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Sample records for nonmelanoma skin carcinoma

  1. Low-Molecular-Weight Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Carcinomas and Adjacent Normal-Looking Skin.

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    Grammenandi, Konstantina; Kyriazi, Maria; Katsarou-Katsari, Alexandra; Papadopoulos, Othon; Anastassopoulou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Georgios T; Sagriotis, Alexandros; Rallis, Michail; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight antioxidants are some of the most efficient agents of the skin defense mechanism against environmental factors, such as cosmic rays, smoke, and pollutants. The total skin concentrations of hydrophilic ascorbic and uric acids, as well as lipophilic α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and ubiquinol-10 antioxidants were determined by an HPLC-EC detector from 18 biopsies of human nonmelanoma skin carcinomas and 18 biopsies from skin areas adjacent to carcinomas. No significant differences in the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants in both carcinomas and normal-looking skin areas adjacent to carcinomas were observed. On the contrary, ascorbic and uric acid concentrations were found to be 18 and 36% lower in carcinomas than in normal-looking skin areas, respectively. No statistical significance was observed between antioxidant concentrations and age, sex, phototype, profession, site of tumor, frequency, and time of UV light exposure either. Accordingly the antioxidant concentrations in both cancerous skin and adjacent normal-looking areas were found to be much higher than in normal skin, in contrast to literature data.

  2. Concomitant Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy for High-Risk Nonmelanoma Skin Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

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    Smith Apisarnthanarax

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To report on the use and feasibility of a multimodality approach using concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with high-risk nonmelanoma skin carcinoma (NMSC of the head and neck. Methods. Records of patients with NMSC of the head and neck who received concomitant CRT at the University of North Carolina between 2001 and 2007 were reviewed. Results. Fifteen identified patients had at least one of the following high-risk factors: T4 disease (93%, unresectability (60%, regional nodal involvement (40%, and/or recurrence (47%. Ten patients were treated in the definitive setting and five in the postoperative setting. Platinum based chemotherapy was given in 14 (93% patients. Ten of fifteen (67% patients completed all planned chemotherapy treatments, and thirteen patients (87% completed at least 80% of planned chemotherapy. Mild radiation dermatitis occurred in all patients and reached grade 3 in 13% of patients. No patients experienced grade 4 or 5 toxicity. With a median followup of 31 months in surviving patients, the 2-year actuarial locoregional control and relapse-free survival were 79% and 49%, respectively. Conclusions. Definitive or postoperative chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced or regionally metastasized NMSC of the head and neck appears feasible with acceptable toxicities and favorable locoregional control.

  3. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents...... a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. STUDY POPULATION: The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen......'s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. MAIN VARIABLES: Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables...

  4. Photodynamic therapy of murine non-melanoma skin carcinomas with diode laser after topical application of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride

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    Kyriazi, Maria; Alexandratou, Eleni; Yova, Dido; Rallis, Michail; Trebst, Tilmann

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study pharmacokinetics and photodynamic efficiency of aluminium phthalocyanine chloride (AlClPc) in dimethylsulfoxide/Tween 80/water solution, after topical application on hairless mice bearing non-melanoma skin carcinomas. The concentration of photosensitizer in normal skin and tumor biopsies 1-6 hours after application was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy of chemical extractions. The concentration of photosensitizer was 40 times higher in tumor than in normal skin even 1 h after application. For photodynamic therapy (PDT) AlClPc was excited by a diode laser emitting at 670 nm, 1 h after application. Seven different combinations of therapeutic parameters were chosen. The efficiency was assessed as the percentage of complete tumor remission, the tumor growth retardation and the cosmetic outcomes. The highest complete remission 60% was achieved with the combination of 75 mW/cm2 with 150 J/cm2. No recurrence rate was observed in any treatment parameters group and the cosmetic outcome in all completely treated tumors was excellent. The results show that the effectiveness of PDT is highly dependent on fluence rate. In addition, they are promising for further investigation of this PDT scheme in preclinical studies mainly in non-melanoma skin carcinomas up to 7mm.

  5. Immunomodulatory Effectiveness of Fish Oil and omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Non-melanoma Skin Carcinoma Cells.

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    Rehman, Khurram; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Yuen, Ng Pei; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Fish oil is composed of various fatty acids among which omega-3 fatty acids are considered as most beneficial. The effects of fish oil on the activity of a topical anticancer drug, imiquimod, and the immunomodulatory activity of omega-3 fatty acids was investigated in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Imiquimod-fish oil mixture exhibited higher carcinoma cell growth inhibition and immunomodulatory activity than imiquimod alone, especially against squamous cell carcinoma cells. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibited growth inhibition of both basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and modulated the immune response. Omega-3 fatty acids of fish oil serve as inducers of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and as suppressors of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which not only depress tumor growth but also adequately control the inflammatory side effects of imiquimod. Thus, imiquimod administration with fish oil could be beneficial for inhibition of non-melanoma skin carcinoma cells but further in vivo studies are needed to understand their role in skin cancer.

  6. Concomitant cetuximab and radiation therapy: A possible promising strategy for locally advanced inoperable non-melanoma skin carcinomas

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    DELLA VITTORIA SCARPATI, GIUSEPPINA; PERRI, FRANCESCO; PISCONTI, SALVATORE; COSTA, GIUSEPPE; RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO; DEL PRETE, SALVATORE; NAPOLITANO, ALBERTO; CARRATURO, MARCO; MAZZONE, SALVATORE; ADDEO, RAFFAELE

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) include a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from the epidermis, comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Merkel cell carcinoma and more rare entities, including malignant pilomatrixoma and sebaceous gland tumours. The treatment of early disease depends primarily on surgery. In addition, certain patients present with extensive local invasion or metastasis, which renders these tumours surgically unresectable. Improving the outcome of radiotherapy through the use of concurrent systemic therapy has been demonstrated in several locally advanced cancer-treatment paradigms. Recently, agents targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have exhibited a consolidated activity in phase II clinical trials and case series reports. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to and completely inhibits the EGFR, which has been revealed to be up-regulated in a variety of SCCs, including NMSCs. The present review aimed to summarize the role of anti-EGFR agents in the predominant types of NMSC, including SCC and BCC, and focuses on the cetuximab-based studies, highlighting the biological rationale of this therapeutic option. In addition, the importance of the association between cetuximab and radiotherapy for locally advanced NMSC is discussed. PMID:27073643

  7. Optical mapping of nonmelanoma skin cancer

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    Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Neel, Victor; Anderson, Richard R.

    2004-07-01

    More than two million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancers are diagnosed every year. Therefore, there is a strong need for practical, reliable, rapid, and precise methods for tumor delineation, to guide surgery and other treatments of skin cancer. Once developed, such methods may be useful for squamous cell carcinomas of other organs. Non-invasive optical imaging techniques including polarization sensitive reflectance and fluorescence imaging were evaluated for the demarcation of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Thick freshly excised tumor specimens obtained from Mohs surgery were used for the experiments. Imaging was performed using linearly polarized incident light in the visible and near infrared spectral range from 577 nm to 750 nm. Non-toxic absorbing and fluorescent dyes (Toluidine Blue O, Methylene Blue) were employed to enhance tumor contrast in the images. The images were acquired using the remitted light polarized in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the polarization of incident light. Reflectance and fluorescence polarization images were evaluated. The data were processed and analyzed for dependence of the remitted light polarization on the tissue type (cancerous/normal). The data obtained so far from fresh tumor specimens in vitro using dye-enhanced polarized light reflectance, and exogenous fluorescence polarization imaging suggest that optical mapping can become a valuable guidance tool in nonmelanoma cancer surgery.

  8. Application of Recursive Partitioning to Derive and Validate a Claims-Based Algorithm for Identifying Keratinocyte Carcinoma (Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer).

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    Chan, An-Wen; Fung, Kinwah; Tran, Jennifer M; Kitchen, Jessica; Austin, Peter C; Weinstock, Martin A; Rochon, Paula A

    2016-10-01

    Keratinocyte carcinoma (nonmelanoma skin cancer) accounts for substantial burden in terms of high incidence and health care costs but is excluded by most cancer registries in North America. Administrative health insurance claims databases offer an opportunity to identify these cancers using diagnosis and procedural codes submitted for reimbursement purposes. To apply recursive partitioning to derive and validate a claims-based algorithm for identifying keratinocyte carcinoma with high sensitivity and specificity. Retrospective study using population-based administrative databases linked to 602 371 pathology episodes from a community laboratory for adults residing in Ontario, Canada, from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2009. The final analysis was completed in January 2016. We used recursive partitioning (classification trees) to derive an algorithm based on health insurance claims. The performance of the derived algorithm was compared with 5 prespecified algorithms and validated using an independent academic hospital clinic data set of 2082 patients seen in May and June 2011. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value using the histopathological diagnosis as the criterion standard. We aimed to achieve maximal specificity, while maintaining greater than 80% sensitivity. Among 602 371 pathology episodes, 131 562 (21.8%) had a diagnosis of keratinocyte carcinoma. Our final derived algorithm outperformed the 5 simple prespecified algorithms and performed well in both community and hospital data sets in terms of sensitivity (82.6% and 84.9%, respectively), specificity (93.0% and 99.0%, respectively), positive predictive value (76.7% and 69.2%, respectively), and negative predictive value (95.0% and 99.6%, respectively). Algorithm performance did not vary substantially during the 18-year period. This algorithm offers a reliable mechanism for ascertaining keratinocyte carcinoma for epidemiological research in the absence of

  9. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberg AL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anna Lei Lamberg,1 Henrik Sølvsten,2 Ulrikke Lei,3 Gabrielle Randskov Vinding,3 Ida Marie Stender,4 Gregor Borut Ernst Jemec,5 Tine Vestergaard,6 Henrik Thormann,7 Merete Hædersdal,8 Tomas Norman Dam,9 Anne Braae Olesen10 1Dermatology Clinic, Grenaa, Central Denmark Region, 2Dermatology Clinic, Aalborg, North Denmark Region, 3Department of Dermato-Allergology, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Gentofte, 4Dermatology Clinic, Charlottenlund, Capital Region of Denmark, 5Department of Dermatology, Roskilde Hospital, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, Zealand Region, 6Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 7Dermatology Clinic, Vejle, Region of Southern Denmark, 8Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, 9Dermatology Clinic, Nykøbing Falster, Zealand Region, 10Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus, Central Denmark Region, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. Study population: The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC, squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Main variables: Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and

  10. Trends in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer (Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma) in Canada: A Descriptive Analysis of Available Data.

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    Abbas, Mariam; Kalia, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Despite its increased incidence and status as the most prevalent cancer in Canada, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). To assess trends of keratinocyte carcinomas (KC) in Canada over 5 decades. Articles published from 1960 to 2015 on NMSC in Canada were identified through MEDLINE. Six articles met our search criteria. Overall, KC has increased. However, the rate of increase in the past decade has slowed down and decreased in younger age cohorts. Men had higher incidences of KC. In both sexes, the basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma ratio was ≥2.5:1. Keratinocyte carcinomas were most commonly located on the head and neck, and increasing rates are occurring on the trunk. The methods of registering skin cancer cases vary among different provinces. Keratinocyte carcinomas incidence is overall increasing; however, there may be evidence that the incidence is leveling off and decreasing in younger age cohorts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

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    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. Study population The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen’s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Main variables Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. Descriptive data In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen’s disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. Conclusion The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance. PMID:27822110

  12. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

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    Spallone, Giulia; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.costanzo@uniroma2.it [Department of Dermatology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via Montpellier 1, 00199, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-03

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC), representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC). The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  13. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

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    Giulia Spallone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC, representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC. The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  14. Non-melanoma skin cancer in Portuguese kidney transplant recipients - incidence and risk factors*

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    Pinho, André; Gouveia, Miguel; Cardoso, José Carlos; Xavier, Maria Manuel; Vieira, Ricardo; Alves, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is currently among the three leading causes of death after solid organ transplantation and its incidence is increasing. Non-melanoma skin cancer - squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma - is the most common malignancy found in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs has not been extensively studied in Portugal. Objectives To determine the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs from the largest Portuguese kidney transplant unit; and to study risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical records of KTRs referred for the first time for a dermatology consultation between 2004 and 2013. A case-control study was performed on KTRs with and without non-melanoma skin cancer. Results We included 288 KTRs with a median age at transplantation of 47 years, a male gender predominance (66%) and a median transplant duration of 3.67 years. One fourth (n=71) of KTRs developed 131 non-melanoma skin cancers, including 69 (53%) squamous cell carcinomas and 62 (47%) basal cell carcinomas (ratio squamous cell carcinoma: basal cell carcinoma 1.11), with a mean of 1.85 neoplasms per patient. Forty percent of invasive squamous cell carcinomas involved at least two clinical or histological high-risk features. The following factors were associated with a higher risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: an older age at transplantation and at the first consultation, a longer transplant duration and the presence of actinic keratosis. KTRs treated with azathioprine were 2.85 times more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer (p=0.01). Conclusion Non-melanoma skin cancer was a common reason for dermatology consultation in Portuguese KTRs. It is imperative for KTRs to have access to specialized dermatology consultation for early referral and treatment of skin malignancies. PMID:27579740

  15. mTHPC Mediated, Systemic Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers : Case and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Rudolf K.; Terra, Jorrit B.; Witjes, Max J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Patients with multiple nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), like immunosuppressed or nevoid basal cell carcinomas, offer a therapeutic challenge. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the systemic photosensitizer meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) has the ability to treat

  16. mTHPC Mediated, Systemic Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers : Case and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Rudolf K.; Terra, Jorrit B.; Witjes, Max J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Patients with multiple nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), like immunosuppressed or nevoid basal cell carcinomas, offer a therapeutic challenge. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the systemic photosensitizer meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) has the ability to treat multi

  17. Clinicopathological evaluation of nonmelanoma skin cancer

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    Manjula Adinarayan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, in combination, are referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs. NMSC is not as extensively studied in the Asian population as it is in the Caucasian population. Aim: This study sought to evaluate the clinical and histopathologic aspects of NMSC from cases of cutaneous malignancies. Materials and Methods: The present study is a descriptive analysis of NMSC specimens seen at Department of Pathology, SSIMS and RC, Davangere. Histologically diagnosed NMSC, i.e. BCC and SCC specimens from January 2005 to December 2009 were analyzed according to site distribution, risk factors and histological variants. Results: Of the various specimens received during the 5year study period, 60 were histologically categorized as skin malignancies, of which 31(51.6% cases were of NMSC. SCC was the most common NMSC constituting 26 (83.9% cases and 5 NMSC cases (16.1% were of BCC. The most common incidence was among the age group 60-80 years (80% for BCC and 40-60 years (50% for SCC. Head and neck was the most common site of presentation with predilection for face. Forty-six percent of SCC was histologically categorized as well differentiated, 42.3% as moderately differentiated and 11.5% as poorly differentiated. Most common histological variant of BCC was solid (nodular type. Conclusion: NMSC often associated with greater morbidity, necessitating increased efforts to assess risk factors in individuals, to encourage periodic self-examination and professional evaluation of skin and to optimize strategies for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Histology of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

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    Müller, Cornelia S L

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of skin tumors is increasing among elderly patients, and the multi-morbidities which occur in the elderly are a great challenge for dermatologists. Basis of every treatment of skin cancer patients is a reliable diagnosis. Therefore, histopathology serves as the gold standard in clinical dermatooncology and dermatologic surgery. This chapter provides a comprehensive review on the main types of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers, including precursor lesions.

  19. Chemoprevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

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    Wright, Tina I; Spencer, James M; Flowers, Franklin P

    2006-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in human beings. The increased incidence of skin cancer has brought much attention to the process by which these tumors develop and how they can be prevented. Efforts have been made to educate the public about the importance of protecting skin from excessive ultraviolet light. Despite this work, the incidence of skin cancer continues to increase. Available compounds may be useful in the chemoprevention of skin cancer. Chemoprevention is defined as oral or topical use of dietary or pharmacologic agents to inhibit or reverse the development of cancer. Potential agents included are the retinoids; difluoromethylornithine; T4 endonuclease V; polyphenolic antioxidants, such as (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, found in green tea and grape seed extract; silymarin; isoflavone genestein; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; curcumin; lycopene; vitamin E; beta-carotene; and selenium. Many of these agents are available over the counter as topical or oral preparations. At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be familiar with the chemopreventive agents and their efficacy, as well as any significant side effects associated with them.

  20. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

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    K. C. Masoumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins posttranslationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common types of human skin cancer, are instances where the involvement of the deubiquitination enzyme CYLD has been recently highlighted. In basal cell carcinoma, the tumor suppressor protein CYLD is repressed at the transcriptional levels through hedgehog signaling pathway. Downregulation of CYLD in basal cell carcinoma was also shown to interfere with TrkC expression and signaling, thereby promoting cancer progression. By contrast, the level of CYLD is unchanged in squamous cell carcinoma, instead, catalytic inactivation of CYLD in the skin has been linked to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. This paper will focus on the current knowledge that links CYLD to nonmelanoma skin cancers and will explore recent insights regarding CYLD regulation of NF-κB and hedgehog signaling during the development and progression of these types of human tumors.

  1. Cognitive adaptation to nonmelanoma skin cancer.

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    Czajkowska, Zofia; Radiotis, George; Roberts, Nicole; Körner, Annett

    2013-01-01

    Taylor's (1983) cognitive adaptation theory posits that when people go through life transitions, such as being diagnosed with a chronic disease, they adjust to their new reality. The adjustment process revolves around three themes: search for positive meaning in the experience or optimism, attempt to regain a sense of mastery in life, as well as an effort to enhance self-esteem. In the sample of 57 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer the Cognitive Adaptation Index successfully predicted participants' distress (p accounting for 60% of the variance and lending support for the Taylor's theory of cognitive adaptation in this population.

  2. Non-melanoma skin cancer is reduced after switch of immunosuppression to mTOR-inhibitors in organ transplant recipients.

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    Alter, Mareike; Satzger, Imke; Schrem, Harald; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Kapp, Alexander; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2014-06-01

    Organ transplant recipients are prone to the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. Organ transplant recipients often develop multiple non-melanoma skin cancers and the tumors show an aggressive growth pattern, therefore surgical therapy can be difficult. Switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors such as everolimus or sirolimus can have an antitumor effect. In a monocentric retrospective study we evaluated organ transplant recipients who presented with non-melanoma skin cancer in the years 2008-2010. Experience with patients who were switched to an mTOR-inhibitor due to non-melanoma skin cancer are reported in detail, and recent clinical studies are reviewed. 60 organ transplant recipients with non-melanoma skin cancer were evaluated. Due to the development of multiple non-melanoma skin cancer within a few years, the immunosuppressive regimen was switched to everolimus in 7 patients and to sirolimus in 5 patients. Eight patients were evaluable for the effect of mTOR-inhibitors on the development of non-melanoma skin cancer; 4 patients had to discontinue the medication with mTOR-inhibitors early due to various side effects. In the year before the switch to mTOR-inhibitors, 8 patients developed 16 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 Basal cell carcinomas and 22 cases of Bowen's disease. All tumors were histologically confirmed. In the year after switch of immunosuppression, the rate of squamous cell carcinomas (n = 2) and Bowen's disease (n = 3), but not of basal cell carcinomas (n = 2) was significantly reduced. Moreover, 5 prospective randomized trials recently have demonstrated a reduced number of non-melanoma skin cancers in organ transplant recipients after switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors. Switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors should be considered for organ transplant recipients suffering from multiple non-melanoma skin cancers. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley

  3. Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers

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    Cohen, Diana K.; Lee, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is traditionally treated with surgical excision. Non-surgical methods such as cryotherapy and topical chemotherapeutics, amongst other treatments, are other options. Actinic keratosis (AKs) are considered precancerous lesions that eventually may progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers an effective treatment for AKs, and is also effective for superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Nodular BCC and Bowen’s disease (SCC in situ) have shown acceptable response rates with PDT, although recurrence rates are higher for these two NMSC subtypes. Methylaminolevulinate (MAL) PDT is a more effective treatment option than 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) PDT for nodular BCC. Several studies have shown that PDT results in superior cosmetic outcomes compared to surgical treatment. PDT is overall well-tolerated, with pain being the most common side effect. PMID:27782043

  4. Immune response associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer.

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    Strickland, F M; Kripke, M L

    1997-10-01

    It is now clear that UV radiation causes nonmelanoma skin cancer in at least two ways: by causing permanent changes in the genetic code and by preventing immunologic recognition of mutant cells. These are interacting rather than separate mechanisms. Damage to DNA results in disregulation of cellular proliferation and initiates immune suppression by stimulating the production of suppressive cytokines. These cytokines contribute to the loss of immunosurveillance. Ultraviolet radiation has both local and systemic immunosuppressive effects. Locally, it depletes and alters antigen-presenting LC at the site of UV irradiation. Systemic suppression results when Ts cells are induced, by altered LC, by inflammatory macrophages that enter the skin following UV irradiation, or by the action of cytokines. Damage to DNA appears to be one of the triggering events in inducing systemic immunosuppression via the release of immunosuppressive cytokines and mediators. Immunologic approaches to treating skin cancers so far have concentrated on nonspecifically stimulating immune cells that infiltrate these tumors, but induction of specific immune responses against these tumors with antitumor vaccines has received little attention as yet. Preventive measures include sun avoidance and the use of sunscreens to prevent DNA damage by UV light. Future strategies may employ means to reverse UV-induced immunosuppression by using anti-inflammatory agents, biologicals that accelerate DNA repair or prevent the generation of immunosuppressive cytokines, and specific immunotherapy with tumor antigens. New approaches for studying the immunology of human skin cancers are needed to accelerate progress in this field.

  5. Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Canada Chapter 2: Primary Prevention of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer.

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    Barber, Kirk; Searles, Gordon E; Vender, Ronald; Teoh, Hwee; Ashkenas, John

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC), represents the most common malignancy. To provide guidance to Canadian health care practitioners regarding primary prevention of NMSC. Structured literature searches were conducted, using search terms including prevention, sunscreen, and sun prevention factor. All recommendations concern guidance that physicians should regularly discuss with their patients to help establish photoprotection habits. The GRADE system was used to assign strength to each recommendation. Ultraviolet exposure is the major modifiable risk factor for NMSC. Aspects of photoprotection, including effective sunscreen use and avoidance of both the midday sun and artificial tanning, are discussed. Several widespread misunderstandings that undermine responsible public health measures related to sun safety are addressed. Photoprotection represents both an individual priority and a public health imperative. By providing accurate information during routine patient visits, physicians reinforce the need for ongoing skin cancer prevention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Epidemiological profile of nonmelanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients: experience of a referral center*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Tomimori, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in humans and also the malignant disease that is increasingly common among kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE To determine the epidemiological characteristics of renal transplant recipients with nonmelanoma skin cancer seen at a referral transplantation center. METHODS Cross-sectional descriptive study with renal transplant recipients presenting nonmelanoma skin cancer, treated at a transplantation referral center between 08/01/2004 and 08/31/2009. Analyzed variables were: gender, age, skin phototype, occupational and recreational sun exposure, use of photoprotection, personal and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer, clinical type and location, time between transplantation and the appearance of the first nonmelanoma skin cancer, occurrence of viral warts, timing of transplantation, type of donor, cause of kidney failure, previous transplants, comorbidities, pre-transplant dialysis, type and duration of dialysis. RESULTS 64 subjects were included. Males - 71.9%; low skin phototypes (up to Fitzpatrick III) - 89%; mean age - 57.0 years - and mean age at transplant - 47.3 years; sun exposure - 67.2% occupational - and 64.1% recreational; photoprotection - 78.2% (although only 34.4% in a regular manner); squamous cell carcinoma - 67.2%; squamous cell carcinoma/basal cell carcinoma ratio - 2:1; personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer - 25% - and family history - 10.9%; location at photoexposed area - 98.4%; average latency time between transplantation and first nonmelanoma skin cancer appearance - 78.3 months; viral warts (HPV) after transplant - 53.1%; average timing of transplantation - 115.5 months; living donor - 64.1%; triple regimen (antirejection) - 73.2%; comorbidities - 92.2%; pre-transplant dialysis - 98.4%; hemodialysis - 71.7%; average duration of dialysis - 39.1 months; previous transplants - 3.1%; hypertension as cause of renal failure - 46.9%. CONCLUSION This study allowed

  7. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke;

    2016-01-01

    a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. STUDY POPULATION: The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen......'s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. MAIN VARIABLES: Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables...... in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen's disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. CONCLUSION: The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after...

  8. Photodynamic Therapy and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Liezel L.; Lear, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen’s disease (BD) and actinic keratosis (AK). A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate) PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance. PDT is an effective treatment for superficial BCC, BD and both individual and field treatment of AKs. Excellent cosmesis can be achieved with high patient satisfaction. Variable results have been reported for nodular BCC, with improved outcomes following pretreatment and repeated PDT cycles. The more aggressive basisquamous, morphoeic infiltrating subtypes of BCC and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are not suitable for PDT. Prevention of “field cancerization” in organ transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppression and patients with Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) is a promising development. The optimisation of PDT techniques with improved photosensitiser delivery to target tissues, new generation photosensitisers and novel light sources may expand the future role of PDT in NMSC management. PMID:27782094

  9. Photodynamic Therapy and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel L. Griffin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC, Bowen’s disease (BD and actinic keratosis (AK. A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance. PDT is an effective treatment for superficial BCC, BD and both individual and field treatment of AKs. Excellent cosmesis can be achieved with high patient satisfaction. Variable results have been reported for nodular BCC, with improved outcomes following pretreatment and repeated PDT cycles. The more aggressive basisquamous, morphoeic infiltrating subtypes of BCC and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are not suitable for PDT. Prevention of “field cancerization” in organ transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppression and patients with Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a promising development. The optimisation of PDT techniques with improved photosensitiser delivery to target tissues, new generation photosensitisers and novel light sources may expand the future role of PDT in NMSC management.

  10. Risk of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis Treated with Oral Immunosuppressive Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garritsen, Floor M.; Van der Schaft, Jorien; Van den Reek, Juul M.; Politiek, Klaziena; Van Osmedendorp, Harmieke; Van Dijk, Marijke; Hijnen, Dirk J.; De Graaf, Marlies; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.; De Jong, Elke M.; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A.; De Bruin-Weller, Marjolein S.

    There is uncertainty about the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) treated with oral immunosuppressive drugs. A total of 557 patients with AD treated with these drugs in the

  11. Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, M.; Khan, R. U.; Firdous, S.; Atif, M.; Nawaz, M.

    2011-02-01

    In this prospective study duly approved from Institutional Ethics Review Committee for research in medicine, PAEC General Hospital Islamabad, Pakistan, we investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability along with cosmetic outcome of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) and their precursors. Patients with Histological diagnosis of NMSCs and their precursors were assessed for PDT, after photographic documentation of the lesions and written consent, underwent two (2) sessions of PDT in one month (4 weeks) according to standard protocol. A freshly prepared 20% 5-ALA in Unguentum base was applied under occlusive dressing for 4-6 h as Drug Light Interval (DLI) and irradiated with light of 630 nm wavelength from a diode laser at standard dose of 90 J/cm2. Approximately 11% patients reported pain during treatment which was managed in different simple ways. In our study we regularly followed up the patients for gross as well as histopathological response and recurrence free periods during median follow-up of 24 months. Regarding Basal cell carcinomas complete response was observed in 86.2% (25/29), partial response in 10.3% (3/29) and recurrence during first year in 3.5% (1/29) lesions. All the lesions which showed partial response or recurrence were nBCCs. Regarding Actinic Keratosis complete response was observed in 95.3% (20/21), partial response in 4.7% (1/21) while Bowen's disease showed 100% (2/2) results. 81.8% (9/11) Squamous Cell Carcinomas showed complete, 9% (1/11) partial response and 9% (1/11) presented with recurrence after 3 months. We observed excellent and good cosmetic results along with tumor clearance in our study. Treatment sessions were well tolerated with high level of patient's satisfaction and only minor side effects of pain during treatment sessions and inflammatory changes post photodynamic therapy were observed. We concluded that 5-ALA PDT is an effective and safe emerging

  12. Fluorescence polarization imaging for delineating nonmelanoma skin cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, A. N.; Neel, V.; Anderson, R. R.

    2004-09-01

    We present a method for detecting nonmelanoma skin cancers using exogenous fluorescence polarization. We built an automated system that permits exogenous fluorescence polarization imaging. It includes a tunable linearly polarized monochromatic light source and a CCD camera equipped with a rotating linear polarizer and a filter to reject excitation light. Two fluorophores that are retained in tumors, toluidine blue and methylene blue, are employed. We demonstrate that fluorescence polarization imaging can be used for accurate delineation of nonmelanoma cancers. The results suggest that this optical technique may be suitable for real-time noninvasive demarcation of epithelial cancers.

  13. Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers of Pinna: Retrospective Assesment of 51 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Çiloğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the demographic data, tumor types, relapse and recurrence rates of non-melanoma skin cancer cases of pinna. Methods: Pathological reports of our patients operated for non-melanoma skin cancer of head and neck region were scanned. Data of the patients with primary basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the pinna were retrospectively evaluated and age, gender, tumor location, tumor size, tumor type, tumor recurrence, lymph node involvement and metastasis of the patients were documented. Results: Out of the 535 patents who applied to our clinic for non-melanocytic skin cancer of head and neck region, 453 BCC and 179 SCC was excised. BCC/SCC ratio in the head and neck region was 3.5/1 tumors were resected from 51 patients who had pinna-located mass. BCC incidence in the pinna was 7%; SCC incidence was 14% in our patient population. Thirty three of the lesions (55.9% were BCC and 26 (44.1% were SCC. The BCC/SCC ratio in pinna was 1.3/1 and male/female ratio was determined as 16/1. Conclusion: We observed that non-melanoma skin cancer of pinna develops more frequently in male population and BCC is the most frequent tumor in this region.

  14. MAL-PDT for difficult to treat nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, William G; Hanke, C William

    2011-01-01

    With an incidence of over 3.5 million nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) per year in the United States, there is an increasing need for effective, cost-effective treatments for NMSC. When surgical excision is impractical or not feasible, methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) has demonstrated consistently high long-term cure rates ranging from 70-90%, with superior cosmetic outcomes compared with other treatment modalities. With the exception of invasive squamous cell carcinoma, MAL-PDT has been successful in treating all types of NMSC, especially in patients with multiple comorbidities, field cancerization, and lesions in cosmetically sensitive locations. Herein, a step-by-step description of the procedure for MAL-PDT is provided, followed by a review of outcomes from large clinical trials performed over the past 15 years for each variant of NMSC. After reading this review, clinicians should have a thorough understanding of the benefits and limits of MAL-PDT, and should be able to add this valuable procedure to their armamentarium of therapies for NMSC. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The relevance of piroxicam for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and its precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Elena; Paternò, Evelin Jasmine; Candi, Eleonora; Falconi, Mattia; Costanza, Gaetana; Diluvio, Laura; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Piroxicam (PXM), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is an enolic benzothiazine and a potent member of the oxicam series. The drug suppresses the synthesis of proinflammatory enzymes, such as cyclo-oxygenases-1 and -2 (COX-1 and 2), downregulates the production of prostaglandins (PGs) and tromboxanes, and inhibits polyamines production by blocking ornithine decarboxylase induction involved in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis. In addition, PXM is able to induce tumor cell apoptosis and suppresses metalloproteinase 2 activities. Skin carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which the accumulation of genetic events leads to a gradually dysplastic cellular expression, deregulation of cell growth, and carcinomatous progression. COX-1 upregulation plays a significant role in PG and vascular epidermal growth factor production supporting tumor growth. Increased level of PGs in premalignant and/or malignant cutaneous tumors is also favored by upregulation of COX-2 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Chemoprevention can be a hopeful approach to inhibit carcinoma occurrence before an invasive tumor develops. The chemopreventive effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nonmelanoma skin cancers has been established. In this study, we highlighted the different modalities of action of PXM on the pathogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancer, analyzing and evaluating binding modes and energies between COX-1 or COX-2 and PXM by protein-ligand molecular docking. Our clinical experience about the local use of PXM on actinic keratoses and field cancerization is also reported, confirming its efficacy as target therapy.

  16. Viral oncogenesis and its role in nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tuttleton Arron, S

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, the contribution of viruses to cutaneous oncogenesis has steadily gained recognition. The archetype is human herpesvirus 8, which is well established as the causative agent in Kaposi sarcoma. Other viruses believed to play a role in nonmelanoma skin cancer include human papillomavirus and the recently described Merkel cell polyomavirus. We review the mechanisms by which these three viruses interact with the host cell, ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression to result in carcinogenesis.

  17. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in the population of the city of Belgrade in the period 1999-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videnović Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nonmelanoma skin cancers in the literature are mainly related to basal cell and squamous cell skin carcinoma. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the trend in the incidence of histological types of nonmelanoma skin cancers in the population of the city of Belgrade from 1999 to 2011. Methods. From the Serbian National Cancer Registry we extracted all recorded cases of skin cancer in Belgrade from January 1st 1999 to December 31st 2011. Incidence rates were standardized by the method of direct standardization with the world population as the standard population. Trends and annual percentage change (APC of incidence rate were calculated by performing joinpoint regression analyses. Results. Incidence rate of nonmelanoma skin cancer showed significantly increasing trend between 1999 and 2006 with APC of 8.6% (95% CI: 5.6-11.7, basal cell carcinoma increased with APC of 8.4% (95% CI: 5.2-11.6 and squamous cell skin carcinoma with APC of 9.33% (95% CI: 5.7-13.1. The incidence increased with age for both men and women, especially after the age of 60. Conclusion. Our results showed a continuously increasing incidence trend of both basal cell and squamous cell skin carcinomas in the population of the city of Belgrade between 1999 and 2011. Adequate primary and secondary prevention would certainly be successful in reducing this type of cancer in the future.

  18. In vivo determination of optical properties and fluorophore characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Narasimhan; Kovacic, Dianne; Migden, Michael F.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Nguyen, Tri H.; Tunnell, James W.

    2009-02-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques have widely been used as noninvasive tools for early cancer detection in several organs including the cervix, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Using a combined DOS/LIF approach, one can simultaneously measure the morphology and biochemical composition of tissue and use these features to diagnose malignancy. We report for the first time to our knowledge both the optical properties and native fluorophore characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancer in the UV-visible range. We collected in vivo diffuse reflectance and intrinsic fluorescence measurements from 44 skin lesions on 37 patients. The skin sites were further categorized into three groups of non-melanoma skin cancer according to histopathology: 1) pre-cancerous actinic keratosis 2) malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 3) basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We used a custom-built probe-based clinical system that collects both white light reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence in the wavelength range of 350-700 nm. We extracted the blood volume fraction, oxygen saturation, blood vessel size, tissue microarchitecture and melanin content from diffuse reflectance measurements. In addition, we determined the native fluorophore contributions of NADH, collagen and FAD from laser-induced fluorescence for all groups. The scattering from tissue decreased with progression from clinically normal to precancerous actinic keratosis to malignant SCC. A similar trend was observed for clinically normal skin and malignant BCC. Statistically significant differences were observed in the collagen contributions, which were lower in malignant SCC and BCC as compared to normal skin. Our data demonstrates that the mean optical properties and fluorophore contributions of normal, benign and malignant nonmelanoma cancers are significantly different from each other and can potentially be used as biomarkers for the early detection of skin cancer.

  19. Epidemiological profile of nonmelanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients: experience of a referral center

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Tomimori, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in humans and also the malignant disease that is increasingly common among kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of renal transplant recipients with nonmelanoma skin cancer seen at a referral transplantation center. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study with renal transplant recipients presenting nonmelanoma skin cancer, treated at a transplantation referral cente...

  20. Novel treatment options for nonmelanoma skin cancer: focus on electronic brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper ME

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Kasper,1,2 Ahmed A Chaudhary3 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Lynn Cancer Institute at Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, 2Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, FL, 3North Main Radiation Oncology, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, RI, USA Abstract: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is an increasing health care issue in the United States, significantly affecting quality of life and impacting health care costs. Radiotherapy has a long history in the treatment of NMSC. Shortly after the discovery of X-rays and 226Radium, physicians cured patients with NMSC using these new treatments. Both X-ray therapy and brachytherapy have evolved over the years, ultimately delivering higher cure rates and lower toxicity. Electronic brachytherapy for NMSC is based on the technical and clinical data obtained from radionuclide skin surface brachytherapy and the small skin surface applicators developed over the past 25 years. The purpose of this review is to introduce electronic brachytherapy in the context of the history, data, and utilization of traditional radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Keywords: electronic brachytherapy, superficial radiotherapy, skin surface brachytherapy, electron beam therapy, nonmelanoma skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma

  1. Guidelines for practical use of MAL-PDT in non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, E; Warloe, T; Kroon, S; Funk, J; Helsing, P; Soler, A M; Stang, H J; Vatne, O; Mørk, C

    2010-05-01

    Methyl aminolaevulinate photodynamic therapy is increasingly practiced in the treatment of actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease and basal cell carcinomas. This method is particularly suitable for treating multiple lesions, field cancerization and lesions in areas where a good cosmetic outcome is of importance. Good treatment routines will contribute to a favourable result. The Norwegian photodynamic therapy (PDT) group consists of medical specialists with long and extensive PDT experience. With support in the literature, this group presents guidelines for the practical use of topical PDT in non-melanoma skin cancer.

  2. Cumulative life course impairment in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaserico, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Patients with skin cancer remain at risk for disease progression or relapse for many years. Therefore, skin cancer may be considered a chronic, life-threatening disease. It could impact on patients lifestyles and social and professional activities. Although no direct study of cumulative life course impairment (CLCI) in skin cancer patients has been carried out, a few studies suggest that skin cancer may strongly impair quality of life and eventually determine a significant CLCI (melanoma more than nonmelanoma skin cancer). Obviously, the life course of patients with melanoma at an advanced stage of the disease may change considerably. A number of cancer-associated problems may determine a CLCI, including familial or professional changes and a reduction of life expectancy may eventually lead to social withdrawal and depressive disorders. Even patients with a low stage disease may experience an important impairment of quality of life and in some cases a CLCI. Some skin cancer patients may have physical and psychological after effects from their cancer surgery. Several patients complain about lymphedema, discomfort experienced from wearing surgical stockings, and diminished range of physical motion postsurgery. A few are concerned about their body image due to surgical scars, and they may consider changing their job position because of the supposed negative impact of scars in visible sites on their ability to perform their job. Some female melanoma survivors may have a reduced desire of having children in the future.

  3. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Katta; Danielle Nicole Brown

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO...

  4. Resistance of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer to Nonsurgical Treatments. Part II: Photodynamic Therapy, Vismodegib, Cetuximab, Intralesional Methotrexate, and Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Cazaña, T; Salazar, N; Zamarrón, A; Mascaraque, M; Lucena, S R; Juarranz, Á

    2016-11-01

    A wide range of treatments is now available for nonmelanoma skin cancer, including 5-fluorouracil, ingenol mebutate, imiquimod, diclofenac, photodynamic therapy, methotrexate, cetuximab, vismodegib, and radiotherapy. All are associated with high clinical and histologic response rates. However, some tumors do not respond due to resistance, which may be primary or acquired. Study of the resistance processes is a broad area of research that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of each tumor and the biologic features that make it resistant, as well as to facilitate the design of new therapies directed against these tumors. In this second article, having covered the topical treatments of nonmelanoma skin cancer, we review resistance to other nonsurgical treatments, such as monoclonal antibodies against basal and squamous cell carcinomas, intralesional chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Canada Chapter 1: Introduction to the Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Lyn C; Barber, Kirk; Searles, Gordon E; Lynde, Charles W; Janiszewski, Peter; Ashkenas, John

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal and squamous cell carcinoma, represents the most common malignancy. The aim of this document is to provide guidance to Canadian health care practitioners on NMSC management. After conducting a literature review, the group developed recommendations for prevention, management, and treatment of basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and actinic keratoses. These tumour types are considered separately in the accompanying articles. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system was used to assign strength to each recommendation. This introduction describes the scope and structure of the guidelines and the methods used to develop them. The epidemiology of NMSC is reviewed, as are the pathophysiologic changes occurring with damage to the skin, which lead to the formation of actinic keratoses and invasive squamous or basal cell carcinomas. This introduction describes the need for primary prevention and offers an overview of treatment options that are discussed in later chapters of the guidelines. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Socioeconomic status and non-melanoma skin cancer: a nationwide cohort study of incidence and survival in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steding-Jessen, M; Birch-Johansen, F; Jensen, A;

    2010-01-01

    The two main types of non-melanoma skin cancer differ with the pattern of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR): basal cell carcinoma (BCC) appears to be more closely related to intermittent solar exposure and sunburn, while the risk for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a result of lifetime...... cumulated exposure to UVR. As these exposures may differ by social position, we investigated its role in the risk for and survival after BCC and SCC diagnosed in Denmark in 1994-2006 with follow-up through 2006....

  7. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumi, K. C.; Gina Shaw-Hallgren; Ramin Massoumi

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins posttranslationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcin...

  8. Assessment of Patients Who Underwent Nasal Reconstruction After Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Hakan; Bitik, Ozan; Kamburoğlu, Haldun Onuralp; Dadaci, Mehmet; Çaliş, Mert; Öcal, Engin

    2015-06-01

    Basal and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common malignant cutaneous lesions affecting the nose. With the rising incidence of skin cancers, plastic surgeons increasingly face nasal reconstruction challenges. Although multiple options exist, optimal results are obtained when "like is used to repair like". We aimed to introduce a simple algorithm for the reconstruction of nasal defects with local flaps, realizing that there is always more than one option for reconstruction. We retrospectively reviewed 163 patients who underwent nasal reconstruction after excision of non-melanoma skin cancer between March 2011 and April 2014. We analyzed the location of the defects and correlated them with the techniques used to reconstruct them. There were 66 males and 97 females (age, 21-98 years). Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 121 patients and squamous cell carcinoma in 42. After tumor excision, all the defects were immediately closed by either primary closure or local flap options such as Limberg, Miter, glabellar, bilobed, nasolabial, V-Y advancement, and forehead flaps. Obtaining tumor-free borders and a pleasing aesthetic result are major concerns in nasal reconstruction. Defect reconstruction and cosmesis are as important as rapid recovery and quick return to normal daily activities, and these should be considered before performing any procedure, particularly in elderly patients.

  9. Nonmelanoma skin cancer: disease-specific quality-of-life concerns and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiotis, George; Roberts, Nicole; Czajkowska, Zofia; Khanna, Manish; Körner, Annett

    2014-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the disease-specific quality-of-life (QOL) concerns of patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Cross-sectional. Skin cancer clinic of Jewish General Hospital in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 56 patients with basal cell carcinoma and/or squamous cell carcinoma. Descriptive and inferential statistics applied to quantitative self-report data. Importance of appearance, psychological distress, and QOL. The most prevalent concerns included worries about tumor recurrence, as well as the potential size and conspicuousness of the scar. Skin cancer-specific QOL concerns significantly predicted distress manifested through anxious and depressive symptomology. In addition, the social concerns related to the disease were the most significant predictor of distress. The findings of this study provide healthcare professionals with a broad picture of the most prevalent NMSC-specific concerns, as well as the concerns that are of particular importance for different subgroups of patients. Nurses are in a position to provide pivotal psychosocial and informational support to patients, so they need to be aware of the often-overlooked psychosocial effects of NMSC to address these issues and provide optimal care.

  10. The relevance of piroxicam for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and its precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Elena Campione,1 Evelin Jasmine Paternò,2 Eleonora Candi,3,4 Mattia Falconi,5 Gaetana Costanza,2 Laura Diluvio,1 Alessandro Terrinoni,4 Luca Bianchi,1 Augusto Orlandi2,6,7 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, 3Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 4Biochemistry Laboratory IDI-IRCCS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 5Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 6Institute of Anatomic Pathology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 7Tor Vergata University-Policlinic of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: Piroxicam (PXM, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is an enolic benzothiazine and a potent member of the oxicam series. The drug suppresses the synthesis of proinflammatory enzymes, such as cyclooxygenases-1 and -2 (COX-1 and 2, downregulates the production of prostaglandins (PGs and tromboxanes, and inhibits polyamines production by blocking ornithine decarboxylase induction involved in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis. In addition, PXM is able to induce tumor cell apoptosis and suppresses metalloproteinase 2 activities. Skin carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which the accumulation of genetic events leads to a gradually dysplastic cellular expression, deregulation of cell growth, and carcinomatous progression. COX-1 upregulation plays a significant role in PG and vascular epidermal growth factor production supporting tumor growth. Increased level of PGs in premalignant and/or malignant cutaneous tumors is also favored by upregulation of COX-2 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Chemoprevention can be a hopeful approach to inhibit carcinoma occurrence before an invasive tumor develops. The chemopreventive effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nonmelanoma skin cancers has been established. In this study, we highlighted the different modalities of action

  11. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...... the diagnostic accuracy of OCT in differentiating NMSC from benign lesions and normal skin. METHODS AND MATERIALS OCT and polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT from 104 patients were studied. Observer-blinded evaluation of OCT images from 64 BCCs, 1 baso-squamous carcinoma, 39 AKs, two malignant melanomas, nine benign...... lesions, and 105 OCT images from perilesional skin was performed; 50 OCT images of NMSC and 50 PS-OCT images of normal skin were evaluated twice. RESULTS Sensitivity was 79% to 94% and specificity 85% to 96% in differentiating normal skin from lesions. Important features were absence of well...

  12. Combined Treatments with Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Silvia Rocío; Salazar, Nerea; Gracia-Cazaña, Tamara; Zamarrón, Alicia; González, Salvador; Juarranz, Ángeles; Gilaberte, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the Caucasian population. Among NMSC types, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has the highest incidence and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is less common although it can metastasize, accounting for the majority of NMSC-related deaths. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and non-surgical modalities. Even though surgical approaches are most commonly used to treat these lesions, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has the advantage of being a non-invasive option, and capable of field treatment, providing optimum cosmetic outcomes. Numerous clinical research studies have shown the efficacy of PDT for treating pre-malignant and malignant NMSC. However, resistant or recurrent tumors appear and sometimes become more aggressive. In this sense, the enhancement of PDT effectiveness by combining it with other therapeutic modalities has become an interesting field in NMSC research. Depending on the characteristics and the type of tumor, PDT can be applied in combination with immunomodulatory (Imiquimod) and chemotherapeutic (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, diclofenac, or ingenol mebutate) agents, inhibitors of some molecules implicated in the carcinogenic process (COX2 or MAPK), surgical techniques, or even radiotherapy. These new strategies open the way to a wider improvement of the prevention and eradication of skin cancer. PMID:26516853

  13. Antioxidant capacity total in non-melanoma skin cancer and its relationship with food consumption of antioxidant nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Betânia e Silva de Almendra; de Castro, Laís Lima; Aguiar, Jordana Rayane Sousa; de Araújo, Camila Guedes Borges; Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Tuan, Bruna Taliani; Pincinato, Eder de Carvalho; Moriel, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    The non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common cancer and accounts for more than half of the diagnoses of cancer, and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent cutaneous neoplasm, corresponding to 70-80% of cutaneous tumors. Oxidative stress is an important trigger for skin carcinogenesis. Thus, it is important to evaluate oxidative stress, in order to discern effective therapeutic strategies able to stop it or attenuate it, thereby prevent the installation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Cross-sectional study with controls, involving 84 individuals of both sexes aged between 38-84 years, divided into two groups: control group of healthy people(n = 24) and the case group included individuals who presented non-melanoma skin and they have undergoing surgery (n = 60). The blood samples of the individuals were obtained for evaluation of biomarkers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane, nitrite, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity). The usual dietary intake and nutritional status of the subjects were evaluated. The significance level for this study was 5%. Patients in the case group had higher serum concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress, F2-isoprostane concentrations were significantly higher compared to controls. The results showed high rates of overweight and obesity in the case and control groups. The dietary concentrations of antioxidant minerals zinc, copper and selenium in the case group were significantly lower compared to controls. The correlation between markers of oxidative stress and dietary concentrations of antioxidant nutrients showed the influence of food intake of vitamins A and E in reducing oxidative stress, since these nutrients behave as important antioxidants, acting as sweepers of RL, by removing of the body the negative effects on the redox balance of the skin. We emphasize the importance of adopting healthy eating habits that optimize the consumption of antioxidant nutrients as a strategy to

  14. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25......-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated...... with increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD 50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH...

  15. Genetic determinants of UV-susceptibility in non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen M Welsh

    Full Text Available A milieu of cytokines and signaling molecules are involved in the induction of UV-induced immune suppression and thus the etiology of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Targeting the UV-induced immunosuppression pathway, and using a large population based study of NMSC, we have investigated the risk associated with functional variants in 10 genes (IL10, IL4, IL4R, TNF, TNFR2, HTR2A, HRH2, IL12B, PTGS2, and HAL. The most prominent single genetic effect was observed for IL10. There was increasing risk for both basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC with increasing number of variant IL10 haplotypes (BCC: p(trend = 0.0048; SCC: p(trend = 0.031. Having two IL10 GC haplotypes was associated with increased odds ratios of BCC and SCC (OR(BCC = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9; OR(SCC = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9, and these associations were largely confined to women (OR(BCC = 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4; SCC: OR(SCC = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0. To examine how combinations of these variants contribute to risk of BCC and SCC, we used multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR and classification and regression trees (CART. Results from both of these methods found that in men, a combination of skin type, burns, IL10, IL4R, and possibly TNFR2 were important in both BCC and SCC. In women, skin type, burns, and IL10 were the most critical risk factors in SCC, with risk of BCC involving these same factors plus genetic variants in HTR2A, IL12B and IL4R. These data suggest differential genetic susceptibility to UV-induced immune suppression and skin cancer risk by gender.

  16. Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Cohen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non‐melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is traditionally treated with surgical excision. Nonsurgical methods such as cryotherapy and topical chemotherapeutics, amongst other treatments, are other options. Actinic keratosis (AKs are considered precancerous lesions that eventually may progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Photodynamic therapy (PDT offers an effective treatment for AKs, and is also effective for superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC. Nodular BCC and Bowen’s disease (SCC in situ have shown acceptable response rates with PDT, although recurrence rates are higher for these two NMSC subtypes. Methylaminolevulinate (MAL PDT is a more effective treatment option than 5‐aminolevulinic acid (ALA PDT for nodular BCC. Several studies have shown that PDT results in superior cosmetic outcomes compared to surgical treatment. PDT is overall well‐tolerated, with pain being the most common side effect.

  17. Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Nonwhite Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Ellen N; Doyle, Alden; Shaver, Christine M; Miller, Brett; Abdelmalek, Mark; Cusack, Carrie Ann; Malat, Gregory E; Chung, Christina Lee

    2016-12-01

    Organ transplant recipients have a higher incidence of skin cancer. This risk is magnified over time and with continued exposure to immunosuppression. Skin cancer in nonwhite patients is associated with greater morbidity and mortality owing to diagnosis at a more advanced stage, which suggests that nonwhite organ transplant recipients are at even higher risk. To describe demographic and clinical factors and the incidence of skin cancer in nonwhite organ transplant recipients. We performed a retrospective medical record review of patients who were organ transplant recipients (154 were white and 259 nonwhite [black, Asian, Hispanic, Pacific Islander]) seen from November 1, 2011, to April 18, 2016 at an academic referral center. Variables were analyzed and compared between racial groups, including sex, age, race/ethnicity, Fitzpatrick type, type and location of skin cancer, type of organ transplanted, time to diagnosis of skin cancer after transplantation, and history of condyloma acuminata and/or verruca vulgaris. Most of the 413 patients (62.7%) evaluated were nonwhite organ transplant recipients; 264 were men, and 149 were women. Their mean (SD) age was 60.09 (13.59) years. Nineteen skin cancers were identified in 15 patients (5.8%) representing 3 racial/ethnic groups: black (6 patients), Asian (5), and Hispanic (4). All squamous cell carcinomas in blacks were diagnosed in the in situ stage, located on sun-protected sites, and occurred in patients whose lesions tested positive for human papilloma virus (HPV) and/or who endorsed a history of condyloma acuminata or verruca vulgaris. Most skin cancers in Asians were located on sun-exposed areas and occurred in individuals who emigrated from equatorial locations. Nonwhite organ transplant recipients are at risk for developing skin cancer posttransplantation. Follow-up in a specialized transplant dermatology center and baseline total-body skin examination should be part of posttransplantation care in all organ

  18. Analysis of laser surgery in non-melanoma skin cancer for optimal tissue removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2015-02-01

    Laser surgery is a commonly used technique for tissue ablation or the resection of malignant tumors. It presents advantages over conventional non-optical ablation techniques, like a scalpel or electrosurgery, such as the increased precision of the resected volume, minimization of scars and shorter recovery periods. Laser surgery is employed in medical branches such as ophthalmology or dermatology. The application of laser surgery requires the optimal adjustment of laser beam parameters, taking into account the particular patient and lesion. In this work we present a predictive tool for tissue resection in biological tissue after laser surgery, which allows an a priori knowledge of the tissue ablation volume, area and depth. The model employs a Monte Carlo 3D approach for optical propagation and a rate equation for plasma-induced ablation. The tool takes into account characteristics of the specific lesion to be ablated, mainly the geometric, optical and ablation properties. It also considers the parameters of the laser beam, such as the radius, spatial profile, pulse width, total delivered energy or wavelength. The predictive tool is applied to dermatology tumor resection, particularly to different types of non-melanoma skin cancer tumors: basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and infiltrative carcinoma. The ablation volume, area and depth are calculated for healthy skin and for each type of tumor as a function of the laser beam parameters. The tool could be used for laser surgery planning before the clinical application. The laser parameters could be adjusted for optimal resection volume, by personalizing the process to the particular patient and lesion.

  19. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess the diagn......BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...... the diagnostic accuracy of OCT in differentiating NMSC from benign lesions and normal skin. METHODS AND MATERIALS OCT and polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT from 104 patients were studied. Observer-blinded evaluation of OCT images from 64 BCCs, 1 baso-squamous carcinoma, 39 AKs, two malignant melanomas, nine benign......-defined layering in OCT and PS-OCT images and dark lobules in BCC. Discrimination of AK from BCC had an error rate of 50% to 52%. CONCLUSION OCT features in NMSC are identified, but AK and BCC cannot be differentiated. OCT diagnosis is less accurate than clinical diagnosis, but high accuracy in distinguishing...

  20. Detection and Discrimination of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer by Multimodal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Popp

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC belongs to the most frequent human neoplasms. Its exposed location facilitates a fast ambulant treatment. However, in the clinical practice far more lesions are removed than necessary, due to the lack of an efficient pre-operational examination procedure: Standard imaging methods often do not provide a sufficient spatial resolution. The demand for an efficient in vivo imaging technique might be met in the near future by non-linear microscopy. As a first step towards this goal, the appearance of NMSC in various microspectroscopic modalities has to be defined and approaches have to be derived to distinguish healthy skin from NMSC using non-linear optical microscopy. Therefore, in this contribution the appearance of ex vivo NMSC in a combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS, second harmonic generation (SHG and two photon excited fluorescence (TPEF imaging—referred as multimodal imaging—is described. Analogous to H&E staining, an overview of the distinct appearances and features of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma in the complementary modalities is derived, and is expected to boost in vivo studies of this promising technological approach.

  1. Frozen section diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers: correlation with permanent section diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onajin, Oluwakemi; Wetter, David A; Roenigk, Randall K; Gibson, Lawrence E; Weaver, Amy L; Comfere, Nneka I

    2015-07-01

    Frozen section pathology is routinely used for margin assessment of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Frozen section can also be used for the primary diagnosis of several skin lesions. Limited data exist on the accuracy of frozen section in the diagnosis of NMSC. We performed a retrospective chart review of 300 cases in which frozen section diagnoses were compared with permanent section diagnoses of NMSC. Frozen section and permanent section pathology were concordant 83.3% of the time, with the highest concordance rates noted for basal cell carcinoma (145/153, 95%). Our results show a high level of concordance between frozen section and corresponding permanent section pathology diagnosis for NMSC. The rapidity of frozen section tissue processing and pathology reporting makes this technique useful in dermatologic practice for immediate diagnosis and management of NMSC. Further studies should explore strategies to decrease or eliminate discrepancies between frozen and permanent section diagnosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Total body topical 5-fluorouracil for extensive non-melanoma skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, Serge; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Sanders, Cornelis J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Topical 5-fluorouracil 5% cream is one of the treatment modalities for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). There is a lack of suitable therapies to treat patients with extensive NMSC. In this paper we report two patients with extensive NMSC treated by total body application of topical 5-fluo

  3. Nonmelanoma skin cancer risk awareness in azathioprine-treated myasthenia gravis patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGurgan, Iain J

    2015-10-01

    Increased rates of NMSC (nonmelanoma skin cancer) have recently been reported in people with MG (myasthenia gravis) receiving azathioprine treatment. Guidelines on azathioprine for patients with dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders stress the importance of NMSC risk awareness and prevention. The aim of this study is to assess whether MG patients are being informed of this risk.

  4. Total body topical 5-fluorouracil for extensive non-melanoma skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, Serge; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Sanders, Cornelis J.

    Background Topical 5-fluorouracil 5% cream is one of the treatment modalities for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). There is a lack of suitable therapies to treat patients with extensive NMSC. In this paper we report two patients with extensive NMSC treated by total body application of topical

  5. Risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in myasthenia patients treated with azathioprine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, E G; Pottegård, A; Hallas, J

    2014-01-01

    The association between use of azathioprine and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in patients with myasthenia was evaluated in a nationwide setting. Treatment of autoimmune myasthenia frequently involves long-term exposure to immunosuppressants, including azathioprine. Use of azathioprine...

  6. Environmental arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant as a potential risk factor for nonmelanoma skin carcinoma: Results from a case-control study in the district of Prievidza, Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesch, B.; Ranft, U.; Jakubis, P.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Hergemoller, A.; Unfried, K.; Jakubis, M.; Miskovic, P.; Keegan, T. [University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    To investigate the risk of arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant in Slovakia on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development, a 1996-1999 population-based case-control study was conducted with 264 cases and 286 controls. Exposure assessment was based on residential history and annual emissions (Asres1, Asres2) and on nutritional habits and arsenic content in food (Asnut1, Asnut2). Asres1 was assessed as a function of the distance of places of residence to the plant. Asres2 additionally considered workplace locations. Asnut1 was used to calculate arsenic uptake by weighting food frequencies with arsenic concentrations and annual consumption of food items. Asnut2 additionally considered consumption of local products. Age- and gender-adjusted risk estimates for NMSC in the highest exposure category (90th vs. 30th percentile) were 1.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39, 2.60) for Asres1, 1.90 (95% CI: 1.38, 2.62) for Asres2, 1.19 (95% CI: 0.64, 2.12) for Asnut1, and 1.83 (95% CI: 0.98, 3.43) for Asnut2. No interaction was found between arsenic exposure and dietary and residential data. Other plant emissions could have confounded the distance-based exposure variables. Consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruits could be confounded by the protective effects of such a diet. Nevertheless, the authors found an excess NMSC risk for environmental arsenic exposure.

  7. Clinical potential for vitamin D as a neoadjuvant for photodynamic therapy of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Rollakanti, Kishore

    2015-03-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), comprising basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common form of human cancer worldwide. Effective therapies include surgical excision, cryotherapy, and ionizing radiation, but all of these cause scarring. ALA-based PDT is a non-scarring modality used routinely for NMSC in Europe but not in the USA, primarily due to lingering uncertainties about efficacy. We have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can be used as neoadjuvants, i.e., can be given as a pretreatment prior to ALA-PDT, to improve the efficacy of tumor killing in mouse models of NMSC. Vitamin D (VD3) is the most recent neoadjuvant on this list. In this presentation we make the case that VD3 may be superior to the other agents to improve results of ALA-PDT skin cancer treatment. The active form of VD3 (calcitriol) is available topically as a pharmaceutical grade cream or ointment (FDA-approved for psoriasis), and works well for boosting ALA-PDT tumor treatment in mouse models. For deep tumors not reachable by a topical route, calcitriol can be given systemically and is very effective, but carries a risk of causing hypercalcemia as a side effect. To circumvent this risk, we have conducted experiments with the natural dietary form of VD3 (cholecalciferol), and showed that this improves ALA-PDT efficacy almost to the same extent as calcitriol. Because cholecalciferol does not increase serum calcium levels, this represents a potentially extremely safe approach. Data in mouse models of BCC and SCC will be presented.

  8. Sun-related behaviors among individuals previously diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Vinayak K; Ford, M Allison; Jacks, Stephanie K; Thielen, Scott P; Johnson, Andrea K; Brodell, Robert T; Bass, Martha A

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general population, the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer is considerably higher among individuals with a previous history of this condition. Protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary evidence-based approach for minimizing this risk. This review was aimed to assess the prevalence of sun-safe behaviors in non-melanoma skin cancer survivors. Searches were conducted in six electronic databases including PubMed, Psyclnfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and Science Direct. A narrative approach was adopted to synthesize the data. The findings demonstrated that respondents do not protect themselves optimally from UV radiation exposure. Low levels of perceived skin cancer risk, a lack of knowledge about effective sun protection strategies and the inconvenience associated with sun-safe behaviors appear to explain this finding. A note of caution is required here, as there is a potential for publication bias. Moreover, the results of this study cannot be generalized to all non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Skin cancer survivors must be educated about their increased risk of future skin cancers. Behavioral interventions must be developed to increase the adoption of skin protective behaviors in this high-risk population group.

  9. Sun-related behaviors among individuals previously diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K Nahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the general population, the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer is considerably higher among individuals with a previous history of this condition. Protection from ultraviolet (UV radiation is the primary evidence-based approach for minimizing this risk. This review was aimed to assess the prevalence of sun-safe behaviors in non-melanoma skin cancer survivors. Searches were conducted in six electronic databases including PubMed, Psyclnfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and Science Direct. A narrative approach was adopted to synthesize the data. The findings demonstrated that respondents do not protect themselves optimally from UV radiation exposure. Low levels of perceived skin cancer risk, a lack of knowledge about effective sun protection strategies and the inconvenience associated with sun-safe behaviors appear to explain this finding. A note of caution is required here, as there is a potential for publication bias. Moreover, the results of this study cannot be generalized to all non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Skin cancer survivors must be educated about their increased risk of future skin cancers. Behavioral interventions must be developed to increase the adoption of skin protective behaviors in this high-risk population group.

  10. Vitamin D as a potential enhancer of aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Atanaskova, Natasha; Wilson, Clara

    2010-02-01

    Vitamin D3 (Vit D3) is a hormone essential for normal bone and cardiovascular health, and may participate in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyD3) is the active form of the hormone. We showed previously that calcitriol is a potent inducer of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in skin keratinocytes grown in organotypic cultures. Here, we investigated the ability of Vit D3 to enhance PpIX levels within skin tumors in vivo. Squamous tumors, generated by chemical carcinogenesis in mice, were pretreated for 3 days with topical calcitriol. Then 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was applied topically, and PpIX levels were measured by noninvasive fluorimetry and in biopsied tissue. Calcitriol pretreatment resulted in a 3 to 4-fold elevation of PpIX in tumors, relative to no pretreatmen, providing significantly more photosensitizer available for tumor destruction. For deep tumors, topical calcitriol may not penetrate sufficiently. Therefore we explored whether systemic Vit D3, given short-term (3 days), might elevate PpIX within NMSC in a deep tumor model (subcutaneously-implanted A431 human squamous carcinoma cells). Defined amounts of calcitriol were injected into the mice for 3 d, followed by systemic 5-ALA, tissue biopsy, and confocal microscopic measurement of PpIX in frozen tissues. PpIX was clearly elevated after systemically delivered calcitriol. More work is needed, but if the amount of calcitriol required to elevate PpIX levels proves to be small, then the approach may ultimately prove attractive. Since most Americans are currently Vitamin D deficient, a small increase in calcitriol might be possible without risk of hypercalcemia.

  11. Non-melanoma skin cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlands, C; Currie, R; Memon, A; Whitaker, S; Woolford, T

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. This paper provides consensus recommendations on the management of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region on the basis of current evidence. Recommendations • Royal College of Pathologists minimum datasets for NMSC should be adhered to in order to improve patient care and help work-force planning in pathology departments. (G) • Tumour depth is of critical importance in identifying high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), and should be reported in all cases. (R) • Appropriate imaging to determine the extent of primary NMSC is indicated when peri-neural involvement or bony invasion is suspected. (R) • In the clinically N0 neck, radiological imaging is not beneficial, and a policy of watchful waiting and patient education can be adopted. (R) • Patients with high-risk NMSC should be treated by members of a skin cancer multidisciplinary team (MDT) in secondary care. (G) • Non-infiltrative basal cell carcinoma (BCC) Radiotherapy (RT) is an effective therapy for primary BCC and cSCC. (R) • Re-excision should be carried out for incompletely excised high-risk BCC or where there is deep margin involvement. (R) • Incompletely excised high-risk cSCC should be re-excised. (R) • Further surgery should involve confirmed marginal clearance before reconstruction. (R) • P+ N0 disease: Resection should include involved parotid tissue, combined with levels I-III neck dissection, to include the external jugular node. (R) • P+ N+ disease: Resection should include level V if that level is clinically or radiologically involved. (R) • Adjuvant RT should include level V if not dissected. (R) • P0 N+ disease: Anterior neck disease should be managed with levels I-IV neck dissection to include the external jugular node. (R) • P0 N+ posterior echelon nodal disease (i

  12. Non-melanoma skin cancer incidence and impact of skin cancer screening on incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemann, Nora; Waldmann, Annika; Geller, Alan C; Weinstock, Martin A; Volkmer, Beate; Greinert, Ruediger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Katalinic, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy, whose public health significance is often unrecognized. This analysis has two objectives: first, to provide up-to-date incidence estimates by sex, age group, histological type, and body site; and second, to study the impact of skin cancer screening. The impact of screening on NMSC incidence in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, is analyzed by comparing four time periods of different screening settings (no screening (1998-2000), pilot project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany, SCREEN, 2003-2004), after SCREEN (2004-2008), and nation-wide skin cancer screening (2008-2010)) to a reference region (Saarland, Germany). Age-standardized (Europe) NMSC incidence was 119/100,000 for women and 145/100,000 for men in the most recent screening period in Schleswig-Holstein (2008-2010). During implementation of SCREEN (2003-2004), incidence increased from 81.5/100,000 to 111.5/100,000 (1998-2000) by 47% for women and 34% for men. All age groups in women were affected by the increase, but increases for men were mostly limited to the older age groups. Incidence in Saarland first increased slowly, but increased steeply with the introduction of the nation-wide skin cancer screening in 2008 (+47% for women and +40% for men, reference 2004-2008). Observed changes are most likely attributed to screening activities.

  13. Topical phospho-sulindac (OXT-328) is effective in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka Wing; Mattheolabakis, George; Wong, Chi C; Ouyang, Nengtai; Huang, Liqun; Constantinides, Panayiotis P; Rigas, Basil

    2012-10-01

    Phospho-sulindac (P-S, OXT-328), a novel sulindac derivative, has shown superior anticancer efficacy and safety compared to sulindac. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of topical P-S hydrogel in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer in preclinical models. P-S is a potent inhibitor of A431 epidermoid carcinoma in vitro and achieves this effect by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. The anticancer efficacy of topical and oral P-S was further evaluated in mice bearing A431 intradermal xenografts. Compared to the controls, topical P-S hydrogel inhibited the A431 xenografts by 70.5% (p500 nmol/g tumor tissue) of intact P-S in the tumors, accounting for 92.5% of the total metabolites in the A431 xenografts. This local delivery of high levels of intact P-S to the A431 xenografts is an important contributor to the potent activity of topical P-S and no local or systemic side effects were noted in the treatment group. Thus, topical P-S is a promising treatment modality against non-melanoma skin cancer and merits further evaluation.

  14. Dose response of retinol and isotretinoin in the prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouser, Mary C; Roe, Denise J; Foote, Janet A; Harris, Robin B; Alberts, David S

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a randomized, double blind, study of the efficacy of retinol or isotretinoin vs. placebo on recurrence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in high-risk subjects, a reanalysis of the original intent to treat analysis was performed in a dose-response format. Cox proportional hazards models describe the relationship between dose quartiles of isotretinoin and retinol use and time to first occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in crude and adjusted models. Neither the isotretinoin nor retinol models showed any significance at any quartile for reduction in first BCC or SCC occurrence. Crude and adjusted retinol models show a statistically significant increase in risk of developing an SCC in the first quartile, whereas only the crude model shows a statistically significant increase in risk in the first quartile of the isotretinoin model. For retinol and SCC, hazard ratios (HRs) for the first quartile were as follows: HR = 2.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.67-5.10 crude; HR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.00-3.80 adjusted. For isotretinoin and SCC, HRs for the first quartile were as follows: HR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.35-4.19 crude; HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 0.87-3.31 adjusted. Test for trend was not significant in any of the models. These analyses confirm the results of the original intent to treat analyses and raise an interesting question related to the potential for increased risk for patients in the first quartile of retinol dose.

  15. Epidermoid carcinoma of the skin mimicking breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Neto, Baltasar; Oliveira, Giuliano da Paz; Vieira, Sabas Carlos; Leal, Livio Rodrigues; Melo Junior, José Andrade de Carvalho; Vieira, Cyro Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most frequent cancer in the world. Squamous cell cancer often occurs in sun-exposed areas, such as the head and neck. When it involves the breast and ulce-rates, invading the glandular parenchyma, it may mimic breast cancer. Confirmation by means of histopathological examination, combined with clinical examination, is a critical instrument for the accuracy of the diagnosis. We report a case of an epidermoid carcinoma located on the breast skin, initially diagnosed as breast cancer.

  16. Ultraviolet damage, DNA repair and vitamin D in nonmelanoma skin cancer and in malignant melanoma: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Rass, Knuth

    2014-01-01

    Skin exposure with UV radiation (UV) is the main cause of skin cancer development. Epidemiological data indicate that excessive or cumulative UV exposure takes place years and decades before the resulting malignancies arise. The most important defense mechanisms that protect human skin against UV radiation involve melanin synthesis and active repair mechanisms. DNA is the major target of direct or indirect UV-induced cellular damage. Low pigmentation capacity in white Caucasians and rare congenital defects in DNA repair are mainly responsible for protection failures. The important function of nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) to protect against skin cancer becomes obvious by the rare genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum, in which diverse NER genes are mutated. In animal models, it has been demonstrated that UVB is more effective to induce skin cancer than UVA. UV-induced DNA photoproducts are able to cause specific mutations (UV-signature) in susceptible genes for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In SCC development, UV-signature mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most common event, as precancerous lesions reveal -80% and SCCs > 90% UV-specific p53 mutations. Mutations in Hedgehog pathway related genes, especially PTCH1, are well known to represent the most significant pathogenic event in BCC. However, specific UV-induced mutations can be found only in -50% of sporadic BCCs. Thus, cumulative UVB radiation cannot be considered to represent the only etiologic risk factor for BCC development. During the last decades, experimental animal models, including genetically engineered mice, the Xiphophorus hybrid fish, the South American oppossum and human skin xenografts, have further elucidated the important role of the DNA repair system in the multi-step process of UV-induced melanomagenesis. An increasing body of evidence now indicates that nucleotide excision repair is not the only DNA repair pathway that is involved in UV

  17. Long-term recurrence of nonmelanoma skin cancer after topical methylaminolevulinate photodynamic therapy in a dermato-oncology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabete, Joana; Rafael, Margarida; Cravo, Mariana; Moura, Cecília; Sachse, Fernanda; Pecegueiro, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Most available studies on the efficacy of topical photodynamic therapy focus on short-to medium-term results. Long-term data are scarce. To evaluate the long-term efficacy of photodynamic therapy with topical methylaminolevulinate to treat Bowen's disease and basal cell carcinoma in the clinical practice setting of a dermato-oncology department. The study included patients diagnosed with Bowen's disease or basal cell carcinoma, and who received photodynamic therapy from 2004 to 2008. Treatment protocol and clinical follow-up were standardized. The primary endpoint was clinically observed recurrence in a previous photodynamic therapy-treated area. Descriptive and survival analyses were performed. A total of 31 Bowen's disease lesions and 44 superficial basal cell carcinoma were treated, with a median follow-up of 43.5 months. Recurrence was observed in 14 Bowen's disease lesions (53.8%) and in 11 superficial basal cell carcinoma (33.3%). Significantly higher estimates for recurrence rates were found in patients with Bowen's disease (p=0.0036) or those aged under 58 years (p=0.039). The risk of recurrence was higher in patients with Bowen's disease than in those with superficial basal cell carcinoma and younger patients. Recurrence should be considered when choosing to treat non-melanoma skin cancer with photodynamic therapy. Younger age and Bowen's disease were independent predictors for long-term recurrence, suggesting the need to establish an extended period of follow-up for this subset of patients.

  18. Green tea prevents non-melanoma skin cancer by enhancing DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2011-04-15

    Excessive exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the major factors for the development of skin cancers, including non-melanoma. For the last several centuries the consumption of dietary phytochemicals has been linked to numerous health benefits including the photoprotection of the skin. Green tea has been consumed as a popular beverage world-wide and skin photoprotection by green tea polyphenols (GTPs) has been widely investigated. In this article, we have discussed the recent investigations and mechanistic studies which define the potential efficacy of GTPs on the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. UV-induced DNA damage, particularly the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, has been implicated in immunosuppression and initiation of skin cancer. Topical application or oral administration of green tea through drinking water of mice prevents UVB-induced skin tumor development, and this prevention is mediated, at least in part, through rapid repair of DNA. The DNA repair by GTPs is mediated through the induction of interleukin (IL)-12 which has been shown to have DNA repair ability. The new mechanistic investigations support and explain the anti-photocarcinogenic activity, in particular anti-non-melanoma skin cancer, of green tea and explain the benefits of green tea for human health.

  19. Chronic diseases requiring hospitalization and risk of non-melanoma skin cancers-A population based study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Ø; Olesen, Anne B; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    We examined the associations between chronic diseases requiring hospitalization and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) in a population-based case-control study of 4,187 patients diagnosed with a first primary NMSC in 1995 in Denmark. From the National Patient Registry covering all Danish...... hospitals, we obtained data on hospitalizations with chronic diseases, recorded before the date of NMSC diagnosis. Using incidence density sampling, we selected 10 age-, gender-, and residence-matched controls from the Danish Civil Registration System. We used conditional logistic regression to compute...... incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Although no overall association was found between basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and hospitalization for chronic diseases, an elevated IRR for BCC was found among patients with connective tissue disease (IRR 1.34 (95% CI: 0.99-1.82)), transplants...

  20. Superficial Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Sean; Minni, John; Herold, David

    2015-12-01

    Superficial radiation therapy has become more widely available to dermatologists. With the advent of more portable machines, it has become more convenient for dermatology practices to employ in an office-based setting. The goal of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the role of superficial radiation therapy in dermatology practice and to review the current literature surrounding its use in the treatment of both basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

  1. Netherton syndrome with multiple non-melanoma skin cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.M. van der Voort (Ella A.); E.P. Prens (Errol)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNetherton syndrome (NS) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis caused by SPINK-5 mutations. The SPINK-5 gene encodes the serine protease inhibitor LEKTI and is located on chromosome 5q32. Unopposed degradation of corneodesmosomes is the basis for a severely impaired skin barrier fu

  2. Statin use and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnspang, S.; Pottegård, A.; Friis, Søren

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is conflicting regarding statin use and risk of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCC). METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified all patients with incident BCC/SCC during 2005-2009 and matched them to population controls. We computed odds ratios...

  3. Use of Digitally Stained Multimodal Confocal Mosaic Images to Screen for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Euphemia W; Lewin, Jesse M; Stevenson, Mary L; Meehan, Shane A; Carucci, John A; Gareau, Daniel S

    2016-12-01

    Confocal microscopy has the potential to provide rapid bedside pathologic analysis, but clinical adoption has been limited in part by the need for physician retraining to interpret grayscale images. Digitally stained confocal mosaics (DSCMs) mimic the colors of routine histologic specimens and may increase adaptability of this technology. To evaluate the accuracy and precision of 3 physicians using DSCMs before and after training to detect basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in Mohs micrographic surgery fresh-tissue specimens. This retrospective study used 133 DSCMs from 64 Mohs tissue excisions, which included clear margins, residual BCC, or residual SCC. Discarded tissue from Mohs surgical excisions from the dermatologic surgery units at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Oregon Health & Science University were collected for confocal imaging from 2006 to 2011. Final data analysis and interpretation took place between 2014 and 2016. Two Mohs surgeons and a Mohs fellow, who were blinded to the correlating gold standard frozen section diagnoses, independently reviewed the DSCMs for residual nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) before and after a brief training session (about 5 minutes). The 2 assessments were separated by a 6-month washout period. Diagnostic accuracy was characterized by sensitivity and specificity of detecting NMSC using DSCMs vs standard frozen histopathologic specimens. The diagnostic precision was calculated based on interobserver agreement and κ scores. Paired 2-sample t tests were used for comparative means analyses before and after training. The average respective sensitivities and specificities of detecting NMSC were 90% (95% CI, 89%-91%) and 79% (95% CI, 52%-100%) before training and 99% (95% CI, 99%-99%) (P = .001) and 93% (95% CI, 90%-96%) (P = .18) after training; for BCC, they were 83% (95% CI, 59%-100%) and 92% (95% CI, 81%-100%) before training and 98% (95% CI, 98%-98%) (P = .18) and 97% (95% CI

  4. Diffuse reflectance imaging for non-melanoma skin cancer detection using laser feedback interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowla, Alireza; Taimre, Thomas; Lim, Yah L.; Bertling, Karl; Wilson, Stephen J.; Prow, Tarl W.; Soyer, H. P.; Rakić, Aleksandar D.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a compact, self-aligned, low-cost, and versatile infrared diffuse-reflectance laser imaging system using a laser feedback interferometry technique with possible applications in in vivo biological tissue imaging and skin cancer detection. We examine the proposed technique experimentally using a three-layer agar skin phantom. A cylindrical region with a scattering rate lower than that of the surrounding normal tissue was used as a model for a non-melanoma skin tumour. The same structure was implemented in a Monte Carlo computational model. The experimental results agree well with the Monte Carlo simulations validating the theoretical basis of the technique. Results prove the applicability of the proposed technique for biological tissue imaging, with the capability of depth sectioning and a penetration depth of well over 1.2 mm into the skin phantom.

  5. Statistical Survey of Deaths from Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Japan during 54 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Hisashi Ohtsuka

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzed the annual trends in the number of deaths from nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) from 1955 to 2008 in Japan on the basis of the data from the Vital Statistics of Japan. The general trends in the number of deaths from NMSC were downward between 1979 to 1994, but upward after 1995. The general trends in age-standardized death rates were roughly downward, although the death rates plateaued after 1995. The recent annual increased ratio of deaths from NMSC was 3.8% (95% confidence...

  6. Analysis of superficial fluorescence patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer during photodynamic therapy by a dosimetric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-García, I.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the superficial fluorescence patterns in different nonmelanoma skin cancers and their photodynamic treatment response are analysed by a fluorescence based dosimetric model. Results show differences of even more than 50% in the fluorescence patterns as photodynamic therapy progresses depending on the malignant tissue type. They demonstrate the great relevance of the biological media as an additional dosimetric factor and contribute to the development of a future customized therapy with the assistance of dosimetric tools to interpret the fluorescence images obtained during the treatment monitoring and the differential photodiagnosis.

  7. Light-emitting diodes in photodynamic therapy in non-melanoma skin cancers--own observations and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkiert-Polguj, Anna; Halbina, Adam; Polak-Pacholczyk, Izabela; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs light activation of tissue-localized photosensitizer in an oxygen-dependent process which initiates oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death. There are many indications for PDT, although the main ones are still non-melanoma skin cancers. The light sources used include coherent and non-coherent ones, but we would like to focus on the use of light-emitting diodes (LED) in PDT. We present four patients with skin lesions successfully treated with LED-based photodynamic therapy. The main advantage of that source is narrow emission spectrum that can correspond well with maximum absorption photosensitizers. Also, using LED source seems to be cheaper and simpler, and the field of irradiation is larger. The data showed good clinical and cosmetic outcome of LED-based PDT in actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, and Bowen's disease. Since these diseases often appear on sun-exposed skin, aesthetic results are very important. The effect of LED treatment is as good or in some data even better than those in older types of PDT.

  8. Teledermatology: From Prevention to Diagnosis of Nonmelanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fabbrocini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine is a rapidly developing application of clinical medicine where medical information is transferred through interactive audiovisual media for the purpose of consulting remote medical procedures or examinations, reducing the time of consultation for patients. Teledermatology as an application of telemedicine was developed in 1995: it turns out to be a gradually more ordinary mean of delivering dermatologic healthcare worldwide and will almost certainly have a greater medical function in the future. In particular, teledermatology can aid in the prevention and diagnosis of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer; telemedicine and teledermatology offer the opportunity to make available consultations with experts also by long distance. Overall, patients seem to accept teledermatology, considering it as an excellent mean to obtain healthcare, particularly in those areas with no expert dermatologists available. Clinicians have also generally reported affirmative experiences with teledermatology in the skin cancer field. Further studies focusing on cost effectiveness, patient outcomes, and patient and clinician satisfaction will facilitate to delineate the potential of teledermatology as a mean of prevention and diagnosis of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer.

  9. Diet in dermatology: Part I. Atopic dermatitis, acne, and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsnick, Tara; Murzaku, Era Caterina; Rao, Babar K

    2014-12-01

    Patients commonly inquire about dietary modifications as a means to prevent or manage skin disease. Answering these questions is often challenging, given the vast and conflicting evidence that exists on this topic. This 2-part continuing medical education article summarizes the evidence to date to enable physicians to answer patients' questions in an evidence-based manner. Part I includes atopic dermatitis, acne, and nonmelanoma skin cancer. The role of dietary supplementation, dietary exclusion, food allergy, maternal diet, and breastfeeding in the development and/or prevention of atopic dermatitis is summarized. The dermatoendocrinologic mechanism for the effects of glycemic index/glycemic load and milk on acne is described, as well as related clinical evidence for dietary modifications. Finally, evidence and recommendations for restriction or supplementation of dietary factors in the prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer, including fat, vitamins A, C, D, and E, and selenium, are reported. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Combination chemoprevention with diclofenac, calcipotriol and difluoromethylornithine inhibits development of non-melanoma skin cancer in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: With increasing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), focus on chemoprevention of this disease is growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate topical combination therapies as chemoprevention of UV radiation-induced tumors in a mouse model.......Background/Aim: With increasing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), focus on chemoprevention of this disease is growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate topical combination therapies as chemoprevention of UV radiation-induced tumors in a mouse model....

  11. The impact of Ets-1 oncoprotein and human endoglin (CD105) on the recurrence of non-melanoma skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos; Konofaos, Petros; Karypidis, Dimitrios; Lazaris, Andreas; Kostakis, Alkiviadis; Papadopoulos, Othon

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the expression of CD105 and Ets-1 was predictive of aggressive biologic behavior of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) and to evaluate indicators of local recurrence. A total of 144 patients with NMSC were included in the current study. Surgical specimens were independently examined for diagnosis confirmation and immunohistochemical expression of Ets-1 and CD105 by two dermatopathologists. The most common tumor type was basal cell carcinoma (n = 76), followed by squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) (n = 65). The most common anatomic location was the head and neck area (n = 115). The follow-up was ˃ 2 years in all examined cases. A statistically significant correlation was found between tumor local recurrence and age (P = 0.03), Ets-1 expression (P ˂ 0.0001) and CD105 expression (P ˂ 0.0001). Our data confirm that both Ets-1 and CD105 show promise as prognostic markers for local recurrence of NMSC. However, this statement is made with caution, and additional studies, with larger populations, are necessary to examine the correlation between these two markers and local recurrence. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of local recurrence in primary NMSC may result in potential therapeutic interventions. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Photosensitizing agents and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah N; Zens, Michael S; Perry, Ann E; Spencer, Steven K; Duell, Eric J; Karagas, Margaret R

    2013-08-01

    It is well-known that UV light exposure and a sun-sensitive phenotype are risk factors for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this New Hampshire population-based case-control study, we collected data from 5,072 individuals, including histologically confirmed cases of BCC and SCC, and controls via a personal interview to investigate possible associations between photosensitizing medication use and NMSC. After adjustment for potentially confounding factors (e.g., lifetime number of painful sunburns), we found a modest increase in risk of SCC (odds ratio (OR)=1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.0-1.4) and BCC (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.9-1.5), in particular early-onset BCC, (≤ 50 years of age) (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.1) associated with photosensitizing medication use. For SCC the association was strongest among those with tendency to sunburn rather than tan. We also specifically found associations with BCC, and especially early-onset BCC, and photosensitizing antimicrobials. In conclusion, certain commonly prescribed photosensitizing medications may enhance the risk of developing SCC, especially in individuals with a sun-sensitive phenotype, and may increase the risk of developing BCC and incidence of BCC at a younger age.

  13. Combination chemoprevention with diclofenac, calcipotriol and difluoromethylornithine inhibits development of non-melanoma skin cancer in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: With increasing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), focus on chemoprevention of this disease is growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate topical combination therapies as chemoprevention of UV radiation-induced tumors in a mouse model....

  14. Detection of human papillomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions and healthy perilesional skin in kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat-García, J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Vilata-Corell, J J; Marquina-Vila, A

    2014-04-01

    The influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a topic of debate. HPV types from the beta genus (HPV-β) have been most frequently associated with the development of skin cancer. To analyze the prevalence and range of HPV types in NMSC lesions and healthy perilesional skin in immunodepressed and immunocompetent patients and to evaluate the influence of various clinical factors on the prevalence of HPV in skin cancer. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect HPV in 120 NMSC samples obtained by biopsy from 30 kidney transplant recipients and 30 immunocompetent patients. In all cases, a sample was taken from the tumor site and the surrounding healthy skin. Potential confounders were assessed and the data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. HPV DNA was detected in 44 (73.3%) of the 60 samples from immunodepressed patients and in 32 (53.3%) of the 60 samples from immunocompetent patients (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-9.6). In both groups of patients, HPV was more common in healthy perilesional skin than in lesional skin. HPV-β was the most common type isolated. We found a wide range of HPV types (mostly HPV-β) in the skin of kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients with skin cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a multinational European study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Surdu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that ambient sunlight plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC. However, there is ongoing controversy regarding the relevance of occupational exposure to natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated potential associations between natural and artificial UV radiation exposure at work with NMSC in a case-control study conducted in Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. METHODS: Occupational exposures were classified by expert assessment for 527 controls and 618 NMSC cases (515 basal cell carcinoma, BCC. Covariate information was collected via interview and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess associations between UV exposure and NMSC. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of occupational exposure in the participants was 13% for natural UV radiation and 7% for artificial UV radiation. Significant negative associations between occupational exposure to natural UV radiation and NMSC were detected for all who had ever been exposed (odds ratio (OR 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.27-0.80; similar results were detected using a semi-quantitative metric of cumulative exposure. The effects were modified by skin complexion, with significantly decreased risks of BCC among participants with light skin complexion. No associations were observed in relation to occupational artificial UV radiation exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of occupational exposure to natural UV radiation was unexpected, but limited to light-skinned people, suggesting adequate sun-protection behaviors. Further investigations focusing on variations in the individual genetic susceptibility and potential interactions with environmental and other relevant factors are planned.

  16. Topical calcitriol prior to photodynamic therapy enhances treatment efficacy in non-melanoma skin cancer mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollakanti, Kishore; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.

    2015-03-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common form of human cancer worldwide, and their incidence is increasing. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), mediated by topically applied aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and subsequent exposure to light (either a laser or a noncoherent source), is being increasingly used for the treatment of dermatological disorders, including BCC and SCC. However, therapeutic responses of NMSCs to ALA-PDT are currently not superior to standard therapies, although the latter have undesirable side effects including scarring. In this study, we report that preconditioning of skin tumors with calcitriol (active form of Vitamin D; Vit D) prior to ALA-PDT, significantly improves the treatment outcome. In BCC and UVB-induced SCC mouse models, we identified an increase in tumor-specific accumulation of ALA induced photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) due to Vit D preconditioning, of up to 6- fold in vivo. In addition, increased expression of differentiation (145 fold, p < 0.02) and proliferation (42 fold, p <0.005) markers were identified in BCC tumors, all leading to increased tumor destruction (18.3 fold, p < 0.03) with the combination approach, as compared to ALA-PDT alone. Histomorphological changes identified using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and results of TUNEL staining, together documented a beneficial effect of Vit D pretreatment upon tumor cell death. We conclude that this new combination approach with Vit D and ALA-PDT has great potential to achieve complete remission of NMSC tumors, with excellent cosmetic results and an overall beneficial impact upon patient care.

  17. Dermoscopy, Confocal Microscopy and other Non-invasive Tools for the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers and Other Skin Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvehy, Josep; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2017-07-05

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, is the most common form of neoplasm. The incidence of NMSC is increasing worldwide. The cure rate is high with early detection and appropriate treatment. Visual examination is the first screening tool used by clinicians, but it is sometimes not sufficient to discriminate benign from malignant lesions. Skin biopsy with histopathology is the gold standard for differential diagnosis; however, this procedure is invasive and occasionally painful. Repeated tissue sampling is not possible in patients with several suspicious lesions and various clinical presentations that are challenging to identify. There are several medical imaging tools for non-invasive in-depth skin examination that can be used to guide clinical diagnosis: dermoscopy, confocal microscopy, cross-polarized light and fluorescence photography, optical coherence tomography and high-frequency ultrasound. These tools are discussed along with their clinical applications. These techniques provide valuable morphological information for better identification, confident diagnosis and treatment monitoring of NMSC.

  18. Talimogene Laherparepvec and Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Lymphomas or Advanced or Refractory Non-melanoma Skin Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Adnexal Carcinoma; Apocrine Carcinoma; Eccrine Porocarcinoma; Extraocular Cutaneous Sebaceous Carcinoma; Hidradenocarcinoma; Keratoacanthoma; Malignant Sweat Gland Neoplasm; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma; NK-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable; Non-Melanomatous Lesion; Paget Disease; Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Primary Cutaneous Mucinous Carcinoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome; Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basal Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Spiradenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Stage III Skin Cancer; Stage IV Skin Cancer; Sweat Gland Carcinoma; Trichilemmocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Statistical Survey of Deaths from Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Japan during 54 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Ohtsuka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzed the annual trends in the number of deaths from nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC from 1955 to 2008 in Japan on the basis of the data from the Vital Statistics of Japan. The general trends in the number of deaths from NMSC were downward between 1979 to 1994, but upward after 1995. The general trends in age-standardized death rates were roughly downward, although the death rates plateaued after 1995. The recent annual increased ratio of deaths from NMSC was 3.8% (95% confidence interval: 2.7 ∼ 4.9%. The number and proportion of deaths from NMSC among the elderly were increasing in Japan. For females, more than 50% of the deaths occurred recently at or after 85 years of age, whereas, for males, this proportion was at or after 75 years of age, nearly reaching at or after 80 years of age.

  20. Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer chemoprevention: A role for nicotinamide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Rashi; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2017-07-05

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes DNA damage in melanocytes by producing photolesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine. The production of reactive oxygen species by UVR also induces inflammatory cytokines that, together with the inherent immunosuppressive properties of UVR, propagate carcinogenesis. Nicotinamide (Vitamin B3 ) enhances DNA repair, modulates the inflammatory environment produced by UVR, and reduces UV-induced immunosuppression. As nicotinamide reduces the incidence of actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancers in high-risk individuals and enhances repair of DNA damage in melanocytes, it is a promising agent for the chemoprevention of melanoma in high-risk populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers with nicotinamide in transplant recipients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Calvi, Camillo; Marsano, Luigina A; Parodi, Aurora

    2017-08-01

    Nicotinamide is the precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential cofactor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. It has recently been reported to be effective in reducing the rates of new non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) and actinic keratosis (AKs). We studied the efficacy of oral nicotinamide as treatment for AKs in transplant recipients. We recruited 38 transplant (eight liver and 30 kidney) patients with single or multiple AKs. Nineteen patients were randomly assigned to Group 1 and took nicotinamide 500 mg/daily (cases); the other 19 patients were randomly assigned to Group 2 without nicotinamide (controls). At baseline, AKs were identified, measured, and photographed for follow-up. Five patients underwent an AK biopsy for histopathology. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student t test. At baseline, no statistically significant differences were observed regarding AK size between the two groups. After six months, among the cases, AKs had significantly decreased in size in 18/19 patients (88%). Among these 18 patients, seven patients (42%) had shown complete clinical regression and no patient developed new AKs. Conversely, among the controls, 91% showed an increase in AK size and/or developed new AKs. Seven pre-existing AKs progressed to squamous-cell carcinoma. Nicotinamide appears to be effective in preventing and treating AKs, although the mechanisms are still unclear. Further studies with a larger sample of organ transplant recipients and a longer follow-up period are needed to further support our conclusions.

  2. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in the Federal State of Saarland, Germany, 1995-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A; Stegmaier, C; Jöckel, K-H

    2003-10-06

    We analysed incidence data of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin from the Cancer Registry Saarland, Germany. During 1995-1999, the age-standardised incidence rates (world standard population) of BCC and SCC were 43.7 and 11.2 per 100000 among men and 31.7 and 4.4 per 100000 among women.

  3. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homer S. Black

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX and cyclooxygenase (COX pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk.

  4. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Homer S; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2016-02-04

    Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA) in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk.

  5. More than skin deep? Potential nicotinamide treatment applications in chronic kidney transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Bostom, Andrew G.; Merhi, Basma; Walker, Joanna; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique ag...

  6. More than skin deep? Potential nicotinamide treatment applications in chronic kidney transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Bostom, Andrew G.; Merhi, Basma; Walker, Joanna; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique ag...

  7. Nonmelanoma skin cancer and risk of all-cause and cancer-related mortality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Virginia; Armeson, Kent; Hampras, Shalaka; Ferris, Laura K; Visvanathan, Kala; Rollison, Dana; Alberg, Anthony J

    2017-05-01

    Some reports suggest that a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) may be associated with increased mortality. NMSCs have very low fatality rates, but the high prevalence of NMSC elevates the importance of the possibility of associated subsequent mortality from other causes. The variable methods and findings of existing studies leave the significance of these results uncertain. To provide clarity, we conducted a systematic review to characterize the evidence on the associations of NMSC with: (1) all-cause mortality, (2) cancer-specific mortality, and (3) cancer survival. Bibliographic databases were searched through February 2016. Cohort studies published in English were included if adequate data were provided to estimate mortality ratios in patients with-versus-without NMSC. Data were abstracted from the total of eight studies from independent data sources that met inclusion criteria (n = 3 for all-cause mortality, n = 2 for cancer-specific mortality, and n = 5 for cancer survival). For all-cause mortality, a significant increased risk was observed for patients with a history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (mortality ratio estimates (MR) 1.25 and 1.30), whereas no increased risk was observed for patients with a history of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (MRs 0.96 and 0.97). Based on one study, the association with cancer-specific mortality was stronger for SCC (MR 2.17) than BCC (MR 1.15). Across multiple types of cancer both SCC and BCC tended to be associated with poorer survival from second primary malignancies. Multiple studies support an association between NMSC and fatal outcomes; the associations tend to be more potent for SCC than BCC. Additional investigation is needed to more precisely characterize these associations and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms.

  8. RNA-seq reveals more consistent reference genes for gene expression studies in human non-melanoma skin cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van L.T. Hoang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of appropriate reference genes (RGs is critical to accurate data interpretation in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR experiments. In this study, we have utilised next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to analyse the transcriptome of a panel of non-melanoma skin cancer lesions, identifying genes that are consistently expressed across all samples. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins were amongst the most stable in this dataset. Validation of this RNA-seq data was examined using qPCR to confirm the suitability of a set of highly stable genes for use as qPCR RGs. These genes will provide a valuable resource for the normalisation of qPCR data for the analysis of non-melanoma skin cancer.

  9. The Protective Role of Vitamin D Signaling in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bikle, Daniel D., E-mail: daniel.bikle@ucsf.edu; Jiang, Yan [Department of Medicine and Endocrine, Research Unit and Department of Dermatology, VA Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, 4150 Clement St (111N), San Francisco, CA 94121 (United States)

    2013-11-05

    Although the epidemiologic evidence that adequate vitamin D nutrition protects against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is limited, recent evidence that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is protective is compelling. The role of vitamin D signaling in limiting the proliferation while promoting the differentiation of keratinocytes, the major cell in the epidermis from which NMSC are derived, is well known. However, recent findings that mice lacking the VDR are predisposed to skin cancer has brought to the fore the question of how the VDR is protective. In this review we will look first at the role of vitamin D signaling in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. We will examine two pathways, β-catenin (CTNNB) and hedgehog (HH), that are regulated by vitamin D signaling and may contribute to the dysregulated proliferation and differentiation in the absence of VDR. We will then examine the failure of VDR deficient keratinocytes to repair DNA damaged by UVB. Finally we will examine the change in long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) expression in VDR null keratinocytes that in other cells is associated with malignant transformation, a potential newly appreciated mechanism by which vitamin D signaling is protective against NMSC.

  10. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor protects from nonmelanoma epidermal tumors by regulating the number of antigen-presenting cells in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Tania; Fedorchenko, Oleg; Schliermann, Nicola; Stein, Astrid; Moll, Ute M; Seegobin, Seth; Dewor, Manfred; Hallek, Michael; Marquardt, Yvonne; Fietkau, Katharina; Heise, Ruth; Huth, Sebastian; Pfister, Herbert; Bernhagen, Juergen; Bucala, Richard; Baron, Jens M; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter

    2017-02-01

    The response of the skin to harmful environmental agents is shaped decisively by the status of the immune system. Keratinocytes constitutively express and secrete the chemokine-like mediator, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), more strongly than dermal fibroblasts, thereby creating a MIF gradient in skin. By using global and epidermis-restricted Mif-knockout (Mif(-/-) and K14-Cre(+/tg); Mif(fl/fl)) mice, we found that MIF both recruits and maintains antigen-presenting cells in the dermis/epidermis. The reduced presence of antigen-presenting cells in the absence of MIF was associated with accelerated and increased formation of nonmelanoma skin tumors during chemical carcinogenesis. Our results demonstrate that MIF is essential for maintaining innate immunity in skin. Loss of keratinocyte-derived MIF leads to a loss of control of epithelial skin tumor formation in chemical skin carcinogenesis, which highlights an unexpected tumor-suppressive activity of MIF in murine skin.-Brocks, T., Fedorchenko, O., Schliermann, N., Stein, A., Moll, U. M., Seegobin, S., Dewor, M., Hallek, M., Marquardt, Y., Fietkau, K., Heise, R., Huth, S., Pfister, H., Bernhagen, J., Bucala, R., Baron, J. M., Fingerle-Rowson, G. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor protects from nonmelanoma epidermal tumors by regulating the number of antigen-presenting cells in skin. © FASEB.

  11. Public education and cancer of the skin. What do people need to know about melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A R

    1995-01-15

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) have a high chance for cure if detected in an early phase of development. Patients who have these tumors may now be treated in the outpatient setting with a minimum of discomfort, inconvenience, and cost. Most skin cancer deaths are caused by CM. Until recently, CM incidence in the United States has been increasing faster than any other potentially lethal cancer, attributable at least in part to aggressive case detection and greater public awareness about the significance of risk factors and early warning signs of evolving tumors, resulting in increased numbers of curable tumors. Most CMs are discovered by patients or close acquaintances. Most CM deaths are related to patient delay in seeking medical care. Patient delay is attributed mostly to lack of knowledge rather than to fear and denial. In the United States, primary prevention of CM and NMSC has focused on encouraging sensible sun-exposure behaviors, while secondary prevention consists of a yearly national campaign that promotes skin awareness and self-examination and free examinations to detect evolving tumors, sponsored by the American Academy of Dermatology and the American Cancer Society. More attention is needed to encourage timely consultation for evolving tumors and predisposing risk factors and to focus screening and surveillance efforts of those people at greatest risk. Public education must continue to promote personal responsibility in the intervention process to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with CM and NMSC.

  12. The role of new immunosuppressive drugs in nonmelanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat-García, J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Vilata-Corell, J J; Marquina-Vila, A; Pallardo, L; Crespo, J

    2014-12-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in patients who have received a solid organ transplant. Multiple factors are involved in the onset of posttransplant NMSC. To analyze the relationship between new immunosuppressive drugs and the onset of NMSC in renal transplant recipients. This was a combined retrospective and prospective observational study in which we studied 289 patients who received a kidney transplant between January 1996 and December 2010 at Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset in Valencia, Spain. Seventy-three patients (25.2%) developed 162 NMSCs over a median follow-up of 72 months. There were no statistically significant differences in the onset of NMSC on comparing different induction therapy strategies involving monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. NMSCs occurred less frequently in patients treated with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors than in those treated with other immunosuppressive regimens, although the differences were not statistically significant. Three of 5 patients with recurrent NMSC who were switched from calcineurin inhibitors to mTOR inhibitors developed additional NMSCs despite the change. Induction therapy with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in renal transplant recipients is not associated with an increased risk of NMSC. While mTOR inhibitors are associated with a lower risk of posttransplant NMSC, it remains to be determined whether a switch to these drugs is useful in the management of patients who develop multiple NMSCs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  13. Laboratory errors leading to nonmelanoma skin cancer recurrence after Mohs micrographic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabielinski, Marilyn; Leithauser, Laurel; Godsey, Tonja; Gloster, Hugh M

    2015-08-01

    Compared with standard surgical excision, Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) provides superior cure rates for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Although cure rates of NMSC approach 99% with MMS, local recurrences occasionally occur. The authors sought to identify histological features during frozen section examination that were associated with local recurrence of NMSC after MMS. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients undergoing a second MMS procedure to treat locally recurrent NMSC over a 20-month period. Histological slides were reviewed to assess for possible causes of local recurrence. Of 3,169 NMSCs treated, 22 were locally recurrent. Possible causes of recurrence identified after MMS included dense inflammation in the final margin at sites affected by tumor in prior slides (27%), visible remaining tumor (23%), missing epidermal or dermal tissue (23%), and actinic keratosis (4%). One recurrence was possibly explained by incorrect mapping. No abnormality could be detected in 18% of cases. Possible limitations include the small sample size, retrospective design, and the possibility that some patients may have been lost to follow-up. Local recurrences after MMS are extremely rare. When recurrences do occur, they can be attributed to errors in histological interpretation or tumor mapping.

  14. The initial experience of electronic brachytherapy for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatnagar Ajay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Millions of people are diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC worldwide each year. While surgical approaches are the standard treatment, some patients are appropriate candidates for radiation therapy for NMSC. High dose rate (HDR brachytherapy using surface applicators has shown efficacy in the treatment of NMSC and shortens the radiation treatment schedule by using a condensed hypofractionated approach. An electronic brachytherapy (EBT system permits treatment of NMSC without the use of a radioactive isotope. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from patients treated from July 2009 through March 2010. Pre-treatment biopsy was performed to confirm a malignant cutaneous diagnosis. A CT scan was performed to assess lesion depth for treatment planning, and an appropriate size of surface applicator was selected to provide an acceptable margin. An HDR EBT system delivered a dose of 40.0 Gy in eight fractions twice weekly with 48 hours between fractions, prescribed to a depth of 3-7 mm. Treatment feasibility, acute safety, efficacy outcomes, and cosmetic results were assessed. Results Thirty-seven patients (mean age 72.5 years with 44 cutaneous malignancies were treated. Of 44 lesions treated, 39 (89% were T1, 1 (2% Tis, 1 (2% T2, and 3 (7% lesions were recurrent. Lesion locations included the nose for 16 lesions (36.4%, ear 5 (11%, scalp 5 (11%, face 14 (32%, and an extremity for 4 (9%. Median follow-up was 4.1 months. No severe toxicities occurred. Cosmesis ratings were good to excellent for 100% of the lesions at follow-up. Conclusions The early outcomes of EBT for the treatment of NMSC appear to show acceptable acute safety and favorable cosmetic outcomes. Using a hypofractionated approach, EBT provides a convenient treatment schedule.

  15. Endocrine actions of vitamin D in skin: Relevance for photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas

    2017-09-15

    The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent findings convincingly support the concept of a new function of the VDR as a tumor suppressor in skin, with key components of the vitamin D endocrine system, including VDR, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, and CYP27B1 being strongly expressed in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). It has now been shown that anti-tumor effects of VDR, that include some of its ligand-induced growth-regulatory effects, are at least in part mediated by interacting in a highly coordinated manner with the p53 family (p53/p63/p73) in response to a large number of alterations in cell homeostasis, including UV-induced DNA damage, a hallmark for skin photocarcinogenesis. Considering the relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system for carcinogenesis of skin cancer, it is not surprising that low 25(OH)D serum concentrations and genetic variants (SNPs) of the vitamin D endocrine system have been identified as potential risk factors for occurrence and prognosis of skin malignancies. In conclusion, an increasing body of evidence now convincingly supports the concept that the vitamin D endocrine system is of relevance for photocarcinogenesis and progression of NMSC and that its pharmacologic modulation by vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, and analogs represents a promising new strategy for prevention and/or treatment of these malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Topical combination of diclofenac, calcipotriol, and difluoromethylornithine has beneficial effects comparable to 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of skin cancer. Owing to the significant adverse effects of existing treatments, alternatives are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of topically administered combination therapy and 5-flurouracil (5-FU) for the treatment...

  17. Topical Treatment with Diclofenac, Calcipotriol (Vitamin-D3 Analog) and Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) Does Not Prevent Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H C; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is a common cancer type with increasing incidence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate topical application of diclofenac, calcipotriol, and difluoromethylornithine as chemoprevention in a mouse model of ultraviolet light-induced skin tumors, since these agents have...

  18. Laser induced autofluorescence for diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Merlemis, N.; Kalatzis, I.; Sianoudis, I. A.; Batsi, O.; Christofidou, E.; Stratigos, A. J.; Katsambas, A. D.; Antoniou, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Non melanoma skin cancer is one of the most frequent malignant tumors among humans. A non-invasive technique, with high sensitivity and high specificity, would be the most suitable method for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or other malignancies diagnostics, instead of the well established biopsy and histopathology examination. In the last decades, a non-invasive, spectroscopic diagnostic method was introduced, the laser induced fluorescence (LIF), which could generate an image contrast between different states of skin tissue. The noninvasiveness consists in that this biophotonic method do not require tissue sample excision, what is necessary in histopathology characterization and biochemical analysis of the skin tissue samples, which is worldwide used as an evaluation gold standard. The object of this study is to establish the possibilities of a relatively portable system for laser induced skin autofluorescence to differentiate malignant from nonmalignant skin lesions. Unstained human skin samples, excised from humans undergoing biopsy examination, were irradiated with a Nd:YAG-3ω laser (λ=355 nm, 6 ns), used as an excitation source for the autofluorescence measurements. A portable fiber-based spectrometer was used to record fluorescence spectra of the sites of interest. The ex vivo results, obtained with this spectroscopic technique, were correlated with the histopathology results. After the analysis of the fluorescence spectra of almost 60 skin tissue areas, we developed an algorithm to distinguish different types of malignant lesions, including inflammatory areas. Optimization of the data analysis and potential use of LIF spectroscopy with 355 nm Nd:YAG laser excitation of tissue autofluorescence for clinical applications are discussed.

  19. Registration in the Danish Regional Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database: completeness of registration and accuracy of key variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Lamberg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Anna L Lamberg1, Deirdre Cronin-Fenton2, Anne B Olesen11Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, C, DenmarkObjective: To validate a clinical database for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC with the aim of monitoring and predicting the prognosis of NMSC treated by dermatologists in clinics in the central and north Denmark regions.Methods: We assessed the completeness of registration of patients and follow-up visits, and positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, sensitivity, and specificity of registrations in the database. We used the Danish Pathology Registry (DPR (n = 288 and a review of randomly selected medical records (n = 67 from two clinics as gold standards.Results: The completeness of registration of patients was 62% and 76% with DPR and medical record review as gold standards, respectively. The completeness of registration of 1st and 2nd follow up visits was 85% and 69%, respectively. The PPV and NPV ranged from 85% to 99%, and the sensitivity and specificity from 67% to 100%.Conclusion: Overall, the accuracy of variables registered in the NMSC database was satisfactory but completeness of patient registration and follow-up visits were modest. The NMSC database is a potentially valuable tool for monitoring and facilitating improvement of NMSC treatment in dermatology clinics. However, there is still room for improvement of registration of both patients and their follow-up visits.Keywords: nonmelanoma skin cancer, validation, database, positive predictive value, completeness

  20. The relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for tumorigenesis, prevention, and treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Reichrath, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Solar UV (UV)-B-radiation exerts both beneficial and adverse effects on human health. On the one hand, it is the most important environmental risk factor for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer [NMSC; most importantly basal (BCC) and squamous (SCC) cell carcinomas], that represent the most common malignancies in Caucasian populations. On the other hand, the human body’s requirements of vitamin D are mainly achieved by UV-B-induced cutaneous photosynthesis. This dilemma represents a serious problem in many populations, for an association of vitamin D-deficiency and multiple independent diseases including various types of cancer has been convincingly demonstrated. In line with these findings, epidemiologic and laboratory investigations now indicate that vitamin D and its metabolites have a risk reducing effect for NMSC. Potential mechanisms of action include inhibition of the hedgehog signaling pathway (BCC) and modulation of p53-mediated DNA damage response (SCC). As a consequence of these new findings it can be concluded that UV-B-radiation exerts both beneficial and adverse effects on risk and prognosis of NMSC. It can be assumed that many independent factors, including frequency and dose of UV-B exposure, skin area exposed, and individual factors (such as skin type and genetic determinants of the skin`s vitamin D status and of signaling pathways that are involved in the tumorigenesis of NMSC) determine whether UV-B exposure promotes or inhibits tumorigenesis of NMSC. Moreover, these findings may help to explain many of the differential effects of UV-B radiation on risk of NMSC, including variation in the dose-dependent risk for development of SCC in situ (actinic keratosis, AK), invasive SCC, and BCC. In this review, we analyze the relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for tumorigenesis, prevention, and treatment of NMSC and give an overview of present concepts and future perspectives. PMID:24494041

  1. The relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for tumorigenesis, prevention, and treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC): Present concepts and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Reichrath, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Solar UV (UV)-B-radiation exerts both beneficial and adverse effects on human health. On the one hand, it is the most important environmental risk factor for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer [NMSC; most importantly basal (BCC) and squamous (SCC) cell carcinomas], that represent the most common malignancies in Caucasian populations. On the other hand, the human body's requirements of vitamin D are mainly achieved by UV-B-induced cutaneous photosynthesis. This dilemma represents a serious problem in many populations, for an association of vitamin D-deficiency and multiple independent diseases including various types of cancer has been convincingly demonstrated. In line with these findings, epidemiologic and laboratory investigations now indicate that vitamin D and its metabolites have a risk reducing effect for NMSC. Potential mechanisms of action include inhibition of the hedgehog signaling pathway (BCC) and modulation of p53-mediated DNA damage response (SCC). As a consequence of these new findings it can be concluded that UV-B-radiation exerts both beneficial and adverse effects on risk and prognosis of NMSC. It can be assumed that many independent factors, including frequency and dose of UV-B exposure, skin area exposed, and individual factors (such as skin type and genetic determinants of the skin`s vitamin D status and of signaling pathways that are involved in the tumorigenesis of NMSC) determine whether UV-B exposure promotes or inhibits tumorigenesis of NMSC. Moreover, these findings may help to explain many of the differential effects of UV-B radiation on risk of NMSC, including variation in the dose-dependent risk for development of SCC in situ (actinic keratosis, AK), invasive SCC, and BCC. In this review, we analyze the relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for tumorigenesis, prevention, and treatment of NMSC and give an overview of present concepts and future perspectives.

  2. MC1R gene variants and non-melanoma skin cancer: A pooled-analysis from the M-SKIP project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Tagliabue; M.C. Fargnoli (Maria Concetta); S. Gandini (Sara); P. Maisonneuve (Patrick); F. Liu; M. Kayser; T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); J. Han; R. Kumar; N.A. Gruis (Nelleke); L. Ferrucci; W. Branicki (Wojciech); T. Dwyer; L. Blizzard; P. Helsing; P.J.M. Autier (Philippe); J.C. García-Borrón (José C); P.A. Kanetsky; M.T. Landi; J. Little; J. Newton-Bishop; J.P. de Sera; S. Raimondi (Susana); S. Raimondi (Sara); P. Autier (Philippe); M.C. Fargnoli (Maria Concetta); J. Han (Jiali); P.A. Kanetsky (Peter A.); M.T. Landi (Maria Teresa); J. Little (Julian); J. Little (Julian); J.A. Newton Bishop (Julia); S. Caini (Saverio); S. Gandini (Sara); P. Maisonneuve (Patrick); A. Hofman (Albert); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F. Liu (Fan); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); R. Kumar (Rajiv); R. Kumar (Rajiv); E. Nagore (Eduardo); J. Hansson (Johan); V. Höiom (Veronica); P. Ghiorzo (Paola); L. Pastorino (Lorenza); N.A. Gruis (Nelleke A.); J.N.B. Bavinck (Jan Nico Bouwes); P. Aguilera (Paula); C. Badenas (Celia); C. Carrera (Cristina); J. Malvehy (Josep); M.P. Mateu (Miriam Potrony); S. Puig (Susana); J.A. Puig-Butille (Joan Anton); G. Tell (Gemma); T. Dwyer (Terence); T. Dwyer (Terry); J. Cochrane (Jennifer); R. Fernandez-De-Misa (Ricardo); W. Branicki (Wojciech); T. Debniak (Tadeusz); N. Morling (Niels); P. Johansen (Peter); S. Mayne (Susan); A. Bale (Allen); B. Cartmel (Brenda); L. Ferrucci (Leah); R. Pfeiffer (Ruth); G. Palmieri (Giuseppe); G. Ribas (Gloria); A. Stratigos (Alexander); K. Kypreou (Katerina); A. Bowcock (Anne); L. Cornelius (Lynn); M.L. Council (M. Laurin); T. Motokawa (Tomonori); S. Anno (Sumiko); H. Anno (Hirofumi); P.A. Andresen (Per Arne); T.H. Wong (Terence H.); M. Berwick (Marianne); M. Berwick (Marianne); I. Orlow (Irene); U. Mujumdar (Urvi); A. Hummer (Amanda); K. Busam (Klaus); P. Roy (Pampa); R. Canchola (Rebecca); B. Clas (Brian); J. Cotignola (Javiar); Y. Monroe (Yvette); B. Armstrong (Bruce); A. Kricker (Anne); M. Litchfield (Melisa); T. Dwye (Terence); P. Tucker (Paul); N. Stephens (Nicola); R. Gallagher (Richard); T. Switzer (Teresa); L. Marrett (Loraine); B. Theis (Beth); L. From (Lynn); N. Chowdhury (Noori); L. Vanasse (Louise); M. Purdue (Mark); D. Northrup (David); R. Zanetti (Roberto); S.M. Rosso (Sonia); C. Sacerdote (Carlotta); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); N. Leighton (Nancy); M. Gildea (Maureen); S.B. Gruber (Stephen); J. Bonner (Joe); J. Jeter (Joanne); J. Klotz (Judith); H. Wilcox (Homer); H. Weiss (Helen); R.M. Millikan (Robert); N. Thomas (Nancy); D. Mattingly (Dianne); J. Player (Jon); C.-K. Tse (Chiu-Kit); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); P.P. Kanetsky (Peter P.); A. Walker (Amy); S. Panossian (Saarene); H.W. Mohrenweiser (Harvey); R. Setlow (Richard)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground:The melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) gene regulates human pigmentation and is highly polymorphic in populations of European origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between MC1R variants and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and to investigate

  3. MC1R gene variants and non-melanoma skin cancer: A pooled-analysis from the M-SKIP project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Tagliabue; M.C. Fargnoli (Maria Concetta); S. Gandini (Sara); P. Maisonneuve (Patrick); F. Liu; M. Kayser; T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); J. Han; R. Kumar; N.A. Gruis (Nelleke); L. Ferrucci; W. Branicki (Wojciech); T. Dwyer; L. Blizzard; P. Helsing; P.J.M. Autier (Philippe); J.C. García-Borrón (José C); P.A. Kanetsky; M.T. Landi; J. Little; J. Newton-Bishop; J.P. de Sera; S. Raimondi (Susana); S. Raimondi (Sara); P. Autier (Philippe); M.C. Fargnoli (Maria Concetta); J. Han (Jiali); P.A. Kanetsky (Peter A.); M.T. Landi (Maria Teresa); J. Little (Julian); J. Little (Julian); J.A. Newton Bishop (Julia); S. Caini (Saverio); S. Gandini (Sara); P. Maisonneuve (Patrick); A. Hofman (Albert); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F. Liu (Fan); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); R. Kumar (Rajiv); R. Kumar (Rajiv); E. Nagore (Eduardo); J. Hansson (Johan); V. Höiom (Veronica); P. Ghiorzo (Paola); L. Pastorino (Lorenza); N.A. Gruis (Nelleke A.); J.N.B. Bavinck (Jan Nico Bouwes); P. Aguilera (Paula); C. Badenas (Celia); C. Carrera (Cristina); J. Malvehy (Josep); M.P. Mateu (Miriam Potrony); S. Puig (Susana); J.A. Puig-Butille (Joan Anton); G. Tell (Gemma); T. Dwyer (Terence); T. Dwyer (Terry); J. Cochrane (Jennifer); R. Fernandez-De-Misa (Ricardo); W. Branicki (Wojciech); T. Debniak (Tadeusz); N. Morling (Niels); P. Johansen (Peter); S. Mayne (Susan); A. Bale (Allen); B. Cartmel (Brenda); L. Ferrucci (Leah); R. Pfeiffer (Ruth); G. Palmieri (Giuseppe); G. Ribas (Gloria); A. Stratigos (Alexander); K. Kypreou (Katerina); A. Bowcock (Anne); L. Cornelius (Lynn); M.L. Council (M. Laurin); T. Motokawa (Tomonori); S. Anno (Sumiko); H. Anno (Hirofumi); P.A. Andresen (Per Arne); T.H. Wong (Terence H.); M. Berwick (Marianne); M. Berwick (Marianne); I. Orlow (Irene); U. Mujumdar (Urvi); A. Hummer (Amanda); K. Busam (Klaus); P. Roy (Pampa); R. Canchola (Rebecca); B. Clas (Brian); J. Cotignola (Javiar); Y. Monroe (Yvette); B. Armstrong (Bruce); A. Kricker (Anne); M. Litchfield (Melisa); T. Dwye (Terence); P. Tucker (Paul); N. Stephens (Nicola); R. Gallagher (Richard); T. Switzer (Teresa); L. Marrett (Loraine); B. Theis (Beth); L. From (Lynn); N. Chowdhury (Noori); L. Vanasse (Louise); M. Purdue (Mark); D. Northrup (David); R. Zanetti (Roberto); S.M. Rosso (Sonia); C. Sacerdote (Carlotta); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); N. Leighton (Nancy); M. Gildea (Maureen); S.B. Gruber (Stephen); J. Bonner (Joe); J. Jeter (Joanne); J. Klotz (Judith); H. Wilcox (Homer); H. Weiss (Helen); R.M. Millikan (Robert); N. Thomas (Nancy); D. Mattingly (Dianne); J. Player (Jon); C.-K. Tse (Chiu-Kit); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); P.P. Kanetsky (Peter P.); A. Walker (Amy); S. Panossian (Saarene); H.W. Mohrenweiser (Harvey); R. Setlow (Richard)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground:The melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) gene regulates human pigmentation and is highly polymorphic in populations of European origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between MC1R variants and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and to investigate

  4. Multimodal optical imaging and spectroscopy for the intraoperative mapping of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomatina, Elena; Muzikansky, Alona; Neel, Victor; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2009-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignancy, and its incidence increases yearly. In this contribution we investigate the feasibility of combining multimodal reflectance and fluorescence polarization imaging (RFPI) with spectroscopic analysis of the reflectance images for facilitating intraoperative delineation of BCCs. Twenty fresh thick BCC specimens were obtained within 1 h after Mohs micrographic surgeries. The samples were soaked for up to 2 min in an aqueous 0.2 mg/ml solution of methylene blue, briefly rinsed in saline solution, and imaged. Reflectance images were acquired in the range from 395 to 735 nm, with steps of 10 nm. Fluorescence polarization images were excited at 630 nm and registered in the range between 660 and 750 nm. The results yielded by RFPI were qualitatively compared to each other and to histopathology. From the copolarized reflectance images the spectral responses including the optical densities and their wavelength derivatives were calculated. The differences in the spectral responses of the benign and malignant stained skin structures were assessed. Statistical analysis, i.e., Student's t-test, was employed to verify the significance of the discovered differences. Both reflectance and fluorescence polarization images correlated well with histopathology in all the cases. Reflectance polarization images provided more detailed information on skin morphology, with the appearance of skin structures resembling that of histopathology. Fluorescence polarization images exhibited higher contrast of cancerous tissue as compared to reflectance imaging. The analysis of the optical densities and their wavelength derivatives for tumor and normal tissues has confirmed statistical significance of the differences that can be used for intraoperative cancer delineation. The results of the study indicate that spectral analysis is a useful adjunct to RFPI for facilitating skin cancer delineation.

  5. Neglected skin cancer in the elderly: a case of basosquamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, Erika; Tarakji, Michael; Lau, Frank; Riker, Adam

    2016-08-17

    Skin cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and basal cell carcinoma represents the largest portion of non-melanomatous skin cancers with over 3 million cases diagnosed annually. Locally advanced disease is frequently seen in the elderly posing clinical challenges regarding proper treatment.We report on an 86-year-old female presenting with fatigue, anemia and a large ulcerated skin lesion along the right upper back. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a basosquamous cell carcinoma. She underwent a wide local excision with complex wound reconstruction.Neglected skin cancers in the elderly can present difficult clinical scenarios. There are associated adjuvant therapies that should be considered following resection, such as local radiation therapy and other novel therapies. Newer therapies, such as with vismodegib, may also be considered. A comprehensive, multimodal approach to treatment should be considered in most cases of locally advanced, non-melanoma skin cancers.

  6. Neglected skin cancer in the elderly: a case of basosquamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, Erika; Tarakji, Michael; Lau, Frank; Riker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and basal cell carcinoma represents the largest portion of non-melanomatous skin cancers with over 3 million cases diagnosed annually. Locally advanced disease is frequently seen in the elderly posing clinical challenges regarding proper treatment. We report on an 86-year-old female presenting with fatigue, anemia and a large ulcerated skin lesion along the right upper back. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a basosquamous cell carcinoma. She underwent a wide local excision with complex wound reconstruction. Neglected skin cancers in the elderly can present difficult clinical scenarios. There are associated adjuvant therapies that should be considered following resection, such as local radiation therapy and other novel therapies. Newer therapies, such as with vismodegib, may also be considered. A comprehensive, multimodal approach to treatment should be considered in most cases of locally advanced, non-melanoma skin cancers. PMID:27534889

  7. Vitamin D and melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer risk and prognosis: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caini, Saverio; Boniol, Mathieu; Tosti, Giulio; Magi, Serena; Medri, Matelda; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Palli, Domenico; Assedi, Melania; Marmol, Veronique Del; Gandini, Sara

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin D is formed mainly in the skin upon exposure to sunlight and can as well be taken orally with food or through supplements. While sun exposure is a known risk factor for skin cancer development, vitamin D exerts anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on melanocytes and keratinocytes in vitro. To clarify the role of vitamin D in skin carcinogenesis, we performed a review of the literature and meta-analysis to evaluate the association of vitamin D serum levels and dietary intake with cutaneous melanoma (CM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risk and melanoma prognostic factors. Twenty papers were included for an overall 1420 CM and 2317 NMSC. The summary relative risks (SRRs) from random effects models for the association of highest versus lowest vitamin D serum levels was 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-3.53) and 1.64 (95% CI 1.02-2.65) for CM and NMSC, respectively. The SRR for the highest versus lowest quintile of vitamin D intake was 0.86 (95% CI 0.63-1.13) for CM and 1.03 (95% CI 0.95-1.13) for NMSC. Data were suggestive of an inverse association between vitamin D blood levels and CM thickness at diagnosis. Further research is needed to investigate the effect of vitamin D on skin cancer risk in populations with different exposure to sunlight and dietary habits, and to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in improving CM survival.

  8. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone;

    2010-01-01

    -adjusted according to the World standard population were calculated based on combined data from the two registries. For both genders, a high increase in both BCC and SCC incidence was observed over time. Between 1978 and 2007, the age-adjusted BCC incidence increased from 27.1 to 96.6 cases per 100,000 person......Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...... percentage change in BCC incidence among persons below 40 years was significantly higher compared to older persons, especially for women. These trends may lead to an alarming NMSC incidence increase over time as population ages and will have major implications for future healthcare services. Our findings...

  9. Modulation of biologic endpoints by topical difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), in subjects at high-risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspahr, Janine G; Nelson, Mark A; Saboda, Kathylynn; Warneke, James; Bowden, G Timothy; Alberts, David S

    2002-01-01

    More than one million new skin cancers are diagnosed yearly in the United States creating the need for effective primary and chemopreventive strategies to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality associated with skin cancer. Skin chemoprevention trials often focus on subjects at high risk of nonmelanoma skin cancers and include biological endpoints like number of actinic keratoses (AK) and measures of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and p53 expression and/or mutation. Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, suppresses increased polyamine synthesis and inhibits tumors in models of skin carcinogenesis. Thus, DFMO is a good candidate chemopreventive agent in humans at increased risk of NMSC. We reported previously results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of topical DFMO in 48 participants with AK. In this study there was a significant reduction in the number of AK (23.5%; P = 0.001) and the polyamine, spermidine (26%, P = 0.04; Alberts, D. S. et al. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev., 9: 1281-2186, 2000). In skin biopsies from the same study, we demonstrate that topical DFMO significantly reduces the percentage of p53-positive cells (22%; P = 0.04); however, there were no significant changes in proliferating cell nuclear antigen or apoptotic indices, or in the frequency of p53 mutations (25% at baseline, 21% after placebo, and 26% after DFMO). We conclude that inhibition of the premalignant AK lesions as well as a reduction in the expression of p53 and in spermidine concentrations may serve as surrogate endpoint biomarkers of DFMO and possibly other topically administered skin cancer chemopreventive agents.

  10. Defining recurrence of nonmelanoma skin cancer after Mohs micrographic surgery: Report of the American College of Mohs Surgery Registry and Outcomes Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenberger, Justin J; Rogers, Howard; Chapman, John C; Maher, Ian A; Fox, Matthew C; Harmon, Chris B; Bailey, Evans C; Odland, Peter; Wysong, Ashley; Johnson, Tim; Wisco, Oliver J

    2016-11-01

    Standardized definitions and methods of surveillance for local recurrence of nonmelanoma skin cancer are critical in determining cure rates attributed to treatment modalities. We sought to offer a standard definition of local recurrence after surgical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and to propose an acceptable surveillance period and tracking methods. A literature search was performed for background definitions of local recurrence and tracking methods. The American College of Mohs Surgery (ACMS) Registry and Outcomes Committee then conducted a modified Delphi process to arrive at consensus definitions. We define local recurrence as a tumor with comparable histology, with contiguity to the surgical scar after treatment, and that arises within the area of the previously treated tumor. This project reports the results of a modified Delphi method process involving members of the ACMS. The model described may not be useful for nonexcision type treatments such as topical chemotherapy, electrodessication and curettage, or radiation treatment. Previous definitions of recurrence and surveillance methods after surgical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer are variable and nonstandard. We describe consensus standards for defining and tracking recurrence that should allow for consistent scientific evaluation and development of performance data in skin cancer outcomes registries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome and aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers are common in patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms treated with hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Emma; Forsyth, Cecily; Grigg, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers and other hydroxyurea complications have been reported in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), but their incidence and clinical consequences have not been defined in a large cohort of patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 188 consecutive patients with MPNs specifically addressing the incidence of these complications. Cyclical thrombocytosis was documented in 29 patients (15%), the majority of whom were receiving hydroxyurea. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome was identified in 17 of the 84 screened patients (20%), but was not associated with any major bleeding complications. Non-melanoma skin cancers were reported in 51 patients (27%). Hydroxyurea-related fever occurred in nine of 149 patients (6%) who received hydroxyurea. Seventy-three patients (39%) experienced a total of 98 major thrombotic events, with the majority of these occurring prior to or within 3 months of the diagnosis. Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers and other hydroxyurea-related complications are not infrequent in MPNs and have important clinical consequences for management.

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  13. A Prospective Study of Pain Control by a Two-Step Irradiance Schedule During Topical Photodynamic Therapy of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitouni, Nathalie C.; Sunar, Ulas; Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Paquette, Anne D.; Bellnier, David A.; Shi, Yi; Wilding, Gregory; Foster, Thomas H.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for selected non-melanoma skin cancer, employing 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) has yielded high long-term complete response rates with very good cosmesis. Pain during light activation of the photosensitizer can be a serious adverse event. A two-step irradiance protocol has previously been shown to minimize ALA-PDT pain. Objectives To determine the irradiance-dependent pain threshold for MAL-PDT, to adapt the two-step protocol to an LED light source, and assess clinical response. Methods In this prospective study, 25 superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) received an initial irradiance by laser at 40 or 50 mW/cm2, or LED at 35 mW/cm2 followed by an irradiance at 70 mW/cm2 for a total of 75 J/cm2. Pain levels were recorded for both irradiance steps. Efficacy was assessed at 6, 12 or 24 months. Results Pain was mild in the 40/70 mW/cm2 laser cohort. Three instances of irradiance-limiting pain occurred at 50/70 mW/cm2. Pain was minimal in the 35/70 mW/cm2 LED cohort. Clinical response rates were 80% in the 50/70 mW/cm2 laser cohort and 90% in the 35/70 mW/cm2 LED cohort. Conclusions Topical PDT can be effectively delivered to sBCC with minimal treatment related pain by a two-step irradiance protocol. PMID:25393353

  14. Reduced frequency of non-melanoma skin cancer in 72,739 patients with psoriasis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, Andrea; Didona, Biagio; Tabolli, Stefano; Ricci, Francesco; Sobrino, Luciano; Panebianco, Annarita; Abeni, Damiano

    2017-08-01

    Chronic inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis, may pose an increased risk of cancer due to impaired immunosurveillance resulting from chronic inflammation and immunosuppressive medications. To compare the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in a retrospective cohort of 72,739 psoriasis patients and 25,956 non-dermatological patients. A record linkage was performed for data on hospitalizations, and the occurrence of NMSC was compared by computing the relative risk (RR) and modelled using multiple logistic regression. Overall, the occurrence of NMSC was 9.6‰ (95% CI: 8.9-10.3‰) in psoriasis patients and 19.6‰ (95% CI: 18.0-21.4‰) in non-dermatological patients (RR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.44-0.55). The simultaneous adjustment for gender, age, and phototherapy yielded a RR of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75-0.95). With regards to phototherapy, the occurrence of NMSC was significantly higher among psoriasis patients who underwent phototherapy relative to those who did not (27.0‰ vs. 9.3‰). In this large retrospective study, we found that patients with psoriasis had a 16% lower probability of having NMSC when compared to a group of non-dermatological patients. Further studies, preferably with a prospective longitudinal design to collect more precise data, are needed to corroborate our findings.

  15. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  16. Dietary proanthocyanidins prevent ultraviolet radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer through enhanced repair of damaged DNA-dependent activation of immune sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K; Pal, Harish C; Prasad, Ram

    2017-04-12

    Numerous plant products have been used to prevent and manage a wide variety of diseases for centuries. These products are now considered as promising options for the development of more effective and less toxic alternatives to the systems of medicine developed primarily in developed countries in the modern era. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are of great interest due to their anti-carcinogenic effects that have been demonstrated using various tumor models including ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. In a pre-clinical mouse model supplementation of a control diet (AIN76A) with GSPs at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.5% (w/w) significantly inhibits the growth and multiplicity of UVB radiation-induced skin tumors. In this review, we summarize the evidence that this inhibition of UVB-induced skin tumor development by dietary GSPs is mediated by a multiplicity of coordinated effects including: (i) Promotion of the repair of damaged DNA by nuclear excision repair mechanisms, and (ii) DNA repair-dependent stimulation of the immune system following the functional activation of dendritic cells and effector T cells. Dietary GSPs hold promise for the development of an effective alternative strategy for the prevention of excessive solar UVB radiation exposure-induced skin diseases including the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 7-tesla MR imaging of non-melanoma skin cancer samples: correlation with histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Sébastien; Leclerc, Olga; Tremblay, Luc; Rizcallah, Edmond; Croteau, Frédéric; Orfali, Charles; Lepage, Martin

    2012-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare in vitro magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of keratinocytic skin cancer assessed by a 7-tesla (T) MRI with histopathology, and to describe MRI features of skin tumors. This prospective study included 30 skin tumors treated by surgery. MR images of skin samples were acquired on a 7-T MR scanner using a fast spin-echo T(2)-weighted and an isotropic 3D gradient-echo T(1)-weighted sequence. Length, width, Breslow index and margins of the lesions were measured. The presence or absence of the following was noted: healthy margins, ulceration of the dermis, in situ lesions, superficial and deep dermis involvement, subcutaneous involvement, superficial and intratumoral keratin. MR results were compared to histopathology. Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was very good for the evaluation of the width (ICC = 0.86) and Breslow index (ICC = 0.87). The ICC was good for the evaluation of the margins (ICC = 0.70) but for length, ICC was lower (ICC = 0.67). Mean bias between MRI and histopathology was inferior to 1 mm for width, Breslow index and margin. In vitro 7-T MRI of keratinocytic skin cancer allows delineation of lesions with good correlation with histopathology. After in vivo confirmation it could have a diagnostic role regarding the delineation of surgical margins but its actual limitations prevent its practical adoption at this time. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Hip fracture history and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer: a Danish population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberg AL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Anna Lei Lamberg1,2, Anne Braae Olesen1,2, Annette Østergaard Jensen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, DenmarkBackground: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with osteoporotic fractures, such as hip fracture. Sun exposure, the natural source of vitamin D, is the main risk factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. In this study, we examined the association between a history of hip fracture and risk of BCC and SCC.Methods: We conducted a population-based case-controlled study using data on BCC and SCC cases registered in the Danish Cancer Registry from 1990–2005. For each case, we selected five population controls matched by age and gender. We used conditional logistic regression to compute odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, while adjusting for chronic diseases and socioeconomic status.Results: A history of hip fracture was associated with a decreased risk of BCC (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.94, which was most pronounced in cases of tumors on the trunk, extremities, or at multiple sites. We found no association for SCC (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.98–1.17.Conclusion: Our study showed an inverse association between history of hip fracture and risk of BCC, but not of SCC. Sun exposure, resulting in vitamin D synthesis, may explain the link between the two diseases.Keywords: hip fracture, vitamin D, sunlight, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma

  19. Treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer: a review of recent trends with special reference to the Australian scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, M A; McEwan, L

    1990-09-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is rarely recorded in cancer registries and it is only relatively recently that the serious public health implications, especially in terms of morbidity and expense, have been appreciated. Increased recreational sun exposure (particularly among the young) and ozone layer depletion have generated concern in many countries. Histological confirmation of the diagnosis, either by excision biopsy or punch biopsy is essential if management of the condition is to be rational and the results assessed. Surgery or radiotherapy or other dermatological techniques will cure over 90% of all NMSC. Comparison of the results of various modalities is difficult and poorly documented. Local recurrence rates of 2.0% for surgery and 3.7% for superficial X-ray treatment (SXRT), with 96% and 90% 5-year failure-free-survival respectively are reported from the Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute. More comparative trials are required with good cosmetic and late normal tissue damage evaluation. Factors affecting modality choice trends in Australia are discussed, where the role of plastic surgery has considerably expanded. The indications for radiotherapy and its fractionation require clarification, as does the use of moulds and implants. The belief that solar keratoses transform to invasive cancer has been seriously brought into question by recent Australian epidemiological studies. There can, however, be little doubt of the fact that keratoses are markers of cumulative solar damage, which is a well recognised risk factor for development of NMSC. There is a move away from aggressive ablative treatment of keratoses. The management of keratoacanthoma (KA) by observation is the usual practice, although radiotherapy is occasionally used when the lesion is conspicuous and unsightly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Five-year economic evaluation of non-melanoma skin cancer surgery at the Costa del Sol Hospital (2006-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Bernier, M; González-Carrascosa, M; Padilla-España, L; Rivas-Ruiz, F; Jiménez-Puente, A; de Troya-Martín, M

    2014-03-01

    The cost associated with treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer is expected to rise considerably over the coming decades. This important public health problem is therefore expected to have an enormous economic impact for the various public health services. To estimate the cost of the surgical-care process of non-melanoma skin cancer at the Costa del Sol Hospital and seek areas to improve its efficiency, using the activity-based costing (ABC) method and the tools designed for decision analysis. To compare the costs for hospitalized patients obtained using the ABC method with the data published by the Spanish Ministry of Health, using the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) classification system. Retrospective analysis of the cost of non-melanoma skin cancer surgery at the Costa del Sol Hospital. The total estimated cost from 2006 to 2010 was 3 398 540€. Most of the episodes (47.3%) corresponded to minor outpatient surgery. The costs of the episodes varied greatly according to the type of admission: 423€ (minor outpatient surgery), 1267€ (major outpatient surgery), and 1832€ (inpatient surgery). The average cost of an inpatient episode varied significantly depending on the calculation system used (ABC: 2328€ vs. DRG: 5674€). The ABC cost analysis system favours standardization of the care process for these tumours and the detection of areas to improve efficiency. This would enable more reliable economic studies than those obtained using traditional methods, such as the DRG. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Proton radiotherapy of skin carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umebayashi, Y.; Uyeno, K.; Otsuka, F. (Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Tsujii, H. (Proton Medical Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    At the Proton Medical Research Centre, University of Tsukuba, a pilot study of proton-beam radiotherapy was performed in 12 patients with the following types of carcinoma: Bowen's disease (4), oral verrucous carcinoma (5), and squamous cell carcinoma (3). They received total doses of 51-99.2 Gy in fractions of 2-12.5 Gy. All tumours responded well to the treatment. All four lesions of Bowen's disease, three of the five oral verrucous carcinomas, and the three squamous cell carcinomas completely regressed following irradiation. Two squamous cell carcinomas recurred during the follow-up period. One recurrent squamous cell carcinoma was successfully treated by a salvage surgical operation, and in the other case the patient refused further therapy. In two verrucous carcinomas there was 90% regression of tumour volume. No severe radiation-related complication occurred. (Author).

  2. Quality of life in non-melanoma skin cancer--the skin cancer quality of life (SCQoL) questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Christensen, Karl Bang; Esmann, Solveig

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease-specific quality of life (QoL) questionnaires are increasingly used to provide patient-reported out-come measures in both malignant and non-malignant disease. OBJECTIVE: To create, validate and test the psychometrics of the Skin Cancer Quality of Life (SCQoL), which was designed...

  3. Highly conformal CT based surface mould brachytherapy for non-melanoma skin cancers of earlobe and nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Sławomir; Pietraszek, Andrzej; Pietrzykowska-Kuncman, Malwina; Danielska, Justyna; Sobotkowski, Janusz; Łuniewska-Bury, Jolanta; Fijuth, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Brachytherapy (BT), due to rapid dose fall off and minor set-up errors, should be superior to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for treatment of lesions in difficult locations like nose and earlobe. Evidences in this field are scarce. We describe computed tomography (CT) based surface mould BT for non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), and compare its conformity, dose coverage, and tissue sparing ability to EBRT. Material and methods We describe procedure of preparation of surface mould applicator and dosimetry parameters of BT plans, which were implemented in 10 individuals with NMSC of nose and earlobe. We evaluated dose coverage by minimal dose to 90% of planning target volume (PTV) (D90), volumes of PTV receiving 90-150% of prescribed dose (PD) (VPTV90-150), conformal index for 90 and 100% of PD (COIN90, COIN100), dose homogeneity index (DHI), dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR), exposure of organs. Prospectively, we created CT-based photons and electrons plans. We compared conformity (COIN90, COIN100), dose coverage of PTV (D90, VPTV90, VPTV100), volumes of body receiving 10-90% of PD (V10-V90) of EBRT and BT plans. Results We obtained mean BT-DHI = 0.76, BT-DNR = 0.23, EBRT-DHI = 1.26. We observed no significant differences in VPTV90 and D90 between BT and EBRT. Mean BT-VPTV100 (89.4%) was higher than EBRT-VPTV100 (71.2%). Both COIN90 (BT-COIN90 = 0.46 vs. EBRT-COIN90 = 0.21) and COIN100 (BT-COIN100 = 0.52 vs. EBRT-COIN100 = 0.26) were superior for BT plans. We observed more exposure of normal tissues for small doses in BT plans (V10, V20), for high doses in EBRT plans (V70, V90). Conclusions Computed tmography-based surface mould brachytherapy for superficial lesions on irregular surfaces is a highly conformal method with good homogeneity. Brachytherapy is superior to EBRT in those locations in terms of conformity and normal tissue sparing ability in high doses. PMID:27504128

  4. Malignant adnexal carcinomas of the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Hærskjold, Ann; Lei, Ulrikke;

    2016-01-01

    Malignant adnexal carcinomas of the skin are rare but associated with high propensity for local recurrence, and for some of the distinct subgroups they are known to metastasize regionally or distant. Biopsy is necessary for correct diagnosis, as the lesions cannot be separated from other tumour...... types entirely on their clinical appearance. The histologic diagnosis is troublesome, and the lesions are often mistaken for their benign counterpart, basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. The lesions are treated with surgery. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy may play a role in treatment...

  5. Skin Cancer of the Head and Neck

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Yun-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    The majority of skin cancers of the head and neck are nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most frequent types of NMSC. Malignant melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm of skin, and the ideal adjuvant therapy has not yet been found, although various options for treatment of skin cancer are available to the patient and physician, allowing high cure rate and excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes. Sunscreen protection and early evaluation of ...

  6. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC3, occupational exposure to arsenic and sunlight, and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a European case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Bloom, Michael S; Boscoe, Francis P; Carpenter, David O; Haase, Richard F; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vahter, Marie; Leonardi, Giovanni; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

    2014-10-01

    X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and group 3 (XRCC3) polymorphisms are relatively frequent in Caucasian populations and may have implications in skin cancer modulation. A few studies have evaluated their association with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but the results are inconsistent. In the current study, we aim to assess the impact of XRCC1 R399Q and XRCC3 T241M polymorphisms on the risk of NMSC associated with sunlight and arsenic exposure. Study participants consist of 618 new cases of NMSC and 527 hospital-based controls frequency matched on age, sex, and county of residence from Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Adjusted effects are estimated using multivariable logistic regression. The results indicate an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC1 R399Q (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.14-5.65) and a protective effect against basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC3 T241M (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.92), compared with the respective homozygous common genotypes. Significant interactions are detected between XRCC3 T241M and sunlight exposure at work, and between XRCC3 T241M and exposure to arsenic in drinking water (p-value for interaction exposure to sunlight or arsenic. Given the high prevalence of genetic polymorphisms modifying the association between exposure to environmental carcinogens and NMSC, these results are of substantial relevance to public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 人乳头瘤病毒感染与非黑素瘤皮肤癌研究进展%Human papillomavirus infection and non-melanoma skin cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚楠; 马翠玲

    2013-01-01

    人乳头瘤病毒通过侵犯皮肤和黏膜上皮细胞导致皮肤黏膜的各种良恶性病变.非黑素瘤皮肤癌包括皮肤鳞状细胞癌、基底细胞癌、光线性角化病等,在白种人中发病率极高,且全球发病率显著增加.仅在美国,每年约有超过200万的新发病例被确诊为皮肤鳞状细胞癌.除了已知的危险因素,如年龄、紫外线、皮肤的光敏感性以及免疫抑制以外,已有大量流行病学证据显示,人乳头瘤病毒与非黑素瘤皮肤癌的发生发展有关,尤其是皮肤型人乳头瘤病毒感染.%Human papillomaviruses (HPV) may induce benign and malignant lesions by infecting cutaneous or mucosal epithelia.Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC),mainly consists of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC),basal cell carcinoma (BCC),and actinic keratosis,is highly prevalent in Caucasians.More than 2 000 000 new cases of NMSC are diagnosed annually in the United States,and the incidence of NMSC has been increasing dranatically worldwide.In addition to established risk factors for NMSC,such as older age,exposure to ultraviolet radiation,skin photosensitivity and immunosuppression,papillomavirus infection,especially cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been evidenced by numerous epidemiologic studies to be involved in the development of NMSC.

  8. Does hormone replacement therapy and use of oral contraceptives increase the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral contraceptives (OC) affect the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in women.......We aimed to examine whether use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral contraceptives (OC) affect the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in women....

  9. Molecular classification of basal cell carcinoma of skin by gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Byul A; Lim, Hyoseob; Kwon, So Mee; Jo, Yuna; Park, Myong Chul; Lee, Il Jae; Woo, Hyun Goo

    2015-12-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are more common kinds of skin cancer. Although these tumors share common pathological and clinical features, their similarity and heterogeneity at molecular levels are not fully elaborated yet. Here, by performing comparative analysis of gene expression profiling of BCC, SCC, and normal skin tissues, we could classify the BCC into three subtypes of classical, SCC-like, and normal-like BCCs. Functional enrichment and pathway analyses revealed the molecular characteristics of each subtype. The classical BCC showed the enriched expression and transcription signature with the activation of Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways, which were well known key features of BCC. By contrast, the SCC-like BCC was enriched with immune-response genes and oxidative stress-related genes. Network analysis revealed the PLAU/PLAUR as a key regulator of SCC-like BCC. The normal-like BCC showed prominent activation of metabolic processes particularly the fatty acid metabolism. The existence of these molecular subtypes could be validated in an independent dataset, which demonstrated the three subgroups of BCC with distinct functional enrichment. In conclusion, we suggest a novel molecular classification of BCC providing insights on the heterogeneous progression of BCC.

  10. PKK suppresses tumor growth and is decreased in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poligone, Brian; Gilmore, Elaine S; Alexander, Carolina V; Oleksyn, David; Gillespie, Kathleen; Zhao, Jiyong; Ibrahim, Sherrif F; Pentland, Alice P; Brown, Marc D; Chen, Luojing

    2015-03-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer represents the most common cancer in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is a subtype of NMSC that shows a greater potential for invasion and metastasis. The current study identifies the protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK), which is also known as the receptor-interacting protein kinase 4, as a suppressor of tumor growth in SCC of the skin. We show that expression of PKK is decreased in human SCC of the skin compared with normal skin. Further, suppression of PKK in human keratinocytes leads to increased cell proliferation. The use of RNA interference to reduce PKK expression in keratinocytes leads to an increase in S phase and in proteins that promote cell cycle progression. Consistent with the results obtained from cell culture, there is a marked increased tumorigenesis after PKK knockdown in a xenotransplant model and in soft agar assays. The loss of tumor suppression involves the NF-κB and p63 pathways. NF-κB is inhibited through inhibition of inhibitor of NF-κB kinase function and there is increased nuclear TP63 activity after PKK knockdown. This study opens new avenues both in the discovery of disease pathogenesis and for potential treatments.

  11. 光动力疗法治疗非黑色素瘤皮肤癌的研究进展%Research advances in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer using photodynamic therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嘉辉

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers( NMSC) are one of the most common malignancy in humans.A-mong NMSC types,basal cell carcinoma(BCC)has the highest incidence and squamous cell carcinoma(SCC)is less common although it can metastasize.Over 30 years ago,Photodynamic therapy( PDT) was applied for the stud-y of human tumor,it showed the advantage of being a non-invasive option,and capable of field treatment,provi-ding optimum cosmetic outcomes.Numerous clinical research studies have shown the efficacy of PDT for treating NMSC.The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the previous results,current evidence and the possi-bilities for PDT in patients with NMSC.%非黑色素瘤皮肤癌是人类最常见的恶性肿瘤之一. 其发病率最高的是基底细胞癌,其次为易发生转移的鳞状细胞癌. 光动力疗法应用于人类肿瘤研究已经有三十多年的历史,作为一种非创伤性的治疗方法,它的优点是可以局部用药并保护治疗区域的美观性. 在很多临床病例研究中,光动力疗法显示了其对非黑色素瘤皮肤癌的治疗作用. 本文综述了光动力疗法治疗非黑色素瘤皮肤癌的现有研究成果,为其在临床应用提供参考依据.

  12. Cryptolepine, a Plant Alkaloid, Inhibits the Growth of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Cells through Inhibition of Topoisomerase and Induction of DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish C. Pal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Topoisomerases have been shown to have roles in cancer progression. Here, we have examined the effect of cryptolepine, a plant alkaloid, on the growth of human non-melanoma skin cancer cells (NMSCC and underlying mechanism of action. For this purpose SCC-13 and A431 cell lines were used as an in vitro model. Our study reveals that SCC-13 and A431 cells express higher levels as well as activity of topoisomerase (Topo I and Topo II compared with normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Treatment of NMSCC with cryptolepine (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 µM for 24 h resulted in marked decrease in topoisomerase activity, which was associated with substantial DNA damage as detected by the comet assay. Cryptolepine induced DNA damage resulted in: (i an increase in the phosphorylation of ATM/ATR, BRCA1, Chk1/Chk2 and γH2AX; (ii activation of p53 signaling cascade, including enhanced protein expressions of p16 and p21; (iii downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases, cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin E and proteins involved in cell division (e.g., Cdc25a and Cdc25b leading to cell cycle arrest at S-phase; and (iv mitochondrial membrane potential was disrupted and cytochrome c released. These changes in NMSCC by cryptolepine resulted in significant reduction in cell viability, colony formation and increase in apoptotic cell death.

  13. High 15-F2t-Isoprostane Levels in Patients with a Previous History of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: The Effects of Supplementary Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia de Jesus e Silva de Almendra Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Phase I of this study was aimed at comparing the profiles of oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC, previously treated with surgery, to the healthy subjects. Phase II aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementary antioxidant therapy on the levels of biomarkers in the case group. Materials and Methods. In Phase I, oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in blood samples obtained from 24 healthy subjects and 60 patients with history of NMSC previously treated with surgery. In Phase II, the 60 patients with history of NMSC were randomized into two subgroups, one receiving placebo (n=34 and the other (n=26 receiving vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc supplementation for 8 weeks, followed by reevaluation of biomarkers. Results. In Phase I, patients with history of NMSC showed increased plasma concentrations of all biomarkers, but only 15-F2t-isoprostane was significantly higher than in the healthy subjects. Risk of NMSC increased by 4% for each additional 1 pg/mL increase in 15-F2t-isoprostane. In Phase II, supplementation did not significantly reduce levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Conclusion. Patients with history of NMSC had significantly high 15-F2t-isoprostane plasma levels; supplementation did not result in significant reduction of oxidative stress biomarkers. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT02248584.

  14. The role of imaging in the management of patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer: When is imaging necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Tatyana R; Shah, Komal; Wysong, Ashley; Lexa, Frank; MacFarlane, Deborah

    2017-04-01

    When treating aggressive skin cancers, pre- and postoperative imaging provides important information for treatment planning and multidisciplinary cooperation of care. It is important for dermatologists to recognize the clinical scenarios where imaging is indicated in the management of skin cancer. We here address the most common indications for imaging in cutaneous oncology and how to best utilize the modalities available. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  16. Pattern of HPV infection in basal cell carcinoma and in perilesional skin biopsies from immunocompetent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakrzewska Krystyna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV infection and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and basal cell carcinoma (BCC is not yet fully understood. We analysed the prevalence and spectrum of cutaneous beta-HPV types and mucosal/genital HPV types in paired biopsies (tumour and corresponding perilesional skin obtained from 50 BCC immunocompetent patients. A small group of SCC patients (n=9 was also included. We also evaluated some previously postulated risk factors for HPV infection in NMSC patients. Results All biopsies were negative for mucosal/genital HPV types. Overall, beta-HPV DNA was detected more often in SCC compared to BCC patients (78% vs 55% of total samples. The frequency of infection increased with the patient’s age [OR=4.88 (95% CI 1.29-18.39]. There was no significant correlation between beta-HPV positivity and sex, skin type and UV exposure. The prevalence of beta-HPV species 1 types was significantly higher than those belonging to other beta-HPV species in biopsies from BCC (p=0.022 but not from SCC subjects (p=0.091. There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of beta-HPV infection and the number of viral types between tumour lesions and perilesional skin. BCC samples were significantly more likely to be infected with beta-HPV species 1 types compared to perilesional skin (p=0.036 and showed a higher frequency of mixed infections (p=0.028. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that beta-HPV types belonging to species 1 are the most common HPV types detected in the skin of BCC patients. Moreover beta-1-HPV types and mixed infections are significantly more frequent in tumour samples than in healthy perilesional skin. Our results suggest that beta-1-HPVs as well as co-infection with more than one viral type could be important in NMSC and in particular in BCC. Further studies aimed to compare the biological activity of viral types in tumours and in

  17. Incomplete excision of non-melanoma skin cancer of the head and neck: can we predict failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerkegaard, Ulrik Knap; Stolle, Lars Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    included into the study. Patients were identified by the diagnostic (diagnosis-related group (DRG)) codes from DC44.0 to DC44.4. A total of 437 patients were treated for 516 skin lesions. Results Mean age was 71.4 years and the male–female ratio was 1.29. Incomplete tumor removal was found in 11 % of all...

  18. A Novel Mechanism for the Pathogenesis of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Resulting from Early Exposure to Ultraviolet Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    reportable outcomes were made in Year 02.  Submission of a letter to the editor of Journal of Investigative Dermatology and a Manuscript is now anticipated...green”. Skin samples from each treatment group (~1-3 mice per group) were processed and stained using standard IHC protocols. Images were taken of each

  19. Coffee, tea and caffeine intake and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: a review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caini, Saverio; Cattaruzza, Sofia; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Tosti, Giulio; Masala, Giovanna; Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Assedi, Melania; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Palli, Domenico; Gandini, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Laboratory studies suggested that caffeine and other nutrients contained in coffee and tea may protect against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, epidemiological studies conducted so far have produced conflicting results. We performed a literature review and meta-analysis of observational studies published until February 2016 that investigated the association between coffee and tea intake and NMSC risk. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) by using random effects with maximum likelihood estimation. Overall, 37,627 NMSC cases from 13 papers were available for analysis. Intake of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with NMSC risk (SRR for those in the highest vs. lowest category of intake: 0.82, 95 % CI 0.75-0.89, I (2) = 48 %), as well as intake of caffeine (SRR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.80-0.91, I (2) = 48 %). In subgroup analysis, these associations were limited to the basal cell cancer (BCC) histotype. There was no association between intake of decaffeinated coffee (SRR 1.01, 95 % CI 0.85-1.21, I (2) = 0) and tea (0.88, 95 % CI 0.72-1.07, I (2) = 0 %) and NMSC risk. There was no evidence of publication bias affecting the results. The available evidence was not sufficient to draw conclusions on the association between green tea intake and NMSC risk. Coffee intake appears to exert a moderate protective effect against BCC development, probably through the biological effect of caffeine. However, the observational nature of studies included, subject to bias and confounding, suggests taking with caution these results that should be verified in randomized clinical trials.

  20. Retinoids in chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer%维A酸类药物化学预防非黑素皮肤肿瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孟丽; 马鹏程

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids have been used for chemoprevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC)because of their anti-cancer properties.Both isotretinoin and acitretin can effectively reduce the incidence of NMSC.When administrated for chemoprevention,the dose of retinoids should be low at the beginning,increased step by step to a tolerated minimum maintenance value,and adjusted according to clinical response and tolerance.Retinoids may exert their chemopreventive effects likely by activating retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors and influencing their expressions,regulating the nuclear transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) and inhibiting many signaling pathways including B-Raf/Mek/Erk,Stat3 and nuclear factorkappa B.Furthermore,retinoids could trigger cell cycle and induce cell apoptosis.%维A酸类药物因其抗肿瘤效应用于非黑素皮肤肿瘤的化学预防.异维A酸与阿维A均能有效降低非黑素皮肤肿瘤的发生.根据适应证用维A酸类药物进行化学预防时,推荐从低剂量开始逐渐增加剂量,达到能耐受的最小有效维持剂量,并根据疗效、临床耐受性等调整治疗剂量.维A酸类药物化学预防的可能机制是激活维A酸受体及维A酸X受体并影响其表达,调节转录因子活化因子-1及影响信号通路B-Raf/Mek/Erk、Stat3及核因子-κB等,调节细胞周期、诱导细胞凋亡.

  1. Anandamide-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis are mediated by oxidative stress in non-melanoma skin cancer: Receptor-independent endocannabinoid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Eman; Van Dross, Rukiyah

    2016-11-01

    Endocannabinoids are neuromodulatory lipids that regulate central and peripheral physiological functions. Endocannabinoids have emerged as effective antitumor drugs due to their ability to induce apoptosis in various cancer studies. The G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and the TRPV1 ion channel were reported to mediate the antiproliferative activity of endocannabinoids. However, receptor-independent effects also account for their activity. Our previous studies showed that the antiproliferative activity of anandamide (AEA) was regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) via induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also determined that AEA induced oxidative stress. However, the role of oxidative stress, the cannabinoid receptors, and TRPV1 in AEA-induced ER stress-apoptosis was unclear. Therefore, the current study examines the role of oxidative stress in ER stress-apoptosis and investigates whether this effect is modulated by CB1, CB2, or TRPV1. In non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) cells, AEA reduced the total intracellular level of glutathione and induced oxidative stress. To evaluate the importance of oxidative stress in AEA-induced cell death, the antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Trolox, were utilized. Each antioxidant ameliorated the antiproliferative effect of AEA. Furthermore, Trolox inhibited AEA-induced CHOP10 expression and caspase 3 activity, indicating that oxidative stress was required for AEA-induced ER stress-apoptosis. On the other hand, selective blockade of CB1, CB2, and TRPV1 did not inhibit AEA-induced oxidative stress or ER stress-apoptosis. These findings suggest that AEA-induced ER stress-apoptosis in NMSC cells is mediated by oxidative stress through a receptor-independent mechanism. Hence, receptor-independent AEA signaling pathways may be targeted to eliminate NMSC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Novel Mechanism for the Pathogenesis of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Resulting from Early Exposure to Ultraviolet Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    progenitors expresses the PDGFR1 alpha (CD140) and is recruited from the bone marrow to grafted skin where they apparently become epithelial cells...cells without lineage depletion using the BD hematopoetic stem cell and progenitor cell kit in conjunction with CD140 (PDGFRa). A: Gating for live... progenitor cells. F: P6 is the population of cells that are progenitor cells. G: P10 represents the population of CD140 positive cells from the

  3. Incomplete excision of non-melanoma skin cancer of the head and neck: can we predict failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerkegaard, Ulrik Knap; Stolle, Lars Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Background Reported incomplete excision rates vary widely. This study described a single center's treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the head and neck and investigated possible causes of incomplete excision. Methods All excised BCCs and SCCs in 2011 were...... cases. Four significant factors were identified to predict incomplete excision, including age >75 years (relative risk (RR) = 14.8 % (95 %-CI: 5.8–24.7 %)), BCC tumor size above 1.5 cm (RR = 17.1 % (95 %-CI: 3.7–28.7 %)), lack of sufficient excision margin in SCC (....1–36.9 %)) and lack of frozen sectioning in high-risk areas (RR = 16.9 % (95 %-CI: 7.5–27.2 %)). Neither gender, tumor type, histological subtype, biopsy prior to surgery, tumor location nor surgeon grade predicted incomplete excision. Conclusions Head and neck BCCs, and SCCs are difficult to treat, and the need...

  4. A terapia fotodinâmica com ácido 5-aminolevulínico como modalidade de tratamento para neoplasias cutâneas não-melanoma Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy as a treatment modality for nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Bernardini Antunes de Felício

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A terapia fotodinâmica baseia-se na associação de fonte de luz e fotossensibilizador para destruir seletivamente as células. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos imediatos e tardios, a resposta clínica e os resultados estéticos da terapia fotodinâmica com ácido 5-aminolevulínico em neoplasias cutâneas não-melanoma. MÉTODOS: Trinta e quatro lesões, sendo 19 disceratoses de Bowen e 15 carcinomas basocelulares, foram submetidas à aplicação tópica e oclusiva do ácido 5-aminolevulínico a 20%, por seis horas, e posteriormente a sessão única de laser de diodo (630nm. RESULTADOS: Foram registrados: sensação de queimação durante as sessões; eritema, edema e erosões, nas primeiras 72 horas; cicatrização em média de quatro semanas; resultados estéticos variáveis de excelentes a bons. Aos três meses, a resposta clínica foi de 91,2%, sendo reduzida, aos 18 meses, para 73,3%, de modo similar tanto para disceratose de Bowen (72,2% quanto para carcinoma basocelular (75%. Foi evidenciada relação de tendência linear entre a redução da freqüência da resposta clínica e o aumento da dimensão das neoplasias cutâneas não-melanoma (pBACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy is based on the association of a light source and photosensitizer in order to selectively destroy cells. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short and long-term effects, clinical response, and cosmetic outcome of the photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolaevulinic acid for non-melanoma skin cancer. METHODS: TThirty-four non-melanoma skin cancer - 19 Bowen’s diseases and 15 basal cell carcinomas, were submitted to a single 6-hour topical and occlusive application of 20% 5-aminolaevulinic acid, and were later exposed to 630 nm diode laser single session. RESULTS: Burning sensation during the session; erythema, edema and erosions in the first 72 hours; healing process after 4 weeks on average and excellent or good cosmetic results were observed. After 3 months, tumor

  5. More than skin deep? Potential nicotinamide treatment applications in chronic kidney transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostom, Andrew G; Merhi, Basma; Walker, Joanna; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique aggressiveness of SCCs in KTRs increases patient morbidity, due to the high rate of new lesions requiring treatment, frequently surgical excision. Oral nicotinamide shows promise in the chemoprevention of the especially aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers which occur in KTRs. This benefit might be conferred via its inhibition of sirtuin enzymatic pathways. Nicotinamide’s concurrent hypophosphatemic effect may also partially ameliorate the disturbed calcium-phosphorus homeostasis in these patients-a putative risk factor for mortality, and graft failure. Conceivably, a phase 3 trial of nicotinamide for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs, lasting at least 12-mo, could also incorporate imaging and laboratory measures which assess nicotinamide’s impact on subclinical cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk, and progression. PMID:28058215

  6. More than skin deep? Potential nicotinamide treatment applications in chronic kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostom, Andrew G; Merhi, Basma; Walker, Joanna; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-12-24

    Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique aggressiveness of SCCs in KTRs increases patient morbidity, due to the high rate of new lesions requiring treatment, frequently surgical excision. Oral nicotinamide shows promise in the chemoprevention of the especially aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers which occur in KTRs. This benefit might be conferred via its inhibition of sirtuin enzymatic pathways. Nicotinamide's concurrent hypophosphatemic effect may also partially ameliorate the disturbed calcium-phosphorus homeostasis in these patients-a putative risk factor for mortality, and graft failure. Conceivably, a phase 3 trial of nicotinamide for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs, lasting at least 12-mo, could also incorporate imaging and laboratory measures which assess nicotinamide's impact on subclinical cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk, and progression.

  7. Risk of a second primary cancer after non-melanoma skin cancer in white men and women: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengju Song

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest a positive association between history of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC and risk of subsequent cancer at other sites. The purpose of this study is to prospectively examine the risk of primary cancer according to personal history of NMSC.In two large US cohorts, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, we prospectively investigated this association in self-identified white men and women. In the HPFS, we followed 46,237 men from June 1986 to June 2008 (833,496 person-years. In the NHS, we followed 107,339 women from June 1984 to June 2008 (2,116,178 person-years. We documented 29,447 incident cancer cases other than NMSC. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. A personal history of NMSC was significantly associated with a higher risk of other primary cancers excluding melanoma in men (RR=1.11; 95% CI 1.05-1.18, and in women (RR=1.20; 95% CI 1.15-1.25. Age-standardized absolute risk (AR was 176 in men and 182 in women per 100,000 person-years. For individual cancer sites, after the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (n=28, in men, a personal history of NMSC was significantly associated with an increased risk of melanoma (RR=1.99, AR=116 per 100,000 person-years. In women, a personal history of NMSC was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast (RR=1.19, AR=87 per 100,000 person-years, lung (RR=1.32, AR=22 per 100,000 person-years, and melanoma (RR=2.58, AR=79 per 100,000 person-years.This prospective study found a modestly increased risk of subsequent malignancies among individuals with a history of NMSC, specifically breast and lung cancer in women and melanoma in both men and women.

  8. Family History of Skin Cancer is Associated with Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma Independent of MC1R Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nicholas L.; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.; Ferrucci, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual’s risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Materials and Methods Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. Results A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80–3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74–3.35). Conclusions Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90–7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. PMID:26381319

  9. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment. PMID:27828631

  10. Discrimination between basal cell carcinoma and hair follicles in skin tissue sections by Raman micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraona-Puy, M.; Ghita, A.; Zoladek, A.; Perkins, W.; Varma, S.; Leach, I. H.; Koloydenko, A. A.; Williams, H.; Notingher, I.

    2011-05-01

    Skin cancer is the most common human malignancy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents approximately 80% of the non-melanoma cases. Current methods of treatment require histopathological evaluation of the tissues by qualified personnel. However, this method is subjective and in some cases BCC can be confused with other structures in healthy skin, including hair follicles. In this preliminary study, we investigated the potential of Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) to discriminate between hair follicles and BCC in skin tissue sections excised during Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Imaging and diagnosis of skin sections was automatically generated using ' a priori'-built spectral model based on LDA. This model had 90 ± 9% sensitivity and 85 ± 9% specificity for discrimination of BCC from dermis and epidermis. The model used selected Raman bands corresponding to the largest spectral differences between the Raman spectra of BCC and the normal skin regions, associated mainly with nucleic acids and collagen type I. Raman spectra corresponding to the epidermis regions of the hair follicles were found to be closer to those of healthy epidermis rather than BCC. Comparison between Raman spectral images and the gold standard haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology diagnosis showed good agreement. Some hair follicle regions were misclassified as BCC; regions corresponded mainly to the outermost layer of hair follicle (basal cells) which are expected to have higher nucleic acid concentration. This preliminary study shows the ability of RMS to distinguish between BCC and other tissue structures associated to healthy skin which can be confused with BCC due to their similar morphology.

  11. A case of carcinoma of the male breast mimicking a mucinous carcinoma of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumihisa Imakado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of mucinous carcinoma of the male breast firstly diagnosed as a mucinous carcinoma of the skin. The immunohistochemical results of this tumor were as follows: cytokeratin7 (-, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (-, p63 (-, estrogen receptor (+, and progesterone receptor (+ for the primary nodule; cytokeratin7 (-, thyroid transcription factor-1 (-, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (-, p63 (-, cytokeratin8 (+, cytokeratin18 (+, and cytokeratin20 (+ for the recurrent nodule. The tumor cells had cytokeratin7 (-/ cytokeratin20 (+ phenotype and it was very unusual for mucinous carcinoma of the breast.

  12. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Saura Pedro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  13. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Deba P. Sarma; Dentlinger, Renee B.; Forystek, Amanda M.; Todd Stevens; Christopher Huerter

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A...

  14. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Review of the Eighth Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Guidelines, Prognostic Factors, and Histopathologic Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaparthi, Kiran; Kapil, Jyoti P; Velazquez, Elsa F

    2017-07-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer after basal cell carcinoma and accounts for the majority of nonmelanoma skin cancer-related deaths. In 2017, the American Joint Committee on Cancer revised the staging guidelines of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to reflect recent evidence concerning high-risk clinicopathologic features. This update reviews the literature on prognostic features and staging, including the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual. A wide range of histopathologic variants of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma exists, several of which are associated with aggressive behavior. A review of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma variants, emphasizing diagnostic pitfalls, immuhistochemical findings and prognostic significance, is included. Of note, the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual refers to squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck only.

  15. Ultraviolet radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer in the Crl:SKH1:hr-BR hairless mouse: augmentation of tumor multiplicity by chlorophyllin and protection by indole-3-carbinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, R B; Loehr, C; Dashwood, R; Kerkvliet, N I

    2006-05-01

    Over 1 million new cases of ultraviolet radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) per year now occur in the USA and the incidence of these diseases continues to increase. New preventative strategies are required. The hypothesis tested was that dietary administration of the putative cancer chemopreventatives sodium-copper-chlorophyllin (Chlor) or indole-3-carbinol (I3C) would inhibit UV-induced skin carcinogenesis in the Crl:SKH1:hr-BR hairless mouse. Groups of 20 mice were pre-fed isocaloric/isonutritive 20% corn-oil AIN-76a based diets that contained either Chlor (1.52 g%), I3C (5.08 g%) or no chemopreventative (control) for 2 weeks followed by exposure of their dorsal skin to a 10 week incremental, sub-erythemal, carcinogenic simulated solar UV exposure regime. Feeding was continued for the duration of the experiment. Matched non-UV exposed dietary groups were also included in the experimental design. The diets had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on body weight, feed consumption, cutaneous methanol-extractable UV photoprotective substances or on cutaneous UV-reflective characteristics. By day 180, UV-irradiated mice fed the Chlor had a significantly (p 0.05) affect UV-induced systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity responses. These results demonstrate augmentation of the UV-induced cutaneous carcinogenic process by dietary chlorophyllin and protection from this carcinogenic process by indole-3-carbinol via mechanisms that do not involve changes in skin optical properties, modulation of photoimmunosuppression or caloric/nutrient effects.

  16. Lymphoepithelioma-like Carcinoma of the Skin: A Case with Perineural Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie B. Lassen, MD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin is a rare, low malignant cutaneous neoplasm. We report a case of an elderly woman with lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin in the forehead. The tumor was mistaken first as actinic keratosis and later as metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. A histological reassessment showed lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin with perineural invasion, which is rare and considered more aggressive. The patient therefore received adjuvant radiotherapy after the recommended wide excision. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma, and histologically, it resembles the more aggressive lymphoepithelioma of the nasopharynx. The later is Epstein-Barr positive, whereas lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma normally is not. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is an important diagnosis to know and the disease is discussed.

  17. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma presenting with skin metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkgöz, Onur; Ölçücüoğlu, Erkan; Kasap, Yusuf; Yığman, Metin; Güneş, Zeki Ender; Gazel, Eymen

    2015-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of upper urinary system account for 5% of all TCCs. The incidence of such metastases ranges from 0.18% to 2%. Experimental studies reported a general unsatisfactory survival time following skin metastasis. We report in this paper a case of metastatic urinary system TCC, which had become evident with a skin lesion in the right hypogastric region. A 60-year-old female patient with a history of being operated upon due to renal pelvic TCC was admitted to our outpatient clinic with complaints of red skin lesion in the near vicinity of the operational incision scar for 3 months. Her medical history revealed nothing but nephroureterectomy operation on the upper urinary system; moreover, it was learned that she had been ignoring what was recommended to her for routine controls. Thoraco-abdominal computed tomographic (CT) examination performed on the basis of aforementioned findings depicted a mass lesion of 24*20 mm dimension with high contrast uptake detected within the subcutaneous fat tissue in the right abdominal wall. The skin lesion depicted in CT was surgically excised. The pathological examination of the excised material was reported to be compatible with TCC. The patient was referred due to abdominal lesion to medical oncology after the operation. Followed up under chemotherapy protocol, the patient died 3 months after the metastasectomy operation. Skin metastasis of upper urinary system TCCs, especially renal pelvic TCCs, are quite rare conditions. Among the likely skin sites of metastasis for genitourinary system TCCs are head, face, extremities, suprapubic region and abdomen. Taking into consideration the low survival rates, the importance of early diagnosis of recurrences and/or distant metastases should be better appreciated. These patients die soon after the skin metastasis even with the administration of aggressive therapy. Similarly, our patient died 90 days after the diagnosis of skin metastasis despite the oncologic

  18. Seasonal variation of DNA damage and repair in patients with non-melanoma skin cancer and referents with and without psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Frentz, G;

    1998-01-01

    Quadruples of skin cancer patients with and without psoriasis and referents with and without psoriasis (4 x 20 study persons) were identified and examined for DNA damage by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet-assay) and DNA-repair by UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mononuclear...... to solar radiation. When the comet tail moment data were stratified by sampling period, an interaction between psoriasis and skin cancer was detected, with patients with psoriasis and skin cancer exhibiting more DNA damage. Patients with psoriasis and skin cancer also had lower UDS compared to healthy...

  19. A Phase 3 Randomized Trial of Nicotinamide for Skin-Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Martin, Andrew J; Choy, Bonita; Fernández-Peñas, Pablo; Dalziell, Robyn A; McKenzie, Catriona A; Scolyer, Richard A; Dhillon, Haryana M; Vardy, Janette L; Kricker, Anne; St George, Gayathri; Chinniah, Niranthari; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L

    2015-10-22

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, such as basal-cell carcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma, are common cancers that are caused principally by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) has been shown to have protective effects against damage caused by UV radiation and to reduce the rate of new premalignant actinic keratoses. In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, 386 participants who had had at least two nonmelanoma skin cancers in the previous 5 years to receive 500 mg of nicotinamide twice daily or placebo for 12 months. Participants were evaluated by dermatologists at 3-month intervals for 18 months. The primary end point was the number of new nonmelanoma skin cancers (i.e., basal-cell carcinomas plus squamous-cell carcinomas) during the 12-month intervention period. Secondary end points included the number of new squamous-cell carcinomas and basal-cell carcinomas and the number of actinic keratoses during the 12-month intervention period, the number of nonmelanoma skin cancers in the 6-month postintervention period, and the safety of nicotinamide. At 12 months, the rate of new nonmelanoma skin cancers was lower by 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4 to 38) in the nicotinamide group than in the placebo group (P=0.02). Similar differences were found between the nicotinamide group and the placebo group with respect to new basal-cell carcinomas (20% [95% CI, -6 to 39] lower rate with nicotinamide, P=0.12) and new squamous-cell carcinomas (30% [95% CI, 0 to 51] lower rate, P=0.05). The number of actinic keratoses was 11% lower in the nicotinamide group than in the placebo group at 3 months (P=0.01), 14% lower at 6 months (Pnicotinamide was discontinued. Oral nicotinamide was safe and effective in reducing the rates of new nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses in high-risk patients. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council; ONTRAC Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  20. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba P. Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  1. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma arising in tattooed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Deba P; Dentlinger, Renee B; Forystek, Amanda M; Stevens, Todd; Huerter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  2. Primary small cell carcinoma of skin. Histogenetical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachaza, J A; Garcia del Moral, R; López Caballero, J; Caracuel Ruiz, M; Caballero Morales, T

    1986-06-01

    Four cases of primary small cell carcinoma of the skin (PSCCS) are presented (ages ranging from 60 to 68 years). Ultrastructurally, two cell types were identified, with both presenting electron-dense secretory granules and paranuclear intermediate filaments. Argyrophylia was positive in one case. Intense solar elastosis in two cases and actinic keratosis in one case suggest a possible role from solar damage in the pathogenesis of this tumor. According to comparative ultrastructural features, different histogenetic possibilities in Merkel cells (MC), peripheral neuroblastic tissue, and totipotential cells are discussed. Some neurosecretory-like granules were observed in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We consider that PSCCS reproduces cells similar to MC and probably originates in stem cells with totipotential capacity.

  3. Neglected skin cancer in the elderly: a case of basosquamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Bisgaard, Erika; Tarakji, Michael; Lau, Frank; RIKER, ADAM

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and basal cell carcinoma represents the largest portion of non-melanomatous skin cancers with over 3 million cases diagnosed annually. Locally advanced disease is frequently seen in the elderly posing clinical challenges regarding proper treatment. We report on an 86-year-old female presenting with fatigue, anemia and a large ulcerated skin lesion along the right upper back. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a basosquamous cell carcinoma. Sh...

  4. TERT promoter mutations are frequent in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griewank, Klaus G; Murali, Rajmohan; Schilling, Bastian; Schimming, Tobias; Möller, Inga; Moll, Iris; Schwamborn, Marion; Sucker, Antje; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the TERT promoter were recently identified in up to 71% of cutaneous melanoma. Subsequent studies found TERT promoter mutations in a wide array of other major human cancers. TERT promoter mutations lead to increased expression of telomerase, which maintains telomere length and genomic stability, thereby allowing cancer cells to continuously divide, avoiding senescence or apoptosis. TERT promoter mutations in cutaneous melanoma often show UV-signatures. Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are very frequent malignancies in individuals of European descent. We investigated the presence of TERT promoter mutations in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 34 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas using conventional Sanger sequencing. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 18 (56%) basal cell carcinomas and in 17 (50%) cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. The recurrent mutations identified in our cohort were identical to those previously described in cutaneous melanoma, and showed a UV-signature (C>T or CC>TT) in line with a causative role for UV exposure in these common cutaneous malignancies. Our study shows that TERT promoter mutations with UV-signatures are frequent in non-melanoma skin cancer, being present in around 50% of basal and squamous cell carcinomas and suggests that increased expression of telomerase plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors.

  5. Pathways of tumor development and progression in drug-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer: a new hope or the next great confusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernev, Georgi; Wollina, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    The factors that lead to the clinical manifestation of the nonmelanocytic skin tumors are different. Ultraviolet radiation, infections with human papillomaviruses, and inherited or iatrogenic-induced immunosuppression (in cases of autoimmune diseases and organ transplant recipients) are considered to be some of the most important generators and/or costimulating factors supporting the appearance of "de-novo" mutations and obstruct, in one or another way, the cell cycle arrest, the programmed cell death (apoptosis), and the immunosurveillance. Preconditions are thus created for the initial persistence and subsequent proliferation of the malignant cell branch in the genome, with the simultaneous increase of the risk of nonmelanocytic skin tumor manifestation.A number of medical drugs that possess a currently well-known selective, targeting, and immunomodulating effect, like the TNF-alpha inhibitors for example, most probably possess an additional blocking action on the death receptors within the framework of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. In this way, they seem to be one of the major factors for the clinical manifestation not only of nonmelanocytic skin but also of a number of other type of tumors with a dependency on the genetic predisposition of each separate patient.This article focuses the attention on the basic exogenic and endogenic factors that affect the regulatory processes of the cellular cycle, apoptosis, immunosurveillance, and the human inflammasome in patients with nonmelanocytic skin tumors. These processes are interwoven in a complex network and are controlled by (1) the genome regulator p53, (2) its interaction with the proapoptotic acting proteins Bak and Bax, (3) as well as the interaction with the key regulatory protein of the inflammasome-ASC/TMS1.As a process, the malignant transformation is exceptionally dynamic, plastic, and adaptive. The exterior "interferences", on the part of the clinician, in the form of a planned therapy should be

  6. Individualized 3D scanning and printing for non-melanoma skin cancer brachytherapy: a financial study for its integration into clinical workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Meritxell; Sabater, Sebastià; Sintas, Andreu; Arguís, Monica; Hernández, Víctor; Árquez, Miguel; López, Iolanda; Rovirosa, Àngeles; Puig, Doménec

    2017-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common tumor in the population. There are different therapeutic modalities. Brachytherapy is one of the techniques used, in which it is necessary to build customized moulds for some patients. Currently, these moulds are made by hand using rudimentary techniques. We present a new procedure based on 3D printing and the analysis of the clinical workflow. Moulds can be made either by hand or by automated 3D printing. For making moulds by hand, a patient's alginate negative is created and, from that, the gypsum cast and customized moulds are made by hand from the patient's negative template. The new process is based on 3D printing. The first step is to take a 3D scan of the surface of the patient and then, 3D modelling software is used to obtain an accurate anatomical reconstruction of the treatment area. We present the clinical workflow using 3D scanning and printing technology, comparing its costs with the usual custom handmade mould protocol. The time spent for the new process is 6.25 hours, in contrast to the time spent for the conventional process, which is 9.5 hours. We found a 34% reduction in time required to create a mould for brachytherapy treatment. The labor cost of the conventional process is 211.5 vs. 152.5 hours, so the reduction is 59 hours. There is also a 49.5% reduction in the financial costs, mostly due to lack of need of a computed tomography (CT) scan of the gypsum and the mould. 3D scanning and printing offers financial benefits and reduces the clinical workload. As the present project demonstrates, through the application of 3D printing technologies, the costs and time spent during the process in the clinical workload in brachytherapy treatment are reduced. Overall, 3D printing is a promising technique for brachytherapy that might be well received in the community.

  7. Skin carcinomas in organ-transplant recipients : from early oncogenic events to therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Ymke Grete Leontien de

    2008-01-01

    Skin carcinomas develop at a high rate in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immune suppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. The present study dealt with a broad range of aspects of this elevated carcinoma risk, starting from the earliest oncogenic events to the ultimate therapy.

  8. Skin carcinomas in organ-transplant recipients : from early oncogenic events to therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Ymke Grete Leontien de

    2008-01-01

    Skin carcinomas develop at a high rate in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immune suppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. The present study dealt with a broad range of aspects of this elevated carcinoma risk, starting from the earliest oncogenic events to the ultimate therapy. Advan

  9. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases......To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  10. Skin Cancer Chemoprevention by Silibinin: Mechanisms and Efficacy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project Summary Abstract Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) type, is a major health problem in the United States (US); annual BCC incidences alone are higher than all other cancer incidences combined (1.67 million/year). Most BCC cases are curable by surgery/radiation, but these can be painful and highly disfiguring and are not viable treatment options for BCC patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease where chemotherapy has also not proven effective. |

  11. Sonidegib, a novel smoothened inhibitor for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Doan HQ; Silapunt S; Migden MR

    2016-01-01

    Hung Q Doan,1 Sirunya Silapunt,1 Michael R Migden2,3 1Department of Dermatology, University of Texas, McGovern Medical School, 2Mohs Surgery Unit, Department of Dermatology, 3Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. If left untreated, BCCs can become locally aggressive or even metastasize. Currently available treatments include local destr...

  12. Patterns and timing of sunlight exposure and risk of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin – a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone Michelle R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, comprised of basal (BCC and squamous (SCC cell carcinomas, is the most common cancer in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposure is the most important environmental risk factor for NMSC. However, the precise relationship between UVR and the risk of NMSC is complex, and the relationship may differ by skin cancer type. Methods A case–control study was conducted among Florida residents to investigate measures of patterns (intermittent vs. continuous and timing (childhood vs. adulthood of sunlight exposure in BCC and SCC. Participants included 218 BCC and 169 SCC cases recruited from a university dermatology clinic and 316 controls with no history of skin or other cancers. Results A history of blistering sunburn (a measure of intermittent sunlight exposure was associated with both BCC (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.27-3.03 and SCC (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.22-3.33. Additionally, having a job in the sun for ≥3 months for 10 years or longer (a measure of continuous sunlight exposure was also associated with both BCC and SCC in our study population. With the exception of younger age at first blistering sunburn, measures of younger age at sunlight exposure tended to be associated with SCC, but not BCC risk. Conclusions Results from the current study suggest that sunlight exposure is associated with both BCC and SCC risk regardless of the pattern in which the exposure was received (i.e. intermittent vs. continuous. The data also suggest that sunlight exposure at a younger age may be more important for SCC but not BCC, however additional studies are needed to further characterize sunlight exposure-response relationships in different types of NMSC.

  13. Patterns and timing of sunlight exposure and risk of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin--a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacone, Michelle R; Wang, Wei; Stockwell, Heather G; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Giuliano, Anna R; Sondak, Vernon K; Messina, Jane L; Roetzheim, Richard G; Cherpelis, Basil S; Fenske, Neil A; Rollison, Dana E

    2012-09-20

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), comprised of basal (BCC) and squamous (SCC) cell carcinomas, is the most common cancer in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the most important environmental risk factor for NMSC. However, the precise relationship between UVR and the risk of NMSC is complex, and the relationship may differ by skin cancer type. A case-control study was conducted among Florida residents to investigate measures of patterns (intermittent vs. continuous) and timing (childhood vs. adulthood) of sunlight exposure in BCC and SCC. Participants included 218 BCC and 169 SCC cases recruited from a university dermatology clinic and 316 controls with no history of skin or other cancers. A history of blistering sunburn (a measure of intermittent sunlight exposure) was associated with both BCC (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.27-3.03) and SCC (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.22-3.33). Additionally, having a job in the sun for ≥ 3 months for 10 years or longer (a measure of continuous sunlight exposure) was also associated with both BCC and SCC in our study population. With the exception of younger age at first blistering sunburn, measures of younger age at sunlight exposure tended to be associated with SCC, but not BCC risk. Results from the current study suggest that sunlight exposure is associated with both BCC and SCC risk regardless of the pattern in which the exposure was received (i.e. intermittent vs. continuous). The data also suggest that sunlight exposure at a younger age may be more important for SCC but not BCC, however additional studies are needed to further characterize sunlight exposure-response relationships in different types of NMSC.

  14. Patterns and timing of sunlight exposure and risk of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin – a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), comprised of basal (BCC) and squamous (SCC) cell carcinomas, is the most common cancer in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the most important environmental risk factor for NMSC. However, the precise relationship between UVR and the risk of NMSC is complex, and the relationship may differ by skin cancer type. Methods A case–control study was conducted among Florida residents to investigate measures of patterns (intermittent vs. continuous) and timing (childhood vs. adulthood) of sunlight exposure in BCC and SCC. Participants included 218 BCC and 169 SCC cases recruited from a university dermatology clinic and 316 controls with no history of skin or other cancers. Results A history of blistering sunburn (a measure of intermittent sunlight exposure) was associated with both BCC (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.27-3.03) and SCC (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.22-3.33). Additionally, having a job in the sun for ≥3 months for 10 years or longer (a measure of continuous sunlight exposure) was also associated with both BCC and SCC in our study population. With the exception of younger age at first blistering sunburn, measures of younger age at sunlight exposure tended to be associated with SCC, but not BCC risk. Conclusions Results from the current study suggest that sunlight exposure is associated with both BCC and SCC risk regardless of the pattern in which the exposure was received (i.e. intermittent vs. continuous). The data also suggest that sunlight exposure at a younger age may be more important for SCC but not BCC, however additional studies are needed to further characterize sunlight exposure-response relationships in different types of NMSC. PMID:22994655

  15. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial ...

  16. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin: a case with lymph node metastases at presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gillian; Duncan, Alison; Azurdia, Richard; Leonard, Niamh

    2006-06-01

    We report a case of a primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the skin. The patient was a 73-year-old man with a lump on his back for 18 months. A biopsy and subsequent excision was performed. He also had axillary node clearance for metastatic disease. The tumor was composed of islands of pleomorphic cells with a lymphocytic infiltrate. Differential diagnoses included squamous cell carcinoma, adnexal carcinoma, Merkel cell tumors, lymphoepithelial lesions, lymphomas, and skin metastases. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical features were those of a LELC of the skin. It was negative for Epstein-Barr virus. Just over 30 cases of primary LELCs arising in the skin have been reported with only 1 documented fatality. We report a case with extensive vascular involvement and bilateral lymph node metastases.

  17. Recent advances in the prevention and treatment of skin cancer using photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baozhong; He, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive procedure that involves a photosensitizing drug and its subsequent activation by light to produce reactive oxygen species that specifically destroy target cells. Recently, PDT has been widely used in treating non-melanoma skin malignancies, the most common cancer in the USA, with superior cosmetic outcomes compared with conventional therapies. The topical ‘photosensitizers’ commonly used are 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its esterified derivative methyl 5-aminolevulinate, which are precursors of the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. After treatment with ALA or methyl 5-aminolevulinate, protoporphyrin IX preferentially accumulates in the lesion area of various skin diseases, which allows not only PDT treatment but also fluorescence diagnosis with ALA-induced porphyrins. Susceptible lesions include various forms of non-melanoma skin cancer such as actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The most recent and promising developments in PDT include the discovery of new photosensitizers, the exploitation of new drug delivery systems and the combination of other modalities, which will all contribute to increasing PDT therapeutic efficacy and improving outcome. This article summarizes the main principles of PDT and its current clinical use in the management of non-melanoma skin cancers, as well as recent developments and possible future research directions. PMID:21080805

  18. Impaired skin barrier function in mice with colon carcinoma induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that impaired skin barrier function was induced by small intestinal injury in mice. Therefore, we postulated that other intestinal diseases might also influence skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluated the skin barrier function of hairless mice with colon carcinoma that was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In mice treated with these drugs, we observed elevated transepidermal water loss and reduced skin hydration levels, compared to those in the control mice. In addition, plasma nitrogen di/trioxide (NO2(-)/NO3(-)) levels were significantly elevated, and expression of type I collagen was significantly reduced in the treated mice, compared to those in control. These results suggest that impaired skin barrier function occurs in mice when colon carcinoma is present.

  19. P63 marker Expression in Usual Skin Cancers Compared With Non Tumoral Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Esmaili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers in human. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P63 marker in usual skin cancers compared with non-tomoral skin lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sampling was performed from archival blocks of Shahid Mohammadi hospital patients during 2010-2011. 60 samples (including 30 samples of non tumoral skin lesions and 30 samples of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were studied and evaluation of p63 gene expression was done with Immunohistochemistry method. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of data. Results: P63 gene were expressed in 4 cases (13.33 % of non tumoral lesions and all tumoral lesions (100 %. In tumoral lesions, 5 cases (16.66 % showed 1+ severity experssion, 11 cases (36.66% 2 + severity experssion and 14 cases (46.66 % 3+severity experssion. All 4 non tumoral lesions shoed 1+ severity experssion of P63gene. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the incidence and severity of gene expression of P63 can be use for differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as non-tumoral skin lesions. 

  20. Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Alia Arif; Themstrup, Lotte; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in dermatology in the late 1990s optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to study many skin diseases, in particular non-melanoma skin cancer and it s precursors. Special attention has been paid to superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and a number of smaller...... observational studies have been published. The diagnostic criteria for BCC of these studies are systematically reviewed. A systemic review of English language studies was performed using PubMed, Google Scholar and Royal Danish Library, to search for primary papers on OCT and BCC. The references of retrieved...

  1. Epidemiology of basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in a Department of Dermatology: a 5 year review Epidemiologia dos carcinomas basocelulares e espinhocelulares em um Serviço de Dermatologia: revisão de 5 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Andrade

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-melanoma skin cancer, a common designation for both basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, is the most frequent malignant skin neoplasm. OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic characterization of the population with Non-melanoma skin cancer. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with Non-melanoma skin cancer based on histopathologic analysis of all incisional or excisional skin biopsies performed between 2004 and 2008 in a Department of Dermatology. RESULTS: A total of 3075 Non-melanoma skin cancers were identified, representing 88% of all malignant skin neoplasms (n=3493 diagnosed in the same period. Of those, 68,3% were basal cell carcinomas. Most Non-melanoma skin cancer patients were female and over 60 years old. Of all Non-melanoma skin cancer, 81,7% (n=1443 were located in sun-exposed skin, and represented 95,1% of malignant skin neoplasms in sun-exposed skin. Non-melanoma skin cancer was the most frequent malignant skin neoplasm in most topographic locations, except for abdomen and pelvis - over 95% of all malignant skin neoplasms in the face, neck and scalp were Non-melanoma skin cancer. Basal cell carcinomas were clearly predominant in all locations, except in upper and lower limbs, lower lip and genitals, where squamous cell carcinomas represented respectively 77,7%, 77,4%, 94,7% and 95,3% of the Non-melanoma skin cancers. CONCLUSION: Being the most common skin cancer, Non-melanoma skin cancer should be under constant surveillance, in order to monitor its epidemiologic dynamics, the efficiency of preventive measures and the adaptation of the healthcare resources.FUNDAMENTOS: O cancro cutâneo não-melanoma, designação conjunta para os carcinomas basocelulares e espinhocelulares, é o tipo de neoplasia cutânea maligna mais frequente. OBJETIVOS: Caracterização epidemiológica da população diagnosticada com cancro cutâneo não-melanoma. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma análise retrospectiva dos

  2. Improved quality of optical coherence tomography imaging of basal cell carcinomas using speckle reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a possible imaging method for delineation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Speckle noise is the dominant noise contribution in OCT images; it limits the ability to identify cellular structures especially skin cancer. QUESTIONS ADDRESSED: This report...... suggests a method for improving OCT image quality for skin cancer imaging. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: OCT is an optical imaging method analogous to ultrasound. Two basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were imaged using an OCT speckle reduction technique (SR-OCT) based on repeated scanning by altering the distance between...... to a clinically relevant level when imaging BCC lesions....

  3. Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaq, F; Katiyar, S K

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring plant products and are widely distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc. These polyphenols contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary products. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of the skin to environmental factors/pollutants, such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induce harmful effects and leads to various skin diseases including the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, comprising of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, is a significant public health concern world-wide. Exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. The regular intake of natural plant products, especially polyphenols, which are widely present in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes and beverages have gained considerable attention as protective agents against the adverse effects of UV radiation. In this article, we first discussed the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans.

  4. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  5. A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY AND MANAGEMENT OF SKIN MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Jagadev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer globally accounting for at least 40% of cases. It is especially common among people with light skin. Non-melanoma skin cancers, about 80% are basal cell cancers and 20% squamous cell cancers. Basal cell and squamous cell cancers rarely result in death. Australia and New Zealand have the highest rates of melanoma in the world. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence, clinicopathological presentation and management of skin malignancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study conducted for a period of 2 years and analysed 30 cases of malignant skin tumours proven on histopathology with respect to prevalence, age, sex distribution, common site of occurrence and treatment modalities adopted. RESULTS In the present study, 47% of squamous cell carcinoma occurred between 50-59 years of age, more common in males with site predilection of lower limbs. Basal cell carcinoma was more common in the age group, 60-69 years (55.6% and more common in females (66.7%. The commonest site of occurrence of basal cell carcinoma was in the lower eyelid. Malignant melanoma was more common in the age group 50-59 years (75% and more common in females (75%. The commonest site of occurrence of melanoma was lower extremity. All the cases were treated with surgery. CONCLUSION Non-melanoma skin malignancies like squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are more common than melanoma and have good prognosis. The mean age of occurrence of the tumours was around 60 years of age and responded well with surgical resection.

  6. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Line; Christensen, Lise Hanne; Dahlstrøm, Karin;

    2008-01-01

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (PMCS) is a rare malignant tumor deriving from the sweat glands. It is typically located on the head and is often mistaken for a metastasis from a more common primary tumor of the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We present the first population-based study...

  7. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, L.; Dahlstrom, K.; Breiting, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (PMCS) is a rare malignant tumor deriving from the sweat glands. It is typically located on the head and is often mistaken for a metastasis from a more common primary tumor of the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We present the first population-b...

  8. [The role of sonic hedgehog pathway in skin carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Aleksandra; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Narbutt, Joanna

    2010-08-01

    Non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) involving basal (BCC)--and squamosus cell carcinomas (SCC) and are the most frequent skin cancers in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor for NMSC development. The aim of this paper is to review the latest opinions concerning the role of sonic hedgehog pathway in non-melanoma skin cancers development. Experimental data indicate that sonic hedgehog pathway might be involved in skin carcinogenesis. Under physiological conditions sonic hedgehog pathway is responsible for normal embryogenesis, regeneration of damaged tissues and for regulation of cell proliferation. It was revealed that UVR caused inactivated mutation in PATCHED gene encoding Ptch1 protein. These events lead to deregulation of sonic hedgehog pathway trough activation of Smo protein and Gli transcriptional factors what stimulates cell proliferation and in consequence NMSC development. Literature data indicate that understanding of molecular background of skin cancers might be a reason for introduction of new therapeutic approaches including sonic hedgehog pathway inhibitors.

  9. Skin cancer: an overview of epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Randy

    2013-08-01

    To provide a general overview of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and the multiple and varied risk factors associated with skin cancer. Peer-reviewed journal articles, government health reports, book chapters, and Web-based resources. Skin cancer is the most common carcinoma, affecting millions worldwide. Incidence is increasing yearly, making it a pre-eminent public health threat. Myriad factors increase the risk of skin cancer and may serve as important prognostic indicators for the disease. To provide nurses with a clearer understanding of the causative mechanisms of skin cancer and an improved awareness of the risk factors associated with the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Outdoor sports and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.

  11. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...... colour and skin type were found to be independent risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma; red hair vs. black/brown: OR >9.7, blond hair vs. brown/black: OR = 2.4, and skin type 11 vs. type IV: OR=2.0. There were no gender-related differences in risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous...

  12. Host Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Promotes Human Skin Carcinoma Progression in a Stage-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Maillard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis and tumor expansion are associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and involve various proteases such as the plasminogen (Pig/plasminogen activator (PA system. Recently, several experimental data have implicated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 in tumor angiogenesis in murine systems. However, little is known about PAI-1 functions in human skin carcinoma progression. By generating immunodeficient mice (in Rag-1-/- or nude background deleted for PAI-1 gene (PAI-1-/- , we have evaluated the impact of host PAI-1 deficiency on the tumorigenicity of two malignant human skin keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT II-4 and HaCaT A5-RT3 forming low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, respectively. When using the surface transplantation model, angiogenesis and tumor invasion of these two cell lines are strongly reduced in PAI-1-deficient mice as compared to the wild-type control animals. After subcutaneous injection in PAI-1-/- mice, the tumor incidence is reduced for HaCaT II-4 cells, but not for those formed by HaCaT A5-RT3 cells. These data indicate that PAI-1 produced by host cells is an important contributor to earlier stages of human skin carcinoma progression. It exerts its tumor-promoting effect in a tumor stage-dependent manner, but PAI-1 deficiency is not sufficient to prevent neoplastic growth of aggressive tumors of the human skin.

  13. Thyroid follicular carcinoma presenting as metastatic skin nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jehangir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC metastasizes most commonly to the lungs and non-cranial bones. Skull and skin are uncommon sites and usually manifest well after the diagnosis of primary malignancy. Metastasis to skull and skin as the presenting feature of FTC is infrequently reported in the literature. Case presentation: A 65-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of thyroid nodule presented with the complaint of rapidly growing skull nodules which had been present for 3 years but were stable previously. She denied any fevers, chills, history of trauma, or weight loss. She denied any history of smoking or head and neck irradiation. On physical examination, she had two non-tender gray cystic lesions – one on her left temporal region and the other on the right parietal region. Biopsy was consistent with metastatic FTC. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated 7.1×3.8 cm and 3.7×4.5 cm fairly homogeneous, enhancing, relatively well-defined masses centered in the posterior and left anterior lateral calvarium with intracranial and extracranial extensions but without any vasogenic edema or mass effect on the brain. Thyroid ultrasound showed numerous nodules in both lobes. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Histopathological studies of the thyroid gland revealed a well-differentiated FTC in the left lobe. Then she underwent resection of the tumor in multiple stages. She did not have any recurrence of the FTC or metastases during the follow-up period and will be receiving radioactive iodine treatment. Conclusion: Bone and lung are the common sites of metastasis from FTC, but involvement of skull or skin is unusual, particularly as the presenting feature. Metastases from FTC should be in the differential of patients with new osteolytic hypervascular skull lesions or cutaneous lesions in head and neck area.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple following radiation therapy for ductal carcinoma in situ: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yajue

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Radiation-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer was first reported seven years after the discovery of X-rays, but has received relatively little consideration in the literature. Specifically, nonmelanoma skin cancer after conservative surgery and radiation for early stage breast cancer has not been well studied. We report the case of a woman who developed squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple nine years after conservative surgery and radiation for ductal carcinoma in situ of the ipsilateral breast. We also review the relevant literature available to date. Case presentation A 66-year-old African-American woman presented to the hospital with a non-healing ulcer of the right nipple. Her past medical history was significant for right breast ductal carcinoma in situ for which she had undergone lumpectomy and whole breast radiation therapy nine years previously. Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging studies were negative for recurrent breast cancer. However, the latter demonstrated abnormal enhancement in the nipple-areolar region. An incisional biopsy of the lesion demonstrated invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Subsequently, the patient underwent wide excision of the nipple-areolar complex. Sentinel lymph-node biopsy was offered but our patient declined. She was considered to have local disease and hence no further treatment was recommended. Conclusion This case represents the first reported occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple to follow conservative surgery and radiation for ductal carcinoma in situ of the ipsilateral breast. It is likely that radiation overexposure resulted in a radiation burn and subsequent radiodermatitis, placing it at risk for squamous cell carcinoma. A diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma should be considered in a patient with a nipple lesion following radiation therapy for breast cancer.

  15. Opportunistic screening for skin cancer using a mobile unit in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazquez Vinicius L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the white population worldwide. In Brazil, the National Cancer Institute (INCA estimates that in 2010 there will be 119,780 and 5,930 new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mobile unit in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer in several poor regions of Brazil. Methods The diagnosis of skin cancer was accomplished through active medical screening in the prevention Mobile Unit (MU of Barretos Cancer Hospital (BCH. The study population consisted of patients examined in the MU between 2004 and 2007, and their suspicious lesions were subjected to histopathological evaluation. Data were collected prospectively from standardized forms and analyzed. Results During the screening, 17,857 consultations were carried out. A total of 2012 (11.2% cases of skin cancer were diagnosed. The predominant histological type reported was basal cell carcinoma (n = 1,642 or 81.6%, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n = 303 or 15.1%, Bowen's disease (n = 25 or 1.2%, malignant melanoma (n = 23 or 1.1%, basosquamous cell carcinoma (n = 3 or 0.1%, miscellaneous lesions (12 or 0.6%, and metatypical carcinoma (n = 4 or 0.2%. Only 0.6% of lesions were stage III. There were no stage IV non-melanoma skin lesions, as well as no melanomas stages III and IV, found. Conclusions It was observed that the MU can be a useful tool for early skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. This program probably is important, especially in developing countries with inadequate public health systems and social inequality.

  16. Basaloid squamous carcinoma of skin associated with xeroderma pigmentosum in an 8-year-old child: A rare entity

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    Tashnin Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis associated with hypersensitivity to ultraviolet (UV light, due to defects in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA repair. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with XP are at increased risk of developing cutaneous malignancy and are commonly associated with squamous carcinoma. We report an extremely rare case of 8-year-old child with XP along with basaloidsquamous carcinoma of skin; and review of literature related to it.

  17. Primary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Skin with Multiple Local Recurrences

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    Ivan Dimitrov Tonev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma (PACC of the skin is a rare tumor with fewer than 70 cases studied in detail in the English literature. This type of tumor shows a prolonged course and a growth pattern usually manifested by multiple local recurrences and has a low potential for distant metastases. The most important modality for primary treatment is surgical resection followed by radiotherapy. We report a woman aged 43 years at the time of diagnosis, who presented with a slow-growing nodule in the right axilla without lymph node enlargement. A wide local excision was performed, and the histology revealed an adenoid cystic carcinoma. During the next 24 years, another four local recurrences were excised (the last one in 2015 and confirmed histologically to be adenoid cystic carcinoma. The patient was given 44 Gy of radiotherapy after the second surgery in 1996. PACC of the skin is a rare tumor with insufficient data concerning the efficacy of the surgical technique and chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment, even more so in the case of multiple recurrences. After the last recurrence, the patient was offered an active follow-up based on the long tumor-free intervals in the past and because the site of the primary tumor allowed further surgical excisions in future recurrences.

  18. High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

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    Michael J. Veness

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancers (squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas occur at an epidemic rate in many countries with the worldwide incidence increasing. The sun-exposed head and neck are the most frequent sites for these cancers to arise and in most patients diagnosed with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, local treatment is usually curative. However, a subset is diagnosed with a high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. High-risk factors include size (> 2 cm, thickness/depth of invasion (> 4 mm, recurrent lesions, the presence of perineural invasion, location near the parotid gland, and immunosuppression. These patients have a higher risk (> 10–20% of developing metastases to regional lymph nodes (often parotid nodes, and in some cases also of experiencing local morbidity (perineural invasion, based on unfavourable primary lesion and patient factors. Despite treatment, many patients developing metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma experience mortality and morbidity usually as a consequence of uncontrolled metastatic nodal disease. It is therefore important that clinicians treating nonmelanoma skin cancers have an understanding and awareness of these high-risk patients. The aim of this article is to discuss the factors that define a high-risk patient and to present some of the issues pertinent to their management.

  19. Necessity of Distinguishing Verrucous Carcinoma From Verrucous Skin Lesion Overlaying Residual Skin Staples in an Area of Sensory Loss: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Tokiyoshi, Takahiro; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is a condition usually induced by chronic mechanical stimulation of the feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy and usually occurs at weight-bearing sites. We here present a rare case involving a man with verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy at an unusual, non-weight-bearing site. A 58-year-old man with diabetic neuropathy presented with a verrucous skin lesion overlaying residual skin staples and an amputation stump of the second metatarsal bone on the dorsal foot. The biopsy findings were inconclusive and suggested the necessity of distinguishing the lesion from verrucous carcinoma. The lesion was resected, and the residual skin staples were simultaneously removed. Investigation of the excisional biopsy confirmed our diagnosis of verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy. Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is often difficult to distinguish from verrucous carcinoma; in this case, the unusual location of the lesion could be attributed not only to sensory loss but also to the presence of an amputation stump and the persistence of the residual skin staples.

  20. Skin microtopography as a measure of photoaging and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in a US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Lawrence Fitzgerald; Zens, Michael Scot; Perry, Ann E; Green, Adele C; Karagas, Margaret R

    2017-01-01

    Skin microtopography as a measure of photoaging is a noninvasive approach to measuring chronic ultraviolet radiation exposure and reflects the degree of dermal elastosis in populations of European descent in the subtropics. Less is known about the utility of this approach in populations at different latitudes, and whether it relates to skin cancer risk. A population-based case-control study of 342 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases and 331 age- and gender-matched controls were evaluated for histologic evidence of solar damage and severity of photoaging based on microtopography on a six-grade scale. Odds ratios (OR) for SCC associated with degree of photoaging were estimated using logistic regression analysis adjusted for potentially confounding factors. After adjustment for known risk factors, SCC was associated with increasing photoaging grade (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.9-3.0 for severe photoaging; OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.6-5.0 for very severe photoaging). Associations remained among those with actinic keratosis (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 0.9-12.4 for severe photoaging, OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 1.7-19.6 for very severe photoaging). There was limited statistical power, particularly for subgroup analyses. Our findings provide further evidence of microtopography as an independent, objective indicator of risk of SCC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fatores de risco para câncer da pele não melanoma em Taubaté, SP: um estudo caso-controle Risk factors for nonmelanoma skin cancer in Taubaté, SP: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Ferreira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados ao câncer da pele não melanoma em Taubaté-SP. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle de base hospitalar com residentes em Taubaté atendidos entre 01/01/05 e 31/12/06. Os indivíduos foram combinados 1:1 conforme gênero e idade. Foram variáveis independentes: idade, gênero, fototipo, ascendência europeia, tempo de moradia, exposição solar, tempo (em anos, número de horas e horário de exposição solar ocupacional e não ocupacional, fotoproteção, histórico familiar e fotodano. Foi utilizada a regressão logística hierarquizada em três níveis. O ajuste do modelo foi realizado pelo teste de Hosmer-Lemeshow e sua acurácia foi verificada pela curva ROC. O nível de significância foi p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Foram 132 casos e 132 controles. Compuseram o modelo final: fototipo com OR = 3,14 (IC 95% 1,79-5,49, horas de exposição solar ocupacional 1,76 (1,04-2,99 e não ocupacional 1,80 (0,98-3,29 e histórico familiar 2,10 (1,13-3,93.Teste de Hosmer-Lemeshow, p = 0,97. Acurácia 70% (IC 95% 63-76. CONCLUSÃO: Pele clara, histórico familiar e exposição solar ocupacional e não ocupacional se associaram ao câncer cutâneo não melanoma em Taubaté-SP.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with non-melanoma skin cancer in the city of Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Hospital-based case-control study with individuals residing in Taubaté, treated between January 2005 and December 2006. The subjects were matched 1:1 according to gender and age. Age, gender, phototype, European descent, time of residence, sun exposure, time (in years, number of hours and time of occupational and non-occupational sun exposure, photoprotection, family history and photodamage were independent variables. A hierarchical logistic regression was used at three levels. The model adjustment was performed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and its accuracy was verified by ROC curve. The significance level was p < 0.05. RESULTS

  2. How histological features of basal cell carcinomas influence image quality in optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Nürnberg, Birgit M.; Thrane, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to diagnose and measure the depth of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in skin, but some lesions appear blurred in OCT images. The aim of this study is to identify histological characteristics of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) that correlate with good...... quality OCT images of the same lesions. A total of 34 patients with BCC were OCT scanned. The influence of histology parameters (e.g. inflammation, sun damage of skin, carcinoma cell size) on OCT image quality was studied by comparing 15 BCC lesions easily identified compared to 19 BCC lesions...... that produced only blurred in OCT images. Inflammation was more pronounced in blurred OCT images, whereas solar elastosis dominated in easily identified lesions. Hyperkeratosis did not impair imaging significantly. OCT image quality of BCC may depend on specific histology parameters....

  3. Oculocutaneous Albinism and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin of the Head and Neck in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Lekalakala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculocutaneous albinism which is characterised by impaired melanin biosynthesis is the most common inherited pigmentary disorder of the skin and it is common among Blacks in sub-Saharan Africa. All albinos are at great risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of sun-exposed skin, and Black albinos in sub-Saharan Africa are at about a 1000-fold higher risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the skin than the general population. In Black albinos, skin carcinoma tends to run an aggressive course and is likely to recur after treatment, very probably because the aetiology and predisposing factors have not changed. Prevention or reduction of occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in Black albinos might be achieved through educating the population to increase awareness of the harmful effects of exposure to sunlight and at the same time making available effective screening programs for early detection of premalignant and malignant skin lesions in schools and communities and for early treatment.

  4. Expression of GLTSCR2/Pict-1 in squamous cell carcinomas of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Cho, Young-Eun; Park, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Sun

    2013-11-01

    The most important cause of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) is DNA damage induced by exposure to solar UV irradiation. DNA damage induced by UV irradiation is sensed by early DNA damage response (DDR) proteins. Recently, GLTSCR2 has been suggested to play a role in UV light-induced DDR. To explore the role of GLTSCR2 in the development of cutaneous SCC, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying GLTSCR2 inactivation in response to UV irradiation. We analyzed cutaneous SCC (n=42), basal cell carcinomas (BCC; n=26), and normal skin tissue samples (n=36) and compared GLTSCR2 expression between tumor and normal tissues, using immunohistochemistry. Next, to investigate the effects of UV irradiation on GLTSCR2, we performed immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, immunoblotting, half-life assay for GLTSCR2, and comet assay after UV irradiation in primary keratinocytes. GLTSCR2 expression in SCC was significantly lower than that of normal skin tissue (pUV irradiation. UV irradiation accelerated degradation of GLTSCR2 through proteasomal pathway. Knockdown of GLTSCR2 resulted in marked decrease in γH2AX foci after UV exposure. Furthermore, comet assay showed that DNA damage after UV exposure persists longer in GLTSCR2 knocked-down cells. Our data show that GLTSCR2 is downregulated in SCC of the skin and that UV light exposure decreases the stability of GLTSCR2 and sensitizes keratinocytes to DNA damage. Therefore, our data suggest that GLTSCR2 might be involved in the development and/or progression of SCC of the skin.

  5. 非黑色素性皮肤癌病人生命质量测评研究%Study on evaluation on quality of life of non-melanoma skin cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史岩; 何琨

    2012-01-01

    this paper introduced the characteristics and treatment non - melanoma of skin cancer, and life quality assessment tools and its application, and put forward the research prospect of life quality - evaluation; non - melanoma skin cancer patients life quality.%介绍了非黑色素性皮肤癌的特点、治疗方法以及生命质量测评工具及其应用,并提出非黑色素性皮肤癌病人生命质量测评的研究前景.

  6. Prostate carcinoma metastatic to the skin as an extrammamary Paget’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu Eugen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The current paper describes a case of prostatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to the skin presenting as an extrammamary Paget's disease, a very rare and poorly characterised morphological entity. We report a case of prostatic carcinoma metastatic to skin showing a pattern of extramammary Paget's disease which has not been clearly illustrated in the literature Case presentation: A 63 year-old man with prostatic adenocarcinoma developed cutaneous metastases after 16 years. The inguinal metastases were sessile and 'keratotic.' The tumour displayed solid, glandular areas as well as a polypoid region suggestive of extramammary Paget's disease were identified. Discussion and conclusions We review the diagnostic criteria that have led to the correct histopathological diagnosis in this case. A differential diagnosis of the pagetoid spread in the skin and various forms of cutaneous metastases determined by a prostatic adenocarcinoma as well as the role of immunohistochemistry in establishing the prostatic origin are presented in the context of this case. Although, morphologically the cells presented in the skin deposits were not characteristic for adenocarcinoma of prostate, immunohistochemistry for PSA and PSAP suggested a prostatic origin. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1395450057455276

  7. Automatic detection of basal cell carcinoma using telangiectasia analysis in dermoscopy skin lesion images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Beibei; Erdos, David; Stanley, Ronald J; Stoecker, William V; Calcara, David A; Gómez, David D

    2011-08-01

    Telangiectasia, dilated blood vessels near the surface of the skin of small, varying diameter, are critical dermoscopy structures used in the detection of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Distinguishing these vessels from other telangiectasia, that are commonly found in sun-damaged skin, is challenging. Image analysis techniques are investigated to find vessels structures in BCC automatically. The primary screen for vessels uses an optimized local color drop technique. A noise filter is developed to eliminate false-positive structures, primarily bubbles, hair, and blotch and ulcer edges. From the telangiectasia mask containing candidate vessel-like structures, shape, size and normalized count features are computed to facilitate the discrimination of benign skin lesions from BCCs with telangiectasia. Experimental results yielded a diagnostic accuracy as high as 96.7% using a neural network classifier for a data set of 59 BCCs and 152 benign lesions for skin lesion discrimination based on features computed from the telangiectasia masks. In current clinical practice, it is possible to find smaller BCCs by dermoscopy than by clinical inspection. Although almost all of these small BCCs have telangiectasia, they can be short and thin. Normalization of lengths and areas helps to detect these smaller BCCs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Skin toxicity predicts efficacy to sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masako; Shomura; Tatehiro; Kagawa; Koichi; Shiraishi; Shunji; Hirose; Yoshitaka; Arase; Tetsuya; Mine; Jun; Koizumi

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To study the relationship between adverse events(AEs),efficacy,and nursing intervention for sorafenibtherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).METHODS:We enrolled 37 consecutive patients withadvanced HCC who received sorafenib therapy.Relationships among baseline characteristics as well as AEoccurrence and tumor response,overall survival(OS),and treatment duration were analyzed.The nursingintervention program consisted of education regardingself-monitoring and AEs management,and telephoneRESULTS:A total of 37 patients were enrolled in the study,comprising 30 males(81%) with a median age of 71 years.The disease control rate at 3 mo was 41%,and the median OS and treatment duration were 259 and 108 d,respectively.Nursing intervention was given to 24 patients(65%).Every patient exhibited some kinds of AEs,but no patients experienced G4 AEs.Frequently observed AEs > G2 included anorexia(57%),skin toxicity(57%),and fatigue(54%).Factors significantly associated with longer OS in multivariate analysis demonstrated that age ≤ 70 years,presence of > G2 skin toxicity,and absence of > G2 hypoalbuminemia.The disease control rate in patients with > G2 skin toxicity was 13/20(65%),which was significantly higher compared with that in patients with no or G1 skin toxicity.Multivariate analysis revealed that nursing intervention and > G2 skin toxicity were independent significant predictors for longer treatment duration.CONCLUSION:Skin toxicity was associated with favorable outcomes with sorafenib therapy for advanced HCC.Nursing intervention contributed to better adher-ence,which may improve the efficacy of sorafenib.

  9. Quality of life and self-esteem in patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinomas: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Paula Curitiba; Veiga-Filho, Joel; Carvalho, Marcelo Prado; Fonseca, Fernando Elias Martins; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Veiga, Daniela Francescato

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease and skin carcinomas are the most common type of cancer. Assessing quality of life and self-esteem outcomes in skin cancer patients is important because these are indicators of the results of the treatment, translating how patients face their lives and their personal relationships. To assess the late impact of the surgical treatment of head and/or neck skin carcinomas on quality of life and self-esteem of the patients. Fifty patients with head or neck skin carcinomas were enrolled. Their age ranged between 30 and 75 years, 27 were men and 23 were women. Patients were assessed with regard to quality of life and self-esteem, preoperatively and five years postoperatively. Validated instruments were used: the MOS 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Rosenberg Self-esteem/EPM-UNIFESP Scale. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for the statistical analysis. Twenty-two patients completed the five-year follow-up, 54.5% women and 45.5% men. Compared to the preoperative assessment, patients had an improvement in mental health (p=0.011) and in self-esteem (p=0.002). There was no statistical difference with regard to the other domains of the SF-36. Patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinoma improved mental health and self-esteem in the late postsurgical testing.

  10. Validity of patient skin cancer report among organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybbro, Eric; Mihalis, Eva; Hirose, Ryutaro; Arron, Sarah T

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a common, potentially life-threatening malignancy in organ transplant recipients (OTR), and it is important for transplant physicians to be aware of patient history of skin cancer. Patient self-report represents a quick method of obtaining past medical history of skin cancer but no study has validated the self-report of skin cancer among OTR. Among 339 OTR with a history of skin cancer, the sensitivity and specificity of self-report of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) were 1.00 and 0.92, with a correct classification rate of 0.92. Breakdown of NMSC into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) resulted in a decrease in correct classification, to 0.83 for SCC and 0.74 for BCC. For SCC, sensitivity was 0.81 and specificity was 0.83, while BCC had a sensitivity of 0.52 and specificity of 0.86. Melanoma self-report had a sensitivity of 0.90 and specificity of 0.86, with a correct classification rate of 0.90. Overall, OTR have comparable accuracy of self-report with the general population. Owing to the high prevalence and increased risk of metastatic potential of skin cancer in this population, the ability to distinguish between cancer types is an important consideration in the dermatologic care of OTR.

  11. Nonlinear spectral imaging of human normal skin, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, S. Y.; Yang, J. G.; Zhuang, J.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we use nonlinear spectral imaging based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) for analyzing the morphology of collagen and elastin and their biochemical variations in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin tissue. It was found in this work that there existed apparent differences among BCC, SCC and normal skin in terms of their thickness of the keratin and epithelial layers, their size of elastic fibers, as well as their distribution and spectral characteristics of collagen. These differences can potentially be used to distinguish BCC and SCC from normal skin, and to discriminate between BCC and SCC, as well as to evaluate treatment responses.

  12. Macro-environment of breast carcinoma: frequent genetic alterations in the normal appearing skins of patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinfar, Farid; Beham, Alfred; Friedrich, Gerhard; Deutsch, Alexander; Hrzenjak, Andelko; Luschin, Gero; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A

    2008-05-01

    Genetic abnormalities in microenvironmental tissues with subsequent alterations of reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells play a key role in the breast carcinogenesis. Although a few reports have demonstrated abnormal fibroblastic functions in normal-appearing fibroblasts taken from the skins of breast cancer patients, the genetic basis of this phenomenon and its implication for carcinogenesis are unexplored. We analyzed 12 mastectomy specimens showing invasive ductal carcinomas. In each case, morphologically normal epidermis and dermis, carcinoma, normal stroma close to carcinoma, and stroma at a distant from carcinoma were microdissected. Metastatic-free lymphatic tissues from lymph nodes served as a control. Using PCR, DNA extracts were examined with 11 microsatellite markers known for a high frequency of allelic imbalances in breast cancer. Losses of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability were detected in 83% of the skin samples occurring either concurrently with or independently from the cancerous tissues. In 80% of these cases at least one microsatellite marker displayed loss of heterozygosity or microsatellite instability in the skin, which was absent in carcinoma. A total of 41% of samples showed alterations of certain loci observed exclusively in the carcinoma but not in the skin compartments. Our study suggests that breast cancer is not just a localized genetic disorder, but rather part of a larger field of genetic alterations/instabilities affecting multiple cell populations in the organ with various cellular elements, ultimately contributing to the manifestation of the more 'localized' carcinoma. These data indicate that more global assessment of tumor micro- and macro-environment is crucial for our understanding of breast carcinogenesis.

  13. Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweikert, H.U.; Hein, H.J.; Romijn, J.C.; Schroeder, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    The metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC.

  14. Reduced ultraviolet irradiation delays subsequent squamous cell carcinomas in hairless mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lerche, Catharina M; Poulsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and UV prophylaxis is essential to prevent skin cancer. It is unclear whether patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) may benefit from reduced UV exposures in terms of delaying the development of new...... tumors. The objective was to evaluate the significance of discontinued or reduced UV exposure for the development of subsequent skin tumors. METHODS: Seven groups of mice (n = 175) were irradiated with UV doses of 2 and 4 standard erythema doses (SED) that were continued, reduced or discontinued...... at the time of appearance of the first skin tumor. RESULTS: The development of new tumors was delayed, corresponding to the degree of reductions in UV dose in an inversely linear manner. Discontinuation of UV doses delayed the median times to the second tumor by 24 days (2 SED, P = 0.0549) and 33.5 days (4...

  15. Polarimetry based partial least square classification of ex vivo healthy and basal cell carcinoma human skin tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Karim; Ikram, Masroor

    2016-06-01

    Optical polarimetry was employed for assessment of ex vivo healthy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tissue samples from human skin. Polarimetric analyses revealed that depolarization and retardance for healthy tissue group were significantly higher (ppolarimetry together with PLS statistics hold promise for automated pathology classification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clear cell variant of squamous cell carcinoma of skin: A report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Oluwatoyin Lawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is a rare variant of SCC of skin in which ultraviolet radiation has been suggested as possible etiology. This case is that of a 62-year-old male concrete block maker/bricklayer who presented with a 6 months history of a non-healing ulcer on the left side of his face. Histology showed features of malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of islands of large oval to polyhedral malignant squamous cells with eosinophilic to amphophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei and there were areas showing clear cell differentiation and isolated areas of keratin pearl formation. The lesion was also negative for periodic acid schiff, mucicarmine, and alcian blue stains but was strongly positive for AE1/AE3 (immuno-stain. This case showed an aggressive and bizarre clinical presentation but more report of cases are needed to have a better characterization of the clinical presentation and prognosis of this variant of SCC.

  17. Clear cell variant of squamous cell carcinoma of skin: A report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ahmed Oluwatoyin; Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Olajide, Mofoluwaso A; Olusanya, Adeola Adenike

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare variant of SCC of skin in which ultraviolet radiation has been suggested as possible etiology. This case is that of a 62-year-old male concrete block maker/bricklayer who presented with a 6 months history of a non-healing ulcer on the left side of his face. Histology showed features of malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of islands of large oval to polyhedral malignant squamous cells with eosinophilic to amphophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei and there were areas showing clear cell differentiation and isolated areas of keratin pearl formation. The lesion was also negative for periodic acid schiff, mucicarmine, and alcian blue stains but was strongly positive for AE1/AE3 (immuno-stain). This case showed an aggressive and bizarre clinical presentation but more report of cases are needed to have a better characterization of the clinical presentation and prognosis of this variant of SCC.

  18. Predictors of skin cancer in commercial airline pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Christopher J.; Kilmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skin cancers among commercial airline pilots have been reported to occur at increased rates in pilot populations worldwide. The reasons for these increases are unclear, but postulated factors include ionizing radiation, circadian disruption and leisure sun exposure. Aims To investigate the potential association of these occupational and lifestyle factors, as well as medical history and skin type, with non-melanoma skin cancer in pilots. Methods Data were collected using a confidential Internet survey administered in collaboration with the Air Line Pilots Association International to all active pilots in four US commercial airlines. Pilots with non-melanoma skin cancer were compared to those without using multivariable analysis. Results The response rate was 19%. Among pilots flying <20 years prior to diagnosis, factors associated with increased odds of non-melanoma skin cancer were at-risk skin type, childhood sunburns and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer. Off-duty sunscreen use and family history of melanoma were protective. Among pilots with ≥20 years flight time prior to diagnosis, childhood sunburns and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer persisted as risk factors, with the addition of flight time at high latitude. Conclusions Further investigation regarding the potential health impact of long-term flying at high latitudes is recommended. Additionally, occupational health programmes for pilots should stress awareness of and protection against established risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. PMID:19465434

  19. The role of DAMPS in ALA-PDT for skin squamous cell carcinoma (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaojie; Ji, Jie; Zhang, Haiyan; Shi, Lei

    2016-03-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an established local approach for skin squamous cell carcinoma. It is believed that dangerous signals damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play an important role in ALA-PDT. In this study, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo expressions of major DAMPs, calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70), and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), induced by ALA-PDT using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and ELISA in a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) mouse model. The role of DAMPs in the maturation of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells was detected by FACS and ELISA. Our results showed that ALA-PDT enhanced the expression of CRT, HSP70, and HMGB1. These induced DAMPs played an important role in activating DCs by PDT-treated tumor cells, including phenotypic maturation (upregulation of surface expression of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86) and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secrete IFN-γ and IL-12). Furthermore, injecting ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells into naïve mice resulted in complete protection against cancer cells of the same origin. Our findings indicate that ALA-PDT can upregulate DAMPs and enhance tumor immunogenicity, providing a promising strategy for inducing a systemic anticancer immune response.

  20. Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica B Ericson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Marica B Ericson1,2, Ann-Marie Wennberg1, Olle Larkö11Department of Dermatology; 2Department of Physics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, SwedenAbstract: The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide, and so also the demand for effective treatment modalities. Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT using aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester has recently become good treatment options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma; especielly when treating large areas and areas with field cancerization. The cure rates are usually good, and the cosmetic outcomes excellent. The only major side effect reported is the pain experienced by the patients during treatment. This review covers the fundamental aspects of topical PDT and its application for treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Both potentials and limitations will be reviewed, as well as some recent development within the field.Keywords: photodynamic therapy, actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma

  1. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon...... and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses...... exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and nonexistent amongst those living in single detached homes....

  2. Nicotinamide for skin cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Diona L

    2017-03-20

    Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 ) has a range of photoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo; it enhances DNA repair, reduces UV radiation-induced suppression of skin immune responses, modulates inflammatory cytokine production and skin barrier function and restores cellular energy levels after UV exposure. Pharmacological doses of nicotinamide have been shown to reduce actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals, making this a nontoxic and accessible option for skin cancer chemoprevention in this population.

  3. Photodynamic therapy in dermatology beyond non-melanoma cancer: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiang; Li, Yong; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs a photosensitizer (PS) and visible light in the presence of oxygen, leading to production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, which can damage the cellular organelles and cause cell death. In dermatology, PDT has usually taken the form of topical application of a precursor in the heme biosynthesis pathway, called 5-aminolevulinic acid (or its methyl ester), so that an active PS, protoporphyrin IX accumulates in the skin. As PDT enhances dermal remodeling and resolves chronic inflamation, it has been used to treat cutaneous disorders include actinic keratoses, acne, viral warts, skin rejuvenation, psoriasis, localized scleroderma, some non-melanoma skin cancers and port-wine stains. Efforts are still needed to mitigate the side effects (principally pain) and improve the overall procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. IMP-3 expression in keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin: an immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soddu, S.; Di Felice, E.; Cabras, S.; Castellanos, M.E.; Atzori, L.; Faa, G.; Pilloni, L.

    2013-01-01

    The protein insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP-3) is an important factor for cell migration and adhesion in malignancies. Recent studies have shown a remarkable overexpression of IMP-3 in different human malignant neoplasms and also revealed it as an important prognostic marker in some tumor entities. The purpose of this study is to compare IMP-3 immunostaining in cutaneous squamous cell tumors and determine whether IMP-3 can aid in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. To our knowledge, IMP-3 expression has not been investigated in skin squamous cell proliferations thus far. Immunohi-stochemical staining for IMP-3 was performed on slides organized by samples from 67 patients, 34 with keratoacanthoma (KA) and 33 with primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (16 invasive and 17 in situ). Seventyfour percent of KAs (25/34) were negative for IMP-3 staining, while 57% of SCCs (19/33) were positive for IMP-3 staining. The percentage of IMP-3 positive cells increased significantly in the invasive SCC group (P=0.0111), and particularly in the SCC in situ group (P=0.0021) with respect to the KA group. IMP-3 intensity staining was significantly higher in invasive SCCs (P=0.0213), and particularly in SCCs in situ (P=0.008) with respect to KA. Our data show that IMP-3 expression is different in keratoacanthoma with respect to squamous cell carcinoma. IMP-3 assessment and staining pattern, together with a careful histological study, can be useful in the differential diagnosis between KA e SCC. PMID:23549465

  5. Successful Treatment of Two Cases of Squamous Cell Carcinoma on the Ear with Intra-Arterial Administration of Peplomycin through a Superficial Temporal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Haga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the second most common non-melanoma skin cancer and tends to develop in sun-exposed cosmetic areas, including the ear. In this report, we describe two cases of SCC on the ear successfully treated with intra-arterial administration of peplomycin through a superficial temporal artery. In addition to this selective chemotherapy, we administered oral tegafur, which achieved complete remission of the tumor. These findings suggest that intra-arterial administration of peplomycin with tegafur is one of the optimal therapies for the treatment of SCC developing on the ear.

  6. Telomerase activity in the regenerative basal layer of the epidermis inhuman skin and in immortal and carcinoma-derived skin keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härle-Bachor, C; Boukamp, P

    1996-06-25

    Cellular senescence is defined by the limited proliferative capacity of normal cultured cells. Immortal cells overcome this regulation and proliferate indefinitively. One step in the immortalization process may be reactivation of telomerase activity, a ribonucleoprotein complex, which, by de novo synthesized telomeric TTAGGG repeats, can prevent shortening of the telomeres. Here we show that immortal human skin keratinocytes, irrespective of whether they were immortalized by simian virus 40, human papillomavirus 16, or spontaneously, as well as cell lines established from human skin squamous cell carcinomas exhibit telomerase activity. Unexpectedly, four of nine samples of intact human skin also were telomerase positive. By dissecting the skin we could show that the dermis and cultured dermal fibroblasts were telomerase negative. The epidermis and cultured skin keratinocytes, however, reproducibly exhibited enzyme activity. By separating different cell layers of the epidermis this telomerase activity could be assigned to the proliferative basal cells. Thus, in addition to hematopoietic cells, the epidermis, another example of a permanently regenerating human tissue, provides a further exception of the hypothesis that all normal human somatic tissues are telomerase deficient. Instead, these data suggest that in addition to contributing to the permanent proliferation capacity of immortal and tumor-derived keratinocytes, telomerase activity may also play a similar role in the lifetime regenerative capacity of normal epidermis in vivo.

  7. The DNA damage-binding protein XPC is a frequent target for inactivation in squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Feraudy, Sebastien; Ridd, Katie; Richards, Lauren M; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Revet, Ingrid; Oh, Dennis; Feeney, Luzviminda; Cleaver, James E

    2010-08-01

    XPC, the main damage-recognition protein responsible for nucleotide excision repair of UVB damage to DNA, is lost or mutated in xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XP-C), a rare inherited disease characterized by high incidence and early onset of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. The high incidence of skin cancers in XP-C patients suggests that loss of expression of XPC protein might also provide a selective advantage for initiation and progression of similar cancers in non XP-C patients in the general population. To test whether XPC is selectively lost in squamous cell carcinomas from non XP-C patients, we examined XPC expression by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray with 244 tissue cores, including in situ and invasive squamous-cell carcinomas (SCCs), keratoacanthoma (KA), and normal skin samples from both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. We found that XPC expression was lost in 49% of invasive squamous cell carcinomas from immunocompetent patients and 59% from immunosuppressed patients. Loss of expression was correlated with deletions of chromosomal 3p and mutations in the XPC gene. The XPC gene is consequently inactivated or lost in almost half of squamous cell carcinomas from non XP-C patients. Loss or mutation of XPC may be an early event during skin carcinogenesis that provides a selective advantage for initiation and progression of squamous cell carcinomas in non XP-C patients.

  8. Occupational exposure to the sun and risk of skin and lip cancer among male wage earners in Denmark: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Jørgensen, Ane Dahl; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study.......We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study....

  9. Screening of urocanic acid isomers in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma tumors compared with tumor periphery and healthy skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decara, Juan Manuel; Aguilera, José; Abdala, Roberto; Sánchez, Purificación; Figueroa, Félix L; Herrera, Enrique

    2008-10-01

    Trans-urocanic acid is a major chromophore for ultraviolet (UV) radiation in human epidermis. The UV induces photoisomerization of trans-urocanic acid (tUCA) form to cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) and has been reported as an important mediator in the immunosuppression induced by UV. This immunomodulation has been recognized as an important factor related to skin cancer development. This is the first time that UCA isomers have been measured in epidermis of skin biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with the tumor periphery and biopsies of healthy photoexposed and non-photoexposed skin as controls. The UCA isomers were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of UCA in healthy skin showed significant increase in total UCA content in non-photoexposed body sites compared with highly exposed skins. In contrast, the percentage of cUCA was higher in photoexposed body sites. Maximal levels of cUCA were found in cheek, forehead and forearm and lower levels in abdomen and thigh. No differences were found in total UCA concentration between the tumor samples and healthy photoexposed skin. However, differences were found in relation between isomers. Higher levels of cUCA were detected in SCC biopsies (44% of total UCA) compared with samples of BCC and that of healthy photoexposed skin (30%). These results suggest that the UV radiation exposure, a main factor in development of SCC can be mediated, apart from direct effect to cells (DNA damage), by immunosuppression pathways mediated by high production of cUCA.

  10. Inhibitory effect of berberine on human skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, P W; Yang, L M

    2015-09-08

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural alkaloid with significant anti-tumor activity against many types of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms employed by BBR to repress the proliferation and growth of skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells. Berberine was reported to inhibit the proliferation of A431 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was observed to induce a series of biochemical events, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c to cytosol, induction of proteins of the Bcl-2 family and caspases, and the cleavage of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase. This suggested its ability to induce apoptosis. The results of a wound healing test revealed that berberine inhibited the migration of A431 cells. Ezrin was transfected into A431 cells by RNA interference. The level of expression of Ezrin in the transfected A431 cells was observed to decrease with berberine treatment, which suggested that berberine might inhibit the invasion of A431 cells through Ezrin. The results of this study demonstrated that berberine could potentially inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and inhibit the invasion of A431 cells.

  11. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin: an immunohistochemical study of tumor markers and neuroendocrine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layfield, L; Ulich, T; Liao, S; Barr, R; Cheng, L; Lewin, K L

    1986-08-01

    Fifteen neuroendocrine carcinomas of the skin (Merkel cell tumors) were stained within the constraints of tissue availability by the Grimelius method and immunohistochemically for keratin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), S-100, common leukocyte antigen (CLA), met-enkephalin, bombesin, calcitonin, ACTH, gastrin, and somatostatin. Focal argyrophilia was present in 5 of 12 tumors. All tumors tested demonstrated immunoreactivity for NSE and 5 tumors were positive for keratin. One tumors appeared to demonstrate focal ACTH-like immunoreactivity, but otherwise no immunoreactivity for the above mentioned polypeptide hormones was noted in 11 completely studied tumors. One tumor contained histologically obvious areas of squamous differentiation in addition to areas of Merkel cell tumor. In various tumors, keratin immunoreactivity was present either in areas of histologically obvious squamous differentiation, in randomly scattered single cells not histologically identifiable as squamous, or in a paranuclear dot-like distribution. Immunoreactivity for CEA, S-100 and CLA was not present in any tumors. The lack of met-enkephalin and the presence of squamous differentiation in these tumors indicates multidirectional differentiation in a fashion not phenotypically typical of Merkel cells.

  12. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  13. Low-dose methotrexate enhances aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy in skin carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Hasan, Tayyaba; Elson, Paul; Maytin, Edward V

    2009-05-15

    To improve treatment efficacy and tumor cell selectivity of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) via pretreatment of cells and tumors with methotrexate to enhance intracellular photosensitizer levels. Skin carcinoma cells, in vitro and in vivo, served as the model system. Cultured human SCC13 and HEK1 cells, normal keratinocytes, and in vivo skin tumor models were preconditioned with methotrexate for 72 h and then incubated with ALA for 4 h. Changes in protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) levels and cell survival after light exposure were assessed. Methotrexate preconditioning of monolayer cultures preferentially increased intracellular PpIX levels 2- to 4-fold in carcinoma cells versus normal keratinocytes. Photodynamic killing was synergistically enhanced by the combined therapy compared with PDT alone. Methotrexate enhancement of PpIX levels was achieved over a broad methotrexate concentration range (0.0003-1.0 mg/L; 0.6 nmol/L-2 mmol/L). PpIX enhancement correlated with changes in protein expression of key porphyrin pathway enzymes, approximately 4-fold increase in coproporphyrinogen oxidase and stable or slightly decreased expression of ferrochelatase. Differentiation markers (E-cadherin, involucrin, and filaggrin) were also selectively induced by methotrexate in carcinoma cells. In vivo relevance was established by showing that methotrexate preconditioning enhances PpIX accumulation in three models: (a) organotypic cultures of immortalized keratinocytes, (b) chemically induced skin tumors in mice; and (c) human A431 squamous cell tumors implanted subcutaneously in mice. Combination therapy using short-term exposure to low-dose methotrexate followed by ALA-PDT should be further investigated as a new combination modality to enhance efficacy and selectivity of PDT for epithelial carcinomas.

  14. Human polyomaviruses and incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the New Hampshire skin cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossai, Anala; Waterboer, Tim; Hoen, Anne G; Farzan, Shohreh F; Nelson, Heather H; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Christensen, Brock C; Perry, Ann E; Pawlita, Michael; Karagas, Margaret R

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is a malignancy arising from epithelial keratinocytes. Experimental and epidemiologic evidence raise the possibility that human polyomaviruses (PyV) may be associated with the occurrence of SCC. To investigate whether the risk for SCC was associated with PyV infection, seropositivity to 10 PyV types was assessed following diagnosis in a population-based case-control study conducted in the United States. A total of 253 SCC cases and 460 age group and gender-matched controls were included. Antibody response against each PyV was measured using a multiplex serology-based glutathione S-transferase capture assay of recombinantly expressed VP1 capsid proteins. Odds ratios (OR) for SCC associated with seropositivity to each PyV type were estimated using logistic regression, with adjustment for potentially confounding factors. SCC cases were seropositive for a greater number of PyVs than controls (P = 0.049). Those who were JC seropositive had increased odds of SCC when compared to those who were JC seronegative (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.98-1.90), with an increasing trend in SCC risk with increasing quartiles of seroreactivity (P for trend = 0.04). There were no clear associations between SCC risk and serostatus for other PyV types. This study provides limited evidence that infection with certain PyVs may be related to the occurrence of SCC in the general population of the United States.

  15. Pathway analysis for genome-wide association study of basal cell carcinoma of the skin.

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    Mingfeng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, a pathway-based approach has been developed to evaluate the cumulative contribution of the functionally related genes for genome-wide association studies (GWASs, which may help utilize GWAS data to a greater extent. METHODS: In this study, we applied this approach for the GWAS of basal cell carcinoma (BCC of the skin. We first conducted the BCC GWAS among 1,797 BCC cases and 5,197 controls in Caucasians with 740,760 genotyped SNPs. 115,688 SNPs were grouped into gene transcripts within 20 kb in distance and then into 174 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, 205 BioCarta pathways, as well as two positive control gene sets (pigmentation gene set and BCC risk gene set. The association of each pathway with BCC risk was evaluated using the weighted Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. One thousand permutations were conducted to assess the significance. RESULTS: Both of the positive control gene sets reached pathway p-values<0.05. Four other pathways were also significantly associated with BCC risk: the heparan sulfate biosynthesis pathway (p  =  0.007, false discovery rate, FDR  =  0.35, the mCalpain pathway (p  =  0.002, FDR  =  0.12, the Rho cell motility signaling pathway (p  =  0.011, FDR  =  0.30, and the nitric oxide pathway (p  =  0.022, FDR  =  0.42. CONCLUSION: We identified four pathways associated with BCC risk, which may offer new insights into the etiology of BCC upon further validation, and this approach may help identify potential biological pathways that might be missed by the standard GWAS approach.

  16. Immunohistochemical evaluation of E-cadherin expression in basal cell carcinoma of the skin

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    Vladimír Bartoš

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: E-cadherin is important cell-cell adhesion molecule, that plays a crucial role in the maintenance of tissue microarchitecture. In many human malignancies, reduced or loss of E-cadherin production in neoplastic cells correlates with tumor dedifferentiation and acquisition of the invasive and metastatic potential. In contrast to most other cancers, basal cell carcinoma (BCC of the skin possess some unique features, such as slow local growth, strong stroma-dependency, and virtual absence of metastases. Aim: In the present study, we immunohistochemically evaluated expression of E-cadherin in a set of cutaneous BCCs. Material and methods: Study group consisted of 41 primary BCCs cathegorized into non-infiltrative subroup (superfical and nodular subtypes and infiltrative subroup (nodular-infiltrative and infiltrative subtypes. Results: E-cadherin was expressed in all tumor specimens with variable quantitative range and intensity. There were 19 cases (46.3 % with preserved and 22 cases (53.7 % with reduced E-cadherin expression. In superficial, nodular, nodular-infiltrative and infiltrative BCC subtypes, reduced E-cadherin immunoreactivity was found in 40 % (2/5, 56.2 % (9/16, 54.5 % (6/11 and 55.5 % (5/9, respectively. We did not confirm a significant correlation between expression of E-cadherin and both given, non-infiltrative and infiltrative BCC subgroup. None of the tumors examined showed apparent decreasing immunostaining intensity in tumor tissue with increasing depth of invasion. There were not convincing differences either between the central and peripheral parts of tumor mass, or in the vertical dimension. Conclusions: Reduction of E-cadherin expression per se does not seem to directly contribute to the acqusition of more aggressive phenotype in cutaneous BCC. This may represent another peculiarity, by which BCC differs from the most other epithelial malignancies and reflect a distinct tumor biology.

  17. Ginsenoside Rh2 Inhibits Cancer Stem-Like Cells in Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Shunli Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Treatments targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs are most effective cancer therapy, whereas determination of CSCs is challenging. We have recently reported that Lgr5-positive cells are cancer stem cells (CSCs in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2 has been shown to significantly inhibit growth of some types of cancers, whereas its effects on the SCC have not been examined. Methods: Here, we transduced human SCC cells with lentivirus carrying GFP reporter under Lgr5 promoter. The transduced SCC cells were treated with different doses of GRh2, and then analyzed cell viability by CCK-8 assay and MTT assay. The effects of GRh2 on Lgr5-positive CSCs were determined by fow cytometry and by tumor sphere formation. Autophagy-associated protein and β-catenin were measured by Western blot. Expression of short hairpin small interfering RNA (shRNA for Atg7 and β-catenin were used to inhibit autophagy and β-catenin signaling pathway, respectively, as loss-of-function experiments. Results: We found that GRh2 dose-dependently reduced SCC viability, possibly through reduced the number of Lgr5-positive CSCs. GRh2 increased autophagy and reduced β-catenin signaling in SCC cells. Inhibition of autophagy abolished the effects of GRh2 on β-catenin and cell viability, while increasing β-catenin abolished the effects of GRh2 on autophagy and cell viability. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that GRh2 inhibited SCC growth, possibly through reduced the number of Lgr5-positive CSCs. This may be conducted through an interaction between autophagy and β-catenin signaling.

  18. Reflectance confocal microscopy and dermoscopy for in vivo, non-invasive skin imaging of superficial basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHITA, MIHAELA A.; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; ROSCA, ADRIAN E.; KALESHI, HARILLAQ; CARUNTU, ANA; MORARU, LILIANA; DOCEA, ANCA OANA; ZURAC, SABINA; BODA, DANIEL; NEAGU, MONICA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) is the second most frequent histological type of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), usually requiring a skin biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. It usually appears on the upper trunk and shoulders as erythematous and squamous lesions. Although it has a slow growth and seldom metastasizes, early diagnosis and management are of crucial importance in preventing local invasion and subsequent disfigurement. Dermoscopy is nowadays an indispensable tool for the dermatologist when evaluating skin tumors. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a novel imaging technique that allows the non-invasive, in vivo quasi-microscopic morphological and dynamic assessment of superficial skin tumors. Moreover, it offers the advantage of performing infinite repeatable determinations to monitor disease progression and non-surgical treatment for sBCC. Herein, we present three lesions of sBCC evaluated using in vivo and non-invasive imaging techniques, emphasizing the usefulness of combining RCM with dermoscopy for increasing the diagnostic accuracy of sBCC. PMID:27123056

  19. PTCH1 +/- dermal fibroblasts isolated from healthy skin of Gorlin syndrome patients exhibit features of carcinoma associated fibroblasts.

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    Alexandre Valin

    Full Text Available Gorlin's or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS causes predisposition to basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the commonest cancer in adult human. Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTCH1 are responsible for this autosomal dominant syndrome. In NBCCS patients, as in the general population, ultraviolet exposure is a major risk factor for BCC development. However these patients also develop BCCs in sun-protected areas of the skin, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms for BCC predisposition in NBCCS patients. As increasing evidence supports the idea that the stroma influences carcinoma development, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could facilitate BCC occurence of the patients. WT (n = 3 and NBCCS fibroblasts bearing either nonsense (n = 3 or missense (n = 3 PTCH1 mutations were cultured in dermal equivalents made of a collagen matrix and their transcriptomes were compared by whole genome microarray analyses. Strikingly, NBCCS fibroblasts over-expressed mRNAs encoding pro-tumoral factors such as Matrix Metalloproteinases 1 and 3 and tenascin C. They also over-expressed mRNA of pro-proliferative diffusible factors such as fibroblast growth factor 7 and the stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha, known for its expression in carcinoma associated fibroblasts. These data indicate that the PTCH1(+/- genotype of healthy NBCCS fibroblasts results in phenotypic traits highly reminiscent of those of BCC associated fibroblasts, a clue to the yet mysterious proneness to non photo-exposed BCCs in NBCCS patients.

  20. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

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    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  1. [Disappearance of the ozone layer and skin cancer: attempt at risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaart, F M; Garbe, C; Orfanos, C E

    1993-02-01

    The increased incidence of skin cancer recorded worldwide is alarming. The incidence of malignant melanoma has doubled in Germany every 10-15 years during recent decades, for example, as documented in the population-based cancer registry of the Saarland. In 1989, the incidence was 8.3 cases/100,000 inhabitants a year equally for both sexes. Non-melanoma skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) showed a similar dramatic increase like melanoma and ranged in second place in the Saarland Cancer Registry in 1989, exceeded in men only by lung cancers and in women only by breast cancer. Their incidence was 93.4/100,000 in men and 55.8/100,000 in women. Epidemiological studies worldwide revealed a correlation between the increase of skin cancer incidence and UV exposure in white populations, and Caucasians living in regions near the equator are predominantly affected by this increase. Recently, incidence values for non-melanoma skin cancer in the USA were reported to be 232/100,000, whereas, for Queensland/Australia even numbers as high as 2398/100,000 (males) and 1908/100,000 (females) have been published. So far, the increase in skin cancer incidence has been related to changes in leisure time habits with increasing UV exposure. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate any additional future risks for the development of skin cancer as a result of increasing UV radiation caused by stratospheric ozone depletion. Its reduction has been reported to be 3% over large areas of the globe (65 degrees North to 65 degrees South) according to the latest study of the United Nations Environment Programme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. The measurement of constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation and estimation of sun exposure in Caucasians with basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1998-01-01

    In two identical and simultaneously performed case-control studies of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) with age-matched, sex-matched and residence-matched controls, skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance spectroscopy in 145 BCC patients...... by all subjects. There were no statistically significant differences in constitutive skin pigmentation at the buttocks between BCC patients and controls (P = 0.96) or between CMM patients and controls (P = 0.13). Facultative skin pigmentation in ultraviolet-exposed sites was not significantly different...

  3. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT CLINICAL FORMS OF BASAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Matveeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Photodynamic therapy is frequently applied for non-invasive destruction of basal cell carcinomas (BCC of the skin; though, there is lack of evidence for efficacy of the method. Aim: To assess objective response of BCCs to photodynamic therapy with intralesional administration of photosensitizer Radachlorin in patients with different clinical forms, stages, flow patterns and localization of BCC. Materials and methods: 45  stage I–II BCCs patients with primary and recurrent solitary (ulcerative, superficial, scleroderma-like and nodular forms and multiple lesions (predominantly Т₁– Т₂N₀M₀, with difficult to treat localization and high risk of recurrence were included during the period from March 2004 to March 2007. All patients received one cycle of photodynamic therapy with intralesional Radachlorin (0.5–1  ml/1  cm² tumor surface and irradiation dose 300  J/cm² (wavelength 662 nm. A primary outcome measure was grade of clinical and cytological lesion regression after three months. Secondary outcome measure was stable clinical and cytological reaction at the lesion site. In the long-term, lesion recurrence was assessed yearly during 5 years. Results: Complete regression of BCCs was found in 43  (95.5% patients and 47  (95.9% lesions. In 2 (4.5% patients with partial regression of 2 (4.1% lesions repeated cycles of photodynamic therapy resulted in complete response. In BCCs Т₁N₀M₀, early outcome was independent from the clinical form of the diseases; by contrast, in BCCs Т₂N₀M₀, treatment of scleroderma-like BCCs was non-significantly less effective (66.7% compared to nodular, surface (100% for both and ulcerative (92.8% forms. In the long-term, 1  tumor recurrence was observed after 29 months at the site of completely regressed ulcerative lesion. Conclusion: Photodynamic therapy with intralesional administration of photosensitizer Radachlorin is an effective treatment method for different

  4. The immune system and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sherry H; Bordeaux, Jeremy S; Baron, Elma D

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenesis involves multiple mechanisms that disturb genomic integrity and encourage abnormal proliferation. The immune system plays an integral role in maintaining homeostasis and these mechanisms may arrest or enhance dysplasia. There exists a large body of evidence from organ transplantation literature supporting the significance of the immune suppression in the development of skin cancer. Nonmelanoma skin cancers are the most frequent neoplasms after organ transplantation, with organ transplant recipients having a 65-fold increase in squamous cell carcinoma incidence and 10-fold increase in basal cell carcinoma incidence. Similarly, UV-radiation (UVR) induced immunosuppression is correlated with the development of cutaneous malignancies in a dose-dependent manner. This was first shown several decades ago by Margaret Kripke, when transplanted tumors were rejected in mice with competent immune systems, but grew unchecked in immunosuppressed specimens. After UV exposure, chromophores initiate a cascade that leads to immunosuppression via derangement of Langerhans cells' antigen-presenting capacity. UV-irradiated Langerhans cells present antigens to Th2 cells, but fail to stimulate Th1 cells. A subset of T regulatory cells, specific for the antigen encountered after UVR, is also stimulated to proliferate. In general UV irradiation leads to a greater number of T regulatory cells and fewer effector T cells in the skin, shiftingthe balance from T-cell-mediated immunity to immunosuppression. These regulatory cells have the phenotype CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+, CTLA-4+. These and many other changes in local immunity lead to a suppressed immune state, which allow for skin cancer development.

  5. Sunlight exposure and cutaneous human papillomavirus seroreactivity in basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacone, Michelle R; Wang, Wei; Stockwell, Heather G; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Giuliano, Anna R; Sondak, Vernon K; Messina, Jane L; Roetzheim, Richard G; Cherpelis, Basil S; Fenske, Neil A; Michael, Kristina M; Waterboer, Tim; Pawlita, Michael; Rollison, Dana E

    2012-08-01

    Ultraviolet radiation exposure may interact synergistically with cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. To investigate differences in the risk of sunlight-associated BCC and SCC by cutaneous genus-specific HPV serostatus, a case-control study was conducted among 204 BCC and 156 SCC cases who were recruited from a university dermatology clinic and 297 controls who had no history of cancer and screened negative for current skin cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between measures of sunlight exposure and BCC/SCC, stratified by genus-specific HPV serostatus, with adjustment for age and sex. Sunburn due to cutaneous sensitivity to sunlight exposure (P = .006) and poor tanning ability (P = .003) were associated with a higher seroprevalence for genus beta HPV types. Poor or no tanning ability was more strongly associated with SCC among individuals who were seropositive for antibodies to cutaneous HPV types in genera alpha (OR, 15.60; 95% CI, 5.40-45.1; P = .01 for interaction) and beta (OR, 6.86; 95% CI, 3.68-12.80; P = .001 for interaction), compared with individuals who were seronegative for these HPV types. Seropositivity for HPV types in genera alpha or beta increased the risk of SCC associated with poor tanning ability.

  6. Analysis of Tp53 Codon 72 Polymorphisms, Tp53 Mutations, and HPV Infection in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, Keith R.; Asgari, Maryam M; Hawes, Stephen E.; Qinghua Feng; Stern, Joshua E.; Mingjun Jiang; Argenyi, Zsolt B.; Ethel-Michele de Villiers; Kiviat, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-melanoma skin cancers are one of the most common human malignancies accounting for 2-3% of tumors in the US and represent a significant health burden. Epidemiology studies have implicated Tp53 mutations triggered by UV exposure, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection to be significant causes of non-melanoma skin cancer. However, the relationship between Tp53 and cutaneous HPV infection is not well understood in skin cancers. In this study we assessed the association of HPV ...

  7. Paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes®: potential treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, a malignant transformation of actinic keratoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Celia, Christian; Trapasso, Elena; Cilurzo, Felisa; Fresta, Massimo

    2012-05-01

    Topical application of anticancer drugs for the treatment of malignancies represents a new challenge in dermatology, potentially being an alternative therapeutic approach for the efficacious treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, that is, actinic keratoses, and malignant lesions of the skin caused by ultraviolet radiation. Anti-proliferative and antimitotic drugs, including many of the taxanes, are currently under investigation for the treatment of cutaneous malignant transformation of actinic keratoses, particularly the squamous cell carcinoma. Paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes® are proposed as topical drug delivery systems for the treatment of this pathology due to their suitable physicochemical characteristics and enhanced skin penetration ability for deep dermal delivery. Our in vitro data show that the skin application of paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes® improved the permeation of paclitaxel in a stratum corneum-epidermis membrane model and increased its anti-proliferative activity in a squamous cell carcinoma model as compared to the free drug. The results obtained encouraged the use of the paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes® as the formulation for the potential treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, a malignant transformation of actinic keratoses.

  8. Dietary immunosuppressants do not enhance UV-induced skin carcinogenesis, and reveal discordance between p53-mutant early clones and carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskamp, Pieter; Bodmann, Carolien A; Koehl, Gudrun E; Rebel, Heggert G; Van Olderen, Marjolein G E; Gaumann, Andreas; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoel; Tensen, Cornelis P; Bavinck, Jan N Bouwes; Willemze, Rein; Geissler, Edward K; De Gruijl, Frank R

    2013-02-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are thought to cause the dramatically increased risk of carcinomas in sun-exposed skin of organ transplant recipients. These drugs differ in local effects on skin. We investigated whether this local impact is predictive of skin cancer risk and may thus provide guidance on minimizing the risk. Immunosuppressants (azathioprine, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin) were assessed on altering the UV induction of apoptosis in human skin models and of p53 mutant cell clones (putative tumor precursors) and ensuing skin carcinomas (with mutant p53) in the skin of hairless mice. Rapamycin was found to increase apoptosis (three-fold), whereas cyclosporine decreased apoptosis (three-fold). Correspondingly, a 1.5- to five-fold reduction (P = 0.07) or a two- to three-fold increase (P UV-exposed skin of mice that had been fed rapamycin or cyclosporine, respectively. Deep sequencing showed, however, that the allelic frequency (∼5%) of the hotspot mutations in p53 (codons 270 and 275) remained unaffected. The majority of cells with mutated p53 seemed not to overexpress the mutated protein. Unexpectedly, none of the immunosuppressants admixed in high dosages to the diet accelerated tumor development, and cyclosporine even delayed tumor onset by approximately 15% (P < 0.01). Thus, in contrast to earlier findings, the frequency of p53-mutant cells was not predictive of the incidence of skin carcinoma. Moreover, the lack of any accelerative effect on tumor development suggests that immunosuppressive medication is not the sole cause of the dramatic increase in skin cancer risk in organ transplant recipients.

  9. The lysyl oxidase LOX is absent in basal and squamous cell carcinomas and its knockdown induces an invading phenotype in a skin equivalent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouez, Charbel; Reynaud, Caroline; Noblesse, Emmanuelle; Thépot, Amélie; Gleyzal, Claudine; Kanitakis, Jean; Perrier, Eric; Damour, Odile; Sommer, Pascal

    2006-03-01

    Lysyl oxidase initiates the enzymatic stage of collagen and elastin cross-linking. Among five isoforms comprising the lysyl oxidase family, LOX is the better studied. LOX is associated to an antitumor activity in ras-transformed fibroblasts, and its expression is down-regulated in many carcinomas. The aim of this work was to shed light on LOX functions within the epidermis by studying its expression in human basal and squamous cell carcinomas and analyzing the effect of its enzymatic activity inhibition and protein absence on human keratinocytes behavior in a skin equivalent. In both carcinomas, LOX expression by epidermal tumor cells was lacking, while it was up-regulated around invading tumor cells in association with the stromal reaction. Lysyl oxidase activity inhibition using beta-aminoproprionitrile in a skin equivalent model prepared with both primary human keratinocytes and HaCaT cell line affected keratin 10 and filaggrin expression and disorganized the collagen network and the basement membrane. In spite of all these changes, no invasion phenotype was observed. Modelization of the invasive phenotype was only noticed in the skin equivalent developed with LOX antisense HaCaT cell line, where the protein LOX is specifically absent. Our results clearly indicate that lysyl oxidase enzymatic activity is essential not only for the integrity maintenance of the dermis but also for the homeostasis of the epidermis. Moreover, LOX protein plays a role in the skin carcinomas and invasion but not through its enzymatic activity.

  10. Prognostic factors for lymph node metastasis from advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the trunk and extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Andre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin of the trunk and extremities may present lymph node metastasis with difficult disease control and poor survival. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for lymph node metastasis and outcome. Patients/Methods Retrospective review of 57 patients with locally advanced SCC of the trunk and extremities was performed and several clinical variables including age, gender, ethnicity, previously injured skin (burns, scars, ulcers and others, patient origin (rural or urban, anatomic site and treatment were studied. Results Fifteen patients presented with previous skin lesions. Thirty-six were classified as T3 tumors and 21 as T4; 46 were N0, and 11, N1. Eleven N0 patients presented lymph node metastasis during follow up. Univariate analysis identified previous skin lesions (ulcers and scars as risk factor for lymph node metastasis (p = 0.047. Better survival was demonstrated for T3 (p = 0.018 classification. N0 patients who presented lymph node metastasis during follow up (submitted to lymphadenectomy had similar survival to patients without lymph node recurrence (p = 0.219. Conclusion Local advanced tumors are at risk of lymph node metastasis. Increased risk is associated to previous lesions at tumor site. T4 classification have worse prognosis. Lymph node recurrences in N0 patients, once treated, did not affect survival. For these patients, we propose close follow up and prompt treatment of lymph node metastasis. These results do not support indication for elective lymphadenectomy or sentinel node mapping. Further prospective studies must address this issue.

  11. Skin reactions and quality of life after x-ray therapy of Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, Jette; Mikkelsen, Maria Rudkjaer; Daugbjerg, Helle

    2012-01-01

    controls (P = 0.819). Three months after X-ray therapy eight patients had no skin reactions, 11 had slight atrophy, pigmentation change, and/or some hair loss, four had patch atrophy, moderate telangiectasia, and/or total hair loss. Conclusions. BCC has a negative effect on patients' quality of life....... The study shows that HRQOL normalises shortly after X-ray therapy, despite minor skin manifestations....

  12. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies the Dysregulation of Ultraviolet Target Genes in Human Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Kim, Arianna L; Du, Rong; Liu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. In addition to its mutagenic effect, UVR can also induce substantial transcriptional instability in skin cells affecting thousands of genes, including many cancer genes, suggesting that transcriptional instability may be another important etiological factor in skin photocarcinogenesis. In this study, we performed detailed transcriptomic profiling studies to characterize the kinetic changes in global gene expression in human keratinocytes exposed to different UVR conditions. We identified a subset of UV-responsive genes as UV signature genes (UVSGs) based on 1) conserved UV-responsiveness of this subset of genes among different keratinocyte lines; and 2) UV-induced persistent changes in their mRNA levels long after exposure. Interestingly, 11 of the UVSGs were shown to be critical to skin cancer cell proliferation and survival. Through computational Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we demonstrated that a significant portion of the UVSGs were dysregulated in human skin squamous cell carcinomas, but not in other human malignancies. This highlights the potential and specificity of the UVSGs in clinical diagnosis of UV damage and stratification of skin cancer risk.

  13. Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Gallbladder with Skin Metastasis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal KARAGÜLLE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case report is to attract the attention of related clinicians to similar cases because of their rarity. We believe this case and other similar cases in the literature could initiate studies that may explain the pathways of metastasis.A 50-year-old female patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy because of symptomatic cholelithiasis. Postoperative pathologic examination of the specimen led to a diagnosis of signet ring carcinoma in the wall of gallbladder. After this incidental diagnosis, this patient underwent a second operation, which was a radical cholecystectomy. After pathological examination of the second operation material, we decided to call this patient for periodic controls, as the tumor was graded as stage I. A cutaneous lesion 33 months after the second operation was diagnosed as metastasis of signet ring cell carcinoma.Signet ring carcinoma of the gallbladder is a rarely seen malignancy. Cutaneous metastasis of this rare malignancy is also quite rare. There are only a few reports of cutaneous metastasis of signet ring carcinoma of the gallbladder. It is necessary to explain the reasons of this unusual metastasis with further studies.

  14. Incidence of malignant skin tumors in 14,140 patients after grenz-ray treatment for benign skin disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeloef, B.E.; Eklund, G.

    1986-12-01

    During the years 1949 to 1975, 14,237 patients received therapeutic doses of grenz rays for the treatment of benign skin disorders such as chronic eczema, psoriasis, and warts. The records of 14,140 of these patients (99.3%) formed the basis for an epidemiologic study of the incidence of skin malignancies in this population. Information about the patients, diagnoses, doses, and sites of treatment was obtained from separate records. The follow-up time was 15 years on the average. We searched the Swedish Cancer Registry, Stockholm, for records reporting the incidence of malignant skin tumors in the study population (incidences of basal cell carcinoma are not registered). The expected number of malignancies was calculated on the basis of age- and sex-standardized incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. In 58 patients, a malignant skin tumor was diagnosed more than five years after grenz-ray therapy had first been administered. Nineteen patients had malignant melanomas, and 39 patients had other malignant skin tumors. The expected number of melanomas was 17.8, and that of other malignant skin tumors was 26.9. None of the patients with melanomas, and only eight of the patients with other malignant skin tumors, had received grenz-ray therapy at the site of the tumor. Six of these eight patients had also been exposed to other known carcinogens. Four hundred eighty-one patients had received an accumulated high dose of grenz rays (greater than or equal to 10 000 rad (greater than or equal to 100 Gy)) on one and the same area. No malignancies were found on those areas. Although we cannot exclude grenz-ray therapy as a risk factor in the development of nonmelanoma skin malignancies, this risk, if any, is small, if recommendations for therapy are followed.

  15. Photoletter to the editor: Squamous cell carcinoma associated with and masquerading as molluscum contagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binitha, Manikoth Payyanadan; Sarita, Sasidharan Pillai; Manju, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a non-melanoma skin cancer with a significant risk of mortality if not diagnosed promptly. A high index of suspicion is required, since it may mimic many benign conditions. Molluscum contagiosum is an innocuous viral infection which can also mimic a wide variety of other conditions. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma on the anterior chest wall resembling a giant molluscum contagiosum, where the patient also had molluscum contagiosum at other sites. In addition, he developed herpes zoster of the left fifth thoracic dermatome. After surgical removal of the cancer, there was prompt subsidence of the molluscum contagiosum lesions without any specific treatment. This report highlights the importance of early biopsy in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. As the patient had no other conditions or therapy that could account for the immunosuppression, we hypothesize that the occurrance of molluscum contagiosum and zoster along with the squamous cell carcinoma indicates possible immunosuppression due to the carcinoma, though no metastatic spread could be detected.

  16. Ultraviolet light induction of skin carcinoma in the mouse; influence of cAMP modifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdela, F; Latarjet, R

    1978-01-01

    A short review of pathogenic factors in U.V. light skin carcinogenesis in the mouse is presented. Caffeine and theophylline applied locally during U.V. irradiation caused a 50 percent reduction of skin tumour induction in Swiss mice. These two chemicals are inhibitors of DNA postreplication repair, but they also raise the intracellular level of cyclic AMP by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterase with, as a consequence, a possible slowing down of cellular growth. Control experiments using three different chemicals capable of raising the cAMP level in epidermal cells gave negative results. These experimental data are compatible with our original hypothesis according to which production of skin cancers by U.V. radiation is in same way related to DNA repair which helps the cell to survive but allows or favours the occurrence of errors in cellular DNA.

  17. From Normal Skin to Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Quest for Novel Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Voiculescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cells carcinoma (SCC is the second most frequent of the keratinocyte-derived malignancies after basal cell carcinoma and is associated with a significant psychosocial and economic burden for both the patient himself and society. Reported risk factors for the malignant transformation of keratinocytes and development of SCC include ultraviolet light exposure, followed by chronic scarring and inflammation, exposure to chemical compounds (arsenic, insecticides, and pesticides, and immune-suppression. Despite various available treatment methods and recent advances in noninvasive or minimal invasive diagnostic techniques, the risk recurrence and metastasis are far from being negligible, even in patients with negative histological margins and lymph nodes. Analyzing normal, dysplastic, and malignant keratinocyte proteome holds special promise for novel biomarker discovery in SCC that could be used in the future for early detection, risk assessment, tumor monitoring, and development of targeted therapeutic strategies.

  18. From Normal Skin to Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Quest for Novel Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Mihaela; Moraru, Liliana; Voiculescu, Suzana; Greabu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cells carcinoma (SCC) is the second most frequent of the keratinocyte-derived malignancies after basal cell carcinoma and is associated with a significant psychosocial and economic burden for both the patient himself and society. Reported risk factors for the malignant transformation of keratinocytes and development of SCC include ultraviolet light exposure, followed by chronic scarring and inflammation, exposure to chemical compounds (arsenic, insecticides, and pesticides), and immune-suppression. Despite various available treatment methods and recent advances in noninvasive or minimal invasive diagnostic techniques, the risk recurrence and metastasis are far from being negligible, even in patients with negative histological margins and lymph nodes. Analyzing normal, dysplastic, and malignant keratinocyte proteome holds special promise for novel biomarker discovery in SCC that could be used in the future for early detection, risk assessment, tumor monitoring, and development of targeted therapeutic strategies. PMID:27642215

  19. Differential diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in situ using skin histopathological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Navid; Zakerolhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Differential diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in situ is of great importance for prognosis and decision making in the disease treatment procedure. Currently, differential diagnosis is done by pathologists based on examination of the histopathological slides under the microscope, which is time consuming and prone to inter and intra observer variability. In this paper, we have proposed an automated method for differential diagnosis of SCC in situ from actinic keratosis, which is known to be a precursor of squamous cell carcinoma. The process begins with epidermis segmentation and cornified layer removal. Then, epidermis axis is specified using the paths in its skeleton and the granular layer is removed via connected components analysis. Finally, diagnosis is done based on the classification result of intensity profiles extracted from lines perpendicular to the epidermis axis. The results of the study are in agreement with the gold standards provided by expert pathologists.

  20. The ratio of Mcl-1 and Noxa determines ABT737 resistance in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, P; Wang, J; Feoktistova, M; Leverkus, M

    2014-09-11

    Tumour progression and therapy resistance in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCC) is strongly associated with resistance to intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis. We thus investigated the role of various anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins for apoptosis protection in SCC using the BH3 agonist ABT737 that can overcome multidomain Bcl-2 protein protection. Sensitive SCC cells underwent rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), subsequent apoptosis concomitant with caspase-3 activation and an early release of mitochondria-derived cytochrome c and smac/DIABLO. In contrast, ABT737 resistance in subsets of SCC cells was not explained by XIAP, important for protection from DR-induced apoptosis in SCC. Of note, ABT737 did not prime SCC cells to DR-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the ratio of Mcl-1 and Noxa determined sensitivity to ABT737: loss of Mcl-1 rendered resistant cells sensitive to ABT737, whereas loss of Noxa promoted resistance in sensitive cells. In line, suppression of Mcl-1 by the pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor Obatoclax or overexpression of Noxa rendered resistant SCC cells sensitive to BH3 mimetics. Our data indicate that targeting of the Mcl-1/Noxa axis is important to overcome resistance to mitochondrial apoptosis in SCC. Therefore, combination treatment of ABT737 or derivatives with Mcl-1 inhibitors, or inducers of Noxa, may represent a novel option of targeted therapy in metastatic SCC of the skin.

  1. GLUT-1 Expression in Cutaneous Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Eldien, Marwa Mohammad Serag; Elsakka, Daliah

    2015-09-01

    Glucose uptake is a key regulating step in glucose metabolism and is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), and GLUT-1 is the predominant glucose transporter in many types of human cells. Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represent the most common skin cancer in Egypt. The present study aimed at evaluation of the pattern and distribution of GLUT-1 in cutaneous BCC (16 cases) and SCC (16 cases) by means of immunohistochemistry. GLUT-1 was expressed in all SCC (100%) and in 62.5% of BCC. Membranous pattern of GLUT-1 was seen in 62.5% of SCC and 31.25% of BCC. Positivity (P = .02) and percentage (P = .000) of GLUT-1 expression were in favor of SCC in comparison to BCC. The high percentage of GLUT-1 expression was associated with high grade in SCC (P = .03). The immunoreactivity for GLUT-1 was more in the periphery of malignant nests of SCC while it was more in the center of BCC nests. GLUT-1 is overexpressed in cutaneous non-melanoma skin cancer. Its expression in SCC is related to differentiation status, and its expression in BCC is intimately associated with squamous metaplastic areas.

  2. Joint effects of citrus peel use and black tea intake on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Robin B

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in tea drinking habits and/or citrus peel use are likely to vary by populations and could contribute to the inconsistencies found between studies comparing their consumption and cancer risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was used to evaluate the relationships between citrus peel use and black tea intake and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin. Moreover, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of citrus peel and black tea in the development of SCC. Results Hot and iced teas were consumed by 30.7% and 51.8% of the subjects, respectively. Peel consumption was reported by 34.5% of subjects. Controls were more likely than were cases to report citrus peel use (odds ratio (OR = 0.67 and hot tea intake (OR = 0.79. After adjustment for hot and iced tea intake, the ORs associated with citrus peel use were 0.55 and 0.69, respectively, whereas the corresponding adjusted ORs for hot and iced tea intake after adjustment for citrus peel use were 0.87 and 1.22 respectively. Compared with those who did not consume hot black tea or citrus peel, the adjusted ORs associated with sole consumption of hot black tea or citrus peel were 0.60 and 0.30, respectively. Subjects who reported consumption of both hot black tea and citrus peel had a significant marked decrease (OR= 0.22; 95% CI = 0.10 – 0.51 risk of skin SCC. Conclusion These results indicate that both citrus peel use and strong (hot black tea have independent potential protective effects in relation to skin SCC.

  3. Risk of skin cancer development in 672 patients affected by actinic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dika, Emi; Fanti, Pier A; Misciali, Cosimo; Vaccari, Sabina; Crisman, Giuliana; Barisani, Alessia; Baraldi, Carlotta; Ribero, Simone; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2016-12-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) are the most common type of keratinocytic lesions worldwide. The skin areas affected by the so-called "field cancerization" harbor mutagenetic risks for the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We retrospectively investigated the histopathological reports and clinical charts of 672 patients affected by multiple AKs, presenting at least 5 years of follow-up. The frequency of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC, namely SCC and basal cell carcinoma [BCC]) and malignant melanomas (MMs) in patients affected by multiple AKs were analyzed. More than 40% of patients with a previous diagnosis of multiple AKs developed an NMSC (SCC or BCC), or an MM, during a follow-up period of 5 to 11 years. The risk of developing another skin malignancy appeared to be higher in the age range between 61 and 80 years. The relative risk of developing a BCC and/or an MM in patients with a previous AK diagnosis was found to be 4.52. The presence of multiple AKs and "field cancerization" seems to be associated with a high risk not only of NMSC such as SCC and BCC, but also of MM. An adequate follow-up is required in these groups of patients.

  4. Ultraviolet-radiation and skin cancer. Effect of an ozone layer depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, T; Dahlback, A; Larsen, S H; Moan, J

    1990-05-01

    The effect of changes in the ozone layer on the incidence of skin cancer was explored using data for Norway. Attempts were made to arrive at a relationship between the "environmental effective UV-dose" and the skin cancer incidence. Norway is well suited for this purpose because of the large variation in the annual UV-dose from north to south. Furthermore we have a well developed cancer registry and a homogeneous population with regard to skin type. Four different regions of the country, each with a broadness of 1 degree in latitude (approximately 111 km), were selected (located around 69.5, 63.5, 60 and 58.5 degrees N). The annual effective UV-doses for these regions were calculated, assuming normal ozone conditions throughout the year and the action spectrum proposed by CIE, which extends up to 400 nm. The incidence rate (in the period 1970-1980) of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (mainly basal cell carcinoma) increased with the annual environmental UV-doses. For both these types of cancer a quadratic dose-effect relationship seems to be valid to a first approximation. The present data indicate that the incidence of skin cancer would increase by approximately 2% for each percent ozone reduction.

  5. Auto-estima em pacientes com carcinomas de pele Self-esteem outcomes among non melanoma skin cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Prado de Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a auto-estima de pacientes com carcinomas de pele da face e do pescoço. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 100 pacientes, com idades entre 30 e 90 anos (mediana = 55 anos, sendo 44 eram do gênero masculino e 56 do gênero feminino. O Grupo Estudo foi composto por 50 pacientes portadores de carcinomas de pele na face e no pescoço, com tamanho igual ou maior a 10 mm no seu maior eixo e com diagnóstico confirmado por biópsia prévia. O Grupo Controle consistiu de 50 indivíduos da população geral. Para avaliação da auto-estima, utilizou-se a Escala de Auto-estima de Rosenberg / UNIFESP-EPM. A análise estatística utilizou com o teste de Mann-Whitney e a Análise de Variância de Kruskal Wallis. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes portadores de câncer de pele e os da população geral não apresentaram diferenças significantes em relação à idade (p=0,331, gênero e escolaridade. O tamanho médio do tumor foi 20,9 + 2 mm. Os pacientes com câncer de pele apresentaram auto-estima significantemente mais baixa, com escore médio de 6,84 e 3,90 para o Grupo Controle (p=0,002. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com câncer de pele na face e no pescoço apresentaram auto-estima menor do que os pacientes sem câncer.BACKGROUND: To evaluate self-esteem among patients with skin cancer of the face and the neck area. METHODS: One hundred patients were studied, with ages ranging between 30 and 90 years old (median = 55 years old. There were 44 males and 56 females. We divided them in two groups. One group had fifty patients with skin cancers, equal or larger than 10mm in the greater axis, and the pathological status was confirmed by previous biopsy. The control group had 50 patients without skin cancer. Rosenberg/UNIFESP-EPM's Self-esteem Scale was used to evaluate self-esteem. Data were analyzed by Mann - Whitney's test and Kruskal Wallis test. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups in relation to age (p = 0.331, sex and

  6. Epithelial ovarian cancer and the occurrence of skin cancer in the Netherlands: histological type connotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, G.C. van; Bulten, J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the

  7. Epithelial ovarian cancer and the occurrence of skin cancer in the Netherlands: histological type connotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, G.C. van; Bulten, J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the epit

  8. The measurement of constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation and estimation of sun exposure in Caucasians with basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1998-01-01

    In two identical and simultaneously performed case-control studies of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) with age-matched, sex-matched and residence-matched controls, skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance spectroscopy in 145 BCC patients...... by all subjects. There were no statistically significant differences in constitutive skin pigmentation at the buttocks between BCC patients and controls (P = 0.96) or between CMM patients and controls (P = 0.13). Facultative skin pigmentation in ultraviolet-exposed sites was not significantly different...... between BCC patients and controls except that women patients had higher pigmentation at the lateral side of the upper arm. For CMM, men patients had higher pigmentation at the lateral side of the upper arm. Self-estimations of sun exposure did not show differences between patients and controls...

  9. Triple malignancy in a single patient including a cervical carcinoma, a basal cell carcinoma of the skin and a neuroendocrine carcinoma from an unknown primary site: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The occurrence of multiple primary cancers is rare. Only a few cases and patient reviews of an association of triple malignancy have been reported. Case presentation We report here a case of a 78-year-old Moroccan woman presenting initially with a synchronous double malignancy, the first in her cervix and the second in her skin. Our patient was treated with radiation therapy for both tumors and remained in good control for 17 years, when she developed a metastatic disease from a neuroendocrine carcinoma of an unknown primary site. Conclusions Although the association of multiple primary cancers can be considered a rare occurrence, improving survival in cancer patients has made this situation more frequent.

  10. Significantly higher incidence of skin cancer than other malignancies in patients after heart transplantation. A retrospective cohort study in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secnikova, Zuzana; Gopfertova, Dana; Hoskova, Lenka; Hercogova, Jana; Dzambova, Martina; Jirakova, Anna; Rajska, Lucie; Rob, Filip; Smerhovsky, Zdenek

    2015-12-01

    To perform the first study in Czech Republic on heart transplant recipients (HTRs), compare the risks for different types of cancer and provide comprehensive analysis of skin cancer and other types of cancer morbidity from which we would be able to derive an evidence-based skin cancer surveillance program. A retrospective cohort study was performed to determine and compare standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) of different types of cancer developed after heart transplantation. We analysed data obtained from medical documentation of 603 HTRs transplanted between 1993 and 2010. 191 incident cases of malignancy occurred in123 HTRs (20.4%). According to expectations, nonmelanoma skin cancer was the most frequent type of malignancy (119 cases) with SMR 7.6 (P cancer with SMR 2.7 (P cancer in HTRs (prostate and kidney cancer) were less frequent (SMR 2.06, P = 0.038 and SMR 2.03, P = 0.122). The risk of malignancy development is significantly higher for HTRs compared to the general population. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is the most frequent type of cancer followed by basal cell carcinoma. These findings emphasise the importance of regular skin cancer screening in HTRs.

  11. Classification of skin cancer images using local binary pattern and SVM classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjed, Faouzi; Faye, Ibrahima; Ababsa, Fakhreddine; Gardezi, Syed Jamal; Dass, Sarat Chandra

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a classification method for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer images has been presented using the local binary patterns (LBP). The LBP computes the local texture information from the skin cancer images, which is later used to compute some statistical features that have capability to discriminate the melanoma and non-melanoma skin tissues. Support vector machine (SVM) is applied on the feature matrix for classification into two skin image classes (malignant and benign). The method achieves good classification accuracy of 76.1% with sensitivity of 75.6% and specificity of 76.7%.

  12. Enhanced skin toxicity with concomitant cetuximab and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujor, L.; Grillo, I.M.; Pimentel, N. [Hospital Santa Maria, Radioterapia, Lisboa (Portugal); Macor, C.; Catarina, M. [Hospital Santa Maria, ORL, Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, L. [Hospital Santa Maria, Oncologia, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: When associated with radiotherapy the monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab might be exacerbate skin toxicity. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze acute dermatological toxicity in ten consecutive patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated from march 2008 to May 2009 according to Bonner protocol. Patients and methods: We have treated with radiotherapy and cetuximab ten patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or oral cavity, stage 3-4B and non metastatic. All our patients were 3D planned and scheduled for conventional fractionation 70 Gy/35 fractions over 47 days, five days weekly. Uninvolved neck received 50 Gy and gross nodal disease received 70 Gy as the primary tumor. Cetuximab was administered one week before radiotherapy at a loading dose of 400 mg per square meter of body surface area over 120 minutes, followed by weekly 60 minutes infusions at 250 mg per square meter for the duration of radiotherapy. Results: In eight patients (80%) grade 3 radiation dermatitis occurred as early as with 28 Gy at a median dose of 42 Gy (range 28-60 Gy). the median radiotherapy dose was 6 Gy with an overall treatment time of 57.7 days (range 41-70 days). were administered 78 cycles of cetuximab, one patient discontinued after five cycles due to infusion reactions. There was no correlation between toxicity and acne-like rash due to cetuximab. Conclusion: Our results albeit in disagreement with the original study are rather similar with the experience of other European centers that encounter grade 3-4 radiation dermatitis in 49% of their patients or Australian centers that reported 79% of same degree of toxicity. (authors)

  13. Comparison of Local Recurrence After Simple and Skin-Sparing Mastectomy Performed in Patients with Ductal Carcinoma In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbrell, Simon; Al-Himdani, Sarah; Shaw, Oliver; Tan, Kian; Morris, Julie; Bundred, Nigel

    2017-04-01

    The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is increasing with the use of screening mammography, and approximately 30% of all women diagnosed with DCIS are treated by mastectomy. There is increasing use of a skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) approach to surgically excise DCIS as this facilitates immediate breast reconstruction. The rates of locoregional recurrence (LRR) after simple mastectomy performed for pure DCIS are historically reported as 1%; however, international data suggest that LRR after SSM may be higher. To determine our rates of LRR and compare the effect of the type of mastectomy performed, we undertook a retrospective review of all patients who underwent a mastectomy for pure DCIS at our institution between 2000 and 2010. In total, 199 patients underwent a mastectomy for pure DCIS (with eight local recurrences), all of which were invasive ductal carcinoma. The recurrences all occurred after SSM, which was associated with a higher 5-year LRR of 5.9% (5/102) compared with 0% in the simple mastectomy group (0/97; p = 0.012), log-rank. Univariate analysis showed the two factors that predicted the risk of recurrence were a young age at mastectomy and close or involved margins. These data highlight the importance of achieving clear margins, especially in young women with estrogen receptor-negative DCIS who have a higher risk of invasive recurrence. Women undergoing a mastectomy for DCIS should be counseled as to the importance of achieving clear margins and the potential increased need for further excision, post-mastectomy radiotherapy and post-reconstruction mammography in order to prevent LRR after SSM.

  14. [Adnexal neoplasms in the context of skin cancer: trichilemmal carcinoma. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Ignacio Jaime; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Cruz-Esquivel, Iván; Gallegos-Hernández, José Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Antecedente: el carcinoma triquilemal es una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente originada en los anexos de la piel. Debido a su escasa prevalencia suele confundirse con otros tumores dérmicos, su presentación clínica no favorece el diagnóstico diferencial y generalmente éste se hace por exclusión. En teoría, su comportamiento es lento, con poca tendencia a enviar metástasis regionales ganglionares y sistémicas. Debido al escaso número de casos no existe consenso en relación con el pronóstico, aunque generalmente se estima bueno. El objetivo de este reporte es mostrar un caso que, contrario a lo informado, es de manifestación agresiva en un paciente sin factores de riesgo para cáncer de piel, con gran infiltración tumoral de los tejidos blandos alrededor del sitio de origen. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 65 años de edad que acudió con diagnóstico citológico de carcinoma en un tumor facial preparotídeo; al momento del diagnóstico motraba infiltración de la piel de la cara, del pabellón auricular y de la glándula parótida. Se efectuó resección completa de la neoplasia en bloque con isla de piel facial, parotidectomía total y disección radical del cuello; el defecto de partes blandas fue cubierto con un colgajo pediculado. La evolución ha sido satisfactoria; sin embargo, el seguimiento es corto. Se evalúa la experiencia asentada en la bibliografía en relación con el pronóstico y tratamiento de estos pacientes. Conclusión: el carcinoma triquilemal puede tener comportamiento localmente invasor lo que hace difícil determinar el pronóstico, que quizá dependa de la etapa clínica al momento del diagnóstico.

  15. Sarcoidosis and squamous cell carcinoma: a connection documented in a case series of 3 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sara A; Novoa, Roberto A; Stewart, Campbell; Sobanko, Joseph F; Miller, Christopher J; Rosenbach, Misha

    2016-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem disease characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organs, including the skin. An association between multisystem sarcoidosis and an increased risk for malignancy has been established. Dermatologists should be aware of the increased risk for nonmelanoma skin cancers in patients with sarcoidosis. We report a series of 3 patients with primarily cutaneous sarcoidosis who presented with new-onset cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Two patients were black women and 1 patient presented with lesions of cutaneous sarcoidosis arising concurrently with SCCs in the same location, distinguishable only by biopsy. These cases highlight the association between sarcoidosis and an increased risk for SCC. Because dermatologists may be the primary clinicians caring for these patients, it is important that they remain aware of the increased risk for cutaneous malignancies and that they have a low threshold for biopsy of new and unusual skin lesions. Furthermore, 2 patients were black women, a population not commonly affected by skin cancer, which further exemplifies the need for comprehensive skin examinations in black patients. Although the precise mechanism for an increased risk for malignancy in these patients requires further investigation, chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation may play a role.

  16. Predictors for cutaneous basal- and squamous-cell carcinoma among actinically damaged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, J A; Harris, R B; Giuliano, A R; Roe, D J; Moon, T E; Cartmel, B; Alberts, D S

    2001-01-20

    Risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer among populations with evidence of precursor damage are not well described. We examined and compared risk factors associated with the development of cutaneous basal-cell (BCC) or squamous-cell (SCC) carcinoma among a group of 918 adults with significant sun damage (> or = 10 clinically assessable actinic keratoses) but no prior history of skin cancer. These adults were participants in a 5-year skin chemoprevention trial between 1985 and 1992, who had been randomized to the placebo group and followed for occurrence of skin cancer. During the study, a total of 129 first SCC and 164 first BCC lesions were diagnosed. The overall BCC and SCC incidence rates for this group of men and women, mean age 61 years, were 4,106 and 3,198 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Different constitutional and exposure factors were independently associated with BCC compared to SCC. Only increased age independently predicted BCC occurrence among this population. In contrast, older age along with male gender, natural red hair color and adult residence in Arizona for 10 or more years independently predicted SCC occurrence. The substantial incidence of skin cancer found among this population confirms the need for active dermatological monitoring among individuals with multiple visible actinic lesions.

  17. Interstitial brachytherapy of peri-orificial skin carcinomas on the face; Curietherapie interstitielle des cancers cutanes des zones periorificielles de la face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, E.; Bardet, E.; Ferron, C.; Peuvrel, P.; Supiot, S.; Mahe, M.A. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer Rene-Gauducheau, Service de Radiotherapie, 44 - Nantes (France); Beauvillain De Montreuil, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hotel-Dieu, Service de chirurgie ORL, 44 - Nantes (France); Campion, L. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer Rene-Gauducheau, Dept. de biostatistiques, 44 - Nantes (France); Dreno, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hotel-Dieu, Service de dermatologie, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose. - To analyse outcomes after interstitial brachytherapy of facial peri-orificial skin carcinomas. Patients and methods. - We performed a retrospective analysis of 97 skin carcinomas (88 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), 9 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs)) of the nose. Peri-orbital areas and ears from 40 previously untreated patients (group 1) and 57 patients who had undergone surgery (group 2). The average dose was 55 Gy [50-65] in group 1 and 52 Gy [50-60] in group 2 (mean implantation times: 79 and 74 hours respectively). We calculated survival rates and assessed functional and cosmetic results de visu. Results. - Median age was 71 years [17-97]. There were 29 T1, 8 T2, 1 T3 and 2 Tx tumors in group 1. Tumors were < 2 cm in group 2. Local control was 92.5% in group 1 and 88% in group 2 (median follow-up: 55 months [6-132]). Five-year disease-free survival was better in group 1 (91% [75-97]) than in group 2 (80% [62-90]), P = 0.23. Of the 34 patients whose results were re-assessed, eight presented pruritus on epiphora. One group 2 patient had an impaired eyelid aperture. Cosmetic results were better in group 1 than in group 2, with respectively 72% (8/ 11) vs 52% (12/23) of good results and 28 (3/11) vs. 43% (10/23) of fair results. Conclusion. - Brachytherapy provided a high level of local control and good cosmetic results for facial peri-orificial skin carcinomas that pose problems of surgical reconstruction. Results were better for untreated tumors than for incompletely excised tumors or tumors recurring after surgery. (authors)

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Themstrup, L.; De Carvalho, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is potentially possible using optical coherence tomography (OCT) which provides non-invasive, real-time images of skin with micrometre resolution and an imaging depth of up to 2 mm. OCT technology for skin imaging has undergone signifi...

  19. CyclinA、C-myc在皮肤瘢痕及瘢痕癌组织中的表达及意义%Expressions and Significance of CyclinA and C-myc in Skin Scar and Skin Scar Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞珍; 周开梅; 王燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨CyclinA、C-myc在皮肤病理性瘢痕和瘢痕癌组织中的表达及意义.方法以病理性皮肤瘢痕、皮肤瘢痕癌组织为研究对象,以正常皮肤组织为对照.采用免疫组织化学(SP法)分别检测CyclinA、C-myc蛋白的表达,采用核酸分子原位杂交法检测CyclinA mRNA的表达,所有数据输入计算机后运用SPSS 16.0软件包进行统计学分析.结果 (1)CyclinA、CyclinA mRNA在正常皮肤和皮肤瘢痕上皮中的表达呈阴性或弱阳性,在瘢痕癌组织中呈强阳性.瘢痕癌组的表达(平均吸光度和阳性面积)与正常皮肤组及皮肤瘢痕组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);但正常皮肤组与瘢痕组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).(2)C-myc蛋白在正常皮肤中的表达呈弱阳性,在皮肤瘢痕上皮中呈阳性,在瘢痕癌组织中呈强阳性.且两两比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).(3)相关分析显示,在皮肤瘢痕癌中,CyclinA与CyclinA mRNA(r=0.766,P<0.01)、CyclinA与C-myc蛋白(r=0.804,P<0.01)的表达均呈正相关.结论(1)CyclinA及其mRNA、C-myc的高表达,可能与皮肤瘢痕癌的发生有关;(2)C-myc蛋白的高表达与皮肤瘢痕上皮癌变有相关性.(3)在瘢痕癌中CyclinA同时存在蛋白水平和基因水平的异常表达.%Objective To study the expressions and significance of CyclinA and C-myc in skin Scar and skin Scar Carcinoma. Methods We compared pathological skin scar tissues and skin scar carcinoma tissues with normal skin tissues. The expression of CyclinA and C-myc proteins were detected by the immu-nohistochemical method of SP. And the expression of CyclinA mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization. All data were input into the computer and statistically analyzed with SPSS (16. 0) software. Results (1) CyclinA and its mRNA showed strong positive expression in scar carcinoma tissues, negative or weakly positive expression in normal skin epidermis and pathological skin scar epithelium

  20. Skin-to-tumor Distance Predicts Treatment Failure of T1A Renal Cell Carcinoma Following Percutaneous Cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, Simone L; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Kaler, Kamaljot; Youssef, Ramy F; Dutta, Rahul; Palvanov, Arkadiy; Shah, Paras; Osann, Kathryn; Siegel, David N; Lobko, Igor; Kavoussi, Louis; Clayman, Ralph V; Landman, Jaime

    2017-06-23

    To determine the impact of skin-to-tumor (STT) distance on the risk for treatment failure following percutaneous cryoablation (PCA). We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent PCA with documented T1a recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at 2 academic centers between 2005 and 2015. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and perioperative and postoperative course variables were collected. Additionally, we measured the STT distance by averaging the distance from the skin to the center of the tumor at 0°, 45°, and 90° on preoperative computed tomography imaging. We identified 86 patients with documented T1a RCC. The mean age at the time of surgery was 69 years (range: 37-91 years), and the mean tumor size was 2.7 cm (range: 1.0-4.0 cm). With a mean follow-up of 24 months (range: 3-63 months), 11 (12.8%) treatment failures occurred. Patients with treatment failure had significantly higher mean STT distance than those without: 11.0 cm (range: 6.3-20.1 cm) compared to 8.4 cm (range: 4.4-15.2 cm), respectively (P = .002). STT distance was an independent predictor of treatment failure (odds ratio: 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.69, P = .029). STT distance greater than 10 cm had a fourfold increased risk of tumor treatment failure (odds ratio: 4.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-16.39, P = .018). Tumor size, R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry score, and number of cryoprobes placed were not associated with treatment failure. STT, an easily measured preoperative variable, may inform the risk of RCC treatment failure following PCA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robin B; Foote, Janet A; Hakim, Iman A; Bronson, Dan L; Alberts, David S

    2005-04-01

    Differential effects of fatty acids on carcinogenesis suggest that fatty acid composition is important in tumor development. Arachidonic acid and its metabolites elicit inflammation and promote tumor formation in mouse skin. Inhibitors of the arachidonic cascade inhibit tumor incidence. A population-based case control study in Southeastern Arizona tested the hypothesis that lower levels of arachidonic acid in RBC membranes were associated with decreased risk of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; n = 335 SCC cases and 321 controls). Extracted and esterified RBC fatty acids were analyzed using capillary gas chromatography. Individual peaks for 14 fatty acids were measured as a percentage of total fatty acids. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR), adjusting for SCC risk factors (age, gender, actinic keratosis history, freckling, and tanning ability). Increased levels of arachidonic acid in RBC membranes were associated with increased risk of SCC [odds ratio (OR), 1.08 per mg/100 mL change; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.02-1.15] and this association remained when controls with actinic keratosis precursor lesions were excluded. SCC risk was highest among the upper quartile of arachidonic acid (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.37-4.12). In contrast, increasing proportions of palmitic acid (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-1.00) and palmitoleicacid (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30-0.81) were associated with reduced SCC risk. More studies are needed to elucidate the function of RBC fatty acids so that recommendations can be made to alter the human diet for cancer prevention.

  2. Múltiplos carcinomas basocelulares na região pubiana em uma paciente fototipo IV: relato de caso Multiple basal cell carcinomas in the pubic area in a patient with skin type IV: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Banhos Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna cutânea mais comum em humanos, localizando-se, frequentemente, em áreas expostas e em indivíduos de pele clara. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente de 62 anos, faiodérmica, com múltiplas lesões de bordas discretamente elevadas, eritemato-acastanhadas na região pubiana, cujo diagnóstico clínico foi carcinoma basocelular pigmentado, confirmado através do estudo histopatológico. A imunoistoquímica das lesões foi negativa para a pesquisa de papiloma vírusBasal cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignant cutaneous neoplasm in humans, being more frequently located in exposed areas and in fair-skinned individuals. It is reported the case of a 62-yearold female patient, brown-skinned ,with multiple lesions with edges slightly raised, reddish-brown in the pubic region, whose clinical diagnosis was pigmented basal cell carcinoma, confirmed by histopathology. Immunohistochemistry of the lesions was negative for the detection of papilloma virus

  3. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Thyssen, J P; Gislason, G H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is commonly treated with ultraviolet phototherapy and systemic immunosuppressant drugs, which may confer a risk of skin cancer. Previous studies on the risk of skin cancer in patients with psoriasis have shown conflicting results....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated the risk of new-onset melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), respectively, in a large cohort of patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: Data on all Danish individuals aged ≥18 years between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012 were linked at individual...... of skin cancer is only modestly increased in patients with psoriasis, clinicians should remain vigilant....

  4. Expressão de marcadores de proliferação celular e apoptose no carcinoma espinocelular de pele e ceratose actínica Expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis biomarkers in skin spinocellular carcinoma and actinic keratose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilho Tadeu Dornelas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O câncer de pele é o mais frequente tipo de câncer humano e mostra aumento de sua incidência. Em muitos casos, antes do surgimento do carcinoma, instala-se uma lesão precursora, ceratose actínica, podendo evoluir para carcinoma espinocelular. Estudos buscam determinar os parâmetros com significado prognóstico na predição daqueles tumores que terão comportamento mais agressivo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a expressão dos marcadores de proliferação celular (PCNA, Ki-67 e apoptose (p53, Bcl-2, em portadores de carcinoma espinocelular e ceratose actínica. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas amostras de 30 pacientes: sendo dez portadores do carcinoma espinocelular; dez de ceratose actínica e dez indivíduos livres de lesões submetidos à blefaroplastia. RESULTADOS: A proteína p53 foi expressa em todos os casos estudados, embora apresentassem padrões quantitativos diferentes. O Bcl-2 foi expresso em baixa intensidade. Em seis casos de ceratose actínica, nas peles de blefaroplastia, e negativo nos casos de carcinoma espinocelular. O PCNA exibiu expressão intensa, em todas as amostras. O Ki-67 apresentou expressão variável, nos casos de carcinoma e de ceratose, e negativo na pele de pálpebra. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão do Ki-67 e a não-expressão de Bcl-2, no grupo CEC, indica intensificação da atividade proliferativa. Ao passo que, a maior expressão de p53 e Bcl-2, no grupo CA, sugere imortalização celular.BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is the most frequent type of human cancer and has shown an increase in its incidence. In many cases, before the onset of the carcinoma, there might be a precursor lesion - actinic keratosis, which can develop into squamous cell carcinoma. Studies have been carried out in order to etermine the parameters that have prognostic significance in predicting those tumors which have more aggressive behavior. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of markers of cell proliferation (PCNA, Ki-67 and apoptosis (p53,Bcl-2

  5. Photodynamic therapy combined with distant gamma-ray therapy in the patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Filinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of clinical follow-up of the patient with squamous cell skin carcinoma of the nasal dorsum are represented. The patient underwent a course of combined photodynamic therapy (PDT with distant gamma-ray therapy. Distant gamma-ray therapy was performed daily during 12 days (single dose of 3 Gy, total dose of 36 Gy with the first session 24 h after injection of the photosensitization. For PDT the photosensitizer photosens at dose of 0,3 mg/kg was used. The method of prolonged PDT was applied, sessions of laser irradiation were performed daily during 7 days. The PDT sessions were carried out 2 h after session of gamma-ray therapy using distant (150 J/cm2, 40 mW/cm2 and contact (500 J/cm2, 100 mW/cm2 modalities. According to multiple cytological studies after treatment there were no signs of tumor, but inflammation. Four months after treatment according to cytological data continued tumor growth was detected. The patient underwent an additional course of PDT. Currently the patient is under follow-up: no recurrence during 8 months after repeated treatment. 

  6. Carcinoma a cellule basali: l'esperienza della dermatologia dell'Universita' di Bologna dal 1990 al 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspari, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Il carcinoma a cellule basali (BCC) costituisce l'80 peercento dei tumori cutanei non-melanoma, rappresentando dunque il tumore maligno della cute più frequente nella popolazione generale. Tuttavia, non esistono ad oggi studi epidemiologici ampi ed approfonditi condotti su scala nazionale su questo tipo di neoplasia, poichè i tumori cutanei non-melanoma sono esclusi dal registro statistico dei tumori. A tale scopo presso la Dermatologia dell'Università di Bologna sono stati raccolti di tut...

  7. Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus Infection and Development of Subsequent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaka S. Hampras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV infection in the development of subsequent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is unknown. Pathologically confirmed cases of SCC (n=150 enrolled in a previously conducted case-control study were included in a retrospective cohort study to examine the association of cutaneous HPV at the time of SCC diagnosis with the risk of subsequent SCC development. Data on HPV seropositivity, HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EB and SCC tumors were available from the parent study. Incidence of subsequent SCC was estimated using person-years of follow up. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were estimated to evaluate the associations of both, HPV seropositivity and HPV DNA positivity with subsequent SCC. The five year cumulative incidence of subsequent SCC was 72%. Seropositivity to cutaneous HPV was not associated with the risk of subsequent SCC (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.41–1.67. Any beta HPV infection in EB was associated with reduced risk (HR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11–0.78 of subsequent SCC among cases who were positive for beta HPV DNA in tumor tissue. Infection with beta HPV type 2 (HR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.12–0.86 in EB was associated with reduced risk of subsequent SCC among HPV DNA positive SCCs. In conclusion, beta HPV infection was inversely associated with the risk of subsequent SCC.

  8. Initial basal cell carcinomas diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention are smaller than those identified by the conventional medical referral system*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakiyama, Thweicyka Pinheiro; França, Maria Laura Marconi; Carvalho, Larissa Pierri; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma is the malignant tumor most often diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP). Little is known about the profile of these lesions compared to the profile of lesions diagnosed by conventional routes of public dermatological care. OBJECTIVE To identify if basal cell carcinomas identified in prevention campaigns and referred to surgery are smaller than those routinely removed in a same medical institution. METHODS Cross-sectional study including tumors routed from 2011-2014 campaigns and 84 anatomopathological reports of outpatients. RESULTS The campaigns identified 223 individuals with suspicious lesions among 2,531 examinations (9%), with 116 basal cell carcinomas removed. Anatomopathological examinations revealed that the primary lesions identified in the national campaigns were smaller than those referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care (28 [13-50] x 38 [20-113] mm2, p <0.01). On the other hand, after a mean follow-up of 15.6 ± 10.3 months, 31% of cases identified in campaigns showed new basal cell carcinoma lesions. STUDY LIMITATIONS Retrospective study and inaccuracies in the measurements of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS The NCSCP promotes an earlier treatment of basal cell carcinomas compared to patients referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care, which can result in lower morbidity rates and better prognosis. PMID:28225952

  9. Classification of basal cell carcinoma in human skin using machine learning and quantitative features captured by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvdashti, Tahereh; Duan, Lian; Aasi, Sumaira Z; Tang, Jean Y; Ellerbee Bowden, Audrey K

    2016-09-01

    We report the first fully automated detection of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most commonly occurring type of skin cancer, in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Our proposed automated procedure entails building a machine-learning based classifier by extracting image features from the two complementary image contrasts offered by PS-OCT, intensity and phase retardation (PR), and selecting a subset of features that yields a classifier with the highest accuracy. Our classifier achieved 95.4% sensitivity and specificity, validated by leave-one-patient-out cross validation (LOPOCV), in detecting BCC in human skin samples collected from 42 patients. Moreover, we show the superiority of our classifier over the best possible classifier based on features extracted from intensity-only data, which demonstrates the significance of PR data in detecting BCC.

  10. Functional protein pathway activation mapping of the progression of normal skin to squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspahr, Janine G; Calvert, Valerie; Alberts, David S; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Warneke, James; Krouse, Robert; Stratton, Steven P; Liotta, Lance; Longo, Caterina; Pellacani, Giovanni; Pellicani, Giovanni; Prasad, Anil; Sagerman, Paul; Bermudez, Yira; Deng, Jianghong; Bowden, G Timothy; Petricoin, Emanuel F

    2012-03-01

    Reverse phase protein microarray analysis was used to identify cell signaling derangements in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared with actinic keratosis (AK) and upper inner arm (UIA). We analyzed two independent tissue sets with isolation and enrichment of epithelial cells by laser capture microdissection. Set 1 served as a pilot and a means to identify protein pathway activation alterations that could be further validated in a second independent set. Set 1 was comprised of 4 AK, 13 SCC, and 20 UIA. Set 2 included 15 AK, 9 SCCs, and 20 UIAs. Activation of 51 signaling proteins, known to be involved in tumorigenesis, were assessed for set 1 and showed that the MEK-ERK [mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal-regulated (ERK; MEK)] pathway was activated in SCC compared with AK and UIA, and that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mTOR pathways were aberrantly activated in SCC. Unsupervised two-way hierarchical clustering revealed that AK and UIA shared a common signaling network activation architecture while SCC was dramatically different. Statistical analysis found that prosurvival signaling through phosphorylation of ASK and 4EBP1 as well as increased Bax and Bak expression was higher in AK compared with UIA. We expanded pathway network activation mapping in set 2 to 101 key signaling proteins, which corroborated activation of MEK-ERK, EGFR, and mTOR pathways through discovery of a number of upstream and downstream signaling molecules within these pathways to conclude that SCC is indeed a pathway activation-driven disease. Pathway activation mapping of SCC compared with AK revealed several interconnected networks that could be targeted with drug therapy for potential chemoprevention and therapeutic applications.

  11. Intake of high-fat diet stimulates the risk of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors and malignant progression of papillomas to carcinoma in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of a high-fat diet (HF-diet) to C57BL/6 mice exacerbates their response to short-term UVB radiation-induced inflammation in the skin. To explore the effects of an HF-diet on UVB-induced tumorigenesis, we have used the SKH-1 hairless mouse model in which the mice are exposed to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times a week for 24 weeks. The development of UVB-induced skin tumors was rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size were significantly higher (P < 0.01–0.005) in the mice fed an HF-diet than the mice fed a control-diet (C-diet). Moreover, the malignant progression of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas was higher in HF-diet-fed mice. On analysis of tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice, we found that administration of an HF-diet significantly enhanced the levels of UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (P < 0.01), and PGE{sub 2} receptors, and activation of NF-κB in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. In addition the HF-diet enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that HF-diet enhanced the levels of epidermal cell proliferation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser{sup 473} in UVB-exposed skin and skin tumors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the regular consumption of an HF-diet increases the risk of photocarcinogenesis in mice and that this is associated with enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators in the UVB-exposed skin and tumors. - Highlights: • Consumption of high-fat diet increases UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice. • Intake of high-fat diet stimulates progression of UV-induced papilloma to carcinoma. • Intake of high-fat diet enhances inflammation in UV-exposed skin • Regular

  12. Low-dose Methotrexate Enhances Aminolevulinate-based Photodynamic Therapy in Skin Carcinoma Cells In-vitro and In-vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Hasan, Tayyaba; Elson, Paul; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To improve treatment efficacy and tumor cell selectivity of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), via pretreatment of cells and tumors with methotrexate (MTX) to enhance intracellular photosensitizer levels. Experimental Design Skin carcinoma cells, in-vitro and in-vivo, served as the model system. Cultured human SCC13 and HEK1 cells, normal keratinocytes, and in-vivo skin tumor models (see below) were preconditioned with MTX for 72 h, then incubated with ALA for 4 h. Changes in PpIX levels and in cell survival after light exposure were assessed. Results MTX-preconditioning of monolayer cultures preferentially raised intracellular PpIX levels 2- to 4-fold in carcinoma cells versus normal keratinocytes. Photodynamic killing was synergistically enhanced by the combined therapy, compared to PDT alone. MTX enhancement of PpIX levels was achieved over a broad MTX concentration range (0.0003 – 1.0 mg/L; 0.6 nM – 2 mM). PpIX enhancement correlated with changes in protein expression of key porphyrin pathway enzymes, i.e. ~4-fold increase in coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and stable or slightly decreased expression of ferrochelatase. Differentiation markers (E-cadherin, involucrin, filaggrin) were also selectively induced by MTX in carcinoma cells. In-vivo relevance was established by showing that MTX preconditioning enhances PpIX accumulation in three models: (1) organotypic cultures of immortalized keratinocytes; (2) chemically-induced skin tumors in mice; and (3) human A431 squamous cell tumors implanted subcutaneously in mice. Conclusion Combination therapy using short-term exposure to low-dose MTX followed by ALA-PDT should be further investigated as a new combination modality to enhance efficacy and selectivity of PDT for epithelial carcinomas. PMID:19447864

  13. The molecular fingerprint of human papillomavirus infection and its effect on the Langerhans cell population in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Rios-Yuil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information is scarce about the presence of molecular alterations related to human papillomavirus (HPV infection in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin and about the effect of this infection in the number of Langerhans cells present in these tumors. Aims: To determine the presence of HPV in genital skin squamous cell carcinomas and to see the relationship between HPV infection and changes in the expression of Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67, p53 protein (p53, retinoblastoma protein (pRb and E-cadherin and to alterations in Langerhans cell density, if any. Methods: A descriptive, comparative, retrospective and cross-sectional study was performed with all the cases diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin at the Dermatopathology Service from 2001 to 2011. The diagnosis was verified by histopathological examination. The presence of HPV was examined using chromogenic in situ hybridization, and protein expression was studied via immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The 34 cases studied were verified as squamous cell carcinomas and 44.1% were HPV positive. The degree of expression of pRb was 17.50% ±14.11% (mean ± SD in HPV-positive cases and 29.74% ±20.38% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0236. The degree of expression of Ki-67 was 47.67% ±30.64% in HPV-positive cases and 29.87% ±15.95% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0273. Conclusion: HPV infection was related to lower pRb expression and higher Ki-67 expression in comparison with HPV negative samples. We could not find a relationship between HPV infection and the degree of expression of p53 and E-cadherin or with Langerhans cell density.

  14. Skin cancer as a marker of sun exposure associates with myocardial infarction, hip fracture and death from any cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F;

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is the single most important risk factor for skin cancer, but sun exposure may also have beneficial effects on health. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with skin cancer (non-melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous malignant melanoma) have less myocardial infarction, hip fracture...

  15. No evidence for mutations in exons 1, 8 and 18 of the patched gene in sporadic skin lesions of Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granja F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that the patched (PTCH gene is a gene for susceptibility to the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. PTCH has also been shown to mutate in both familial and sporadic basal cell carcinomas. However, mutations of the gene seem to be rare in squamous cell carcinomas. In order to characterize the role of the gene in the broader spectrum of sporadic skin malignant and pre-malignant lesions, we performed a polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP analysis of genomic DNA extracted from 105 adult patients (46 females and 59 males. There were 66 patients with basal cell carcinomas, 30 with squamous cell carcinomas, 2 with malignant melanomas and 7 patients with precancerous lesions. Two tissue samples were collected from each patient, one from the central portion of the tumor and another from normal skin. Using primers that encompass the entire exon 1, exon 8 and exon 18, where most of the mutations have been detected, we were unable to demonstrate any band shift. Three samples suspected to present aberrant migrating bands were excised from the gel and sequenced directly. In addition, we sequenced 12 other cases, including tumors and corresponding normal samples. A wild-type sequence was found in all 15 cases. Although our results do not exclude the presence of clonal alterations of the PTCH gene in skin cancers or mutations in other exons that were not screened, the present data do not support the presence of frequent mutations reported for non-melanoma skin cancer of other populations.

  16. Supraestructure maxillectomy and orbital exenteration for treatment of basal cell carcinoma of inferior eyelid: Case report and review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Villalon-Lopez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent type of skin cancer in humans, with cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR as important risk factor for development of the illness as such as severe solar burns during childhood or adolescence. BCC is mainly located on sun exposed sites, being head and neck the areas of more incidence; although nose, eyelids and periorbitary tissue are unfavorable due to cosmetic results that BCC involves. Tumors can be classified as: nodular, superficial, micronodular, morphea variety, infiltrating, pigmented, metatypic and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. Several treatment options as surgical and non-surgical are available. The goal of treatment is complete excision of the tumor with preservation of surrounding structures in a way aesthetically acceptable. Mohs′ micrographic surgery is the standard treatment for all non-melanoma skin cancer. Orbital exenteration is also used for treatment of malignancies of ocular tissues, mainly squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma and BCC. The tissue beneath the surgical site can be left for second-intention granulation or covered with a cutaneous implant of partial thickness. The case of a 77 year-old patient is presented with BCC of inferior eyelid of 14 years duration, formerly managed with radiotherapy and, due to recurrent illness and invasion to the maxillary antrum; he needed supraestructure maxillectomy with left orbital exenteration.

  17. Supraestructure maxillectomy and orbital exenteration for treatment of basal cell carcinoma of inferior eyelid: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalon-Lopez J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent type of skin cancer in humans, with cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation as an important risk factor for development of illness such as severe solar burns during childhood or adolescence. BCC is mainly located on sun-exposed sites, head and neck being the areas of more incidences; although nose, eyelids and periorbitary tissue are unfavorable due to cosmetic results that BCC involves. Tumors can be classified as nodular, superficial, micronodular, morphea variety, infiltrating, pigmented, metatypic and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. Several treatment options such as surgical and nonsurgical are available. The goal of treatment is complete excision of the tumor with preservation of surrounding structures in a way aesthetically acceptable. Mohs′ micrographic surgery is the standard treatment for all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Orbital exenteration is also used for treatment of malignancies of ocular tissues, mainly squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma and BCC. The tissue beneath the surgical site can be left for second-intention granulation or covered with a cutaneous implant of partial thickness. The case of a 77-year-old patient is presented with BCC of inferior eyelid of 14 years′ duration, formerly managed with radiotherapy; however, due to recurrent illness and invasion to the maxillary antrum, he needed supraestructure maxillectomy with left orbital exenteration.

  18. The human POLH gene is not mutated, and is expressed in a cohort of patients with basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flanagan, Annabelle M

    2007-04-01

    Skin cancer, the most common cancer in the general population, is strongly associated with exposure to the ultraviolet component of sunlight. To investigate the relationship between DNA damage processing and skin tumour development, we determined the POLH status of a cohort of skin cancer patients. The human POLH gene encodes DNA polymerase eta (poleta), which normally carries out accurate translesion synthesis past the major UV-induced photoproduct, the dithymine cyclobutane dimer. In the absence of active poleta in xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) patients, mutations accumulate at sites of UV-induced DNA damage, providing the initiating step in skin carcinogenesis. Forty patients diagnosed with skin cancer were genotyped for polymorphisms in the POLH protein-coding sequence, using glycosylase-mediated polymorphism detection (GMPD) and direct DNA sequencing of POLH PCR products derived from white blood cell genomic DNA. All individuals carried the wild-type POLH sequence. No POLH mutations were identified in genomic DNA from skin tumours derived from 15 of these patients. As determined by RT-PCR, POLH mRNA was expressed in all normal and skin tumour tissue examined. Poleta protein was also detectable by Western blotting, in two matched normal and skin tumour extracts. An alternatively spliced form of POLH mRNA, lacking exon 2, was more readily detected in skin tissue than in white blood cells from the same patient. Real-time PCR was used to quantify POLH expression in matched normal and skin tumour-derived mRNA from a series of patients diagnosed with either basal or squamous cell carcinoma. Compared to matched normal skin tissue from the same patient, 1 of 7 SCC, and 4 of 10 BCC tumours examined showed at least a 2-fold reduction in POLH expression, while 1 of 7 SCC, and 3 of 10 BCC tumours showed at least a 2-fold increase in POLH expression. Differences in gene expression, rather than sequence changes may be the main mechanism by which POLH status varies

  19. Aspirin for the primary prevention of skin cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Cheng, Yang; Luo, Rong-Cheng; Li, Ai-Min

    2015-03-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. There are three major skin cancer types: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. General risk factors for skin cancer include fair skin, a history of tanning and sunburn, family history of skin cancer, exposure to ultraviolet rays and a large number of moles. The incidence of skin cancer has increased in the USA in recent years. Aspirin intake is associated with chemoprotection against the development of a number of types of cancer. However, whether aspirin intake can reduce the risk of development of skin cancer is unclear. The present meta-analysis of available human studies is aimed at evaluating the association between aspirin exposure and the risk of skin cancer. All available human observational studies on aspirin intake for the primary prevention of skin cancer were identified by searching MEDLINE (Pubmed), BIOSIS, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure prior to March 2013. The heterogeneity and publication bias of all studies were evaluated using Cochran's Q and I(2) statistics, followed by a random-effect model where applicable. The pooled data were analyzed by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of eight case-control and five prospective cohort studies from 11 publications were selected for this analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias in these studies. Statistical analyses of the pooled data demonstrated that that a daily dose of 50-400 mg aspirin was significantly associated with a reduced risk of skin cancers (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99; P=0.02). Stratification analysis indicated that the continual intake of low dose aspirin (≤150 mg) reduced the risk of developing skin cancer (OR, 0.95; CI, 0.90-0.99; P=0.15) and that aspirin intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (OR, 0.97; CI, 0.95-0.99; P=0.22). Overall, these findings indicated that aspirin intake

  20. A transposon-based analysis of gene mutations related to skin cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Rita M; Dupuy, Adam J; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Alameda, Josefa P; Page, Angustias; Sánchez-Viera, Miguel; Ramírez, Angel; Navarro, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is by far the most frequent type of cancer in humans. NMSC includes several types of malignancies with different clinical outcomes, the most frequent being basal and squamous cell carcinomas. We have used the Sleeping Beauty transposon/transposase system to identify somatic mutations associated with NMSC. Transgenic mice bearing multiple copies of a mutagenic Sleeping Beauty transposon T2Onc2 and expressing the SB11 transposase under the transcriptional control of regulatory elements from the keratin K5 promoter were treated with TPA, either in wild-type or Ha-ras mutated backgrounds. After several weeks of treatment, mice with transposition developed more malignant tumors with decreased latency compared with control mice. Transposon/transposase animals also developed basal cell carcinomas. Genetic analysis of the transposon integration sites in the tumors identified several genes recurrently mutated in different tumor samples, which may represent novel candidate cancer genes. We observed alterations in the expression levels of some of these genes in human tumors. Our results show that inactivating mutations in Notch1 and Nsd1, among others, may have an important role in skin carcinogenesis.

  1. One case of skin metastasis of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung and literature review%肺肉瘤癌皮肤转移1例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾念旭; 吕森森; 刘学东; 常宏

    2015-01-01

    目的:提高肺肉瘤样癌发生皮肤转移的认识。方法分析我科收治的发生皮肤转移的肺肉瘤样癌患者的临床特点及相关文献资料,分析肺肉瘤样癌皮肤转移的特点。结果皮肤结节可能是肺肉瘤样癌的首发症状,皮肤结节病灶活检病理免疫组化VIM和CK阳性支持肉瘤样癌诊断。结论肺肉瘤样癌发生皮肤转移罕见,皮肤结节活检有助于明确诊断,肺肉瘤样癌治疗同非小细胞肺癌,预后极差。%Objective To improve awareness of skin metastasis of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung.Methods Clinical features and related literature review of patients with skin metastasis of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung who were admitted to our departments were analyzed and features of skin metastasis of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung were also analyzed.ResultsSkin nodules might be the first symptom of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung and positive VIM and CK lesion biopsy pathology immunohistochemistry of skin nodules support the diagnosis of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung.Conclusion Skin metastasis of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung is rare and biopsy of skin nodules is helpful for definite diagnosis.Treatment of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung is the same as the non-small cell lung cancer and its prognosis is poor.

  2. The influence of HIV infection on the age dependence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B L Diffey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence typically increases with age, but it is not known whether ethnic characteristics influence the age dependence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCC. Objectives. (i To determine the age dependence of SCC in the black African, coloured and white population groups of South Africa (SA; and (ii to show whether any differences in the rate of change of age dependence could be influenced by diversity in behaviour and lifestyle, especially with regard to the prevalence of HIV infection, rather than by a fundamental variation in cancer biology between the populations. Methods. Linear regression analysis was applied to the logarithm of the age-specific incidence rates for SCC v. the logarithm of age between 35 and 74 years. The slopes of the regression (age exponent were compared for each subset of gender, population group and year of diagnosis (between 2000 and 2010. Results. The most notable feature was the low value of the age exponent in both male and female black African compared with the white and coloured populations. This finding could be explained in part by the difference in the prevalence of HIV infection in the black African population group compared with the white and coloured population groups. Conclusions. The prevalence of HIV infection in black Africans in SA tends to decrease the apparent age component in SCC compared with the white and coloured population groups. Other factors relating to lifestyle and behaviour that differ between the population groups are also likely to influence the age component in SCC.

  3. Predisposing factors and histopathological variants of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: Experience from a North Indian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeti Khullar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Squamous and basal cell carcinomas together constitute the majority of non-melanoma skin cancers. These malignancies are infrequent in Indians as compared to the white skinned population. Literature on squamous cell carcinoma in dark skin is limited. Aim: To analyze the risk factors and to characterize the histopathological subtypes of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Indian patients in an area, non-endemic for arsenicosis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of data from January 2003 to August 2013 was performed to evaluate the predisposing factors and histopathological types of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh. Demographic and disease characteristics such as age, gender and predisposing factors, particularly premalignant dermatoses were recorded and histopathology slides were reviewed. Results: Of the 13,426 skin biopsy specimens received during the 10-year period, there were 82 (0.6% cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 170 (1.7% of basal cell carcinoma. The mean age at diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was 53.7 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. The most common site of involvement was the lower limbs in 34 (41.5% patients. Marjolin's ulcer was present in 36 (43.9% cases. No predisposing factor was identified in 35 (42.7% patients. Histopathologically, the tumors were classified most commonly as squamous cell carcinoma not otherwise specified in 33 (40.2% cases. Limitations: This was a retrospective study and details of occupation and interval between the precursor lesions and development of tumor were not recorded. Immunohistochemistry for human papilloma virus and p53 tumor suppressor protein were not performed as these tests were not available. Conclusion: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is uncommon in Indian patients and a high index of suspicion is necessary when a rapidly enlarging nodule, verrucous fungating plaque

  4. Validation of a diagnostic algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marneffe, Alice; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko; Del Marmol, Véronique; Boone, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) commonly arise on sun-damaged skin. Visible lesions are often associated with subclinical lesions on surrounding skin, giving rise to field cancerization. To avoid multiple biopsies to diagnose subclinical/early invasive lesions, there is an increasing interest in non-invasive diagnostic tools, such as high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). We previously developed a HD-OCT-based diagnostic algorithm for the discrimination of AK from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of HD-OCT for non-invasive discrimination of AK from SCC and normal skin using this algorithm. Three-dimensional (3D) HD-OCT images of histopathologically proven AKs and SCCs and images of normal skin were collected. All images were shown in a random sequence to three independent observers with different experience in HD-OCT, blinded to the clinical and histopathological data and with different experience with HD-OCT. Observers classified each image as AK, SCC or normal skin based on the diagnostic algorithm. A total of 106 (38 AKs, 16 SCCs and 52 normal skin sites) HD-OCT images from 71 patients were included. Sensitivity and specificity for the most experienced observer were 81.6% and 92.6% for AK diagnosis and 93.8% and 98.9% for SCC diagnosis. A moderate interobserver agreement was demonstrated. HD-OCT represents a promising technology for the non-invasive diagnosis of AKs. Thanks to its high potential in discriminating SCC from AK, HD-OCT could be used as a relevant tool for second-level examination, increasing diagnostic confidence and sparing patients unnecessary excisions.

  5. Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    , as have many diseases. The method can provide accurate measures of epidermal and nail changes in normal tissue. Skin cancer and other tumors, as well as inflammatory diseases, have been studied and good agreement found between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT also allows noninvasive......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology based on light reflection. It provides real-time images with up to 2-mm penetration into the skin and a resolution of approximately 10 μm. It is routinely used in ophthalmology. The normal skin and its appendages have been studied...... monitoring of morphologic changes in skin diseases and may have a particular role in the monitoring of medical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The technology is however still evolving and continued technological development will necessitate an ongoing evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy. Several...

  6. Principle component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging data for differentiating basal cell carcinoma and healthy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Lesnichaya, Anastasiya D.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Cherkasova, Olga P.; Kurlov, Vladimir N.; Shikunova, Irina A.; Perchik, Alexei V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2016-09-01

    In present paper, an ability to differentiate basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and healthy skin by combining multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging, principle component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been demonstrated. For this purpose, the experimental setup, which includes excitation and detection branches, has been assembled. The excitation branch utilizes a mercury arc lamp equipped with a 365-nm narrow-linewidth excitation filter, a beam homogenizer, and a mechanical chopper. The detection branch employs a set of bandpass filters with the central wavelength of spectral transparency of λ = 400, 450, 500, and 550 nm, and a digital camera. The setup has been used to study three samples of freshly excised BCC. PCA and LDA have been implemented to analyze the data of multi-spectral fluorescence imaging. Observed results of this pilot study highlight the advantages of proposed imaging technique for skin cancer diagnosis.

  7. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, Allan; Andersen, Claus Erik; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Tjønneland, Anne; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993–1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses of the cohort members and calculated radon concentrations at each address lived in from 1 January 1971 until censor date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) for the risk associated with radon exposure for NMSC and MM, and effect modification was assessed. Results Over a mean follow-up of 13.6 years of 51,445 subjects, there were 3,243 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 317 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 329 cases of MM. The adjusted IRRs per 100 Bq/m3 increase in residential radon levels for BCC, SCC and MM were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.37) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.50), respectively. The association between radon exposure and BCC was stronger among those with higher socio-economic status and those living in apartments at enrollment. Conclusion and Impact Long-term residential radon exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and non-existent amongst those living in single detached homes. PMID:26274607

  8. Terapia fotodinâmica para tratamento de múltiplas lesões no couro cabeludo na síndrome do nevobasocelular: relato de caso Photodynamic therapy for treatment of multiple lesions on the scalp in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rezende Neves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A terapia fotodinâmica é uma alternativa eficaz de tratamento para neoplasias cutâneas não melanoma e tem como princípio a utilização de substâncias fotossensibilizantes que, após serem irradiadas com uma fonte de luz de comprimento de onda adequado, destroem seletivamente as células neoplásicas. A Síndrome do Nevobasocelular é uma genodermatose que cursa com o desenvolvimento de inúmeros carcinomas basocelulares em uma idade precoce, submetendo os pacientes a vários procedimentos cirúrgicos, muitas vezes desfigurantes. Este artigo tem como objetivo demonstrar o excelente resultado do tratamento de carcinomas basocelulares no couro cabeludo de uma paciente com a Síndrome do Nevobasocelular.Photodynamic therapy is an effective alternative for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, selectively destroying the neoplastic cells through the use of photosensitizer substances that are irradiated with a source of light of adequate wave length. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome is a genodermatosis characterized by multiples basal cell carcinomas occurring at an early age, compelling patients to various surgeries, some of them disfiguring. The aim of this article is to show the excellent result of the treatment of multiple basal cell carcinomas on the scalp of a patient suffering from Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome.

  9. Comparative study of transfersomes, liposomes, and niosomes for topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil to skin cancer cells: preparation, characterization, in-vitro release, and cytotoxicity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Iqrar Ali; Madan, Jitender; Kaushik, Dinesh; Sardana, Satish; Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Ali, Asgar

    2011-09-01

    Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is used for the treatment of actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Unfortunately, 5-FU per se shows a poor percutaneous permeation, thus reducing its anticancer effectiveness after topical administration. Therefore, we have constructed transfersomes, liposomes, and niosomes of 5-FU for topical applications in this investigation. Transfersomes were prepared by the solvent evaporation method, whereas liposomes and niosomes were constructed by reverse-phase evaporation method. The nanovesicles were characterized for particle size, shape, zeta potential, viscosity, entrapment efficiency, deformability, in-vitro permeation release, and kinetics and retention. Cytotoxicity study was carried out on HaCaT cells. Transfersomes (153.2 ± 10.3 nm), liposomes (120.3 ± 9.8 nm), and niosomes (250.4 ± 8.6 nm) were produced with a maximum entrapment efficiency of 82.4 ± 4.8, 45.4 ± 3.3, and 43.4 ± 3.2%, respectively. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy assure the smooth and spherical shape of nanovesicles. Skin permeation and retention showed better permeability and retention than the nonvesiculized dosage form. The IC50 value of transfersomes (1.02 μmol/l), liposomes (6.83 μmol/l), and niosomes (9.91 μmol/l) was found to be far less than 5-FU (15.89 μmol/l) at 72 h. 5-FU-loaded transfersomes were found to be most cytotoxic on the HaCaT cell line in comparison with liposomes and niosomes. We concluded that vesiculization of 5-FU not only improves the topical delivery, but also enhances the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU. We have presented here a viable formulation of 5-FU for the management of actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin carcinoma.

  10. Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds induce apoptotic and autophagic cell death via generation of reactive oxygen species in squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Young-Sool; Kim, Jin Gu; Cho, Hee Young; Park, Jin Sung; Heo, Eun Phil; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Procyanidins can inhibit cell proliferation and tumorigenesis and induce apoptosis in human skin, breast and prostate carcinoma cell lines. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is a common form of keratinocytic or non-melanoma skin cancer and is a deadly disease with a poor prognosis due to the ineffectiveness of therapy. The present study aimed to determine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) may regulate different modes of cell death in the human SCC12 cell line. The present study found that the treatment of SCC12 cells with GSP inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the motility and invasiveness of SCC12 cells through suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 expression. GSP treatment also resulted in induction of apoptosis and autophagy via generation of reactive oxygen species. The inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine decreased GSP-induced cell death, which suggested that GSP-induced autophagy can promote cell death. The results of the present study suggested that autophagy functions as a death mechanism in SCC and provided a rationale for the use of GSP in combination with autophagy activators for treating cancers such as SCC.

  11. Relation between sonic hedgehog pathway gene polymorphisms and basal cell carcinoma development in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Aleksandra; Sobolewska-Sztychny, Dorota; Majak, Paweł; Sobjanek, Michał; Wodz, Karolina; Sygut, Karolina Przybyłowska-; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Wozniacka, Anna; Narbutt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, increases have been observed in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma. BCC is the most common neoplasm in Caucasian populations. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway impairment plays a key role in BCC pathogenesis, and there is evidence that Shh pathway genetic variations may predispose to BCC development. We genotyped 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4 Shh pathway genes: SHH, GLI, SMO, and PTCH. The study group consisted of 142 BCC patients and 142 age-matched, sex-matched healthy subjects (controls). SNPs were assessed using the PCR-RFLP method. The genotype distribution for the polymorphisms in the rs104894049 331 A/T SHH, rs104894040 349 T/C SHH, and rs41303402 385 G/A SMO genes differed significantly between the BCC patients and the controls. The presence of CC genotype in the SHH rs104894040 349 T/C polymorphism was linked to the highest risk of BCC development (OR 87.9, p < 0.001). Other genotypes, such as the TT in SHH rs104894049 331 A/T and the GG in SMO rs41303402 385 G/A also statistically raised the risk of BCC, but these associations were weaker. Other investigated polymorphisms showed no statistical differences between patients and controls. The results obtained testify to the importance of the SHH and SMO gene polymorphisms in skin cancerogenesis. These results mainly underline the potential role of SHH3 rs104894040 349 T/C gene polymorphism in the development of skin basal cell carcinomas in patients of Polish origin.

  12. Immunolocalization of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 in non melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Samaka, Rehab Monir; Shoeib, Mohamed Abdel Moneim; Megahed, Doaa Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI)1 is involved in controlling cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore its possible role in non-melanoma skin cancer pathogenesis through its immunohistochemical (IHC) expression in skin biopsies of these diseases and correlating this expression with the clinico-pathological parameters of the studied cases. Seventy-six cutaneous specimens were studied; 30 cases with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 30 cases with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 16 normal skin samples, from age- and gender-matched subjects, as a control group. GLI1 was expressed in all BCC cases and in 60% of SCC cases. All SCC cases showed cytoplasmic, while 70% of BCC cases showed nucleocytoplasmic immunoreactivity. It was over expressed in BCC and SCC compared to normal skin (p = 0.01 and 0.0006, respectively). Higher Histo (H) score in BCC cases was significantly associated with female gender (p = 0.04), multiple lesions, desmoplastic stromal reaction and stromal angiogenesis (p < 0.001 for all). Higher H score in SCC cases was significantly associated with scalp location, nodular type, recurrent lesions, high tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.004 for all), inflammatory stromal reaction (p = 0.01), lymph node involvement and absence of calcification (p = 0.001 for both). In conclusion, GLI1 may play a role in BCC pathogenesis through its role in cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. Its upregulation and cytoplasmic localization in SCC may suggest that its role in tumor pathogenesis is through mechanisms other than Hedgehog pathway activation. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact molecular basis of its oncogenic action.

  13. THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF SOLASODINE RHAMNOSYL GLYCOSIDES FOR LARGE SKIN CANCERS: TWO CLINICAL CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill E. Cham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solasodine rhamnosyl glycosides (BEC are a new class of antineoplastics, the efficiency of which administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intratumoral routes is higher than that of many other antitumor agents. Early investigations have established the efficiency of topical BEC applications as a treatment option for non-melanoma skin cancers. There have recently been two clinical cases that count in favor of the fact that the cream formulation Curaderm containing BEC has a very high efficacy in the treatment of large non-melanoma skin cancers that are incurable by other existing methods. Also, Curaderm treatment shows a splendid cosmetic effect. 

  14. Anatomical and molecular imaging of skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Hao Hong1, Jiangtao Sun1, Weibo Cai1,21Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 2University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USAAbstract: Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer types. It is generally divided into two categories: melanoma (∼5%) and nonmelanoma (∼95%), which can be further categorized into basal cell...

  15. Photodynamic therapy for skin field cancerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braathen, L R; Morton, C A; Basset-Seguin, N

    2012-01-01

    in this area. With respect to the skin, this term is used to define the presence of multiple non-melanoma skin cancer, its precursors, actinic keratoses and dysplastic keratinocytes in sun exposed areas. The multiplicity of the lesions and the extent of the area influence the treatment decision. Providing...... at least equivalent efficacy and tolerability, field directed therapies are therefore often more worthwhile than lesion targeted approaches. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with its selective sensitization and destruction of diseased tissue is one ideal form of therapy for this indication. In the following...... paper the use of PDT for the treatment of field cancerized skin is reviewed and recommendations are given for its use....

  16. A RARE CASE REPORT OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF URETHRA ARISING FROM SUBSTITUTED PENILE SKIN FLAP WITH BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Pratap

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 44-year-old male presented with ulcerative growth over dorsal penile shaft along with multiple urethrocutaneous fistula. A total penectomy, scrotal excision and perineal urethrostomy were done. Past history of treatment for penile urethral stricture due to Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (BXO by substitution urethroplasty using pedicled preputial penile skin flap five years back. On gross as well as histopathological examination, the tumour was found to be arising from the skin flap used for substitution. This case highlights the malignant potential of skin affected by BXO and is probably the only case report where a skin flap has turned malignant.

  17. OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini;

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides clinicians and researchers with micrometer-resolution, in vivo, cross-sectional images of human skin up to several millimeter depth. This review of OCT imaging applied within dermatology covers the application of OCT to normal skin, and reports on a lar...... number of applications in the fields of non-melanoma skin cancer, malignant melanomas, psoriasis and dermatitis, infestations, bullous skin diseases, tattoos, nails, haemangiomas, and other skin diseases. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  18. Papillomaviral DNA and increased p16CDKN2A protein are frequently present within feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in ultraviolet-protected skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, John S; Gibson, Isobel; French, Adrienne F

    2011-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are common feline skin tumours. While exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes some SCCs, a subset develop in UV-protected skin. In cats, papillomaviruses (PVs) cause viral plaques and Bowenoid in situ carcinomas (BISCs). As both may progress to SCC, it was hypothesized that SCCs in UV-protected skin may represent neoplastic transformation of a PV-induced lesion. To investigate this hypothesis, PCR was used to amplify PV DNA from 25 UV-protected and 45 UV-exposed SCCs. Oncogenic human PVs cause neoplasia by mechanisms that also increase p16(CDKN2A) protein (p16). As increased p16 is present in feline viral plaques and BISCs, immunohistochemistry was used to detect p16 within the SCCs. Papillomaviral DNA was amplified from 76% of UV-protected SCCs, but only 42% of UV-exposed SCCs. Increased p16 was present in 84% of UV-protected SCCs, but only 40% of UV-exposed SCCs. The more frequent detection of PV DNA and increased p16 within UV-protected SCCs supports the hypothesis that some develop from a PV-induced plaque or BISC. Felis domesticus PV-2 is thought to cause viral plaques and BISCs. This PV was detected most frequently within the UV-protected SCCs, supporting development from a PV-induced lesion. Increased p16 and PV DNA were less frequent within UV-exposed SCCs, presumably because these developed from actinic keratosis rather than a PV-induced lesion. The results support the hypothesis that some feline cutaneous SCCs are caused by PV infection and suggest that PVs may cause neoplasia by mechanisms that also increase p16.

  19. The management of non-melanocytic skin malignancies of the scalp and calvarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Çöloglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of advanced cutaneous malignancies has been controversial. Thirteen patients with nonmelanoma skin neoplasias that had invaded the bone of the calvarium and scalp were treated in our centre. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate our experience in treating these malignancies with scalp resection and full or partial thickness cranium reconstruction. Patients and Methods: From June 2008 to March 2012, thirteen patients with locally advanced tumours of the scalp invading the calvarium were treated with wide local excision of the scalp combined with an underlying craniectomy and dural resection if needed. Results: Using histopathological diagnosis eleven patients were diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and two patients with squamous cell carcinoma. A full thickness cranium resection was performed in seven patients and partial in six patients. Conclusion: These large cancers occasionally invade adjacent structures, as well as bone, presenting a challenging surgical problem. In general, giant rotational or island scalp flaps and free tissue transfers are needed to close the area. Finding clean margins are an important part of treating patients with bone involvement and can usually be attained using outer tabula curettage thus preventing unnecessary morbidity.

  20. Clinical application of a OneDose(TM) MOSFET for skin dose measurements during internal mammary chain irradiation with high dose rate brachytherapy in carcinoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A [Department of Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India); Sharma, Pramod K [Department of Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India); Tambe, Chandrashekhar M [Department of Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India); Mahantshetty, Umesh M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Advanced Centre for Training Research and Education in Cancer, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai (India); Deshpande, Deepak D [Department of Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India); Shrivastava, Shyam K [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India)

    2006-07-21

    In our earlier study, we experimentally evaluated the characteristics of a newly designed metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) OneDose(TM) in-vivo dosimetry system for Ir-192 (380 keV) energy and the results were compared with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). We have now extended the same study to the clinical application of this MOSFET as an in-vivo dosimetry system. The MOSFET was used during high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) of internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation for a carcinoma of the breast. The aim of this study was to measure the skin dose during IMC irradiation with a MOSFET and a TLD and compare it with the calculated dose with a treatment planning system (TPS). The skin dose was measured for ten patients. All the patients' treatment was planned on a PLATO treatment planning system. TLD measurements were performed to compare the accuracy of the measured results from the MOSFET. The mean doses measured with the MOSFET and the TLD were identical (0.5392 Gy, 15.85% of the prescribed dose). The mean dose was overestimated by the TPS and was 0.5923 Gy (17.42% of the prescribed dose). The TPS overestimated the skin dose by 9% as verified by the MOSFET and TLD. The MOSFET provides adequate in-vivo dosimetry for HDRBT. Immediate readout after irradiation, small size, permanent storage of dose and ease of use make the MOSFET a viable alternative for TLDs. (note)

  1. Vitamin D and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin M; Elmets, Craig A; Yusuf, Nabiha

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D signaling plays a key role in many important processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, immune regulation, hormone secretion and skeletal health. Furthermore, vitamin D production and supplementation have been shown to exert protective effects via an unknown signaling mechanism involving the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in several diseases and cancer types, including skin cancer. With over 3.5 million new diagnoses in 2 million patients annually, skin cancer is the most common cancer type in the United States. While ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is the main etiologic factor for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), UVB also induces cutaneous vitamin D production. This paradox has been the subject of contradictory findings in the literature in regards to amount of sun exposure necessary for appropriate vitamin D production, as well as any beneficial or detrimental effects of vitamin D supplementation for disease prevention. Further clinical and epidemiological studies are necessary to elucidate the role of vitamin D in skin carcinogenesis.

  2. CLINICAL STUDY OF CORRELATION BETWEEN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR (ER AND PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR (PR STATUS AND PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS IN CARCINOMA BREAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION Breast carcinoma is the first among women of all races and Hispanic origin populations; most common carcinoma in women and account for 25% of all female cancers, which is more than twice the prevalence of cancer in women at any other site. Recent information suggests globally breast carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer related death and is the most common cancer among women excluding the non-melanoma skin cancer. Estrogen and Progesterone play a central role in regulating growth kinetics of a variety of epithelial lining like in breast and endometrium and are powerful predictive markers in carcinoma of breast. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the correlation between ER and PR status and patient characteristics like age of patient, menarche, menopause, parity, tumour size, lymph node status and tumour grade in carcinoma breast patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty patients were included in this study who were admitted with breast carcinoma, the patient characteristics are correlated with ER and PR status studied by immunohistochemistry. This study was done over the period from October 2013 to September 2015. RESULTS Patients with both ER/PR positive are better differentiated, low grade, small sized tumours and with less chance of lymph node metastasis. Progesterone receptor negative status is associated with lymph node metastasis independent of other patient characteristics. Grade 3 and 4 tumours showed lower level of Estrogen and Progesterone receptors irrespective of age. CONCLUSION ER/PR positive group were better differentiated, showed better prognosis with hormonal therapy. They were less aggressive, low lymph node metastasis when compared with patients with either of the receptors negative or both the receptors negative. Hence immunohistochemistry is a must as it provides valuable prognostic, predictive and therapeutic information.

  3. Hope and challenge: the importance of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Reichrath, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation is the most important environmental risk factor for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (most importantly basal and squamous cell carcinomas), that represent the most common malignancies in Caucasian populations. To prevent these malignancies, public health campaigns were developed to improve the awareness of the general population of the role of UV-radiation. The requirements of vitamin D is mainly achieved by UV-B-induced cutaneous photosynthesis, and the vitamin D-mediated positive effects of UV-radiation were not always adequately considered in these campaigns; a strict "no sun policy" might lead to vitamin D-deficiency. This dilemma represents a serious problem in many populations, for an association of vitamin D-deficiency and multiple independent diseases has been convincingly demonstrated. It is crucial that guidelines for UV-exposure (e.g. in skin cancer prevention campaigns) consider these facts and give recommendations how to prevent vitamin D-deficiency. In this review, we analyze the present literature to help developing well-balanced guidelines on UV-protection that ensure an adequate vitamin D-status without increasing the risk to develop UV-induced skin cancer.

  4. Src is activated by the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ in ultraviolet radiation-induced skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Alexandra; Delgado, Maria B; Tallichet-Blanc, Corinne; Chan, Jeremy S K; Sng, Ming K; Mottaz, Hélén; Degueurce, Gwendoline; Lippi, Yannick; Moret, Catherine; Baruchet, Michael; Antsiferova, Maria; Werner, Sabine; Hohl, Daniel; Saati, Talal Al; Farmer, Pierre J; Tan, Nguan S; Michalik, Liliane; Wahli, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common human cancer and its incidence continues to rise worldwide, the mechanisms underlying its development remain incompletely understood. Here, we unveil a cascade of events involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ and the oncogene Src, which promotes the development of ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin cancer in mice. UV-induced PPARβ/δ activity, which directly stimulated Src expression, increased Src kinase activity and enhanced the EGFR/Erk1/2 signalling pathway, resulting in increased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker expression. Consistent with these observations, PPARβ/δ-null mice developed fewer and smaller skin tumours, and a PPARβ/δ antagonist prevented UV-dependent Src stimulation. Furthermore, the expression of PPARβ/δ positively correlated with the expression of SRC and EMT markers in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and critically, linear models applied to several human epithelial cancers revealed an interaction between PPARβ/δ and SRC and TGFβ1 transcriptional levels. Taken together, these observations motivate the future evaluation of PPARβ/δ modulators to attenuate the development of several epithelial cancers.

  5. Pilomatrix carcinoma of the clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazic, Barbara; Sramek-Zatler, Simona; Repse-Fokter, Alenka; Pizem, Joze

    2011-12-01

    Pilomatrix carcinoma, a malignant counterpart of pilomatrixoma, is a rare skin neoplasm composed of basaloid and shadow cells that characterize differentiation toward the hair matrix. The authors present a case of pilomatrix carcinoma of the clitoris, a very unusual location not previously reported. Diagnostic criteria and differential diagnoses are discussed. Pilomatrix carcinoma should be differentiated from benign pilomatrixoma and other carcinomas with shadow cells, including basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation and metastases of visceral carcinomas with shadow cells.

  6. Experiencia en reconstrucción auricular en cáncer de piel con colgajo en "quesadilla" Experience in auricle reconstruction after skin carcinoma with "quesadilla" flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gutiérrez Gómez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción auricular es una de las más difíciles ya que implica reproducir las sofisticadas y delicadas formas del pabellón auricular. Cuando hay que resecar piel en la oreja por un cáncer cutáneo y dejamos expuesto el cartílago, sin pericondrio, suele suceder que al colocar injertos no hay una integración adecuada de los mismos por las caprichosas formas y relieves del pabellón auricular; cuando es necesario resecar el pericondrio estamos obligados a cubrir el defecto con un colgajo y no con un simple injerto. Frente a esta dificultad técnica, diseñamos un colgajo ricamente vascularizado que preserva el cartílago no afectado con una buena cubierta y al mismo tiempo respeta la anatomía de la oreja. Para la cobertura del cartílago auricular anterior usamos un colgajo fasciocutáneo posterior que se asemeja a un plato típico de la cocina mexicana que llamamos "quesadilla", donde el cartílago por su color blanco recuerda el queso y el gran colgajo fasciocutaneo recuerda la tortilla que cubre al queso. Este colgajo incluye la piel enrollada del hélix, que en un segundo tiempo retornará a su lugar de origen anatómico mediante una z-plastía asimétrica. Presentamos, de entre una serie de 13 pacientes con carcinoma de pabellón auricular, 2 casos resueltos mediante esta técnica.Auricle reconstruction is one of the most difficult techniques because of the sophisticated and delicates forms of the ear. When we need to remove the auricular skin, preserving the cartilage is very important to keep the shape of the auricle. If treating an auricular skin cancer we find an unaffected cartilage, we can use a skin grafting, but in such delicates forms and curves many times it results inappropriate or the lack of pericondrium difficult skin graft integration. When pericondrium is affected, we will need a skin flap to cover de defect. We designed a rich vascularized flap that preserves the unaffected cartilage with an adequate coverage

  7. A RARE CASE REPORT OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF URETHRA ARISING FROM SUBSTITUTED PENILE SKIN FLAP WITH BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old male presented with ulcerative growth over dorsal penile shaft along with multiple urethrocutaneous fistula. A total penectomy, scrotal excision and perineal urethrostomy were done. Past history of treatment for penile urethral stricture due to Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (BXO) by substitution urethroplasty using pedicled preputial penile skin flap five years back. On gross as well as histopathological examination, the tumour was found to be arising from the skin ...

  8. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and ...

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma Surgery: Simple Undermining Approach in Two Patients with Different Tumour Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common human malignancy, accounting for the majority of all non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC. In the past several decades the worldwide incidence of BCC has constantly been increasing. Even though it is a slow growing tumour that, left untreated, rarely metastasizes, it has a distinctive invasive growth pattern, posing a considerable risk for local invasion and destruction of underlying tissues, such as muscle, cartilage, bone or vital structures. Advanced BCCs include such locally invasive or metastatic tumours. Complete surgical excision is the standard therapy for most uncomplicated BCC cases with good prognosis and cure rates. Treatment of advanced forms of BCCs poses significant therapeutic challenges, most often requiring complicated surgery, radiotherapy, and/or targeted therapies directed towards the sonic hedgehog signalling pathway (SHH. We present two cases of large BCCs located on the scalp and posterior thorax, which underwent surgical excision with clear margins, followed by reconstruction of the defect after extensive undermining of the skin.

  10. Expression profile of skin papillomas with high cancer risk displays a unique genetic signature that clusters with squamous cell carcinomas and predicts risk for malignant conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, N; Ryscavage, A; Perez-Lorenzo, R; Wright, L; Bae, D-S; Hennings, H; Yuspa, S H; Glick, A B

    2007-10-18

    Chemical induction of squamous tumors in the mouse skin induces multiple benign papillomas: high-frequency terminally benign low-risk papillomas and low-frequency high-risk papillomas, the putative precursor lesions to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We have compared the gene expression profile of twenty different early low- and high-risk papillomas with normal skin and SCC. Unsupervised clustering of 514 differentially expressed genes (Pclassifier algorithms generated a gene list that correctly classified unknown benign tumors as low- or high-risk concordant with promotion protocol and keratin profiling. Reduced expression of immune function genes characterized the high-risk papillomas and SCC. Immunohistochemistry confirmed reduced T-cell number in high-risk papillomas, suggesting that reduced adaptive immunity defines papillomas that progress to SCC. These results demonstrate that murine premalignant lesions can be segregated into subgroups by gene expression patterns that correlate with risk for malignant conversion, and suggest a paradigm for generating diagnostic biomarkers for human premalignant lesions with unknown individual risk for malignant conversion.

  11. Topical (+)-catechin emulsified gel prevents DMBA/TPA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin by modulating antioxidants and inflammatory biomarkers in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Jitender; Aggarwal, Vaibhav; Suthar, Sharad Kumar; Monika; Nongalleima, Khumukcham; Sharma, Manu

    2014-12-01

    An emulsified gel of (+)-catechin was developed and evaluated topically against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promoted (DMBA-induced and TPA-promoted) squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in BALB/c mice. The biological evaluation outcome indicated that the (+)-catechin emulsified gel increased the activity of oxidative stress biomarkers glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), whereas it decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). The mechanistic study showed that genes implicated in the inflammation and cancer, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), were down-regulated by (+)-catechin emulsified gel while inhibiting an inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The (+)-catechin emulsified gel further suppressed the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, viz. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The in vitro permeation study revealed that release of (+)-catechin from an emulsified gel base reached a steady state after 6 h, while pH of the entire emulsified gel was found to be between 6.2 and 6.5 that falls well within the normal pH range of the skin.

  12. XRCC3 C18067T polymorphism contributes a decreased risk to both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3 in homologous recombination repair (HRR pathway plays a very important role in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR. Variations in the XRCC3 gene might lead to altered protein structure or function which may change DSBR efficiency and result in cancer. The XRCC3 C18067T polymorphism has been reported to be associated with skin cancer susceptibility, yet the results of these previous results have been inconsistent or controversial. To derive a more precise estimation of the association, we conducted a meta-analysis. METHODS: The quality of the studies was assessed according to a predefined scale. The association between the XRCC3 C18067T polymorphism and skin cancer risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: Overall, no significant association was observed between XRCC3 C18067T polymorphism and skin cancer risk in any genetic model. Stratified analyses according to tumor type, significant association was found in the relationship between XRCC3 C18067T polymorphism and nonmelanoma skin cancer risk (homozygote comparison TT versus CC: OR = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.61-0.90, P = 0.003; recessive model TT versus TC/CC: OR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.68-0.95, P = 0.01. Furthermore, significant association was also observed in XRCC3 C18067T polymorphism with both basal cell carcinoma risk (homozygote comparison TT versus CC: OR = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.53-0.92, P = 0.011; recessive model TT versus. TC/CC: OR = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.60-0.92, P = 0.007 and squamous cell carcinoma risk (heterozygote comparison TT versus .CC: OR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.67-0.99, P = 0.04; dominant model TT/TC versus .CC: OR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.68-0.98, P = 0.029. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis demonstrates that XRCC3 C18067T polymorphism was not associated with risk of cutaneous melanoma but contributed a decreased risk to both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. An evaluation of quality of life of skin cancer patients after surgery using dermatology life quality index tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar Jain

    2016-08-01

    Results: Out of total 56 study subjects, Basal cell carcinomas were found in 91.1% (n=51; squamous cell carcinomas were detected in 7.2% (n=4. Single location wise more lesions were located on the nose 22.1% (n=15 and forehead 17.6% (12. For most patients (75%, the lesion had not been previously treated. 58.9% subjects did not have any other associated co-morbid condition. Lower mean values were observed post-operative i.e. lower DLQI scores were recorded 4 months after surgery in our study which indicates that adverse effects were not very prominent thus preserving quality of life post operatively. Paired sample t-tests revealed a significant effect on DLQI item 1 (p=0.008, item 2 (p=0.043, and item 4 (p=0.003, with scores decreasing (improving QOL after treatment. The change in total DLQI score demonstrated a trend toward significance, with overall QOL improving after treatment (p=0.024. Conclusions: Previously commonly employed dermatological Quality of life tools demonstrated minimal handicap at initial diagnosis and little change after treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Development of disease-specific instrument is warranted to explore the disease process. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3235-3239

  14. Low Rate of Detection of Mucosal High-Risk-Type Human Papillomavirus in Korean Patients with Extragenital Bowen's Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Especially in Digital Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rim Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been demonstrated in some of the nonmelanoma skin cancers as well as in precancerous lesions. Multiple infections of mucosal high-risk HPV may contribute to the onset of digital Bowen's disease through, if any, digital-genital transmission. We screened for the presence of the mucosal HPV DNA in patients with extragenital Bowen's disease (, squamous cell carcinoma (, bowenoid papulosis (, verrucous carcinoma (, actinic keratosis (, and basal cell carcinoma (. We used a PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip for high-risk and low-risk mucosal types. Genotyping data was confirmed using a conventional direct DNA sequencing method. Two cases of extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. None of the squamous cell carcinoma cases were positive. Neither patients with digital Bowen's disease ( nor those with squamous cell carcinoma ( showed any mucosal high-risk HPV. Mucosal high-risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 5 (55.6% of the 9 patients with bowenoid papulosis. HPV 16 was most prevalent (, while the DNA of HPVs 35 and 67 was detected in one sample for each of the two types. Our study demonstrated that two (6.7% of the patients with 30 extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease. However, we could not find any relationship between the mucosal high-risk HPV and Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in the fingers.

  15. Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common types of skin cancer. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for skin cancer.

  16. Giant epithelial malignancies (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma: A series of 20 tumors from a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC, basal cell carcinoma (BCC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are the most common. Giant NMSCs have occasionally reported in the medical literature with particular problems related to diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze patients, treatment, and outcome with giant BCC/SCC. Materials and Methods: We analyzed our files between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011, of an academic teaching hospital in the dermatology department. Patients were analyzed according to demographic factors, clinical presentation, histopathology, treatment, and outcome. American Society of Anesthesiology physical status system was used to assess the fitness of patients before surgery. Results: The frequency of giant NMSC was estimated as 0.4% for both tumor entities. 80% of giant BCC patients were female and 100% of giant SCC patients were male. The mean age was 81.5 ± 8.5 years for BCC and 79.5 ± 11.4 years for SCC. The major anatomical site was the scalp. Four of 10 BCCs were classified metatypic (basosquamous. Perineural infiltration was seen in 5 NMSCs. Seventy percent of patients had an ASA score ≥3. Surgery was performed in general anaesthesia in 5 (BCC and 6 (SCC patients, respectively. All other patients were operated in local or tumescence anesthesia. Blood transfusions were necessary in five patients. The primary treatment was delayed Mohs technique. Defect closure was realized with rotational flaps in most cases. Neoadjuvant chemoimmune therapy and adjuvant combined cetuximab/radiotherapy have been performed in three patients. We observed three deaths, all unrelated to NMSC. 75% of patients achieved complete remission. Conclusions: Giant NMSC is uncommon but not rare. These tumors are high-risk subtypes. Treatment needs an interdisciplinary approach.

  17. Automated Detection and Segmentation of Vascular Structures of Skin Lesions Seen in Dermoscopy, with an application to Basal Cell Carcinoma Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazmi, Pegah; AlJasser, Mohammed I; Lui, Harvey; Wang, Z Jane; Lee, Tim K

    2016-12-08

    Blood vessels are important biomarkers in skin lesions both diagnostically and clinically. Detection and quantification of cutaneous blood vessels provide critical information towards lesion diagnosis and assessment. In this paper, a novel framework for detection and segmentation of cutaneous vasculature from dermoscopy images is presented and the further extracted vascular features are explored for skin cancer classification. Given a dermoscopy image, we segment vascular structures of the lesion by first decomposing the image using independent component analysis into melanin and hemoglobin components. This eliminates the effect of pigmentation on the visibility of blood vessels. Using k-means clustering, the hemoglobin component is then clustered into normal, pigmented and erythema regions. Shape filters are then applied to the erythema cluster at different scales. A vessel mask is generated as a result of global thresholding. The segmentation sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 86% were achieved on a set of 500000 manually segmented pixels provided by an expert. To further demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method, based on the segmentation results, we defined and extracted vascular features towards lesion diagnosis in Basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Among a data set of 659 lesions (299 BCC and 360 non-BCC), a set of 12 vascular features are extracted from the final vessel images of the lesions and fed into a random forest classifier. When compared with a few other state-of-art methods, the proposed method achieves the best performance of 96.5% in terms of AUC in differentiating BCC from benign lesions using only the extracted vascular features.

  18. Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the skin metastatic to the lymph nodes: immunohistochemical study of a new case and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocas, Delphine; Asvesti, Catherine; Tsega, Artemis; Katafygiotis, Patroklos; Kanitakis, Jean

    2014-03-01

    Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a rare adnexal skin tumor first described in 1975, of which merely 62 cases have so far been studied in detail and reported in the English literature. PCACC is usually regarded as apocrine in origin/differentiation, but its precise histogenesis is still not well known. PCACC has in most cases a rather indolent course but can produce local recurrences and, more rarely, regional (lymph node) and distant (pulmonary) metastases. We report herein a Greek woman with a long-standing PCACC that grew slowly over several years and produced metastasis in the regional lymph nodes, highlighting the potentially aggressive course of this tumor. The primary and metastatic tumors were studied immunohistochemically and proved to express several (sweat gland-related) antigens (such as keratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, CD10, and CD117) but neither hormonal receptors nor p63 or Gross Cystic disease Fluid Protein 15. The salient clinicopathologic features of this rare cutaneous adnexal tumor are reviewed.

  19. Autophagy in human skin squamous cell carcinoma: Inhibition by 3-MA enhances the effect of 5-FU-induced chemotherapy sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Li; Wang, Jianli

    2015-12-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular multi-step catabolic degradation process that involves the degradation and recycling of cellular proteins and cytoplasmic damaged organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis and reduction of metabolic stress. Numerous studies have indicated the importance of autophagy in cancer, but the role of autophagy in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) development and response to therapy it is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of autophagy in SSCC and the relationship with chemotherapy sensitivity. The present study demonstrated that autophagy related gene the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) expression was low in SSCC. The negative correlation with Bcl2 and survivin, and the chemotherapy drug 5-FU increased the level of autophagy and the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA inhibited this effect in SSCC cells, time- and dose-dependently. When SSCC cells were treated first with 3-MA and then with 5-FU, the inhibition of proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of SSCC cells was enhanced. Our results suggested the possibility of autophagy as a potential target in SSCC therapy and 3-MA and 5-FU combination treatment may be an effective SSCC therapy via autophagy modulating.

  20. Significance of Cx26 Gene Expressions and Mutation in Skin Scar and Skin Scar Squamous Cell Carcinoma%皮肤瘢痕和瘢痕鳞状细胞癌中Cx26基因表达及突变的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纳; 郭瑞珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the significance of Cx26 gene expression and mutation in skin scar and skin scar squamous cell carcinoma. Methods The expressions of Cx26 protein and its mRNA in 15 skin scar and 22 skin scar squamous cell carcinomas were detected by immunohistochemical method of SP and in situ hybridization. To analyze the characteristics of Cx26 gene mutations,DNA was extracted from 28 samples(14 skin scar and 14 skin scar squamous cell carcinoma tissues) of Paraffin embedded and screened for mutation by direct sequencing. Pictures were collected and analyzed, statistical analysis was performed by SPSS system. Results (DCx26 and its mRNA showed positive expression in normal skin epidermis and strong positive in pathological skin scar epithelium, weakly positive or negative expression in skin scar squamous cell carcinoma tissues. Each of two groups was statistically different(P<0. 05). (2) The Cx26 genes were not examined to have the mutation in skin scar squamous cell carcinoma tissues after sequencing. Conclusion The high expression of Cx26 protein and Cx26mRNA may be related to the hyperplasia of skin scar epithelium. The low expression may be related to the occurrence of skin scar squamous cell carcinoma. The genetic mutation suits need more explored.%目的 探讨Cx26基因表达及突变在皮肤瘢痕及瘢痕鳞状细胞癌(以下简称瘢痕鳞癌)中的意义.方法 采用免疫组织化学SP法及原位杂交技术检测15例皮肤瘢痕和22例瘢痕鳞癌中Cx26蛋白及mRNA的表达.分别从14例皮肤瘢痕和瘢痕鳞癌石蜡包埋组织中提取DNA,运用PCR扩增及测序的方法进行突变筛查.利用计算机图像分析系统采集、分析图像,并对数据进行统计学处理.结果 (1) Cx26蛋白、Cx26mRNA在正常皮肤表皮中阳性,在皮肤瘢痕上皮呈强阳性表达,在瘢痕鳞癌组织中呈弱阳性或阴性表达.正常皮肤组、皮肤瘢痕组及瘢痕鳞癌组两两比较,其表达(阳性

  1. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  2. Primary cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Markus Winther; Steiniche, Torben; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the skin and reviews the available literature on this topic. Myoepitheliomas and carcinomas arise most frequently from myoepithelial cells within the salivary glands but are found in many anatomical locations. We documented a case...

  3. Inhibition of Akt Enhances the Chemopreventive Effects of Topical Rapamycin in Mouse Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Sally E; Janda, Jaroslav; Criswell, Jane; Blohm-Mangone, Karen; Olson, Erik R; Liu, Zhonglin; Barber, Christy; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Calvert, Valerie S; Einspahr, Janine; Dickinson, Jesse E; Stratton, Steven P; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Saboda, Kathylynn; Hu, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Alberts, David S; Timothy Bowden, G

    2016-03-01

    The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared with those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here, we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar-simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared with controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared with vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC.

  4. Inhibition of akt enhances the chemopreventive effects of topical rapamycin in mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Sally E; Janda, Jaroslav; Criswell, Jane; Blohm-Mangone, Karen; Olson, Erik R.; Liu, Zhonglin; Barber, Christie; Rusche, Jadrian J.; Petricoin, Emmanuel; Calvert, Valerie; Einspahr, Janine G.; Dickinson, Jesse; Stratton, Steven P.; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Saboda, Kathylynn; Hu, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Alberts, David S.; Bowden, G. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin, (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared to those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared to controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared to vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC.

  5. Recognition of skin cancer and sun protective behaviors in skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Chikoti M; Wesley, Naissan O; Jackson, Brooke A

    2013-09-01

    Sun protective behaviors are not as frequently practiced in skin of color as they are amongst Caucasians.1 Thus providing a reasonable assumption this behavior, or lack thereof, increases the risk of skin cancer in this skin of color populations. The aim of this study was two-fold-- the first was to understand whether patients with skin of color, when categorized by ethnicity or skin type, are able to recognize skin cancer lesions. The second was to examine the correlation between ethnicity and/or skin type and practice of sun protective behaviors. We surveyed 105 respondents presenting for various skin problems in a dermatology office in Chicago, IL. Topics covered in the survey included recognition of skin cancer appearance and choice of sun protective behaviors. We show that there is a tendency for patients to potentially recognize atypical pigmented lesions when they are "dark moles with irregular borders" or "new moles". In contrast, there is a reduced ability among darkly pigmented skin types IV to VI, to recognize non-melanoma skin cancers. We also show that in addition to ethnicity, skin type within ethnic groups may also play an influential role on the decision to protect or not protect oneself from the sun.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratigos, Alexander; Garbe, Claus; Lebbe, Celeste; Malvehy, Josep; del Marmol, Veronique; Pehamberger, Hubert; Peris, Ketty; Becker, Jürgen C; Zalaudek, Iris; Saiag, Philippe; Middleton, Mark R; Bastholt, Lars; Testori, Alessandro; Grob, Jean-Jacques

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common cancers in Caucasian populations, accounting for 20% of all cutaneous malignancies. A unique collaboration of multi-disciplinary experts from the European Dermatology Forum (EDF), the European Association of Dermato-Oncology (EADO) and the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) was formed to make recommendations on cSCC diagnosis and management, based on a critical review of the literature, existing guidelines and the expert's experience. The diagnosis of cSCC is primarily based on clinical features. A biopsy or excision and histologic confirmation should be performed in all clinically suspicious lesions in order to facilitate the prognostic classification and correct management of cSCC. The first line treatment of cutaneous SCC is complete surgical excision with histopathological control of excision margins. The EDF-EADO-EORTC consensus group recommends a standardised minimal margin of 5 mm even for low-risk tumours. For tumours, with histological thickness of >6 mm or in tumours with high risk pathological features, e.g. high histological grade, subcutaneous invasion, perineural invasion, recurrent tumours and/or tumours at high risk locations an extended margin of 10 mm is recommended. As lymph node involvement by cSCC increases the risk of recurrence and mortality, a lymph node ultrasound is highly recommended, particularly in tumours with high-risk characteristics. In the case of clinical suspicion or positive findings upon imaging, a histologic confirmation should be sought either by fine needle aspiration or by open lymph node biopsy. In large infiltrating tumours with signs of involvement of underlying structures, additional imaging tests, such as CT or MRI imaging may be required to accurately assess the extent of the tumour and the presence of metastatic spread. Current staging systems for cSCC are not optimal, as they have been developed for head and neck

  7. Differential responses of skin cancer-chemopreventive agents silibinin, quercetin, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate on mitogenic signaling and cell cycle regulators in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, N; Agarwal, C; Agarwal, R

    2001-01-01

    Silibinin, quercetin, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) have been shown to be skin cancer-preventive agents, albeit by several different mechanisms. Here, we assessed whether these agents show their cancer-preventive potential by a differential effect on mitogenic signaling molecules and cell cycle regulators. Treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with these agents inhibited the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and the downstream adapter protein Shc, but only silibinin showed a marked inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 activation. In terms of cell cycle regulators, silibinin treatment showed an induction of Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27 together with a significant decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-4, CDK2, and cyclin D1. Quercetin treatment, however, resulted in a moderate increase in Cip1/p21 with no change in Kip1/p27 and a decrease in CDK4 and cyclin D1. EGCG treatment also led to an induction of Cip1/p21 but no change in Kip1/27, CDK2, and cyclin D1 and a decrease in CDK4 only at low doses. Treatment of cells with these agents resulted in a strong dose- and time-dependent cell growth inhibition. A high dose of silibinin and low and high doses of quercetin and EGCG also led to cell death by apoptosis, suggesting that a lack of their inhibitory effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 activation possibly "turns on" an apoptotic cell death response associated with their cancer-preventive and anticarcinogenic effects. Together, these results suggest that silibinin, quercetin, and EGCG exert their cancer-preventive effects by differential responses on mitogenic signaling and cell cycle regulators.

  8. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  9. Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Imaging of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Living Subjects Using a Probe Targeting Integrin αvβ6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yong; Hong, Kai; Zhu, Shu; Wan, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common non-melanoma skin cancer worldwide. Today, cSCC is diagnosed by visual inspection followed by invasive skin biopsy. There is a need to develop non-invasive diagnostic tools to achieve early and accurate detection. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) possesses high ultrasonic resolution and strong optical contrast at new depths (<1–5 cm). Together with exogenous contrast agents, PAI has found promising use in various tumors in living subjects. The expression of integrin αvβ6 is significantly up-regulated in cSCC. We fabricated an anti-integrin αvβ6 antibody and labeled it with indocyanine green (ICG) to form an ICG-αvβ6 antibody. The results showed that the ICG-αvβ6 antibody probe could be used to detect cSCC with high specificity (3-fold over the control by PAI) and deep penetration (approximately 1 cm) by PAI. This suggests that the ICG-αvβ6 antibody is a promising probe targeting the integrin αvβ6 for detection of cSCC tumors by PAI and fluorescence imaging. It may find clinical application in the early diagnosis of cSCC as well as in intraoperative navigation. PMID:28181579

  10. Comportamiento del carcinoma basocelular facial en Artemisa durante la última década Behavior of facial basocellular carcinoma in Artemisa during the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileydis Viñas García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma basocelular representa aproximadamente entre un 70 a un 80 % de los cánceres cutáneos no melanoma, en la población de color de piel blanca y su tasa de incidencia ha incrementado un 20 % en las últimas 2 décadas. Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo y de corte transversal desde enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2009, para determinar el comportamiento del carcinoma basocelular en los pacientes anotados en el registro de solicitud de biopsias del Servicio de Cirugía Máxilofacial del municipio Artemisa. El universo fueron 1 287 individuos y constituyeron la muestra 607 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico e histopatológico de carcinoma basocelular. Se registraron las siguientes variables: grupo de edad, sexo, color de la piel, ocupación, localización del tumor, formas clínicas de presentación y tipo histopatológico. Se confeccionó un formulario y los datos se procesaron estadísticamente por cálculo porcentual. Los resultados se presentaron en tablas. Se obtuvo un 47,1 % con diagnóstico de carcinoma basocelular en ambos sexos, con ligero predominio en el género masculino, los campesinos y constructores resultaron ser los más afectados. La población de piel blanca constituyó el 98,8 % de los pacientes con carcinoma basocelular y el grupo de edad más afectado fue el de 70 años en adelante. La principal región fue la nasal, la forma clínica de presentación nodular perlada fue la más frecuente. Predominó el tipo histopatológico sólido y tres cuartas partes de los pacientes fueron tratados con exéresis simple. Se concluyó que el carcinoma basocelular constituyó la entidad de mayor prevalencia al afectar casi la mitad de la población objeto de estudio.The basocellular carcinoma account for approximately the 70-80 % of non-melanoma cutaneous cancer in white persons and its incidence rate has increased in a 20 % in the two past decades. A cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was

  11. E6/E7 expression of human papillomavirus types in cutaneous squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, C; Koehler, A; Forschner, T; Sehr, P; Michael, K; Pawlita, M; Stockfleth, E; Nindl, I

    2006-07-01

    DNA of cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types is frequently found in nonmelanoma skin cancer, and their E6 and E7 proteins can have transforming properties. To assess the biological activity of HPV types found in tumour tissues we examined HPV E6/E7 RNA expression and the antibody response to E6, E7 and L1 proteins. Thirty-one snap-frozen biopsies from six immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients representing seven squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), one basal cell carcinoma, four actinic keratoses (AKs), seven normal skin and 12 verrucae vulgaris (Vv) were analysed for 24 cutaneous HPV types by an L1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. The presence of E6/E7 transcripts of HPV 5, 8, 9, 15 and 20 was investigated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. HPV DNA load was determined for HPV 8, 9 and 15 in 11 biopsies. Antibody response was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using affinity-purified, bacterially expressed complete viral proteins fused to glutathione S-transferase as antigens. HPV DNA was detected in 25 of 31 tissue samples, indicating eight single and 17 multiple HPV infections. E6/E7 transcripts of HPV 8, 9 and 15 were found in low copy numbers in one SCC and three AKs, but not in normal skin or Vv. All four patients examined showed antibodies to cutaneous HPV antigens, but the antibody response did not correlate with E6/E7 expression detected in the tumour. Transcriptional activity of the E6/E7 oncogenes in AK and SCC suggests an active role of HPV in the lesion.

  12. Burden of malignancy after a primary skin cancer: recurrence, multiple skin cancers and second primary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Hans; Williams, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The current paper summarizes relevant recent research on the high risk of recurrence, multiple skin cancers and second primary cancers in the growing number of people with a history of skin cancer; the ultimate purpose is to better assess the burden of malignancy following skin cancer. A number of challenges exist in identifying and tracking both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) cases. Most jurisdictions do not routinely track NMSC cases and, even if they do, it is customary to only include the first diagnosis. There are variable rules for counting multiple melanoma cancers, and recurrences are not considered for either major type of skin cancer. Applying insights from recent studies of this issue to Canadian cancer statistics would increase reported diagnoses of NMSC by about 26% and melanoma by 10% in this country. This approach to a fuller assessment of the burden of skin cancers has been called a "diagnosis-based incidence approach" as compared with a "patient-based incidence approach". A further issue that is not usually taken into account when assessing the burden of skin cancers is the 20% to 30% elevated risk of noncutaneous second primary cancers following a primary skin tumour. In summary, individuals with skin cancer are subject to a high risk of recurrence, multiple skin cancers and second primary cancers. This burden should be a special concern in the large and growing pool of individuals with a history of skin cancer, as well as among prevention planners.

  13. 阴囊部皮肤原发性腺样囊性癌1例报告及文献复习%Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma of skin in the scrotum : A case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东斌; 王益华; 吴鸿雁; 武慧娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study clinical pathologic features, immunohistochemistry and distinguish diagnosis of the primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma of skin in the scrotum. Methods: One case of primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma of skin in the scrotum was clinically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically studied, and the related literatures were reviewed. Results: Cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma of skin is rare and found in any location of skin except palm of hand and sole of foot, with a strong predilection for middleaged and elderly. Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma of skin in the scrotum has not been reported, the tumor showed predominantly in a sieve - like pattern, the cystic pseudoglandular spaces were filled with secretions that was Alcian blue positive, the tumor nests were surrounded by a eosinophilic hyaline basement membrane - like material that was periodic acid -Schiff( PAS )positive. Immunohistochemistry showed positive reaction with cytokeratin -7,S - 100, epithelial membrane antigen( EMA )and p63. Conclusion: Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of skin in the scrotum is a rare tumor with good prognosis, its light microscopy and immunohistochemistry features is similar with salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma,an indolent but progressive course is characteristic of this tumor.%目的 探讨原发阴囊部皮肤腺样囊性癌的临床病理特点,免疫组化及鉴别诊断要点.方法 报道1例原发阴囊部皮肤腺样囊性癌的临床、病理组织学形态和免疫组化特点,并复习相关文献对以上特点进行分析.结果 皮肤的腺样囊性癌较少见,可发生于除掌跖以外的任何部位,中老年好发,平均发病年龄为59岁.原发阴囊部皮肤腺样囊性癌未见报道,镜下肿瘤组织形成特殊的筛状结构,囊腔内常含有阿辛兰(pH5.2)阳性的透明质酸和硫酸化的酸性黏蛋白,瘤细胞间和小叶间周围可见透明嗜酸性基底膜物质的沉积,PAS

  14. Epidemiology of basal and squamous cell carcinoma in Belgium: the need for a uniform and compulsory registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, J; Van Eycken, L; Henau, K; Garmyn, M

    2016-11-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common type of cancer among Caucasians, however, few data exist on its incidence. Because of a sheer volume of these tumours, NMSC is often not systematically registered. To describe and analyse the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in Belgium. Incidence data of BCC and SCC, including multiple primary skin tumours in the same patient, were extracted from the Belgian Cancer Registry from 2004 to 2012 (predominantly coming from pathology notifications). Belgian legislation makes cancer registration compulsory for oncological care programmes and for all pathological anatomy laboratories. Between 2004 and 2012, 113 254 BCC and 33 153 SCC cases were reported in Belgium. A total of 130 339 patients had 146 407 tumours. Approximately, 10% of the patients (12 759 patients) had multiple tumours. The world age-standardised incidence rate (WSR) for BCC increased from 36.9 in 2004 to 98.4 per 100 000 person years in 2012 for males and from 34.2 in 2004 to 102.0 in 2012 for females. For SCC, the WSR increased from 14.9 in 2004 to 24.7 in 2012 for males and from 6.8 in 2004 to 13.5 in 2012 for females. From 2004 to 2012, the incidence of BCC and SCC markedly rose in Belgium, as also seen worldwide. Known causes are increased sun exposure caused by changed sunlight-related behaviour (increased outdoor activities and holidays, use of tanning beds and changes in clothing style), ageing and improved registration. Because of their high and increasing incidence, these cancers will have major implications on healthcare planning and preventive measures. Therefore, we recommend compulsory registration, whenever is possible, of BCC and SCC, although it is an ambitious objective, especially in countries with a high burden of these tumours and in countries where registration is currently unavailable. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Two years results of electronic brachytherapy for basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ballester-Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The use of radiation therapy (RT for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC has been changing throughout the last century. Over the last decades, the use of radiotherapy has surged with the development of new techniques, applicators, and devices. In recent years, electronic brachytherapy (eBT devices that use small x-ray sources have been introduced as alternative to radionuclide dependence. Nowadays, several devices have been incorporated, with a few series reported, and with a short follow-up, due to the recent introduction of these systems. The purpose of this work is to describe the clinical results of our series after two years follow-up with a specific eBT system. Material and methods: This is a prospective single-center, non-randomized pilot study, to assess clinical results of electronic brachytherapy in basal cell carcinoma using the Esteya® system. In 2014, 40 patients with 60 lesions were treated. Patient follow-up on a regular basis was performed for a period of two years. Results: Twenty-six patients with 44 lesions achieved two years follow-up. A complete response was documented in 95.5% of cases. Toxicity was mild (G1 or G2 in all cases, caused by erythema, erosion, or alopecia. Cosmesis was excellent in 88.6% of cases, and good in the rest. Change in pigmentation was the most frequent cosmetic alteration. Conclusions : This work is special, since the equipment’s treatment voltage was 69.5 kV, and this is the first prospective study with long term follow-up with Esteya®. These preliminary report show excellent results with less toxicity and excellent cosmesis. While surgery has been the treatment of choice, certain patients might benefit from eBT treatment. These are elderly patients with comorbidities or undergoing anticoagulant treatment as well as those who simply refuse surgery or might have other contraindications.

  16. Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, P A; Knudsen, L; Gniadecka, M

    2013-01-01

    There is a general need for methods to obtain fast in vivo diagnosis of skin tumours. Raman spectroscopy measures molecular structure and may thus have potential as a tool for skin tumour diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate how skin pigmentation influenced the Raman spectra an...

  17. Phase IIB Randomized Study of Topical Difluoromethylornithine and Topical Diclofenac on Sun-Damaged Skin of the Forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, Joanne M; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Stratton, Steven P; Myrdal, Paul B; Warneke, James A; Einspahr, Janine G; Bartels, Hubert G; Yozwiak, Michael; Bermudez, Yira; Hu, Chengcheng; Bartels, Peter; Alberts, David S

    2016-02-01

    Prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancers remains a health priority due to high costs associated with this disease. Diclofenac and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) have demonstrated chemopreventive efficacy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. We designed a randomized study of the combination of DFMO and diclofenac in the treatment of sun-damaged skin. Individuals with visible cutaneous sun damage were eligible. Subjects were randomized to one of the three groups: topical DFMO applied twice daily, topical diclofenac applied daily, or DFMO plus diclofenac. The treatment was limited to an area on the left forearm, and the duration of use was 90 days. We hypothesized that combination therapy would have increased efficacy compared with single-agent therapy. The primary outcome was change in karyometric average nuclear abnormality (ANA) in the treated skin. Individuals assessing the biomarkers were blinded regarding the treatment for each subject. A total of 156 subjects were randomized; 144 had baseline and end-of-study biopsies, and 136 subjects completed the study. The ANA unexpectedly increased for all groups, with higher values correlating with clinical cutaneous inflammation. Nearly all of the adverse events were local cutaneous effects. One subject had cutaneous toxicity that required treatment discontinuation. Significantly more adverse events were seen in the groups taking diclofenac. Overall, the study indicated that the addition of topical DFMO to topical diclofenac did not enhance its activity. Both agents caused inflammation on a cellular and clinical level, which may have confounded the measurement of chemopreventive effects. More significant effects may be observed in subjects with greater baseline cutaneous damage.

  18. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  19. Estimating the economic costs of skin cancer in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2015-09-23

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The increased incidence of skin cancer, combined with limited health care resources and tight budgetary conditions, has increased the importance of understanding the economic impact of skin cancer. This research estimates the economic cost of skin cancer in the Australian state of New South Wales. An incidence based approach is used to estimate lifetime costs of skin cancer. Both direct and indirect costs are considered - direct costs include resources associated with the management of skin cancer and indirect costs refer to productivity costs associated with morbidity and premature mortality. Diagnosis of skin cancer was determined according to ICD-10 codes using principal diagnosis. Linked administrative data and regression modelling are used to calculate costs; presented as Australian dollars for the year 2010. The human capital approach is used to value present and future productivity losses. The lifetime cost of the 150,000 incident cases of skin cancer diagnosed in NSW in 2010 is estimated at $536 million ($44,796 per melanoma and $2459 per non-melanoma). Direct costs accounted for 72 % of costs ($10,230 per melanoma and $2336 per non-melanoma) and indirect costs accounted for 28 % of costs ($34,567 per melanoma and $123 per non-melanoma). Direct costs are, on average, higher for females than males with indirect costs, on average, higher for males than females. This research provides new evidence on the economic cost of skin cancer and provides policy makers with information of the potential monetary savings that may arise from efforts to reduce the incidence of skin cancer.

  20. Advanced basal cell carcinoma, the hedgehog pathway, and treatment options – role of smoothened inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fecher LA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Leslie A Fecher,1,3 William H Sharfman2 1Department of Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Indiana University Health Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, USA, 3Department of Internal Medicine and Dermatology, University of Michigan, MI, USA Abstract: Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common human cancer and its incidence is rising worldwide. Ultraviolet radiation exposure, including tanning bed use, as well as host factors play a role in its development. The majority of cases are treated and cured with local therapies including surgery. Yet, the health care costs of diagnosis and treatment of BCCs in the US is substantial. In the United States, the cost of nonmelanoma skin cancer care in the Medicare population is estimated to be US$426 million per year. While rare, locally advanced BCCs that can no longer be controlled with surgery and/or radiation, and metastatic BCCs do occur and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Vismodegib (GDC-0449, a smoothened inhibitor targeted at the hedgehog pathway, is the first US Food and Drug Association (FDA-approved agent in the treatment of locally advanced, unresectable, and metastatic BCCs. This class of agents appears to be changing the survival rates in advanced BCC patients, but appropriate patient selection and monitoring are important. Multidisciplinary assessments are essential for the optimal care and management of these patients. For some patients with locally advanced BCC, treatment with a hedgehog inhibitor may eliminate the need for an excessively disfiguring or morbid surgery. Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, hedgehog, smoothened, vismodegib, Gorlin, basal cell nevus syndrome

  1. Need For Improved Skin Cancer Surveillance in Pediatric Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Lee, Thomas; Friedman, Adam J; Redbord, Kelley Pagliai

    2017-04-01

    Survivors of pediatric cancer are at increased risk of developing secondary malignancies, with non-melanoma skin cancer being the most common. These patients are also at increased risk of melanoma. Currently, guidelines provided by the National Cancer Institute and Children's Oncology Group emphasize the importance of annual clinical examination for skin cancer screening; however, the literature reports that less than one-third of survivors of pediatric cancer have ever had a clinical skin exam by a physician. In this article, we review the risk factors for skin cancer in survivors of pediatric cancer as well as the current evidence and recommendations for their care. We suggest that dermatologists collectively establish guidelines for skin cancer surveillance in survivors of pediatric cancer.

  2. Signet-ring cells in the skin: a case of late-onset cutaneous metastasis of gastric carcinoma and a brief review of histological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür Gündüz; Mehmet Can Emeksiz; Pınar Atasoy; Mehtap Kıdır; Selim Yalçın; Serkan Demirkan

    2017-01-01

    Up to 10% of patients with visceral malignancies develop skin metastases during their clinical course and these metastases constitute about 2% of all skin cancers. Skin metastasis may be the first sign of a clinically silent visceral cancer or represent recurrence of an internal malignancy. In both situations, they are associated with poor prognosis, which can partly be attributed to underdiagnosis. In this paper, a case of relapsing gastric adenocarcinoma, which manifested itself as asymptom...

  3. Occupation and skin cancer: the results of the HELIOS-I multicenter case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafà Lorenzo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most frequent tumour among Caucasian populations worldwide. Among the risk factors associated with this tumour, there are host-related factors and several environmental agents. A greater likelihood of high exposure to physical agents (with the exception of solar radiation and chemical agents depends on the work setting. Our objective is to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in NMSC, with special emphasis on risk factors other than solar radiation and skin type. Methods We analysed 1585 cases (1333 basal cell carcinoma (BCC and 183 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and 1507 controls drawn from the Helios-I multicenter study. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using logistic regression mixed models. Results For NMSC as a whole (both histological types, miners and quarrymen, secondary education teachers, and masons registered excess risk, regardless of exposure to solar radiation and skin type (OR 7.04, 95% CI 2.44–20.31; OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.05–2.89 and OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04–2.27, respectively. Frequency of BCC proved higher among railway engine drivers and firemen (OR 4.55; 95% CI 0.96–21.57, specialised farmers (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.05–2.59 and salesmen (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.05–2.86, in addition to miners and quarrymen and secondary education teachers (OR 7.96; 95% CI 2.72–23.23 and OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.05–2.94 respectively. The occupations that registered a higher risk of SCC (though not of BCC were those involving direct contact with livestock, construction workers not elsewhere classified (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.12–7.74, stationary engine and related equipment operators not elsewhere classified (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.13–21.04 and masons (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.36–4.78. Conclusion Exposure to hazardous air pollutants, arsenic, ionizing radiations and burns may explain a good part of the associations observed in this study. The Helios study affords an

  4. Incorporation of Electronic Brachytherapy for Skin Cancer into a Community Dermatology Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Doggett, Stephen; Willoughby, Mark; Willoughby, Cole; Mafong, Erick; Han, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The introduction of an electronic brachytherapy delivery system into an existing general dermatology practice is described. Radiobiologic rational for the dose fractionation schedule is detailed. Design: A miniaturized 50keV x-ray tube and delivery system are United States Food and Drug Administration cleared for nonmelanoma skin cancer. The device is introduced into an existing multi-physician dermatology practice in a standard unshielded treatment room. Setting: A multi-site, mul...

  5. Patients highly value routine follow-up of skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themstrup, Lotte; Jemec, Gregor E; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Skin cancer follow-up is a substantial burden to outpatient clinics. Few studies have investigated patients' views on skin cancer follow-up and cutaneous melanoma. The objective was to investigate patients' perceived benefits and the impact of follow-up. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: This study included an open sample of patients attending routine follow-up at the outpatient Departments of Plastic Surgery and Dermatology, Roskilde Hospital. A total of 218 follow-up patients diagnosed with cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM), non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) or actinic keratosis (AK...

  6. Cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, M; Serrano, M L; Allende, I; Ratón, J A; Acebo, E; Diaz-Perez, J L

    2009-12-01

    Cutaneous metastases are an unusual finding that may present as the first sign of an internal neoplasia. A case of cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma, which may often involve other organs but very rarely metastases to the skin, is reported.

  7. Merkel cell carcinoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustić, Nela; Biljan, Darko; Orkić, Zelimir; Lizatović, Dario; Milas-Ahić, Jasminka

    2010-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Although it is 40 times less common than malignant melanoma, its mortality is much higher compared to melanoma. From 1986 to 2001 there was rapidly increasing incidence in reported cases of MCC, with a tripling in the rate over this 15-year period. The vast majority of MCC presents on sun-exposed skin. The head and neck area is the most common site of tumor occurrence. We present 70-year old female patient with painless red-colored nodule, size 2 x 2 x 2 cm on the dorsal side of mid left forearm. The surgical excision with negative margins was performed, and pathohistological analysis confirmed Merkel cell carcinoma. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was negative. In conclusion, as MCC is a very aggressive rare skin carcinoma with lethal outcome, it should be mandatory to perform biopsies of any suspected skin lesion.

  8. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  9. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-{beta} and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  10. Active Stat3 is required for survival of human squamous cell carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiGiovanni John

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin is the most aggressive form of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, and is the single most commonly diagnosed cancer in the U.S., with over one million new cases reported each year. Recent studies have revealed an oncogenic role of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 in many human tumors, especially in those of epithelial origin, including skin SCC. Stat3 is a mediator of numerous growth factor and cytokine signaling pathways, all of which activate it through phosphorylation of tyrosine 705. Results To further address the role of Stat3 in skin SCC tumorigenesis, we have analyzed a panel of human skin-derived cell lines ranging from normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK, to non-tumorigenic transformed skin cells (HaCaT, to highly tumorigenic cells (SRB1-m7 and SRB12-p9 and observed a positive correlation between Stat3 phosphorylation and SCC malignancy. We next determined the role of Stat3 activity in cell proliferation and viability under serum-free culture conditions. This was accomplished by suppressing Stat3 activity in the SRB12-p9 cells through stable expression of a dominant negative acting form of Stat3β, which contains a tyrosine 705 to phenylalanine mutation (S3DN. The S3DN cells behaved similar to parental SRB12-p9 cells when cultured in optimal growth conditions, in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum. However, unlike the SRB12-p9 cells, S3DN cells underwent apoptotic cell death when cultured in serum-free medium (SFM. This was evidenced by multiple criteria, including accumulation of sub-G1 particles, induced PARP cleavage, and acquisition of the characteristic morphological changes associated with apoptosis. Conclusion This study provides direct evidence for a role for Stat3 in maintaining cell survival in the conditions of exogenous growth factor deprivation produced by culture in SFM. We also propose that delivery of the S3DN gene or

  11. Porphyrin biodistribution in UV-exposed murine skin after methyl- and hexyl-aminolevulinate incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is a well-established treatment for precancerous skin lesions and non-melanoma skin cancer. Treatment outcomes are less effective for thick than for superficial lesions, which are presumed to be due to insufficient Pp......IX biodistribution in tumour tissue. Hexyl-aminolevulinate (HAL) is a more lipophilic photosensitizer precursor than MAL and may penetrate the skin to a greater depth and more homogeneously. We compared HAL- and MAL-induced PpIX accumulation in specific skin compartments using concentrations of 2%, 6% and 20% HAL...... and MAL on long-term UV-irradiated mouse skin. Furthermore, 20% HAL and 20% MAL were applied to non-irradiated skin. Porphyrin fluorescence was measured by fluorescence microscopy in selected skin regions: the epidermis, superficial dermis, deep dermis and sebaceous gland epithelium down to a depth of 1...

  12. Skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions:clinical analysis of 632 cases%632例皮肤恶性肿瘤及癌前病变临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄远深; 李航; 涂平; 陈喜雪; 杨淑霞; 武玲慎; 赵俊郁; 李雪迎

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨皮肤恶性肿瘤的临床特点.方法 回顾2005-2008年病理诊断皮肤恶性肿瘤及癌前病变的病例资料,重新阅片确认肿瘤诊断和病理亚型分型后,利用统计软件进行分析.结果 基底细胞癌及原位和侵袭性鳞状细胞癌最多见,分别占总病例数的29.3%及24.2%.在所研究病例中,>60岁发病者占55.4%,35~59岁发病比例达到34.3%,青少年患者比例为10.3%.Paget病临床诊断与病理诊断的符合率接近90.0%,但其他常见皮肤恶性肿瘤及癌前病变临床与病理的符合率仅在70.0%左右.结论 在皮肤恶性肿瘤及癌前病变中,头面部皮肤肿瘤及癌前病变病例明显多于其他部位.中青年患者不仅在皮肤淋巴瘤相关肿瘤病例中多见,而且在上皮来源的皮肤恶性肿瘤及黑素瘤病例中占有显著比例.%Objective To investigate the clinical features of skin cancer.Methods Clinical data of skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions confirmed pathologically from 2005 to 2008 in Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively analyzed by using statistical methods.Results A total of 632 cases of skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions were studied.The most common skin cancer was basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (invasive and in situ) which accounted for 29.3%and 24.2%,respectively.The average age at onset was older than 60 years in 55.4%of the patients,between 35 and 59 years in 34.3%,younger than 35 years in 10.3%.The concordance between clinical and pathological diagnosis reached nearly 90.O%for Paget's disease,70.0% for other common skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions.Conclusions Skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions have a predilection for scalp and face.Patients aged from 35 to 59 years account for a significant proportion not only in cutaneous lymphoma but also in melanoma and epithelium-derived nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  13. Sunlight and skin cancer: lessons from the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Stephen E

    2007-08-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight induces skin cancer development. Skin cancer is the most common form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of 1.5 million new cases of skin cancer (www.cancer.org/statistics) will be diagnosed in the United States this year. Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer, and the cost of treating skin cancer in the United States (both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer) is estimated to be in excess of $2.9 billion a year. In addition to causing skin cancer, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. Recent studies in my laboratory have focused on understanding the initial molecular events that induce immune suppression. We made two novel observations: first UV-induced keratinocyte-derived platelet activating factor plays a role in the induction of immune suppression. Second, cis-urocanic acid, a skin-derived immunosuppressive compound mediates immune suppression by binding to serotonin receptors on target cells. Recent findings suggest that blocking the binding of these compounds to their receptors not only inhibits UV-induced immune suppression but it also interferes with skin cancer induction.

  14. Signet-ring Cells in the Skin: A Case of Late-onset Cutaneous Metastasis of Gastric Carcinoma and a Brief Review of Histological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Özgür; Emeksiz, Mehmet Can; Atasoy, Pinar; Kidir, Mehtap; Yalçin, Selim; Demirkan, Serkan

    2016-06-15

    Up to 10% of patients with visceral malignancies develop skin metastases during their clinical course and these metastases constitute about 2% of all skin cancers. Skin metastasis may be the first sign of a clinically silent visceral cancer or represent recurrence of an internal malignancy. In both situations, they are associated with poor prognosis, which can partly be attributed to underdiagnosis. In this paper, a case of relapsing gastric adenocarcinoma, which manifested itself as asymptomatic cutaneous papules and nodules on a patient's head and neck, is reported and histopathological approach to the cutaneous lesions containing signet-ring cell is briefly reviewed.

  15. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when Merkel cells grow out of control. Merkel cell carcinoma starts most often in areas of skin exposed to the sun, especially the head and neck, as well as the arms, legs, and trunk. Enlarge Anatomy of the skin showing the epidermis, ...

  16. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  17. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  18. High correlation of double Debye model parameters in skin cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Bao C Q; Tuan, H D; Fitzgerald, Anthony J; Wallace, Vincent P; Nguyen, H T

    2014-01-01

    The double Debye model can be used to capture the dielectric response of human skin in terahertz regime due to high water content in the tissue. The increased water proportion is widely considered as a biomarker of carcinogenesis, which gives rise of using this model in skin cancer detection. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to provide a specific analysis of the double Debye parameters in terms of non-melanoma skin cancer classification. Pearson correlation is applied to investigate the sensitivity of these parameters and their combinations to the variation in tumor percentage of skin samples. The most sensitive parameters are then assessed by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot to confirm their potential of classifying tumor from normal skin. Our positive outcomes support further steps to clinical application of terahertz imaging in skin cancer delineation.

  19. Aspirin for the primary prevention of skin cancer: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yun; Cheng, Yang; Luo, Rong-Cheng; Li, Ai-Min

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. There are three major skin cancer types: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. General risk factors for skin cancer include fair skin, a history of tanning and sunburn, family history of skin cancer, exposure to ultraviolet rays and a large number of moles. The incidence of skin cancer has increased in the USA in recent years. Aspirin intake is associated with chemoprotection against the development of a ...

  20. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  1. Berberine inhibits growth, induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells by regulating Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantena, Sudheer K; Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2006-10-01

    Chemotherapeutic approach using non-toxic botanicals may be one of the strategies for the management of the skin cancers. Here we report that in vitro treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, decreased cell viability (3-77%, P berberine-induced G(1) cell cycle arrest was mediated through the increased expression of Cdki proteins (Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27), a simultaneous decrease in Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 and cyclins D1, D2 and E and enhanced binding of Cdki-Cdk. In additional studies, treatment of A431 cells with berberine (15-75 microM) for 72 h resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in apoptosis (31-60%, P berberine-treated control (11.7%), which was associated with an increased expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of caspases 9, 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) significantly blocked the berberine-induced apoptosis in A431 cells confirmed that berberine-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase 3-dependent pathway. Together, this study for the first time identified berberine as a chemotherapeutic agent against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells in vitro, further in vivo studies are required to determine whether berberine could be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the management of non-melanoma skin cancers.

  2. Invasive melanoma in vivo can be distinguished from basal cell carcinoma, benign naevi and healthy skin by canine olfaction: a proof-of-principle study of differential volatile organic compound emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C M; Britton, L E; Swindells, M A; Jones, E M; Kemp, A E; Muirhead, N L; Gul, A; Matin, R N; Knutsson, L; Ali, M

    2016-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are continuously released by the body during normal metabolic processes, but their profiles change in the presence of cancer. Robust evidence that invasive melanoma in vivo emits a characteristic VOC signature is lacking. To conduct a canine olfactory, proof-of-principle study to investigate whether VOCs from invasive melanoma are distinguishable from those of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), benign naevi and healthy skin in vivo. After a 13-month training period, the dog's ability to discriminate melanoma was evaluated in 20 double-blind tests, each requiring selection of one melanoma sample from nine controls (three each of BCC, naevi and healthy skin; all samples new to the dog). The dog correctly selected the melanoma sample on nine (45%) occasions (95% confidence interval 0·23-0·68) vs. 10% expected by chance alone. A one-sided exact binomial test gave a P-value of < 0·01, supporting the hypothesis that samples were not chosen at random but that some degree of VOC signal from the melanoma samples significantly increased the probability of their detection. Use of a discrete-choice model confirmed melanoma as the most influential of the recorded medical/personal covariates in determining the dog's choice of sample. Accuracy rates based on familiar samples during training were not a reliable indicator of the dog's ability to distinguish melanoma, when confronted with new, unknown samples. Invasive melanoma in vivo releases odorous VOCs distinct from those of BCC, benign naevi and healthy skin, adding to the evidence that the volatile metabolome of melanoma contains diagnostically useful biomarkers. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Cellular intrinsic factors involved in the resistance of squamous cell carcinoma to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaberte, Yolanda; Milla, Laura; Salazar, Nerea; Vera-Alvarez, Jesús; Kourani, Omar; Damian, Alejandra; Rivarola, Viviana; Roca, Maria José; Espada, Jesús; González, Salvador; Juarranz, Angeles

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is widely used to treat non-melanoma skin cancer. However, some patients affected with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) do not respond adequately to PDT with methyl-δ-aminolevulinic acid (MAL-PDT) and the tumors acquire an infiltrative phenotype and became histologically more aggressive, less differentiated, and more fibroblastic. To search for potential factors implicated in SCC resistance to PDT, we have used the SCC-13 cell line (parental) and resistant SCC-13 cells obtained by repeated MAL-PDT treatments (5th and 10th PDT-resistant generations). Xenografts assays in immunodeficient mice showed that the tumors generated by resistant cells were bigger than those induced by parental cells. Comparative genomic hybridization array (aCGH) showed that the three cell types presented amplicons in 3p12.1 CADM2, 7p11.2 EFGR, and 11q13.3 CCND1 genes. The 5th and 10th PDT-resistant cells showed an amplicon in 5q11.2 MAP3K1, which was not present in parental cells. The changes detected by aCGH on CCND1, EFGR, and MAP3K1 were confirmed in extracts of SCC-13 cells by reverse-transcriptase PCR and by western blot, and by immunohistochemistry in human biopsies from persistent tumors after MAL-PDT. Our data suggest that genomic imbalances related to CCND1, EFGR, and particularly MAP3K1 seem to be involved in the development of the resistance of SCC to PDT.

  4. Comparative immune phenotypic analysis of cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Intraepidermal Carcinoma in immune-competent individuals: proportional representation of CD8+ T-cells but not FoxP3+ Regulatory T-cells is associated with disease stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Freeman

    Full Text Available Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC is a type of non-melanoma skin cancer prevalent in immune-suppressed transplant recipients and older individuals with a history of chronic sun-exposure. SCC itself is believed to be a late-stage manifestation that can develop from premalignant lesions including Intraepidermal Carcinoma (IEC. Notably, while SCC regression is rare, IEC typically regresses in response to immune modifying topical treatments, however the underlying immunological reasons for these differential responses remain unclear. This study aimed to define whether IEC and SCC are associated with distinct immune profiles. We investigated the immune cell infiltrate of photo-damaged skin, IEC, and SCC tissue using 10-colour flow cytometry following fresh lesion digest. We found that IEC lesions contain higher percentages of CD3+ T-cells than photo-damaged skin, however, the abundance of CD3-CD56+ Natural Killer (NK cells, CD11c+HLA-DR+ conventional Dendritic Cells (cDC, BDCA-2+HLA-DR+ plasmacytoid DC (pDC, FoxP3+ Regulatory T-cells (T-reg, Vα24+Vβ11+ invariant NKT-cells, and γδ Tcells did not alter with disease stage. Within the total T-cell population, high percentages of CD4+ T-cells were associated with SCC, yet CD8+ T-cells were less abundant in SCC compared with IEC. Our study demonstrates that while IEC lesions contain a higher proportion of T-cells than SCC lesions in general, SCC lesions specifically display a lower abundance of CD8+ T-cells than IEC. We propose that differences in CD8+ T-cell abundance contribute critically to the different capacity of SCC and IEC to regress in response to immune modifying topical treatments. Our study also suggests that a high ratio of CD4+ T-cells to CD8+ T-cells may be a immunological diagnostic indicator of late-stage SCC development in immune-competent patients.

  5. Comparative immune phenotypic analysis of cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Intraepidermal Carcinoma in immune-competent individuals: proportional representation of CD8+ T-cells but not FoxP3+ Regulatory T-cells is associated with disease stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew; Bridge, Jennifer A; Maruthayanar, Pirashanthini; Overgaard, Nana H; Jung, Ji-Won; Simpson, Fiona; Prow, Tarl W; Soyer, H Peter; Frazer, Ian H; Freeman, Michael; Wells, James W

    2014-01-01

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is a type of non-melanoma skin cancer prevalent in immune-suppressed transplant recipients and older individuals with a history of chronic sun-exposure. SCC itself is believed to be a late-stage manifestation that can develop from premalignant lesions including Intraepidermal Carcinoma (IEC). Notably, while SCC regression is rare, IEC typically regresses in response to immune modifying topical treatments, however the underlying immunological reasons for these differential responses remain unclear. This study aimed to define whether IEC and SCC are associated with distinct immune profiles. We investigated the immune cell infiltrate of photo-damaged skin, IEC, and SCC tissue using 10-colour flow cytometry following fresh lesion digest. We found that IEC lesions contain higher percentages of CD3+ T-cells than photo-damaged skin, however, the abundance of CD3-CD56+ Natural Killer (NK) cells, CD11c+HLA-DR+ conventional Dendritic Cells (cDC), BDCA-2+HLA-DR+ plasmacytoid DC (pDC), FoxP3+ Regulatory T-cells (T-reg), Vα24+Vβ11+ invariant NKT-cells, and γδ Tcells did not alter with disease stage. Within the total T-cell population, high percentages of CD4+ T-cells were associated with SCC, yet CD8+ T-cells were less abundant in SCC compared with IEC. Our study demonstrates that while IEC lesions contain a higher proportion of T-cells than SCC lesions in general, SCC lesions specifically display a lower abundance of CD8+ T-cells than IEC. We propose that differences in CD8+ T-cell abundance contribute critically to the different capacity of SCC and IEC to regress in response to immune modifying topical treatments. Our study also suggests that a high ratio of CD4+ T-cells to CD8+ T-cells may be a immunological diagnostic indicator of late-stage SCC development in immune-competent patients.

  6. Burden and Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hollestein, Loes

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the Netherlands since 1989, the first year of the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). In 2010 more than 43,000 patients were newly diagnosed with skin cancer in the Netherlands. During a life time at least 1 in 5 persons living in the Netherlands will develop skin cancer. The most common skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma (BCC), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma. BCC and SCC combined are often refe...

  7. Fisetin inhibits growth, induces G₂ /M arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells: role of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and consequent caspases activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish C; Sharma, Samriti; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2013-07-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), one of the most common neoplasms, cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification of non-toxic phytochemicals for prevention/treatment of NMSCs is highly desirable. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, present in fruits and vegetables possesses anti-oxidant and antiproliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic potential of fisetin in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Treatment of A431 cells with fisetin (5-80 μm) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Employing clonogenic assay, we found that fisetin treatment significantly reduced colony formation in A431 cells. Fisetin treatment of A431 cells resulted in G₂ /M arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of A431 cells with fisetin resulted in (i) decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl2; Bcl-xL and Mcl-1); (ii) increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bak and Bad); (iii) disruption of mitochondrial potential; (iv) release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria; (v) activation of caspases; and (vi) cleavage of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced cleavage of caspases and PARP. Taken together, these data provide evidence that fisetin possesses chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Overall, these results suggest that fisetin could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of NMSCs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fisetin inhibits growth, induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells: Role of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and consequent caspases activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish C.; Sharma, Samriti; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2013-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) one of the most common neoplasms causes serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification of non-toxic phytochemicals for prevention/treatment of NMSCs is highly desirable. Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, present in fruits and vegetables possesses anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic potential of fisetin in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Treatment of A431 cells with fistein (5-80 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Employing clonogenic assay, we found that fisetin treatment significantly reduced colony formation in A431 cells. Fisetin treatment of A431 cells resulted in G2/M arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of A431 cells with fisetin resulted in (i) decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), (ii) increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bak and Bad), (iii) disruption of mitochondrial potential, (iv) release of cytchrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria, (v) activation of caspases, and (vi) cleavage of PARP protein. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced cleavage of caspases and PARP. Taken together, these data provide evidence that fisetin possesses chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Overall, these results suggest that fisetin could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of NMSCs. PMID:23800058

  9. Gain of 11q/cyclin D1 overexpression is an essential early step in skin cancer development and causes abnormal tissue organization and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnworth, B; Popp, S; Stark, H-J; Steinkraus, V; Bröcker, E B; Hartschuh, W; Birek, C; Boukamp, P

    2006-07-27

    Non-melanoma skin cancers, in particular keratoacanthomas (KAs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), have become highly frequent tumor types especially in immune-suppressed transplant patients. Nevertheless, little is known about essential genetic changes. As a paradigm of 'early' changes, that is, changes still compatible with tumor regression, we studied KAs by comparative genomic hybridization and show that gain of chromosome 11q is not only one of the most frequent aberration (8/18), but in four tumors also the only aberration. Furthermore, 11q gain correlated with amplification of the cyclin D1 locus (10/14), as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and overexpression of cyclin D1 protein (25/31), as detected by immunohistochemistry. For unraveling the functional consequence, we overexpressed cyclin D1 in HaCaT skin keratinocytes. These cells only gained little growth advantage in conventional and in organotypic co-cultures. However, although the control vector-transfected cells formed a well-stratified and orderly differentiated epidermis-like epithelium, they showed deregulation of tissue architecture with an altered localization of proliferation and impaired differentiation. The most severe phenotype was seen in a clone that additionally upregulated cdk4 and p21. These cells lacked terminal differentiation, exhibited a more autonomous growth in vitro and in vivo and even formed tumors in two injection sites with a growth pattern resembling that of human KAs. Thus, our results identify 11q13 gain/cyclin D1 overexpression as an important step in KA formation and point to a function that exceeds its known role in proliferation by disrupting tissue organization and thereby allowing abnormal growth.

  10. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.

  11. In vitro human skin permeation of endoxifen: potential for local transdermal therapy for primary prevention and carcinoma in situ of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee O

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Oukseub Lee1, David Ivancic1, Robert T Chatterton Jr2, Alfred W Rademaker3, Seema A Khan11Department of Surgery, 2Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAPurpose: Oral tamoxifen, a triphenylethylene (TPE, is useful for breast cancer prevention, but its adverse effects limit acceptance by women. Tamoxifen efficacy is related to its major metabolites 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT and N-desmethyl-4-hydroxytamoxifen (endoxifen [ENX]. Transdermal delivery of these to the breast may avert the toxicity of oral tamoxifen while maintaining efficacy. We evaluated the relative efficiency of skin permeation of 4-OHT and ENX in vitro, and tested oleic acid (OA as a permeation-enhancer.Methods: 4-OHT, ENX, and estradiol (E2 (0.2 mg/mL of 0.5 µCi 3H/mg were dissolved in 60% ethanol-phosphate buffer, ±OA (0.1%–5%. Permeation through EpiDermTM (Matek Corp, Ashland, MA and split-thickness human skin was calculated based on the amount of the agents recovered from the receiver fluid and skin using liquid scintillation counting over 24 hours.Results: In the EpiDerm model, the absorption of 4-OHT and ENX was 10%–11%; total penetration (TP was 26%–29% at 24 hours and was decreased by OA. In normal human skin, the absorption of 4-OHT and ENX was 0.3%; TP was 2%–4% at 24 hours. The addition of 1% OA improved the permeation of ENX significantly more than that of 4-OHT (P < 0.004; further titration of OA at 0.25%–0.5% further improved the permeation of ENX to a level similar to that of estradiol.Conclusion: The addition of OA to ENX results in a favorable rapid delivery equivalent to that of estradiol, a widely used transdermal hormone. The transdermal delivery of ENX to the breast should be further developed in preclinical and clinical studies.Keywords: endoxifen, breast cancer prevention, human skin, transdermal, oleic acid

  12. Parents' perceptions of skin cancer threat and children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alexander D; Aalborg, Jenny; Asdigian, Nancy L; Morelli, Joseph G; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Dellavalle, Robert P; Berwick, Marianne; Box, Neil F; Crane, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer, but without physical activity, children are at risk of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between parental perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in children. This is a cross-sectional analysis nested within the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program sun safety intervention trial. In summer 2007, parent telephone interviews provided data on demographics, perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, and physical activity. Physical examinations provided data on phenotype, freckling, and BMI. Data from 999 Colorado children born in 1998 were included in analysis. We used analysis of variance, Spearman's rho (ρ) correlation, and multivariable linear regression analysis to evaluate relationships with total amount of outdoor physical activity. After controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, skin color, and sun protection, regression analysis showed that each unit increase in perceived severity of nonmelanoma skin cancer was associated with a 30% increase in hours of outdoor physical activity (P = .005). Hours of outdoor physical activity were not related to perceived severity of melanoma or perceived susceptibility to skin cancer. BMI-for-age was not significantly correlated with perceptions of skin cancer threat, use of sun protection, or level of physical activity. The promotion of sun safety is not likely to inhibit physical activity. Skin cancer prevention programs should continue to promote midday sun avoidance and sun protection during outdoor activities.

  13. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yuanqin [Cancer Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Yao, Hua [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY (United States); Gao, Ning [Department of Pharmacognos, College of Pharmacy, 3rd Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

  14. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Skin Biopsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Skin Biopsy Print A A ... español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a biopsy, ...

  15. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  16. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  17. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and attenuate DMBA induced mammary and skin carcinomas in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Nitha, B; Devasagayam, T P A; Janardhanan, K K

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes were evaluated for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-cancer activities. Cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic effect of total triterpenes were evaluated in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line using MTT assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by down-regulating the levels of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and also by up-regulating the levels of Bax and caspase-9. Anti-carcinogenicity of total triterpenes was analysed using dimethyl benz [a] anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papilloma and mammary adenocarcinoma in Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats respectively. Topical application of 5mg, 10mg and 20mg total triterpenes reduced the incidence of skin papilloma by 62.5, 37.5 and 12.5% respectively. Incidence of the mammary tumour was also reduced significantly by 33.33, 66.67 and 16.67% in 10, 50 and 100mg/kg b.wt. total triterpenes treated animals respectively. Total triterpenes were also found to reduce the average number of tumours per animal and extended the tumour latency period in both the models. The results indicate the potential cytotoxicity and anti-cancerous activity of total triterpenes, there by opens up a path to the development of a safe and successive chemo preventive agent of natural origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  19. Skin Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Durga Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available : In recent days, skin cancer is seen as one of the most Hazardous form of the Cancers found in Humans. Skin cancer is found in various types such as Melanoma, Basal and Squamous cell Carcinoma among which Melanoma is the most unpredictable. The detection of Melanoma cancer in early stage can be helpful to cure it. Computer vision can play important role in Medical Image Diagnosis and it has been proved by many existing systems. In this paper, we present a survey on different steps which are being to detect the Melanoma Skin Cancer using Image Processing tools. In every step, what are the different methods are be included in our paper

  20. Smoking and skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  1. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  2. Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2003-09-01

    Because of a characteristic aroma and health benefits, green tea is consumed worldwide as a popular beverage. The epicatechin derivatives, commonly called polyphenols, present in green tea possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The major and most highly chemopreventive constituent in green tea responsible for the biochemical or pharmacological effects is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Epidemiological, clinical and biological studies have implicated that solar ultraviolet (UV) light is a complete carcinogen and repeated exposure can lead to the development of various skin disorders including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We and others have shown that topical treatment or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) inhibit chemical carcinogen- or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in different laboratory animal models. Topical treatment of GTP and EGCG or oral consumption of GTP resulted in prevention of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, immunosuppression and oxidative stress, which are the biomarkers of several skin disease states. Topical application of GTP and EGCG prior to exposure of UVB protects against UVB-induced local as well as systemic immune suppression in laboratory animals, which was associated with the inhibition of UVB-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of immune responses by EGCG was also associated with the reduction in immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 production at UV irradiated skin and draining lymph nodes, whereas IL-12 production was significantly enhanced in draining lymph nodes. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of green tea were also observed in human skin. Treatment of EGCG to human skin resulted in the inhibition of UVB-induced erythema, oxidative stress and infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. We also showed that treatment of GTP to human skin prevents UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers

  3. In-vivo fluorescence detection and imaging of porphyrin-producing bacteria in the human skin and in the oral cavity for diagnosis of acne vulgaris, caries, and squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Hemmer, Joerg; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-05-01

    Certain bacteria are able to synthesize metal-free fluorescent porphyrins and can therefore be detected by sensitive autofluorescence measurements in the red spectral region. The porphyrin-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, was localized in human skin. Spectrally resolved fluorescence images of bacteria distribution in the face were obtained by a slow-scan CCD camera combined with a tunable liquid crystal filter. The structured autofluorescence of dental caries and dental plaque in the red is caused by oral bacteria, like Bacteroides or Actinomyces odontolyticus. `Caries images' were created by time-gated imaging in the ns-region after ultrashort laser excitation. Time-gated measurements allow the suppression of backscattered light and non-porphyrin autofluorescence. Biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma exhibited red autofluorescence in necrotic regions and high concentrations of the porphyrin-producing bacterium Pseudomonas aerigunosa. These studies suggest that the temporal and spectral characteristics of bacterial autofluorescence can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases.

  4. [Skin cancer as occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  5. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin.

  6. Vitamin D for combination photodynamic therapy of skin cancer in individuals with vitamin D deficiency: Insights from a preclinical study in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sanjay; Thomas, Erik; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2016-03-01

    Combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT) in which vitamin D (VD) is given prior to aminolevulinate, a precursor (pro-drug) for protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is an approach developed in our laboratory. We previously showed that 1α,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), given prior to PDT, enhances accumulation of PpIX and improves cell death post-PDT in a mouse skin cancer model. However, since calcitriol poses a risk for hypercalcemia, we replaced systemic calcitriol with oral cholecalciferol (D3), administered as a high (tenfold, "10K") diet over a ten-day period. Here, we ask whether VD deficiency might alter the response to cPDT. Nude mice were fed a VD-deficient diet for at least 4 weeks ("deficient"); controls were fed a normal 1,000 IU/kg diet ("1K"). Human A431 cells were implanted subcutaneously and mice were switched to the 10K diet or continued on their baseline diets (controls). In other experiments, mice received a human equivalent dose of 50,000 IU D3 by oral gavage, to simulate administration of a single, high-dose VD pill. At various times, tumors were harvested and serum was collected to measure levels of VD metabolic intermediates. A significant increase in PpIX levels and in the expression of differentiation and proliferation markers in tumor tissue was observed after VD supplementation of both the deficient and 1K mice. Further results describing mechanistic details of PpIX enhancement through alteration of heme- and VD-metabolic enzyme levels will be presented. Based on these results, a clinical study using oral vitamin D prior to PDT for human skin cancer should be performed.

  7. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Skin ... (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues beneath) are typical childhood skin infections. The usual bacterial culprits in skin ...

  8. Prevalência de lesões cutâneas actínicas em pacientes com carcinoma basocelular do segmento cefálico: um estudo caso-controle Prevalence of actinic skin lesions in patients with basal cell carcinoma of the head: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Pessoa Chinem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a preval��ncia de lesões cutâneas actínicas em portadores de carcinoma basocelular do segmento cefálico. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzido estudo tipo caso-controle. Os casos, constituídos por pacientes com carcinoma basocelular sólido, primário, menor que dois centímetros, no segmento cefálico; e controles, por pacientes com outras dermatoses. Foram analisadas variáveis constitucionais, comportamentais e lesões actínicas. RESULTADOS: Avaliaram-se 120 casos e 360 controles. Mílio facial (OR = 2,3, leucodermia puntacta de membros superiores (OR = 2,9 e cutis romboidalis nuchae (OR = 1,8 associaram-se à neoplasia independentemente das demais variáveis, sugerindo um fenótipo de risco. Houve ainda associação com fenótipos claros, genética familiar e exposição solar cumulativa. Queimadura solar, tabagismo e alcoolismo não foram identificados como fatores de risco. O uso de fotoprotetores não evidenciou proteção; porém, o grupo controle era composto por pacientes dermatológicos, aos quais são indicados fotoprotetores regularmente. CONCLUSÃO: Lesões actínicas foram mais prevalentes em portadores de carcinoma basocelular sólido do segmento cefálico que em controles, especialmente mílio, cutis romboidalis nuchae e leucodermia puntacta, independentemente dos demais fatores de risco conhecidos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of actinic skin lesions in patients with basal cell carcinoma of the head. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out. Cases were patients with primary, solid basal cell carcinoma of the head, less than two centimeters in diameter; and as controls, patients with other dermatoses. Constitutional and behavioral variables were analyzed, as well as actinic lesions. RESULTS: One hundred twenty cases and 360 controls were evaluated. Facial milia (OR = 2.3, leukoderma punctata of the upper limbs (OR = 2.9, and cutis rhomboidalis nuchae (OR = 1.8 were associated with neoplasms regardless

  9. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  10. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamel, J W; Eiferman, R A; Guibor, P

    1984-05-01

    A 73-year-old man had a limbal nodule that, on histopathologic examination, proved to be mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Despite radiation therapy and extensive corneoscleral lamellar resection, widespread invasion of the lids and orbit ultimately led to exenteration. Although mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva resembles squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically, it pursues a more rapid and destructive clinical course. Intraepithelial invasion often leads to tumor involvement of conjunctiva and skin that seem normal on clinical examination. Special stains and a high level of suspicion are required for diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva, and proper initial management demands more aggressive surgical resection than is usually indicated for squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  12. [Efficient way in early detection of malignant skin tumors by applying epiluminescence microscopy in skin screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Dejan V; Nikolić, Aleksandra T; Stanimirović, Violeta V; Granić, Miroslav K; Randelović, Tomislav; Bilanović, Dragoljub

    2008-01-01

    Screening is the identification of a preclinical disease by a relatively simple test. It is usually regarded as public health policy that is applied to population. The aim is to identify disease not recognized by the health services and the term preclinical refers rather to such an unrecognized disease than to clinical detectability or recognition. The majority of pigmented lesions of the skin can be diagnosed on the basis of clinical criteria, although there is an astonishing number of discrete pigmented lesions where the difference between melanocytic and non-melanocytic, benign and malignant lesions, melanoma and non-melanoma, is very hard or almost impossible to detect by a simple examination with the naked eye. With the use of the computer system for melanomoscopy and melanomography, Mole Max II, with digital epiluminescence microscopy, it is possible to see and record the changes on the skin that are located in the surface layer of the skin, as well as the changes that appear more deeply under the surface, on the border between the epidermis and the dermis, the place where melanocytes are placed. With such examination it is possible to differentiate benign from malignant lesions in the very early stage of the development. An early recognition of malignant alterations on the skin increases the chances of cure and total recovery to over 90%.

  13. In vivo thickness measurement of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography and 20-MHz ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Nürnberg, B.M.; Forman, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    was measured with a colorimeter. Results OCT presented narrower limits of agreement than HFUS. Both methods overestimated thickness but OCT was significantly less biased (0Æ392 mm vs. 0Æ713 mm). No relation between OCT penetration depth and skin colour was found. Conclusions OCT appears more precise and less......Background Accurate assessment of tumour size is important when planning treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to diagnose and measure depth of NMSC. Objectives To compare accuracy of mean tumour thickness measurement in NMSC...... tumours penetration depth in OCT images was estimated. Methods In total, 93 patients were scanned...

  14. The DNA Damage-Binding Protein XPC Is a Frequent Target for Inactivation in Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    de Feraudy, Sebastien; Ridd, Katie; Richards, Lauren M.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Revet, Ingrid; Oh, Dennis; Feeney, Luzviminda; Cleaver, James E.

    2010-01-01

    XPC, the main damage-recognition protein responsible for nucleotide excision repair of UVB damage to DNA, is lost or mutated in xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XP-C), a rare inherited disease characterized by high incidence and early onset of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. The high incidence of skin cancers in XP-C patients suggests that loss of expression of XPC protein might also provide a selective advantage for initiation and progression of similar cancers in non XP-C patients in ...

  15. 皮肤病理性瘢痕和瘢痕癌中Ras基因家族12/13位密码子突变的检测%Mutation of ras gene family codons 12 and 13 in skin pathological scar and scar carcinoma tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡成久; 郭瑞珍; 王燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the mutation of Ras gene family (H-ras/N-ras/K-ras) in skin pathological scar and scar carcinoma tissues. Methods The DNA was extracted from the choosen samples fixed in 10% formalin and Paraffi embedded (including 14 cases skin pathological scar tissues and 14 cases skin scar carcinoma tissues) ,H-ras,N-ras and K-ras mutations in codons 12 and 13 were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Results DNA was extracted from the choosen 28 samples. By PCR, the 28 samples were succeed to enlarge the gene piece.Without gene mutation in codons 12 and 13 of H-ras,N-ras and K-ras genes were examined by sequencing. Conclusions The mutation situs of Ras family is to be further explored in skin scar and scar carcinoma.%目的:探讨皮肤病理性瘢痕和瘢痕癌中Ras基因家族(H-ras/N-ras/K-ras)12/13位密码子的突变情况.方法:从14例皮肤病理性瘢痕,14例瘢痕癌石蜡包埋组织中提取DNA,进行PCR扩增及测序,分析H-ras、N-ras、K-ras基因第12、13位密码子突变情况.结果:28个样本均成功提取DNA,扩增出基因片段,经测序均未发现H-ras、N-ras、K-ras基因第12、13位密码子的,点突变.结论:皮肤病理性瘢痕和瘢痕癌中Ras基因家族的突变位点有待进一步探讨.

  16. Cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma of tonsil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasmajumdar S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematogenous spread from carcinoma of tonsil is an uncommon event and skin is an extremely rare site of metastasis. We encountered a 40-year-old male patient who initially presented with carcinoma of the tonsil with T3N2cMO disease and treated by curative radiotherapy. After about 2 years, he developed a skin lesion in the periorbital region which on cytological examination turned out to be metastasis from tonsillar carcinoma. The present paper describes this rare case report along with a brief review of the literature.

  17. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when Merkel cells grow out of control. Merkel cell carcinoma starts most often in areas of skin exposed to the sun, especially the head and neck, as well as the arms, legs, and trunk. Enlarge Anatomy of the skin showing the epidermis, ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when Merkel cells grow out of control. Merkel cell carcinoma starts most often in areas of skin exposed to the sun, especially the head and neck, as well as the arms, legs, and trunk. Enlarge Anatomy of the skin showing the epidermis, ...

  19. Risk group, skin lesion history, and sun sensitivity reliability in squamous cell skin cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouser, Mary C; Harris, Robin B; Roe, Denise J; Saboda, Kathylynn; Ranger-Moore, James; Duckett, Laura; Alberts, David S

    2006-11-01

    In studies of skin cancer, participants are often classified into risk groups based on self-reported history of sun exposure or skin characteristics. We sought to determine the reliability of self-reported skin characteristics among participants of a study to evaluate markers for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Multiple questionnaires and screening protocols were administered over a 3-month period to individuals from three risk groups: existing sun damage on forearms but no visible actinic keratoses (n = 91), visible actinic keratoses (n = 38), and history of resected squamous cell skin cancer in the last 12 months (n = 35). We assessed consistency of risk group assignment between telephone screen and study dermatologist assignment, self-reported sun sensitivity (telephone recruitment form versus participant completed profile), and self-reported history of NMSC skin lesions (telephone recruitment form versus health history). There was substantial agreement between probable risk group and final assignment (kappa = 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.85) and agreement did not differ by gender. Agreement for self-reported sun sensitivity was moderate (kappa weighted = 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.56) with higher agreement for women. For self-reported NMSC lesion history between two interviews, 24 days apart, kappa estimates ranged from 0.66 to 0.78 and were higher for women than men. Overall, there was evidence for substantial reproducibility related to risk group assignment and self-reported history of NMSC, with self-reported sun sensitivity being less reliable. In all comparisons, women had higher kappa values than men. These results suggest that self-reported measures of skin cancer risk are reasonably reliable for use in screening subjects into studies.

  20. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are round and lie directly under squamous cells. Melanocytes are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. It also protects the ...

  1. Skin turgor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arm or abdomen is checked. The skin is held for a few seconds then released. Skin with ... University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  2. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  3. Ezrin蛋白在皮肤鳞癌中的表达及临床意义%Expression of Ezrin and phos-ezrin in skin squamous carcinomas and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭功军; 周珊; 伍斌; 黄大毛; 唐发清

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨Ezrin蛋白及磷酸化Ezrin (phos-Ezrin)在皮肤鳞癌中的表达及临床意义.方法 采用免疫组化法检测20例皮肤正常组织(NS)、31例脂溢性角化组织(SK)、36例基底细胞癌组织(BCC)、37例皮肤鳞癌(SCC)中Ezrin、phosEzrin蛋白的表达,分析Ezrin、phos-Ezrin表达与皮肤癌病理组织类型、临床分期和肿瘤转移的相关性.结果 (1)Ezrin蛋白在NS、SK、BCC、SCC中的阳性表达率分别为20.0%、25.8%、66.7%和89.2%,phos-Ezrin蛋白阳性率分别为10.0%、22.6%、77.8%、94.6%,癌组织中的Ezrin和phos-Ezrin表达显著高于非癌组织(P<0.01).(2)Ezrin,phos-Ezrin蛋白的表达与皮肤肿瘤组织类型(R1 =0.87,0.89)、SCC病理分级(R2 =0.80,0.86)及淋巴转移(R3 =0.89,0.91)密切相关(P<0.01).结论 Ezrin,phos-Ezrin表达与皮肤肿瘤的类型、恶性程度(病理分级)和淋巴结转移有关.Ezrin,phos-Ezrin联合检测可为预测皮肤恶性肿瘤转移及预后提供参考.%Objective To investigate the expressions of Ezrin and phos-ezrin in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC),and to an alyze their clinic significance.Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expressions of Ezrin and phos-Ezrin in 20 cases of normal skin,31 cases of seborrheic Keratosis (SK),36 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC),and 37 cases of SCC.Results (1) The positive rates of Ezrin in normal skin (NS),SK,BCC,and SCC were 20.0%,25.8%,66.7%,and 89.2%,respectively.The positive reates of phos-Ezrin in NS,SK,BCC,and SCC were 10.0 %,22.6%,77.8%,and 94.6%,respectively.Ezrin and phos ezrin in cancers were higher than that in noncancer tissues (P < 0.01).(2) The expressions of Ezrin,and phos-Ezrin were closely correlated with the cutaneous tumor's type(R1 =0.87,r1 =0.89,P < 0.01),malignant degree (patho-grading of SCC) (R2 =0.80,r2=0.86,P < 0.01),metastasis via lymph node (R3 =0.89,r3 =0.91,P < 0.01).Conclusions Ezrin and phos-Ezrin expressions were closely

  4. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage.

  5. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  6. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and skin cancer: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Denzer, Nicole; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans. There are several types of skin cancer that include basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). The associations of vDr polymorphisms with skin cancer risk are not well characterized so far. Only a few epidemiologic studies have directly addressed the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and the incidence and prognosis of MM. To make the most of the available information on VDR polymorphisms and skin...

  7. Organotypic in vitro models of human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) comprises about 15% of all skin cancer diagnoses. Treatment associated with the high and rising prevalence of cutaneous SCC puts an increasingly high financial burden on society,

  8. Organotypic in vitro models of human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) comprises about 15% of all skin cancer diagnoses. Treatment associated with the high and rising prevalence of cutaneous SCC puts an increasingly high financial burden on society, markin

  9. Parotid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; de Stricker, Karin;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to investigate the expression of kit protein (KIT) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in parotid carcinomas in order to correlate the expression to histology and prognosis. Further we want to perform mutation analysis of KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 73 patients with parotid gland carcinomas were used for the study. The sections were stained with both KIT and EGFR polyclonal antibodies. Twelve KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas were examined for c-kit mutation in codon 816....... RESULTS: Of all carcinomas 25% were KIT-positive and 79% were EGFR-positive. Ninety-two percentage of the adenoid cystic carcinomas were KIT-positive. None of the adenoid cystic carcinomas had mutations in codon 816 of the c-kit gene. CONCLUSION: Neither KIT- nor EGFR-expression seem to harbour...

  10. Expressão de metaloproteinases de matriz e de seus inibidores teciduais em carcinomas basocelulares Expression of matrix metalloproteinasis and their tissue inhibitors in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Aproximadamente 80% das neoplasias malignas de pele não-melanomas são carcinomas basocelulares (CBC. Apesar das raras metástases, esses tumores são localmente agressivos. As metaloproteinases de matriz (MMPs, especialmente as MMP-2 e 9, são importantes no processo de invasão. Em contrapartida, os inibidores teciduais das MMPs (TIMPs têm como principal função a inibição dessas enzimas. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação de variáveis clinicopatológicas de pacientes portadores de CBC com a expressão de MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 e TIMP-2. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 31 casos de CBC, sendo então obtidos, retrospectivamente, os dados referentes a idade, sexo e tamanho da lesão. Cortes histológicos das lesões foram submetidos a reação imuno-histoquímica pela técnica estreptavidina-biotina-peroxidase para detecção dos antígenos de interesse. Índices de imunomarcação foram construídos e comparados com os dados previamente obtidos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se correlação significativa entre idade e tamanho da lesão (R = 0,532; p = 0,008. Não foram observadas correlações significativas entre as outras variáveis e a expressão imuno-histoquímica dos antígenos de interesse. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão das metaloproteinases e de seus inibidores teciduais não parece ser influenciada pelos parâmetros investigados. Estudos adicionais são necessários para melhor compreensão de sua associação com o comportamento biológico do CBC.INTRODUCTION: Approximately 80% of non-melanoma skin neoplasias are basal cell carcinomas (BCC. Although metastasis is rare, BBC carcinomas are locally aggressive tumors. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, mainly MMP-2 and MMP-9, play an important role on the invasion process. On the other hand, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs have the main function of inhibiting these enzymes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of clinical-pathological variables of BCC patients with the

  11. Patients highly value routine follow-up of skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themstrup, Lotte; Jemec, Gregor E; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    : This study included an open sample of patients attending routine follow-up at the outpatient Departments of Plastic Surgery and Dermatology, Roskilde Hospital. A total of 218 follow-up patients diagnosed with cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM), non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) or actinic keratosis (AK......INTRODUCTION: Skin cancer follow-up is a substantial burden to outpatient clinics. Few studies have investigated patients' views on skin cancer follow-up and cutaneous melanoma. The objective was to investigate patients' perceived benefits and the impact of follow-up. MATERIAL AND METHODS......) completed a structured interview. RESULTS: A total of 97% patients found follow-up useful. Continuity and consistency were important. One third of patients felt some degree of pre follow-up anxiety. The number of anxious MM patients was significantly greater than that of NMSC patients. No significant...

  12. Cationic membrane-active peptides - anticancer and antifungal activity as well as penetration into human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhung; Weindl, Günther; Grohmann, Lisa; Salwiczek, Mario; Koksch, Beate; Korting, Hans Christian; Schäfer-Korting, Monika

    2014-05-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ancient natural broad-spectrum antibiotics, and several compounds also exhibit anticancer activity. However, most applications pertain to bacterial infections, and treatment for skin cancer is less frequently considered. The cytotoxicity of melittin, cecropin A, protegrin-1 and histatin 5 against squamous skin cancer cell lines and normal human keratinocytes was evaluated and compared to established drugs. The results show that melittin clearly outperforms 5-fluorouracil regarding antitumor activity. Importantly, combined melittin and 5-fluorouracil enhanced cytotoxic effects on cancer cells and reduced toxicity on normal keratinocytes. Additionally, minimum inhibitory concentrations indicate that melittin also shows superior activity against clinical and laboratory strains of Candida albicans compared to amphotericin B. To evaluate its potential for topical applications, human skin penetration of melittin was investigated ex vivo and compared to two non-toxic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) and penetratin. The stratum corneum prevents penetration into viable epidermis over 6 h; however, the peptides gain access to the viable skin after 24 h. Inhibition of digestive enzymes during skin penetration significantly enhances the availability of intact peptide. In conclusion, melittin may represent an innovative agent for non-melanoma skin cancer and infectious skin diseases. In order to develop a drug candidate, skin absorption and proteolytic digestion by skin enzymes need to be addressed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Targets for molecular therapy of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cheryl L; Khavari, Paul A

    2004-02-01

    Cancers of the skin encompass the first and second most common neoplasms in the United States, epidermal basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively, as well as the melanocytic malignancy, malignant melanoma (MM). Recently identified alterations in the function of specific genes in these cancers provide new potential therapeutic targets. These alterations affect conserved regulators of cellular proliferation and viability, including the Sonic Hedgehog, Ras/Raf, ARF/p53, p16(INK4A)/CDK4/Rb and NF-kappaB pathways. New modalities designed to target these specific proteins may represent promising approaches to therapy of human skin cancers.

  14. Multiple cutaneous metastases in laryngeal carcinoma: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the skin in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is an extremely rare occurrence. We report a case of multiple cutaneous metastases in the follow-up of a 60-year-old male with squamous carcinoma of the vocal cords that were treated with surgery and radiotherapy. The patient presented with multiple painful skin nodules at 3 months following the completion of treatment. Clinically the skin nodules mimicked an inflammatory skin lesion. The diagnosis of metastatic skin lesions was made by cytological examination. Appearance of new painful skin lesions soon after the completion of treatment in patients treated for squamous carcinoma of the larynx should warrant a clinical suspicion of cutaneous metastases.

  15. MMP-2、MMP-9及其抑制因子TIMP-2、TIMP-1在非黑色素性皮肤癌中的表达及意义%Expressions and significances of MP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2, TIMP-1 in skin basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静仪; 刘林蟠; 张建文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expressions and significances of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2),matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2),tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) protein in skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods Twenty six patients with SCC and twenty two patients with BCC.confirmed by pathology.were selected. Immunohistochemistry of tissues were performed using SABC method. Expression rate.staining intensity and expression intensity of every factor were recorded. Meanwhile,20 normal skin was selected as control. The results were compared between the groups. Results Compared with control group, expression rate.staining intensity and expression intensity of MMP-2, MMP-9 in SCC and BCC groups were significantly higher,TIMP-2,TIMP-1 in SCC and BCC groups were significantly lower (P<0.05). Expression intensity of MMP-2.MMP-9 in SCC group were higher than those in BCC group, TIMP-2.TIMP-1 in SCC group were lower than those in BCC group(P<0.05). Conclusion MMP-2.MMP-9 and TIMP-2.TIMP-1 may play an important role in development, progression,invasion and metastasis of SCC and BCC.%目的:分析MMP-2、MMP-9及其抑制因子TIMP-2、TIMP-1在非黑色素性皮肤癌中的表达情况及临床意义.方法:选取病理证实的SCC患者26例(SCC组),BCC患者22例(BCC组).手术切除病变组织,采用SABC法行免疫组化检测,记录各因子表达阳性率、染色强度和表达强度.同时,取20例正常皮肤为对照组.比较SCC组、BCC组患者及对照组各因子表达情况差异.结果:SCC组和BCC组与对照组MMP-2、MMP-9相比,表达阳性率、染色强度和表达强度显著增高,SCC组和BCC组与对照组TIMP-2、TIMP-1的表达阳性率、染色强度和表达强度明显降低(P<0.05).SCC组MMP-2、MMP-9的表达强度显著高于和BCC组,而TIMP-1、TIMP-2表达强度显著低于BCC组(P<0.05).结论:MMP-2、MMP-9

  16. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Ruth M [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cole, Bryan E [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Wallace, Vincent P [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pye, Richard J [Department of Dermatology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Arnone, Donald D [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Linfield, Edmund H [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pepper, Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-07

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  18. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body. Without skin, people's muscles, bones, and organs would be hanging out all over the place. Skin holds everything together. It also: protects our bodies helps keep our bodies at just the right temperature allows us to have the sense of touch Don't Miss Your Epidermis The ...

  19. Epidemiogic aspects of skin cancer in organ-transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisgerhof, Hermina Christina

    2011-01-01

    The risk of (skin) cancer is highly increased in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immunesuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. This thesis dealt with the epidemiologic aspects and risk factors for cancer focused on cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

  20. Epidemiogic aspects of skin cancer in organ-transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisgerhof, Hermina Christina

    2011-01-01

    The risk of (skin) cancer is highly increased in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immunesuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. This thesis dealt with the epidemiologic aspects and risk factors for cancer focused on cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

  1. Self-reported quality of life after skin cancer in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Danielle M; Jacobsen, Gordon; Johnson, Christine C; Lim, Henry W; Eide, Melody J

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer incidence is increasing in younger adults. Patient satisfaction and quality of life surveys are limited, and more information is needed on the unique perspectives of these younger patients who may be affected differently. We sought to explore how skin cancer has affected quality of life in younger adults. A self-reported questionnaire was administered to patients with skin cancer aged 20-50 years diagnosed from 2007 to 2008. Quality of life was measured using the Skin Cancer Index (SCI) and Skindex-16 with a transformed scale. Descriptive statistics with standard deviations were calculated. One-hundred sixty-one patients were identified; 62 completed surveys (38.5%), with 47 patients eligible for inclusion. Forty participants (85%) reported having made lifestyle changes since being diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancers, most commonly habitual use of sunscreen (n = 34; 77.3%). Quality of life was most impacted by worries about their skin cancer (Skindex-16 score 24.5 (34.4 standard deviation)), including their future risk of developing further cancers (58.5 (31.8)). Limitations include small sample size and possible response bias. There is a modest impact on quality of life in young patients with skin cancer based on the Skindex-16 and SCI. Young skin cancer survivors may benefit from patient counseling, which addresses risk assessment and future risk reduction.

  2. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Smit-Kroner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus.

  3. Green tea and skin cancer: photoimmunology, angiogenesis and DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Suchitra; Elmets, Craig A; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2007-05-01

    Human skin is constantly exposed to numerous noxious physical, chemical and environmental agents. Some of these agents directly or indirectly adversely affect the skin. Cutaneous overexposure to environmental solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (290-400 nm) has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Therefore, there is a need to develop measures or strategies, and nutritional components are increasingly being explored for this purpose. The polyphenols present in green tea (Camellia sinensis) have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including protection from UV carcinogenesis. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major and most photoprotective polyphenolic component of green tea. In this review article, we have discussed the most recent investigations and mechanistic studies that define and support the photoprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) against UV carcinogenesis. The oral administration of GTPs in drinking water or the topical application of EGCG prevents UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice, and this prevention is mediated through: (a) the induction of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 12; (b) IL-12-dependent DNA repair following nucleotide excision repair mechanism; (c) the inhibition of UV-induced immunosuppression through IL-12-dependent DNA repair; (d) the inhibition of angiogenic factors; and (e) the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells in a tumor microenvironment. New mechanistic information strongly supports and explains the chemopreventive activity of GTPs against photocarcinogenesis.

  4. Massive zosteriform cutaneous metastasis from rectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damin, D C; Lazzaron, A R; Tarta, C; Cartel, A; Rosito, M A

    2003-07-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a large and rapidly growing skin lesion approximately six months after resection of a rectal carcinoma. The lesion measured 40 cm in size, extended from the suprapubic area to the proximal half of the left groin, and showed a particular zosteriform aspect. Biopsy confirmed a metastatic skin adenocarcinoma. Cutaneous metastases from rectal cancer are very uncommon. Their gross appearance is not distinctive, although the skin tumors are usually solid, small (less than 5 cm) and painless nodules or papules. Early biopsies for suspicious skin lesions are needed in patients with a history of colorectal cancer.

  5. Multifocal Aggressive Squamous Cell Carcinomas Induced by Prolonged Voriconazole Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Morice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Voriconazole is a treatment for severe fungal infections. Prolonged voriconazole therapy may induce skin reactions, with 1% of severe photosensitivity accidents. Recently the imputability of voriconazole in skin carcinogenesis has been suggested. This report concerns a 55-year-old man suffering from pulmonary aspergillosis who presented a phototoxic reaction a few months after introduction of voriconazole, followed by multiple squamous cell carcinomas of sun-exposed skin areas. After voriconazole discontinuation, no new carcinoma was observed. The detection of EBV and HPV in skin lesions was negative. Exploration of gene mutations involved in skin carcinogenesis showed two variants of the MICR gene. The occurrence of multiple, recurrent, aggressive squamous cell carcinomas is rare with voriconazole, but its imputability is strongly suggested. A plausible hypothesis is that several factors including voriconazole uptake, immunosuppression, and genetic background could explain the phenotype of fast-developing skin carcinomas. Voriconazole therapy should be accompanied by stringent photoprotection and skin monitoring.

  6. Multifocal aggressive squamous cell carcinomas induced by prolonged voriconazole therapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, C; Acher, A; Soufir, N; Michel, M; Comoz, F; Leroy, D; Verneuil, L

    2010-01-01

    Voriconazole is a treatment for severe fungal infections. Prolonged voriconazole therapy may induce skin reactions, with 1% of severe photosensitivity accidents. Recently the imputability of voriconazole in skin carcinogenesis has been suggested. This report concerns a 55-year-old man suffering from pulmonary aspergillosis who presented a phototoxic reaction a few months after introduction of voriconazole, followed by multiple squamous cell carcinomas of sun-exposed skin areas. After voriconazole discontinuation, no new carcinoma was observed. The detection of EBV and HPV in skin lesions was negative. Exploration of gene mutations involved in skin carcinogenesis showed two variants of the MICR gene. The occurrence of multiple, recurrent, aggressive squamous cell carcinomas is rare with voriconazole, but its imputability is strongly suggested. A plausible hypothesis is that several factors including voriconazole uptake, immunosuppression, and genetic background could explain the phenotype of fast-developing skin carcinomas. Voriconazole therapy should be accompanied by stringent photoprotection and skin monitoring.

  7. Carcinoma triquilemal: relato de caso Trichilemmal carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Roismann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma triquilemal é um tumor raro, que ocorre, geralmente, na pele exposta ao sol, principalmente face, couro cabeludo, pescoço e dorso das mãos, em indivíduos idosos, entre a 4ª e 9ª décadas de vida, sem predilação por sexo. O presente estudo mostra um caso de carcinoma triquilemal, recidivado, de difícil tratamento, em mesma topografia de um carcinoma basocelular tratado previamente com cirurgia e radioterapia.The trichilemmal carcinoma is a rare tumor that usually occurs on sun-exposed skin, especially on the face, scalp, neck and back of hands, mainly in elderly subjects but commonly between the 4th and 9th decades of life. It is not a gender-based illness. This study shows a difficult to treat case of recurrent trichilemmal carcinoma on the same location of a basal-cell carcinoma previously treated with surgery and radiotherapy.

  8. Sebaceous Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill Medical; 2008. p. 240-9. Nelson BR, Hamlet KR, Gillard M et al. “Sebaceous carcinoma.” J ... Acad Dermatol . 2003 48:401-8. Nelson BR, Hamlet KR, Gillard M et al . “Sebaceous carcinoma.” J ...

  9. Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Cornea in a Child with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    causes marked alterations in the skin leading to keratosis, telangiectasia ... Keywords: Squamous cell carcinoma, surgical excision, Xeroderma Pigmentosum. How to cite this .... Typically, the first stage makes its appearance after the age of 6 ...

  10. Primary myoepithelial carcinoma of palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to present a rare neoplasm, Primary myoepithelial carcinoma arising from the palate, and to review its diagnostic criteria, pathologic and clinical characteristics, treatment options and prognosis. Clinical Presentation and Intervention Myoepitheliomas are tumors arising from myoepithelial cells mainly or exclusively. Myoepitheliomas mostly occur in salivary glands, as well as in breast, skin, and lung. Case of myoepitheliomas in palate has rarely been reported. Myoepithelial carcinoma is malignant counterpart of myoepitheliomas. Adenomyoepithelioma is also a different disease from myoepitheliaomas. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells of myoepithelial carcinoma express not only epithelial markers such as cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, but also markers of smooth muscle origin such as calponin. The immunohistochemical criteria of myoepithelial differentiation are double positive for both cytokeratins and one or more myoepithelial immunomarkers (i.e., S-100 protein, calponin, p63, GFAP, maspin, and actins. Myoepithelial carcinomas of salivary and breast demonstrate copy number gains and gene deletion. The overall prognosis of myoepithelial carcinoma is poor. There is rarely recurrence or metastasis in benign myoepithelial tumors. Complete excision with tumor-free margin is always the preferred treatment, while local radiation therapy and chemotherapy are suggestive treatment options. Here, a rare case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising from the palate has been described and discussed for the treatment and outcome. Pathological and clinical characters of myoepitheliomas are also compared and discussed. Conclusion The case report serves to increase awareness and improve the index of diagnosis and treatment of myoepitheliomas.

  11. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases.

  12. Ultraviolet light exposure, skin cancer risk and vitamin D production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Miguel; Rojas, Elisa; Araya, María C; Calaf, Gloria M

    2015-10-01

    The danger of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation has been widely reviewed since the 1980s due to the depletion of the ozone layer. However, the benefits of mild exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) light have not been widely investigated. Numerous reports have demonstrated that an association exists between low light exposure to the sun, non-melanoma skin cancer and a lack of vitamin D synthesis. As vitamin D synthesis in the body depends on skin exposure to UVB radiation from the sun (wavelength, 290-320 nm), experimental measurements for this type of solar radiation are important. The present study analyzed data obtained from a laboratory investigating UV radiation from the sun at the University of Tarapacá (Arica, Chile), where systematic experimental UVB measurements had been performed using a calibrated biometer instrument since 2006. These data were compared with skin cancer data from the local population. The results demonstrated that the incidence of skin cancer systematically increased from 7.4 to 18.7 in men and from 10.0 to 21.7 in women between 2000 and 2006 in Arica, respectively; this increase may be due to multiple factors, including the lack of adequate levels of vitamin D in risk groups such as post-menopausal women and senior age. This marked increase may also be due to the high levels of UV radiation measured in this region throughout the year. However, it is not certain that the local population has adequate vitamin D levels, nor that their skin has been predominantly exposed to artificial light that does not allow adequate vitamin D synthesis. Thus, the current study presents the association between skin type IV, the time to induce solar erythema and the time required to produce 1,000 international units of vitamin D.

  13. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  14. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  15. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark...

  16. Aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L

    1995-01-16

    Aging of the skin is a composite of actinic damage, chronologic aging, and hormonal influences. The majority of changes associated with aging, such as wrinkles and solar lentigines ("liver spots"), are due to photoaging and reflect cumulative sun exposure as well as skin pigmentation. Classically, chronologic aging includes those cutaneous changes that occur in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the buttocks, and are observed in both men and women. A clinical example would be soft tissue sagging due to elastic fiber degeneration. In women, investigations into the effect of hormones on aging of the skin have concentrated on estrogens; in men, there have been a limited number of studies on the influence of testosterone. The latter have shown an age-dependent decrease in tissue androgens in pubic skin, but not scrotal or thigh skin. To date, age has not been shown to have an effect on androgen receptor binding, although a decrease in foreskin 5 alpha-reductase activity with increasing age has been described. In fibroblast cultures from foreskins, there have been conflicting results as to whether 5 alpha-reductase activity decreases in an age-dependent manner. Some of the skin changes that have been categorized as secondary to chronologic aging, such as decreased sebaceous gland activity and decreased hair growth, may actually represent a decline in the concentration of tissue androgens with increasing age. The influence of androgens on age-related changes in keratinocyte and fibroblast function remains speculative.

  17. Verrucous carcinoma of the hand: a rare presentation evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Jailson Rodrigues; Rosemberg, Laercio Alberto; Lourenco, Rafael Burgomeister; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Rodrigues, Marcelo Bordalo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IOT/HC/USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia

    2011-07-15

    Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma seen in mucous membranes and skin, and rarely found in the hand. The present report describes a case of two lesions on the dorsum of the hand, with no contact to each other, which underwent en-block resection and were confirmed as verrucous carcinoma. (author)

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Mammary Gland in Domestic Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Filgueira, Kilder Dantas; Reche Junior,Archivaldo

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the feline species, 80% to 93% of neoplasias in the mammary gland are malignant, being the majority carcinomas. Among them, there is the mammary squamous cell carcinoma, which amounts to a very rare neoplasm in the domestic cat, with considerable potential for malignancy. This study aimed to report a case of squamous cell mammary carcinoma in the feline species. Case: A female cat, mixed breed, ten years old, presented history of skin lesion. The cat had been spayed two years b...

  19. ACANTHOLYTIC SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF PREPUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An uncircumcised 65 year male, with history of phimosis presented with retention of urine and ulceration and bleeding in the prepuce. Circumcision was done under local anesthesia which revealed an ulcero-proliferative growth involving the prepuce and glans. The prepucial skin was sent for histopathological examination. The diagnosis was histopathologically confirmed as Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a highly malignant, unusual variant of squamous cell carcinoma invading deeper anatomic structures and is associated with a higher incidence of regional metastasis and mortality.

  20. Adenoid basal cell carcinoma and its mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Jetley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignant tumor of skin. The most common site (80% is head and neck. BCC exhibits a varied morphology such as adenoid, keratotic, sebaceous, basosquamous, apocrine, eccrine or fibroepithelial. Tumors with a similar histopathological picture are cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma and primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry, along with clinical findings, acts as an adjunct in reaching an accurate diagnosis. Here, we present an interesting case of adenoid BCC in a 55-year-old man.

  1. Effects of Preoperative Biopsies on Recurrence in Head and Neck Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Eun Jung; Dong Kyun Rah; Yong Oock Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background Skin cancer is the most common malignant tumor in humans. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the two most common types of skin cancers. When skin cancer is clinically suspected, preoperative biopsies are recommended for a definite diagnosis. However, despite a concern over potential increased risk of metastasis associated with mechanical manipulation, there have been few investigations into whether a preoperative biopsy affected the recurrence of BCC a...

  2. In vivo thickness measurement of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography and 20-MHz ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Nürnberg, B.M.; Forman, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    and 34 lesions [23 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 11 actinic keratosis (AK) lesions] biopsies. The influence of skin pigmentation and infiltration analgesia on OCT image quality was studied. Skin colour...

  3. Resonance Raman of BCC and normal skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-hui; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Boydston-White, Susie; Wu, Binlin; Zhang, Chunyuan; Pei, Zhe; Sordillo, Laura; Beckman, Hugh; Alfano, Robert R.

    2017-02-01

    The Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and normal human skin tissues were analyzed using 532nm laser excitation. RR spectral differences in vibrational fingerprints revealed skin normal and cancerous states tissues. The standard diagnosis criterion for BCC tissues are created by native RR biomarkers and its changes at peak intensity. The diagnostic algorithms for the classification of BCC and normal were generated based on SVM classifier and PCA statistical method. These statistical methods were used to analyze the RR spectral data collected from skin tissues, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 98.7% and specificity of 79% compared with pathological reports.

  4. Skin Metastasis from an Occult Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

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    F Fereidooni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the skin from carcinoma arising in other organs are uncommon, yet they may be the first presentation of neoplastic disease. They usually originate from primary tumours in the breast, lung or colon. Skin metastases from esophageal adenocarcinoma are extremely rare. A unique case of an otherwise healthy patient who presented with a small, painless, mobile, clinically localized facial skin nodule is reported. A biopsy revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma, and subsequent investigations detected the primary tumour in the esophagus, despite no symptoms.

  5. Detection of the main type of HPV in skin squamous cell carcinoma tissue%皮肤鳞状细胞癌组织中人乳头瘤病毒型别的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震; 罗芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence and regularity of distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) among the patients who had skin squamous cell carcinoma(SSCC), and investigate the relationship between HPV and SSCC. Methods 300 lesions organization parafifn embedding samples were selected and the HPV DNA was tested by PCR. The main detection type of HPV DNA were HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33. Results 188 were HPV positive in all the 300 SSCC samples, the infection rate of HPV was 62.67%;66.33%had HPV in male SSCC and 55.78%in female, but the difference had no statistical signiifcance (P>0.05). 67.86%of high differentiation (grade I and II) group were HPV positive, 47.37%in low differentiation (grade III and IV) group, and the difference had statistical signiifcance (P0.05) both in high or low differentiation group. Conclusion The detection of the HPV type is helpful for the prevention and treatment of SSCC.%目的:分析皮肤鳞状细胞癌患者感染人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)的现状和分布规律,探讨HPV感染与皮肤鳞状细胞癌发生的关系。方法应用多聚酶链式反应(PCR)技术对300例组织病理学诊断为皮肤鳞状细胞癌的组织标本进行HPV DNA检测,主要检测型别为HPV6、11、16、18、31、33。结果300例皮肤鳞状细胞癌患者中,HPV阳性188例,HPV感染率为62.67%;男性HPV感染率为66.33%,女性HPV感染率为55.78%,性别差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。高分化(Ⅰ~Ⅱ级)HPV感染率为67.86%,低分化(Ⅲ~Ⅳ级)HPV感染率为47.37%,两组之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。头面部、颈部、四肢、躯干以及生殖器和腹股沟部HPV感染率分别为70.23%、65.79%、43.33%、28.00%和68.42%。共检出高危型(HPV16和HPV33)感染51例,低危型(HPV6)感染49例,均为单一型别感染。结论 HPV感染型别检测对皮肤鳞状细胞癌的防治有重要意义。

  6. Unusual manifestations of secondary urothelial carcinoma

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    Chaohui Lisa Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma regularly invades the bladder wall, adjacent prostate, seminal vesicles, ureters, vagina, rectum, retroperitoneum, and regional lymph nodes. In advanced stages, it may disseminate to the liver, lungs, and bone marrow. On rare occasions, unusual metastatic foci like skin have been reported. The incidence of urothelial carcinoma has increased with associated rise in variants of urothelial carcinoma and unusual metastatic foci. It is imperative that urologists and pathologists are aware of the unusual variants and unusual metastatic locations to expedite the diagnostic process. Hereby we report an unusual case of secondary involvement of spinal nerve by conventional urothelial carcinoma. Also a second case of rhabdoid variant of urothelial carcinoma showing synchronous involvement of bladder and subcutaneous tissue of upper extremity is presented.

  7. Primary myoepithelial carcinoma of palate

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Ya; Yang Yunyi; Li Zongfang; Zhang Xiaozhi; Li Yi; Liu Xiaoping; Liu Zi; Ren Juan; Chen Yuanyuan; Jiang Shiwen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to present a rare neoplasm, Primary myoepithelial carcinoma arising from the palate, and to review its diagnostic criteria, pathologic and clinical characteristics, treatment options and prognosis. Clinical Presentation and Intervention Myoepitheliomas are tumors arising from myoepithelial cells mainly or exclusively. Myoepitheliomas mostly occur in salivary glands, as well as in breast, skin, and lung. Case of myoepitheliomas in palate has rarely...

  8. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  9. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  10. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic formulary restrictions Access to ... Skin care for men Skin care on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin of ...

  11. Skin Cancer Risk in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Recipients Compared With Background Population and Renal Transplant Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Gniadecki, Robert; Hædersdal, Merete

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: While a high risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer is well recognized in solid-organ transplant recipients, the risk of skin cancer in hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of cutaneous cancer in HSCT recipients...... and compare it with the risk in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and individuals who have not received any transplant. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A nationwide population-based cohort study from the Danish National Hospital Register including 3302 patients who underwent HSCT (1007 allogeneic, 2295...... cancer between transplant recipients and background population, we used a stratified proportional hazard regression model for hazard ratio (HR) estimations. By use of the cumulative incidence, we estimated 5- and 10-year risks of skin cancers. All RTR and HSCT recipients were treated and followed up...

  12. Protective actions of vitamin D in UVB induced skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D

    2012-12-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common type of cancer, occurring at a rate of over 1 million per year in the United States. Although their metastatic potential is generally low, they can and do metastasize, especially in the immune compromised host, and their surgical treatment is often quite disfiguring. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as occurs with sunlight exposure is generally regarded as causal for these malignancies, but UVR is also required for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Based on our own data and that reported in the literature, we hypothesize that the vitamin D produced in the skin serves to suppress UVR epidermal tumor formation. In this review we will first discuss the evidence supporting the conclusion that the vitamin D receptor (VDR), with or without its ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, limits the propensity for cancer formation following UVR. We will then explore three potential mechanisms for this protection: inhibition of proliferation and stimulation of differentiation, immune regulation, and stimulation of DNA damage repair (DDR).

  13. minSKIN Does a multifaceted intervention improve the competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by general practitioners? Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandjung Ryan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Switzerland, skin cancer is one of the most common neoplasms. Melanoma is the most aggressive one and can be lethal if not detected and removed on time. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is more frequent as melanoma; it is seldom lethal but can disfigure patients in advanced stages. General practitioners (GPs are often faced with suspicious skin lesions of their patients. Methods/Design Design: Randomised controlled trial (RCT. Population: 60 GPs, randomised into intervention group and control group. Intervention: GPs get a Lumio loupe, a digital camera and continuous feedback based on pictures of skin lesions they send to the Dermatologist. Primary outcome: Competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by GPs, measured as the percentage of correctly classified pictures of skin lesions. Measurements: At baseline, and prior to any intervention (T0, GPs will be asked to rate 36 pictures of skin lesions according to their likelihood of malignancy on a visual analogue scale (VAS. After a full day training course with both groups (T1 and after one year of continuous feedback (T2 with the intervention group, we will repeat the picture scoring session with both groups, using new pictures. Discussion We want to determine whether a multifaceted intervention (including technical equipment and a continuous feedback on skin lesions leads to an improved competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by GPs. This study addresses the hypothesis tha