 2010-2011. 60 samples (including 30 samples of non tumoral skin lesions and 30 samples of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were studied and evaluation of p63 gene expression was done with Immunohistochemistry method. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of data. Results: P63 gene were expressed in 4 cases (13.33 % of non tumoral lesions and all tumoral lesions (100 %. In tumoral lesions, 5 cases (16.66 % showed 1+ severity experssion, 11 cases (36.66% 2 + severity experssion and 14 cases (46.66 % 3+severity experssion. All 4 non tumoral lesions shoed 1+ severity experssion of P63gene. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the incidence and severity of gene expression of P63 can be use for differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as non-tumoral skin lesions. 

  7. Running behind a tourist: leisure-related skin cancer prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S; Sinclair, C; Foley, P

    2012-08-01

    The most important risk factor in the development of skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Cumulative lifetime UV radiation exposure has been shown to be most important in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma, whereas intermittent high-dose UV radiation exposure in childhood and adolescence may be more important in the aetiology of basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Using established methodology and best available estimates on UV-related mortality and morbidity, it has been estimated that annually around 1·5 million disability-adjusted life years are lost through excessive exposure to UV radiation. Skin cancer is a significant health problem and its burden is such that it causes the health system more to treat than any other forms of cancer. Prevention is the key action in managing skin cancer at a population level. Investment in prevention programmes such as SunSmart encourages protective behaviours that will reduce the human and financial costs of skin cancer.

  8. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and skin cancer: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Denzer, Nicole; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans. There are several types of skin cancer that include basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). The associations of vDr polymorphisms with skin cancer risk are not well characterized so far. Only a few epidemiologic studies have directly addressed the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and the incidence and prognosis of MM. To make the most of the available information on VDR polymorphisms and skin...

  10. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices.

  11. Ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence: an integrated modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; den Elzen MGJ; de Woerd HJ; de Greef J

    1992-01-01

    A decrease in stratospheric ozone, probably caused by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions, has been observed over large parts of the globe. The incidence of skin cancer is expected to increase due to ozone depletion. An integrated source-risk model is developed and applied to evaluate the increased

  12. Ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence: an integrated modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; den Elzen MGJ; de Woerd HJ; de Greef J

    1992-01-01

    A decrease in stratospheric ozone, probably caused by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions, has been observed over large parts of the globe. The incidence of skin cancer is expected to increase due to ozone depletion. An integrated source-risk model is developed and applied to evaluate the increased

  13. Statin use and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnspang, S.; Pottegård, A.; Friis, Søren

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is conflicting regarding statin use and risk of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCC). METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified all patients with incident BCC/SCC during 2005-2009 and matched them to population controls. We computed odds ratios...

  14. Skin Cancer, Irradiation, and Sunspots: The Solar Cycle Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Valachovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is diagnosed in more than 2 million individuals annually in the United States. It is strongly associated with ultraviolet exposure, with melanoma risk doubling after five or more sunburns. Solar activity, characterized by features such as irradiance and sunspots, undergoes an 11-year solar cycle. This fingerprint frequency accounts for relatively small variation on Earth when compared to other uncorrelated time scales such as daily and seasonal cycles. Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filters, applied to the solar cycle and skin cancer data, separate the components of different time scales to detect weaker long term signals and investigate the relationships between long term trends. Analyses of crosscorrelations reveal epidemiologically consistent latencies between variables which can then be used for regression analysis to calculate a coefficient of influence. This method reveals that strong numerical associations, with correlations >0.5, exist between these small but distinct long term trends in the solar cycle and skin cancer. This improves modeling skin cancer trends on long time scales despite the stronger variation in other time scales and the destructive presence of noise.

  15. In vivo hyperspectral imaging and differentiation of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-10-01

    Results of hyperspectral imaging analysis for in vivo visualization of skin neoplasms are presented. 16 melanomas, 19 basal cell carcinomas and 10 benign tumors with different stages of neoplasm growth were tested. The HSI system provide skin tissue images with 5 nm spectral resolution in the range of 450-750 nm with automatic stabilization of each frame compensating displacement of the scanning area due to spontaneous macro-movements of the patient. The integrated optical densities in 530-600 and 600-670 nm ranges are used for real-time hemoglobin and melanin distribution imaging in skin tissue. It was shown that the total accuracy of skin cancer identification exceeds 90% and 70% for differentiation of melanomas from BCC and begihn tumors. It was demonstrated the possibility for HSI classification of melanomas of different stages.

  16. Ultraviolet light exposure, skin cancer risk and vitamin D production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Miguel; Rojas, Elisa; Araya, María C; Calaf, Gloria M

    2015-10-01

    The danger of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation has been widely reviewed since the 1980s due to the depletion of the ozone layer. However, the benefits of mild exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) light have not been widely investigated. Numerous reports have demonstrated that an association exists between low light exposure to the sun, non-melanoma skin cancer and a lack of vitamin D synthesis. As vitamin D synthesis in the body depends on skin exposure to UVB radiation from the sun (wavelength, 290-320 nm), experimental measurements for this type of solar radiation are important. The present study analyzed data obtained from a laboratory investigating UV radiation from the sun at the University of Tarapacá (Arica, Chile), where systematic experimental UVB measurements had been performed using a calibrated biometer instrument since 2006. These data were compared with skin cancer data from the local population. The results demonstrated that the incidence of skin cancer systematically increased from 7.4 to 18.7 in men and from 10.0 to 21.7 in women between 2000 and 2006 in Arica, respectively; this increase may be due to multiple factors, including the lack of adequate levels of vitamin D in risk groups such as post-menopausal women and senior age. This marked increase may also be due to the high levels of UV radiation measured in this region throughout the year. However, it is not certain that the local population has adequate vitamin D levels, nor that their skin has been predominantly exposed to artificial light that does not allow adequate vitamin D synthesis. Thus, the current study presents the association between skin type IV, the time to induce solar erythema and the time required to produce 1,000 international units of vitamin D.

  17. The role of antioxidants in skin cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godic, Aleksandar; Poljšak, Borut; Adamic, Metka; Dahmane, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Skin cells are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress from exogenous and endogenous sources. UV radiation is the most important environmental factor in the development of skin cancer and skin aging. The primary products caused by UV exposure are generally direct DNA oxidation or generation of free radicals which form and decompose extremely quickly but can produce effects that can last for hours, days, or even years. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin develops oxidative stress when their formation exceeds the antioxidant defense ability. The reduction of oxidative stress can be achieved on two levels: by lowering exposure to UVR and/or by increasing levels of antioxidant defense in order to scavenge ROS. The only endogenous protection of our skin is melanin and enzymatic antioxidants. Melanin, the pigment deposited by melanocytes, is the first line of defense against DNA damage at the surface of the skin, but it cannot totally prevent skin damage. A second category of defense is repair processes, which remove the damaged biomolecules before they can accumulate and before their presence results in altered cell metabolism. Additional UV protection includes avoidance of sun exposure, usage of sunscreens, protective clothes, and antioxidant supplements.

  18. ATF3 activates Stat3 phosphorylation through inhibition of p53 expression in skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhen-Feng; Ao, Jun-Hong; Zhang, Jie; Su, You-Ming; Yang, Rong-Ya

    2013-01-01

    ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, has been found to be selectively induced by calcineurin/NFAT inhibition and to enhance keratinocyte tumor formation, although the precise role of ATF3 in human skin cancer and possible mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, clinical analysis of 30 skin cancer patients and 30 normal donors revealed that ATF3 was accumulated in skin cancer tissues. Functional assays demonstrated that ATF3 significantly promoted skin cancer cell proliferation. Mechanically, ATF3 activated Stat3 phosphorylation in skin cancer cell through regulation of p53 expression. Moreover, the promotion effect of ATF3 on skin cancer cell proliferation was dependent on the p53-Stat3 signaling cascade. Together, the results indicate that ATF3 might promote skin cancer cell proliferation and enhance skin keratinocyte tumor development through inhibiting p53 expression and then activating Stat3 phosphorylation.

  19. Changes in Self-Perceptions of Photoaging Severity and Skin Cancer Risk After Objective Facial Skin Quality Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Bae, Edward Jong; Wang, Joyce H; Gilchrest, Barbara A

    2017-05-01

    Background: Despite public education efforts, many people at risk for skin cancer do not practice safe sun behaviors. Objective: To determine whether machine-based evaluation of UV-induced alterations (VISIA scan) changes self-assessment of facial photoaging, skin cancer risk, and willingness to improve sun protective habits. In addition, to determine whether VISIA scan analysis reveals differences between those with versus without a history of skin cancer, men versus women, those older than 50 versus less than 50 years of age, and Fitzpatrick skin types I-III versus IV-VI. Methods: Volunteers attending a health expo were recruited and queried about their perceived risk of skin cancer and degree of skin photoaging. All participants underwent facial skin quality analysis of both sides of the face, and then completed a follow-up survey. Results: Participants' scored self-perceptions of overall skin aging were all statistically significantly worse after VISIA scan analysis. There was no change in perceived skin cancer risk, but most participants expressed intent to improve their sun protection habits. Limitations: Limitations to this study include selection bias, recall-misclassification bias, and social desirability bias. Conclusion: Intervention with facial skin analysis can positively affect subjects' stated intent to use sun protection, indicating the importance of appearance in these health decisions. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(5):453-459..

  20. Beyond the scalpel: targeting hedgehog in skin cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Charles M

    2010-01-01

    This perspective places the article by Tang et al. in this issue of the journal (beginning on page 25) in the context of recent work defining the hedgehog signaling pathway as a central etiologic factor and as a therapeutic target in basal cell cancer. Tang et al. show that inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, either genetically (in a relevant mouse model) or pharmacologically (in the mouse and in patients highly predisposed to develop basal cell skin cancers), may suppress basal cell carcinogenesis. This new study of cyclooxygenase inhibition, together with recent data on the efficacy of hedgehog pathway inhibition, offers new hope for patients at a high risk for basal cell cancer.

  1. Fluorescence polarization imaging for delineating nonmelanoma skin cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, A. N.; Neel, V.; Anderson, R. R.

    2004-09-01

    We present a method for detecting nonmelanoma skin cancers using exogenous fluorescence polarization. We built an automated system that permits exogenous fluorescence polarization imaging. It includes a tunable linearly polarized monochromatic light source and a CCD camera equipped with a rotating linear polarizer and a filter to reject excitation light. Two fluorophores that are retained in tumors, toluidine blue and methylene blue, are employed. We demonstrate that fluorescence polarization imaging can be used for accurate delineation of nonmelanoma cancers. The results suggest that this optical technique may be suitable for real-time noninvasive demarcation of epithelial cancers.

  2. Computer vision techniques for the diagnosis of skin cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of computer vision techniques in the diagnosis of skin cancer. Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers in the world. Early diagnosis is particularly important since melanoma can be cured with a simple excision if detected early. In recent years, dermoscopy has proved valuable in visualizing the morphological structures in pigmented lesions. However, it has also been shown that dermoscopy is difficult to learn and subjective. Newer technologies such as infrared imaging, multispectral imaging, and confocal microscopy, have recently come to the forefront in providing greater diagnostic accuracy. These imaging technologies presented in this book can serve as an adjunct to physicians and  provide automated skin cancer screening. Although computerized techniques cannot as yet provide a definitive diagnosis, they can be used to improve biopsy decision-making as well as early melanoma detection, especially for pa...

  3. Detection of Melanoma Skin Cancer in Dermoscopy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayef, Khalid; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2017-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most hazardous type of human skin cancer and its incidence has been rapidly increasing. Early detection of malignant melanoma in dermoscopy images is very important and critical, since its detection in the early stage can be helpful to cure it. Computer Aided Diagnosis systems can be very helpful to facilitate the early detection of cancers for dermatologists. In this paper, we present a novel method for the detection of melanoma skin cancer. To detect the hair and several noises from images, pre-processing step is carried out by applying a bank of directional filters. And therefore, Image inpainting method is implemented to fill in the unknown regions. Fuzzy C-Means and Markov Random Field methods are used to delineate the border of the lesion area in the images. The method was evaluated on a dataset of 200 dermoscopic images, and superior results were produced compared to alternative methods.

  4. Quality of life in non-melanoma skin cancer--the skin cancer quality of life (SCQoL) questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Christensen, Karl Bang; Esmann, Solveig

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease-specific quality of life (QoL) questionnaires are increasingly used to provide patient-reported out-come measures in both malignant and non-malignant disease. OBJECTIVE: To create, validate and test the psychometrics of the Skin Cancer Quality of Life (SCQoL), which was designed...

  5. Ultraviolet light exposure influences skin cancer in association with latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Miguel; Araya, María C; Caba, Fresia; Rojas, Elisa; Calaf, Gloria M

    2011-04-01

    The increase in the amount of solar ultraviolet (UV) light that reaches the earth is considered to be responsible for the worldwide increase in skin cancer. It has been reported that excessive levels of UVA and UVB light have multiple effects, which can be harmful to humans. Experimental measurements were obtained using wide-band solar light YES biometers from 2006 to 2009 in Arica, Chile and from 2003 to 2006 in Valdivia, Chile, both instruments having been calibrated according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and integrated into the Chilean Meteorological Organization network. To explain the possible effect of radiation on skin cancer, revised pathological reports in Arica and Valdivia were analyzed. In Arica, data on men and women were collected between 1997 and 1998-2002, and in Valdivia, between 1997-2000 and 2001-2007. In this study, comparative values of ultraviolet index (UVI) from the above datasets, were analyzed. Arica is a city located in the subtropical zone of northern Chile, 25 meters above sea level, with a latitude of 18˚49'S and a longitude of 70˚19'W. It has a microclimate characterized by stable meteorological conditions throughout the year, including low precipitation (<5 mm per decade), predictable winds, a high percentage of clear sky days and high ground reflectivity due to the presence of light sand. Due to its location near sea level, the population performs a great number of outdoor activities. Valdivia is a city located in the southern part of Chile, 19 meters above sea level with a latitude of 39˚38'S and a longitude of 73˚5'W. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between latitude and the risk of skin cancer in two cities with different latitudes. The incidence of skin cancer per 100,000 persons significantly (P<0.05) increased in both genders between the periods 1997-2000 and 2001-2007 in Arica. However, it decreased in men between the periods 1993-1997 and 1998-2002 in Valdivia. The results

  6. Skin Reaction in Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Farhood

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The first medical intervention for many breast cancer patients is breast conserving surgery (BCS and/or modified radical mastectomy (MRM. Most of these patients undergo radiation therapy, following surgery. The most common side-effect of breast radiotherapy is skin damage. In the present study, the severity of acute skin changes and the underlying causes were investigated in patients undergoing BCS and radiotherapy. Materials and Methods This prospective, cohort study was performed on 31 female patients, undergoing breast surgery therapy at Shahid Rajaie Babolsar Radiotherapy Center from September 2011 to July 2012. A questionnaire was designed, including the patient’s characteristics, details of radiotherapy technique, and skin damage; the questionnaire was completed for each patient. The obtained results were analysed by performing ANOVA and Fisher's exact tests. Complications were graded using the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG scale. Results Grade 0 or 4 of skin damage was observed in none of the patients. Among the evaluated patients, 58%, 35.5%, and 6.5% of the patients had grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3 of skin damage, respectively. There was no statistically significant relationship between regional skin burns and factors such as average tangential field size, internal mammary field, chemotherapy, prior history of diseases, tamoxifen use, previous radiotherapy in breast area, or skin type (p>0.05. However, there was a significant relationship between skin burns and presence of supraclavicular field (p=0.05. Conclusion Considering the significant relationship between skin burn and supraclavicular field, special attention needs to be paid to factors affecting the treatment planning of supraclavicular field such as field size and photon energy.

  7. Skin Cancer Education Materials: Selected Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This annotated bibliography presents 85 entries on a variety of approaches to cancer education. The entries are grouped under three broad headings, two of which contain smaller sub-divisions. The first heading, Public Education, contains prevention and general information, and non-print materials. The second heading, Professional Education,…

  8. Skin Cancer Education Materials: Selected Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This annotated bibliography presents 85 entries on a variety of approaches to cancer education. The entries are grouped under three broad headings, two of which contain smaller sub-divisions. The first heading, Public Education, contains prevention and general information, and non-print materials. The second heading, Professional Education,…

  9. Experience of ReCell in Skin Cancer Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Gilleard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ReCell system (Avita Medical is a cell culture product that allows the immediate processingof a small split-thickness skin biopsy to produce a complete population of cells includingkeratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells and fibroblasts. This series is the first to highlightthe reconstructive applications of ReCell following ablative skin cancer surgery. The ReCell systemwas utilized for three patients following skin cancer excision. In two cases, the cells were appliedto forehead flap donor sites following nasal reconstruction. In one case, the cells were appliedto the calvarial periosteum following wide local excision of a melanoma scar. Assessment of thetreated area was performed using the patient and observer scar assessment scale after 1 year.The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS scores for the 2 patients treated withReCell following forehead flap surgery were 22 and 32. The score for the patient that underwentwide local excision of a melanoma scar was 45. The absence of a donor site, accelerated healingand the satisfactory aesthetic appearance of the mature scars in this series suggest that ReCellmay play a useful role in reconstruction following skin cancer excision.

  10. Experience of ReCell in Skin Cancer Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Gilleard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ReCell system (Avita Medical is a cell culture product that allows the immediate processing of a small split-thickness skin biopsy to produce a complete population of cells including keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells and fibroblasts. This series is the first to highlight the reconstructive applications of ReCell following ablative skin cancer surgery. The ReCell system was utilized for three patients following skin cancer excision. In two cases, the cells were applied to forehead flap donor sites following nasal reconstruction. In one case, the cells were applied to the calvarial periosteum following wide local excision of a melanoma scar. Assessment of the treated area was performed using the patient and observer scar assessment scale after 1 year. The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS scores for the 2 patients treated with ReCell following forehead flap surgery were 22 and 32. The score for the patient that underwent wide local excision of a melanoma scar was 45. The absence of a donor site, accelerated healing and the satisfactory aesthetic appearance of the mature scars in this series suggest that ReCell may play a useful role in reconstruction following skin cancer excision.

  11. Skin cancer in immunosuppressed transplant patients:Vigilance matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozan Unlu; Emir Charles Roach; Alexis Okoh; May Olayan; Bulent Yilmaz; Didem Uzunaslan; Abdullah Shatnawei

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a widely-accepted, definitivetherapy of irreversible liver diseases including hepatitisC, alcoholic liver disease and metabolic liver disease.After transplantation, patients generally use a varietyof immunosuppressive medications for the rest of theirlives to prevent rejection of transplanted liver. Mortalityafter LT is mainly caused by recurrence of alcoholichepatitis which is mostly seen in the patients whoresume heavy drinking. On the other hand, de-novomalignancies after LT are not seldom. Skin cancers makeup 13.5% of the de-novo malignancies seen in thesepatients. Malignancies tend to affect survival earlier inthe course with a 53% risk of death at 5 years afterdiagnosis. We aimed to report a case who underwentLT secondary to alcoholic liver disease and developedsquamous cell carcinoma of the skin eighteen yearsafter transplantation. In summary, transplant recipientsare recommended to be educated on self examinationfor skin cancer; health care providers should be furthersuspicious during routine dermatological examinations ofthe transplant patients and biopsies of possible lesionsfor skin cancer is warranted even many years aftertransplantation.

  12. Recontouring, resurfacing, and scar revision in skin cancer reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael J; Perro, Christopher A

    2009-08-01

    Residual disfigurement is a common problem for patients who have undergone skin cancer reconstruction. Restoring form and function in these patients is an artistic and technical endeavor. The efficacy of surgical scar revision, dermabrasion, chemical peels, and laser resurfacing is predicated upon the skin's innate ability to regenerate over time in response to mechanical, chemical, and thermal or ablative stresses. The patient and surgeon should be accepting of a process that is often gradual and may proceed in stages. Achieving proficiency with the secondary procedures for improving scars and local flaps may allow the motivated surgeon to mold an initially passable surgical result into an excellent one.

  13. [The educational website Dermaguard to prevent the incidence of skin cancer after transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Meret N; Feldmeyer, Laurence; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; French, Lars E; Djamei, Vahid; Serra, Andreas L; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2013-11-13

    Solid organ transplant recipients are highly susceptible to skin cancer. The major driving factors are immunosuppressive medication and ultraviolet light. Appropriate sun protection markedly reduces the development of skin cancer. Skin cancer recognized at an early stage can reliably be cured, and fatal outcomes can be prevented. The aim of this work is to educate organ transplant recipients and health care professionals involved in their care, to increase awareness of skin cancer in this high-risk population and thus to optimize the long-term outcome of patients with skin cancer. Our newly developed website provides free access to various educational materials, including leaflets, presentations and interactive elements using edutainment.

  14. Skin deep: Coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in Canadian women's magazines (2000-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-06-18

    Skin cancer is a significant public health problem among Canadians. Knowledge and attitudes about health are informed by mass media. The aim of our study was to describe the volume and nature of coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in Canadian women's magazines. Directed content analysis on article text and images in six popular Canadian women's magazines (Chatelaine, Canadian Living, Homemakers, Flare, FASHION, ELLE Canada) from 2000-2012 with attention to risk factors, ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure and protection behaviours, and early detection. Six popular American women's magazines were used for a between-country comparison. There were 154 articles (221 images) about skin cancer and tanning published over 13 years. Volume of coverage did not increase in a linear fashion over time. The most common risk factor reported on was UV exposure (39%), with other risk factors less frequently identified. Although 72% of articles promoted sunscreen use, little content encouraged other protection behaviours. Only 15% of articles and 1% of images discouraged indoor tanning, while 41% of articles and 53% of images promoted the tanned look as attractive. Few articles (<11%) reported on early detection. Relative to American magazines, Canadian magazines had a greater proportion of content that encouraged sunscreen use and promoted the tanned look and a lesser proportion of content on risk factors and early detection. Skin cancer and tanning messages in Canadian women's magazines had a narrow focus and provided limited information on risk factors or screening. Conflicting messages about prevention (text vs. images) may contribute to harmful UV behaviours among Canadian women.

  15. Profile of skin biopsies and patterns of skin cancer in a tertiary care center of Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Shrestha, Prashanna Raj; Pun, Jenny; Thapa, Pratichya; Manandhar, Merina; Sathian, Brijesh

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the method to assist clinicians to make definite dermatological diagnosis which further helps in holistic management. Skin cancers are relatively rare clinical diagnosis in developing countries like Nepal, but the prevalence is on rise. To investigate the profile of skin biopsies and frequencies and pattern of skin cancers in a tertiary care centre of Western Nepal. The materials consisted of 434 biopsies (1.37%) out of 31,450 OPD visits performed in the Department of Dermatology, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, during the period of Dec 2011-Nov 2014. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS-16 with reference to incidence, age, sex, race and clinical and histopathological features. The commonest disorders observed in biopsies were papulosquamous lesions, skin tuberculosis of different types, benign skin tumors, leprosy, collagen and fungal diseases. Viral diseases were rarely seen, probably due to straight forward clinical diagnosis. Dermatological malignancies accounted for 55/434 (12.67%) of biopsies. Skin disorders in general were commoner in females 280/434 (64%), including malignancies 32/55(58.2%). Mean age of patients with skin cancer was 54.5 years. Facilities for proper laboratory investigation of dermatological disorders will improve the quality of life. The most prevalent lesion in skin biopsies was papulosquamous disorders followed by skin tuberculosis of different types. Dermatological malignancy constituted 55/434 (12.67%) cases. The prevalence of skin malignancy is on rise in Nepalese society probably due to increase in life expectancy and better diagnostic services.

  16. Early detection of skin cancer: experience of a skin cancer prevention campaign in Piauí-Brazil - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bandeira Lages

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between the diagnoses of skin cancer and known risk factors through analysis of data from the National Skin Cancer Prevention Campaign held by Brazilian Society of Dermatology in the state of Piauí, Brazil, in recent years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive and analytical report using quantitative data obtained from a prevention campaign in the state of Piauí, in 2009 and 2010. Collected data was submitted to a descriptive analysis, and multivariate logistic regression, using as dependent variable the skin cancer diagnosis. Results: In 2009 and 2010, this campaign was responsible for 1141 consultations, diagnosing 122 (10.7% cases of skin cancer: 108 basal cell carcinomas (BCC, 10 squamous cell (SCC and four melanomas. Of those examined, 35.4% were male, 73.1% reported inadequate sun protection, 16.4% had a family history of skin cancer and 7.2% had personal history. Those with history of skin cancer were 5.24 times more likely to have a new diagnosis of cancer, while those presenting non-black skin were 4.91 times more likely to diagnosis. Conclusion: Personal or family history of epithelial neoplasia, non-colored black skin and the male gender were associated to higher chances of developing skin cancer. In addition, unprotected sun exposure remains routine

  17. A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe for skin cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beule, P. A. A.; Dunsby, C.; Galletly, N. P.; Stamp, G. W.; Chu, A. C.; Anand, U.; Anand, P.; Benham, C. D.; Naylor, A.; French, P. M. W.

    2007-12-01

    The autofluorescence of biological tissue can be exploited for the detection and diagnosis of disease but, to date, its complex nature and relatively weak signal levels have impeded its widespread application in biology and medicine. We present here a portable instrument designed for the in situ simultaneous measurement of autofluorescence emission spectra and temporal decay profiles, permitting the analysis of complex fluorescence signals. This hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe utilizes two ultrafast lasers operating at 355 and 440nm that can excite autofluorescence from many different biomolecules present in skin tissue including keratin, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), and flavins. The instrument incorporates an optical fiber probe to provide sample illumination and fluorescence collection over a millimeter-sized area. We present a description of the system, including spectral and temporal characterizations, and report the preliminary application of this instrument to a study of recently resected (skin lesions, illustrating its potential for skin cancer detection and diagnosis.

  18. [The relationship between the ozone layer and skin cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez C, Francisca

    2006-09-01

    In the recent decades, a sustained increase in the worldwide incidence of skin cancer has been observed and Chile is not the exception. The most important risk factor is the exaggerated and repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun. The ozone layer restricts the transmission of type B and C ultraviolet light. Since 1980, a sustained depletion of stratospheric ozone levels is occurring, specially in middle latitudes (-30 to -60). Along with this depletion, the amount of ultraviolet light that reaches the earth surface is increasing. This article reviews some basic concepts about the ozone layer and the association between its depletion and skin cancer. The general population should be informed about the risks of inadequate and exaggerated exposure to sunlight.

  19. Public education and cancer of the skin. What do people need to know about melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A R

    1995-01-15

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) have a high chance for cure if detected in an early phase of development. Patients who have these tumors may now be treated in the outpatient setting with a minimum of discomfort, inconvenience, and cost. Most skin cancer deaths are caused by CM. Until recently, CM incidence in the United States has been increasing faster than any other potentially lethal cancer, attributable at least in part to aggressive case detection and greater public awareness about the significance of risk factors and early warning signs of evolving tumors, resulting in increased numbers of curable tumors. Most CMs are discovered by patients or close acquaintances. Most CM deaths are related to patient delay in seeking medical care. Patient delay is attributed mostly to lack of knowledge rather than to fear and denial. In the United States, primary prevention of CM and NMSC has focused on encouraging sensible sun-exposure behaviors, while secondary prevention consists of a yearly national campaign that promotes skin awareness and self-examination and free examinations to detect evolving tumors, sponsored by the American Academy of Dermatology and the American Cancer Society. More attention is needed to encourage timely consultation for evolving tumors and predisposing risk factors and to focus screening and surveillance efforts of those people at greatest risk. Public education must continue to promote personal responsibility in the intervention process to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with CM and NMSC.

  20. Diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma of Skin Cancer Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hassin Alasadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes. It can influence on the skin only, or it may expand to the bones and organs. It is less common, but more serious and aggressive than other types of skin cancer. Malignant Melanoma can happen anywhere on the skin, but it is widespread in certain locations such as the legs in women, the back and chest in men, the face, the neck, mouth, eyes, and genitals. In this paper, a proposed algorithm is designed for diagnosing malignant melanoma types by using digital image processing techniques. The algorithm consists of four steps: preprocessing, separation, features extraction, and diagnosis. A neural network (NN used to diagnosis malignant melanoma types. The total accuracy of the neural network was 100% for training and 93% for testing. The evaluation of the algorithm is done by using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing malignant melanoma types was 95.6%, while the specificity was 92.2% and the accuracy was 93.9%. The experimental results are acceptable.

  1. Detection of human papillomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions and healthy perilesional skin in kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat-García, J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Vilata-Corell, J J; Marquina-Vila, A

    2014-04-01

    The influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a topic of debate. HPV types from the beta genus (HPV-β) have been most frequently associated with the development of skin cancer. To analyze the prevalence and range of HPV types in NMSC lesions and healthy perilesional skin in immunodepressed and immunocompetent patients and to evaluate the influence of various clinical factors on the prevalence of HPV in skin cancer. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect HPV in 120 NMSC samples obtained by biopsy from 30 kidney transplant recipients and 30 immunocompetent patients. In all cases, a sample was taken from the tumor site and the surrounding healthy skin. Potential confounders were assessed and the data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. HPV DNA was detected in 44 (73.3%) of the 60 samples from immunodepressed patients and in 32 (53.3%) of the 60 samples from immunocompetent patients (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-9.6). In both groups of patients, HPV was more common in healthy perilesional skin than in lesional skin. HPV-β was the most common type isolated. We found a wide range of HPV types (mostly HPV-β) in the skin of kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients with skin cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  2. Viral oncogenesis and its role in nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tuttleton Arron, S

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, the contribution of viruses to cutaneous oncogenesis has steadily gained recognition. The archetype is human herpesvirus 8, which is well established as the causative agent in Kaposi sarcoma. Other viruses believed to play a role in nonmelanoma skin cancer include human papillomavirus and the recently described Merkel cell polyomavirus. We review the mechanisms by which these three viruses interact with the host cell, ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression to result in carcinogenesis.

  3. Review of Natural Compounds for Potential Skin Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawona N. Chinembiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melanoma. In vitro testing of melanoma cell lines and murine melanoma models offers the opportunity for identifying mechanisms of action of plant derived compounds and extracts. Common anti-melanoma effects of natural compounds include potentiating apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and inhibiting metastasis. There are different mechanisms and pathways responsible for anti-melanoma actions of medicinal compounds such as promotion of caspase activity, inhibition of angiogenesis and inhibition of the effects of tumor promoting proteins such as PI3-K, Bcl-2, STAT3 and MMPs. This review thus aims at providing an overview of anti-cancer compounds, derived from natural sources, that are currently used in cancer chemotherapies, or that have been reported to show anti-melanoma, or anti-skin cancer activities. Phytochemicals that are discussed in this review include flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, vitamins, sulforaphane, some polyphenols and crude plant extracts.

  4. Three-Dimensional In Vitro Skin and Skin Cancer Models Based on Human Fibroblast-Derived Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Manuel; Prätzel-Wunder, Silke; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Boukamp, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional in vitro skin and skin cancer models help to dissect epidermal-dermal and tumor-stroma interactions. In the model presented here, normal human dermal fibroblasts isolated from adult skin self-assembled into dermal equivalents with their specific fibroblast-derived matrix (fdmDE) over 4 weeks. The fdmDE represented a complex human extracellular matrix that was stabilized by its own heterogeneous collagen fiber meshwork, largely resembling a human dermal in vivo architecture. Complemented with normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the skin equivalent (fdmSE) thereof favored the establishment of a well-stratified and differentiated epidermis and importantly allowed epidermal regeneration in vitro for at least 24 weeks. Moreover, the fdmDE could be used to study the features of cutaneous skin cancer. Complementing fdmDE with HaCaT cells in different stages of malignancy or tumor-derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, the resulting skin cancer equivalents (fdmSCEs) recapitulated the respective degree of tumorigenicity. In addition, the fdmSCE invasion phenotypes correlated with their individual degree of tissue organization, disturbance in basement membrane organization, and presence of matrix metalloproteinases. Together, fdmDE-based models are well suited for long-term regeneration of normal human epidermis and, as they recapitulate tumor-specific growth, differentiation, and invasion profiles of cutaneous skin cancer cells, also provide an excellent human in vitro skin cancer model.

  5. Skin artifact removal technique for breast cancer radar detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caorsi, S.; Lenzi, C.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose a new model-based skin artifact cleaning technique with the aim to remove skin reflections with good effectiveness, without introducing significant signal distortions, and without assuming a priori information on the real structure of the breast. The reference cleaning model, constituted by a two-layer geometry skin-adipose tissue, is oriented to all the ultrawideband radar methods able to detect the tumor starting by the knowledge of each trace recorded around the breast. All the radar signal measurements were simulated by using realistic breast models derived from the University of Wisconsin computational electromagnetic laboratory database and the finite difference time domain (FDTD)-based open source software GprMax. First, we have searched for the best configuration for the reference cleaning model with the aim to minimize the distortions introduced on the radar signal. Second, the performance of the proposed cleaning technique has been assessed by using a breast cancer radar detection technique based on the use of artificial neural network (ANN). In order to minimize the signal distortions, we found that it was necessary to use the real skin thickness and the static Debye parameters of both skin and adipose tissue. In such a case the ANN-based radar approach was able to detect the tumor with an accuracy of 87%. By extending the performance assessment also to the case when only average standard values are used to characterize the reference cleaning model, the detection accuracy was of 84%.

  6. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  7. Protective actions of vitamin D in UVB induced skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D

    2012-12-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common type of cancer, occurring at a rate of over 1 million per year in the United States. Although their metastatic potential is generally low, they can and do metastasize, especially in the immune compromised host, and their surgical treatment is often quite disfiguring. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as occurs with sunlight exposure is generally regarded as causal for these malignancies, but UVR is also required for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Based on our own data and that reported in the literature, we hypothesize that the vitamin D produced in the skin serves to suppress UVR epidermal tumor formation. In this review we will first discuss the evidence supporting the conclusion that the vitamin D receptor (VDR), with or without its ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, limits the propensity for cancer formation following UVR. We will then explore three potential mechanisms for this protection: inhibition of proliferation and stimulation of differentiation, immune regulation, and stimulation of DNA damage repair (DDR).

  8. Epidemiological profile of nonmelanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients: experience of a referral center

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Tomimori, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in humans and also the malignant disease that is increasingly common among kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of renal transplant recipients with nonmelanoma skin cancer seen at a referral transplantation center. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study with renal transplant recipients presenting nonmelanoma skin cancer, treated at a transplantation referral cente...

  9. Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Canada Chapter 2: Primary Prevention of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Kirk; Searles, Gordon E; Vender, Ronald; Teoh, Hwee; Ashkenas, John

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC), represents the most common malignancy. To provide guidance to Canadian health care practitioners regarding primary prevention of NMSC. Structured literature searches were conducted, using search terms including prevention, sunscreen, and sun prevention factor. All recommendations concern guidance that physicians should regularly discuss with their patients to help establish photoprotection habits. The GRADE system was used to assign strength to each recommendation. Ultraviolet exposure is the major modifiable risk factor for NMSC. Aspects of photoprotection, including effective sunscreen use and avoidance of both the midday sun and artificial tanning, are discussed. Several widespread misunderstandings that undermine responsible public health measures related to sun safety are addressed. Photoprotection represents both an individual priority and a public health imperative. By providing accurate information during routine patient visits, physicians reinforce the need for ongoing skin cancer prevention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Multiple Primary Cancers in Patients with Breast and Skin Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe extent of the problem The number of cancer survivors has been increasing dramatically and is expected to keep growing in the near future. In the Netherlands, a 38% increase of cancer survivors is estimated from 2005 to 2015, representing an increase from 500,000 to 692,000

  11. Possibility that certain hypnotics might cause cancer in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2008-09-01

    Fifteen epidemiologic studies have associated hypnotic drugs with excess mortality, especially excess cancer deaths. Until recently, insufficient controlled trials were available to demonstrate whether hypnotics actually cause any cancers. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Approval History and Documents were accessed for zaleplon, eszopiclone and ramelteon. Since zolpidem was used as a comparison drug in zaleplon trials, some zolpidem data were also available. Incident cancers occurring during randomized hypnotics administration or placebo administration were tabulated. Combining controlled trials for the four drugs, there were 6190 participants given hypnotics and 2535 given placebo in parallel. There were eight mentions of incident non-melanoma skin cancers among participants receiving hypnotics but no comparable mentions of cancers among those receiving placebo (P = 0.064, one-tailed). There were also four mentions of incident tumors of uncertain malignancy among those receiving hypnotics but none among those receiving placebo, so combining uncertain and definite malignancies yielded a more significant contrast (P = 0.016). FDA files revealed that all four of the new hypnotics were associated with cancers in rodents. Three had been shown to be clastogenic. Together with the epidemiologic data and laboratory studies, the available evidence signals that new hypnotics may increase cancer risk. Due to limitations in available data, confirmatory research is needed.

  12. Self-reported skin cancer protection strategies and location of skin cancer in retired cricketers: a case study from membership of the Emu Cricket Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble-Jerks, Janelle; Weatherby, Robert P; Meir, Rudi

    2006-12-01

    Cricket is one of Australia's most popular sports with approximately 470,000 registered participants. Played as a summer sport, participants can spend long periods in the sun with potential skin damage a possible contributor to skin cancer. Three hundred and sixty-eight retired regional representative players received and were invited to complete a comprehensive survey that included questions relating to their individual playing history, injury rate, sun protection strategies and reported location of skin cancer. A total of 164 players (mean age 45.2+/-12.1 years) responded to the survey representing a response rate of 44.6%. Of these, 61.6% reported no diagnosis of skin cancer. However, 38.4% had been diagnosed with at least one skin cancer with the most common site being the face followed by the arms. Of those respondents reporting the diagnosis of a skin cancer, 7.9% had skin cancer on 4 or more separate locations. Proportionally, the 45-55 years group had the highest incidence, with 55.8% of this group indicating they had a skin cancer in at least one anatomical location. By comparison those in the under 35 years age group reported an incidence rate of 16.7%. The incidence of skin cancer among respondents (n=63) reporting either, occasionally, very rarely or never wearing sunscreen, a hat or long sleeved shirt was (n=27) 42.9, (n=14) 22.2 and (n=39) 61.9%, respectively. The results suggest that skin protection strategies, such as wearing a wide brimmed hat, long sleeved shirt and the use of sunscreen, may help to reduce the risk of skin cancer in cricketers.

  13. YAP and WWTR1: New targets for skin cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andl, Thomas; Zhou, Linli; Yang, Kun; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Zhang, Yuhang

    2017-06-28

    The core components of the Hippo signaling pathway are a cascade of kinases that govern the phosphorylation of downstream transcriptional co-activators, namely, YES-associated protein (YAP) and WW domain-containing transcription regulator protein 1 (WWTR1, also known as TAZ). The Hippo signaling pathway is considered an important tumor-suppressor pathway, and its dysregulation has been noted in a variety of human cancers, in which YAP/WWTR1 enable cancerous cells to overcome contact inhibition, and to grow and spread uncontrollably. Interestingly, however, recent studies have told a somewhat different but perhaps more intriguing YAP/WWTR1 story, as these studies found that YAP/WWTR1 function as a central hub that integrates signals from multiple upstream signaling pathways, cell-cell interactions and mechanical forces and then bind to and activate different downstream transcriptional factors to direct cell social behavior and cell-cell interactions. In this review, we present the latest findings on the role of YAP/WWTR1 in skin physiology, pathology and tumorigenesis and discuss the statuses of newly developed therapeutic interventions that target YAP/WWTR1 in human cancers, as well as their prospects for use as skin cancer treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Skin cancer prevention in annual performance of total skin examination, photoprotection counseling, and patient instruction of self-skin examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannias, James A; Laman, Susan D; Stevens, Ryan; Rkein, Ali M; Nelson, Evan; Noble, Brie N

    2014-08-01

    Prevention of skin cancer includes early diagnosis and photoprotection, such as by physician-performed total skin examination (TSE) and patient-performed self-skin examination (SSE). Hypothesizing that 90% of our patients receive an annual TSE, photoprotection counseling, and SSE instruction, we assessed the extent to which this was documented in patients' records. We also sought to identify differences in documentation of TSE, photoprotection counseling, and instruction on SSE with or without use of a dictation template prompting documentation. Retrospective review of a random sample of 400 patients in an outpatient dermatology practice of a tertiary care academic medical center for any dermatology appointment between May 1 and July 31, 2007. Exclusion criteria included refusal to undergo TSE, lack of access to skin (e.g., wheelchair-bound or in cast), or inappropriate visit type (e.g., for acne, psoriasis, or lupus). Of 400 randomly selected patients, 313 met inclusion criteria. The dictation template was used in 133; of these, 89% (119/133) had documentation in their clinical note of a TSE (exclusive of the buttocks or groin area), and 98% (130/133) had documentation of instruction on sun protection and SSE. Without use of the dictation template, these percentages dropped to 78% (140/180) and 20% (36/180), respectively. Physicians using a dictation template were more likely to document having conducted a TSE and instructed patients on photoprotection and SSE. A dictation template aids documentation of annual TSE and patient education efforts on photoprotection and SSE. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Radon exposure of the skin: II. Estimation of the attributable risk for skin cancer incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, M W [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    A preceding companion paper has reviewed the various factors which form the chain of assumptions that are necessary to support a suggested link between radon exposure and skin cancer in man. Overall, the balance of evidence was considered to be against a causal link between radon exposure and skin cancer. One factor against causality is evidence, particularly from animal studies, that some exposure of the hair follicles and/or the deeper dermis, as well as the inter-follicular epidermis, is required-beyond the range of naturally occurring alpha particles. On this basis any skin cancer risk due to radon progeny would be due only to beta and gamma components of equivalent dose, which are 10-100 times less than the alpha equivalent dose to the basal layer. Notwithstanding this conclusion against causality, calculations have been carried out of attributable risk (ATR, the proportion of cases occurring in the total population which can be explained by radon exposure) on the conservative basis that the target cells are, as is often assumed, in the basal layer of the epidermis. An excess relative risk figure is used which is based on variance weighting of the data sources. This is 2.5 times lower than the value generally used. A latent period of 20 years and an RBE of 10 are considered more justifiable than the often used values of 10 years and 20 respectively. These assumptions lead to an ATR of {approx}0.7% (0.5-5%) at the nominal UK indoor radon level of 20 Bq m{sup -3}. The range reflects uncertainties in plate-out. Previous higher estimates by various authors have made more pessimistic assumptions. There are some indications that radon progeny plate-out may be elevated out of doors, particularly due to rainfall. Although average UK outdoor radon levels ({approx}4 Bq m{sup -3}) are much less than average indoor levels, and outdoor residence time is on average about 10%, this might have the effect of increasing the ATR several-fold. This needs considerable further

  16. Detection of skin cancer by classification of Raman spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Gniadecka, Monika; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2004-10-01

    Skin lesion classification based on in vitro Raman spectroscopy is approached using a nonlinear neural network classifier. The classification framework is probabilistic and highly automated. The framework includes a feature extraction for Raman spectra and a fully adaptive and robust feedforward neural network classifier. Moreover, classification rules learned by the neural network may be extracted and evaluated for reproducibility, making it possible to explain the class assignment. The classification performance for the present data set, involving 222 cases and five lesion types, was 80.5%+/-5.3% correct classification of malignant melanoma, which is similar to that of trained dermatologists based on visual inspection. The skin cancer basal cell carcinoma has a classification rate of 95.8%+/-2.7%, which is excellent. The overall classification rate of skin lesions is 94.8%+/-3.0%. Spectral regions, which are important for network classification, are demonstrated to reproduce. Small distinctive bands in the spectrum, corresponding to specific lipids and proteins, are shown to hold the discriminating information which the network uses to diagnose skin lesions.

  17. Green tea and skin cancer: photoimmunology, angiogenesis and DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Suchitra; Elmets, Craig A; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2007-05-01

    Human skin is constantly exposed to numerous noxious physical, chemical and environmental agents. Some of these agents directly or indirectly adversely affect the skin. Cutaneous overexposure to environmental solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (290-400 nm) has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Therefore, there is a need to develop measures or strategies, and nutritional components are increasingly being explored for this purpose. The polyphenols present in green tea (Camellia sinensis) have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including protection from UV carcinogenesis. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major and most photoprotective polyphenolic component of green tea. In this review article, we have discussed the most recent investigations and mechanistic studies that define and support the photoprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) against UV carcinogenesis. The oral administration of GTPs in drinking water or the topical application of EGCG prevents UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice, and this prevention is mediated through: (a) the induction of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 12; (b) IL-12-dependent DNA repair following nucleotide excision repair mechanism; (c) the inhibition of UV-induced immunosuppression through IL-12-dependent DNA repair; (d) the inhibition of angiogenic factors; and (e) the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells in a tumor microenvironment. New mechanistic information strongly supports and explains the chemopreventive activity of GTPs against photocarcinogenesis.

  18. Effects of Preoperative Biopsies on Recurrence in Head and Neck Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Eun Jung; Dong Kyun Rah; Yong Oock Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background Skin cancer is the most common malignant tumor in humans. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the two most common types of skin cancers. When skin cancer is clinically suspected, preoperative biopsies are recommended for a definite diagnosis. However, despite a concern over potential increased risk of metastasis associated with mechanical manipulation, there have been few investigations into whether a preoperative biopsy affected the recurrence of BCC a...

  19. Determining the Location of DNA Modification and Mutation Caused by UVB Light in Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0333 TITLE: Determining the Location of DNA Modification and Mutation Caused by UVB Light in Skin Cancer PRINCIPAL...Caused by UVB Light in Skin Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Monica Ransom, PhD Betty Diamond 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...cells, Skin Cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a

  20. Red tattoos, ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Heerfordt, Ida M; Serup, Jørgen; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2017-05-13

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and red tattoos may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer due to potential carcinogens in tattoo inks. This combination has not been studied previously. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac hairless mice (n=99) were tattooed on their back with a popular red tattoo ink. This often used ink is banned for use on humans because of high content of the potential carcinogen 2-anisidine. Half of the mice were irradiated with three standard erythema doses UVR thrice weekly. Time to induction of first, second and third squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. All UV-irradiated mice developed SCCs. The time to the onset of the first and second tumor was identical in the red-tattooed group compared with the control group (182 vs 186 days and 196 vs 203 days, P=ns). Statistically, the third tumor appeared slightly faster in the red-tattooed group than in the controls (214 vs 224 days, P=.043). For the second and third tumor, the growth rate was faster in the red-tattooed group compared with the control (31 vs 49 days, P=.009 and 30 vs 38 days, P=.036). In conclusion, no spontaneous cancers were observed in skin tattooed with a red ink containing 2-anisidine. However, red tattoos exposed to UVR showed faster tumor onset regarding the third tumor, and faster growth rate of the second and third tumor indicating red ink acts as a cocarcinogen with UVR. The cocarcinogenic effect was weak and may not be clinically relevant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  2. Methodology for diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots by spectral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a new methodology for the diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots using image processing is presented. Currently skin cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in humans. This methodology is based on Fourier spectral analysis by using filters such as the classic, inverse and k-law nonlinear. The sample images were obtained by a medical specialist and a new spectral technique is developed to obtain a quantitative measurement of the complex pattern found in cancerous skin spots. Finally a spectral index is calculated to obtain a range of spectral indices defined for skin cancer. Our results show a confidence level of 95.4%.

  3. Novel mechanisms for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the skin and in skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D; Oda, Yuko; Tu, Chia-Ling; Jiang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    The VDR acting with or without its principal ligand 1,25(OH)2D regulates two central processes in the skin, interfollicular epidermal (IFE) differentiation and hair follicle cycling (HFC). Calcium is an important co-regulator with 1,25(OH)2D at least of epidermal differentiation. Knockout of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in addition to VDR accelerates the development of skin cancer in mice on a low calcium diet. Coactivators such as mediator 1 (aka DRIP205) and steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC3) regulate VDR function at different stages of the differentiation process, with Med 1 essential for hair follicle differentiation and early stages of epidermal differentiation and proliferation and SRC3 essential for the latter stages of differentiation including formation of the permeability barrier and innate immunity. The corepressor of VDR, hairless (HR), is essential for hair follicle cycling, although its effect on epidermal differentiation in vivo is minimal. In its regulation of HFC and IFE VDR controls two pathways-wnt/β-catenin and sonic hedgehog (SHH). In the absence of VDR these pathways are overexpressed leading to tumor formation. Whereas, VDR binding to β-catenin may block its activation of TCF/LEF1 sites, β-catenin binding to VDR may enhance its activation of VDREs. 1,25(OH)2D promotes but may not be required for these interactions. Suppression of SHH expression by VDR, on the other hand, requires 1,25(OH)2D. The major point of emphasis is that the role of VDR in the skin involves a number of novel mechanisms, both 1,25(OH)2D dependent and independent, that when disrupted interfere with IFE differentiation and HFC, predisposing to cancer formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lee, Tim K.

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  5. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I; Lee, Tim K

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  6. Axillary skin malignancy: a rare breast cancer presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Malahias, Marco; El-Said, Tarek F A; Fahmy, Fahmy S

    2014-05-01

    A rise in incidence and decrease in mortality rates from breast cancer have lead to an increase in prevalence within developed countries. Presentation is classically with a palpable breast tissue mass that may metastasize to bone, lung, liver, brain, lymph nodes, and skin. We describe a delayed diagnosis, in an 80-year-old female patient, where, on 2 occasions, the primary initial presentation was with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the right axilla. It was not until the third referral, with an ipsilateral breast lump, that breast cancer was clinically diagnosed. This was histologically identified as the primary malignancy, most likely in-keeping with squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. This unique atypical presentation represents a diagnostic challenge and highlights a clinically relevant learning point that may avoid subsequent diagnostic delay. Cutaneous axillary lesions should be treated with a high index of suspicion, necessitating the requirement for chest examination because of the possible presence of an associated primary breast carcinoma.

  7. Skin cancer development in mice exposed chronically to immunosuppressive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynes, R A; Harris, C C; Connor, R J; Eichwald, E J

    1979-04-01

    Inbred female C3Hf/HeN, murine mammary tumor virus-negative mice exposed to either UV light or benzo[a]pyrene (BP), were subjected to four different chronic immunosuppressive regimens to determine their effect on skin cancer development. The immunosuppressive agents were cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, cortisone, and heterologous antilymphocyte globulin. Because of an unexpectedly high morbidity and mortality of mice exposed to chronic immunosuppressive measures, the dosages were kept at a level that permitted them to survive but did not prolong allogeneic skin graft survival and lower antibody titers, nor did this level diminish proliferative responses of lymphocytes to mitogens or allogeneic lymphocytes. Nevertheless, the latency periods (time interval between beginning of medication and appearance of skin tumors) of tumors in mice exposed to immunosuppressant measures were significantly shortened in several groups of mice exposed to UV and subjected to cyclophosphamide, cortisone, or antilymphocyte globulin and mice exposed to BP and subjected to cortisone acetate. In 3 groups, spindle cell tumors (fibrosarcomas) shifted to squamous cell carcinomas. A suppressed immune function would not be regarded as the mechanism for the observed responses because immunosuppression was not detected in the experimental mice.

  8. Skin Cancer Chemoprevention by Silibinin: Mechanisms and Efficacy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project Summary Abstract Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) type, is a major health problem in the United States (US); annual BCC incidences alone are higher than all other cancer incidences combined (1.67 million/year). Most BCC cases are curable by surgery/radiation, but these can be painful and highly disfiguring and are not viable treatment options for BCC patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease where chemotherapy has also not proven effective. |

  9. What Will Happen After Treatment for Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a recurrence, see our Recurrence section. Moving on after skin cancer Some amount of feeling depressed, anxious, or worried is normal after being diagnosed with cancer. Some people are affected ...

  10. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and skin cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, Nicole; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2011-07-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans. There are several types of skin cancer that include basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). The associations of vDr polymorphisms with skin cancer risk are not well characterized so far. Only a few epidemiologic studies have directly addressed the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and the incidence and prognosis of MM. To make the most of the available information on VDR polymorphisms and skin cancer (MM, BCC and SCC), we undertook a systematic review of published studies. In conclusion, data summarized in this review support the concept that the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) is of importance for pathogenesis and progression of MM and other types of skin cancer.

  11. Self-reported quality of life after skin cancer in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Danielle M; Jacobsen, Gordon; Johnson, Christine C; Lim, Henry W; Eide, Melody J

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer incidence is increasing in younger adults. Patient satisfaction and quality of life surveys are limited, and more information is needed on the unique perspectives of these younger patients who may be affected differently. We sought to explore how skin cancer has affected quality of life in younger adults. A self-reported questionnaire was administered to patients with skin cancer aged 20-50 years diagnosed from 2007 to 2008. Quality of life was measured using the Skin Cancer Index (SCI) and Skindex-16 with a transformed scale. Descriptive statistics with standard deviations were calculated. One-hundred sixty-one patients were identified; 62 completed surveys (38.5%), with 47 patients eligible for inclusion. Forty participants (85%) reported having made lifestyle changes since being diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancers, most commonly habitual use of sunscreen (n = 34; 77.3%). Quality of life was most impacted by worries about their skin cancer (Skindex-16 score 24.5 (34.4 standard deviation)), including their future risk of developing further cancers (58.5 (31.8)). Limitations include small sample size and possible response bias. There is a modest impact on quality of life in young patients with skin cancer based on the Skindex-16 and SCI. Young skin cancer survivors may benefit from patient counseling, which addresses risk assessment and future risk reduction.

  12. Factors influencing and modifying the decision to pursue genetic testing for skin cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Alexander L; Jaju, Prajakta D; Li, Shufeng; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2017-05-01

    Across cancers, the decision to pursue genetic testing is influenced more by subjective than objective factors. However, skin cancer, which is more prevalent, visual, and multifactorial than many other malignancies, may offer different motivations for pursuing such testing. The primary objective was to determine factors influencing the decision to receive genetic testing for skin cancer risk. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of priming with health questions on the decision to receive testing. We distributed anonymous online surveys through ResearchMatch.org to assess participant health, demographics, motivations, and interest in pursuing genetic testing for skin cancer risk. Two surveys with identical questions but different question ordering were used to assess the secondary objective. We received 3783 responses (64% response rate), and 85.8% desired testing. Subjective factors, including curiosity, perceptions of skin cancer, and anxiety, were the most statistically significant determinants of the decision to pursue testing (P skin cancer (odds ratio 0.5, P = .01). Age and family history of skin cancer did not influence this decision. Participants increasingly chose testing if first queried about health behaviors (P skin cancer is primarily determined by subjective factors, such as anxiety and curiosity. Health factors, including skin cancer history, also influenced decision-making. Priming with consideration of objective health factors can increase the desire to pursue testing. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy of skin cancer with alasens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Evstifeev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment in patients with skin cancer using the method of photodynamic therapy (PDT with alasens are represented in the article. The study enrolled 25 patients with stage 1 tumor including 23 patients with previously untreated tumors and 2 – with recurrent disease. Superficial tumor was diagnosed in 17 patients and 8 patients had nodal tumor. Alasens was used locally as application of 20% ointment on involved skin area with 6h exposure. The PDT session was performed on a single occasion immediately after the end of exposure (power density of laser irradiation of 50–100 mW/cm2, light dose – 150–200 J/cm2. All patients had fluorescence diagnosis (FD prior to application of the ointment and before PDT. The results of FD showed that intensity of porphyrin fluorescence in tumor prior to administration of alasens had near no difference from intensity of porphyrin fluorescence in normal skin (12.5±0.7 and 10.0±0.7 r.u., respectively. Six hours after application of the ointment with alasens the fluorescence intensity of protoporphyrin IX increased almost 5-fold (59.7±5.3 r.u., the fluorescence intensity in normal skin remained near baseline level during the follow-up period (maximally 11.6±1.0 r.u.. Two months after PDT the complete tumor regression was confirmed in 21 patients, partial – in 3 and stabilization of tumor growth in 1 patient. In addition, patients with superficial disease had complete regression in 94.1% of cases and partial regression in 5.9% while for patients with nodal tumor – 62.5% and 25%, respectively, stabilization – in 12.5%. 

  14. Colorimetric measurements of iris colour and their significance in East Asian patients with skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Seo, S H; Kye, Y C; Ahn, H H

    2010-10-01

    A light-coloured iris is considered a risk factor for skin cancer in general. However, iris colour cannot be considered a plausible risk factor for skin cancer in East Asian populations because of the relative homogeneity of iris colours. Furthermore, subjective classifications of iris colour cannot distinguish between different East Asian individuals as to their likelihood of developing cancer. To measure human iris colours quantitatively and to assess the significances of iris colours with respect to skin cancer in Korean patients. Reference Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* coordinates on a ColorCheck chart were recorded using a reflectance spectrophotometer and compared with computed CIE L*a*b* coordinates from digital images to determine equations to calibrate CIE L*a*b* values. We then took iris images and measured iris colours and the colours of sun-exposed and sun-protected skin in 42 Korean patients with various cutaneous malignancies and nonmalignant dermatological diseases. Results were statistically analysed with regard to iris and skin colours in CIE L*a*b* coordinates. Patients with skin cancer had significantly lighter irises or higher L* values than dermatological patients without a malignancy (P = 0.02). Colour differences (ΔE*ab) between sun-exposed skin and sun-protected skin were greater in men (P skin cancer (P skins decreased with age (r = -0.32, P colour appears to be a possible skin cancer risk factor in East Asian populations. The larger colour differences seen between sun-protected and sun-exposed skin in men and in patients with skin cancer may have been due to chronic or excessive sun exposure. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. A preliminary study of a video intervention to inform solid organ transplant recipients about skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loescher, L J; Hansen, C; Hepworth, J T; Quale, L; Sligh, J

    2013-11-01

    To obtain preliminary evidence on the effect of a skin cancer prevention video for adult solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) and informational brochures on outcomes of skin cancer knowledge, beliefs, prevention and detection behaviors, and personal agency (self-confidence/personal control) for behaviors. SOTR have a high risk of skin cancer potentiated by life-long immunosuppressive therapy posttransplantation. Skin cancer in SOTR is aggressive and difficult to treat. Prevention and early detection are important for reducing risk and improving skin cancer outcomes, but methods to inform SOTR about their risk are understudied. A brief, evidence-based skin cancer informational video tailored to SOTR was evaluated using a quasi-experimental design that compared the outcome variables in two groups of SOTR seen in 4 transplantation clinics within 4-6 weeks posttransplantation. The video/brochure group (VBG) viewed the video once and received skin cancer information brochures. The brochure group (BG) received brochures only. Participants completed a survey on sun protection behavior (6 items; alpha = 0.75), personal agency (6 items; alpha = 0.64), beliefs (6 items; alpha = 0.60), skin cancer knowledge (6 items), and skin self-examination (SSE; 1 item) at baseline and 3 months postintervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and 2 × 2 analysis of variance. Of 113 participants, 90 completed both surveys (VBG, n = 46; BG, n = 44). Both groups had a significant increase in sun protective behavior (P skin cancer knowledge (P skin cancer and sun protection, promoted favorable beliefs, and improved personal agency, but were not differentially effective, suggesting that the addition of the video may not be necessary or that the video may need to be viewed more than once. More in-depth SSE teaching strategies may be necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Skin cancer education among massage therapists: a survey at the 2010 meeting of the American Massage Therapy Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shannon M; Louie-Gao, Qiong; Hession, Meghan L; Bailey, Elizabeth; Geller, Alan C; Cummins, Deborah

    2013-03-01

    Massage therapists encounter skin on a daily basis and have a unique opportunity to recognize potential skin cancers. The purpose of this study was to describe the skin cancer education provided to massage therapists and to assess their comfort regarding identification and communication of suspicious lesions. An observational retrospective survey study was conducted at the 2010 American Massage Therapy Association Meeting. Sixty percent reported receiving skin cancer education during and 25% reported receiving skin cancer education after training. Massage therapists who examine their own skin are more likely to be comfortable with recognizing a suspicious lesion and are more likely to examine their client's skin. Greater number of clients treated per year and greater frequency of client skin examinations were predictors of increased comfort level with recognizing a suspicious lesion. Massage therapists are more comfortable discussing than identifying a potential skin cancer. Massage therapists may be able to serve an important role in the early detection of skin cancer.

  17. Skin Cancer Concerns in People of Color: Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alpana K; Bharadwaj, Mausumi; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2016-12-01

    Background: Though people of color (POC) are less likely to become afflicted with skin cancer, they are much more likely to die from it due to delay in detection or presentation. Very often, skin cancer is diagnosed at a more advanced stage in POC, making treatment difficult.The purpose of this research was to improve awareness regarding skin cancers in people of color by providing recommendations to clinicians and the general public for early detection and photo protection preventive measures. Methods: Data on different types of skin cancers were presented to POC. Due to limited research, there are few resources providing insights for evaluating darkly pigmented lesions in POC. Diagnostic features for different types of skin cancers were recorded and various possible risk factors were considered. Results: This study provided directions for the prevention and early detection of skin cancer in POC based on a comprehensive review of available data. Conclusions: The increased morbidity and mortality rate associated with skin cancer in POC is due to lack of awareness, diagnosis at a more advanced stage and socioeconomic barriers hindering access to care. Raising public health concerns for skin cancer prevention strategies for all people, regardless of ethnic background and socioeconomic status, is the key to timely diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Risk of skin cancer in multiple myeloma patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Austin A; Wang, James; Vardanyan, Suzie; Madden, Erik K; Hebroni, Frank; Udd, Kyle A; Spektor, Tanya M; Nosrati, Jason D; Kitto, Alex Z; Zahab, Michael; Cheema, Simrin; Fors, Darron H; Norberg, Adam; Diehl, Joseph; Waterman, Gabriel N; Swift, Regina A; Crowley, John; Berenson, James R

    2016-11-01

    Immunosuppressed patients are known to have an increased incidence of skin cancer. Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) show impaired immune function. In the past, because of poor survival, the incidence of specific secondary primary malignancies such as skin cancer among these patients was difficult to establish. With more effective MM therapies that have emerged in recent years, these patients are living markedly longer, and therefore, it becomes of increasing importance to determine whether their risk of developing other medical problems such as skin cancer is increased. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 205 myeloma patients and 193 age-, race-, and gender-matched control subjects to assess the incidence of skin cancers among patients with MM and determine the specific types of and risk factors for skin cancer. We found that there is an increased occurrence of skin cancer among patients with MM compared to control subjects (26.8% vs. 16.1% in controls; P = 0.009). Among specific types of skin cancer, the proportion of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was higher than controls (P = 0.016). In addition to MM diagnosis, older age and Caucasian ethnicity were predictors of skin cancer of any type. Furthermore, older age was also a predictor of SCC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Estimating the economic costs of skin cancer in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2015-09-23

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The increased incidence of skin cancer, combined with limited health care resources and tight budgetary conditions, has increased the importance of understanding the economic impact of skin cancer. This research estimates the economic cost of skin cancer in the Australian state of New South Wales. An incidence based approach is used to estimate lifetime costs of skin cancer. Both direct and indirect costs are considered - direct costs include resources associated with the management of skin cancer and indirect costs refer to productivity costs associated with morbidity and premature mortality. Diagnosis of skin cancer was determined according to ICD-10 codes using principal diagnosis. Linked administrative data and regression modelling are used to calculate costs; presented as Australian dollars for the year 2010. The human capital approach is used to value present and future productivity losses. The lifetime cost of the 150,000 incident cases of skin cancer diagnosed in NSW in 2010 is estimated at $536 million ($44,796 per melanoma and $2459 per non-melanoma). Direct costs accounted for 72 % of costs ($10,230 per melanoma and $2336 per non-melanoma) and indirect costs accounted for 28 % of costs ($34,567 per melanoma and $123 per non-melanoma). Direct costs are, on average, higher for females than males with indirect costs, on average, higher for males than females. This research provides new evidence on the economic cost of skin cancer and provides policy makers with information of the potential monetary savings that may arise from efforts to reduce the incidence of skin cancer.

  20. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the proce...

  1. Association of Pretransplant Skin Cancer With Posttransplant Malignancy, Graft Failure and Death in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woosun; Sampaio, Marcelo Santos; Huang, Edmund; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2017-06-01

    Posttransplant malignancy (PTM) is one of the leading causes of late death in kidney recipients. Those with a cancer history may be more prone to develop a recurrent or a new cancer. We studied the association between pretransplant skin cancer, PTM, death, and graft failure. Primary adult kidney recipients transplanted between 2005 and 2013 were included. Malignancy information was obtained from Organ Procurement Kidney Transplant Network/United Network for Organ Sharing registration and follow-up forms. Posttransplant malignancy was classified into skin cancer, solid tumor, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Competing risk and survival analysis with adjustment for confounders were used to calculate risk for PTM, death and graft failure in recipients with pretransplant skin cancer compared with those without cancer. Risk was reported in hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). The cohort included 1671 recipients with and 102 961 without pretransplant skin malignancy. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PTM in patients with and without a pretransplant skin cancer history was 31.6% and 7.4%, respectively (P skin cancer had increased risk of PTM (sub-HR [SHR], 2.60; 95% CI, 2.27-2.98), and posttransplant skin cancer (SHR, 2.92; 95% CI, 2.52-3.39), PTLD (SHR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.01-3.66), solid tumor (SHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04-1.99), death (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34), and graft failure (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30) when compared with those without pretransplant malignancy. Pretransplant skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of posttransplant skin cancer, PTLD, solid organ cancer, death and graft failure.

  2. Involvement of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in skin cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Taichiro; Toda, Yoshinobu; Hiai, Hiroshi; Uemura, Munehiro; Nakamura, Motonobu; Yamamoto, Norio; Asato, Ryo; Hattori, Yukari; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Minato, Nagahiro; Kinoshita, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Most skin cancers develop as the result of UV light-induced DNA damage; however, a substantial number of cases appear to occur independently of UV damage. A causal link between UV-independent skin cancers and chronic inflammation has been suspected, although the precise mechanism underlying this association is unclear. Here, we have proposed that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, encoded by AICDA) links chronic inflammation and skin cancer. We demonstrated that Tg mice expressing AID in the skin spontaneously developed skin squamous cell carcinoma with Hras and Trp53 mutations. Furthermore, genetic deletion of Aicda reduced tumor incidence in a murine model of chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis. AID was expressed in human primary keratinocytes in an inflammatory stimulus-dependent manner and was detectable in human skin cancers. Together, the results of this study indicate that inflammation-induced AID expression promotes skin cancer development independently of UV damage and suggest AID as a potential target for skin cancer therapeutics.

  3. Research on Skin Cancer-Related Behaviors and Outcomes in the NIH Grant Portfolio, 2000-2014: Skin Cancer Intervention Across the Cancer Control Continuum (SCI-3C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Frank M; Dwyer, Laura A; Tesauro, Gina; Taber, Jennifer M; Norton, Wynne E; Hartman, Anne M; Geller, Alan C

    2017-05-01

    The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer broadly identified research gaps, but specific objectives are needed to further behavioral intervention research. To review National Institute of Health (NIH) grants targeting skin cancer-related behaviors and relevant outcomes. A portfolio analysis of the title, abstract, specific aims, and research plans of identified grant applications from 2000 to 2014 targeting skin cancer-related behaviors or testing behavioral intervention effects on cancer-relevant outcomes along the cancer continuum. Funding trends were compared along the cancer control continuum, with respect to investigator demographics and use of theory, technology, policy, and changes to environmental surroundings (built environment). A total of 112 submitted applications met inclusion criteria; of these, 40 (35.7%) were funded, and 31 of the 40 were interventions. Comparing the 40 funded grants with the 72 unfunded grants, the overall success rates did not differ significantly between male (33.3%) and female (37.3%) investigators, nor did the frequency of R01 awards (36.7% and 28.1%, respectively). Among intervention awards, most (24 of 31) addressed prevention. Fewer awards targeted detection alone or in conjunction with prevention (3) or cancer survivorship (4), and no grant addressed emotional sequelae or adherence behavior related to diagnosis or treatment. Fewer than half of funded grants aimed for clinically related targets (eg, sunburn reduction). Use of theory and technology occurred in more than 75% of grants. However, the full capability of proposed technology was infrequently used, and rarely did constructs of the proposed behavior change theory clearly and comprehensively drive the intervention approach. Policy or environmental manipulation was present in all dissemination grants but was rarely used elsewhere, and 19.4% included policy implementation and 25.8% proposed changes in built environment. Grant success rate in skin

  4. A rising cancer prevention target of RSK2 in human skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul eNarayanasamy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available RSK2 is a p90 ribosomal S6 kinase family (p90RSK member regulating cell proliferation and transformation induced by tumor promoters such as epithelial growth factor (EGF and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA. This family of p90RSK has classified as a serine/threonine kinase that respond to many growth factors, peptide hormones, neurotransmitters, and environmental stresses such as ultraviolet light (UV. Our recent study demonstrates that RSK2 plays a key role in human skin cancer development. Activation of RSK2 by EGF and UV through ERKs signaling pathway induces cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell transformation. Moreover, knockdown of RSK2 by si-RNA or sh-RNA abrogates cell proliferation and cell transformation of non-malignant human skin keratinocyte, and colony growth of malignant melanoma cells in soft agar. Importantly, activated and total RSK2 protein levels are highly detected in human skin cancer tissues including squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Kaempferol and eriodictyol are natural substances to inhibit kinase activity of the RSK2 N-terminal kinase domain, which is a critical kinase domain to transducer their activation signals to the substrates by phosphorylation. In this review, we discuss the role of RSK2 in skin cancer particularly, in activation of signaling pathways and potent natural substances to target RSK2 as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents.

  5. Non-melanoma skin cancer in Portuguese kidney transplant recipients - incidence and risk factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, André; Gouveia, Miguel; Cardoso, José Carlos; Xavier, Maria Manuel; Vieira, Ricardo; Alves, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is currently among the three leading causes of death after solid organ transplantation and its incidence is increasing. Non-melanoma skin cancer - squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma - is the most common malignancy found in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs has not been extensively studied in Portugal. Objectives To determine the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs from the largest Portuguese kidney transplant unit; and to study risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical records of KTRs referred for the first time for a dermatology consultation between 2004 and 2013. A case-control study was performed on KTRs with and without non-melanoma skin cancer. Results We included 288 KTRs with a median age at transplantation of 47 years, a male gender predominance (66%) and a median transplant duration of 3.67 years. One fourth (n=71) of KTRs developed 131 non-melanoma skin cancers, including 69 (53%) squamous cell carcinomas and 62 (47%) basal cell carcinomas (ratio squamous cell carcinoma: basal cell carcinoma 1.11), with a mean of 1.85 neoplasms per patient. Forty percent of invasive squamous cell carcinomas involved at least two clinical or histological high-risk features. The following factors were associated with a higher risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: an older age at transplantation and at the first consultation, a longer transplant duration and the presence of actinic keratosis. KTRs treated with azathioprine were 2.85 times more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer (p=0.01). Conclusion Non-melanoma skin cancer was a common reason for dermatology consultation in Portuguese KTRs. It is imperative for KTRs to have access to specialized dermatology consultation for early referral and treatment of skin malignancies. PMID:27579740

  6. Lymphoma-associated skin cancer: incidence, natural history, and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jerry D; Habermann, Thomas M; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2014-03-01

    The link between immunosuppression and skin cancer has been well described. The two most common situations involving immunosuppression-associated skin cancer are solid organ transplantation and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patients with lymphoma are more likely to have development of a secondary malignancy, with skin cancer being the most common. The most common types of skin cancer in patients with NHL/CLL include melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. Many skin cancers demonstrate increased aggressiveness in patients with NHL/CLL and are associated with higher recurrence rates, increased regional metastasis, and death secondary to skin cancer metastases. This review delineates the current research regarding the relationship between NHL/CLL and cutaneous malignancy. Immunosuppressed patients with skin cancer should be treated promptly and aggressively to decrease recurrence and metastases. Regular skin self-examinations, dermatologic examinations, sun-protective habits, and education may prove beneficial in this high-risk patient population.

  7. Aspirin for the primary prevention of skin cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Cheng, Yang; Luo, Rong-Cheng; Li, Ai-Min

    2015-03-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. There are three major skin cancer types: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. General risk factors for skin cancer include fair skin, a history of tanning and sunburn, family history of skin cancer, exposure to ultraviolet rays and a large number of moles. The incidence of skin cancer has increased in the USA in recent years. Aspirin intake is associated with chemoprotection against the development of a number of types of cancer. However, whether aspirin intake can reduce the risk of development of skin cancer is unclear. The present meta-analysis of available human studies is aimed at evaluating the association between aspirin exposure and the risk of skin cancer. All available human observational studies on aspirin intake for the primary prevention of skin cancer were identified by searching MEDLINE (Pubmed), BIOSIS, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure prior to March 2013. The heterogeneity and publication bias of all studies were evaluated using Cochran's Q and I(2) statistics, followed by a random-effect model where applicable. The pooled data were analyzed by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of eight case-control and five prospective cohort studies from 11 publications were selected for this analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias in these studies. Statistical analyses of the pooled data demonstrated that that a daily dose of 50-400 mg aspirin was significantly associated with a reduced risk of skin cancers (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99; P=0.02). Stratification analysis indicated that the continual intake of low dose aspirin (≤150 mg) reduced the risk of developing skin cancer (OR, 0.95; CI, 0.90-0.99; P=0.15) and that aspirin intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (OR, 0.97; CI, 0.95-0.99; P=0.22). Overall, these findings indicated that aspirin intake

  8. Evaluation of Primary Prevention of Skin Cancer: A UK Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melia, J.; Pendry, L.; Eiser, J.R.; Harland, C.; Moss, S

    2000-07-01

    Good quality research to study behaviour in the sun is needed in the UK to ensure that we can develop the most effective methods for ultimately reducing the incidence of skin cancer. Many initiatives have taken place during the past two decades to reduce the level of sun exposure. However, there have been relatively few studies to evaluate the impact of these initiatives on behaviour and health. This review summarises outcome measures of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour and of clinical signs of sun damage. The results of evaluation studies show that adolescents are a group resistant to change. Initiatives should focus on families with young children. Targeting holiday makers at the time of departure also proved to be ineffective. Future research should aim to monitor changes in behaviour in the general population, and to study changes among target groups using standardised methods. The costs of different interventions should be compared. (author)

  9. Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Cohen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non‐melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is traditionally treated with surgical excision. Nonsurgical methods such as cryotherapy and topical chemotherapeutics, amongst other treatments, are other options. Actinic keratosis (AKs are considered precancerous lesions that eventually may progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Photodynamic therapy (PDT offers an effective treatment for AKs, and is also effective for superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC. Nodular BCC and Bowen’s disease (SCC in situ have shown acceptable response rates with PDT, although recurrence rates are higher for these two NMSC subtypes. Methylaminolevulinate (MAL PDT is a more effective treatment option than 5‐aminolevulinic acid (ALA PDT for nodular BCC. Several studies have shown that PDT results in superior cosmetic outcomes compared to surgical treatment. PDT is overall well‐tolerated, with pain being the most common side effect.

  10. Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Diana K.; Lee, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is traditionally treated with surgical excision. Non-surgical methods such as cryotherapy and topical chemotherapeutics, amongst other treatments, are other options. Actinic keratosis (AKs) are considered precancerous lesions that eventually may progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers an effective treatment for AKs, and is also effective for superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Nodular BCC and Bowen’s disease (SCC in situ) have shown acceptable response rates with PDT, although recurrence rates are higher for these two NMSC subtypes. Methylaminolevulinate (MAL) PDT is a more effective treatment option than 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) PDT for nodular BCC. Several studies have shown that PDT results in superior cosmetic outcomes compared to surgical treatment. PDT is overall well-tolerated, with pain being the most common side effect. PMID:27782043

  11. The distance between breast cancer and the skin is associated with axillary nodal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Yong Hwa; Kim, Eun Jin; Chae, Byung Joo; Song, Byung Joo; Jung, Sang Seol

    2015-06-01

    More superficially located tumors may be more likely than deeper tumors to metastasize to the axillary nodes via the lymphatics. The aim of this study was to determine whether breast cancer distance from the skin affects axillary node metastasis, ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence, or recurrence-free survival. A total of 1,005 consecutive patients with breast cancer who underwent surgery between January 2003 and December 2009 were selected. The distance of the tumor from the skin was measured from the skin to the most anterior hypoechoic leading edge of the lesion. In total, 603 (68%) patients had no axillary nodal metastasis, and 288 (32%) had axillary nodal metastasis. A breast cancer distance from the skin breast cancer distance from the skin breast cancer recurrence (P = 0.788) or recurrence-free survival (P = 0.353). Breast cancers located closer to the skin had a higher incidence of axillary nodal metastasis. Therefore, tumor distance from the skin should be considered when evaluating a patient with breast cancer and considering the risk of nodal metastasis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Radiation induced skin cancer the chest wall 30 years later from breast cancer operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kouji; Togawa, Tamotsu; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Matsunami, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Tsuneko [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Matsuo, Youichi

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the skin cancer on the frontal chest wall induced by postoperative irradiation 30 years later from mastectomy. The patients was a 62-year-old woman, who received mastectomy of the right breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, comedo type) at 31 years old, and received the postoperative radiotherapy of total 11,628 rad over 38 times. On the first medical examination in author`s hospital, the patient had an ulcer of about 10 cm diameter and was diagnosed the radiation induced skin cancer (well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma) in the biopsy. Because of the general condition of the patient was extremely bad and the skin cancer had highly developed, the excision was thought to be impossible. The radiotherapy (16 Gy) and combined local chemotherapy by OK 432 and Bleomycin were performed. In spite of the short term treatment, these therapies were effective on the reduction of the tumor size and the hemostasis, and brought the patient the improvement of QOL. The general condition of the patient improved to be stable and she recovered enough to go out from the hospital for 6 months. After 10 months, she showed anorexia and dyspnea and died after about 1 year from the admission. The present case is extremely rare, and it is required the radical therapy like the excision of chest wall at early stage. (K.H.)

  13. Skin cancer as a marker of sun exposure associates with myocardial infarction, hip fracture and death from any cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F;

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is the single most important risk factor for skin cancer, but sun exposure may also have beneficial effects on health. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with skin cancer (non-melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous malignant melanoma) have less myocardial infarction, hip fracture...

  14. High correlation of double Debye model parameters in skin cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Bao C Q; Tuan, H D; Fitzgerald, Anthony J; Wallace, Vincent P; Nguyen, H T

    2014-01-01

    The double Debye model can be used to capture the dielectric response of human skin in terahertz regime due to high water content in the tissue. The increased water proportion is widely considered as a biomarker of carcinogenesis, which gives rise of using this model in skin cancer detection. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to provide a specific analysis of the double Debye parameters in terms of non-melanoma skin cancer classification. Pearson correlation is applied to investigate the sensitivity of these parameters and their combinations to the variation in tumor percentage of skin samples. The most sensitive parameters are then assessed by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot to confirm their potential of classifying tumor from normal skin. Our positive outcomes support further steps to clinical application of terahertz imaging in skin cancer delineation.

  15. Genetic Determinants of Skin Color, Aging, and Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Jacobs (Leonie)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractChapter 1 gives a general introduction to this thesis. In Chapter 2 we validated perceived skin color as skin color measurement. In Chapter 3 we investigated whether digitally quantified skin color was a suitable measure to discover new skin color genes. In Chapter 4 we investi

  16. The relationship between basal and squamous cell skin cancer and smoking related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitas Freddy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared the risk of being diagnosed with smoking-related cancers (lung, oral cavity, upper digestive and respiratory organs, bladder, kidney, anogenital cancers and myeloid leukaemia among people with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC or basal cell carcinoma of the skin (BCC, with risks found in the general population using data from an Australian population-based cancer registry. Methods People diagnosed with BCC or SCC in 1980-2003 reported to the Tasmanian Cancer Registry, Australia, were followed-up by linkage within the registry, until diagnosis of a subsequent smoking-related cancer, death, or until 31 December 2003. Risk of developing a future smoking-related cancer was assessed using age Standardised Incidence Ratios (SIR. Results People diagnosed with SCC had an increased risk of lung cancer (men: SIR = 1.89, 95% confidence interval: 1.61-2.21; women: SIR = 2.04, 1.42-2.83 and all other smoking-related cancers (men: SIR = 1.38, 1.19-1.60; women: SIR = 1.78, 1.34-2.33. Men with BCC had a significant increased risk of lung cancer (SIR = 1.26, 1.10-1.44 but not of any of the other smoking-related cancers (SIR = 1.09, 0.97-1.23. Conclusions Individuals with a history of SCC having an increased risk of developing smoking related cancers cancer suggests smoking as a common etiology. The relationship between BCC and smoking-related cancers is less certain.

  17. MAL-PDT for difficult to treat nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, William G; Hanke, C William

    2011-01-01

    With an incidence of over 3.5 million nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) per year in the United States, there is an increasing need for effective, cost-effective treatments for NMSC. When surgical excision is impractical or not feasible, methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) has demonstrated consistently high long-term cure rates ranging from 70-90%, with superior cosmetic outcomes compared with other treatment modalities. With the exception of invasive squamous cell carcinoma, MAL-PDT has been successful in treating all types of NMSC, especially in patients with multiple comorbidities, field cancerization, and lesions in cosmetically sensitive locations. Herein, a step-by-step description of the procedure for MAL-PDT is provided, followed by a review of outcomes from large clinical trials performed over the past 15 years for each variant of NMSC. After reading this review, clinicians should have a thorough understanding of the benefits and limits of MAL-PDT, and should be able to add this valuable procedure to their armamentarium of therapies for NMSC. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A multifaceted intervention: no increase in general practitioners' competence to diagnose skin cancer (minSKIN) - randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Tandjung, R.; Senn, O.; Kofmehl, R.; Held, U.; Rosemann, T.; Hofbauer, G.F.; Wensing, M.; Rossi, P.O.; Braun, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) play crucial roles in early detection of skin cancer. A pilot-study found a positive short-term effect of a 1-day dermatologic education programme on GPs' diagnostic competence. OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of a multifaceted intervention, including

  19. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao DY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana Y Diao,1 Tim K Lee1,21Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Cancer Control Research Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes.Keywords: skin cancer, melanoma, risk, prevention, behaviour

  20. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25......-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated...... with increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD 50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH...

  1. Trends of skin cancer mortality after transplantation in the United States: 1987 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Giorgia L; Lowenstein, Stefan E; Singer, Jonathan P; He, Steven Y; Arron, Sarah T

    2016-07-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of skin cancer, but population-based mortality data are limited. Mortality and predictors of skin cancer death posttransplantation were investigated. All US organ transplant recipients between 1987 and 2013, identified through the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Standard Transplant Analysis and Research file, were included. Mortality and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for the overall population and patient subgroups. The overall mortality was 5308 per 100,000 person-years and the skin cancer-specific mortality was 35.27 per 100,000 person-years. Risk factors associated with skin cancer death included thoracic versus abdominal transplantation (HR 2.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.52-3.34), age over 50 years (HR 2.86, CI 2.43-3.38), white race (HR 6.29, CI 4.63-8.53), and male sex (HR 1.85, CI 1.57-2.19). Mortality was highest for malignant melanoma (mortality of 11.48), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (mortality of 4.94) and Merkel cell carcinoma (mortality of 4.59). Limitations of this study included potential underreporting and misclassification of death from skin cancer in the data set. Mortality from posttransplantation skin cancer is reported. Older patients, male patients, white patients, and thoracic transplant recipients had increased mortality from skin cancer. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of skin cancer images using local binary pattern and SVM classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjed, Faouzi; Faye, Ibrahima; Ababsa, Fakhreddine; Gardezi, Syed Jamal; Dass, Sarat Chandra

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a classification method for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer images has been presented using the local binary patterns (LBP). The LBP computes the local texture information from the skin cancer images, which is later used to compute some statistical features that have capability to discriminate the melanoma and non-melanoma skin tissues. Support vector machine (SVM) is applied on the feature matrix for classification into two skin image classes (malignant and benign). The method achieves good classification accuracy of 76.1% with sensitivity of 75.6% and specificity of 76.7%.

  3. An Advertisement and Article Analysis of Skin Products and Topics in Popular Women's Magazines: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Fullwood, M D; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 5 million people treated per year and annual medical treatment expenditures that exceed 8 billion dollars. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to enumerate the number of advertisements for skin products with and without Sun Protection Factor (SPF) and to further analyze the specific advertisements for sunblock to determine if models, when present, depict sun safe behaviors and 2) to enumerate the number of articles related to the skin for content. Both aims include an assessment for differences in age and in magazines targeting a Black or Latina population. The sample for this cross sectional study was comprised of 99 issues of 14 popular United States magazines marketed to women, four of which market to a Black or Latina audience. There were 6,142 advertisements, of which 1,215 (19.8%, 95% CI: 18.8-20.8%) were related to skin products. Among the skin product advertisements, 1,145 (93.8%, 95% CI: 93.9-96.3%) depicted skin products without SPF. The majority of skin articles (91.2%, 95% CI: 91.7-100.0%), skin product advertisements (89.9%, 95% CI: 88.2-91.6%), and sunblock advertisements featuring models (were found in magazines aimed at the older (>24 yr) audience. Future research on this topic could focus on the extent to which images in these magazines translate into risky health behaviors, such as sun seeking, or excessive other harmful effects of UV radiation.

  4. The role of the cutaneous microbiome in skin cancer: lessons learned from the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Champer, Jackson; Beynet, David; Kim, Jenny; Friedman, Adam J

    2015-05-01

    The human microbiome has recently gained prominence as a major factor in health and disease. Here we review the literature regarding the microbiome and cancer and suggest how the microbiome may be manipulated for improved health outcomes. The gut microbiome has been relatively well studied, and the mechanisms of how it may increase or decrease the risk of certain cancers may apply to the skin microbiome. Additionally, the gut microbiome may directly impact the risk of cancer in the skin and other organs by promoting systemic inflammation. The skin microbiome itself is as diverse as the gut microbiome, but research has just begun to unravel its influence on the host. Like the gut microbiome, it affects the risk for several diseases, including cancer. By using healthpromoting strains from the microbiome in oral or topical probiotics, it may be possible to reduce the risk of skin cancer and perhaps even increase the likelihood of successful treatment.

  5. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Diana Y; Lee, Tim K

    2014-01-01

    Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes. PMID:24379732

  6. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Giorgia L; Blanc, Paul D; Boscardin, John; Lloyd, Amanda Abramson; Ahmed, Rehana L; Anthony, Tiffany; Bibee, Kristin; Breithaupt, Andrew; Cannon, Jennifer; Chen, Amy; Cheng, Joyce Y; Chiesa-Fuxench, Zelma; Colegio, Oscar R; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Del Guzzo, Christina A; Disse, Max; Dowd, Margaret; Eilers, Robert; Ortiz, Arisa Elena; Morris, Caroline; Golden, Spring K; Graves, Michael S; Griffin, John R; Hopkins, R Samuel; Huang, Conway C; Bae, Gordon Hyeonjin; Jambusaria, Anokhi; Jennings, Thomas A; Jiang, Shang I Brian; Karia, Pritesh S; Khetarpal, Shilpi; Kim, Changhyun; Klintmalm, Goran; Konicke, Kathryn; Koyfman, Shlomo A; Lam, Charlene; Lee, Peter; Leitenberger, Justin J; Loh, Tiffany; Lowenstein, Stefan; Madankumar, Reshmi; Moreau, Jacqueline F; Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Ochoa, Shari; Olasz, Edit B; Otchere, Elaine; Otley, Clark; Oulton, Jeremy; Patel, Parth H; Patel, Vishal Anil; Prabhu, Arpan V; Pugliano-Mauro, Melissa; Schmults, Chrysalyne D; Schram, Sarah; Shih, Allen F; Shin, Thuzar; Soon, Seaver; Soriano, Teresa; Srivastava, Divya; Stein, Jennifer A; Sternhell-Blackwell, Kara; Taylor, Stan; Vidimos, Allison; Wu, Peggy; Zajdel, Nicholas; Zelac, Daniel; Arron, Sarah T

    2017-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy occurring after organ transplantation. Although previous research has reported an increased risk of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs), no study has estimated the posttransplant population-based incidence in the United States. To determine the incidence and evaluate the risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), melanoma (MM), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in a cohort of US OTRs receiving a primary organ transplant in 2003 or 2008. This multicenter retrospective cohort study examined 10 649 adult recipients of a primary transplant performed at 26 centers across the United States in the Transplant Skin Cancer Network during 1 of 2 calendar years (either 2003 or 2008) identified through the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database. Recipients of all organs except intestine were included, and the follow-up periods were 5 and 10 years. Incident skin cancer was determined through detailed medical record review. Data on predictors were obtained from the OPTN database. The incidence rates for posttransplant skin cancer overall and for SCC, MM, and MCC were calculated per 100 000 person-years. Potential risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer were tested using multivariate Cox regression analysis to yield adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Overall, 10 649 organ transplant recipients (mean [SD] age, 51 [12] years; 3873 women [36%] and 6776 men [64%]) contributed 59 923 years of follow-up. The incidence rates for posttransplant skin cancer was 1437 per 100 000 person-years. Specific subtype rates for SCC, MM, and MCC were 812, 75, and 2 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. Statistically significant risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer included pretransplant skin cancer (HR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.26-6.73), male sex (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.34-1.81), white race (HR, 9.04; 95% CI, 6.20-13.18), age at transplant 50 years or older (HR, 2

  7. Patients highly value routine follow-up of skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themstrup, Lotte; Jemec, Gregor E; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Skin cancer follow-up is a substantial burden to outpatient clinics. Few studies have investigated patients' views on skin cancer follow-up and cutaneous melanoma. The objective was to investigate patients' perceived benefits and the impact of follow-up. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: This study included an open sample of patients attending routine follow-up at the outpatient Departments of Plastic Surgery and Dermatology, Roskilde Hospital. A total of 218 follow-up patients diagnosed with cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM), non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) or actinic keratosis (AK...

  8. Changes in biophysical properties of the skin following radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Hou, Ming-Feng; Luo, Kuei-Hau; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Wei, Shu-Yi; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Chiang, Wenchang; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2014-12-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a common adverse effect in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. However, the effects of radiotherapy on biophysical properties of the skin have rarely been investigated. In this prospective cohort study, we seek to determine the effects of radiotherapy for breast cancer on skin biophysical parameters. We measured various skin biophysical parameters (skin hydration, pH, sebum level, pigmentation, and blood flow) in 144 breast cancer patients by non-invasive techniques before and after radiotherapy. The measurements were simultaneously performed on the irradiated breast and the corresponding contralateral unirradiated breast for comparison. Following radiotherapy, the irradiated breast showed a significant decrease in skin hydration, increase in skin pH, increase in pigmentation, and increase in cutaneous blood flow. The contralateral unirradiated breast showed a slight increase in pigmentation but no significant changes in any of the other biophysical parameters after radiotherapy. No significant associations were found between patient characteristics (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, type of surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy) and changes in skin biophysical parameters following radiotherapy. In conclusion, radiation therapy for breast cancer induces measurable and significant changes in biophysical properties of the skin including hydration, pH, pigmentation, and blood flow. These findings give us a greater understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on skin physiology, and provide non-invasive and objective methods to assess radiation dermatitis. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Primary Care-Based Skin Cancer Screening in a Veterans Affairs Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetter, Susan M; Chang, Julia; Shaub, Amanda R; Weinstock, Martin A; Lewis, Eleanor T; Asch, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    Skin cancer screening may improve melanoma outcomes and keratinocyte carcinoma morbidity, but little is known about the feasibility of skin cancer training and clinical skin examination (CSE) by primary care practitioners (PCPs) in large health care systems. To assess the association of skin cancer training and screening by PCPs with dermatology referral patterns and rates of skin biopsies. In this pilot interventional study performed at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, patients 35 years or older scheduled for an annual health habits screen in the PCP general medicine clinics were studied. Six PCPs underwent Internet Curriculum for Melanoma Early Detection (INFORMED) training in May 2015, and 5 screened patients during the following 14 months. Proportion of dermatology referrals, subsequent skin biopsies, and PCP diagnostic accuracy for skin cancer or precancer compared with dermatologist diagnosis were assessed in screened patients 14 months before the intervention (February 18, 2014, through April 30, 2015) and after the intervention (June 18, 2015, through August 30, 2016). Among 258 patients offered screening (median age, 70 years; age range, 35-94 years; 255 [98.8%] male), 189 (73.3%) received CSE and 69 (26.7%) declined. A total of 62 of 189 patients (32.8%) were referred to a dermatologist after intervention: 33 (53.2%) for presumptive skin cancers and 15 (24.2%) for precancers. Nine of 50 patients (18.0%) evaluated in dermatology clinic underwent biopsy to exclude skin cancer. Correct diagnoses were made by PCPs in 13 of 38 patients (34.2%; 4 of 27 patients [14.8%] diagnosed with skin cancers and 5 of 11 patients [45.5%] diagnosed with actinic keratoses). Comparison of all outpatient visits for the 5 main participating PCPs before vs after intervention revealed no significant differences in dermatology referrals overall and those for presumptive skin cancer or actinic keratoses, skin biopsies, or PCP diagnostic accuracy with the exception

  10. Defining the Need for Skin Cancer Prevention Education in Uninsured, Minority, and Immigrant Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Audrey A; Galvan, Ana; Lachapelle, Claudina Canaan; Wohl, Cheryl B; Kirsner, Robert S; Strasswimmer, John

    2016-12-01

    As the minority population increases in the United States, the incidence of skin cancer has important public health consequences, including poor skin cancer outcomes, in part because of late-stage diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to identify obstacles in skin cancer prevention in these communities. To characterize skin cancer prevention and education needs in uninsured, minority, and immigrant communities in South Florida. At a large free medical clinic in Florida, a convenience sample of people completed a 23-question survey in English, Spanish, or Haitian Creole assessing their skin cancer risk perception, knowledge, sun protective behaviors and barriers, and desirable outreach methods. All participants were uninsured and living at least 200% below the federal poverty level. Participants were adults recruited from the general waiting room who understood 1 of the 3 languages and were not present for a scheduled dermatology visit. The survey used Likert-type scales, true or false, and yes or no questions. Data were analyzed with SPSS IBM statistical software (version 22) using 1-way analysis of variance, χ2 tests, and Pearson correlations. Among the 219 people invited, 206 participants (mean [SD] age, 43 [13.2] years) completed the survey; 75% of respondents were women who usually worked indoors. Almost a quarter (49 [24.5%) had never heard of skin cancer or melanoma. Nearly half (89 [44.3%]) had never conducted a self-skin examination. One in 5 (41 [20.7%]) believed that people with dark skin cannot get skin cancer. Three quarters (156 [75.7%]) of respondents fell into the "low/inconsistent" sun protective behavior category. Barriers to sun-protective behaviors were "using sun protection is too hot" (75 participants [39.3%]) and "I forget." (72 [37.7%]). More than 85% (175 [87.9%]) wanted to learn more about how to prevent skin cancer. Watching a video (37.3%) and text messaging (30.8%) were identified as the most popular outreach methods. Important barriers

  11. Sun-related behaviors among individuals previously diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Vinayak K; Ford, M Allison; Jacks, Stephanie K; Thielen, Scott P; Johnson, Andrea K; Brodell, Robert T; Bass, Martha A

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general population, the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer is considerably higher among individuals with a previous history of this condition. Protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary evidence-based approach for minimizing this risk. This review was aimed to assess the prevalence of sun-safe behaviors in non-melanoma skin cancer survivors. Searches were conducted in six electronic databases including PubMed, Psyclnfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and Science Direct. A narrative approach was adopted to synthesize the data. The findings demonstrated that respondents do not protect themselves optimally from UV radiation exposure. Low levels of perceived skin cancer risk, a lack of knowledge about effective sun protection strategies and the inconvenience associated with sun-safe behaviors appear to explain this finding. A note of caution is required here, as there is a potential for publication bias. Moreover, the results of this study cannot be generalized to all non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Skin cancer survivors must be educated about their increased risk of future skin cancers. Behavioral interventions must be developed to increase the adoption of skin protective behaviors in this high-risk population group.

  12. Sun-related behaviors among individuals previously diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K Nahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the general population, the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer is considerably higher among individuals with a previous history of this condition. Protection from ultraviolet (UV radiation is the primary evidence-based approach for minimizing this risk. This review was aimed to assess the prevalence of sun-safe behaviors in non-melanoma skin cancer survivors. Searches were conducted in six electronic databases including PubMed, Psyclnfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and Science Direct. A narrative approach was adopted to synthesize the data. The findings demonstrated that respondents do not protect themselves optimally from UV radiation exposure. Low levels of perceived skin cancer risk, a lack of knowledge about effective sun protection strategies and the inconvenience associated with sun-safe behaviors appear to explain this finding. A note of caution is required here, as there is a potential for publication bias. Moreover, the results of this study cannot be generalized to all non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Skin cancer survivors must be educated about their increased risk of future skin cancers. Behavioral interventions must be developed to increase the adoption of skin protective behaviors in this high-risk population group.

  13. Precordial skin burns after endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric tube cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Motoshi; Yoshio, Toshiyuki; Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Ishiyama, Akiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yorimasa; Tsuchida, Tomohiro; Fujisaki, Junko; Igarashi, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is useful as a minimally invasive treatment option for early gastric cancer. ESD is also used in the management of postoperative remnant gastric cancers in the stomach and gastric tube cancers. Perforation and delayed bleeding have been the main complications of ESD reported in the management of gastric tube cancer. However, in the current literature, there is no description of precordial skin burns caused by electrical coagulation. While we treated 22 patients with gastric tube cancers by ESD from 2005 to 2014, we experienced five skin burns in four patients after ESD. We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics of precordial skin burn as a complication of ESD. All skin burns occurred in patients reconstructed using a presternal route, whose incidence of precordial skin burn was 55.6%. In all cases, lesions were located in the upper or middle third of gastric tubes irrespective of their direction. Skin burn developed on postoperative day (POD) 1 or POD 2, taking 4-7 days to heal and was accompanied by high fever in 60% of cases. The present study suggests that when carrying out ESD for gastric tube cancer using the presternal route, it is necessary to consider the occurrence of a precordial skin burn as a possible complication. © 2015 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  14. Computer aided analysis of epi-illumination and transillumination images of skin lesions for diagnosis of skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Brian; Dhawan, Atam P; Mullani, Nizar

    2011-01-01

    Skin lesion pigmentation area from surface, or, epi-illumination (ELM) images and blood volume area from transillumination (TLM) images are useful features to aid a dermatologist in the diagnosis of melanoma and other skin cancers in early curable stages. However, segmentation of these areas is difficult. In this work, we present an automatic segmentation tool for ELM and TLM images that also provides additional choices for user selection and interaction with adaptive learning. Our tool uses a combination of k-means clustering, wavelet analysis, and morphological operations to segment the lesion and blood volume, and then presents the user with six segmentation suggestions for both ELM and TLM images. The final selection of segmentation boundary may then be iteratively improved through scoring by multiple users. The ratio of TLM to ELM segmented areas is an indicator of dysplasia in skin lesions for detection of skin cancers, and this ratio is found to show a statistically significant trend in association with lesion dysplasia on a set of 81 pathologically validated lesions (p = 0.0058). We then present a support vector machine classifier using the results from the interactive segmentation method along with ratio, color, texture, and shape features to characterize skin lesions into three degrees of dysplasia with promising accuracy.

  15. Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, M.; Khan, R. U.; Firdous, S.; Atif, M.; Nawaz, M.

    2011-02-01

    In this prospective study duly approved from Institutional Ethics Review Committee for research in medicine, PAEC General Hospital Islamabad, Pakistan, we investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability along with cosmetic outcome of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) and their precursors. Patients with Histological diagnosis of NMSCs and their precursors were assessed for PDT, after photographic documentation of the lesions and written consent, underwent two (2) sessions of PDT in one month (4 weeks) according to standard protocol. A freshly prepared 20% 5-ALA in Unguentum base was applied under occlusive dressing for 4-6 h as Drug Light Interval (DLI) and irradiated with light of 630 nm wavelength from a diode laser at standard dose of 90 J/cm2. Approximately 11% patients reported pain during treatment which was managed in different simple ways. In our study we regularly followed up the patients for gross as well as histopathological response and recurrence free periods during median follow-up of 24 months. Regarding Basal cell carcinomas complete response was observed in 86.2% (25/29), partial response in 10.3% (3/29) and recurrence during first year in 3.5% (1/29) lesions. All the lesions which showed partial response or recurrence were nBCCs. Regarding Actinic Keratosis complete response was observed in 95.3% (20/21), partial response in 4.7% (1/21) while Bowen's disease showed 100% (2/2) results. 81.8% (9/11) Squamous Cell Carcinomas showed complete, 9% (1/11) partial response and 9% (1/11) presented with recurrence after 3 months. We observed excellent and good cosmetic results along with tumor clearance in our study. Treatment sessions were well tolerated with high level of patient's satisfaction and only minor side effects of pain during treatment sessions and inflammatory changes post photodynamic therapy were observed. We concluded that 5-ALA PDT is an effective and safe emerging

  16. Estadísticas en el cáncer de piel Statistics in skin cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    RE Achenbach

    ... la más frecuente en el ser humano.A different point of view in the sphere of statistics in skin cancer, specially about squamous cell carcinoma, solar keratosis and the so called precancerous dermatosis...

  17. mTHPC Mediated, Systemic Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers : Case and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Rudolf K.; Terra, Jorrit B.; Witjes, Max J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Patients with multiple nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), like immunosuppressed or nevoid basal cell carcinomas, offer a therapeutic challenge. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the systemic photosensitizer meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) has the ability to treat

  18. mTHPC Mediated, Systemic Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers : Case and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Rudolf K.; Terra, Jorrit B.; Witjes, Max J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Patients with multiple nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), like immunosuppressed or nevoid basal cell carcinomas, offer a therapeutic challenge. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the systemic photosensitizer meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) has the ability to treat multi

  19. [Carcinogenic viruses in etiopathogenesis of skin cancers in patients after organ transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesiaków, Maria Luiza; Imko-Walczuk, Beata; Osiecka, Karolina; Kiełbowicz, Marta; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja

    2016-02-14

    The latest literature report specifies multifactoral etiology of skin cancer in population of patients after organs transplats. Carcirogenic viruses are one of etiopathogenesis components. Viruses of a vital meaning for skin oncogenesis are called Human papillomavirus - HPV, Human herpesvirus 8 - HHV8 i Merkel cell polyomavirus - MCV. Report on connections exisisting between viruses HPV and skin cancers in the population of patients after organs transplants confirms clinical connection between viruses papillas and cancers centres occuring in similar locations and more frequent appearance of attributes characteristic for HPV infection within the limits of changes in the type of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). What's more, coexisting of viruses papillas and SCC is more often noticed in the population of organ recipients than in the population of healthy people. It is not confirmed yet that any specific correlation between subtypes of HPV and greater frequency of morbidity in skin cancers really exist. However, in the population of organ recipients infections of different types of HPV are found within the limits of cancers centres in the case of SCC (63%) as well as in basal cell carcinoma-BCC (55%). DNA of HPV was also fund in healthy parts of organ recipients skin (92-94%). HHV8 is also an oncogenic viruse that influences the development of lymphoma. Infection of that virus may cause ocuuring of Kaposi's sarkoma, which is one of the most frequent types of cancer appearing in population of patients treating by long-term immunosuppression in particular geographical zones. MCV, which belongs to the group called Polyomaviriade, owes a particular meaning in etiopathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma - MCC. It is a rare cancer derived from neuroendocrine cells of the basic layers of epidermie. For over 30 years it was supposed that correlation between viruses and skin cancers in population of organ recipient exist. Knowledge of the total viruses influence on skin cancers

  20. Green tea prevents non-melanoma skin cancer by enhancing DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2011-04-15

    Excessive exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the major factors for the development of skin cancers, including non-melanoma. For the last several centuries the consumption of dietary phytochemicals has been linked to numerous health benefits including the photoprotection of the skin. Green tea has been consumed as a popular beverage world-wide and skin photoprotection by green tea polyphenols (GTPs) has been widely investigated. In this article, we have discussed the recent investigations and mechanistic studies which define the potential efficacy of GTPs on the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. UV-induced DNA damage, particularly the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, has been implicated in immunosuppression and initiation of skin cancer. Topical application or oral administration of green tea through drinking water of mice prevents UVB-induced skin tumor development, and this prevention is mediated, at least in part, through rapid repair of DNA. The DNA repair by GTPs is mediated through the induction of interleukin (IL)-12 which has been shown to have DNA repair ability. The new mechanistic investigations support and explain the anti-photocarcinogenic activity, in particular anti-non-melanoma skin cancer, of green tea and explain the benefits of green tea for human health.

  1. Photodynamic Therapy and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Liezel L.; Lear, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen’s disease (BD) and actinic keratosis (AK). A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate) PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance. PDT is an effective treatment for superficial BCC, BD and both individual and field treatment of AKs. Excellent cosmesis can be achieved with high patient satisfaction. Variable results have been reported for nodular BCC, with improved outcomes following pretreatment and repeated PDT cycles. The more aggressive basisquamous, morphoeic infiltrating subtypes of BCC and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are not suitable for PDT. Prevention of “field cancerization” in organ transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppression and patients with Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) is a promising development. The optimisation of PDT techniques with improved photosensitiser delivery to target tissues, new generation photosensitisers and novel light sources may expand the future role of PDT in NMSC management. PMID:27782094

  2. Photodynamic Therapy and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel L. Griffin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC, Bowen’s disease (BD and actinic keratosis (AK. A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance. PDT is an effective treatment for superficial BCC, BD and both individual and field treatment of AKs. Excellent cosmesis can be achieved with high patient satisfaction. Variable results have been reported for nodular BCC, with improved outcomes following pretreatment and repeated PDT cycles. The more aggressive basisquamous, morphoeic infiltrating subtypes of BCC and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are not suitable for PDT. Prevention of “field cancerization” in organ transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppression and patients with Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a promising development. The optimisation of PDT techniques with improved photosensitiser delivery to target tissues, new generation photosensitisers and novel light sources may expand the future role of PDT in NMSC management.

  3. Awareness of Skin Cancer, Prevention, and Early Detection among Turkish University Students

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    Ziyafet Ugurlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the awareness about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 404 students in a university located in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. A 35-item questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Less than half of the students (37.9% had knowledge about skin cancer mostly through the internet (24.5% and media (24.1%. Half of them aware of the risk factors; mostly as avoiding direct exposure to the Sun between 10 am and 4 pm (45.3%; smoking and alcohol (38.4%; having fair skin color (34.9%; and ultraviolet light exposure (25.7%. Only one-third of them (32.9% are knowledgeable about skin cancer signs and symptoms, such as a change in color and appearance of the nevus/moles (24%. The majority of the responders (77.3% did not know about screening tests for skin cancer and only 18 (4.5% students were practicing skin self-examination. Conclusions: This study showed a lack of knowledge about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students and reported the need for educational interventions to raise awareness in this target group.

  4. Recent Trends (1991-2010) of Metastatic Skin Cancers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Chul Hwan; Bae, Jung Min; Kim, Hei Sung; Kim, Gyeong Mun; Yu, Dong Soo; Park, Hyun Jeong; Oh, Shin Tack; Kang, Hoon; Park, Chul Jong; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of overall cancer has increased over time. The incidence of top-ranking cancers has changed in the 1990s and the 2000s. However, few studies have evaluated the trends in metastatic skin cancers during this period. We evaluated the recent trends in incidence, peak age and location of metastatic skin cancers from 1991 to 2010. This 20-yr survey was divided into two decades to determine the trends by comparing the statistics. Out of 694,466 outpatients (1991-2010), 174 (0.025%) wer...

  5. Changes in Bacteria Induce Inflammatory Skin Diseases | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that manifests as dry skin with a relentless itch and eczema. AD is considered an allergic disease in which the skin inflammation manifests in response to chronic exposure to contact allergens. However, identification of a responsible allergen is uncommon. Meanwhile, analyses have demonstrated that the surface of the human body is colonized by large numbers of diverse bacteria. This observation has led researchers to examine the roles these bacteria play in healthy and diseased skin. In a variety of genetic and chronic inflammatory skin diseases, including in patients with AD or with cancer who receive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium species are the predominant bacteria isolated from the skin. However, the cause-and-effect relationship between this microbial imbalance and skin inflammation has not been determined.

  6. Scalping Surgery – Dermatologic Indications beyond Curative Primary Skin Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Langner, Dana; Hansel, Gesina; Koch, André; Tchernev, Georgi

    2017-01-01

    Skin tumours are among the most frequent tumour types of mankind. In the case of large tumours, field cancerization, or satellitosis scalping surgery is a possible option. The procedure can also be used in a palliative setting with tumour debulking. Less common indications are multiple benign tumours of the scalp and chronic inflammatory scalp dermatoses not responding to medical treatment. We present a case series and discuss surgical modalities beyond curative surgery of primary skin cancer. PMID:28785321

  7. Non-melanoma skin cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlands, C; Currie, R; Memon, A; Whitaker, S; Woolford, T

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. This paper provides consensus recommendations on the management of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region on the basis of current evidence. Recommendations • Royal College of Pathologists minimum datasets for NMSC should be adhered to in order to improve patient care and help work-force planning in pathology departments. (G) • Tumour depth is of critical importance in identifying high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), and should be reported in all cases. (R) • Appropriate imaging to determine the extent of primary NMSC is indicated when peri-neural involvement or bony invasion is suspected. (R) • In the clinically N0 neck, radiological imaging is not beneficial, and a policy of watchful waiting and patient education can be adopted. (R) • Patients with high-risk NMSC should be treated by members of a skin cancer multidisciplinary team (MDT) in secondary care. (G) • Non-infiltrative basal cell carcinoma (BCC) Radiotherapy (RT) is an effective therapy for primary BCC and cSCC. (R) • Re-excision should be carried out for incompletely excised high-risk BCC or where there is deep margin involvement. (R) • Incompletely excised high-risk cSCC should be re-excised. (R) • Further surgery should involve confirmed marginal clearance before reconstruction. (R) • P+ N0 disease: Resection should include involved parotid tissue, combined with levels I-III neck dissection, to include the external jugular node. (R) • P+ N+ disease: Resection should include level V if that level is clinically or radiologically involved. (R) • Adjuvant RT should include level V if not dissected. (R) • P0 N+ disease: Anterior neck disease should be managed with levels I-IV neck dissection to include the external jugular node. (R) • P0 N+ posterior echelon nodal disease (i

  8. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, Self-Efficacy, and Preventative Behaviors among North Mississippi Landscapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K. Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are slightly over one million workers in the landscape service industry in the US. These workers have potential for high levels of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure, increasing their risk of skin cancer. A cross-sectional sample of 109 landscapers completed a self-administered questionnaire based on Health Belief Model (HBM. The participants correctly answered 67.1% of the knowledge questions, 69.7% believed they were more likely than the average person to get skin cancer, and 87.2% perceived skin cancer as a severe disease. Participants believed that the use of wide-brimmed hats, long sleeved shirts/long pants, and sunscreen was beneficial but reported low usage of these and other sun protective strategies. The primary barriers to using sun protection were “I forget to wear it” and “it is too hot to wear.” Of the HBM variables, perceived benefits outweighing perceived barrier (, and self-efficacy (, were correlated with sun protection behaviors. The reasons for absence of the relationship between perceived skin cancer threat and sun protection behaviors could be lack of skin cancer knowledge and low rate of personal skin cancer history.

  9. Risk of skin cancer following tamoxifen treatment in more than 16,000 breast cancer patients: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praestegaard, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Andersson, Michael; Steding-Jensen, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Mellemkjaer, Lene

    2016-11-01

    Women with breast cancer are at increased risk of developing skin cancer. Little is known about how tamoxifen affects this risk. We aimed to investigate whether tamoxifen treatment following breast cancer is associated with skin cancer. A cohort consisting of 44,589 women diagnosed with breast cancer during 1977-2007 from the nationwide clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, was followed for a primary skin cancer [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or melanoma] in the Danish Cancer Registry supplemented by data on BCC and SCC from the Danish Pathology Register. We investigated incidence of skin cancer among 16,214 women treated with tamoxifen compared to 28,375 women not treated with tamoxifen by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in Cox regression models. Tamoxifen users were followed for a median of 2.9 years. The median duration of tamoxifen treatment increased from around 1 year among women diagnosed before 1999 to nearly 2.5 years among women diagnosed in 1999 or later. Women treated with tamoxifen had an IRR 1.06 (95 % CI 0.72-1.55) for SCC and an IRR 1.40 (95 % CI 0.95-2.08) for melanoma when compared to non-users. The observed number of these types of cancer (37 SCCs and 38 melanomas among users) did not allow stratification on calendar-period. The overall IRR for BCC was 0.96 (95 % CI 0.84-1.09), but the IRR differed by menopausal status and calendar-period at diagnosis of breast cancer. Our overall results indicate that tamoxifen is not associated with skin cancer. However, the inconsistency of results from stratifications prevents a firm conclusion.

  10. Skin cancer margin analysis within minutes with full-field OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Ogrich, Lauren; Morales, Diego; Cusack, Carrie Ann; Abdelmalek, Mark; Boccara, Claude; Durkin, John

    2017-02-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the skin cancer. Traditional excision involves the removal of the visible skin cancer with a significant margin of normal skin. On cosmetically sensitive areas, Mohs micrographic tissue is the standard of care. Mohs uses intraoperative microscopic margin assessment which minimizes the surgical defect and can help reduce the recurrence rate by a factor of 3. The current Mohs technique relies on frozen section tissue slide preparation which significantly lengthens operative time and requires on-site trained histotechnicians. Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FFOCT) is a novel optical imaging technique which provides a quick and efficient method to visualize cancerous areas in minutes, without any preparation or destruction of the tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of FFOCT for the analysis of skin cancer margins during Mohs surgery. Over 150 images of Mohs specimens were acquired intraoperatively with FFOCT before frozen section analysis. The imaging procedure took less than 5 minutes for each specimen. No artifacts on histological preparation were found arising from FFOCT manipulation; however frozen section artifact was readily seen on FFOCT. An atlas was established with FFOCT images and corresponding histological slides to reveal FFOCT reading criteria of normal and cancerous structures. Blind analysis showed high concordance between FFOCT and histology. FFOCT can potentially reduce recurrence rates while maintaining short surgery times, optimize clinical workflow, and decrease healthcare costs. For the patient, this translates into smaller infection risk, decreased stress, and better comfort.

  11. [Disappearance of the ozone layer and skin cancer: attempt at risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaart, F M; Garbe, C; Orfanos, C E

    1993-02-01

    The increased incidence of skin cancer recorded worldwide is alarming. The incidence of malignant melanoma has doubled in Germany every 10-15 years during recent decades, for example, as documented in the population-based cancer registry of the Saarland. In 1989, the incidence was 8.3 cases/100,000 inhabitants a year equally for both sexes. Non-melanoma skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) showed a similar dramatic increase like melanoma and ranged in second place in the Saarland Cancer Registry in 1989, exceeded in men only by lung cancers and in women only by breast cancer. Their incidence was 93.4/100,000 in men and 55.8/100,000 in women. Epidemiological studies worldwide revealed a correlation between the increase of skin cancer incidence and UV exposure in white populations, and Caucasians living in regions near the equator are predominantly affected by this increase. Recently, incidence values for non-melanoma skin cancer in the USA were reported to be 232/100,000, whereas, for Queensland/Australia even numbers as high as 2398/100,000 (males) and 1908/100,000 (females) have been published. So far, the increase in skin cancer incidence has been related to changes in leisure time habits with increasing UV exposure. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate any additional future risks for the development of skin cancer as a result of increasing UV radiation caused by stratospheric ozone depletion. Its reduction has been reported to be 3% over large areas of the globe (65 degrees North to 65 degrees South) according to the latest study of the United Nations Environment Programme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Worry about skin cancer mediates the relation of perceived cancer risk and sunscreen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M

    2014-12-01

    Preventive health behaviors are believed to be motivated in part by a person's perception of risk for a particular health problem. Risk contains a cognitive component, beliefs about the chances of a health problem occurring, and an affective component, fear or worry about the health problem. Although both have been shown to influence behavior, the nature of their interrelation as an influence on behavior has not been examined. Data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, a US nationally-representative telephone survey was analyzed. Participants reported perceived absolute and comparative risk for skin cancer, feelings of worry about skin cancer, and sunscreen use behavior. Analyses examined main effects models for the relation between perceived risk, worry, and sunscreen use, as well as both moderated and mediated models. For both absolute and comparative risk, the relation between cognitively-based perceived risk for skin cancer and sunscreen use was fully mediated by feelings of worry, as evidenced by significant direct effects of worry (bs > 0.046, ps worry (bs > 0.19, ps worry was included in the models, direct effects of risk perceptions were non-significant (bs worry on the relation between risk and behavior. While cognitive risk appraisals do influence decision making and may be addressed by interventions, these findings demonstrate that affectively-based risk components play a key role in behavior regulation. Affectively-based risk might be an effective target for interventions and should be incorporated more fully in decision-making models.

  13. Gigapixel photography for skin cancer surveillance: a novel alternative to total-body photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikailov, Anar; Blechman, Adam

    2013-11-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the use of cutaneous imaging in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for early detection and treatment of melanoma. In the last 2 decades, total-body photography (TBP) has been widely used in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for active skin cancer surveillance with proven clinical utility; however, the groundbreaking image detail provided by gigapixel photography (GP) could improve dermatologists' ability to monitor suspicious lesions and therefore could serve a critical role in supplementing traditional total-body skin examinations for skin cancer surveillance. Although it has been successfully implemented in other fields, future studies are required to determine the effectiveness of GP in dermatology.

  14. Opportunistic screening for skin cancer using a mobile unit in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazquez Vinicius L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the white population worldwide. In Brazil, the National Cancer Institute (INCA estimates that in 2010 there will be 119,780 and 5,930 new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mobile unit in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer in several poor regions of Brazil. Methods The diagnosis of skin cancer was accomplished through active medical screening in the prevention Mobile Unit (MU of Barretos Cancer Hospital (BCH. The study population consisted of patients examined in the MU between 2004 and 2007, and their suspicious lesions were subjected to histopathological evaluation. Data were collected prospectively from standardized forms and analyzed. Results During the screening, 17,857 consultations were carried out. A total of 2012 (11.2% cases of skin cancer were diagnosed. The predominant histological type reported was basal cell carcinoma (n = 1,642 or 81.6%, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n = 303 or 15.1%, Bowen's disease (n = 25 or 1.2%, malignant melanoma (n = 23 or 1.1%, basosquamous cell carcinoma (n = 3 or 0.1%, miscellaneous lesions (12 or 0.6%, and metatypical carcinoma (n = 4 or 0.2%. Only 0.6% of lesions were stage III. There were no stage IV non-melanoma skin lesions, as well as no melanomas stages III and IV, found. Conclusions It was observed that the MU can be a useful tool for early skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. This program probably is important, especially in developing countries with inadequate public health systems and social inequality.

  15. p53 modulates the AMPK inhibitor compound C induced apoptosis in human skin cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shi-Wei [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chun-Ying [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yen-Ting [Department of Medical Research and Education, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kao, Jun-Kai [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chia-Che; Mu, Szu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Husan-Wen [Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chuan-Hsun [Department of Surgical Oncology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nutrition Therapy, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liang, Shu-Mei [Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Ju [Department of Dermatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jau-Ling [Department of Bioscience Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Shieh, Jeng-Jer, E-mail: shiehjj@vghtc.gov.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-15

    Compound C, a well-known inhibitor of the intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been reported to cause apoptotic cell death in myeloma, breast cancer cells and glioma cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that compound C not only induced autophagy in all tested skin cancer cell lines but also caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype skin cancer cells than in p53-mutant skin cancer cells. Compound C can induce upregulation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocalization of the p53 protein and upregulate expression of p53 target genes in wildtype p53-expressing skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. The changes of p53 status were dependent on DNA damage which was caused by compound C induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated with activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Using the wildtype p53-expressing BCC cells versus stable p53-knockdown BCC sublines, we present evidence that p53-knockdown cancer cells were much less sensitive to compound C treatment with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and attenuated the compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. The compound C induced G2/M arrest in p53-knockdown BCC cells was associated with the sustained inactive Tyr15 phosphor-Cdc2 expression. Overall, our results established that compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on the cell's p53 status. - Highlights: ► Compound C caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype than p53-mutant skin cancer cells. ► Compound C can upregulate p53 expression and induce p53 activation. ► Compound C induced p53 effects were dependent on ROS induced DNA damage pathway. ► p53-knockdown attenuated compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. ► Compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on p53 status.

  16. Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Mel

    2014-01-01

    Melanin provides a crucial filter for solar UV radiation and its genetically determined variation influences both skin pigmentation and risk of cancer. Genetic evidence suggests that the acquisition of a highly stable melanocortin 1 receptor allele promoting black pigmentation arose around the time of savannah colonization by hominins at some 1–2 Ma. The adaptive significance of dark skin is generally believed to be protection from UV damage but the pathologies that might have had a deleterious impact on survival and/or reproductive fitness, though much debated, are uncertain. Here, I suggest that data on age-associated cancer incidence and lethality in albinos living at low latitudes in both Africa and Central America support the contention that skin cancer could have provided a potent selective force for the emergence of black skin in early hominins. PMID:24573849

  17. Sesamol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for treatment of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, T; Kapila, Meenakshi; Prakash, Om; Deol, Parneet Kaur; Kakkar, Vandita; Kaur, Indu Pal

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin carcinogenesis is well documented. Natural molecules, like sesamol, with marked antioxidant potential can be useful in combating skin cancers. In vitro antiproliferative (using MTT assay) and DNA fragmentation studies in HL 60 cell lines, confirmed the apoptotic nature of sesamol. However, it showed a significant flux across the mice skin upon topical application, such that its local availability in skin is limited. Former is attributed mainly to its properties like small size, low molecular weight (138.28), and a sufficient lipid and water solubility (log P 1.29; solubility 38.8 mg/ml). To achieve its maximum epicutaneous delivery, packaging it into a suitable carrier system is thus indicated. Sesamol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (S-SLN) were thus prepared with particle size of 127.9 nm (PI: 0.256) and entrapment efficiency of 88.21%. Topical application of S-SLN in a cream base indicated significant retention in the skin with minimal flux across skin as confirmed by the in-vivo skin retention and ex-vivo skin permeation studies. In vivo anticancer studies performed on TPA-induced and benzo(a)pyrene initiated tumour production (ROS mediated) in mouse epidermis showed the normalization (in histology studies) of skin cancers post their induction, upon treatment with S-SLN.

  18. Association of Environmental Arsenic Exposure, Genetic Polymorphisms of Susceptible Genes, and Skin Cancers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-I Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency in the capability of xenobiotic detoxification and arsenic methylation may be correlated with individual susceptibility to arsenic-related skin cancers. We hypothesized that glutathione S-transferase (GST M1, T1, and P1, reactive oxygen species (ROS related metabolic genes (NQO1, EPHX1, and HO-1, and DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XPD, hOGG1, and ATM together may play a role in arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis. We conducted a case-control study consisting of 70 pathologically confirmed skin cancer patients and 210 age and gender matched participants with genotyping of 12 selected polymorphisms. The skin cancer risks were estimated by odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI using logistic regression. EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTT1 null genotypes were associated with skin cancer risk (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.01–8.83; OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.99–4.27; OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.00–3.02, resp.. However, none of these polymorphisms showed significant association after considering arsenic exposure status. Individuals carrying three risk polymorphisms of EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTs presented a 400% increased skin cancer risk when compared to those with less than or equal to one polymorphism. In conclusion, GSTs, EPHX1, and XPD are potential genetic factors for arsenic-induced skin cancers. The roles of these genes for arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis need to be further evaluated.

  19. OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides clinicians and researchers with micrometer-resolution, in vivo, cross-sectional images of human skin up to several millimeter depth. This review of OCT imaging applied within dermatology covers the application of OCT to normal skin, and reports on a large...

  20. Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tanning is not a safe way to get vitamin D. The best way to protect your skin from UV rays is by using effective sun ... skin. Although it is important to get enough vitamin D, the safest way is through what you eat. Tanning ... IN What can policymakers do? • ...

  1. ALA-PDT: the treatment of non melanoma skin cancer re-illuminated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R.M. de Haas (Ellen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractNon melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer in Caucasian people (1,2). NMSC mainly consists of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Often Bowens disease (SCC in situ) and actinic keratosis are considered to be included although they are not

  2. Skin phenotypes can offer some insight about the association between telomere length and cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribero, S; Mangino, M; Bataille, V

    2016-12-01

    The role of telomere biology in cancer has been studied for a wide variety of different cancers but the association with telomere length has been controversial. This is because some cancers have been found to be associated with longer telomeres in circulating white cells whilst other cancer types are more common in individuals with shorter telomeres. Hence, there has been some skepticism as to whether telomere length may be helpful in estimating cancer risk. For melanoma, however, results have been fairly consistent showing that longer telomeres are associated with an increased risk. This link was first discovered because of a link between longer telomeres and a high number of naevi. In contrast, for cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, the relationship is reversed with higher risk in individuals with shorter telomeres. Differences in skin phenotypes with the presence of high number of naevi versus photoageing with solar elastosis and solar keratoses have already been valuable for dermatologists as the former phenotype is associated with melanoma whilst the latter is more common in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The hypothesis is that the differences in cutaneous phenotypes already observed by dermatologists for skin cancers may, in fact, be useful as well for cancer prediction in general as it may reflect underlying telomere biology. This manuscript will address the evidence for links between telomere biology, skin phenotypes and cancer risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Textural analysis of optical coherence tomography skin images: quantitative differentiation between healthy and cancerous tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Saba; Conforto, Silvia; Hosseinzadeh, Matin; Noe, Shahryar; Daveluy, Steven; Mehregan, Darius; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) offers real-time high-resolution three-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. In this study, we used OCT skin images acquired from ten volunteers, neither of whom had any skin conditions addressing the features of their anatomic location. OCT segmented images are analyzed based on their optical properties (attenuation coefficient) and textural image features e.g., contrast, correlation, homogeneity, energy, entropy, etc. Utilizing the information and referring to their clinical insight, we aim to make a comprehensive computational model for the healthy skin. The derived parameters represent the OCT microstructural morphology and might provide biological information for generating an atlas of normal skin from different anatomic sites of human skin and may allow for identification of cell microstructural changes in cancer patients. We then compared the parameters of healthy samples with those of abnormal skin and classified them using a linear Support Vector Machines (SVM) with 82% accuracy.

  4. Comparative skin dose measurement in the treatment of anal canal cancer: conventional versus conformal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, Slobodan; Hegyi, Gyorgy; Vuong, Té; Muanza, Thierry; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2004-06-01

    The subject of this work was to compare the effect of Conventional and Conformal techniques, used for anal canal cancer treatments, on the skin dose deposition. Skin dose was measured on a Rando phantom using XR-T GAFCHROMIC film. A skin surface dose histogram was constructed and a skin dose profile in the sagittal direction of the perineal region was measured, for both techniques. The measured skin dose in the anterior and posterior region of the skin exposed to radiation is from two to ten times higher when using a conventional technique. In the perineal region, an 85% of the prescription isodose line spreads over 25% of the perineum for conformal technique as compared to 65% with conventional techniques. In addition, conformal technique dose profiles confine better the anatomical position of the anal verge than conventional techniques. Results presented in this work confirm clinically observed improvement in the radiation-induced dermatitis when using the conformal technique.

  5. Epidemiological profile of nonmelanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients: experience of a referral center*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Tomimori, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in humans and also the malignant disease that is increasingly common among kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE To determine the epidemiological characteristics of renal transplant recipients with nonmelanoma skin cancer seen at a referral transplantation center. METHODS Cross-sectional descriptive study with renal transplant recipients presenting nonmelanoma skin cancer, treated at a transplantation referral center between 08/01/2004 and 08/31/2009. Analyzed variables were: gender, age, skin phototype, occupational and recreational sun exposure, use of photoprotection, personal and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer, clinical type and location, time between transplantation and the appearance of the first nonmelanoma skin cancer, occurrence of viral warts, timing of transplantation, type of donor, cause of kidney failure, previous transplants, comorbidities, pre-transplant dialysis, type and duration of dialysis. RESULTS 64 subjects were included. Males - 71.9%; low skin phototypes (up to Fitzpatrick III) - 89%; mean age - 57.0 years - and mean age at transplant - 47.3 years; sun exposure - 67.2% occupational - and 64.1% recreational; photoprotection - 78.2% (although only 34.4% in a regular manner); squamous cell carcinoma - 67.2%; squamous cell carcinoma/basal cell carcinoma ratio - 2:1; personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer - 25% - and family history - 10.9%; location at photoexposed area - 98.4%; average latency time between transplantation and first nonmelanoma skin cancer appearance - 78.3 months; viral warts (HPV) after transplant - 53.1%; average timing of transplantation - 115.5 months; living donor - 64.1%; triple regimen (antirejection) - 73.2%; comorbidities - 92.2%; pre-transplant dialysis - 98.4%; hemodialysis - 71.7%; average duration of dialysis - 39.1 months; previous transplants - 3.1%; hypertension as cause of renal failure - 46.9%. CONCLUSION This study allowed

  6. Observation and analysis on skin cancer induced by UVB irradiation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxia; Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoxiao

    2014-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the prevalent skin cancers, which have a quite high incidence in the white race. In recent years, however, their incidences have been increasing in the yellow race, resulting in a great threat to the public health. According to researches, chronics UVB irradiation (280nm~320nm) is the major culprit of skin cancer in humans. In our study, the model of UVB induced skin cancer was established firstly. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with the histopathology was exploited to monitor the morphologic and histological changes of the process of UVB induced skin cancer. Meanwhile, this canceration process was systematically studied and analyzed from the perspective of tissue optics. The attenuation coefficient (μt) has a rising trend in the epidermis, but which shows a downward trend in the dermis. The results are conducive to understand the process of UVB-induced skin cancer and further be able to provide a reference for medical researchers.

  7. Ultraviolet-radiation and skin cancer. Effect of an ozone layer depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, T; Dahlback, A; Larsen, S H; Moan, J

    1990-05-01

    The effect of changes in the ozone layer on the incidence of skin cancer was explored using data for Norway. Attempts were made to arrive at a relationship between the "environmental effective UV-dose" and the skin cancer incidence. Norway is well suited for this purpose because of the large variation in the annual UV-dose from north to south. Furthermore we have a well developed cancer registry and a homogeneous population with regard to skin type. Four different regions of the country, each with a broadness of 1 degree in latitude (approximately 111 km), were selected (located around 69.5, 63.5, 60 and 58.5 degrees N). The annual effective UV-doses for these regions were calculated, assuming normal ozone conditions throughout the year and the action spectrum proposed by CIE, which extends up to 400 nm. The incidence rate (in the period 1970-1980) of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (mainly basal cell carcinoma) increased with the annual environmental UV-doses. For both these types of cancer a quadratic dose-effect relationship seems to be valid to a first approximation. The present data indicate that the incidence of skin cancer would increase by approximately 2% for each percent ozone reduction.

  8. IKKβ-Mediated Resistance to Skin Cancer Development Is Ink4a/Arf-Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Angustias; Bravo, Ana; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P; Casanova, M Llanos; Lorz, Corina; Segrelles, Carmen; Segovia, José C; Paramio, Jesús M; Navarro, Manuel; Ramirez, Angel

    2017-09-01

    IKKβ (encoded by IKBKB) is a protein kinase that regulates the activity of numerous proteins important in several signaling pathways, such as the NF-κB pathway. IKKβ exerts a protumorigenic role in several animal models of lung, hepatic, intestinal, and oral cancer. In addition, genomic and proteomic studies of human tumors also indicate that IKBKB gene is amplified or overexpressed in multiple tumor types. Here, the relevance of IKKβ in skin cancer was determined by performing carcinogenesis studies in animal models overexpressing IKKβ in the basal skin layer. IKKβ overexpression resulted in a striking resistance to skin cancer development and an increased expression of several tumor suppressor proteins, such as p53, p16, and p19. Mechanistically, this skin tumor-protective role of IKKβ is independent of p53, but dependent on the activity of the Ink4a/Arf locus. Interestingly, in the absence of p16 and p19, IKKβ-increased expression favors the appearance of cutaneous spindle cell-like squamous cell carcinomas, which are highly aggressive tumors. These results reveal that IKKβ activity prevents skin tumor development, and shed light on the complex nature of IKKβ effects on cancer progression, as IKKβ can both promote and prevent carcinogenesis depending on the cell type or molecular context.Implications: The ability of IKKβ to promote or prevent carcinogenesis suggests the need for further evaluation when targeting this protein. Mol Cancer Res; 15(9); 1255-64. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. A Phase III Skin Cancer Chemoprevention Study of DFMO: Long-term Follow-up of Skin Cancer Events and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreul, Sarah M.; Havighurst, Tom; Kim, KyungMann; Mendonça, Eneida A.; Wood, Gary S.; Snow, Stephen; Borich, Abbey; Verma, Ajit; Bailey, Howard H.

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is of great importance in regards to future healthcare services. Given the previously reported preventive effects of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) in skin and colon cancer trials, we determined appropriate cause to update the clinical data on the subjects from the recently reported Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Skin Cancer Prevention Study of DFMO. Our intention was to retrospectively assess the further incidence of skin cancer, other malignancies, and adverse events of patients accrued to our phase III skin cancer prevention study of DFMO. Clinical records of 209 UW Health subjects were reviewed, and 2092.7 person years of on study (884.3 person years) and post study (1208.4 person years) follow-up for these patients were assessed for new NMSC events and recurrence rates from the on study period, the post study period, and the two study periods combined. No evidence of increased significant diagnoses or serious adverse events was observed in the DFMO participants. The initially observed, marginally significant reduction (p=0.069) in NMSC rates for DFMO subjects relative to placebo continued without evidence of rebound. Event rates after discontinuation from study for total NMSCs (DFMO 0.236 NMSC/person/year, placebo 0.297, p=0.48) or the subtypes of BCCs (DFMO 0.179 BCC/person/year, placebo 0.190, p=0.77) and SCCs (DFMO 0.057 SCC/person/year, placebo 0.107, p=0.43) are listed. Follow-up data revealed a persistent but insignificant reduction in new NMSCs occurring in DFMO subjects without evidence of latent or cumulative toxicity relative to placebo subjects. PMID:23060038

  10. Visual images for skin cancer prevention: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2012-06-01

    Visual images play an important role in educating the public about skin cancer prevention. The objectives of this systematic review were to: 1) determine how visual images are evaluated in skin cancer and tanning qualitative research studies (including theoretical and methodological approaches) and 2) summarize and discuss the image-related findings of the studies with respect to cancer education and public health. Seven databases were searched (PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Full Text, ERIC, and ABI/INFORM) using multiple search terms, including MeSH terms, resulting in 5330 citations. Studies were included if they were in English, peer-reviewed, qualitative in design or methodology, dealt with skin cancer or UV exposure, used visual images, and had a focus on the public or patients (i.e., not medical professionals). Eight studies met the inclusion criteria: seven content analyses and one focus group study. Content analysis studies in this review suggest the mass media portray Caucasian men and women as unprotected from the sun and with tanned skin, and thus, may inform behaviors related to skin cancer risk. The focus group study suggests visible minorities may benefit from the incorporation of images of melanoma on ethnic skin in cancer education materials. None of the studies used visual communication theory to explicitly guide the research, nor were standardized tools used for image assessment. The lack of guiding theory and standardized assessment instruments can introduce bias in how images are selected and used in research on skin cancer education.

  11. Induction of cancer-specific cytotoxicity towards human prostate and skin cells using quercetin and ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Paliwal, S.; Sundaram, J; Mitragotri, S

    2005-01-01

    Bioflavonoids, such as quercetin, have recently emerged as a new class of chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of various cancer types, but are marred by their low potency and poor selectivity. We report that a short application of low-frequency ultrasound selectively sensitises prostate and skin cancer cells against quercetin. Pretreatment of cells with ultrasound (20 kHz, 2 W cm−2, 60 s) selectively induced cytotoxicity in skin and prostate cancer cells, while having minimal effect on c...

  12. Topical Curcumin-Based Cream Is Equivalent to Dietary Curcumin in a Skin Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Sonavane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, the most common cancer in the USA, is a growing problem with the use of tanning booths causing sun-damaged skin. Antiproliferative effects of curcumin were demonstrated in an aggressive skin cancer cell line SRB12-p9 (P<0.05 compared to control. Topical formulation was as effective as oral curcumin at suppressing tumor growth in a mouse skin cancer model. Curcumin at 15 mg administered by oral, topical, or combined formulation significantly reduced tumor growth compared to control (P=0.004. Inhibition of pAKT, pS6, p-4EBP1, pSTAT3, and pERK1/2 was noted in SRB12-p9 cells post-curcumin treatment compared to control (P<0.05. Inhibition of pSTAT3 and pERK1/2 was also noted in curcumin-treated groups in vivo. IHC analysis revealed human tumor specimens that expressed significantly more activated pERK (P=0.006 and pS6 (P<0.0001 than normal skin samples. This is the first study to compare topical curcumin to oral curcumin. Our data supports the use of curcumin as a chemopreventive for skin SCC where condemned skin is a significant problem. Prevention strategies offer the best hope of future health care costs in a disease that is increasing in incidence due to increased sun exposure.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies the Dysregulation of Ultraviolet Target Genes in Human Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Kim, Arianna L; Du, Rong; Liu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. In addition to its mutagenic effect, UVR can also induce substantial transcriptional instability in skin cells affecting thousands of genes, including many cancer genes, suggesting that transcriptional instability may be another important etiological factor in skin photocarcinogenesis. In this study, we performed detailed transcriptomic profiling studies to characterize the kinetic changes in global gene expression in human keratinocytes exposed to different UVR conditions. We identified a subset of UV-responsive genes as UV signature genes (UVSGs) based on 1) conserved UV-responsiveness of this subset of genes among different keratinocyte lines; and 2) UV-induced persistent changes in their mRNA levels long after exposure. Interestingly, 11 of the UVSGs were shown to be critical to skin cancer cell proliferation and survival. Through computational Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we demonstrated that a significant portion of the UVSGs were dysregulated in human skin squamous cell carcinomas, but not in other human malignancies. This highlights the potential and specificity of the UVSGs in clinical diagnosis of UV damage and stratification of skin cancer risk.

  14. Black Tea Consumption and Risk of Skin Cancer: An 11-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Arovah, Novita Intan; van der Pols, Jolieke C; Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    Tea consumption has been shown to protect against skin carcinogenesis in laboratory-based studies; however, epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. This prospective study examined the association between black tea consumption and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Usual black tea consumption was estimated from food frequency questionnaires completed in 1992, 1994, and 1996 by 1,325 Australian adults. All histologically confirmed skin cancers diagnosed in participants from 1997 to 2007 were recorded. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed using generalized linear models with Poisson and negative binomial distributions and adjusted for confounding factors including skin phenotype and sun exposure. Compared with never drinking black tea, drinking ≥4 cups/day was not associated with BCC (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.70-1.53; P-trend = 0.74) or SCC (RR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.71-2.19; P-trend = 0.29) in person-based analyses. Stratification by previous history of skin cancer as well as tumor-based analyses also showed no significant associations between black tea intake and incidence of BCC or SCC tumors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that high black tea consumption reduces risk of skin cancer, including in people with a previous history of skin cancer.

  15. Molecular characterization of skin microbiota between cancer cachexia patients and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Han, Lei; Yu, Pengbo; Ma, Chaofeng; Wu, Xiaokang; Moore, John E; Xu, Jiru

    2014-04-01

    Systemic inflammation contributes to both the development of cancer and of cachexia. The microenvironment of bacterial habitats might be changed during the progression of cancer cachexia. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively compare the composition of the skin microbiota between cancer cachexia patients and healthy volunteers. Cutaneous bacteria were swabbed at the axillary fossa of 70 cancer cachexia patients and 34 healthy individuals from China. Nested-PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) with primers specifically targeting V3 region and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacteria, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis were performed on all samples. Barcoded 454 pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 regions was performed on 30 randomly selected samples. By comparing diversity and richness indices, we found that the skin microbiome of cachectic cancer patients is less diverse than that of healthy participants, though these differences were not significant. The main microbes that reside on human skin were divided into four phyla: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. were the dominant bacteria at the genus level. Significantly fewer Corynebacterium spp. had been observed in cachexia patients compared to healthy subjects. These results suggest that the presence of cancer and cachexia alters human skin bacterial communities. Understanding the changes in microbiota during cancer cachexia may lead to new insights into the syndrome.

  16. Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of grape skin polyphenols in a murine model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T; Chen, Q Y; Wu, L J; Yao, X M; Sun, X J

    2012-10-01

    Treatment modalities are not effective once breast cancer metastasis has occurred. Dietary botanicals may have a better protective effect. We therefore investigated the effects of grape skin polyphenols on a highly metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma cell line. In vitro treatment of 4T1 cells, with grape skin polyphenols resulted in inhibition of the migration and viability in a dose-dependent manner. The migration of 4T1 cells was significantly inhibited by grape skin polyphenols, even at a very low concentration (5 μg/ml), and was totally inhibited when the concentration was 20 μg/ml. However, 20 μg/ml of grape skin polyphenols inhibited cell viability by only 11.4%. The inhibition of migration is independent of decreased cell viability or apoptosis induction. Further analysis indicated that the inhibition of migration by grape skin polyphenols is involved in blocking the PI3k/Akt and MAPK pathways. The effects of dietary grape skin polyphenols were then examined using an in vivo model in which 4T1 cells were implanted subcutaneously in Balb/c mice. The metastasis of tumor cells to the lungs was inhibited significantly by dietary grape skin extracts (0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml in drinking water) and the survival of the mice enhanced. These data suggest that grape skin polyphenols possess chemotherapeutic efficacy against breast cancer with metastases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating the consistency of location of the most severe acute skin reaction and highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter during radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective study to evaluate whether the location of the most severe acute skin reaction matches the highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer after breast conservative surgery. To determine whether TLD measurement can reflect the location of the most severe acute skin reaction, 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We divided the irradiated field into breast, axillary, inframammary fold, and areola/nipple areas. In 1 treatment session when obvious skin reaction occurred, we placed the TLD chips onto the 4 areas and measured the skin dose. We determined whether the highest measured skin dose area is consistent with the location of the most severe skin reaction. The McNemar test revealed that the clinical skin reaction and TLD measurement are more consistent when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the axillary area, and the p = 0.0108. On the contrary, TLD measurement of skin dose is less likely consistent with clinical observation when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the inframammary fold, breast, and areola/nipple areas (all the p > 0.05). Considering the common site of severe skin reaction over the axillary area, TLD measurement may be an appropriate way to predict skin reaction during RT. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo determination of optical properties and fluorophore characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Narasimhan; Kovacic, Dianne; Migden, Michael F.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Nguyen, Tri H.; Tunnell, James W.

    2009-02-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques have widely been used as noninvasive tools for early cancer detection in several organs including the cervix, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Using a combined DOS/LIF approach, one can simultaneously measure the morphology and biochemical composition of tissue and use these features to diagnose malignancy. We report for the first time to our knowledge both the optical properties and native fluorophore characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancer in the UV-visible range. We collected in vivo diffuse reflectance and intrinsic fluorescence measurements from 44 skin lesions on 37 patients. The skin sites were further categorized into three groups of non-melanoma skin cancer according to histopathology: 1) pre-cancerous actinic keratosis 2) malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 3) basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We used a custom-built probe-based clinical system that collects both white light reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence in the wavelength range of 350-700 nm. We extracted the blood volume fraction, oxygen saturation, blood vessel size, tissue microarchitecture and melanin content from diffuse reflectance measurements. In addition, we determined the native fluorophore contributions of NADH, collagen and FAD from laser-induced fluorescence for all groups. The scattering from tissue decreased with progression from clinically normal to precancerous actinic keratosis to malignant SCC. A similar trend was observed for clinically normal skin and malignant BCC. Statistically significant differences were observed in the collagen contributions, which were lower in malignant SCC and BCC as compared to normal skin. Our data demonstrates that the mean optical properties and fluorophore contributions of normal, benign and malignant nonmelanoma cancers are significantly different from each other and can potentially be used as biomarkers for the early detection of skin cancer.

  19. Microplasma effect on skin scaffold for melanoma cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zulaika; Zaaba, S. K.; Mustaffa, M. T.; Mohamad, C. W. S. R.; Zakaria, A.

    2017-03-01

    An atmospheric plasma system using Helium gas was developed. The effect of helium plasma treatment on skin scaffold surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The changes of skin scaffold surfaces before and after helium plasma treatment was recorded. The surface of skin scaffold changed with the prolonged of helium plasma treatment time. The depth of helium plasma penetration was studied using methylene blue dye staining method. The methylene blue will detect the presence or absence of an oxygen that was induced from plasma excitation. The presence of the oxygen indicated on the depth of helium plasma penetration. Results showed plasma are able to penetrate 4mm of skin scaffold after 1200 seconds of exposure.

  20. Development of radiolabelled compound using reactor produced RI - Development of Ho-166 skin patch for treatment of skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea); Ryu, Jei Man [Dong Wha Pharm. Ind. Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    A radioactive patch which can be treat the skin cancer by direct irradiation was prepared by blending Ho(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, 5H{sub 2}O and polyurethane(PU) and then irradiating with neutron in the nuclear reactor. The blend formation of the film was fonfirmed by FT-IR. Degree of the distribution of holmium and solvent in remaining in the film was determined. Physical properties of the film by thermal analysis, mechanical measurement and surface analysis were characterized, respectively. To evaluate efficacy of the patch, it was applied to the tumor surface of the hairlessmous. Until 6 weeks of the patch treatment 7 mice with skin tumor were cured totally (7/13). And the other nuclear except for holmium was in patch was not detected. Furthermore, the patch was stable at room temperature, 40 deg C and 60 deg C. (author). 17 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Prevention, early detection and team management of skin cancer in primary care: contribution to The health of the nation objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A

    1995-02-01

    The incidence of all skin cancers is increasing. If The health of the nation targets are to be addressed, incidence figures need to be more accurate. Solar damage is the major causal factor in all skin cancers. Certain individual risk factors also play an important part, especially in the development of malignant melanoma. Prevention and early detection are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality from skin cancer. This paper considers the role of primary care skin screening clinics and cutaneous surgery facilities in the early detection and management of skin cancer. It also illustrates the value of a team approach in primary care in the prevention and early detection of skin cancer and in the more accurate recording of incidence rates.

  2. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor. For these types of biopsies, a surgical knife is used to cut through the full thickness ... Rides To Treatment Online Support Communities ACS FUNDRAISERS Making Strides Against Breast Cancer Walks Coaches vs. Cancer ...

  3. Bringing skin assessments to life using human patient simulation: an emphasis on cancer prevention and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhrik, Marilee; Seckman, Christy; Kuhrik, Nancy; Ahearn, Tina; Ercole, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, with about 1,000,000 people developing the disease each year. The incidence of melanoma has rapidly increased in young white women between the ages of 15-34 over the last three decades. While melanoma accounts for approximately 3% of skin cancers, it causes more than 75% of skin cancer deaths. Thorough skin assessments and awareness of new or changing appearance of skin lesions are critical to early detection and treatment of skin cancer, as well as teaching sun-protective behaviors. Educators created a novel approach to "bring to life" skin cancer assessment skills to promote awareness of prevention and early detection of skin cancer using moulage in a human patient simulation lab. Through the use of moulage-like lesions, simulated patients were evaluated and taught skin cancer prevention and early detection principles by baccalaureate nursing students. The average age of study participants (n = 104) was 26.50 years. The majority of responders were female. At the end of the lab, students' average responses to an evaluation based on program goals were very positive. Anecdotal comments affirmed positive student perceptions of their simulation experience. Data analyses indicated item means were consistently higher for upper-division students. The age and gender of students who participated in this study align with the NCI statistics on age and gender of the population with increased incidence of melanoma.

  4. Polymorphic light eruption and skin cancer prevalence: is one protective against the other?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lembo, S

    2008-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVR) interacts with chromophores in cutaneous cells with consequent antigenicity. The normal response to this is a downregulation of immune responsiveness. Failure of the immune system to downregulate and to ignore transient photoantigens in human skin results in polymorphic light eruption (PLE), the commonest of the photodermatoses. UVR initiates and promotes skin cancer (SC): UV-induced immunosuppression permits the expansion of UV-mutated clones of cells which ultimately lead to SC.

  5. Endocrine actions of vitamin D in skin: Relevance for photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas

    2017-09-15

    The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent findings convincingly support the concept of a new function of the VDR as a tumor suppressor in skin, with key components of the vitamin D endocrine system, including VDR, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, and CYP27B1 being strongly expressed in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). It has now been shown that anti-tumor effects of VDR, that include some of its ligand-induced growth-regulatory effects, are at least in part mediated by interacting in a highly coordinated manner with the p53 family (p53/p63/p73) in response to a large number of alterations in cell homeostasis, including UV-induced DNA damage, a hallmark for skin photocarcinogenesis. Considering the relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system for carcinogenesis of skin cancer, it is not surprising that low 25(OH)D serum concentrations and genetic variants (SNPs) of the vitamin D endocrine system have been identified as potential risk factors for occurrence and prognosis of skin malignancies. In conclusion, an increasing body of evidence now convincingly supports the concept that the vitamin D endocrine system is of relevance for photocarcinogenesis and progression of NMSC and that its pharmacologic modulation by vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, and analogs represents a promising new strategy for prevention and/or treatment of these malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The validity of skin care protocols followed by women with breast cancer receiving external radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aistars, Juli

    2006-08-01

    Skin care in women receiving external radiation to the breast varies among institutions. Studies have been conducted looking at the effect that various skin care products have on the onset and severity of radiation-induced skin reactions in those patients. Results show that no significant difference exists among these products. The practice of avoiding aluminum-based deodorant on the treated side and avoiding use of any skin care products four hours prior to treatment is not evidence based but often is part of skin care protocols for women receiving breast irradiation. A review of the literature since 1996 in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia revealed some evidence to refute the practice but no supporting evidence. Because minimal disruption in a woman's normal hygiene routine could mitigate anxiety and improve coping during a time of extreme stress brought on by a cancer diagnosis, further research is warranted to support changing the practice.

  7. Hypopharynx and larynx defect repair after resection for pyriform fossa cancer with a platysma skin flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Liang, Faya; Huang, Xiaoming; Han, Ping; Pan, Yong; Zheng, Yiqing

    2015-02-01

    We used a platysma skin flap to repair larynx and hypopharynx defects to improve postoperative laryngeal function in patients with pyriform fossa cancer. Larynx-sparing surgery and postoperative radiotherapy were used in 10 patients with pyriform fossa cancer. The surgical approaches of lymph node dissection of the neck, vertical partial laryngectomy, and pyriform fossa resection were adopted, and a platysma skin flap was used to repair the resulting defects. In this group, the overall 3-year survival rate was 75% according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the local control rate was 90%. Additionally, all patients were able to speak fluently with mild-to-moderate hoarseness. The tracheal tube was removed in all cases. Laryngeal fistulas were observed in 1 patient during radiotherapy. In conclusion, a platysma skin flap can be used to rebuild the larynx and hypopharynx in larynx-sparing resection for pyriform fossa cancer. These patients can obtain good postoperative function in swallowing, breathing, and pronunciation.

  8. Patients highly value routine follow-up of skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themstrup, Lotte; Jemec, Gregor E; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    : This study included an open sample of patients attending routine follow-up at the outpatient Departments of Plastic Surgery and Dermatology, Roskilde Hospital. A total of 218 follow-up patients diagnosed with cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM), non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) or actinic keratosis (AK......INTRODUCTION: Skin cancer follow-up is a substantial burden to outpatient clinics. Few studies have investigated patients' views on skin cancer follow-up and cutaneous melanoma. The objective was to investigate patients' perceived benefits and the impact of follow-up. MATERIAL AND METHODS......) completed a structured interview. RESULTS: A total of 97% patients found follow-up useful. Continuity and consistency were important. One third of patients felt some degree of pre follow-up anxiety. The number of anxious MM patients was significantly greater than that of NMSC patients. No significant...

  9. Physiological basis for noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2017-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy offers a noninvasive, fast, and low-cost alternative to visual screening and biopsy for skin cancer diagnosis. We have previously acquired reflectance spectra from 137 lesions in 76 patients and determined the capability of spectral diagnosis using principal component analysis (PCA). However, it is not well elucidated why spectral analysis enables tissue classification. To provide the physiological basis, we used the Monte Carlo look-up table (MCLUT) model to extract physiological parameters from those clinical data. The MCLUT model results in the following physiological parameters: oxygen saturation, hemoglobin concentration, melanin concentration, vessel radius, and scattering parameters. Physiological parameters show that cancerous skin tissue has lower scattering and larger vessel radii, compared to normal tissue. These results demonstrate the potential of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for detection of early precancerous changes in tissue. In the future, a diagnostic algorithm that combines these physiological parameters could be enable non-invasive diagnosis of skin cancer.

  10. Risks for skin and other cancers up to 25 years after burn injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjaer, Lene; Hölmich, Lisbet R; Gridley, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignant degeneration of chronic ulcers such as nonhealed burn wounds has been described in the literature, but this phenomenon has never been quantified in an epidemiologic study. We investigated the risks for skin and other cancers among patients with a prior burn. METHODS: We...... with that in the general population of Denmark. RESULTS: Patients with burn had 139 skin cancers, with 189 expected, yielding a standardized incidence ratio of 0.7 (95% confidence interval = 0.6-0.9). This reduced risk was due mainly to deficits of basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, whereas the number...... of squamous cell carcinomas observed was close to expected. We saw no consistent increases in risk for skin cancer in the subgroups of patients with the most severe injuries or with the longest periods of follow up. CONCLUSIONS: The tendency to malignant degeneration of burn scars, described in previous...

  11. Elevated c-Src and c-Yes expression in malignant skin cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Src family kinases (SFKs play an important role in cancer proliferation, survival, motility, invasiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Among the SFKs, c-Src and c-Yes are particularly over-expressed or hyper-activated in many human epithelial cancers. However, only a few studies have attempted to define the expression and role of c-Src and c-Yes in cutaneous carcinomas. Objectives To investigate the expression of c-Src and c-Yes in cutaneous carcinomas to include malignant melanoma (MM, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and basal cell carcinoma (BCC. Methods We examined 6 normal skin tissues and 18 malignant skin tumor tissues using western blotting for the expression of c-Src and c-Yes. In another set, 16 specimens of MM, 16 SCCs and 16 BCCs were analyzed for the expression of c-Src and c-Yes using immunohistochemical staining. Results Western blotting showed that c-Src was expressed in all malignant skin tumors, but not in normal skin, while c-Yes was expressed in MM and SCC, but not in BCC and normal skin. Immunohistochemical staining results of c-Src and c-Yes in MM, SCC, and BCC mirrored those of the western blot analysis. Conclusions c-Src, rather than c-Yes, plays a key role in the proliferation and progression of malignant skin cancers.

  12. Epidermal stem cells - role in normal, wounded and pathological psoriatic and cancer skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, M.; Faurschou, A.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis and in the bulge region of the hair follicle play a critical role for normal tissue maintenance. In wound healing, multipotent epidermal stem cells contribute to re-epithelization. It is possible that defects in growth control of either epidermal stem cells......In this review we focus on epidermal stem cells in the normal regeneration of the skin as well as in wounded and psoriatic skin. Furthermore, we discuss current data supporting the idea of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of skin carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Epidermal stem cells present...

  13. Untreated peristomal skin complications among long-term colorectal cancer survivors with ostomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Carmit K; Wasserman, Joseph; Altschuler, Andrea; Grant, Marcia L; Hornbrook, Mark C; Liljestrand, Petra; Briggs, Catherine; Krouse, Robert S

    2011-12-01

    This ethnography of family caregiving explored why peristomal skin complications are common and undertreated among colorectal cancer survivors with intestinal ostomies. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 31 cancer survivors and their family caregivers, fieldwork, structured assessments, and medical records review, and analyzed with qualitative theme and matrix analyses. Survivors who received help changing the skin barrier around their stoma had fewer obstacles to detection and treatment of peristomal skin complications. Half of the survivors received unpaid help with ostomy care, and all such help came from spouses. Married couples who collaborated in ostomy care reported that having assistance in placing the ostomy appliance helped with preventing leaks, detecting skin changes, and modifying ostomy care routines. In addition, survivors who struggled to manage ostomy care independently reported more obstacles to alleviating and seeking treatment for skin problems. Oncology nurses can improve treatment of peristomal skin problems by asking patients and caregivers about ostomy care and skin problems, examining the peristomal area, and facilitating routine checkups with a wound, ostomy, and continence nurse.

  14. minSKIN Does a multifaceted intervention improve the competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by general practitioners? Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

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    Tandjung Ryan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Switzerland, skin cancer is one of the most common neoplasms. Melanoma is the most aggressive one and can be lethal if not detected and removed on time. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is more frequent as melanoma; it is seldom lethal but can disfigure patients in advanced stages. General practitioners (GPs are often faced with suspicious skin lesions of their patients. Methods/Design Design: Randomised controlled trial (RCT. Population: 60 GPs, randomised into intervention group and control group. Intervention: GPs get a Lumio loupe, a digital camera and continuous feedback based on pictures of skin lesions they send to the Dermatologist. Primary outcome: Competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by GPs, measured as the percentage of correctly classified pictures of skin lesions. Measurements: At baseline, and prior to any intervention (T0, GPs will be asked to rate 36 pictures of skin lesions according to their likelihood of malignancy on a visual analogue scale (VAS. After a full day training course with both groups (T1 and after one year of continuous feedback (T2 with the intervention group, we will repeat the picture scoring session with both groups, using new pictures. Discussion We want to determine whether a multifaceted intervention (including technical equipment and a continuous feedback on skin lesions leads to an improved competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by GPs. This study addresses the hypothesis that an additional feedback loop, based on pictures performed in daily practice by GPs is superior to a simple educational intervention regarding diagnostic competence. We expect an improvement of the competence in skin cancer diagnosis by GPs in both groups after the full day training course. Beside this immediate effect, we also expect a long term effect in the intervention group because of the continuous problem based feedback. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN29854485

  15. The Economics of Skin Cancer: An Analysis of Medicare Payment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenny T.; Kempton, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence and cost of nonmelanoma skin cancers are skyrocketing. Five million cases cost $8.1 billion in 2011. The average cost of treatment per patient increased from $1000 in 2006 to $1600 in 2011. We present a study of the economics and costs of skin cancer management in Medicare patients. Methods: We studied data released by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in 2014. Treatment modalities for the management of skin cancer were reviewed, and costs of treatment were quantified for a sample of 880,000 providers. Results: Review of Medicare payment records related to the management of skin cancer yielded data from over 880,000 health care providers who received $77 billion in Medicare payments in 2012. From 1992 to 2009, the rate of Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has increased by 700%, and these procedures typically have Medicare payments 120% to 370% more than surgical excision, even when including pathology fees. From 1992 to 2009, MMS increased by 700%, whereas surgical excisions increased by only 20%. In 2009, 1800 providers billed Medicare for MMS; in 2012, that number increased to 3209. On average, 1 in 4 cases of skin cancer is treated with MMS. Conclusion: Mohs excision is more expensive than surgical excision in an office setting. Procedures requiring the operating room are much more expensive than office procedures. In an era of high deductible health plans, patients’ financial burden is much less with simple excisions of skin cancers done in a clinic when compared with Mohs surgery or operative interventions.

  16. Carcinogenic viruses in etiopathogenesis of skin cancers in patients after organ transplantation

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    Maria Luiza Piesiaków

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The latest literature report specifies multifactoral etiology of skin cancer in population of patients after organs transplats. Carcirogenic viruses are one of etiopathogenesis components. Viruses of a vital meaning for skin oncogenesis are called Human papillomavirus – HPV, Human herpesvirus 8 – HHV8 i Merkel cell polyomavirus – MCV. Report on connections exisisting between viruses HPV and skin cancers in the population of patients after organs transplants confirms clinical connection between viruses papillas and cancers centres occuring in similar locations and more frequent appearance of attributes characteristic for HPV infection within the limits of changes in the type of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. What’s more, coexisting of viruses papillas and SCC is more often noticed in the population of organ recipients than in the population of healthy people. It is not confirmed yet that any specific correlation between subtypes of HPV and greater frequency of morbidity in skin cancers really exist. However, in the population of organ recipients infections of different types of HPV are found within the limits of cancers centres in the case of SCC (63% as well as in basal cell carcinoma-BCC (55%. DNA of HPV was also fund in healthy parts of organ recipients skin (92-94%.HHV8 is also an oncogenic viruse that influences the development of lymphoma. Infection of that virus may cause ocuuring of Kaposi’s sarkoma, which is one of the most frequent types of cancer appearing in population of patients treating by long – term immunosuppression in particular geographical zones. MCV, which belongs to the group called Polyomaviriade, owes a particular meaning in etiopathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma – MCC. It is a rare cancer derived from neuroendocrine cells of the basic layers of epidermie. For over 30 years it was supposed that correlation between viruses and skin cancers in population of organ recipient exist. Knowledge of the total

  17. Carcinogenic viruses in etiopathogenesis of skin cancers in patients after organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Piesiaków

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The latest literature report specifies multifactoral etiology of skin cancer in population of patients after organs transplats. Carcirogenic viruses are one of etiopathogenesis components. Viruses of a vital meaning for skin oncogenesis are called Human papillomavirus – HPV, Human herpesvirus 8 – HHV8 i Merkel cell polyomavirus – MCV. Report on connections exisisting between viruses HPV and skin cancers in the population of patients after organs transplants confirms clinical connection between viruses papillas and cancers centres occuring in similar locations and more frequent appearance of attributes characteristic for HPV infection within the limits of changes in the type of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. What’s more, coexisting of viruses papillas and SCC is more often noticed in the population of organ recipients than in the population of healthy people. It is not confirmed yet that any specific correlation between subtypes of HPV and greater frequency of morbidity in skin cancers really exist. However, in the population of organ recipients infections of different types of HPV are found within the limits of cancers centres in the case of SCC (63% as well as in basal cell carcinoma-BCC (55%. DNA of HPV was also fund in healthy parts of organ recipients skin (92-94%. HHV8 is also an oncogenic viruse that influences the development of lymphoma. Infection of that virus may cause ocuuring of Kaposi’s sarkoma, which is one of the most frequent types of cancer appearing in population of patients treating by long – term immunosuppression in particular geographical zones. MCV, which belongs to the group called Polyomaviriade, owes a particular meaning in etiopathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma – MCC. It is a rare cancer derived from neuroendocrine cells of the basic layers of epidermie. For over 30 years it was supposed that correlation between viruses and skin cancers in population of organ recipient exist. Knowledge of the total

  18. Skin cancers in albinos in a teaching Hospital in eastern Nigeria - presentation and challenges of care

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    Opara Kingsley O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Albinism is a genetic disorder characterized by lack of skin pigmentation. It has a worldwide distribution but is commoner in areas close to the equator like Nigeria. Skin cancers are a major risk associated with albinism and are thought to be a major cause of death in African albinos. Challenges faced in the care of these patients need to be highlighted in order to develop a holistic management approach with a significant public health impact. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of skin cancers seen in Albinos, and to highlight problems encountered in their management. Method Case records of albinos managed in Imo state University teaching Hospital from June 2007 to May 2009 were reviewed. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results and discussion In the period under review, albinos accounted for 67% of patients managed for primary skin cancers. There were twenty patients with thirty eight (38 lesions. Sixty one percent of the patients were below 40 years. Average duration of symptoms at presentation was 26 months. The commonest reason for late presentation was the lack of funds. Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest histologic variant. Most patients were unable to complete treatment due to lack of funds. Conclusion Albinism appears to be the most important risk factor in the development of skin cancers in our environment. Late presentation and poor rate of completion of treatment due to poverty are major challenges.

  19. The association between beliefs about vitamin D and skin cancer risk-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P; Lunsford, Natasha Buchanan; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-03-17

    Major health organizations recommend obtaining most of one's vitamin D through dietary sources rather than from sun exposure, given the link between sun exposure and increased skin cancer risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between beliefs about vitamin D and skin cancer risk-related behaviors, a topic on which research is limited. We analyzed cross-sectional online survey data collected in the summer of 2015 from 4127U.S. adults aged 18years and older. Overall, 19.7% of adults believed that sun protection would put them at risk of not getting enough vitamin D. However, less than half (43.1%) thought they could get enough vitamin D from dietary sources. Individuals with this belief were more likely to protect their skin when spending time outdoors (71.3%) compared with those who were neutral or disagreed (56.5%; Pvitamin D. Compared to those who disagreed or were neutral, those who thought it was effective were more likely to be outdoor tanners (45.1% vs. 28.5%; Pvitamin D were associated with skin cancer risk-related behaviors. Including information about vitamin D in skin cancer prevention messages may be beneficial.

  20. THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF SOLASODINE RHAMNOSYL GLYCOSIDES FOR LARGE SKIN CANCERS: TWO CLINICAL CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill E. Cham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solasodine rhamnosyl glycosides (BEC are a new class of antineoplastics, the efficiency of which administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intratumoral routes is higher than that of many other antitumor agents. Early investigations have established the efficiency of topical BEC applications as a treatment option for non-melanoma skin cancers. There have recently been two clinical cases that count in favor of the fact that the cream formulation Curaderm containing BEC has a very high efficacy in the treatment of large non-melanoma skin cancers that are incurable by other existing methods. Also, Curaderm treatment shows a splendid cosmetic effect. 

  1. Quantitative approach to skin field cancerization using a nanoencapsulated photodynamic therapy agent: a pilot study

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    Passos SK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Simone K Passos,1,2 Paulo EN de Souza,3 Priscila KP Soares,1,3 Danglades RM Eid,1,2 Fernando L Primo,4 Antonio Cláudio Tedesco,4 Zulmira GM Lacava,1 Paulo C Morais3,51University of Brasília, Institute of Biological Sciences, DF, Brazil; 2Foundation for Teaching and Research on Health Sciences, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 3University of Brasília, Institute of Physics, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, Laboratory of Photobiology and Photomedicine, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 5Department of Control Science and Engineering, Hua-Zhong University of Science and Technology, Wuham, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: This paper introduces a new nanoformulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (nano-ALA as well as a novel quantitative approach towards evaluating field cancerization for actinic keratosis and/or skin photodamage. In this pilot study, we evaluated field cancerization using nano-ALA and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, the latter being commercialized as Metvix®.Methods and results: Photodynamic therapy was used for the treatment of patients with selected skin lesions, whereas the fluorescence of the corresponding photosensitizer was used to evaluate the time evolution of field cancerization in a quantitative way. Field cancerization was quantified using newly developed color image segmentation software. Using photodynamic therapy as the precancer skin treatment and the approach introduced herein for evaluation of fluorescent area, we found that the half-life of field cancerization reduction was 43.3 days and 34.3 days for nano-ALA and MAL, respectively. We also found that nano-ALA targeted about 45% more skin lesion areas than MAL. Further, we found the mean reduction in area of skin field cancerization was about 10% greater for nano-ALA than for MAL.Conclusion: Although preliminary, our findings indicate that the efficacy of nano-ALA in

  2. Performance of mid infrared spectroscopy in skin cancer cell type identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Marker free optical spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the rapid inspection of pathologically suspicious skin lesions and the non-invasive detection of early skin tumors. This goal can be reached by the combination of signal localization and the spectroscopical detection of chemical cell signatures. We here present the development and application of mid infrared spectroscopy (midIR) for the analysis of skin tumor cell types and three dimensional tissue phantoms towards the application of midIR spectroscopy for fast and reliable skin diagnostics. We developed standardized in vitro skin systems with increasing complexity, from single skin cell types as fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanoma cells, to mixtures of these and finally three dimensional skin cancer phantoms. The cell systems were characterized with different systems in the midIR range up to 12 μm. The analysis of the spectra by novel data processing algorithms demonstrated the clear separation of all cell types, especially melanoma cells. Special attention and algorithm training was required for closely related mesenchymal cell types as dedifferentiated melanoma cells and fibroblasts. Proof of concept experiments with mixtures of in vivo fluorescence labelled skin cell types allowed the test of the new algorithms performance for the identification of specific cell types. The intense training of the software systems with various samples resulted in a increased sensitivity and specificity of the combined midIR and software system. These data highlight the potential of midIR spectroscopy as sensitive and specific future optical biopsy technology.

  3. The Role of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Skin Cancer

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    Delira Robbins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that antioxidant enzyme expression and activity are drastically reduced in most human skin diseases, leading to propagation of oxidative stress and continuous disease progression. However, antioxidants, an endogenous defense system against reactive oxygen species (ROS, can be induced by exogenous sources, resulting in protective effects against associated oxidative injury. Many studies have shown that the induction of antioxidants is an effective strategy to combat various disease states. In one approach, a SOD mimetic was applied topically to mouse skin in the two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. This method effectively reduced oxidative injury and proliferation without interfering with apoptosis. In another approach, Protandim, a combination of 5 well-studied medicinal plants, was given via dietary administration and significantly decreased tumor incidence and multiplicity by 33% and 57%, respectively. These studies suggest that alterations in antioxidant response may be a novel approach to chemoprevention. This paper focuses on how regulation of antioxidant expression and activity can be modulated in skin disease and the potential clinical implications of antioxidant-based therapies.

  4. Netherton syndrome with multiple non-melanoma skin cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.M. van der Voort (Ella A.); E.P. Prens (Errol)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNetherton syndrome (NS) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis caused by SPINK-5 mutations. The SPINK-5 gene encodes the serine protease inhibitor LEKTI and is located on chromosome 5q32. Unopposed degradation of corneodesmosomes is the basis for a severely impaired skin barrier fu

  5. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Hughes, M.C.; Ibiebele, T.I.; Marks, G.C.; Green, A.C.; Pols, van der J.C.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the associations between intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the skin, we carried out a prospective study among 1001 randomly selected adults living in an Australian community. Intake of antioxidants was estimated in 1996.

  6. A qualitative analysis of acute skin toxicity among breast cancer radiotherapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Julie B; Ouellette, Suzanne C; Dilorenzo, Terry A; Green, Sheryl; Montgomery, Guy H

    2011-03-01

    One of the most common acute side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy is treatment-induced skin changes, referred to as skin toxicity. Yet no research to date has focused expressly on skin toxicity-related quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer radiotherapy patients. Therefore, our aim was to use qualitative approaches to better understand the impact of skin toxicity on QOL. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 women (Stage 0-III breast cancer), during their last week of external beam radiotherapy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. Three themes were identified based on the interview responses: First, skin changes affect multiple dimensions of QOL. They cause physical discomfort, body image disturbance, emotional distress, and impair both day-to-day functioning and satisfaction with radiation treatment. Second, individual differences affect women's experiences. Generally African American women, younger women, women who are not currently in a relationship, women who are being treated during the summer, and women who are more invested in their appearance are more distressed by skin toxicity. Third, women use a variety of symptom management strategies including self-medication, complementary/alternative medicine approaches, and psychological strategies. Implications of results are as follows: (1) skin toxicity affects numerous dimensions of QOL, and assessment approaches and psychosocial interventions should address this; (2) individual differences may affect the experience of skin toxicity and should be considered in treatment and education approaches; and (3) participants' own creativity and problem-solving should be used to improve the treatment experience. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Skin cancer prevention and detection campaign at golf courses on Spain's Costa del Sol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Boz, J; Fernández-Morano, T; Padilla-España, L; Aguilar-Bernier, M; Rivas-Ruiz, F; de Troya-Martín, M

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer prevention and detection campaigns targeting specific groups are necessary and have proven to be more effective than those aimed at the general population. Interventions in outdoor tourist spots have proven successful, although none have specifically targeted golf courses. The aims of this study were to describe the risk profile of golfers and golf course workers and evaluate the impact of a skin cancer prevention and early detection intervention. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at 6 golf courses. The intervention included a skin examination and completion of a questionnaire about demographic details, risk factors, and sun exposure and sun protection habits. Participants were also given advice on sun protection measures, self-examination, and use of sunscreens, and were asked about their satisfaction with the intervention and their intention to change their current behaviors. The effect was measured in terms of the diagnoses made, satisfaction with the intervention, reported intention to change, and potential effect in terms of existing risk factors. Of the 351 participants (57% golfers and 43% golf course workers), 70.4% had fair skin, 11.7% had a family history of skin cancer, and 8.5% had a personal history of skin cancer. Skin cancer and actinic keratoses were diagnosed in 10.7% and 40% of the golfers, respectively. The session was rated positively by 99.4% of the participants; 93.9% stated that they intended to improve their sun exposure habits and 93.4% said that they planned to examine their skin more frequently. Our findings confirm that golf course workers and, in particular, golfers are an important target for skin cancer prevention campaigns. This is the first intervention to specifically target golf courses, and it proved to be both feasible and useful. Its success appears to be attributable to numerous factors: it was conducted at golf courses, had multiple components, and was preceded by a motivational campaign

  8. An ultrasonographic evaluation of skin thickness in breast cancer patients after postmastectomy radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sharon; Kaur, Amarjit; Back, Michael; Lee, Khai Mun; Baggarley, Shaun; Lu, Jiade Jay

    2011-01-24

    To determine the usefulness of ultrasonography in the assessment of post radiotherapy skin changes in postmastectomy breast cancer patients. Patients treated for postmastectomy radiotherapy in National University Hospital (NUH) and Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), Singapore between January 2004- December 2005 was recruited retrospectively. Ultrasound scan was performed on these Asian patients who had been treated to a total dose of 46-50 Gy with 1 cm bolus placed on the skin. The ultrasound scans were performed blinded to the RTOG scores, and the skin thickness of the individually marked points on the irradiated chest wall was compared to the corresponding points on the non-irradiated breast. The mean total skin thickness inclusive of the epidermis and the dermis of the right irradiated chest wall was 0.1712 mm (± 0.03392 mm) compared with the contra-lateral non-irradiated breast which was 0.1845 mm (± 0.04089 mm; p = 0.007). The left irradiated chest wall had a mean skin thickness of 0.1764 mm (± 0.03184 mm) compared with the right non-irradiated breast which was 0.1835 mm (± 0.02584 mm; p = 0.025). These independent t-tests produced a significant difference of reduced skin thickness on the right irradiated chest wall, p = 0.007 (p skin thickness investigating chronic skin reactions. Patients with grade 2 acute skin toxicity presented with thinner skin as compared to patients with grade 1 (p = 0.006). This study has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the skin thicknesses of the irradiated chest wall and the contra-lateral non-irradiated breast and a predisposition to chronic reactions was found in patients with acute RTOG scoring of grade1 and grade 2.

  9. What Influences the Uptake of Information to Prevent Skin Cancer? A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark; Moxham, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasing problem in Europe, America and Australasia, although largely preventable by avoiding excessive ultraviolet (UV) exposure. This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of qualitative research about the prevention of skin cancer attributable to UV exposure. The aim is to understand elements that may contribute…

  10. A systematic review of clinical outcomes for patients diagnosed with skin cancer spinal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C Rory; Sankey, Eric W; Liu, Ann; Elder, Benjamin D; Kosztowski, Thomas; Lo, Sheng-Fu L; Fisher, Charles G; Clarke, Michelle J; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Surgical procedures and/or adjuvant therapies are effective modalities for the treatment of symptomatic spinal metastases. However, clinical results specific to the skin cancer spinal metastasis cohort are generally lacking. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for treatments, clinical outcomes, and survival following the diagnosis of a skin cancer spinal metastasis and evaluate prognostic factors in the context of spinal skin cancer metastases stratified by tumor subtype. METHODS The authors performed a literature review using PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science to identify articles since 1950 that reported survival, clinical outcomes, and/or prognostic factors for the skin cancer patient population with spinal metastases. The methodological quality of reviews was assessed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) tool. RESULTS Sixty-five studies met the preset criteria and were included in the analysis. Of these studies, a total of 25, 40, 25, and 12 studies included patients who underwent some form of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or observation alone, respectively. Sixty-three of the 65 included studies were retrospective in nature (Class of Evidence [CoE] IV), and the 2 prospective studies were CoE II. Based on the studies analyzed, the median overall survival for a patient with a spinal metastasis from a primary skin malignancy is 4.0 months; survival by tumor subtype is 12.5 months for patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 4.0 months for those with melanoma, 4.0 months for those with squamous cell carcinoma, 3.0 months for those with pilomatrix carcinoma, and 1.5 months for those with Merkel cell carcinoma (p cancer lesion was 3.5% (n = 21/608, range 0.2%-100.0%), and the rate of known spine metastasis recurrence despite treatment for all skin malignancies was 2.8% (n = 17/608, range 0.0%-33.3%). Age greater than 65 years, sacral spinal involvement, presence

  11. SOME POSSIBLE ULTRAVIOLET EFFECTS ON THE INCIDENCE OF SKIN CANCER AMONG JAPANESE DUE TO MODIFICATION OF THE OZONE LAYER

    OpenAIRE

    タキザワ, ユキオ; YUKIO, TAKIZAWA

    1987-01-01

    An epidemiological analysis was conducted in order to examine possible ultraviolet effects on the incidence of skin cancer among Japanese. Age-adjusted mortality rates (AMRs) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) from 1971 to 1977,ratios of cumulative mortality rates (CMRs) from 1950 to 1960 and from 1960 to 1970,and the number of patients from 1975 to 1980 were obtained for skin cancer and malignant melanoma from vital statistics of Japan. The results indicated that the AMRs of skin cance...

  12. Risk of skin cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus: A nationwide retrospective cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hui-Wen; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Tang, Pei-Ling; Lam, Hing-Chung

    2016-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that certain types of cancers are more common in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to investigate the risk of skin cancer in patients with DM in Taiwan. In this retrospective cohort study using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Research Database, the risk of developing overall skin cancer, including nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma, was compared by Poisson regression analysis and Cox regression analysis between the DM and non-DM cohorts. The DM cohort with newly diagnosed DM (n = 41,898) and a non-DM cohort were one-to-one matched by age, sex, index date, and comorbidities (coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obesity). Compared with non-DM cohort statistically, for the people with DM aged ≥60 years, the incidence rates of overall skin cancer and NMSC were significantly higher (overall: DM/non-DM: number [n] = 99/76, incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.44, P = 0.02; NMSC: DM/non-DM: n = 94/66, IRR = 1.57, P = 0.005). By Cox regression analysis, the risk of developing overall skin cancer or NMSC was significantly higher after adjusting for sex, comorbidities, and overall diseases with immunosuppression status (overall: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.46, P = 0.01; NMSC: AHR = 1.6, P = 0.003). Other significant risk factors were older males for skin cancer (overall: AHR = 1.68, P = 0.001; NMSC: AHR = 1.59, P = 0.004; melanoma: AHR = 3.25, P = 0.04), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for NMSC (AHR = 1.44, P = 0.04), and coronary artery disease for melanoma (AHR = 4.22, P = 0.01). The risk of developing melanoma was lower in the DM cohort than in the non-DM cohort, but without significance (AHR = 0.56, P = 0.28; DM/non-DM: n = 5/10). The incidence rate and risk of developing overall skin cancer, including NMSC, was significantly higher in older adults with DM. Other significant risk factors for older adults

  13. Novel treatment options for nonmelanoma skin cancer: focus on electronic brachytherapy

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    Kasper ME

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Kasper,1,2 Ahmed A Chaudhary3 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Lynn Cancer Institute at Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, 2Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, FL, 3North Main Radiation Oncology, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, RI, USA Abstract: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is an increasing health care issue in the United States, significantly affecting quality of life and impacting health care costs. Radiotherapy has a long history in the treatment of NMSC. Shortly after the discovery of X-rays and 226Radium, physicians cured patients with NMSC using these new treatments. Both X-ray therapy and brachytherapy have evolved over the years, ultimately delivering higher cure rates and lower toxicity. Electronic brachytherapy for NMSC is based on the technical and clinical data obtained from radionuclide skin surface brachytherapy and the small skin surface applicators developed over the past 25 years. The purpose of this review is to introduce electronic brachytherapy in the context of the history, data, and utilization of traditional radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Keywords: electronic brachytherapy, superficial radiotherapy, skin surface brachytherapy, electron beam therapy, nonmelanoma skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma

  14. Development of effective skin cancer treatment and prevention in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, W Clark; Lambert, Muriel W

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare, recessively transmitted genetic disease characterized by increasingly marked dyspigmentation and xerosis (dryness) of sun-exposed tissues, especially skin. Skin cancers characteristically develop in sun-exposed sites at very much earlier ages than in the general population; these are often multiple and hundreds or even thousands may develop. Eight complementation groups have been identified. Seven groups, XP-A…G, are associated with defective genes encoding proteins involved in the nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) pathway that recognizes and excises mutagenic changes induced in DNA by sunlight; the eighth group, XP-V, is associated with defective translesion synthesis (TLS) bypassing such alterations. The dyspigmentation, xerosis and eventually carcinogenesis in XP patients appear to be due to their cells' failure to respond properly to these mutagenic DNA alterations, leading to mutations in skin cells. A subset of cases, especially those in some complementation groups, may develop neurological degeneration, which may be severe. However, in most XP patients, in the past the multiple skin cancers have led to death at an early age due to either metastases or sepsis. Using either topical 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod, we have developed a protocol that effectively prevents most skin cancer development in XP patients. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Nucleotide Excision Repair and Vitamin D--Relevance for Skin Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Wysokinski, Daniel; Blasiak, Janusz

    2016-04-06

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is involved in almost all skin cancer cases, but on the other hand, it stimulates the production of pre-vitamin D3, whose active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25VD3), plays important physiological functions on binding with its receptor (vitamin D receptor, VDR). UV-induced DNA damages in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or (6-4)-pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts are frequently found in skin cancer and its precursors. Therefore, removing these lesions is essential for the prevention of skin cancer. As UV-induced DNA damages are repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER), the interaction of 1,25VD3 with NER components can be important for skin cancer transformation. Several studies show that 1,25VD3 protects DNA against damage induced by UV, but the exact mechanism of this protection is not completely clear. 1,25VD3 was also shown to affect cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in several signaling pathways, so it can be considered as a potential modulator of the cellular DNA damage response, which is crucial for mutagenesis and cancer transformation. 1,25VD3 was shown to affect DNA repair and potentially NER through decreasing nitrosylation of DNA repair enzymes by NO overproduction by UV, but other mechanisms of the interaction between 1,25VD3 and NER machinery also are suggested. Therefore, the array of NER gene functioning could be analyzed and an appropriate amount of 1.25VD3 could be recommended to decrease UV-induced DNA damage important for skin cancer transformation.

  16. Nucleotide Excision Repair and Vitamin D—Relevance for Skin Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Pawlowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation is involved in almost all skin cancer cases, but on the other hand, it stimulates the production of pre-vitamin D3, whose active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25VD3, plays important physiological functions on binding with its receptor (vitamin D receptor, VDR. UV-induced DNA damages in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or (6-4-pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts are frequently found in skin cancer and its precursors. Therefore, removing these lesions is essential for the prevention of skin cancer. As UV-induced DNA damages are repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER, the interaction of 1,25VD3 with NER components can be important for skin cancer transformation. Several studies show that 1,25VD3 protects DNA against damage induced by UV, but the exact mechanism of this protection is not completely clear. 1,25VD3 was also shown to affect cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in several signaling pathways, so it can be considered as a potential modulator of the cellular DNA damage response, which is crucial for mutagenesis and cancer transformation. 1,25VD3 was shown to affect DNA repair and potentially NER through decreasing nitrosylation of DNA repair enzymes by NO overproduction by UV, but other mechanisms of the interaction between 1,25VD3 and NER machinery also are suggested. Therefore, the array of NER gene functioning could be analyzed and an appropriate amount of 1.25VD3 could be recommended to decrease UV-induced DNA damage important for skin cancer transformation.

  17. Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jixia; Malakhova, Margarita; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Reddy, Kanamata; Kurinov, Igor; Carper, Andria; Langfald, Alyssa; Oi, Naomi; Kim, Myoung Ok; Zhu, Feng; Sosa, Carlos P.; Zhou, Keyuan; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang (Cornell); (Guangdong); (UMM)

    2012-06-27

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the leading factor in the development of skin cancer, prompting great interest in chemopreventive agents for this disease. In this study, we report the discovery of norathyriol, a plant-derived chemopreventive compound identified through an in silico virtual screening of the Chinese Medicine Library. Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin found in mango, Hypericum elegans, and Tripterospermum lanceolatum and is known to have anticancer activity. Mechanistic investigations determined that norathyriol acted as an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity to attenuate UVB-induced phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling cascades. We confirmed the direct and specific binding of norathyriol with ERK2 through a cocrystal structural analysis. The xanthone moiety in norathyriol acted as an adenine mimetic to anchor the compound by hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the protein ATP-binding site on ERK2. Norathyriol inhibited in vitro cell growth in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells at the level of G{sub 2}-M phase arrest. In mouse skin tumorigenesis assays, norathyriol significantly suppressed solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis indicated that norathyriol mediates its chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the ERK-dependent activity of transcriptional factors AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B during UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results identify norathyriol as a safe new chemopreventive agent that is highly effective against development of UV-induced skin cancer.

  18. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006-2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010-11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006-2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006-2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer.

  19. The mechanistic basis of arsenicosis: Pathogenesis of skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Katherine M.; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Craig A Elmets; Athar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Significant amounts of arsenic have been found in the groundwater of many countries including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, and the United States with an estimated 200 million people at risk of toxic exposure. Although chronic arsenic poisoning damages many organ systems, it usually first presents in the skin with manifestations including hyperpigmentation, hyperkeratoses, Bowen’s disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. Arsenic promotes oxidative stre...

  20. ["Clown nose"--skin metastasis of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, H P; Cerroni, L; Smolle, J; Kerl, H

    1990-10-01

    We report on a 74-year-old woman showing a reddish infiltration of the tip of the nose, which had appeared 3 months ago. Clinically, we considered the following differential diagnoses: sarcoidosis, rosacea, pseudolymphoma, and metastasis. Histological and immunohistological investigation proved a cutaneous metastasis of carcinoma of the breast. Our case report gives evidence of the fact that cutaneous metastases of systemic malignancies are frequently located in acral regions of the skin.

  1. [Skin-sparing mastectomy: an alternative to conventional mastectomy in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Boyero, Manuel

    2008-10-01

    Women who require or desire mastectomy for breast cancer one option should be immediate breast reconstruction. Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) describes the surgery that maximises breast skin and infra- mammary fold preservation, significantly improves the symmetry and natural appearance and a more satisfied patient. In multiple studies, SSM seems to be oncologically safe in patients undergoing mastectomy for invasive T1-T2 tumours, multicentric tumours, ductal carcinoma in situ or risk-reduction. However, the technique should be avoided in patients with inflammatory breast cancer or in those with extensive tumour involvement of the skin. SSM with nipple areola complex preservation appears to be oncologically safe, providing that the tumour is not close to the nipple and the retro-areolar tissue is free of tumour. Though adjuvant radiotherapy is not an absolute contraindication to SSM, it should be used with caution since it decreases the final cosmetic result.

  2. Iatrogenic effects of photoprotection recommendations on skin cancer development, vitamin D levels, and general health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kavitha K; Gilchrest, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an established carcinogen that causes skin cancers and other cutaneous photodamage. Vitamin D is produced in the skin after UV exposure and may also be obtained from dietary and supplemental sources. The effect of recommendations for UV protection, as well as for very large vitamin D supplements, and possible adverse effects of both are explored. Current evidence supports the conclusion that protection from UV radiation reduces the incidence of skin cancers and photodamage, but generally does not compromise vitamin D status or lead to iatrogenic disease. Conversely, risks of maintaining very high vitamin D levels have not been adequately studied. Vitamin D obtained from diet and supplements is functionally identical to that produced after UV exposure, and is a more reliable and quantifiable source of the vitamin.

  3. A Probabilistic Framework for Detection of Skin Cancer by Raman Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur

    2003-01-01

    and outlier framework. Finally a visualization scheme for extracting important features from the trained neural network classifier based on sensitivity analysis is defined. The performance on two types of skin cancer showed that 97.9% of basal cell carcinoma were identified correctly and 85.5% of malignant......This Ph.D. thesis focuses on objective methods for diagnosing skin cancer from Raman spectra. A method for suppressing background noise and dimension reduction in Raman spectra is suggested. A robust Bayesian framework for training a neural network is proposed, including an overfit control...... melanoma. The neural network classifier visualization showed that frequency bands, previously identified by visual inspection of Raman spectra by medical experts, were considered important for classification. Moreover, frequency band not previously used for skin lesion classification were identified...

  4. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon...... and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses...... exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and nonexistent amongst those living in single detached homes....

  5. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V; Van Spyk, Elyse N; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-06-01

    Historically, work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as the liver, fat, and muscle. In recent years, skin has emerged as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging, and carcinogenesis. Morphologically, skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable, and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration: the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell type-specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it also represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. Skin also provides opportunities to interrogate the clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model

  6. Total body topical 5-fluorouracil for extensive non-melanoma skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, Serge; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Sanders, Cornelis J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Topical 5-fluorouracil 5% cream is one of the treatment modalities for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). There is a lack of suitable therapies to treat patients with extensive NMSC. In this paper we report two patients with extensive NMSC treated by total body application of topical 5-fluo

  7. Nonmelanoma skin cancer risk awareness in azathioprine-treated myasthenia gravis patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGurgan, Iain J

    2015-10-01

    Increased rates of NMSC (nonmelanoma skin cancer) have recently been reported in people with MG (myasthenia gravis) receiving azathioprine treatment. Guidelines on azathioprine for patients with dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders stress the importance of NMSC risk awareness and prevention. The aim of this study is to assess whether MG patients are being informed of this risk.

  8. U.S. Panel Says Evidence 'Insufficient' to Recommend Skin Cancer Screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cancer screening appears in the July 26 Journal of the American Medical Association . SOURCES: David Grossman, M.D., M.P. ... media statement, June 25, 2016; July 26, 2016, Journal of the American Medical Association HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights ...

  9. The European Status Quo in legal recognition and patient-care services of occupational skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, C; Salavastru, C; Agner, T;

    2016-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: This survey highlights the need for mandatory regulations on the prevention, management and potential compensation of work-related UV-induced skin cancer across Europe. Against the background of a joint European domestic market, equal standards of occupational safety across Europe should include...

  10. Solar ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer surveillance in organ transplant recipients (OTRs): an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the annual numbers of performed solid organ transplants have continuously increased world-wide. Solid organ transplant recipients (OTR) have a greater risk to develop malignancies, with skin cancer representing the most common neoplasia. Additionally, OTRs in general develop a more aggressive form of malignancies. In consequence, dermatologic surveillance is of high importance for OTRs and these patients represent an increasing and significant challenge to clinicians including dermatologists. In OTRs, patient and organ survival have increased considerably and continuously over the past two decades as a result of better immunosuppressive regimens and better posttransplant care. Great progress has been made in our understanding that individual immunosuppressive regiments differ in their effect on skin cancer risk in OTRs, and that effects of individual immunosuppressive regiments on skin cancer risk depend on various other factors including viral infections. Since sunlight is the major source of vitamin D for most humans, OTRs, who have to protect themselves consequently against solar or artificial UV radiation, are at high risk of developing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is not only associated with increased risk for metabolic bone disease, but with other severe health problems including various types of malignancies. As a consequence, screening for and treatment of vitamin D deficiency is warranted in OTRs. In this review, we give an update on our present understanding of skin cancer surveillance in OTRs.

  11. Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers of Pinna: Retrospective Assesment of 51 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Çiloğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the demographic data, tumor types, relapse and recurrence rates of non-melanoma skin cancer cases of pinna. Methods: Pathological reports of our patients operated for non-melanoma skin cancer of head and neck region were scanned. Data of the patients with primary basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the pinna were retrospectively evaluated and age, gender, tumor location, tumor size, tumor type, tumor recurrence, lymph node involvement and metastasis of the patients were documented. Results: Out of the 535 patents who applied to our clinic for non-melanocytic skin cancer of head and neck region, 453 BCC and 179 SCC was excised. BCC/SCC ratio in the head and neck region was 3.5/1 tumors were resected from 51 patients who had pinna-located mass. BCC incidence in the pinna was 7%; SCC incidence was 14% in our patient population. Thirty three of the lesions (55.9% were BCC and 26 (44.1% were SCC. The BCC/SCC ratio in pinna was 1.3/1 and male/female ratio was determined as 16/1. Conclusion: We observed that non-melanoma skin cancer of pinna develops more frequently in male population and BCC is the most frequent tumor in this region.

  12. Total body topical 5-fluorouracil for extensive non-melanoma skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, Serge; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Sanders, Cornelis J.

    Background Topical 5-fluorouracil 5% cream is one of the treatment modalities for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). There is a lack of suitable therapies to treat patients with extensive NMSC. In this paper we report two patients with extensive NMSC treated by total body application of topical

  13. Risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in myasthenia patients treated with azathioprine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, E G; Pottegård, A; Hallas, J

    2014-01-01

    The association between use of azathioprine and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in patients with myasthenia was evaluated in a nationwide setting. Treatment of autoimmune myasthenia frequently involves long-term exposure to immunosuppressants, including azathioprine. Use of azathioprine...

  14. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in the Federal State of Saarland, Germany, 1995-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A; Stegmaier, C; Jöckel, K-H

    2003-10-06

    We analysed incidence data of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin from the Cancer Registry Saarland, Germany. During 1995-1999, the age-standardised incidence rates (world standard population) of BCC and SCC were 43.7 and 11.2 per 100000 among men and 31.7 and 4.4 per 100000 among women.

  15. Diffuse reflectance imaging for non-melanoma skin cancer detection using laser feedback interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowla, Alireza; Taimre, Thomas; Lim, Yah L.; Bertling, Karl; Wilson, Stephen J.; Prow, Tarl W.; Soyer, H. P.; Rakić, Aleksandar D.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a compact, self-aligned, low-cost, and versatile infrared diffuse-reflectance laser imaging system using a laser feedback interferometry technique with possible applications in in vivo biological tissue imaging and skin cancer detection. We examine the proposed technique experimentally using a three-layer agar skin phantom. A cylindrical region with a scattering rate lower than that of the surrounding normal tissue was used as a model for a non-melanoma skin tumour. The same structure was implemented in a Monte Carlo computational model. The experimental results agree well with the Monte Carlo simulations validating the theoretical basis of the technique. Results prove the applicability of the proposed technique for biological tissue imaging, with the capability of depth sectioning and a penetration depth of well over 1.2 mm into the skin phantom.

  16. Distance of breast cancer from the skin and nipple impacts axillary nodal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Bijan; Morton, Marilyn J; Adamczyk, Darcy L; Jones, Katie N; Brodt, Julie K; Degnim, Amy C; Jakub, James W; Lohse, Christine M; Boughey, Judy C

    2011-10-01

    Lymphatic drainage of the breast is via subareolar and dermal lymphatics. The aim of this study was to determine whether distance of breast cancers from the skin and/or distance from the nipple impacts the likelihood of axillary nodal metastases. A retrospective review was performed of sonographically visible T1 and T2 breast cancers with breast and axillary surgery performed at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Distance of tumor from the nipple was reviewed. Ultrasounds were reviewed to measure the distance of tumor from the skin. Data were collected on 233 eligible T1 or T2 breast cancers, of which 177 (76%) were node negative and 56 (24%) were node positive. On multivariable analysis, tumor stage and lymphovascular invasion, as well as decreasing distance of the tumor from the nipple and decreasing distance of the tumor from the skin, were significantly associated with axillary lymph node positivity. Each 1-cm decrease in the distance of the tumor from the nipple was associated with a 23% increased likelihood of positive lymph nodes (odds ratio 1.23; P = .003). Each 1-mm decrease in the distance of the tumor from the skin was associated with a 15% increased likelihood of positive lymph nodes (odds ratio 1.15; P = .003). T1 and T2 breast cancers located closer to the skin and those located closer to the nipple have a higher incidence of metastases to axillary lymph nodes. Distance from the skin and distance from the nipple should be considered when estimating a patient's likelihood of axillary nodal positivity.

  17. Nicotinic acid receptor abnormalities in human skin cancer: implications for a role in epidermal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yira Bermudez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid has been identified as a ligand for the human G-protein-coupled receptors GPR109A and GPR109B that signal through G(i-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells. RESULTS: Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression in dermal fibroblasts is below limits of detection. Receptor transcripts are greatly over-expressed in squamous cell cancers. Receptor protein in normal skin is prominent from the basal through granular layers of the epidermis, with cellular localization more dispersive in the basal layer but predominantly localized at the plasma membrane in more differentiated epidermal layers. In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional G(i-mediated signaling. In contrast, in a squamous cell carcinoma derived cell line, receptor protein shows a more diffuse cellular localization and the receptors are nearly non-functional. CONCLUSIONS: The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis.

  18. Monte Carlo skin dose simulation in intraoperative radiotherapy of breast cancer using spherical applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, F.; Ung, N. M.; Khandaker, M. U.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Saad, M.; Malik, R. Abdul; Bustam, A. Z.; Zaili, Z.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The relatively new treatment modality electronic intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is gaining popularity, irradiation being obtained within a surgically produced cavity being delivered via a low-energy x-ray source and spherical applicators, primarily for early stage breast cancer. Due to the spatially dramatic dose-rate fall off with radial distance from the source and effects related to changes in the beam quality of the low keV photon spectra, dosimetric account of the Intrabeam system is rather complex. Skin dose monitoring in IORT is important due to the high dose prescription per treatment fraction. In this study, modeling of the x-ray source and related applicators were performed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code. The dosimetric characteristics of the model were validated against measured data obtained using an ionization chamber and EBT3 film as dosimeters. By using a simulated breast phantom, absorbed doses to the skin for different combinations of applicator size (1.5-5 cm) and treatment depth (0.5-3 cm) were calculated. Simulation results showed overdosing of the skin (>30% of prescribed dose) at a treatment depth of 0.5 cm using applicator sizes larger than 1.5 cm. Skin doses were significantly increased with applicator size, insofar as delivering 12 Gy (60% of the prescribed dose) to skin for the largest sized applicator (5 cm diameter) and treatment depth of 0.5 cm. It is concluded that the recommended 0.5-1 cm distance between the skin and applicator surface does not guarantee skin safety and skin dose is generally more significant in cases with the larger applicators. Highlights: • Intrabeam x-ray source and spherical applicators were simulated and skin dose was calculated. • Skin dose for constant skin to applicator distance strongly depends on applicator size. • Use of larger applicators generally results in higher skin dose. • The recommended 0.5-1 cm skin to applicator distance does not guarantee skin

  19. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Global Ultraviolet Indea in Different Regions of Iran with Skin Cancer in 1383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Naddafi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Skin cancer is the most frequent malignancy in Iran. Exposure to the excessive ultraviolet radiation is an important factor in creating skin tumors. The purpose of this study is to determine how the ultraviolet index has been distributed in all townships throughout the country, to determine different kinds of skin cancer and to evaluate a geographical distribution of skin cancers with regard to the UV geographical distribution."nMaterials and Methods: This study is ecologic, descriptive and analytical in nature. A total number of 6921 skin cancer cases registered at the Center for Disease Control of Iran in 2004 were thoroughly analyzed and UV data were collected from the world wide web. With the help of ArcGIS software and SPSS, the statistical analysis was done. "nResults:The incidence rates were 10.13 for the total skin cancer, 7.53 for basal cell carcinoma, 1.79 for squamous cell carcinoma and 0.39 for malignant melanoma per 100000 population of Iran. The mean ultraviolet index differed from 9 in July to 3 in January. The correlation between the skin cancer incidence at the level of districts and ultraviolet index was not significantly observed. "nConclusion:Skin cancer is a public health problem in Iran. Further research in this regard would lead to skin cancer registration improvement and more understanding of different climatic, cultural and behavioral factors in developing skin tumors. With this knowledge the possibility of more effective prevention of the most prevalent cancer in Iran can be created.

  20. Zebrafish as a Model Organism for the Development of Drugs for Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bootorabi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer, which includes melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma, represents the most common type of cutaneous malignancy worldwide, and its incidence is expected to rise in the near future. This condition derives from acquired genetic dysregulation of signaling pathways involved in the proliferation and apoptosis of skin cells. The development of animal models has allowed a better understanding of these pathomechanisms, with the possibility of carrying out toxicological screening and drug development. In particular, the zebrafish (Danio rerio has been established as one of the most important model organisms for cancer research. This model is particularly suitable for live cell imaging and high-throughput drug screening in a large-scale fashion. Thanks to the recent advances in genome editing, such as the clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9 methodologies, the mechanisms associated with cancer development and progression, as well as drug resistance can be investigated and comprehended. With these unique tools, the zebrafish represents a powerful platform for skin cancer research in the development of target therapies. Here, we will review the advantages of using the zebrafish model for drug discovery and toxicological and phenotypical screening. We will focus in detail on the most recent progress in the field of zebrafish model generation for the study of melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, including cancer cell injection and transgenic animal development. Moreover, we will report the latest compounds and small molecules under investigation in melanoma zebrafish models.

  1. PTEN基因与皮肤肿瘤%PTEN gene and skin cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭泽; 周炳荣; 李巍; 骆丹

    2011-01-01

    皮肤肿瘤是一类最常见的肿瘤,在引起皮肤肿瘤发生的诸多原因中,紫外线照射是主要影响因素之一。PTEN是近年来研究较多的一个肿瘤抑制基因,位于染色体10q23,3。目前研究证实,PTEN在多种皮肤肿瘤,如基底细胞癌、鳞状细胞癌、恶性黑素瘤中都起着抑制基因的作用,发现在皮肤肿瘤形成过程中,紫外线照射可引起PTEN失活,对肿瘤的形成可能起着促进的作用。%Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers. Ultraviolet irradiation is the predominant environmental factor causing skin cancer. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 10 q23,3, which has been frequently studied in recent years. There is evidence that PTEN acts as a tumor suppressor in many skin cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Ultraviolet irradiation can result in the inactivation of PTEN and in turn promote the development of cancer.

  2. The effectiveness of a population-based skin cancer screening program: evidence from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Micha; Schiller, Jörg; Schreckenberger, Christopher

    2017-03-28

    In this paper, we analyze how a nationwide population-based skin cancer screening program (SCS) implemented in Germany in 2008 has impacted the number of hospital discharges following malignant skin neoplasm diagnosis and the malignant melanoma mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants. Our panel data, drawn from the Eurostat database, cover subregions in 22 European countries, measured at the lowest nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) level for 2000-2013. Applying fixed effects methods, we find a significantly positive and robust effect of the German SCS on the number of patients diagnosed with malignant skin neoplasm. However, the program does not significantly influence the melanoma mortality rate. This finding conflicts with the decreased melanoma mortality rate found for the pilot SCS program in northern Germany. Our results indicate that Germany's nationwide SCS program is effective in terms of a higher diagnosis rate for malignant skin neoplasms and thus may contribute to an improvement in the early detection of skin cancer.

  3. 7-tesla MR imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer samples: correlation with histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Sébastien; Leclerc, Olga; Tremblay, Luc; Rizcallah, Edmond; Croteau, Frédéric; Orfali, Charles; Lepage, Martin

    2012-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare in vitro magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of keratinocytic skin cancer assessed by a 7-tesla (T) MRI with histopathology, and to describe MRI features of skin tumors. This prospective study included 30 skin tumors treated by surgery. MR images of skin samples were acquired on a 7-T MR scanner using a fast spin-echo T(2)-weighted and an isotropic 3D gradient-echo T(1)-weighted sequence. Length, width, Breslow index and margins of the lesions were measured. The presence or absence of the following was noted: healthy margins, ulceration of the dermis, in situ lesions, superficial and deep dermis involvement, subcutaneous involvement, superficial and intratumoral keratin. MR results were compared to histopathology. Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was very good for the evaluation of the width (ICC = 0.86) and Breslow index (ICC = 0.87). The ICC was good for the evaluation of the margins (ICC = 0.70) but for length, ICC was lower (ICC = 0.67). Mean bias between MRI and histopathology was inferior to 1 mm for width, Breslow index and margin. In vitro 7-T MRI of keratinocytic skin cancer allows delineation of lesions with good correlation with histopathology. After in vivo confirmation it could have a diagnostic role regarding the delineation of surgical margins but its actual limitations prevent its practical adoption at this time. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Incidence of primary skin cancer after organ transplantation: An 18-year single-center experience in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Chang, Sung Eun; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Han, Duck Jong; Park, Su Kil; Kim, Jae-Joong; Lee, Jae Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2014-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy to arise after organ transplantation in Caucasians, but limited data are available on its incidence in Asian transplant recipients. We sought to assess the incidence of skin cancer after organ transplantation in a Korean cohort. A cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence and risk factors for skin cancers among kidney, liver, heart, or pancreas transplant recipients, treated at the Asan Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. The cumulative incidences of skin cancer were 0.70% at 5 years, 1.66% at 10 years, and 2.31% at 15 years. For all skin cancers, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and Kaposi sarcoma, the standardized incidence ratios between the recipients and the Korean general population were 30.9 (95% confidence interval, 12.4-63.6), 61.9 (12.8-180.8), 11.9 (0.3-66.1), and 565.2 (68.4-2041.6) after the end of the fifth posttransplantation year, respectively. We cannot exclude the possibility of both the underestimation because of potential missing cases and the overestimation because of the ascertainment bias. The incidence of posttransplantation skin cancer is very low in Korean patients. However, the risk of skin cancer in organ transplant recipients may be considerably higher than that in the Korean general population. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Phase 3 Randomized Trial of Nicotinamide for Skin-Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Martin, Andrew J; Choy, Bonita; Fernández-Peñas, Pablo; Dalziell, Robyn A; McKenzie, Catriona A; Scolyer, Richard A; Dhillon, Haryana M; Vardy, Janette L; Kricker, Anne; St George, Gayathri; Chinniah, Niranthari; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L

    2015-10-22

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, such as basal-cell carcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma, are common cancers that are caused principally by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) has been shown to have protective effects against damage caused by UV radiation and to reduce the rate of new premalignant actinic keratoses. In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, 386 participants who had had at least two nonmelanoma skin cancers in the previous 5 years to receive 500 mg of nicotinamide twice daily or placebo for 12 months. Participants were evaluated by dermatologists at 3-month intervals for 18 months. The primary end point was the number of new nonmelanoma skin cancers (i.e., basal-cell carcinomas plus squamous-cell carcinomas) during the 12-month intervention period. Secondary end points included the number of new squamous-cell carcinomas and basal-cell carcinomas and the number of actinic keratoses during the 12-month intervention period, the number of nonmelanoma skin cancers in the 6-month postintervention period, and the safety of nicotinamide. At 12 months, the rate of new nonmelanoma skin cancers was lower by 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4 to 38) in the nicotinamide group than in the placebo group (P=0.02). Similar differences were found between the nicotinamide group and the placebo group with respect to new basal-cell carcinomas (20% [95% CI, -6 to 39] lower rate with nicotinamide, P=0.12) and new squamous-cell carcinomas (30% [95% CI, 0 to 51] lower rate, P=0.05). The number of actinic keratoses was 11% lower in the nicotinamide group than in the placebo group at 3 months (P=0.01), 14% lower at 6 months (Pnicotinamide was discontinued. Oral nicotinamide was safe and effective in reducing the rates of new nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses in high-risk patients. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council; ONTRAC Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  6. Treatment of skin and subcutaneous cancer diseases by hyperthermic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zviad Kovziridze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present work pursues perfection of highly efficient anticancer, principally new methodology and technology. It deals with the comparative study of anticancer activity of controlled local hyperthermia in animals and determination-de- velopment of optimal regimes and schemes. Furthermore, it also presents the work on new clinical device of high anticancer effect. Methods: Authors used controlled local hyperthermia for this study. In our experiments, we used 3 to 3.5 months-old non-pedigree (nonlinear white mice (mass: 18-30 gram. After mice selection for the experiments, animals were placed in vivarium, in quarantine regime for 10 to 4 days. Individual protocols were drawn for each animal. Similar feeding and handling regimes were created for all animals. Transplantable malignant cancer strain, Erlich adenocarcinoma, was used. Results: Experiments on animals were successful. There are positive conclusions of pathological-anatomy laboratory “PathGeo”: Form # IV -200- 6A, for the examination # 3119-12 and # 15/02 and macro-morphological and micro-morphological description of the study # 15272-13. On the basis of the results of morphological study, it was proved that liver and lungs (the main target bodies were intact, and secondary cancer injuries were not fixed. After three sessions of hyperthermia treatment, the decrease in sizes of cancer formations and necrosis of diseased sections were visualized, while massive necrosis was observed after seven sessions. In all cases, necrosis and ulceration of diseased places were observed, which refers to transition of cancer into phase of healing. After eight-ten sessions, necrosis of cancer and ulceration were observed, which refers to irreversibility of the process and efficiency of the applied method of hyperthermia. Conclusion: Anticancer effect of hyperthermia conditioned by temperature fields was proved, which was expressed in inhibition of cancer growth, resorption and increase of

  7. The relevance of piroxicam for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and its precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Elena; Paternò, Evelin Jasmine; Candi, Eleonora; Falconi, Mattia; Costanza, Gaetana; Diluvio, Laura; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Piroxicam (PXM), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is an enolic benzothiazine and a potent member of the oxicam series. The drug suppresses the synthesis of proinflammatory enzymes, such as cyclo-oxygenases-1 and -2 (COX-1 and 2), downregulates the production of prostaglandins (PGs) and tromboxanes, and inhibits polyamines production by blocking ornithine decarboxylase induction involved in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis. In addition, PXM is able to induce tumor cell apoptosis and suppresses metalloproteinase 2 activities. Skin carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which the accumulation of genetic events leads to a gradually dysplastic cellular expression, deregulation of cell growth, and carcinomatous progression. COX-1 upregulation plays a significant role in PG and vascular epidermal growth factor production supporting tumor growth. Increased level of PGs in premalignant and/or malignant cutaneous tumors is also favored by upregulation of COX-2 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Chemoprevention can be a hopeful approach to inhibit carcinoma occurrence before an invasive tumor develops. The chemopreventive effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nonmelanoma skin cancers has been established. In this study, we highlighted the different modalities of action of PXM on the pathogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancer, analyzing and evaluating binding modes and energies between COX-1 or COX-2 and PXM by protein-ligand molecular docking. Our clinical experience about the local use of PXM on actinic keratoses and field cancerization is also reported, confirming its efficacy as target therapy.

  8. Chemoprevention of skin cancer using low HLB surfactant nanoemulsion of 5-fluorouracil: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Al-Dhfyan, Abdullah; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2015-01-01

    Oral delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is difficult due to its serious adverse effects and extremely low bioavailability. Therefore, the aim of present investigation was to develop and evaluate low HLB surfactant nanoemulsion of 5-FU for topical chemoprevention of skin cancer. Low HLB surfactant nanoemulsions were prepared by oil phase titration method. Thermodynamically stable nanoemulsions were characterized in terms of droplet size distribution, zeta potential, viscosity and refractive index. Selected formulations and control were subjected to in vitro skin permeation studies through rat skin using Franz diffusion cells. Optimized formulation F9 was subjected to stability and in vitro cytotoxic studies on melanoma cell lines. Enhancement ratio was found to be 22.33 in formulation F9 compared with control and other formulations. The values of steady state flux and permeability coefficient for formulation F9 were found to be 206.40 ± 14.56 µg cm(-2) h(-1) and 2.064 × 10(-2) ± 0.050 × 10(-2 )cm h(-1), respectively. Optimized formulation F9 was found to be physical stable. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on SK-MEL-5 cancer cells indicated that 5-FU in optimized nanoemulsion is much more efficacious than free 5-FU. From these results, it can be concluded that the developed nanoemulsion might be a promising vehicle for chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  9. The use of targeted and non-targeted advertising to enrich skin cancer screening samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katris, P; Donovan, R J; Gray, B N

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the risk factor profile of persons attending skin cancer screening clinics could be enriched by appropriate advertising prior to the screening events. Eleven screening clinics were held in eight rural and three suburban communities. Matched communities were randomly assigned to either a target or non-target condition. Targeted communities received an advertisement designed to attract high-risk individuals. The advertisement listed a number of risk factors and encouraged readers with one or more of the listed risk factors to attend the screening. Non-targeted communities received a general advertisement requesting individuals who felt they were at risk of skin cancer to attend the clinic. Risk factor profiles of all participants were measured on the factors listed in the targeted advertisement. The risk factor profiles of screenees and the referral rates for skin lesions requiring attention were significantly higher in the targeted communities than in the non-targeted communities. Lesions suspicious of malignant melanoma or Hutchinson's melanotic freckle also were higher, but not statistically significant, in the targeted communities. Population samples attending community-based skin cancer screening clinics can be enriched by appropriate targeted advertising prior to the screening events. This has important implications for determining the potential cost-effectiveness of population screening programmes.

  10. Tannic acid mitigates the DMBA/croton oil-induced skin cancer progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majed, Ferial; Rashid, Summya; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Nafees, Sana; Ali, Nemat; Ali, Rashid; Khan, Rehan; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Mehdi, Syed Jafar; Sultana, Sarwat

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and also one of the major causes of death worldwide. The toxic environmental pollutant 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is a skin-specific carcinogen. Tannic acid (TA) is reported to be effective against various types of chemical-induced toxicities and carcinogenesis as well. In the present study, we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of tannic acid in DMBA + croton oil-induced skin cancer in Swiss albino mice. Protective effect of TA against skin cancer was evaluated in terms of antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes and expression of inflammation and early tumour markers. DMBA + croton oil causes depletion of antioxidant enzymes (p croton oil-induced toxicity through a protective mechanism that involves the reduction of oxidative stress as well as COX-2, i-NOS, PCNA protein expression and level of proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-6 release at a very significant level (p croton oil-induced tumour promotional potential possibly by inhibiting oxidative and inflammatory responses and acts as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative agent.

  11. Recent advances in the prevention and treatment of skin cancer using photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baozhong; He, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive procedure that involves a photosensitizing drug and its subsequent activation by light to produce reactive oxygen species that specifically destroy target cells. Recently, PDT has been widely used in treating non-melanoma skin malignancies, the most common cancer in the USA, with superior cosmetic outcomes compared with conventional therapies. The topical ‘photosensitizers’ commonly used are 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its esterified derivative methyl 5-aminolevulinate, which are precursors of the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. After treatment with ALA or methyl 5-aminolevulinate, protoporphyrin IX preferentially accumulates in the lesion area of various skin diseases, which allows not only PDT treatment but also fluorescence diagnosis with ALA-induced porphyrins. Susceptible lesions include various forms of non-melanoma skin cancer such as actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The most recent and promising developments in PDT include the discovery of new photosensitizers, the exploitation of new drug delivery systems and the combination of other modalities, which will all contribute to increasing PDT therapeutic efficacy and improving outcome. This article summarizes the main principles of PDT and its current clinical use in the management of non-melanoma skin cancers, as well as recent developments and possible future research directions. PMID:21080805

  12. Association of XRCC1 variants with acute skin reaction after radiotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Xia, Jianhong; Li, Hongliang; Dai, Jianrong; Hu, Yimin

    2010-12-01

    After irradiation results in cytotoxic effects by DNA damage, base excision repair (BER) pathway is involved in the repair of single-strand breaks and nonhomologous end joining and homologous repair of double-strand breaks caused by radiotherapy. Alterations in the function of BER DNA repair genes may affect DNA repair proficiency and influence the response of patients with cancer to radiotherapy. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of BER DNA repair X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1) and risk of radiotherapy-induced ≥grade 2 acute skin reaction in patients with breast cancer was examined. It was found that the risk of ≥grade 2 acute skin toxicity after radiotherapy could be increased by 2.86-fold in patients carrying the XRCC1 -77TC and CC genotypes (p = 0.016). However, the other three coding XRCC1 variants did not influence the risk of ≥grade 2 acute skin toxicity for patients with breast cancer after radiotherapy. Our results suggested that the XRCC1 polymorphism is associated with increased risk of radiation-induced acute skin reaction in a Chinese population.

  13. [Improvised surgical technique for elderly women with advanced breast cancer accompanied by extensive skin invasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiko; Kosaka, Yoshimasa; Sengoku, Norihiko; Enomoto, Takumo; Kajita, Sabine; Kuranami, Masaru; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2012-11-01

    Patient 1 was a 63-year-old woman whose chief complaint was a mass in the left breast. Physical examination revealed an inverted left nipple, a very large mass on the anterior aspect of the sternum, and erythema. Because the tumor had directly invaded the sternum, T4cN3M0, stage IIIC breast cancer was diagnosed. The patient preoperatively received chemotherapy with 6 courses of FEC100 (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide) and 5 courses of nanoparticle albumin -bound paclitaxel (260 mg/m2), which enabled a partial response. Patient 2 was an 83-year-old woman whose chief complaint was a mass in the upper internal and external quadrants of the right breast measuring 20×15 cm and erythema. The mass was accompanied by enlarged right axillary lymph nodes(T4bN1M0, stage IIIB breast cancer). Both patients underwent core needle biopsy of the skin and breast masses. They were both diagnosed with invasive, lobular, triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative). The surgical resection line was drawn to include the extensive skin invasion, and mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed. Skin grafting was scheduled but the retromammary space on the healthy side was dissected to the anterior border of the latissimus dorsi muscle, and the skin of the healthy side was used to cover the defect on the affected side. Consequently, the pendulous breast on the healthy side was elevated. This surgical technique provided an excellent aesthetic outcome without any skin problems, because autologous skin was used to fill the defect. Radiotherapy could subsequently be administered as scheduled. This procedure may be useful for elderly patients.

  14. Texture Classification using Artificial Neural Network for Diagnosis of Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia N. Abdul-Wadood

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to improve the efficiency of the system that proposed in [1] to determine whether a given skin lesion microscopic image is malignant or benign; in case of malignancy, the system can specify its type; whether it is squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma (the two leading skin cancer types. The testing of this system was conducted using 80 microscopic images of skin tissues of the types normal, benign and the two types of skin cancer (squamous and basal; the images have been collected from different hospital pathology departments as part of the research work. Some of the collected samples have been used as training and others as testing materials. The proposed system consists of 3 main steps. First, extraction of a set of textural descriptors to localize the abnormal visual attributes which may appear in the tested skin tissue images. Second, selection of the best discriminating texture features. Third, identify the type of skin tissue images using artificial neural network (ANN. In the training phase, the system was trained using 50 skin tissue images, the textural features extracted from training samples were analyzed and their discrimination powers were evaluated in order to get a list of the most suitable features for auto recognition task. When ANN is trained on co-occurrence features the attained allocation accuracy rates was (%97.71 and the diagnosis accuracy rate was (%98.75. While when using ANN with combinations of different types of textural features; the allocation accuracy rate reached to (%97.90 while the diagnosis accuracy rate became (%98.75

  15. Non-melanoma skin cancer is reduced after switch of immunosuppression to mTOR-inhibitors in organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Mareike; Satzger, Imke; Schrem, Harald; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Kapp, Alexander; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2014-06-01

    Organ transplant recipients are prone to the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. Organ transplant recipients often develop multiple non-melanoma skin cancers and the tumors show an aggressive growth pattern, therefore surgical therapy can be difficult. Switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors such as everolimus or sirolimus can have an antitumor effect. In a monocentric retrospective study we evaluated organ transplant recipients who presented with non-melanoma skin cancer in the years 2008-2010. Experience with patients who were switched to an mTOR-inhibitor due to non-melanoma skin cancer are reported in detail, and recent clinical studies are reviewed. 60 organ transplant recipients with non-melanoma skin cancer were evaluated. Due to the development of multiple non-melanoma skin cancer within a few years, the immunosuppressive regimen was switched to everolimus in 7 patients and to sirolimus in 5 patients. Eight patients were evaluable for the effect of mTOR-inhibitors on the development of non-melanoma skin cancer; 4 patients had to discontinue the medication with mTOR-inhibitors early due to various side effects. In the year before the switch to mTOR-inhibitors, 8 patients developed 16 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 Basal cell carcinomas and 22 cases of Bowen's disease. All tumors were histologically confirmed. In the year after switch of immunosuppression, the rate of squamous cell carcinomas (n = 2) and Bowen's disease (n = 3), but not of basal cell carcinomas (n = 2) was significantly reduced. Moreover, 5 prospective randomized trials recently have demonstrated a reduced number of non-melanoma skin cancers in organ transplant recipients after switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors. Switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors should be considered for organ transplant recipients suffering from multiple non-melanoma skin cancers. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley

  16. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...... the diagnostic accuracy of OCT in differentiating NMSC from benign lesions and normal skin. METHODS AND MATERIALS OCT and polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT from 104 patients were studied. Observer-blinded evaluation of OCT images from 64 BCCs, 1 baso-squamous carcinoma, 39 AKs, two malignant melanomas, nine benign...... lesions, and 105 OCT images from perilesional skin was performed; 50 OCT images of NMSC and 50 PS-OCT images of normal skin were evaluated twice. RESULTS Sensitivity was 79% to 94% and specificity 85% to 96% in differentiating normal skin from lesions. Important features were absence of well...

  17. Skin cancers associated with HIV infection and solid organ transplant among elderly adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoy, Emilie; Costagliola, Dominique; Engels, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Immunosuppression may be etiologic for some skin cancers. We investigated the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and solid organ transplantation on skin cancer risk. We conducted a population-based case-control study among elderly U.S. adults (non-Hispanic whites, age 67 years or older), using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Medicare linked data. The study comprised 29,926 skin cancer cases (excluding basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) and 119,704 controls, frequency-matched by gender, age, and calendar year (1987–2002). Medicare claims identified solid organ transplantation or HIV infection before cancer diagnosis/control selection. As negative controls, we evaluated other medical conditions (e.g., hypertension, depression) and cancers (breast, colon, prostate) not linked to immunosuppression. Odds ratios (ORs) compared prevalence in cases and controls, adjusted for matching factors and number of prior physician claims. Risks of Kaposi sarcoma (N=602) and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma (N=1,836) were increased with solid organ transplantation (OR [95%CI]: 11.06 [5.27–23.23] and 2.27 [1.00–5.15], respectively) and HIV infection (21.58 [11.94–38.99] and 2.41 [1.05–5.52], respectively). Solid organ transplantation was also associated with increased risks of Merkel cell carcinoma (N=1286; OR [95%CI] 4.95 [2.62–9.34]) and other cutaneous sarcomas (N=972; 4.19 [1.83–9.56]). Solid organ transplantation was non-significantly associated with melanoma (N=23,974; (OR 1.36 [95%CI 0.98–1.88]). Null or weak associations were observed for negative control medical conditions and cancers. Solid organ transplantation and HIV infection were followed by increased risk for some skin cancer subtypes among elderly adults. These results highlight the potential role of immunity in development of skin cancers. PMID:19810102

  18. Rapidly Developed Multiple Face and Neck Skin Cancers in a Patient with Sjögren’s Syndrome: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lean San; Lai, Ji-Ching; Lian, Je Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 76 Final Diagnosis: Skin cancer Symptoms: Skin Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic, systemic disorder of an autoimmune nature, and its primary etiopathogenetic events are not known. Previous studies have found elevated incidence of malignancies in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. However, there are few reports regarding the association of Sjögren’s syndrome with skin cancers, especially with multiple skin cancers developed within a short time. Case Report: We reported an unusual case of a patient with primary Sjögren’s syndrome who suffered from rapidly developed facial and neck skin cancers within two years. Conclusions: Sjögren’s syndrome associated with skin cancer is rare. Our case report suggests that Sjögren’s syndrome patients require continuous follow-up with conventional cancer examination, including skin biopsy for suspected skin lesions. PMID:28373638

  19. Trends in the Frequency of Original Research in Acne Vulgaris, Rosacea, Dermatitis, Psoriasis, Skin Cancer, and Skin Infections, 1970–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young M; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-01-01

    Context: Medical journals have allowed researchers to share their latest discoveries, especially in the most common diseases affecting patients worldwide. Objective: To analyze trends in the frequency of original research into common dermatologic diseases from 1970 to 2010. Design: A retrospective review of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology and the Archives of Dermatology was performed using the MEDLINE database. All original research articles published between 1970 and 2010, by quinquennium, dealing with acne vulgaris, rosacea, skin cancer, dermatitis, psoriasis, or skin infections were included. Main Outcome Measure: Total number of publications dealing with each dermatologic topic considered. Results: The frequency of research into acne vulgaris and rosacea decreased from 24% in 1970 to 5.1% in 2010. Psoriasis research increased in frequency from 17.6% to 26.5% from 2000 to 2010, and skin cancer research increased from 4% in 1970 to 48% in 2010. Conclusions: Topics that experienced early advancements in research, such as acne vulgaris and rosacea, demonstrated a decreasing trend in the frequency of publication. Published psoriasis research has increased in frequency since 2000, most likely because of the discovery of biologics. Finally, skin cancer research has continued to increase in frequency of publication, paralleling the increasing incidence of skin cancer. PMID:25663204

  20. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis by intervention with natural products. Phytochemicals have antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification capabilities thereby considered as efficient chemopreventive agents. Considerable efforts have been done to identify the phytochemicals which may possibly act on one or several molecular targets that modulate cellular processes such as inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Till date several phytochemicals in the light of chemoprevention have been studied by using suitable skin carcinogenic in vitro and in vivo models and proven as beneficial for prevention of skin cancer. This revision presents a comprehensive knowledge and the main molecular mechanisms of actions of various phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  1. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhulika; Suman, Shankar; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis by intervention with natural products. Phytochemicals have antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification capabilities thereby considered as efficient chemopreventive agents. Considerable efforts have been done to identify the phytochemicals which may possibly act on one or several molecular targets that modulate cellular processes such as inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Till date several phytochemicals in the light of chemoprevention have been studied by using suitable skin carcinogenic in vitro and in vivo models and proven as beneficial for prevention of skin cancer. This revision presents a comprehensive knowledge and the main molecular mechanisms of actions of various phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  2. Skin Cancer and Its Treatment: Novel Treatment Approaches with Emphasis on Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Orthaber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The life expectancy in the Western world is increasing for a long time, which is the courtesy of a higher life standard, a more thorough hygiene, and, of course, the progress of modern medicine. Nevertheless, one of the illnesses that still proves to be a great challenge regardless of the recent advancements in medicine is cancer. Skin cancer is, according to the World Health Organization, the most common malignancy for the white population. The beginning of the paper offers a brief overview of the latest available information concerning epidemiology, aetiology, diagnostics, and treatment options for skin cancer, whereas the rest of the article deals with modern approaches to skin cancer treatment, highlighting recent development of nanotechnology based treatment approaches. Among these, we focus especially on the newest nanotechnological approaches combined with chemotherapy, a field which specialises in target specificity, drug release control, and real time monitoring with the goal being to diminish unwanted side effects and their severity, achieving a cheaper treatment and a generally more efficient chemotherapy. The field of nanotechnology is a rapidly developing one, judging by already approved clinical studies or by new theranostic agents that combine both the therapeutic and diagnostic modalities.

  3. Quantitative changes in skin composition parameters due to chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Danbee; Kim, Im-Ryung; Im, Young Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee; Ahn, Jin Seok; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Park, Hyeokgon; Kim, Eunjoo; Lee, Hae Kwang; Lee, Dong-Youn; Cho, Juhee

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate objective changes in water content, sebum content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and melanin due to breast cancer chemotherapy, and their association with subjective symptoms. Prospective cohort study of 61 patients 18 years of age or older with a postoperative diagnosis of stage I-III breast cancer, who received adjuvant chemotherapy between February and September 2012 at an outpatient breast cancer clinic in Korea. Objective skin parameters, measured using a noninvasive bioengineering device, and patient-reported dryness and dullness were assessed before chemotherapy, after two cycles of chemotherapy, and 1, 3, and 6 months after completion of chemotherapy. Water content (-6.5 %), sebum (-75.5 %), and TEWL (-22.4 %) significantly decreased during chemotherapy compared to pre-chemotherapy levels (all p values skin changes were similar in patients with or without hormone therapy. Most of patients reported dryness (57.9 %) and dullness (49.1 %) after chemotherapy, and patient-reported dryness was significantly associated with decreased sebum content. Chemotherapy-induced substantial changes in objective skin composition parameters. These changes persisted after 6 months from completion of chemotherapy and were associated with patient-reported symptoms. Additional research is needed to translate these findings into interventions for improving the dermatologic quality of life of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  4. Dye-enhanced multimodal confocal microscopy for noninvasive detection of skin cancers in mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jesung; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2010-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of human cancer. Its early diagnosis and timely treatment is of paramount importance for dermatology and surgical oncology. In this study, we evaluate the use of reflectance and fluorescence confocal microscopy for detecting skin cancers in an in-vivo trial with B16F10 melanoma and SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma in mice. For the experiments, the mice are anesthetized, then the tumors are infiltrated with aqueous solution of methylene blue and imaged. Reflectance images are acquired at 658 nm. Fluorescence is excited at 658 nm and registered in the range between 690 and 710 nm. After imaging, the mice are sacrificed. The tumors are excised and processed for hematoxylin and eosin histopathology, which is compared to the optical images. The results of the study indicate that in-vivo reflectance images provide valuable information on vascularization of the tumor, whereas the fluorescence images mimic the structural features seen in histopathology. Simultaneous dye-enhanced reflectance and fluorescence confocal microscopy shows promise for the detection, demarcation, and noninvasive monitoring of skin cancer development.

  5. Skin Cancer Screening in Germany. Documenting Melanoma Incidence and Mortality From 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalinic, Alexander; Eisemann, Nora; Waldmann, Annika

    2015-09-18

    Nationwide skin cancer screening was introduced in Germany in 2008. The positive results of a pilot project carried out in 2003-4 in the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein had implied that screening would lower the mortality from melanoma. Data on the incidence of invasive malignant melanoma of the skin (MM; ICD-10: C43) were extracted from the databases of the Association of Population-based Cancer Registries in Germany (GEKID) and from the Schleswig-Holstein cancer registry. Mortality rates were extracted from the official cause-of-death statistics. With the beginning of nationwide screening in 2008, the age-standardized incidence rate in Germany increased by approximately 28% to 18.2 cases per 100 000 persons in 2010. In Schleswig-Holstein, the incidence fell after the pilot project ended and has been comparable to the nationwide incidence since 2008. For Germany overall, there has been no downward trend in MM mortality since the introduction of nationwide screening; in 2013, the mortality rate was 2.3 deaths per 100 000 persons per year. In the area of the pilot study, mortality declined to a level of 1.0/100 000/year until 2008 and then began to rise again. At present, the mortality due to MM in Schleswig- Holstein is once again the same as that in Germany overall (2.4/100 000/year). The introduction of nationwide skin cancer screening in 2008 has not yet led to any measurable decline in mortality due to melanoma. The current method of screening seems to be less thorough than that used in the pilot project; this may explain the absence of a decline in MM-related mortality in Germany overall up to the year 2013, as well as the rising mortality in Schleswig-Holstein since the end of the pilot program. The generation of a robust set of data on how skin cancer screening can be optimized now seems urgently necessary.

  6. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun protection program and suggested refinements. The sequence of content presentation prepared the participant to accept the credibility, accuracy, and relevance of the message. Beginning with informing participants that using sun protection reduces the chance of developing skin cancer made the information credible to KTRs. Showing skin cancer on all skin types and patient testimonials enhanced participants' awareness of their susceptibility to develop skin cancer and primed patients to receive their personal risk of developing skin cancer. Coupling presentation of knowledge about the benefits of sun protection in reducing the risk of developing skin cancer with the personal risk of getting the disease was essential to KTRs believing that they could influence their health outcome.

  7. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in the population of the city of Belgrade in the period 1999-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videnović Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nonmelanoma skin cancers in the literature are mainly related to basal cell and squamous cell skin carcinoma. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the trend in the incidence of histological types of nonmelanoma skin cancers in the population of the city of Belgrade from 1999 to 2011. Methods. From the Serbian National Cancer Registry we extracted all recorded cases of skin cancer in Belgrade from January 1st 1999 to December 31st 2011. Incidence rates were standardized by the method of direct standardization with the world population as the standard population. Trends and annual percentage change (APC of incidence rate were calculated by performing joinpoint regression analyses. Results. Incidence rate of nonmelanoma skin cancer showed significantly increasing trend between 1999 and 2006 with APC of 8.6% (95% CI: 5.6-11.7, basal cell carcinoma increased with APC of 8.4% (95% CI: 5.2-11.6 and squamous cell skin carcinoma with APC of 9.33% (95% CI: 5.7-13.1. The incidence increased with age for both men and women, especially after the age of 60. Conclusion. Our results showed a continuously increasing incidence trend of both basal cell and squamous cell skin carcinomas in the population of the city of Belgrade between 1999 and 2011. Adequate primary and secondary prevention would certainly be successful in reducing this type of cancer in the future.

  8. Occupational exposure to the sun and risk of skin and lip cancer among male wage earners in Denmark: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Jørgensen, Ane Dahl; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study.......We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study....

  9. Spectral analysis of delayed luminescence as a tool to discriminate between normal and cancer skin cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A.; Tudisco, S.; Privitera, S.; Applegate, L. A.; Niggli, H. J.

    2005-08-01

    Photobiological research in the last decades has shown the existence of Delayed Luminescence in biological tissue, which presents an excitation spectrum with a peak within the UVA region and can be detected with sophisticated photomultiplier systems. Based on these findings, a new and powerful tool able to measure the UV-A-laser-induced Delayed Luminescence emission of cultured cells was developed, with the intention to detect biophysical changes between carcinogenic and normal cells. Indeed noticeable differences have been found in the time resolved emission spectrum of delayed luminescence of cell cultures of human fibroblast and human melanoma. This new, powerful and non-invasive technique, in principle, could be applied in all fields of skin research, such as the investigation of skin abnormalities and to test the effect of products involved in regeneration, anti-aging and UV-light protection in order to prevent skin cancer.

  10. Skin cancer has a large impact on our public hospitals but prevention programs continue to demonstrate strong economic credentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Sophy T F; Carter, Rob; Heward, Sue; Sinclair, Craig

    2017-08-01

    While skin cancer is still the most common cancer in Australia, important information gaps remain. This paper addresses two gaps: i) the cost impact on public hospitals; and ii) an up-to-date assessment of economic credentials for prevention. A prevalence-based cost approach was undertaken in public hospitals in Victoria. Costs were estimated for inpatient admissions, using State service statistics, and outpatient services based on attendance at three hospitals in 2012-13. Cost-effectiveness for prevention was estimated from 'observed vs expected' analysis, together with program expenditure data. Combining inpatient and outpatient costs, total annual costs for Victoria were $48 million to $56 million. The SunSmart program is estimated to have prevented more than 43,000 skin cancers between 1988 and 2010, a net cost saving of $92 million. Skin cancer treatment in public hospitals ($9.20∼$10.39 per head/year) was 30-times current public funding in skin cancer prevention ($0.37 per head/year). At about $50 million per year for hospitals in Victoria alone, the cost burden of a largely preventable disease is substantial. Skin cancer prevention remains highly cost-effective, yet underfunded. Implications for public health: Increased funding for skin cancer prevention must be kept high on the public health agenda. Hospitals would also benefit from being able to redirect resources to non-preventable conditions. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Kaempferol targets RSK2 and MSK1 to suppress UV radiation-induced skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ke; Chen, Hanyong; Liu, Kangdong; Langfald, Alyssa; Yang, Ge; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Dong Hoon; Kim, Myoung Ok; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Li, Haitao; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Hong-Gyum; Ma, Wei-Ya; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Dong, Zigang

    2014-09-01

    Solar UV (SUV) irradiation is a major factor in skin carcinogenesis, the most common form of cancer in the United States. The MAPK cascades are activated by SUV irradiation. The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK) proteins constitute a family of protein kinases that mediate signal transduction downstream of the MAPK cascades. In this study, phosphorylation of RSK and MSK1 was upregulated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and SUV-treated mouse skin. Kaempferol, a natural flavonol, found in tea, broccoli, grapes, apples, and other plant sources, is known to have anticancer activity, but its mechanisms and direct target(s) in cancer chemoprevention are unclear. Kinase array results revealed that kaempferol inhibited RSK2 and MSK1. Pull-down assay results, ATP competition, and in vitro kinase assay data revealed that kaempferol interacts with RSK2 and MSK1 at the ATP-binding pocket and inhibits their respective kinase activities. Mechanistic investigations showed that kaempferol suppresses RSK2 and MSK1 kinase activities to attenuate SUV-induced phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and histone H3 in mouse skin cells. Kaempferol was a potent inhibitor of SUV-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis showed that skin from the kaempferol-treated group exhibited a substantial reduction in SUV-induced phosphorylation of CREB, c-Fos, and histone H3. Overall, our results identify kaempferol as a safe and novel chemopreventive agent against SUV-induced skin carcinogenesis that acts by targeting RSK2 and MSK1.

  12. [Reconstruction of zygomatic-facial massive defect using modified bilobed flap after resection of skin cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bin; Abass, Keremu; Hu, Mei; Yin, Xiaopeng; Hu, Lulu; Lin, Zhaoquan; Gong, Zhongcheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the clinical application of the modified bilobed flap in the reconstruction of zygomatic-facial massive defect after resection of skin cancer. Between August 2009 and October 2011, 15 patients with skin cancer in the zygomatic-facial region underwent defect reconstruction using modified bilobed flaps after surgical removal. There were 12 males and 3 females, aged 52-78 years (mean, 64.1 years). The disease duration was 1-14 months (mean, 4.6 months). Among the patients, there were 11 cases of basal cell carcinoma and 4 cases of squamous cell carcinoma; 1 patient had infection and the others had no skin ulceration; and tumor involved the skin layer in all patients. According to TNM staging, 13 cases were rated as T2N0M2 and 2 cases as T3N0M3. The defect size ranged from 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm after cancer resection. The modified bilobed flaps consisting of pre-auricular flap and post-auricular flap was used to repair the defect after cancer resection. The size ranged from 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm of the first flap and from 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm to 5.0 cm x 3.0 cm of the second flap. Partial incision dehiscence occurred in 1 case, and was cured after dressing change; the flaps survived and incision healed primarily in the other cases. Fourteen patients were followed up 12-24 months (mean, 18.7 months). No recurrence was found, and the patients had no obvious face asymmetry or skin scar with normal closure of eyelid and facial nerve function. At last follow-up, the results were very satisfactory in 5 cases, satisfactory in 7 cases, generally satisfactory in 1 case, and dissatisfactory in 1 case. The pre- and post-auricular bilobed flaps could be used to reconstruct the massive defects in the zygomatic-facial region after resection of skin cancer.

  13. Skin and nipple-areola complex sparing mastectomy in breast cancer patients: 15-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanec, Zdenko; Žic, Rado; Budi, Srećko; Stanec, Sanda; Milanović, Rudolf; Vlajčić, Zlatko; Roje, Zeljka; Rudman, Franjo; Martić, Krešimir; Held, Rebeka; Božo, Gorjanc

    2014-11-01

    Skin and nipple-areola complex sparing mastectomy (SNSM) and primary reconstruction have been popular for breast cancer treatment in the last decade. An advantage of the SNSM technique is the removal of all breast tissue as a radical surgical procedure while preserving native breast integrity, nipple-areola complex (NAC), and submammary fold. This retrospective 15-year clinical study analyzes medical records from our breast surgery database collected at our department between 1997 and 2012. A total number of 3757 patients were treated for breast cancer; 411 (10.9%) patients had a skin-sparing mastectomy with the median (range) length follow-up of 63 months. This is the longest follow-up for SNSM in breast cancer patients; 3.7% of patients who underwent SNSM developed disease local recurrence, whereas occult NAC involvement with cancer occurred in 7.7% and local recurrence in the NAC in 1.2%. Partial necrosis of the NAC developed in 9.4% and total necrosis in 0.7% of operated breasts. All disease recurrences occurred in the first 10 years of the follow-up period. Local recurrence developed as first recurrence event has longer median cancer-specific survival time of 70 months than those with only distant metastases with 50 months and locoregional plus distant metastases with 35.5 months. The "Omega" pattern incision combines an oncological radical procedure with a lower incidence of skin flap necrosis. Patients reconstructed with autologous tissue were the group most satisfied. SNSM is an oncological safe procedure for breast cancer treatment with low recurrence in properly selected patients.

  14. MC1R, eumelanin and pheomelanin: their role in determining the susceptibility to skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasti, Tahseen H; Timares, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Skin pigmentation is due to the accumulation of two types of melanin granules in the keratinocytes. Besides being the most potent blocker of ultraviolet radiation, the role of melanin in photoprotection is complex. This is because one type of melanin called eumelanin is UV absorbent, whereas the other, pheomelanin, is photounstable and may even promote carcinogenesis. Skin hyperpigmentation may be caused by stress or exposure to sunlight, which stimulates the release of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) from damaged keratinocytes. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a key signaling molecule on melanocytes that responds to α-MSH by inducing expression of enzymes responsible for eumelanin synthesis. Persons with red hair have mutations in the MC1R causing its inactivation; this leads to a paucity of eumelanin production and makes red-heads more susceptible to skin cancer. Apart from its effects on melanin production, the α-MSH/MC1R signaling is also a potent anti-inflammatory pathway and has been shown to promote antimelanoma immunity. This review will focus on the role of MC1R in terms of its regulation of melanogenesis and influence on the immune system with respect to skin cancer susceptibility.

  15. Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, Esther; Arwert, Esther N; Lal, Rohit; South, Andrew P; Salas-Alanis, Julio C; Murrell, Dedee F; Donati, Giacomo; Watt, Fiona M

    2015-01-09

    The association between tissue damage, chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we characterize a mouse model in which constitutive epidermal extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-MAP-kinase signalling results in epidermal inflammation, and skin wounding induces tumours. We show that tumour incidence correlates with wound size and inflammatory infiltrate. Ablation of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1/-2, Myeloid Differentiation primary response gene 88 or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5, the bacterial flagellin receptor, but not other innate immune sensors, in radiosensitive leukocytes protects against tumour formation. Antibiotic treatment inhibits, whereas injection of flagellin induces, tumours in a TLR-5-dependent manner. TLR-5 is also involved in chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in wild-type mice. Leukocytic TLR-5 signalling mediates upregulation of the alarmin HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) in wound-induced papillomas. HMGB1 is elevated in tumours of patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa, a disease characterized by chronic skin damage. We conclude that in our experimental model the combination of bacteria, chronic inflammation and wounding cooperate to trigger skin cancer.

  16. Skin toxicity and cosmesis after hypofractionated whole breast irradiation for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksornchai, Kitwadee; Rojpornpradit, Prayuth; Shotelersak, Kanjana; Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit; Chakkabat, Chakkapong; Raiyawa, Tassapong

    2012-02-01

    To assess and compare the impact on skin reactions and cosmesis between hypofractionated whole breast and conventional irradiation for early breast cancer. Seventy-three patients with operable breast cancer (pT1-3pN0-1M0) who underwent breast-conserving surgery were assigned for irradiation to either conventional arm (50 Gy in 25 fractions) with a sequential electron boost of 15-16 Gy over five weeks or hypofractionated arm (43.2 Gy in 16 fractions) with a concomitant electron boost of 0.6 Gy over three weeks. At 3-week follow-up, skin toxicities in the hypofractionated arm were significantly worse than that seen in the conventional arm, while at 6-week follow-up, the percentages of skin toxicities in the conventional arm were higher After a median follow-up of six months, there was no significant difference in skin toxicities between the two treatment groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean scores of cosmetic outcome for patients between two regimens. This hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen of 43.2 Gy in 16 fractions with a concomitant electron boost showed good results in terms of normal tissue effects and cosmesis. A long-term follow-up is needed to confirm these favorable results.

  17. Diffuse Muscular Pain, Skin Tightening, and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia Revealing Paraneoplastic Amyopathic Dermatomyositis due to Testicular Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Norrenberg; Valérie Gangji; Véronique Del Marmol; Soyfoo, Muhammad S.

    2012-01-01

    Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM) associated with testicular cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with skin tightening, polymyalgia, hypereosinophilia, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealing seminoma and associated paraneoplastic DM.

  18. Diffuse Muscular Pain, Skin Tightening, and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia Revealing Paraneoplastic Amyopathic Dermatomyositis due to Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrenberg, Sarah; Gangji, Valérie; Del Marmol, Véronique; Soyfoo, Muhammad S

    2012-01-01

    Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM) associated with testicular cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with skin tightening, polymyalgia, hypereosinophilia, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealing seminoma and associated paraneoplastic DM.

  19. Diffuse Muscular Pain, Skin Tightening, and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia Revealing Paraneoplastic Amyopathic Dermatomyositis due to Testicular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Norrenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM associated with testicular cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with skin tightening, polymyalgia, hypereosinophilia, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealing seminoma and associated paraneoplastic DM.

  20. Guidelines for practical use of MAL-PDT in non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, E; Warloe, T; Kroon, S; Funk, J; Helsing, P; Soler, A M; Stang, H J; Vatne, O; Mørk, C

    2010-05-01

    Methyl aminolaevulinate photodynamic therapy is increasingly practiced in the treatment of actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease and basal cell carcinomas. This method is particularly suitable for treating multiple lesions, field cancerization and lesions in areas where a good cosmetic outcome is of importance. Good treatment routines will contribute to a favourable result. The Norwegian photodynamic therapy (PDT) group consists of medical specialists with long and extensive PDT experience. With support in the literature, this group presents guidelines for the practical use of topical PDT in non-melanoma skin cancer.

  1. Incorporation of Electronic Brachytherapy for Skin Cancer into a Community Dermatology Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Doggett, Stephen; Willoughby, Mark; Willoughby, Cole; Mafong, Erick; Han, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The introduction of an electronic brachytherapy delivery system into an existing general dermatology practice is described. Radiobiologic rational for the dose fractionation schedule is detailed. Design: A miniaturized 50keV x-ray tube and delivery system are United States Food and Drug Administration cleared for nonmelanoma skin cancer. The device is introduced into an existing multi-physician dermatology practice in a standard unshielded treatment room. Setting: A multi-site, mul...

  2. Examination of skin lesions for cancer : Which clinical decision aids and tools are available in general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelink, Cecile J. L.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Van der Meer, Klaas; Van der Heide, Wouter K.

    2014-01-01

    Background While skin cancer incidence is rising throughout Europe, general practitioners (GP) feel unsure about their ability to diagnose skin malignancies. Objectives To evaluate whether the GP has sufficient validated clinical decision aids and tools for the examination of potentially malignant

  3. FGFR2 abnormalities underlie a spectrum of bone, skin, and cancer pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masaru

    2009-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)2 is regulated on the basis of the balance of FGFs, heparan-sulfate proteoglycans, FGFR2 isoforms, endogenous inhibitors, and microRNAs. FGFR2 signals cross-talk with hedgehog, bone morphogenetic protein, and other regulatory networks. Some cases of congenital skeletal disorders with an FGFR2 mutation show skin phenotypes, including acne, cutis gyrata, and acanthosis nigricans. Gain-of-function mutations or variations of human FGFR2 occur in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, diffuse-type gastric cancer, and endometrial uterine cancer. Oral administration of AZD2171 or Ki23057 inhibits in vivo proliferation of cancer cells with aberrant FGFR2 activation in rodent therapeutic models. However, loss-of-function mutations of FGFR2 are reported in human melanoma. Conditional Fgfr2b knockout in the rodent epidermis leads to increased macrophage infiltration to the dermis and adipose tissue, epidermal thickening accompanied by basal-layer dysplasia and parakeratosis, and the promotion of chemically induced squamous-cell carcinoma. Dysregulation of FGFR2 results in a spectrum of bone and skin pathologies and several types of cancer.

  4. Investigation of In Vivo skin stiffness anisotropy in breast cancer related lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, L V; Miller, N R; Mortimer, P S; Bamber, J C

    2016-01-04

    There is a limited range of suitable measurement techniques for detecting and assessing breast cancer related lymphoedema (BCRL). This study investigated the suitability of using skin stiffness measurements, with a particular focus on the variation in stiffness with measurement direction (known as anisotropy). In addition to comparing affected tissue with the unaffected tissue on the corresponding site on the opposite limb, volunteers without BCRL were tested to establish the normal variability in stiffness anisotropy between these two corresponding regions of skin on each opposite limb. Multi-directional stiffness was measured with an Extensometer, within the higher stiffness region that skin typically displays at high applied strains, using a previously established protocol developed by the authors. Healthy volunteers showed no significant difference in anisotropy between regions of skin on opposite limbs (mean decrease of 4.7 +/-2.5% between non-dominant and dominant arms), whereas BCRL sufferers showed a significant difference between limbs (mean decrease of 51.0+/-16.3% between unaffected and affected arms). A large difference in anisotropy was apparent even for those with recent onset of the condition, indicating that the technique may have potential to be useful for early detection. This difference also appeared to increase with duration since onset. Therefore, measurement of stiffness anisotropy has potential value for the clinical assessment and diagnosis of skin conditions such as BCRL. The promising results justify a larger study with a larger number of participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Laser induced autofluorescence for diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Merlemis, N.; Kalatzis, I.; Sianoudis, I. A.; Batsi, O.; Christofidou, E.; Stratigos, A. J.; Katsambas, A. D.; Antoniou, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Non melanoma skin cancer is one of the most frequent malignant tumors among humans. A non-invasive technique, with high sensitivity and high specificity, would be the most suitable method for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or other malignancies diagnostics, instead of the well established biopsy and histopathology examination. In the last decades, a non-invasive, spectroscopic diagnostic method was introduced, the laser induced fluorescence (LIF), which could generate an image contrast between different states of skin tissue. The noninvasiveness consists in that this biophotonic method do not require tissue sample excision, what is necessary in histopathology characterization and biochemical analysis of the skin tissue samples, which is worldwide used as an evaluation gold standard. The object of this study is to establish the possibilities of a relatively portable system for laser induced skin autofluorescence to differentiate malignant from nonmalignant skin lesions. Unstained human skin samples, excised from humans undergoing biopsy examination, were irradiated with a Nd:YAG-3ω laser (λ=355 nm, 6 ns), used as an excitation source for the autofluorescence measurements. A portable fiber-based spectrometer was used to record fluorescence spectra of the sites of interest. The ex vivo results, obtained with this spectroscopic technique, were correlated with the histopathology results. After the analysis of the fluorescence spectra of almost 60 skin tissue areas, we developed an algorithm to distinguish different types of malignant lesions, including inflammatory areas. Optimization of the data analysis and potential use of LIF spectroscopy with 355 nm Nd:YAG laser excitation of tissue autofluorescence for clinical applications are discussed.

  6. Two different approaches in skin cancer therapy: using a photosensitizer/a natural product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Annie; Gayathri, Devi D.; Cibin, T. R.; Ramaiah, D.

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with two potential modes for the treatment of skin cancer-one a novel approach using a squaraine dye and the other using a natural product- the flavonoid fraction of Saraca asoka. Squaraine dye is a photosensitizing agent, which is preferentially taken up and retained by the tumor cells and when irradiated with high power visible light results in the selective destruction of the tumor cells by photodynamic therapy. The uniqueness of this mode of treatment lies in the selective destruction of tumor cells without affecting the neighbouring normal cells, which is much advantageous over radiation therapy now frequently used. The chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of the plant component are explored as well. The experimental models were Swiss albino mice in which skin tumor was induced by DMBA. Marked reduction in tumor volume and burden in the treated groups were observed. The reversal of biochemical enzyme markers like rhodanese, myeloperoxidase, β-D glucuronidase, lactate dehydrogenase, hexokinase and sialic acid to near normal levels were observed in the PDT and flavonoid fraction treated groups. The live photographs of the experimental animals and histopathological data further support the obtained results. The study assumes importance as it combines a traditional treatment mode and a novel aspect in cancer therapy using the same experimental models. Also this is the first report on PDT using a squaraine dye for skin cancer therapy in vivo.

  7. Risk of skin cancer development in 672 patients affected by actinic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dika, Emi; Fanti, Pier A; Misciali, Cosimo; Vaccari, Sabina; Crisman, Giuliana; Barisani, Alessia; Baraldi, Carlotta; Ribero, Simone; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2016-12-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) are the most common type of keratinocytic lesions worldwide. The skin areas affected by the so-called "field cancerization" harbor mutagenetic risks for the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We retrospectively investigated the histopathological reports and clinical charts of 672 patients affected by multiple AKs, presenting at least 5 years of follow-up. The frequency of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC, namely SCC and basal cell carcinoma [BCC]) and malignant melanomas (MMs) in patients affected by multiple AKs were analyzed. More than 40% of patients with a previous diagnosis of multiple AKs developed an NMSC (SCC or BCC), or an MM, during a follow-up period of 5 to 11 years. The risk of developing another skin malignancy appeared to be higher in the age range between 61 and 80 years. The relative risk of developing a BCC and/or an MM in patients with a previous AK diagnosis was found to be 4.52. The presence of multiple AKs and "field cancerization" seems to be associated with a high risk not only of NMSC such as SCC and BCC, but also of MM. An adequate follow-up is required in these groups of patients.

  8. Teledermatology: From Prevention to Diagnosis of Nonmelanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fabbrocini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine is a rapidly developing application of clinical medicine where medical information is transferred through interactive audiovisual media for the purpose of consulting remote medical procedures or examinations, reducing the time of consultation for patients. Teledermatology as an application of telemedicine was developed in 1995: it turns out to be a gradually more ordinary mean of delivering dermatologic healthcare worldwide and will almost certainly have a greater medical function in the future. In particular, teledermatology can aid in the prevention and diagnosis of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer; telemedicine and teledermatology offer the opportunity to make available consultations with experts also by long distance. Overall, patients seem to accept teledermatology, considering it as an excellent mean to obtain healthcare, particularly in those areas with no expert dermatologists available. Clinicians have also generally reported affirmative experiences with teledermatology in the skin cancer field. Further studies focusing on cost effectiveness, patient outcomes, and patient and clinician satisfaction will facilitate to delineate the potential of teledermatology as a mean of prevention and diagnosis of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer.

  9. Responsiveness of the Spanish Version of the “Skin Cancer Index”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Ruiz, F.; Blázquez-Sánchez, N.; Fernández-Canedo, I.; Aguilar-Bernier, M.; Repiso-Jiménez, J. B.; Toribio-Montero, J. C.; Jones-Caballero, M.; Rhee, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skin Cancer Index (SCI) is a specific questionnaire measuring health related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with cervicofacial non-melanoma skin cancer (CFNMSC). The original scale has recently been adapted and validated into Spanish. Objectives. Evaluate the responsiveness of the Spanish version of SCI. Methods. Patients with CFNMSC candidate for surgical treatment were administered the questionnaire at time of diagnostic (t0), 7 days after surgery (t1), and 5 months after surgery (t2). The scale and subscales scores (C1: social/appearance, C2: emotional) were then evaluated. Differences between t0-t1, t1-t2, and t0-t2 were determined and a gender-and-age segmented analysis was performed. Results. 88 patients, 54.8% male, mean age 62.5 years, completed the study. Differences between t0-t1 and t1-t2 scores were statistically significant (p Spanish version of the SCI. Further development of the instrument in Spanish-speaking countries and populations will make it possible to extend worldwide research and knowledge horizons on skin cancer.

  10. Nonmelanoma skin cancer: disease-specific quality-of-life concerns and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiotis, George; Roberts, Nicole; Czajkowska, Zofia; Khanna, Manish; Körner, Annett

    2014-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the disease-specific quality-of-life (QOL) concerns of patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Cross-sectional. Skin cancer clinic of Jewish General Hospital in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 56 patients with basal cell carcinoma and/or squamous cell carcinoma. Descriptive and inferential statistics applied to quantitative self-report data. Importance of appearance, psychological distress, and QOL. The most prevalent concerns included worries about tumor recurrence, as well as the potential size and conspicuousness of the scar. Skin cancer-specific QOL concerns significantly predicted distress manifested through anxious and depressive symptomology. In addition, the social concerns related to the disease were the most significant predictor of distress. The findings of this study provide healthcare professionals with a broad picture of the most prevalent NMSC-specific concerns, as well as the concerns that are of particular importance for different subgroups of patients. Nurses are in a position to provide pivotal psychosocial and informational support to patients, so they need to be aware of the often-overlooked psychosocial effects of NMSC to address these issues and provide optimal care.

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF A COGNITIVE SOCIAL PROGRAM TO PREVENT SKIN CANCER IN ADOLESCENT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO ALFONSO SANABRIA FERRAND

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Differential effect of three components of a social cognitive program, e.g., information, self-evaluation of risk andsubjective norms, influencing sun protective practices was established in a group of 57 female teenagers. The componentswere defined as three independent variables consisting of (i Oral information about skin cancer, (ii Self-evaluation ofthe risk of acquiring skin cancer and identification and modification of the barriers, and finally (iii Identification andrestructure of subjective norms that favor exposure and sun tanning behavior. The study design was intrasubject withmeasurements pre- and pos-test and twelve weeks of following-up after finalizing the preventive program. It wasfound that the given information about skin cancer favours negative attitudes towards sun tanning behavior, althoughcontrary to was expected, there was an increase of sunbathing and sun tanning, which just diminished after theimplementation of the preventive program’s second component. The third component was related with the decreasedof the perceived benefits of protection and the increased of severity perception towards foto-ageing. The followed-upand correlations among the psycho-social model ´s variables with protection habits reckon the effectiveness of themodel to increment the sun protection practices

  12. Responsiveness of the Spanish Version of the “Skin Cancer Index”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Troya-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin Cancer Index (SCI is a specific questionnaire measuring health related quality of life (HRQL in patients with cervicofacial non-melanoma skin cancer (CFNMSC. The original scale has recently been adapted and validated into Spanish. Objectives. Evaluate the responsiveness of the Spanish version of SCI. Methods. Patients with CFNMSC candidate for surgical treatment were administered the questionnaire at time of diagnostic (t0, 7 days after surgery (t1, and 5 months after surgery (t2. The scale and subscales scores (C1: social/appearance, C2: emotional were then evaluated. Differences between t0-t1, t1-t2, and t0-t2 were determined and a gender-and-age segmented analysis was performed. Results. 88 patients, 54.8% male, mean age 62.5 years, completed the study. Differences between t0-t1 and t1-t2 scores were statistically significant (p<0.05. The lowest values were found at time of diagnosis and postsurgery. Women and patients under 65 years showed the lowest values at the three times. Limitations. Concrete geographic and cultural area. Clinical and histological variables are not analysed. Conclusions. Our results confirm responsiveness of the Spanish version of the SCI. Further development of the instrument in Spanish-speaking countries and populations will make it possible to extend worldwide research and knowledge horizons on skin cancer.

  13. Design and validation of a questionnaire for measuring perceived risk of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, M A; Peralta-Pedrero, M L; Domínguez-Gómez, M A

    2014-04-01

    A perceived risk of cancer encourages preventive behavior while the lack of such a perception is a barrier to risk reduction. There are no instruments in Spanish to measure this perceived risk and thus quantify response to interventions for preventing this disease at a population level. The aim of this study was to design and validate a self-administered questionnaire for measuring the perceived risk of skin cancer. A self-administered questionnaire with a visual Likert-type scale was designed based on the results of the analysis of the content of a survey performed in 100 patients in the Dr. Ladislao de la Pascua Skin Clinic, Distrito Federal México, Mexico. Subsequently, the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 359 adult patients who attended the clinic for the first time. As no gold standard exists for measuring the perceived risk of skin cancer, the construct was validated through factor analysis. The final questionnaire had 18 items. The internal consistency measured with Cronbach α was 0.824 overall. In the factor analysis, 4 factors (denoted as affective, behavioral, severity, and susceptibility) and an indicator of risk accounted for 65.133% of the variance. The psychometric properties of the scale were appropriate for measuring the perception of risk in adult patients (aged 18 years or more) who attended the dermatology clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  14. Overview on Topical 5-ALA Photodynamic Therapy Use for Non Melanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cantisani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UV contributes to a variety of skin diseases including inflammation, degenerative aging, and cancer. Historically, humans have been exposed to UV radiation mainly through occupational exposure; recreational UV exposure, however, has increased dramatically in recent years, because of outdoor leisure activities and to purposely tan for cosmetic purposes. Both UVB and UVA radiation have been shown to cause DNA damage and immunosuppression, the important forms of biological damage that lead to NMSC. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common malignancy, whose public health significance is often unrecognized which continues to grow at an alarming rate, becoming an occupational disease. Available treatments alternative to surgery include photodynamic therapy, electrochemotherapy, cryotherapy, ablative lasers, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, ingenol mebutate, and diclofenac. Among these, photodynamic therapy is a noninvasive technique with excellent cosmetic outcome and good curative results, when used in initial stages of skin cancers for superficial lesions. It is administered under numerous and significantly varied regimens and there are a wide range of cure rates reported, permitting treatment of large and multiple lesions with excellent cosmetic results. This is an overview of photodynamic applications especially for the treatment of NMSC, with a short focus on daylight modality.

  15. Black tattoos protect against UVR-induced skin cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Sepehri, Mitra; Serup, Jørgen; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2015-09-01

    Black tattoos may involve risk of cancer owing to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in inks. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and black tattoo may therefore potentially be very problematic, but has not been previously studied. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac mice (n = 99) were tattooed on the back with Starbrite Tribal Black(™) . This ink has a high content of the carcinogen BaP. Half of the mice were irradiated with three standard erythema doses UVR thrice weekly. Time to induction of first, second and third squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. Controls were 'tattooed' without ink. All irradiated mice developed SCCs while no malignant tumours were found in the nonirradiated group. In the tattooed and irradiated group, the development of the first, second and third SCC was significantly delayed in comparison with the irradiated controls without black tattoos (212, 232, 247 days vs. 163, 183, 191 days, P tattoos, remarkably, the development of UVR-induced skin cancer was delayed by the tattoos. Skin reflectance measurement indicated that the protective effect of black pigment in the dermis might be attributed to UVR absorption by black pigment below the epidermis and thereby reduction of backscattered radiation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The role of imaging in the management of patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer: When is imaging necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Tatyana R; Shah, Komal; Wysong, Ashley; Lexa, Frank; MacFarlane, Deborah

    2017-04-01

    When treating aggressive skin cancers, pre- and postoperative imaging provides important information for treatment planning and multidisciplinary cooperation of care. It is important for dermatologists to recognize the clinical scenarios where imaging is indicated in the management of skin cancer. We here address the most common indications for imaging in cutaneous oncology and how to best utilize the modalities available. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Family History of Skin Cancer is Associated with Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma Independent of MC1R Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nicholas L.; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.; Ferrucci, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual’s risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Materials and Methods Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. Results A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80–3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74–3.35). Conclusions Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90–7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. PMID:26381319

  18. Biomechanical Properties of the Skin in Patients with Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema Compared to Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaars, R C; Penha, T R Lopez; Heuts, E M; van der Hulst, R R J W; Piatkowski, A A

    2015-09-01

    Biomechanical skin changes in breast cancer-related lymphedema (BRCL) have barely been described and objectively tested. This study aims to compare the skin of upper limb lymphedema with skin of the healthy contralateral arm, in order to demonstrate changes of elasticity, viscoelasticity, and level of hydration of the skin in BCRL. The secondary aim is to investigate the correlation between biomechanical skin changes and measurements that are currently used in clinical practice, such as volume measurement and lymph-ICF score. Eighteen patients with BCRL and 18 healthy individuals were included in the study. A Cutometer® was used for measurements for skin elasticity and viscoelasticity on both arms of each subject. A Corneometer® was used for measurements of skin hydration. Measurements of both test groups were compared. In BCRL patients, there was a significant difference (p = skin of the lymphedema arm compared to the healthy contralateral arm. There were no significant differences for level of skin hydration or viscoelasticity in lymphedema patients between the measurements on the skin of the lymphedematous and healthy arm. In healthy individuals, there were no significant differences for all measurements between skin of both arms. Spearman's correlation was significant (p = skin of the lower arm in patients with lymphedema compared to the contralateral healthy arm. Promising evidence is suggested for the use of the Cutometer device in the diagnostic evaluation of BCRL.

  19. The Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge (SCSK) Scale: Validity, Reliability, and Relationship to Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Western Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K.; Wilson, Carlene; Roberts, Rachel M.; Hutchinson, Amanda D.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing public knowledge remains one of the key aims of skin cancer awareness campaigns, yet diagnosis rates continue to rise. It is essential we measure skin cancer knowledge adequately so as to determine the nature of its relationship to sun-related behaviors. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a new measure of skin cancer…

  20. The Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge (SCSK) Scale: Validity, Reliability, and Relationship to Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Western Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K.; Wilson, Carlene; Roberts, Rachel M.; Hutchinson, Amanda D.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing public knowledge remains one of the key aims of skin cancer awareness campaigns, yet diagnosis rates continue to rise. It is essential we measure skin cancer knowledge adequately so as to determine the nature of its relationship to sun-related behaviors. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a new measure of skin cancer…

  1. Solar UV-radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer surveillance in organ transplant recipients (OTRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Nürnberg, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of organ transplantation in clinical medicine has resulted in a constantly increasing, large population of patients that are chronically on immunosuppressive medication. It is well known that skin cancer, especially SCC, in this population has higher incidence rates, behaves more aggressively and has higher rates of metastasis. OTRs who have been treated for many years with immunosuppressive medication are at the highest risk for developing malignant skin tumors. Therefore, the intensity of surveillance for cutaneous lesions is of high importance in OTRs. A full-body skin exam at least once a year and more frequently if skin cancer or precancerous cutaneous lesions develop is recommended. Clinicians should not hesitate to biopsy or to surgically excise any suspicious skin lesion. Of high importance is also the education of OTRs about their increased risk. Protection against solar and artificial UV-radiation and monthly self-examinations are good ways to prevent and to recognize any new suspicious skin lesions. Patients are advised to always wear solar UV-radiation protection (e.g., clothing, sunscreen) before going outdoors. However, investigations have revealed that solar UV-B-exposure and serum 25(OH)D levels positively correlate with decreased risk for various internal malignancies (e.g., breast, colon, prostate and ovarian cancer) and other severe diseases. As we have shown previously, renal transplant recipients are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency. A sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF)-8 reduces the skin's production of vitamin D by 95%. Clothing completely blocks all solar UVB-radiation and this prevents any vitamin D production. Therefore, it is important to detect and treat vitamin D deficiency in solid organ transplant recipients. Optimal management of these patients requires communication between the transplant teams and the treating dermatologist and other clinicians. For advanced or metastatic disease, collaboration

  2. Coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in North American magazines before and after the landmark 2006 International Agency for Research on Cancer report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-02-21

    Skin cancer is an increasingly important global public health problem. Mass media is a key source of skin cancer information. We examined how media coverage of skin cancer has changed over time as a consequence of the release of a key public health report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2006, which linked ultraviolet (UV) radiation from indoor tanning and skin cancer. A directed content analysis of skin cancer and tanning coverage in 29 popular North American magazines (2001-2012) examined reporting of skin cancer risk factors, UV behaviors, and early detection in article text (n = 761) and images (n = 1267). Chi-square and correlational analyses were used determine whether coverage changed in relation to the 2006 IARC report. The total volume of articles about skin cancer and tanning increased modestly after the IARC report (χ (2) = 4.57, df = 1, p after compared to before the report. There were virtually no changes in the percentage of coverage for both risk factors and early detection information over time. There were some changes in the percentage of coverage about UV behaviors after the IARC report, but these variables were not directly related to the report. Magazines were more likely to encourage sunscreen use (χ (2) = 11.55, df = 1, p after the IARC report. It also became less common for magazines to promote sun avoidance (χ (2) = 6.82, df = 1, p after the report. Despite a modest increase in volume of coverage post-IARC report, key messages from the report were not taken up by the media. While there have been some improvements in magazine reporting, there is a need for more effective dissemination of public health messages about skin cancer and tanning.

  3. An Advertisement and Article Analysis of Skin Products and Topics in Popular Women’s Magazines: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H.; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Fullwood, MD; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the United States, skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 5 million people treated per year and annual medical treatment expenditures that exceed 8 billion dollars. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to enumerate the number of advertisements for skin products with and without Sun Protection Factor (SPF) and to further analyze the specific advertisements for sunblock to determine if models, when present, depict sun safe behaviors and 2) to enumerate the number of articles related to the skin for content. Both aims include an assessment for differences in age and in magazines targeting a Black or Latina population. Methods: The sample for this cross sectional study was comprised of 99 issues of 14 popular United States magazines marketed to women, four of which market to a Black or Latina audience. Results: There were 6,142 advertisements, of which 1,215 (19.8%, 95% CI: 18.8-20.8%) were related to skin products. Among the skin product advertisements, 1,145 (93.8%, 95% CI: 93.9-96.3%) depicted skin products without SPF. The majority of skin articles (91.2%, 95% CI: 91.7-100.0%), skin product advertisements (89.9%, 95% CI: 88.2-91.6%), and sunblock advertisements featuring models (were found in magazines aimed at the older (>24 yr) audience. Conclusion: Future research on this topic could focus on the extent to which images in these magazines translate into risky health behaviors, such as sun seeking, or excessive other harmful effects of UV radiation. PMID:26933645

  4. An Advertisement and Article Analysis of Skin Products and Topics in Popular Women’s Magazines: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Basch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the United States, skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an esti­mated 5 million people treated per year and annual medical treatment expenditures that exceed 8 billion dollars. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1 to enumerate the number of advertisements for skin products with and without Sun Protection Factor (SPF and to further analyze the specific advertise­ments for sunblock to determine if models, when present, depict sun safe behaviors and 2 to enumer­ate the number of articles related to the skin for content. Both aims include an assessment for differ­ences in age and in magazines targeting a Black or Latina population. Methods: The sample for this cross sectional study was comprised of 99 issues of 14 popular United States magazines marketed to women, four of which market to a Black or Latina audience. Results: There were 6,142 advertisements, of which 1,215 (19.8%, 95% CI: 18.8-20.8% were related to skin products. Among the skin product advertisements, 1,145 (93.8%, 95% CI: 93.9-96.3% depicted skin products without SPF. The majority of skin articles (91.2%, 95% CI: 91.7-100.0%, skin product advertisements (89.9%, 95% CI: 88.2-91.6%, and sunblock advertisements featuring models (were found in magazines aimed at the older (>24 yr audience. Conclusion: Future research on this topic could focus on the extent to which images in these maga­zines translate into risky health behaviors, such as sun seeking, or excessive other harmful effects of UV radiation.

  5. Skin Cancer Risk in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Recipients Compared With Background Population and Renal Transplant Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Gniadecki, Robert; Hædersdal, Merete

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: While a high risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer is well recognized in solid-organ transplant recipients, the risk of skin cancer in hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of cutaneous cancer in HSCT recipients...... and compare it with the risk in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and individuals who have not received any transplant. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A nationwide population-based cohort study from the Danish National Hospital Register including 3302 patients who underwent HSCT (1007 allogeneic, 2295...... cancer between transplant recipients and background population, we used a stratified proportional hazard regression model for hazard ratio (HR) estimations. By use of the cumulative incidence, we estimated 5- and 10-year risks of skin cancers. All RTR and HSCT recipients were treated and followed up...

  6. Cytochromes P450 and Skin Cancer: Role of Local Endocrine Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Zmijewski, Michal A.; Semak, Igor; Zbytek, Blazej; Pisarchik, Alexander; Li, Wei; Zjawiony, Jordan; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Skin is the largest body organ forming a metabolically active barrier between external and internal environments. The metabolic barrier is composed of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) that regulate its homeostasis through activation or inactivation of biologically relevant molecules. In this review we focus our attention on local steroidogenic and secosteroidogenic systems in relation to skin cancer, e.g., prevention, attenuation of tumor progression and therapy. The local steroidogenic system is composed of locally expressed CYPs involved in local production of androgens, estrogens, gluco- and mineralo-corticosteroids from cholesterol (initiated by CYP11A1) or from steroid precursors delivered to the skin, and of their metabolism and/or inactivation. Cutaneous 7-hydroxylases (CYP7A1, CYP7B1 and CYP39) potentially can produce 7-hydroxy/oxy-steroids/sterols with modifying effects on local tumorigenesis. CYP11A1 also transforms 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC)→22(OH)7DHC→20,22(OH)2-7DHC→7-dehydropregnenolone, which can be further metabolized to other 5,7-steroidal dienes. These 5,7-dienal intermediates are converted by ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) into secosteroids which show pro-differentiation and anti-cancer properties. Finally, the skin is the site of activation of vitamin D3 through two alternative pathways. The classical one involves sequential hydroxylation at positions 25 and 1 to produce active 1,25(OH)2D3, which is further inactivated through hydroxylation at C24. The novel pathway is initiated by CYP11A1 with predominant production of 20(OH)D3 which is further metabolized to biologically active but non-calcemic D3-hydroxyderivatives. Classical and non-classical (novel) vitamin D analogs show pro-differentiation, anti-proliferative and anticancer properties. In addition, melatonin is metabolized by local CYPs. In conclusion cutaneously expressed CYPs have significant effects on skin physiology and pathology trough regulation of its chemical milieu. PMID:23869782

  7. Is the skin a sanctuary for breast cancer cells during treatment with anti-HER2 antibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Vincenzo; Scognamiglio, Maria Teresa; Zilli, Marinella; Giampietro, Jamara; Vici, Patrizia; Natoli, Clara; Grassadonia, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of skin metastases is a common event in patients affected by advanced breast cancer, usually associated with systemic disease progression. Here we describe 2 cases of diffuse cutaneous metastases from HER2-overexpressing breast cancer occurring despite a dramatic response in liver and bone, respectively, during treatment with anti-HER2 antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab. We discuss the reasons for this discrepancy and suggest a possible implication of impaired immune response in the skin. Future research should provide strategies to overcome the induction of immune privilege in the skin in order to avoid discontinuation of effective treatments.

  8. Multimodal optical imaging and spectroscopy for the intraoperative mapping of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomatina, Elena; Muzikansky, Alona; Neel, Victor; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2009-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignancy, and its incidence increases yearly. In this contribution we investigate the feasibility of combining multimodal reflectance and fluorescence polarization imaging (RFPI) with spectroscopic analysis of the reflectance images for facilitating intraoperative delineation of BCCs. Twenty fresh thick BCC specimens were obtained within 1 h after Mohs micrographic surgeries. The samples were soaked for up to 2 min in an aqueous 0.2 mg/ml solution of methylene blue, briefly rinsed in saline solution, and imaged. Reflectance images were acquired in the range from 395 to 735 nm, with steps of 10 nm. Fluorescence polarization images were excited at 630 nm and registered in the range between 660 and 750 nm. The results yielded by RFPI were qualitatively compared to each other and to histopathology. From the copolarized reflectance images the spectral responses including the optical densities and their wavelength derivatives were calculated. The differences in the spectral responses of the benign and malignant stained skin structures were assessed. Statistical analysis, i.e., Student's t-test, was employed to verify the significance of the discovered differences. Both reflectance and fluorescence polarization images correlated well with histopathology in all the cases. Reflectance polarization images provided more detailed information on skin morphology, with the appearance of skin structures resembling that of histopathology. Fluorescence polarization images exhibited higher contrast of cancerous tissue as compared to reflectance imaging. The analysis of the optical densities and their wavelength derivatives for tumor and normal tissues has confirmed statistical significance of the differences that can be used for intraoperative cancer delineation. The results of the study indicate that spectral analysis is a useful adjunct to RFPI for facilitating skin cancer delineation.

  9. Coverage of Skin Cancer Risk Factors and UV Behaviors in Popular U.S. Magazines from 2000 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    Mass media is an influential source of skin cancer and tanning information for the public, but we know little about its content or emphasis. The objective of this research was to describe the volume and nature of skin cancer and tanning messages in 20 popular U.S. men's and women's magazines (2000-2012). We used a directed content analysis to determine frequency information about risk factors and ultraviolet (UV) behaviors in 608 articles and 930 images. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests determined coverage differences based on content type (text vs. image) and target audience (women vs. men). UV exposure was the most common risk factor mentioned (37.7 %) and sunscreen use the most common behavior encouraged (60.0 %); information about other risk factors and protective behaviors was uncommon. Both articles (25.2 %) and images (36.9 %) promoted the tanned look as attractive. In most cases, images infrequently contained helpful information on skin cancer risk factors and prevention, except for high-SPF sunscreens. Women's magazines published more articles on skin cancer and tanning than men's magazines (456 vs. 159, χ(2) = 143.43, P Magazine skin cancer and tanning content may contribute to inaccurate public understanding of risks and prevention. These findings are relevant to cancer educators, who may wish to counter potentially harmful messages and enhance positive ones through cancer education efforts.

  10. Lung cancer with skin and breast metastasis: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Bikash; Schmidt, Marie Frances; Ghosh, Meenakshi; Sinha Ray, Abhisekh; Manhas, Saveena; Oke, Vikram; Agu, Chidozie Charles; Basunia, Md Rawshan; Enriquez, Danilo; Quist, Joseph; Bianchi, Catherine; Hans, Ravi; Kandel, Saroj

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in America. Frequent sites of metastasis include the Hilar lymph nodes, adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bone. The following case report is of a primary lung cancer with metastases to the breast and skin. Case. A 48-year-old African American male with a past medical history of poorly differentiated left breast cancer status after modified radical mastectomy (MRM), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking (20 pack-years) presents to the ER with progressive shortness of breath on exertion, upper back pain, and weight loss for 2 months in duration. On physical examination he is found to have a MRM scar on his left breast and a left periumbilical cutaneous mass. Chest X-ray and chest CT reveal a right upper lobe mass and biopsies from the breast, lung, and the periumbilical mass indicate a poorly differentiated carcinoma of unclear etiology; all tumor markers are negative. The patient is male and a chronic smoker; therefore the diagnosis is made as lung carcinoma with metastases to the breast and skin. Conclusion. A high index of suspicion for cutaneous metastases should be cast when investigating cutaneous pathologies in patients at risk for primary lung malignancy.

  11. Skin cancer prevention coverage in popular US women's health and fitness magazines: an analysis of advertisements and articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa

    2014-04-02

    The desire to be tan is a phenomenon that public health researchers have investigated, as exposure to UV radiation increases the chances of developing skin cancer.  Media messages in women's magazines have been shown to contribute to this problem. Much less is known about the prevalence of skin cancer prevention messages in these magazines. This study's aim was to identify the number and type of articles and advertised products devoted to skin health (sun protection and skin cancer prevention in particular) within five popular U.S. greater than women's health and fitness magazines. We analyzed articles and advertisements over seven months of issues of the following popular women's health and fitness magazines: Fitness, Health, Self, Shape, and Women's Health, March 2013 through September 2013. Overall, 31 issues of the five magazines with a total of 780 articles and 1,986 advertisements were analyzed. Of the 780 articles, a mere 2.9% (n=23) were devoted to skin. Of the 258 skin product advertisements, less than 20% of the products contained sun protection factor (SPF). These findings suggest that women's health and fitness magazines can improve their efforts in informing women of skin cancer risks and preventive measures to minimize these risks. The role of these magazines in building health literacy among their readers is also discussed.

  12. Skin Cancer Prevention Coverage in Popular US Women’s Health and Fitness Magazines: An Analysis of Advertisements and Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    The desire to be tan is a phenomenon that public health researchers have investigated, as exposure to UV radiation increases the chances of developing skin cancer. Media messages in women’s magazines have been shown to contribute to this problem. Much less is known about the prevalence of skin cancer prevention messages in these magazines. This study’s aim was to identify the number and type of articles and advertised products devoted to skin health (sun protection and skin cancer prevention in particular) within five popular U.S. greater than women’s health and fitness magazines. We analyzed articles and advertisements over seven months of issues of the following popular women’s health and fitness magazines: Fitness, Health, Self, Shape, and Women’s Health, March 2013 through September 2013. Overall, 31 issues of the five magazines with a total of 780 articles and 1,986 advertisements were analyzed. Of the 780 articles, a mere 2.9% (n=23) were devoted to skin. Of the 258 skin product advertisements, less than 20% of the products contained sun protection factor (SPF). These findings suggest that women’s health and fitness magazines can improve their efforts in informing women of skin cancer risks and preventive measures to minimize these risks. The role of these magazines in building health literacy among their readers is also discussed. PMID:24999136

  13. SU-C-16A-06: Optimum Radiation Source for Radiation Therapy of Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, Habib [Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Persepolis (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meigooni, A S. [Comprehensive cancer center of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, different applicators are designed for treatment of the skin cancer such as scalp and legs, using Ir-192 HDR Brachytherapy Sources (IR-HDRS), Miniature Electronic Brachytherapy Sources (MEBXS), and External Electron Beam Radiation Therapy (EEBRT). Although, all of these methodologies may deliver the desired radiation dose to the skin, the dose to the underlying bone may become the limiting factor for selection of the optimum treatment technique. In this project the radiation dose delivered to the underlying bone has been evaluated as a function of the radiation source and thickness of the underlying bone. Methods: MC simulations were performed using MCNP5 code. In these simulations, the mono-energetic and non-divergent photon beams of 30 keV, 50 keV, and 70 keV for MEBXS, 380 keV photons for IR-HDRS, and 6 MeV mono-energetic electron beam for EEBRT were modeled. A 0.5 cm thick soft tissue (0.3 cm skin and 0.2 cm adipose) with underlying 0.5 cm cortical bone followed by 14 cm soft tissue are utilized for simulations. Results: Dose values to bone tissue as a function of beam energy and beam type, for a delivery of 5000 cGy dose to skin, were compared. These results indicate that for delivery of 5000 cGy dose to the skin surface with 30 keV, 50 keV, 70 keV of MEBXS, IR-HDRS, and EEBRT techniques, bone will receive 31750 cGy, 27450 cGy, 18550 cGy, 4875 cGy, and 10450 cGy, respectively. Conclusion: The results of these investigations indicate that, for delivery of the same skin dose, average doses received by the underlying bone are 5.2 and 2.2 times larger with a 50 keV MEBXS and EEBRT techniques than IR-HDRS, respectively.

  14. Anti-skin cancer properties of phenolic-rich extract from the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing J; Shi, Qing H; Zhang, Wei; Sanderson, Barbara J S

    2012-09-01

    Skin cancers are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy. This study examined the anti-skin cancer properties of crude ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp (MPEE) on human squamous cell carcinoma A-431 and melanoma SK-MEL-28 lines. Significant dose-dependent reduction in% viability was observed for these cell lines, with less effect on human normal skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk and keratinocyte HaCaT cell lines. Cell distribution in G(1) phase (93%) significantly increased after 10 μg/ml of MPEE versus untreated SK-MEL-28 cells (78%), which was associated with enhanced p21(WAF1) mRNA levels. In A-431 cells, 10 μg/ml MPEE significantly increased the sub G(1) peak (15%) with concomitant decrease in G(1) phase over untreated cells (2%). In A-431 cells, 10 μg/ml MPEE induced an 18% increase in early apoptosis versus untreated cells (2%). This was via caspase activation (15-, 3- and 4-fold increased caspse-3/7, 8, and 9 activities), and disruption of mitochondrial pathways (6-fold decreased mitochondrial membrane potential versus untreated cells). Real-time PCR revealed increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cytochrome c release, and decreased Akt1. Apoptosis was significantly increased after MPEE treatment of SK-MEL-28 cells. Hence, MPEE showed strong anti-skin cancer effect on these two skin cancer cell lines, with potential as an anti-skin cancer agent.

  15. Evidence from a breast cancer hypofractionated schedule: late skin toxicity assessed by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, Valeria; Giordano, Carolina; Marsella, Annelisa; Saracino, Biancamaria; Petrongari, Maria; Ferraro, Anna; Strigari, Lidia; Pinnarò, Paola

    2013-10-24

    Feasibility of whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules in breast conserving therapy is recognized however concerns remain about the role of the boost dose on the overall treatment's potential toxicity. In this study we report on the possibility to quantitatively evaluate radiation induced toxicity in patients treated with an abbreviated course with major concern in the irradiated boost region. Eighty-nine patients who underwent conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer followed by adjuvant accelerated hypofractionated whole breast radiotherapy were included in this study to assess skin and subcutaneous tissue late toxicity by means of ultrasonographic quantitative examination. For each patient the skin thickness was measured at four positions: on the irradiated breast, in the boost region and in the corresponding positions in the contra-lateral not treated breast. All patients were scanned by the same radiologist to reduce potential inter-operator variability, the operator was blind to the scoring of the patient CTCv3 late toxicity as well as patient treatment characteristics. Ultrasound assessment and clinical evaluation were compared. The median time between the end of adjuvant radiotherapy and ultrasound examination was 20.5 months. The measured mean skin thickness in the irradiated breast was 2.13 ± 0.72 mm while in the mirror region of the contra-lateral healthy breast was 1.61 ± 0.29 mm. The measured mean skin thickness in the irradiated boost region was 2.25 ± 0.79 mm versus 1.63 ± 0.33 mm in the corresponding region of contra-lateral healthy breast. The mean increment in skin thickness respect to the counterpart in the healthy breast was 0.52 ± 0.67 mm and 0.62 ± 0.74 mm for the breast and the boost region respectively. A significant direct correlation was found between the increment in skin thickness in the irradiated breast and in the boost region with fibrosis (G ≥ 1). In this study results from a breast cancer

  16. Diagnosis Applications of Non-Crystalline Diffraction of Collagen Fibres: Breast Cancer and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M.; Benseny-Cases, N.; Cócera, M.; Teixeira, C. V.; Alsina, M.; Cladera, J.; López, O.; Fernández, M.; Sabés, M.

    In previous chapters, the basis of SAXS for the study of biological systems like proteins in solution have been presented. The SAXS patterns of proteins in solution present, in general, broad dependences with the scattering vector, and the interpretation requires a huge component of modelling. In this chapter and in the following one, it is shown how SAXS technique can be used to study biological systems that are partially crystalline and with a large crystalline cells. This is done by analysing the diffraction obtained from these systems at small angles. In this chapter, a new approach to the application of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for diagnosis using the diffraction pattern of collagen is presented. This chapter shows the development of a new strategy in the preventive diagnosis of breast cancer following changes on collagen from breast connective tissue. SAXS profiles are related to different features in cutaneous preparations and to the supra-molecular arrangement of skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis), in order to introduce objective values on the diagnosis of different skin pathologies. Working parameters (size, thickness) and methods (freezing, paraffin embedment) have been established. The results suggest that collagen diffraction patterns could be used as diagnostic indicators; especially for breast cancer and preliminary results obtained with skin collagen are promising too.

  17. A Case of Multifocal Skin Metastases from Lung Cancer Presenting with Vasculitic-type Cutaneous Nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan, Nalan Akgul; Kiliçkap, Saadettin; Sene, Soner; Kacan, Turgut; Yucel, Birsen; Eren, Mehmet Fuat; Cihan, Sener

    2015-01-01

    Although cutaneous metastasis occurs usually at the terminal stage of the disease, it may be rarely concurrent with the diagnosis and may also present as the first sign of the illness. A 55-year-old male patient presented with vasculitic-type cutaneous nodular lesions and a necrotic distal phalangeal lesion developed over the last month. He was a tradesman and smoked 40 packets year. On physical examination, he was found to have multiple cutaneous lesions on the skin of the face, limbs, neck, scalp, dorsal side, fingers, subungual side, right leg, and feet. A skin lesion punch biopsy was performed and squamous cell carcinoma metastasis was detected. He was diagnosed as having squamous cell lung cancer with bronchoscopic biopsy. Although it is very rare, cutaneous metastases that is concurrent with the diagnosis of lung cancer may be the first sign of the disease. In patients with suspicious skin lesions, the patient's age, smoking history, and other symptoms should be evaluated and a biopsy should be performed. PMID:25814739

  18. [Using skin graft for local control in stage IV breast cancer to improve quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Hiromi

    2014-11-01

    A 59-year-old woman was hospitalized in June 2012 for Stage IV bilateral breast cancer, axillary lymph-node metastasis, metastatic lung tumor, metastatic bone tumor, right carcinomatous pleuritis, and right-eye choroidal metastasis. Treatment for improvement of symptoms included steroids, continuous subcutaneous infusion of morphine hydrochloride, and thoracic drainage. Chemotherapy with zoledronic acid+TC therapy was administered, with only a small residual primary lesion of the right breast. Interstitial pneumonia caused by the chemotherapy occurred and the volume occupied, it was continued treatment is difficult. In October 2013, she experienced right axillary lymph node metastases, and progress of the right breast cancer, with pain and bleeding from the right breast tumor. Therefore, for the purpose of improving quality of life, Bt+Ax was administered in October 2013, but since the resected part of the right breast included an approximately 10 cm dermal infiltration, a preserved subcutaneous vascular network (PSVN) skin graft was performed using healthy skin. The patient recovered well, the pain and bleeding disappeared, and the patient was discharged following surgery. PSVN skin graft for the purpose of local control was useful in this case.

  19. Diet in dermatology: Part I. Atopic dermatitis, acne, and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsnick, Tara; Murzaku, Era Caterina; Rao, Babar K

    2014-12-01

    Patients commonly inquire about dietary modifications as a means to prevent or manage skin disease. Answering these questions is often challenging, given the vast and conflicting evidence that exists on this topic. This 2-part continuing medical education article summarizes the evidence to date to enable physicians to answer patients' questions in an evidence-based manner. Part I includes atopic dermatitis, acne, and nonmelanoma skin cancer. The role of dietary supplementation, dietary exclusion, food allergy, maternal diet, and breastfeeding in the development and/or prevention of atopic dermatitis is summarized. The dermatoendocrinologic mechanism for the effects of glycemic index/glycemic load and milk on acne is described, as well as related clinical evidence for dietary modifications. Finally, evidence and recommendations for restriction or supplementation of dietary factors in the prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer, including fat, vitamins A, C, D, and E, and selenium, are reported. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A case of multifocal skin metastases from lung cancer presenting with vasculitic-type cutaneous nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Akgul Babacan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous metastasis occurs usually at the terminal stage of the disease, it may be rarely concurrent with the diagnosis and may also present as the first sign of the illness. A 55-year-old male patient presented with vasculitic-type cutaneous nodular lesions and a necrotic distal phalangeal lesion developed over the last month. He was a tradesman and smoked 40 packets year. On physical examination, he was found to have multiple cutaneous lesions on the skin of the face, limbs, neck, scalp, dorsal side, fingers, subungual side, right leg, and feet. A skin lesion punch biopsy was performed and squamous cell carcinoma metastasis was detected. He was diagnosed as having squamous cell lung cancer with bronchoscopic biopsy. Although it is very rare, cutaneous metastases that is concurrent with the diagnosis of lung cancer may be the first sign of the disease. In patients with suspicious skin lesions, the patient′s age, smoking history, and other symptoms should be evaluated and a biopsy should be performed.

  1. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Ultrasonography Features in Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikage, Noriyasu; Yamashita, Osamu; Harada, Takasuke; Samura, Makoto; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Mizoguchi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kaori; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate skin, subepidermal low echogenic band (SELEB), and subcutaneous tissue (SCT) thickness as well as the degree of increase in subcutaneous echogenicity (SEG) and subcutaneous echo-free space (SEFS) in arms with lymphedema (LE). Materials and Methods: The skin and SCT of both arms of 30 patients with unilateral stage II breast cancer-related LE were scanned at five points (medial/lateral upper arm/forearm and dorsum of the hand). SEG and SEFS grades were determined according to severity (range: 0–2). Results: All measured parameters, except the SEFS in the medial upper arm, were significantly higher on the LE side than on the normal (N) side. The parameters differed most remarkably in the medial forearm (MFA; skin: LE 1.7 ± 0.8 mm vs. N 0.8 ± 0.2 mm; SELEB: LE 1.0 ± 0.6 mm vs. N 0.3 ± 0.1 mm; SCT: LE 8.7 ± 3.4 mm vs. N 3.8 ± 2.0 mm; SEG: LE 0.9 ± 0.5 vs. N 0.1 ± 0.3; and SEFS: LE 0.5 ± 0.7 vs. N 0). Conclusion: The differences in the thickness of the skin, SELEB, and SCT and the SEG and SEFS grades between the LE and N arms seemed most evident in the MFA. PMID:28018504

  2. Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2008-06-01

    Overexposure of the skin to UV radiation has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of skin cancers. There is a need to develop nutrition-based efficient chemopreventive strategies. The proanthocyanidins present in grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) have been shown to have some biological effects, including prevention of photocarcinogenesis. The present communication discusses the in vitro and in vivo studies of the possible protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) and the molecular mechanism for these effects. In SKH-1 hairless mice, dietary supplementation with GSPs is associated with a decrease of UVB-induced skin tumor development in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and a decrease in the malignant transformation of papillomas to carcinomas. It is suggested that the chemopreventive effects of dietary GSPs are mediated through the attenuation of UV-induced: (i) oxidative stress; (ii) activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling pathways; and (iii) immunosuppression through alterations in immunoregulatory cytokines. Collectively, these studies indicate protective potential of GSPs against experimental photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice, and the possible mechanisms of action of GSPs, and suggest that dietary GSPs could be useful in the attenuation of the adverse UV-induced health effects in human skin.

  3. Multimodal fluorescence molecular imaging for in vivo characterization of skin cancer using endogenous and exogenous fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica P.; Habimana-Griffin, LeMoyne; Edwards, Tracy S.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Similarity of skin cancer with many benign skin pathologies requires reliable methods to detect and differentiate the different types of these lesions. Previous studies have explored the use of disparate optical techniques to identify and estimate the invasive nature of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma with varying outcomes. Here, we used a concerted approach that provides complementary information for rapid screening and characterization of tumors, focusing on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Assessment of in vivo autofluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging of endogenous fluorophores that are excitable at longer wavelengths (480 nm) than conventional NADH and FAD revealed a decrease in the short FLT component for SCC compared to normal skin, with mean values of 0.57±0.026 ns and 0.61±0.021 ns, respectively (p=0.004). Subsequent systemic administration of a near-infrared fluorescent molecular probe in SCC bearing mice, followed by the implementation of image processing methods on data acquired from two-dimensional and three-dimensional fluorescence molecular imaging, allowed us to estimate the tumor volume and depth, as well as quantify the fluorescent probe in the tumor. The result suggests the involvement of lipofuscin-like lipopigments and riboflavin in SCC metabolism and serves as a model for staging SCC.

  4. Shedding new light on the role of the sunshine vitamin D for skin health: the lncRNA-skin cancer connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2014-06-01

    Throughout evolution, vertebrates including humans have depended on the sunshine vitamin D for their calcified skeletons. As our hunter gatherer forefathers ventured from the equator, their skin tone became much lighter in order to permit an adequate amount of ultraviolet B radiation to enter the skin to produce the vitally important vitamin D. Although sensible sun exposure does not significantly increase risk of skin cancer, it has remained a mystery as to why. Jiang and Bikle in their viewpoint provide a novel insight as to how Mother Nature was able to balance the need for receiving adequate sun exposure to produce vitamin D while limiting damage caused by the DNA absorbing the ultraviolet B radiation. Long non-coding RNAs which are plentiful in cells have a dual personality. Some enhance malignancy, while others act as tumor suppressors. Jiang and Bikle provide compelling evidence that these long non-coding RNAs in skin cells are responsive to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by decreasing their carcinogenic activity while enhancing their tumor suppression function presumably as a strategy for reducing ultraviolet-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. Mother Nature got it right. Sensible sun exposure is important for maintaining an adequate vitamin D status. Once formed in the skin, vitamin D can exit into the circulation to carry out its physiologic functions on calcium and bone metabolism. Some vitamin D however remains in the skin and is activated to interact with its vitamin D receptor to control cell proliferation using a variety of strategies including interacting with long non-coding RNAs to reduce risk of photocarcinogenesis.

  5. Comprehensive Monte-Carlo simulator for optimization of imaging parameters for high sensitivity detection of skin cancer at the THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Michael; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Skin cancer detection at its early stages has been the focus of a large number of experimental and theoretical studies during the past decades. Among these studies two prominent approaches presenting high potential are reflectometric sensing at the THz wavelengths region and polarimetric imaging techniques in the visible wavelengths. While THz radiation contrast agent and source of sensitivity to cancer related tissue alterations was considered to be mainly the elevated water content in the cancerous tissue, the polarimetric approach has been verified to enable cancerous tissue differentiation based on cancer induced structural alterations to the tissue. Combining THz with the polarimetric approach, which is considered in this study, is examined in order to enable higher detection sensitivity than previously pure reflectometric THz measurements. For this, a comprehensive MC simulation of radiative transfer in a complex skin tissue model fitted for the THz domain that considers the skin`s stratified structure, tissue material optical dispersion modeling, surface roughness, scatterers, and substructure organelles has been developed. Additionally, a narrow beam Mueller matrix differential analysis technique is suggested for assessing skin cancer induced changes in the polarimetric image, enabling the tissue model and MC simulation to be utilized for determining the imaging parameters resulting in maximal detection sensitivity.

  6. Potential Surgical and Oncologic Consequences Related to Skin Tattoos in the Treatment of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Christhardt; Foiato, Tariane; Marnitz, Simone; Schneider, Achim; Le, Xin; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Jacob, Anna Elena; Mölgg, Andrea; Hagemann, Ingke; Favero, Giovanni

    Skin tattoos on the feet, legs, and lower abdominal wall are progressively gaining popularity. Consequently, the number of tattooed women with cervical cancer has significantly increased in the last decade. However, pigments of tattoo ink can be transported to regional lymph nodes and potentially clog lymphatic pathways that might also be used by sentinel labeling substances. Therefore, here we report whether the presence of tattoo ink affected pelvic lymph nodes in women with early cervical cancer and discuss its potential oncologic and surgical consequences. Prospective observational study. University Hospital in Hamburg, Germany (Canadian Task Force classification II2). Women affected by cervical cancer. Between January 2014 and May 2016, 267 laparoscopic oncologic operations, including at least a pelvic sentinel or complete lymphadenectomy, were performed in the Department of Advanced Surgical and Oncologic Gynecology, Asklepios Hospital, Hamburg, Germany. Among these, 191 patients were affected by cervical cancer. Data of patients in whom dyed lymph nodes without the use of patent blue as a sentinel marker or different from blue-colored pelvic lymph nodes in the case of sentinel procedure were identified and prospectively collected. In 9 patients, skin tattoos localized in the lower extremities caused discoloration of at least 1 pelvic lymph node. This effect was observed in 40% of women (9/23) with tattoos in this area of the body. Mean patient age was 34 years (range, 27-56). All women had cutaneous tattoos on their feet or legs, and in 1 woman an additional tattoo situated on the inferior abdominal wall was observed. The stage of cervical cancer was FIGO IB1 in all cases. One woman was at the 16th week of gestation at the time of cancer diagnosis. On average, 26 pelvic lymph nodes (range, 11-51) were harvested from both pelvic basin sides. None of the removed lymph nodes was tumor involved. Three patients (33%) developed postoperatively infected

  7. Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammara Masood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique’s performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided.

  8. Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel Ali

    2013-01-01

    Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique's performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:24575126

  9. Lymphaticovenous bypass decreases pathologic skin changes in upper extremity breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Jeremy S; Joseph, Walter J; Ghanta, Swapna; Cuzzone, Daniel A; Albano, Nicholas J; Savetsky, Ira L; Gardenier, Jason C; Skoracki, Roman; Chang, David; Mehrara, Babak J

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in microsurgery such as lymphaticovenous bypass (LVB) have been shown to decrease limb volumes and improve subjective symptoms in patients with lymphedema. However, to date, it remains unknown if these procedures can reverse the pathological tissue changes associated with lymphedema. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze skin tissue changes in patients before and after LVB. Matched skin biopsy samples were collected from normal and lymphedematous limbs of 6 patients with unilateral breast cancer-related upper extremity lymphedema before and 6 months after LVB. Biopsy specimens were fixed and analyzed for inflammation, fibrosis, hyperkeratosis, and lymphangiogenesis. Six months following LVB, 83% of patients had symptomatic improvement in their lymphedema. Histological analysis at this time demonstrated a significant decrease in tissue CD4(+) cell inflammation in lymphedematous limb (but not normal limb) biopsies (pskin. These findings suggest that the some of the pathologic changes of lymphedema are reversible and may be related to lymphatic fluid stasis.

  10. Therapeutic potential of the anti-diabetic agent metformin in targeting the skin cancer stem cell diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Anand; Powers, Matthew A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-05-01

    Type II diabetes is associated with increased prevalence of cancer including both melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Emerging evidence from epidemiological studies suggest that diabetic patients on metformin have a lower risk of cancer incidence and mortality in a broad range of neoplasms. In both melanoma and SCC, populations of cancer stem cells (CSC) contribute to tumor initiation and metastasis. We propose that metformin constitutes a new class of targeted therapy that acts on the skin CSC diaspora. We posit that metformin selectively and simultaneously targets CSCs of the primary tumor as well as in metastatic niches thereby disrupting the dynamic dispersal of circulating CSCs between the primary tumor and metastatic site. This hypothesis suggests a new concept in dermato-oncology that treatment of type II diabetes and prevention of skin cancer are two sides of the same coin.

  11. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for enhanced photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy in murine models of skin and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollakanti, Kishore Reddy

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizing agent derived from aminolevulinic acid. PpIX accumulates specifically within target cancer cells, where it fluoresces and produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Our aims were to employ PpIX fluorescence to detect squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Photodynamic diagnosis, PDD), and to improve treatment efficacy (Photodynamic therapy, PDT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous breast cancer. Hyperspectral imaging and a spectrometer based dosimeter system were used to detect very early SCC in UVB-irradiated murine skin, using PpIX fluorescence. Regarding PDT, we showed that low non-toxic doses of vitamin D, given before ALA application, increase tumor specific PpIX accumulation and sensitize BCC and breast cancer cells to ALA-PDT. These optical imaging methods and the combination therapy regimen (vitamin D and ALA-PDT) are promising tools for effective management of skin and breast cancer.

  12. Genetic determinants of UV-susceptibility in non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen M Welsh

    Full Text Available A milieu of cytokines and signaling molecules are involved in the induction of UV-induced immune suppression and thus the etiology of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Targeting the UV-induced immunosuppression pathway, and using a large population based study of NMSC, we have investigated the risk associated with functional variants in 10 genes (IL10, IL4, IL4R, TNF, TNFR2, HTR2A, HRH2, IL12B, PTGS2, and HAL. The most prominent single genetic effect was observed for IL10. There was increasing risk for both basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC with increasing number of variant IL10 haplotypes (BCC: p(trend = 0.0048; SCC: p(trend = 0.031. Having two IL10 GC haplotypes was associated with increased odds ratios of BCC and SCC (OR(BCC = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9; OR(SCC = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9, and these associations were largely confined to women (OR(BCC = 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4; SCC: OR(SCC = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0. To examine how combinations of these variants contribute to risk of BCC and SCC, we used multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR and classification and regression trees (CART. Results from both of these methods found that in men, a combination of skin type, burns, IL10, IL4R, and possibly TNFR2 were important in both BCC and SCC. In women, skin type, burns, and IL10 were the most critical risk factors in SCC, with risk of BCC involving these same factors plus genetic variants in HTR2A, IL12B and IL4R. These data suggest differential genetic susceptibility to UV-induced immune suppression and skin cancer risk by gender.

  13. A transposon-based analysis of gene mutations related to skin cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Rita M; Dupuy, Adam J; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Alameda, Josefa P; Page, Angustias; Sánchez-Viera, Miguel; Ramírez, Angel; Navarro, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is by far the most frequent type of cancer in humans. NMSC includes several types of malignancies with different clinical outcomes, the most frequent being basal and squamous cell carcinomas. We have used the Sleeping Beauty transposon/transposase system to identify somatic mutations associated with NMSC. Transgenic mice bearing multiple copies of a mutagenic Sleeping Beauty transposon T2Onc2 and expressing the SB11 transposase under the transcriptional control of regulatory elements from the keratin K5 promoter were treated with TPA, either in wild-type or Ha-ras mutated backgrounds. After several weeks of treatment, mice with transposition developed more malignant tumors with decreased latency compared with control mice. Transposon/transposase animals also developed basal cell carcinomas. Genetic analysis of the transposon integration sites in the tumors identified several genes recurrently mutated in different tumor samples, which may represent novel candidate cancer genes. We observed alterations in the expression levels of some of these genes in human tumors. Our results show that inactivating mutations in Notch1 and Nsd1, among others, may have an important role in skin carcinogenesis.

  14. Combined Treatments with Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Silvia Rocío; Salazar, Nerea; Gracia-Cazaña, Tamara; Zamarrón, Alicia; González, Salvador; Juarranz, Ángeles; Gilaberte, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the Caucasian population. Among NMSC types, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has the highest incidence and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is less common although it can metastasize, accounting for the majority of NMSC-related deaths. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and non-surgical modalities. Even though surgical approaches are most commonly used to treat these lesions, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has the advantage of being a non-invasive option, and capable of field treatment, providing optimum cosmetic outcomes. Numerous clinical research studies have shown the efficacy of PDT for treating pre-malignant and malignant NMSC. However, resistant or recurrent tumors appear and sometimes become more aggressive. In this sense, the enhancement of PDT effectiveness by combining it with other therapeutic modalities has become an interesting field in NMSC research. Depending on the characteristics and the type of tumor, PDT can be applied in combination with immunomodulatory (Imiquimod) and chemotherapeutic (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, diclofenac, or ingenol mebutate) agents, inhibitors of some molecules implicated in the carcinogenic process (COX2 or MAPK), surgical techniques, or even radiotherapy. These new strategies open the way to a wider improvement of the prevention and eradication of skin cancer. PMID:26516853

  15. Exploring the Anticancer Activity of Grape Seed Extract on Skin Cancer Cell Lines A431

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mohansrinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grape seeds were extracted using ethyl acetate and petroleum ether by solvent-solvent extraction method. The phytochemical tests were performed to identify different phytochemical compounds present in the grape seed extract (GSE. Antibacterial activity of the GSE was determined using agar diffusion method against Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis was done to identify the presence of bioactive compounds and their functional groups. The GC-MS results revealed a total of four compounds, known to have potent activity against cancer cells, viz, squalene, the most potent compound found in ethyl acetate extract and diethyl phthalate, ethyl-9- cis -11- trans octadecadienoate and (R-(--14,-methyl-8-Hexadecyn-1-ol in petroleum ether extract. Cytotoxic activity of the GSE was observed against skin cancer cell lines A4321 using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. The IC50 value of the GSE against A431 skin cancer cell line was 480 µg/mL. This is first such report against A4321 cell lines. The study gives the overall perception about importance of GSE in medicine and nutraceuticals purposes.

  16. Liposomal systems as viable drug delivery technology for skin cancer sites with an outlook on lipid-based delivery vehicles and diagnostic imaging inputs for skin conditions'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naseem; Khan, Riaz A

    2016-10-01

    Skin cancer is among one of the most common human malignancies wide-spread world-over with mortality statistics rising continuously at an alarming rate. The increasing frequency of these malignancies has marked the need for adopting effective treatment plan coupled with better and site-specific delivery options for the desired therapeutic agent's availability at the affected site. The concurrent delivery approaches to cancerous tissues are under constant challenge and, as a result, are evolving and gaining advancements in terms of delivery modes, therapeutic agents and site-specificity of the therapeutics delivery. The lipid-based liposomal drug delivery is an attractive and emerging option, and which is meticulously shaping up beyond a threshold level to a promising, and viable route for the effective delivery of therapeutic agents and other required injuctions to the skin cancer. An update on liposomal delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, natural-origin compounds, photosensitizer, and DNA repair enzymes as well as other desirable and typical delivery modes employed in drug delivery and in the treatment of skin cancers is discussed in details. Moreover, liposomal delivery of nucleic acid-based therapeutics, i.e., small interfering RNA (siRNA), mRNA therapy, and RGD-linked liposomes are among the other promising novel technology under constant development. The current clinical applicability, viable clinical plans, future prospects including transport feasibility of delivery vesicles and imaging techniques in conjunction with the therapeutic agents is also discussed. The ongoing innovations in liposomal drug delivery technology for skin cancers hold promise for further development of the methodology for better, more effective and site-specific delivery as part of the better treatment plan by ensuring faster drug transport, better and full payload delivery with enough and required concentration of the dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of Secondary Skin Cancer Risk Due To Electron Contamination in 18-MV LINAC-Based Prostate Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Ghavami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Accurate estimation of the skin-absorbed dose in external radiation therapy is essential to estimating the probability of secondary carcinogenesis induction Materials and Methods Electron contamination in prostate radiotherapy was investigated using the Monte Carlo (MC code calculation. In addition, field size dependence of the skin dose was assessed. Excess cancer risk induced by electron contamination was determined for the skin, surface dose, and prostate dose-volume histogram (DVH using MC calculation and analytical methods. Results MC calculations indicated that up to 80% of total electron contamination fluence was produced in the linear accelerator. At 5 mm below the skin surface, surface dose was estimated at 6%, 13%, 27%, and 38% for 5×5 cm2, 10×10 cm2, 20×20 cm2, and 40×40 cm2 field sizes, respectively. Relative dose at Dmax was calculated at 0.92% and 5.42% of the maximum dose for 5×5 cm2 and 40×40 cm2 field sizes, respectively. Excess absolute skin cancer risk was obtained at 2.96×10-4 (PY -1 for total 72 Gy. Differences in prostate and skin DVHs were 1.01% and 1.38%, respectively. Conclusion According to the results of this study, non-negligible doses are absorbed from contaminant electrons by the skin, which is associated with an excess risk of cancer induction.

  18. Dermatology undergraduate skin cancer training: a disconnect between recommendations, clinical exposure and competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldridge R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancers are the most common malignancies in Caucasian populations. Non-specialists are responsible for the initial assessment of skin lesions and are required to act as the gatekeepers to dermatological cancer services in many healthcare systems. The majority of such physicians receive very limited formal undergraduate or postgraduate dermatology training. The British Association of Dermatologists (BAD has produced guidelines that list the lesions that students should be able to diagnose on graduation and the majority of UK medical schools’ operate curricula in keeping with these. There is, however, virtually no evidence as to whether these competencies are being achieved. We set out to determine students’ competence at skin lesion diagnosis and to quantify their clinical exposure to examples of such lesions during their dermatology attachment. Methods Three linked studies were undertaken. In the first, students’ competence was tested by randomized slideshows of images containing the 16 lesions recommended in the UK guidelines. Students’ accuracy was tested at the beginning (Day 1 and end (Day 10 of their clinical placement, with a random sample of students retested 12 months later. Secondly, students’ exposure to these lesions was recorded during their attachments. Finally a survey of the additional dermatological resources used by the students was undertaken. Results Study 1: Students’ diagnostic accuracy increased from 11% on Day 1 to 33% on Day 10 (effect size +2.72. After 12 months half of this effect had disappeared and the students accuracy had dropped to 24%. Study 2: Students’ exposure to the recommended lesions was poor with 82% not even witnessing a single example of each of the 3 major skin cancers. Despite these measurements, only a minority of students reported that they were not confident at diagnosing skin tumours. Study 3: The majority of students use additional resources to supplement

  19. Outcome in prostate cancer associations with skin type and polymorphism in pigmentation-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe, C J; French, M E; Liu, S; Saxby, M F; Jones, P W; Fryer, A A; Strange, R C

    2001-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that UV exerts a protective effect on prostate cancer. Accordingly, we determined, in 210 prostate cancer cases, whether parameters of exposure, skin type and polymorphism in MC1R, VDR and TYR were associated with the outcome parameters, histological grade, clinical stage and presence of bone metastases. We used logistic regression analysis, with correction for age and metastases, stage and grade in the models, to determine if the frequencies of individual factors were different in the patient groups. The development of metastases was not associated with UV exposure parameters. Paradoxically, patients with skin type 1 were at significantly reduced risk [P = 0.027, odds ratio (OR) 0.17, 95% CI 0.03-0.82] of developing metastases compared with cases with skin type 4. MC1R Val92/Val92 and VDR ff were associated with increased risk of metastases (ORs 4.30 and 4.98, respectively). Further, cumulative exposure (P = 0.005, OR 0.85/year) and increasing proportion of outdoor occupation (P = 0.001, OR 0.84/unit) were associated with reduced risk of advanced stage tumours. Skin types, MC1R or VDR genotypes were not significantly associated with advanced stage. None of the exposure parameters, skin types or genotypes were associated with tumour grade. While MC1R Val92/Val92 and VDR ff were only associated with bone metastases, TYR genotypes were associated with each of the outcome parameters. Thus, in logistic regression models that included age, but not advanced stage and high grade histology, TYR A1A2 was significantly associated with reduced risk of metastases (P = 0.033, OR 0.41). Similarly, in models that included age but not the other outcome parameters, associations between TYR A2A2 and high-grade and advanced stage were significant (P = 0.040, OR 0.41) or approached significance (P = 0.052, OR 0.44), respectively. These data indicate for the first time that pigmentation response to UV is associated with outcome in prostate cancer.

  20. Laser-skinning colpectomy for extended vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and microinvasive cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Alexander; Hastor, Hana; Vasileva, Teodora; Zander, Martina; Petry, Karl Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the efficacy of colposcopic-guided laser-skinning colpectomy to treat extended high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN). Retrospective review of 33 heavily pretreated patients with high-grade VaIN extending over 20-100% of the vaginal surface treated between 2003 and 2013 with colposcopic-guided laser-skinning colpectomy. The vaginal epithelium including all VaIN lesions was excised in one piece with a depth of 2-3mm. Vaginal cancer was diagnosed in 10 patients (nine microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma and one vaginal carcinoma). No serious adverse events related to laser-skinning colpectomy were observed. Of 33 patients, 23 were followed up with cytology and colposcopy for at least 12months at our institution (median follow 26.5months; range 12-104months), while five had a shorter follow-up, four an external follow-up and one patient was lost. Of 23 patients with follow-up ≥12months, 20 were disease free after a single laser-skinning colpectomy (overall cure rate 87.0%). Moderate shortening of the vagina was observed in two patients and another two required reconstruction of vaginal strictures during long-term follow-up. Laser-skinning colpectomy appears to be a feasible treatment for extended high-risk VaIN3. The procedure avoids the mutilation associated with colpectomy and allows early diagnosis and staging of invasive disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. T-cell-expressed proprotein convertase FURIN inhibits DMBA/TPA-induced skin cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähätupa, Maria; Aittomäki, Saara; Martinez Cordova, Zuzet; May, Ulrike; Prince, Stuart; Uusitalo-Järvinen, Hannele; Pesu, Marko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proprotein convertases (PCSK) have a critical role in the body homeostasis as enzymes responsible for processing precursor proteins into their mature forms. FURIN, the first characterized member of the mammalian PCSK family, is overexpressed in multiple malignancies and the inhibition of its activity has been considered potential cancer treatment. FURIN has also an important function in the adaptive immunity, since its deficiency in T cells causes an impaired peripheral immune tolerance and accelerates immune responses. We addressed whether deleting FURIN from the immune cells would strengthen anticancer responses by subjecting mouse strains lacking FURIN from either T cells or macrophages and granulocytes to the DMBA/TPA two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol. Unexpectedly, deficiency of FURIN in T cells resulted in enhanced and accelerated development of tumors, whereas FURIN deletion in macrophages and granulocytes had no effect. The epidermises of T-cell-specific FURIN deficient mice were significantly thicker with more proliferating Ki67+ cells. In contrast, there were no differences in the numbers of the T cells. The flow cytometric analyses of T-cell populations in skin draining lymph nodes showed that FURIN T-cell KO mice have an inherent upregulation of early activation marker CD69 as well as more CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ positive T regulatory cells. In the early phase of tumor promotion, T cells from the T-cell-specific FURIN knockout animals produced more interferon gamma, whereas at later stage the production of Th2- and Th17-type cytokines was more prominent than in wild-type controls. In conclusion, while PCSK inhibitors are promising therapeutics in cancer treatment, our results show that inhibiting FURIN specifically in T cells may promote squamous skin cancer development.

  2. Male pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer in a cohort of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Han, Jiali; Weinstock, Martin A; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2016-12-15

    We examined the association between male-pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer, including invasive melanoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in a prospective analysis, based on 36,032 participants from the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study. In 1992, participants reported their status of male-pattern baldness at age 45 years by choosing from five crown-view pictograms based on Norwood's classification. Diagnosis of skin cancers was reported biennially and information on melanoma and SCC was pathologically confirmed. We identified 327 melanoma cases, 1324 SCC cases, and 8438 BCC cases during the follow-up. Male-pattern baldness was not significantly associated with risk of incident melanoma, but was significantly associated with increased risk of SCC and BCC. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for the highest category of baldness (frontal plus severe vertex baldness) was 1.33 (1.06-1.68) for SCC (ptrend  = 0.001) and 1.23 (1.12-1.35) for BCC (ptrend  baldness. Analyses by body sites found significant associations between frontal plus moderate to severe vertex baldness and risk of melanoma (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.01-3.34) and SCC (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.02-1.66) at head and neck. The associations were particularly stronger for scalp melanoma (HR = 7.15, 95% CI: 1.29-39.42) and scalp SCC (HR = 7.09, 95% CI: 3.84-13.08), but not for non-scalp head and neck sites. Information on body sites was not available for BCC. In conclusion, male pattern baldness may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer, but the associations may only exist for those occurring at head and neck, particularly at scalp.

  3. Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction: oncologic risks and aesthetic results in patients with early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, S A; Schnitt, S J; Duda, R B; Houlihan, M J; Koufman, C N; Morris, D J; Troyan, S L; Goldwyn, R M

    1998-07-01

    Skin-sparing mastectomy has been advocated as an oncologically safe approach for the management of patients with early-stage breast cancer that minimizes deformity and improves cosmesis through preservation of the skin envelope of the breast. Because chest wall skin is the most frequent site of local failure after mastectomy, concerns have been raised that inadequate skin excision could result in an increased risk of local recurrence. Precise borders of the skin resection have not been well established, and long-term local recurrence rates after skin-sparing mastectomy are not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncologic safety and aesthetic results for skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and saline breast prosthesis. Fifty-one patients with early-stage breast cancer (26 with ductal carcinoma in situ and 25 with invasive carcinoma) undergoing primary mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with a latissimus flap were studied from 1991 through 1994. For 32 consecutive patients, skin-sparing mastectomy was defined as a 5-mm margin of skin designed around the border of the nipple-areolar complex. After the mastectomy, biopsies were obtained from the remaining native skin flap edges. Patients were followed for 44.8 months. Histologic examination of 114 native skin flap biopsy specimens failed to demonstrate breast ducts in the dermis of any of the 32 consecutive patients studied. One of 26 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ had metastases to the skin of the lateral chest wall and back. Four other patients, one with stage I disease and three with stage II-B disease, had recurrent breast carcinoma. The stage I patient had a local recurrence in the subcutaneous tissues near the mastectomy specimen. Two patients suffered axillary relapse, and one had distant metastases to the spine. The findings of this study support the technique of skin-sparing mastectomy as an oncologically safe one

  4. Development of Hemolytic Anemia in a Nivolumab-Treated Patient with Refractory Metastatic Squamous Cell Skin Cancer and Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Schwab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer, refractory to initial therapy with standard chemotherapy and radiation protocols, remains difficult with poor overall prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Recently, promising response rates with nivolumab, a programmed death receptor-1-blocking antibody, in squamous cancer of the head and neck have been demonstrated. Considering the similar histological patterns of squamous cell cancer of the skin and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, we assumed that nivolumab could also be effective in our patients with refractory metastatic squamous cell cancer of the skin. So far, there have been no clinical data on the therapeutic efficacy of nivolumab in squamous cell skin cancer. We here present a case of a patient with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer refractory to previous therapies, who showed a good response to nivolumab over a period of 5 months, but developed a serious hemolytic crisis under nivolumab treatment after eight applications.

  5. Development of Hemolytic Anemia in a Nivolumab-Treated Patient with Refractory Metastatic Squamous Cell Skin Cancer and Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, K S; Heine, A; Weimann, T; Kristiansen, G; Brossart, P

    2016-01-01

    Management of patients with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer, refractory to initial therapy with standard chemotherapy and radiation protocols, remains difficult with poor overall prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Recently, promising response rates with nivolumab, a programmed death receptor-1-blocking antibody, in squamous cancer of the head and neck have been demonstrated. Considering the similar histological patterns of squamous cell cancer of the skin and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, we assumed that nivolumab could also be effective in our patients with refractory metastatic squamous cell cancer of the skin. So far, there have been no clinical data on the therapeutic efficacy of nivolumab in squamous cell skin cancer. We here present a case of a patient with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer refractory to previous therapies, who showed a good response to nivolumab over a period of 5 months, but developed a serious hemolytic crisis under nivolumab treatment after eight applications.

  6. Seasonal variation of DNA damage and repair in patients with non-melanoma skin cancer and referents with and without psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Frentz, G;

    1998-01-01

    Quadruples of skin cancer patients with and without psoriasis and referents with and without psoriasis (4 x 20 study persons) were identified and examined for DNA damage by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet-assay) and DNA-repair by UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mononuclear...... to solar radiation. When the comet tail moment data were stratified by sampling period, an interaction between psoriasis and skin cancer was detected, with patients with psoriasis and skin cancer exhibiting more DNA damage. Patients with psoriasis and skin cancer also had lower UDS compared to healthy...

  7. Statistical Survey of Deaths from Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Japan during 54 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Hisashi Ohtsuka

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzed the annual trends in the number of deaths from nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) from 1955 to 2008 in Japan on the basis of the data from the Vital Statistics of Japan. The general trends in the number of deaths from NMSC were downward between 1979 to 1994, but upward after 1995. The general trends in age-standardized death rates were roughly downward, although the death rates plateaued after 1995. The recent annual increased ratio of deaths from NMSC was 3.8% (95% confidence...

  8. Analysis of superficial fluorescence patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer during photodynamic therapy by a dosimetric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-García, I.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the superficial fluorescence patterns in different nonmelanoma skin cancers and their photodynamic treatment response are analysed by a fluorescence based dosimetric model. Results show differences of even more than 50% in the fluorescence patterns as photodynamic therapy progresses depending on the malignant tissue type. They demonstrate the great relevance of the biological media as an additional dosimetric factor and contribute to the development of a future customized therapy with the assistance of dosimetric tools to interpret the fluorescence images obtained during the treatment monitoring and the differential photodiagnosis.

  9. Estadísticas en el cáncer de piel Statistics in skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Achenbach

    Full Text Available Se establecen puntos de vista diferentes que influyen, al momento de presentar trabajos de estadística en la esfera del cáncer de la piel, especialmente respecto de las denominadas dermatosis precancerosas, al carcinoma espinocelular y cuál es la más frecuente en el ser humano.A different point of view in the sphere of statistics in skin cancer, specially about squamous cell carcinoma, solar keratosis and the so called precancerous dermatosis. The numerous papers about the issue from AB Ackerman, should be known in order of confident statistics numbers.

  10. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Boards study tools Online Learning Center Meetings and events Make a difference Career planning Media Relations Toolkit AAD apps Academy meeting Chronic urticaria—for members Chronic urticaria—for public Dermatology World Dialogues in Dermatology JAAD Mohs AUC ...

  11. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might touch you. This includes your ears, the back of your neck, and any bald areas on the top of the head. Put on more sunscreen at least every 2 hours and after swimming, sweating, or toweling off.Remember, you’re not ...

  12. Topical TLR7 agonist imiquimod can induce immune-mediated rejection of skin metastases in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sylvia; Kozhaya, Lina; Martiniuk, Frank; Meng, Tze-Chiang; Chiriboga, Luis; Liebes, Leonard; Hochman, Tsivia; Shuman, Nicholas; Axelrod, Deborah; Speyer, James; Novik, Yelena; Tiersten, Amy; Goldberg, Judith D; Formenti, Silvia C; Bhardwaj, Nina; Unutmaz, Derya; Demaria, Sandra

    2012-12-15

    Skin metastases of breast cancer remain a therapeutic challenge. Toll-like receptor 7 agonist imiquimod is an immune response modifier and can induce immune-mediated rejection of primary skin malignancies when topically applied. Here we tested the hypothesis that topical imiquimod stimulates local antitumor immunity and induces the regression of breast cancer skin metastases. A prospective clinical trial was designed to evaluate the local tumor response rate of breast cancer skin metastases treated with topical imiquimod, applied 5 d/wk for 8 weeks. Safety and immunologic correlates were secondary objectives. Ten patients were enrolled and completed the study. Imiquimod treatment was well tolerated, with only grade 1 to 2 transient local and systemic side effects consistent with imiquimod's immunomodulatory effects. Two patients achieved a partial response [20%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3%-56%]. Responders showed histologic tumor regression with evidence of an immune-mediated response, showed by changes in the tumor lymphocytic infiltrate and locally produced cytokines. Topical imiquimod is a beneficial treatment modality for breast cancer metastatic to skin/chest wall and is well tolerated. Importantly, imiquimod can promote a proimmunogenic tumor microenvironment in breast cancer. Preclinical data generated by our group suggest superior results with a combination of imiquimod and ionizing radiation and we are currently testing in patients whether the combination can further improve antitumor immune and clinical responses. ©2012 AACR.

  13. Does personalized melanoma genomic risk information trigger conversations about skin cancer prevention and skin examination with family, friends and health professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, A K; Keogh, L A; Newson, A J; Butow, P N; Dunlop, K; Morton, R L; Kirk, J; Espinoza, D; Cust, A E

    2017-09-01

    Receiving information about genomic risk of melanoma might trigger conversations about skin cancer prevention and skin examinations. To explore conversations prompted by receiving personalized genomic risk of melanoma with family, friends and health professionals. We used a mixed-methods approach. Participants without a personal history and unselected for a family history of melanoma (n = 103, aged 21-69 years, 53% women) completed questionnaires 3 months after receiving a personalized melanoma genomic risk assessment. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with 30 participants in high, average and low genomic risk categories, and data were analysed thematically. From the questionnaires, 74% of participants communicated their genomic risk information with family, and 49% with friends. Communication with a health professional differed by risk level: 41%, 16% and 12% for high, average and low risk, respectively (P = 0·01). Qualitative analysis showed that perceived 'shared risk' and perceived interest of family and friends were motivations for discussing risk or prevention behaviours. The information prompted conversations with family and health professionals about sun protection and skin checks, and general conversations about melanoma risk with friends. Reasons for not discussing with family included existing personal or family health concerns, or existing high levels of sun protection behaviour among family members. Personalized melanoma genomic risk information can prompt risk-appropriate discussions about skin cancer prevention and skin examinations with family and health professionals. Sharing this information with others might increase its impact on melanoma prevention and skin examination behaviours, and this process could be used to encourage healthy behaviour change within families. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Nonmelanoma skin cancer and risk of all-cause and cancer-related mortality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Virginia; Armeson, Kent; Hampras, Shalaka; Ferris, Laura K; Visvanathan, Kala; Rollison, Dana; Alberg, Anthony J

    2017-05-01

    Some reports suggest that a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) may be associated with increased mortality. NMSCs have very low fatality rates, but the high prevalence of NMSC elevates the importance of the possibility of associated subsequent mortality from other causes. The variable methods and findings of existing studies leave the significance of these results uncertain. To provide clarity, we conducted a systematic review to characterize the evidence on the associations of NMSC with: (1) all-cause mortality, (2) cancer-specific mortality, and (3) cancer survival. Bibliographic databases were searched through February 2016. Cohort studies published in English were included if adequate data were provided to estimate mortality ratios in patients with-versus-without NMSC. Data were abstracted from the total of eight studies from independent data sources that met inclusion criteria (n = 3 for all-cause mortality, n = 2 for cancer-specific mortality, and n = 5 for cancer survival). For all-cause mortality, a significant increased risk was observed for patients with a history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (mortality ratio estimates (MR) 1.25 and 1.30), whereas no increased risk was observed for patients with a history of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (MRs 0.96 and 0.97). Based on one study, the association with cancer-specific mortality was stronger for SCC (MR 2.17) than BCC (MR 1.15). Across multiple types of cancer both SCC and BCC tended to be associated with poorer survival from second primary malignancies. Multiple studies support an association between NMSC and fatal outcomes; the associations tend to be more potent for SCC than BCC. Additional investigation is needed to more precisely characterize these associations and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms.

  15. Comparing of the Epidemiology of Skin Cancer in the Kurdistan and Yazd in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Results: The mean age of Kurdistan patients was 64.4±12.5 and the mean age of Yazd patients was 61.5± 15. Age-adjusted prevalence of skin cancer in Kurdistan and Yazd was reported respectively 7.07 and 7.60 per 100,000. Age-adjusted incidence was observed as 3.66 and 5.02 per 100,000 respectively in Yazd and Kurdistan in the second half of 2012. Conclusions: The study results revealed that the cancer prevalence was higher in Yazd province, which could be due such factors as continuous contact with sunlight and pollution caused by industries of Yazd Province. It is recommended to take the development of health promotion activities in to account simultaneously with the urban development.

  16. Anticarcinogenic properties of medium chain fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Amoolya; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-03-05

    Colorectal cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer are commonly-reported cancer types in the U.S. Although radiation and chemotherapy are routinely used to treat cancer, they produce side effects in patients. Additionally, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs has been noticed in cancers. Thus, there is a need for effective and safe bioprophylactics and biotherapeutics in cancer therapy. The medicinal value of goat milk has been recognized for centuries and is primarily attributed to three fatty acids, namely capric, caprylic and caproic acids. This research investigates the anticancer property of these fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and mammary gland cancer cells. The cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of fatty acids for 48 h, and cell viability was monitored by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to elucidate the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of the three fatty acids under investigation. Capric, caprylic and caproic acids reduced cancer cell viability by 70% to 90% (p < 0.05) compared to controls. RT-qPCR data indicated that these natural molecules produced anticancer effects by down-regulating cell cycle regulatory genes and up-regulating genes involved in apoptosis. Future research will validate the anticancer effect of these fatty acids in an appropriate in vivo model.

  17. Anticarcinogenic Properties of Medium Chain Fatty Acids on Human Colorectal, Skin and Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoolya Narayanan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer are commonly-reported cancer types in the U.S. Although radiation and chemotherapy are routinely used to treat cancer, they produce side effects in patients. Additionally, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs has been noticed in cancers. Thus, there is a need for effective and safe bioprophylactics and biotherapeutics in cancer therapy. The medicinal value of goat milk has been recognized for centuries and is primarily attributed to three fatty acids, namely capric, caprylic and caproic acids. This research investigates the anticancer property of these fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and mammary gland cancer cells. The cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of fatty acids for 48 h, and cell viability was monitored by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT reduction assay. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR was performed to elucidate the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of the three fatty acids under investigation. Capric, caprylic and caproic acids reduced cancer cell viability by 70% to 90% (p < 0.05 compared to controls. RT-qPCR data indicated that these natural molecules produced anticancer effects by down-regulating cell cycle regulatory genes and up-regulating genes involved in apoptosis. Future research will validate the anticancer effect of these fatty acids in an appropriate in vivo model.

  18. Science Signaling Podcast for 21 June 2016: MET and skin