WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonmedicated nonchallenged control

  1. Review of Experience of a Statewide Poison Control Center With Pediatric Exposures to Oral Antineoplastic Drugs in the Nonmedical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen L; Liu, Jehnan; Soleymani, Kamyar; Romasco, Rebecca L; Farid, Hanieh; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    The use of oral antineoplastic agents in nonmedical settings continues to increase. There are limited data available on pediatric exposures to these agents. We sought to identify characteristics of such exposures. We performed a retrospective review of database of a statewide poison system from 2000 to 2009 for all cases of pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic agents, which took place in a nonmedical setting. Data collected include gender, age, agent of exposure, dose, drug concentration, reason for exposure, symptoms, outcomes, interventions, and length of hospital stay. There were a total of 328 patients. The mean average age was 4.1 years. Eighty-nine percentage (n = 293) was unintentional. Exposures to 21 different antineoplastic agents were identified. Methotrexate (n = 91) and 6-mercaptopurine (n = 47) were the most common agents encountered. Two hundred ninety-nine (91%) cases had no symptoms reported. When reported, gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 17) and central nervous system sedation (n = 6) were most common. One case of pancytopenia was reported. No deaths were reported in this series. Sixty-seven percent (n = 220) were managed at home, whereas 19 (6%) were admitted to a health care facility. Cases were followed by the poison control center for 0.34 days (SD = 1.40). In this study, exposures to oral antineoplastics were primarily unintentional, asymptomatic, and managed at home. Study limitations include possible reporting bias, inability to objectively confirm exposures, and limited duration of monitoring by the poison control center. In this retrospective review, no significant morbidity or mortality was reported from pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic drugs in the nonmedical setting.

  2. Educating nonmedical prescribers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Derek; MacLure, Katie; George, Johnson

    2012-10-01

    The last decade has seen developments in nonmedical prescribing, with the introduction of prescribing rights for healthcare professionals. In this article, we focus on the education, training and practice of nonmedical prescribers in the UK. There are around 20,000 nurse independent prescribers, 2400 pharmacist supplementary/independent prescribers, several hundred allied health professional supplementary prescribers and almost 100 optometrist supplementary/independent prescribers. Many are active prescribers, managing chronic conditions or acute episodes of infections and minor ailments. Key aims of nonmedical prescribing are as follows: to improve patient care; to increase patient choice in accessing medicines; and to make better use of the skills of health professionals. Education and training are provided by higher education institutions accredited by UK professional bodies/regulators,namely, the Nursing and Midwifery Council, General Pharmaceutical Council, Health Professions Council and General Optical Council. The programme comprises two main components: a university component equivalent to 26 days full-time education and a period of learning in practice of 12 days minimum under the supervision of a designated medical practitioner. Course content focuses on the following factors: consultation, decision making, assessment and review; psychology of prescribing; prescribing in team context; applied therapeutics; evidence-based practice and clinical governance; legal, policy, professional and ethical aspects; and prescribing in the public health context. Nonmedical prescribers must practise within their competence, demonstrating continuing professional development to maintain the quality engendered during training. Despite the substantial progress, there are several issues of strategy, capacity, sustainability and a research evidence base which require attention to fully integrate nonmedical prescribing within healthcare. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use Among College Students With Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Lindsay S; Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D; Feldner, Matthew T; Melkonian, Alexander J; Milner, Lauren A; Lewis, Sarah F

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription drug use, defined as using the drug without a prescription or in ways for which it is not prescribed, and traumatic event exposure are highly prevalent among college students. Despite evidence that posttraumatic stress symptoms could place college students at risk for nonmedical prescription drug problems, no studies have examined this relationship. This study was a preliminary examination of posttraumatic stress symptoms, lifetime nonmedical prescription drug use, hazardous use, and dependence symptoms among college students with trauma exposure. Participants were students attending a rural college in Virginia, recruited through psychology classes, flyers, LISTSERVs, and announcements at student events. All students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event were included (N = 119); participants' mean age was 19.7 years (SD = 1.90), about half were women (n = 63, 53%), and most were Caucasian (n = 103, 87%). Nearly 60% of participants (n = 71) reported using nonmedical prescription drugs at least once during their lifetime and were more likely than those with no use to report hazardous alcohol use (p stress symptom frequency was positively associated with hazardous nonmedical prescription drug use, after controlling for gender, depressive symptoms, and hazardous alcohol use (p stress symptom frequency was higher for those with any nonmedical prescription drug dependence symptoms (p student had ever engaged in nonmedical prescription drug use. Findings suggest that consideration of the types of behaviors and problems a college student is experiencing related to nonmedical prescription drug use may be more relevant to posttraumatic stress symptom frequency than dichotomous measures of nonmedical prescription drug use alone. Further, the association between the frequency of posttraumatic stress symptoms and both hazardous nonmedical prescription drug use and dependence symptoms among college students with a trauma history deserves

  4. 42 CFR 434.12 - Contracts with private nonmedical institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts with private nonmedical institutions. 434... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS CONTRACTS Contracts with Fiscal Agents and Private Nonmedical Institutions § 434.12 Contracts with private nonmedical institutions. Contracts...

  5. [Delegation of medical responsibilities to non-medical personnel. Options and limits from a legal viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsenheimer, K

    2009-11-01

    Increasing specialization and growing mechanization in medicine have strongly supported the transfer of originally medical responsibilities to non-medical personnel. The enormous pressure of costs as a result of limited financial resources in the health system make the delegation of previously medical functions to cheaper non-medical ancillary staff expedient and the sometimes obvious lack of physicians also gains importance by the delegation of many activities away from medical staff. In the German health system there is no legal norm which clearly and definitively describes the field of activity of a medical doctor. Fundamental for a reform of the areas of responsibility between physicians and non-medical personnel is a terminological differentiation between instruction-dependent, subordinate, non-independent assistance and the delegation of medical responsibilities which are transferred to non-medical personnel for independent and self-determined completion under the supervision and control of a physician. The inclination towards risk of medical activities, the need of protection of the patient and the intellectual prerequisites required for carrying out the necessary measures define the limitations for the delegation of medical responsibilities to non-medical ancillary staff. These criteria demarcate by expert assessment the exclusively medical field of activity in a sufficiently exact and convincing manner.

  6. Development and Reliability of Items Measuring the Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs for the Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Results Froman Initial Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Melissa M.; Weiler, Robert M.; Haddox, J. David

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability of self-report survey items designed to monitor the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among adolescents. Methods: Eighteen nonmedical prescription drug items designed to be congruent with the substance abuse items in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's…

  7. Nonmedical factors associated with feather picking in pet psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Lori A; Hungerford, Laura

    2014-06-01

    A nested case-control study was performed to determine nonmedical risk factors associated with feather picking in psittacine birds. Forty-two case birds, reported by their owners to pick their feathers, and 126 unaffected birds were compared. The odds of feather picking were higher in 2 species categories, African grey parrots (Psitticus erithacus, adjusted odds ratio [ORadj = 8.4, P picking also were higher for birds that were out of their cages more than 8 hours per day (ORadj = 7.4, P picking decreased by almost 90% (ORadj = 0.1, P < .005) for birds that interacted with people at least 4 hours a day. These findings identify characteristics that practitioners may want to include when asking bird owners about behavioral history and may be useful in focusing future research regarding this behavior.

  8. Anxiety sensitivity and nonmedical benzodiazepine use among adults with opioid use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Votaw, Victoria R; Bogunovic, Olivera; Karakula, Sterling L; Griffin, Margaret L; Weiss, Roger D

    2017-02-01

    Nonmedical benzodiazepine use is common among adults with opioid use disorder; however, little is known about this co-occurrence. Anxiety sensitivity-the fear of anxiety symptoms and sensations-motivates behaviors to escape and avoid distressing states, and accordingly is associated with coping motives for substance use. This might be particularly relevant among women, who report using substances to cope with negative emotions more often than men. The aim of the current study was to examine whether nonmedical benzodiazepine use was associated with higher anxiety sensitivity among treatment-seeking adults diagnosed with opioid use disorder, and to investigate whether gender moderated this association. A sample of adults (ranging in age from 18 to 81years) receiving inpatient treatment for opioid use disorder (N=257) completed measures of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and benzodiazepine use frequency. Results of an analysis of variance indicated that frequency of past-month nonmedical benzodiazepine use was associated with significantly higher anxiety sensitivity. This effect remained when controlling for the effect of anxiety symptoms (F[1, 251]=3.91, p=0.049, ηp(2)=0.02). Gender moderated this association, and post-hoc analyses found a strong association between nonmedical benzodiazepine use and anxiety sensitivity in women, and not men. Anxiety sensitivity, which can be reduced with treatment, might be a candidate therapeutic target in this population, particularly in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing for acute and chronic disease management in primary and secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Greg; George, Johnson; Maclure, Katie; Stewart, Derek

    2016-11-22

    A range of health workforce strategies are needed to address health service demands in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Non-medical prescribing involves nurses, pharmacists, allied health professionals, and physician assistants substituting for doctors in a prescribing role, and this is one approach to improve access to medicines. To assess clinical, patient-reported, and resource use outcomes of non-medical prescribing for managing acute and chronic health conditions in primary and secondary care settings compared with medical prescribing (usual care). We searched databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and five other databases on 19 July 2016. We also searched the grey literature and handsearched bibliographies of relevant papers and publications. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies (with at least two intervention and two control sites) and interrupted time series analysis (with at least three observations before and after the intervention) comparing: 1. non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in acute care; 2. non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in chronic care; 3. non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in secondary care; 4 non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in primary care; 5. comparisons between different non-medical prescriber groups; and 6. non-medical healthcare providers with formal prescribing training versus those without formal prescribing training. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently reviewed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed study quality with discrepancies resolved by discussion. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias for the included studies according to EPOC criteria. We undertook meta-analyses using the fixed-effect model where studies were examining the same treatment effect and to account for small sample sizes. We compared

  10. Non-medical use of methylphenidate: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Freese, Luana; Signor,Luciana; Machado,Cassio; Ferigolo, Maristela; Barros,Helena Maria Tannhauser

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant medication used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. However, it has also been used for non-medical purposes, e.g. to produce euphoria, to increase self-esteem, and to achieve the so-called neurocognitive enhancement, decreasing the feeling of tiredness and increasing focus and attention. OBJECTIVE: To describe, from theoretical and contextual points of view, the potential for abuse and non-medical use...

  11. Nonmedical economic consequences attributable to visual impairment: a nation-wide approach in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuma, Antoine; Brezin, Antoine; Fagnani, Francis; Mimaud, Viviane; Mesbah, Mounir; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2006-09-01

    The nonmedical costs of visual impairment are crucial when allocating resources for prevention or treatment programs. Were analyzed the data from two representative nationwide French surveys aimed at documenting impairments that included 14,603 subjects living in institutions and 16,945 in the community. Three groups were identified: blind (light perception), low vision (loss of shape perception, LV), and controls. Item consumption was standardized on confounding factors using logistic regression. Costs attributable to visual impairment were estimated from control subjects. National nonmedical costs due to visual impairment were euro 9,806 million, arising mostly from LV (euro 8,735 million). The annual average cost/subject was euro 7,242 for LV and euro 15,679 for blindness. Loss of family income was euro 4,552 million, the burden on the caregiver euro 2,525 million, paid assistance euro 2,025 million, social allowances euro 0,942 million, and unmet needs euro 5,553 million. Resource allocation strategies aimed at controlling visual impairment should cover all relevant economic dimensions, including nonmedical items.

  12. The Berlin Brain–Computer Interface: Non-Medical Uses of BCI Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Tangermann, Michael; Vidaurre, Carmen; Fazli, Siamac; Sannelli, Claudia; Haufe, Stefan; Maeder, Cecilia; Ramsey, Lenny; Sturm, Irene; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2010-01-01

    Brain–computer interfacing (BCI) is a steadily growing area of research. While initially BCI research was focused on applications for paralyzed patients, increasingly more alternative applications in healthy human subjects are proposed and investigated. In particular, monitoring of mental states and decoding of covert user states have seen a strong rise of interest. Here, we present some examples of such novel applications which provide evidence for the promising potential of BCI technology for non-medical uses. Furthermore, we discuss distinct methodological improvements required to bring non-medical applications of BCI technology to a diversity of layperson target groups, e.g., ease of use, minimal training, general usability, short control latencies. PMID:21165175

  13. Nonmedically indicated induction vs expectant treatment in term nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Grobman, William; Zhao, Yuan; Wapner, Ronald J; Reddy, Uma M; Varner, Michael W; Leveno, Kenneth J; Caritis, Steve N; Iams, Jay D; Tita, Alan T; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E; VanDorsten, J Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in nulliparous women with nonmedically indicated inductions at term vs those expectantly treated. Data were obtained from maternal and neonatal charts for all deliveries on randomly selected days across 25 US hospitals over a 3-year period. A low-risk subset of nulliparous women with vertex nonanomalous singleton gestations who delivered 38 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks were selected. Maternal and neonatal outcomes for nonmedically indicated induction within each week were compared with women who did not undergo nonmedically indicated induction during that week. Multivariable analysis was used to adjust for hospital, maternal age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, cigarette use, and insurance status. We found 31,169 women who met our criteria. Neonatal complications were either less frequent with nonmedically indicated induction or no different between groups. Nonmedically indicated induction was associated with less frequent peripartum infections (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.98) at 38 weeks of gestation and less frequent third- and fourth-degree lacerations (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.86) and less frequent peripartum infections (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49-0.90) at 39 weeks of gestation. Nonmedically indicated induction was associated with a longer admission-to-delivery time by approximately 3-4 hours and increased odds of cesarean delivery at 38 (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.08-2.08) and 40 weeks (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.15-1.46) of gestation. At 39 weeks of gestation, nonmedically indicated induction is associated with lower maternal and neonatal morbidity than women who are expectantly treated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-medical use of prescription drugs and HIV risk behaviour in transgender women in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Zimmerman, Rick S; Cathers, Laurie; Pierce, Juan; McNulty, Shawn; Heck, Ted; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    Male-to-female transgender women (TGW) experience high rates of substance use and HIV. A recent substance use trend is the use of prescription medication without a doctor's consent. No research to date has examined the associations between this non-medical use of prescription drugs and HIV risk behaviour in TGW. In the present study, TGW recruited from community venues (N = 104) in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed surveys assessing demographic information, non-medical use of prescription drugs, other substance use, injection practices and sexual risk behaviour. Twenty-four per cent of the sample reported lifetime non-medical use of prescription drugs across the following categories: analgesics (21.2%), anxiolytics (14.4%), stimulants (12.5%) and sedatives (8.7%). Participants reporting non-medical use of prescription drugs were more likely to report other substance use, needle use to inject drugs, injecting silicone and sharing needles. In multivariable analyses, non-medical use of prescription drugs was associated with unprotected sex, sex after engaging in substance use, and commercial sex work, after controlling for demographic factors. Self-esteem and social support from family served as protective factors for non-medical use of prescription drugs. HIV-prevention programmes focused on TGW in the United States may wish to expand their assessment of substance use to include the use of prescription medications without a physician's consent.

  15. Using Social Listening Data to Monitor Misuse and Nonmedical Use of Bupropion: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael; Davidson, Julie E; Winter, Christina; Barratt, Monica J; Win, Beta; Painter, Jeffery L; Menone, Christopher; Sayegh, Jonathan; Dasgupta, Nabarun

    2017-01-01

    Background The nonmedical use of pharmaceutical products has become a significant public health concern. Traditionally, the evaluation of nonmedical use has focused on controlled substances with addiction risk. Currently, there is no effective means of evaluating the nonmedical use of noncontrolled antidepressants. Objective Social listening, in the context of public health sometimes called infodemiology or infoveillance, is the process of identifying and assessing what is being said about a company, product, brand, or individual, within forms of electronic interactive media. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether content analysis of social listening data could be utilized to identify posts discussing potential misuse or nonmedical use of bupropion and two comparators, amitriptyline and venlafaxine, and (2) to describe and characterize these posts. Methods Social listening was performed on all publicly available posts cumulative through July 29, 2015, from two harm-reduction Web forums, Bluelight and Opiophile, which mentioned the study drugs. The acquired data were stripped of personally identifiable identification (PII). A set of generic, brand, and vernacular product names was used to identify product references in posts. Posts were obtained using natural language processing tools to identify vernacular references to drug misuse-related Preferred Terms from the English Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) version 18 terminology. Posts were reviewed manually by coders, who extracted relevant details. Results A total of 7756 references to at least one of the study antidepressants were identified within posts gathered for this study. Of these posts, 668 (8.61%, 668/7756) referenced misuse or nonmedical use of the drug, with bupropion accounting for 438 (65.6%, 438/668). Of the 668 posts, nonmedical use was discouraged by 40.6% (178/438), 22% (22/100), and 18.5% (24/130) and encouraged by 12.3% (54/438), 10% (10/100), and 10

  16. Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…

  17. The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface: Non-Medical Uses of BCI Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blankertz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI is a steadily growing area ofresearch. While initially BCI research was focused on applicationsfor paralyzed patients, increasingly more alternative applications inhealthy human subjects are proposed and investigated. In particular,monitoring of mental states and decoding of covert user states haveseen a strong rise of interest. Here, we present some examples ofsuch novel applications which provide evidence for the promisingpotential of BCI technology for non-medical uses. Furthermore, wediscuss distinct methodological improvements required to bringnon-medical applications of BCI technology to a diversity of laypersontarget groups, e.g., ease of use, minimal training, general usability,short control latencies.

  18. Caesarean section for non-medical reasons at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Tina; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Neilson, James P; Kingdon, Carol; Gyte, Gillian M L

    2012-03-14

    controlled trials, upon which to base any practice recommendations regarding planned caesarean section for non-medical reasons at term. In the absence of trial data, there is an urgent need for a systematic review of observational studies and a synthesis of qualitative data to better assess the short- and long-term effects of caesarean section and vaginal birth.

  19. Longitudinal trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medication among middle and high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J.; Cranford, James A.; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription medications has been identified as a major public health problem among youth, although few longitudinal studies have examined non-medical use of prescription medications in the context of other drug use. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown gender and race differences in non-medical use of prescription medications. It was hypothesized that (1) non-medical use of prescription medications increases with age, and (2) these increases will be stronger in magnitude among female and Caucasian adolescents. Changes in non-medical use of prescription medications across 4 years were examined and compared with changes in other drug use (e.g., alcohol and marijuana). Middle and high school students enrolled in 5 schools in southeastern Michigan completed web-based surveys at 4 annual time points. The cumulative sample size was 5,217. The sample ranged from 12 to 18 years, 61% were Caucasian, 34% were African American, and 50% were female. Using a series of repeated measures latent class analyses, the trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medications were examined, demonstrating a 2-class solution: (1) the no/low non-medical use of prescription medications group had low probabilities of any non-medical use of prescription medications across all grades, and (2) the any non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a roughly linear increase in the probability of non-medical use of prescription medications over time. The probability of any non-medical use of prescription medications increased during the transition from middle school to high school. Results from this longitudinal study yielded several noteworthy findings: Participants who were classified in the any/high non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a discontinuous pattern of non-medical use of prescription medications over time, indicating that non-medical use of prescription medications is a relatively sporadic behavior that does not persist

  20. Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and depressed mood among college students: frequency and routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Christian J; Falone, Anthony E; Cranford, James A; Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2010-04-01

    Studies demonstrate associations between nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and depressed mood; however, relevance of NMUPS route of administration and frequency of use have not been examined. We hypothesized frequent NMUPS and nonoral routes would be significantly associated with depressed mood. A Web survey was self-administered by a probability sample of 3,639 undergraduate students at a large U.S. university. The survey contained substance use (e.g., frequency, route of administration) and depressed mood measurement. Past-year prevalence of NMUPS was 6.0% (n = 212). Approximately 50% of frequent or nonoral NMUPS reported depressed mood. Adjusted odds of depressed mood were over two times greater among frequent monthly NMUPS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-5.15) and nonoral routes of administration (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.36-3.70), after controlling for other variables. Nonmedical users of prescription stimulants should be screened for depressed mood, especially those who report frequent and nonoral routes of administration.

  1. Other-regarding behavior and motivation in health care provision: an experiment with medical and non-medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Wiesen, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Other-regarding motivation is a fundamental determinant of public service provision. In health care, one example is physicians who act benevolently towards their patients when providing medical services. Such patient-regarding motivation seems closely associated with a personal sacrifice that health service providers are willing to make. Surprisingly, evidence on physicians' motivation is rare. This paper contributes to the literature by investigating prospective physicians', in particular, medical students', motivations and behavior. We measure the willingness to sacrifice own profit in order to increase the patients' health benefit. We conduct the same analysis for non-medical students. In a controlled incentivized laboratory experiment, participants decide, in the role of physicians, on the provision of medical services under fee-for-service or capitation schemes. Overall, 42 medical students and 44 non-medical students participated in five experimental sessions conducted between 2006 and 2008. We find substantial differences under both payment systems: compared to medical students, students of non-medical majors are less patient-regarding, less willing to sacrifice their own profit, and they state less motivation to improve patients' health. This results in significantly lower patient health benefits. Some implications for health care policies in light of physician shortage and for physician payment systems are discussed.

  2. Non-Medical Management of Raynaud’s Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-29

    I AD-AIll 032 ARMY RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE NATICK MA F/B &/ S I NON-MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF RAYNAUD’S OISEASE,(U) I JUN 81 J B JOBE. J B...collagen disease, they are referred to as Rana d’s phenomenon or syndrome . Minimal criteria for diagnosis of Raynaud’s disease have long been established...JAMA. l945; 129:1-- s . 2. blain, A 1l1, Coiler, FA, Carver, 6i. Raynaud’s disease: A study ot criteria for prognosis. Surgery. 19)1; 2V:387-31)7. 3

  3. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  4. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Adolescents: The Influence of Bonds to Family and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use among adolescents in recent years. Research now indicates that the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use is greater than the prevalence of other illicit drug use, excluding marijuana. Despite these recent trends, there is a dearth of research in the…

  5. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  6. Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics: Time to Restrict Their Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard William Meek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The global crisis of antibiotic resistance has reached a point where, if action is not taken, human medicine will enter a postantibiotic world and simple injuries could once again be life threatening. New antibiotics are needed urgently, but better use of existing agents is just as important. More appropriate use of antibiotics in medicine is vital, but the extensive use of antibiotics outside medical settings is often overlooked. Antibiotics are commonly used in animal husbandry, bee-keeping, fish farming and other forms of aquaculture, ethanol production, horticulture, antifouling paints, food preservation, and domestically. This provides multiple opportunities for the selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the current crisis, it is vital that the nonmedical use of antibiotics is critically examined and that any nonessential use halted.

  7. Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics: Time to Restrict Their Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Richard William; Vyas, Hrushi; Piddock, Laura Jane Violet

    2015-10-01

    The global crisis of antibiotic resistance has reached a point where, if action is not taken, human medicine will enter a postantibiotic world and simple injuries could once again be life threatening. New antibiotics are needed urgently, but better use of existing agents is just as important. More appropriate use of antibiotics in medicine is vital, but the extensive use of antibiotics outside medical settings is often overlooked. Antibiotics are commonly used in animal husbandry, bee-keeping, fish farming and other forms of aquaculture, ethanol production, horticulture, antifouling paints, food preservation, and domestically. This provides multiple opportunities for the selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the current crisis, it is vital that the nonmedical use of antibiotics is critically examined and that any nonessential use halted.

  8. Prevalence of nonmedical methamphetamine use in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barchha Nina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illicit methamphetamine use continues to be a public health concern in the United States. The goal of the current study was to use a relatively inexpensive methodology to examine the prevalence and demographic correlates of nonmedical methamphetamine use in the United States. Methods The sample was obtained through an internet survey of noninstitutionalized adults (n = 4,297 aged 18 to 49 in the United States in 2005. Propensity weighting methods using information from the U.S. Census and the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH were used to estimate national-level prevalence rates. Results The overall prevalence of current nonmedical methamphetamine use was estimated to be 0.27%. Lifetime use was estimated to be 8.6%. Current use rates for men (0.32% and women (0.23% did not differ, although men had a higher 3-year prevalence rate (3.1% than women (1.1%. Within the age subgroup with the highest overall methamphetamine use (18 to 25 year olds, non-students had substantially higher methamphetamine use (0.85% current; 2.4% past year than students (0.23% current; 0.79% past year. Methamphetamine use was not constrained to those with publicly funded health care insurance. Conclusion Through the use of an internet panel weighted to reflect U.S. population norms, the estimated lifetime prevalence of methamphetamine use among 18 to 49 year olds was 8.6%. These findings give rates of use comparable to those reported in the 2005 NSDUH. Internet surveys are a relatively inexpensive way to provide complimentary data to telephone or in-person interviews.

  9. [Non-medical applications for brain MRI: Ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, S; Fagot-Largeault, A; Leboyer, M; Houenou, J

    2015-04-01

    The recent neuroimaging techniques offer the possibility to better understand complex cognitive processes that are involved in mental disorders and thus have become cornerstone tools for research in psychiatry. The performances of functional magnetic resonance imaging are not limited to medical research and are used in non-medical fields. These recent applications represent new challenges for bioethics. In this article we aim at discussing the new ethical issues raised by the applications of the latest neuroimaging technologies to non-medical fields. We included a selection of peer-reviewed English medical articles after a search on NCBI Pubmed database and Google scholar from 2000 to 2013. We screened bibliographical tables for supplementary references. Websites of governmental French institutions implicated in ethical questions were also screened for governmental reports. Findings of brain areas supporting emotional responses and regulation have been used for marketing research, also called neuromarketing. The discovery of different brain activation patterns in antisocial disorder has led to changes in forensic psychiatry with the use of imaging techniques with unproven validity. Automated classification algorithms and multivariate statistical analyses of brain images have been applied to brain-reading techniques, aiming at predicting unconscious neural processes in humans. We finally report the current position of the French legislation recently revised and discuss the technical limits of such techniques. In the near future, brain imaging could find clinical applications in psychiatry as diagnostic or predictive tools. However, the latest advances in brain imaging are also used in non-scientific fields raising key ethical questions. Involvement of neuroscientists, psychiatrists, physicians but also of citizens in neuroethics discussions is crucial to challenge the risk of unregulated uses of brain imaging. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by

  10. Knowledge and risk perception of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer among non-medical university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba; Tutlam, Nhial T

    2016-01-28

    To assess non-medical university students' knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among non-medical students of a private Midwestern university in the United States in May 2012. Questionnaire assessed demographic information and contained 21 previously validated questions regarding knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Knowledge scale was categorized into low and high. Risk level was estimated based on smoking, drinking, and sexual habits. Bivariate associations between continuous and categorical variables were assessed using Pearson correlation and Chi-square tests, respectively. The response rate was 87% (100 out of 115 students approached). Eighty-one percent (81%) had low oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge; and only 2% perceived that their oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer risk was high. Risk perception was negatively correlated with age at sexual debut, r (64) = -0.26, p = 0.037; one-way ANOVA showed a marginally significant association between risk perception and number of sexual partners, F(4, 60) = 2.48, p = 0.05. There was no significant association between knowledge and perception of risk; however, oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge was significantly associated with frequency of prevention of STDs (p perception is low among this student population. Since oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence is increasingly shifting towards younger adults, interventions must be tailored to this group in order to improve prevention and control.

  11. Characteristics and motives of college students who engage in nonmedical use of methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Robert L; Coleman, John J; Bucher, Richard H; Wilford, Bonnie B

    2008-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) has a long history of being an effective medication for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, the nonmedical use of MPH has increased, particularly among college students. To investigate this, we surveyed 2,087 students regarding MPH misuse. Of 2,087 respondents, 110 (5.3%) used MPH nonmedically at least once. Most obtained MPH free from a friend, acquaintance, or family member. Misuse of Ritalin(R) occurred four times more frequently than Concerta. Among Ritalin abusers, Intranasal use was reported more often than oral. Students reported using MPH nonmedically for recreational reasons as well as to improve academic performance.

  12. Sexual orientation and first-year college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Dagirmanjian, Faedra Backus; Trub, Leora; Dawson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    To examine differences between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). First-year university students between October 2009 and October 2013 who self-identified as heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning. Students completed questionnaires on demographic variables and NMUPD. Any NMUPD was examined, as were stimulants, anxiolytics, and painkillers. Hierarchical regression was used to examine differential NMUPD based on sexual orientation, gender, and race. For any NMUPD and painkillers, bisexual and questioning students reported higher rates of nonmedical use than heterosexual students and gay men. When compared with heterosexual females, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning females reported higher any NMUPD and nonmedical painkiller use. For stimulants and anxiolytics, bisexual students reported the highest nonmedical use, followed by gay and lesbian students. There may be particular risk for NMUPD associated with membership in marginalized groups in terms of both sexual orientation and gender.

  13. How medical services mask provision of non-medical supportive care in palliative oncology ?

    OpenAIRE

    Buthion, Valérie; Moumjid, Nora; Margier, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In the context of cancer, non-medical supportive care improves quality of life. While policymakers expect it to be cheaper than high-tech medical care, we hypothesized that it is in fact embedded in and camouflaged by hospital medical services. METHODS In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we conducted qualitative interviews with healthcare providers, patients and family caregivers in France. We first performed a functional analysis to identify non-medical supportive care functio...

  14. Potential applications of medical and non-medical robots for neurosurgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alric, Matthieu; Chapelle, Frédéric; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Gogu, Grigore

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to review the state-of-the-art in medical robotic systems used for different surgical applications, and to position and evaluate their concepts according to the design requirements of an innovative, robotized neurosurgical system, capable of performing tumor ablation or electrode positioning. A few other non-medical systems, which have interesting concepts, will also be discussed. The overall aim is to determine the robotic concept (structure, actuation, etc.) most applicable to specific tasks in neurosurgery. The first section of the article describes the requirements of the task and each important aspect is expressed by an evaluation criterion. Then, 59 systems are described, according to the fields of medical applications and the robotic concepts. An evaluation of the different systems is conducted, based on the five most significant criteria. However, the main characteristic assessed is the deployment capability of the system i.e. extension and retraction. The final section presents an overview of concepts transferable to neurosurgical applications. Continuum concepts, such as "elephant trunks", seem to be the most adapted solutions, utilizing pneumatic and/or spring and/or cable actuations. Pneumatics offer deployment forces and cables can control and guide the deployment. The design of a new neurosurgical device should take into account these observations as a base.

  15. Legalization of marijuana for non-medical use: health, policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Anne

    2014-09-01

    The legalization of marijuana is a controversial issue with implications for health care providers, policy makers, and society at large. The use of marijuana for medical reasons is accepted in many states. However, legal sale of the drug for non-medical use began for the first time on January 1, 2014, in Colorado, following a relaxation of marijuana restrictions that is unprecedented worldwide. News reports have indicated that sales of the drug have been brisk. Marijuana-infused food products have been unexpectedly popular, exceeding sales projections. Marijuana use is associated with numerous physical and mental disorders and could result in addiction. Evidence suggests its potency has increased since the 1980s. Colorado has established regulations regarding the sale of marijuana for non-medical use, but concerns still exist. The current article offers a discussion of the health, public policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications of the legalization of marijuana for non-medical use.

  16. Nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates among rural and urban women with protective orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors for lifetime nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates among a sample of rural and urban women with recent partner violence victimization (n=756). Nearly one third of the sample (32.8%) reported ever using illicit sedative-hypnotics or opiates. Nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates was significantly associated with lifetime cumulative exposure to interpersonal victimization, rural Appalachian residency, past-year use of other substances and other substance-related problems, and lifetime unmet health care needs. Findings have implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment and victim advocacy programs.

  17. 42 CFR 403.764 - Basis and purpose of religious nonmedical health care institutions providing home service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose of religious nonmedical health care institutions providing home service. 403.764 Section 403.764 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Religious Nonmedical Health Care Institutions-Benefits, Conditions of Participation, and Payment §...

  18. Enhancing the Clinical Reasoning Skills of Postgraduate Students in Internal Medicine Through Medical Nonfiction and Nonmedical Fiction Extracurricular Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, H S; Chacko, Thomas V; Murthy, K A Sudharshana; Gowdappa, H Basavana

    2016-12-01

    To improve the clinical reasoning skills of postgraduate students in internal medicine through 2 kinds of extracurricular books: medical nonfiction and nonmedical fiction. Clinical reasoning is difficult to define, understand, observe, teach, and measure. This is an educational innovation under an experimental framework based on a cognitive intervention grounded in constructivist and cognitivist theories. This study was conducted from June 1, 2014, through May 31, 2015. It was a pre-post, randomized, controlled, prospective, mixed-methods, small-group study. The intervention was through medical nonfiction and nonmedical fiction books. The process was structured to ensure that the students would read the material in phases and reflect on them. Clinical reasoning (pretests and posttests) was quantitatively assessed using the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory (DTI) and clinical reasoning exercises (CREs) and their assessment using a rubric. A qualitative design was used, and face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted. Posttest total scores (DTI=188.92; CREs=53.92) were higher for the study group after the intervention compared with its own pretest scores (DTI=165.25; CREs=41.17) and with the pretest (DTI=159.27; CRE=40.73) and posttest (DTI=166.91; CREs=41.18) scores of the control group. Interviews with the study group confirmed that the intervention was acceptable and useful in daily practice. We introduced, evaluated, and proved an approach to teaching-learning clinical reasoning based on the assumption that the clinical reasoning skills of postgraduate students in internal medicine can be enhanced through 2 kinds of extracurricular books and that fun as well as interest will enhance learning. This study is not only about teaching-learning clinical reasoning but also about the humanities in medical education. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Usage of emergency contraception between medical related and non-medical related students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalid, A K

    2009-04-01

    Teenagers and young adultshave the most risk of unplanned pregnancy, due to lack of awareness to see a family planning provider after unprotected sexual intercourse. In addition, nearly one in five physicians is reluctant to provide information regarding Emergency Contraception (EC) to women and this may contribute to their lack of awareness. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the use of EC between medical related students compared to non-medical related students. Data collection was done using questionnaires distributed among students in University College Cork (UCC). 93% of medically related students were aware of EC compared to only 73.5% of non-medically related students. Medical related students also were more aware about the mechanism of action and detailed knowledge of EC compared to the non-medical students. This study has proven that medically related students have more detailed knowledge regarding EC compared to non-medical related students. However, there was no significant difference noted regarding the attitude and practice between the two groups.

  20. Nonmedical Use of Antihistaminergic Anxiolytics and Other Prescription Drugs among Persons with Opioid Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Tove; Kral, Alex H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU) is an increasing problem, insufficiently studied among people in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with NMPDU for drug classes insufficiently described in opioid-dependent populations, including antihistaminergic anxiolytics and central stimulants. Methods. Study participants were recruited at two OMT clinics in Malmo, Sweden, between October 2014 and December 2015 (N = 73) and interviewed about their use, motivations for use, and acquisition and administration of prescription drugs. Results. The majority of the sample reported lifetime NMPDU: 60% for benzodiazepine-like hypnotics (z-drugs), 21% for pregabalin, 19% for stimulants, and 12%–15% for antihistaminergic anxiolytics. Lower age was associated with nonmedical benzodiazepine use (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.89; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.82–0.97). Illicit acquisition was reported by 61% of people using z-drugs, 46% of people using pregabalin, and 38% of people using prescription stimulants, but only by 6–10% of people using antihistaminergic anxiolytics. Conclusions. The substantial nonmedical use of pregabalin, z-drugs, and prescription stimulants found in this study suggests that clinicians should prescribe these drugs with great caution. Nonmedical use of antihistaminergic anxiolytics does not seem to be a clinical issue among people in OMT in a Swedish setting, but we propose future studies to monitor their use. PMID:28097037

  1. Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use among a Sample of College Students: Relationship with Psychological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace; Wilson, Kimberly G.; Verdi, Genevieve; Paquin, Gregory; Lopes, Justin; Varejao, Michael; Dussault, Crystal

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To further investigate use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta) among a sample of college students and to explore the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulant use. Method: The sample consisted of 390 college students (71.6% female, 28.4% male). Participants were…

  2. Understanding the Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications in the U.S. High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia G.; Pontes, Nancy M.; Pontes, Manuel C. F.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine relationships between sleep insufficiency, depressive symptoms, demographic factors, and the nonmedical use of prescription medications (NMUPMs) in the U.S. high school students. Data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System were used (n = 13,570) and analyzed using IBM SPSS 23™ (complex…

  3. Prevalence of ADHD Diagnosis and Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Jeffrey P.; Scheurich, Neil E.; Ranseen, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD diagnosis and the prevalence of nonmedical prescription stimulant use among a sample of medical students. Methods: An anonymous survey was administered to 388 medical students (84.0% return rate) across all 4 years of education at a public medical college. Results: Eighteen medical…

  4. Hyperactive-Impulsive Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Nonmedicated Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neha; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L.; Gehricke, Jean-G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems. Method: A total of 22…

  5. A nationwide population analysis of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses and nonmedical working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Che Huang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our nationwide population-based study revealed increased risks of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses compared with those among nonmedical working women. The large-scale observation of the increased antenatal and perinatal complications draws attention to the health issues faced by nursing personnel who represent one of the most important workforces in the healthcare system.

  6. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Vos (Amber); M.J. van Veen (Mieke); E. Birnie (Erwin); S. Denktaş (Semiha); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractGrowing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed

  7. Nonmedical Use of Antihistaminergic Anxiolytics and Other Prescription Drugs among Persons with Opioid Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disa Dahlman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU is an increasing problem, insufficiently studied among people in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT. This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with NMPDU for drug classes insufficiently described in opioid-dependent populations, including antihistaminergic anxiolytics and central stimulants. Methods. Study participants were recruited at two OMT clinics in Malmo, Sweden, between October 2014 and December 2015 (N=73 and interviewed about their use, motivations for use, and acquisition and administration of prescription drugs. Results. The majority of the sample reported lifetime NMPDU: 60% for benzodiazepine-like hypnotics (z-drugs, 21% for pregabalin, 19% for stimulants, and 12%–15% for antihistaminergic anxiolytics. Lower age was associated with nonmedical benzodiazepine use (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.89; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.82–0.97. Illicit acquisition was reported by 61% of people using z-drugs, 46% of people using pregabalin, and 38% of people using prescription stimulants, but only by 6–10% of people using antihistaminergic anxiolytics. Conclusions. The substantial nonmedical use of pregabalin, z-drugs, and prescription stimulants found in this study suggests that clinicians should prescribe these drugs with great caution. Nonmedical use of antihistaminergic anxiolytics does not seem to be a clinical issue among people in OMT in a Swedish setting, but we propose future studies to monitor their use.

  8. Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use among a Sample of College Students: Relationship with Psychological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace; Wilson, Kimberly G.; Verdi, Genevieve; Paquin, Gregory; Lopes, Justin; Varejao, Michael; Dussault, Crystal

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To further investigate use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta) among a sample of college students and to explore the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulant use. Method: The sample consisted of 390 college students (71.6% female, 28.4% male). Participants were…

  9. Sexual Orientation and First-Year College Students' Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Dagirmanjian, Faedra Backus; Trub, Leora; Dawson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). Participants: First-year university students between October 2009 and October 2013 who self-identified as heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning. Methods: Students completed…

  10. Assessment and care for non-medical risk factors in current antenatal health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Vos (Amber); Leeman, A. (Annemiek); W. Waelput (Wim); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); S. Denktaş (Semiha)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: this study aims to identify current practice in risk assessment, current antenatal policy and referral possibilities for non-medical risk factors (lifestyle and social risk factors), and to explore the satisfaction among obstetric caregivers in their collaboration with

  11. Non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic purposes among college students: a test of social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Ong, Julianne

    2014-11-01

    The current research examines whether measures associated with Akers' social learning theory are related to non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic reasons among college students. We examine data from a sample of 549 undergraduate students at one public university in the Southeastern United States. We estimate several logistic regression models to test our hypotheses. The findings indicated that roughly 17% of students reported non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic reasons during the past year. In separate models, all four of the social learning measures were significantly correlated to non-medical use. In the complete model, the risk of non-medical prescription stimulant use for academic reasons was increased for respondents who reported more of their friends used and also for respondents who believed that prescription stimulants were an effective study aid. The current research fills an important gap in the literature regarding theoretical explanations for non-medical prescription stimulant use. Given the high prevalence of non-medical prescription stimulant use and the known risks associated with non-medical use this research can help inform intervention strategies for college populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Navigating the cancer information environment: The reciprocal relationship between patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Tan, Andy S L; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Prior theory has argued and empirical studies have shown that cancer patients rely on information from their health care providers as well as lay sources to understand and make decisions about their disease. However, research on the dynamic and interdependent nature of cancer patients' engagement with different information sources is lacking. This study tested the hypotheses that patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources influence one another longitudinally among a representative cohort of 1,293 cancer survivors in Pennsylvania. The study hypotheses were supported in a series of lagged multiple regression analyses. Baseline seeking information from nonmedical sources positively predicted subsequent patient-clinician information engagement at 1-year follow-up. The reverse relationship was also statistically significant; baseline patient-clinician information engagement positively predicted information seeking from nonmedical sources at follow-up. These findings suggest that cancer survivors move between nonmedical and clinician sources in a dynamic way to learn about their disease.

  13. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meade, Oonagh; Bowskill, Dianne; Lymn, Joanne S

    2011-01-01

    ... of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials...

  14. The non-medical workforce and its role in surgical training: Consensus recommendations by the Association of Surgeons in Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokani, Vimal J; Peckham-Cooper, Adam; Bunting, David; Beamish, Andrew J; Williams, Adam; Harries, Rhiannon L

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the delivery of the healthcare structure have led to the expansion of the non-medical workforce (NMW). The non-medical practitioner in surgery (a healthcare professional without a medical degree who undertakes specialist training) is a valuable addition to a surgical firm. However, there are a number of challenges regarding the successful widespread implementation of this role. This paper outlines a number of these concerns, and makes recommendations to aid the realisation of the non-medical practitioner as a normal part of the surgical team. In summary, the Association of Surgeons in Training welcomes the development of the non-medical workforce as part of the surgical team in order to promote enhanced patient care and improved surgical training opportunities. However, establishing a workforce of independent/semi-independent practitioners who compete for the same training opportunities as surgeons in training may threaten the UK surgical training system, and therefore the care of our future patients.

  15. Attitude and Behavior of Nonmedical Students towards Transmission and Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Rafsanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ravari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To prevent AIDS it is required to create essential changes in attitudes and behaviors of the society. This work was conducted to evaluate attitude and behavior of nonmedical students towards transmission and prevention ways of AIDS. Materials and Methods: This work was conducted based on stratified random sampling on 384 numbers of nonmedical students. Research instrument was a three-part questionnaire designed by the author. Results: Findings indicated that 19.8% and 80.2% of the students have negative and positive attitudes toward AIDS, respectively. Besides, 47.4% of them had a relatively risky behavior whereas 52.6% of them had a secure behavior. Conclusion: Efficient programs about changing the attitude and prevention of risky behaviors seem to be necessary.

  16. The Association between Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use and Suicidal Behavior among United States Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Divin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence represents a vulnerable time for the development of both drug use/abuse and mental illness. Although previous research has substantiated a relationship between drug use and suicidal behavior, little research has examined this relationship with non-medical prescription drug use. Given the growing prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU among adolescents, this study explored the association between NMPDU and suicidal behavior. Nationally representative data were derived from 16, 410 adolescents who completed the 2009 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Approximately 19.8% of participants reported lifetime NMPDU. NMPDU was associated with significantly increased odds of suicidal behavior (P < 0.01, with seriously considering attempting suicide and making a plan about attempting suicide representing the strongest correlates for males and females. Results suggest the importance of 1 continued reinforcement of drug education programs in high school begun at earlier ages and 2 mental health care and screenings among adolescents.

  17. Periodontal health knowledge of nonmedical professionals and their oral hygiene behavior in a teaching hospital in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kehinde Adesola Umeizudike; Adebayo Temitayo Onajole; Patricia Omowunmi Ayanbadejo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The awareness of periodontal diseases is generally poor among Nigerians. Working within the hospital environment should give an edge to nonmedical professionals, who could help to promote periodontal health awareness in countries with an inadequate number of dental health professionals. This study aimed to determine the awareness, knowledge of periodontal diseases and oral hygiene behavior of nonmedical professionals within a hospital setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectio...

  18. Surveillance of Diversion and Nonmedical Use of Extended-Release Prescription Amphetamine and Oral Methylphenidate in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sembower, Mark A.; Ertischek, Michelle D.; Buchholtz, Chloe; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Schnoll, Sidney H.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines rates of nonmedical use and diversion of extended-release amphetamine and extended-release oral methylphenidate in the United States. Prescription dispensing data were sourced from retail pharmacies. Nonmedical use data were collected from the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System Drug Diversion Program and Poison Center Program. Drug diversion trends nearly overlapped for extended-release amphetamine and extended-release oral met...

  19. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racine Eric

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin, is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Results Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Conclusion Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates.

  20. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications Among Medical Students in Greece: Prevalence of and Motivation for Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazisis, Georgios; Tsakiridis, Ioannis; Pourzitaki, Chryssa; Apostolidou, Eirini; Spachos, Dimitrios; Kouvelas, Dimitrios

    2017-08-04

    Non-medical use of prescription medications has risen to unprecedented levels over the past decade worldwide; however, studies assessing misuse across medical students are sparse. The purpose of this study was to1) estimate the lifetime and the past-year prevalence of non-medical use of prescription medications among medical students in Greece 2) identify the motivation for use. 591 medical students completed an anonymous, self-administered, web-based survey assessing lifetime and past-year prevalence of non-medical use of four classes of prescription drugs (opioid painkillers, tranquillizers, sleeping and stimulant medications). According to the motivation to use the responders were classified into three subtypes (selftreatment, recreational, and mixed). The prevalence of lifetime use was 10.7% for at least one of the four prescription drug classes and 9% of the respondents reported lifetime misuse of multiple categories of prescription drugs. The past-year prevalence was approximately 7.7% for at least one of the four prescription drug classes, while the majority misused the drugs "1-2 times per year". Senior students used tranquilizers more than junior students. Self-treatment and mixed subtypes of tranquillizers misuse was more prevalent among women than men while the self-treatment subtype was the most prevalent subtype in all the four drug classes. This is the first study investigating non-medical use of prescription medications among Greek medical students and indicates a high prevalence of misuse of some categories of prescription drugs, mostly for self-treatment purposes.

  1. Role of Religiosity in Psychological Well-Being Among Medical and Non-medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shemaila; Saleem, Tamkeen

    2016-12-27

    Religion has been generally considered as a protective factor for the psychological health of the people. As many studies have publicized a high prevalence of psychological morbidities among the medical students during their academic stages of medical schools, it is significant to investigate whether religiosity functions as a protective factor, to explore religiosity as a predictor of psychological well-being in a sample of medical students, and to compare the results of medical students as well as non-medical students with respect to religiosity and psychological well-being. The study is carried out in Federal Medical and Dental College and International Islamic University, Islamabad. The present study examined a sample of 120 medical students from Federal Medical and Dental College and 120 non-medical students from International Islamic University, Islamabad. Purposive sampling was used. The respondents completed religious orientation scale and scale of psychological well-being scale along with a demographic data sheet. In order to measure the study variables, linear regression and t test were used. The findings revealed that religiosity is a strong predictor of psychological well-being. Extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity predicts psychological well-being among the students. The results indicated a significant difference in psychological well-being between medical and non-medical students. No significant difference was found in religiosity of medical and non-medical students. The gender differences in religiosity and psychological well-being were found to be insignificant. The results emphasize that psychological well-being is prophesied by religiosity. The present research suggests further investigations and also endows with trends for psychological evaluation, development of religious beliefs, and interventions for augmenting psychological well-being among the medical students.

  2. Routes of administration of cannabis used for nonmedical purposes and associations with patterns of drug use.

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio, S.; Deline, S.; Studer, J.; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Daeppen, J.B.; Gmel, G.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Little is known regarding cannabis administration routes for nonmedical use-that is, its delivery methods (e.g., joints, water pipe, food). Therefore, we examined the prevalence rates of different cannabis delivery methods and assessed the relationship of the distinct administration routes with problematic drug use. Subgroups of cannabis users were also investigated (i.e., "pure" cannabis users, previously described as employing a harmless route of administration, and water pipe user...

  3. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Amanda Vos; Mieke J van Veen; Erwin Birnie; Semiha Denktas; Eric AP Steegers; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenata...

  4. Non-medical aspects of civilian-military collaboration in management of major incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram-Manesh, A; Lönroth, H; Rotter, P; Wilhelmsson, M; Aremyr, J; Berner, A; Andersson, A Nero; Carlström, E

    2017-03-02

    Disasters and major incidents demand a multidisciplinary management. Recent experiences from terrorist attacks worldwide have resulted in a search for better assessment of the needs, resources, and knowledge in the medical and non-medical management of these incidents and also actualized the need for collaboration between civilian and military healthcare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the civilian-military collaboration in a Swedish context with the main focus on its non-medical management. An exercise, simulating a foreign military attack centrally on Swedish soil, was designed, initiated, and conducted by a team consisting of civilian and military staff. Data were collected prospectively and evaluated by an expert team. Specific practical and technical issues were presented in collaboration between civilian and military staffs. In addition, shortcomings in decision-making, follow-up, communication, and collaboration due to prominent lack of training and exercising the tasks and positions in all managerial levels of the hospital were identified. Current social and political unrests and terror attacks worldwide necessitate civilian-military collaboration. Such collaboration, however, needs to be synchronized and adjusted to avoid preventable medical and non-medical consequences. Simulation exercises might be one important source to improve such collaboration.

  5. Using pay-for-success to increase investment in the nonmedical determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Ian

    2014-11-01

    The combination of fee-for-service payments and the US health care system's standing commitment to treating existing illness discourages spending on the behavioral, social, and environmental (that is, the nonmedical) conditions that contribute most to long-term health. Pay-for-success, alternatively known as social impact bonds, or SIBs, offers a possible solution. The pay-for-success model relies on an investor that is willing to fund a nonmedical intervention up front while bearing the risk that the intervention may fail to prevent disease in the future. Should the intervention succeed, however, the investor is repaid in full by a predetermined payer (such as a public health agency) and receives an additional return on its investment as a reward for taking on the risk. Pay-for-success pilots are being developed to reduce asthma-related emergencies among children, poor birth outcomes, and the progression of prediabetes to diabetes, among other applications. These efforts, supported by key policy reforms such as public agency data sharing and coordinated care, promise to increase the number of evidence-based nonmedical service providers and seed a new market that values health, not just health care.

  6. From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Hamilton; Wallach, Jason

    2014-01-01

    PCP or phencyclidine was discovered in 1956 and soon became a popular street drug. Dissociatives including PCP, ketamine, and dextromethorphan have been used non-medically for their mind-altering effects for over 60 years. Many of these compounds have also been used clinically and in legitimate research. At least 14 derivatives of PCP were sold for non-medical and illict use from the late 1960s until the 1990s. With the advent of the Internet, the drug market underwent a dramatic evolution. While initially gray-market chemical vendors offering dextromethorphan and ketamine thrived, most recently the market has shifted to legal high and online-based research chemical vendors. Starting with the first dissociative research chemical, 4-MeO-PCP in 2008, the dissociative research chemical market has rapidly evolved and currently comprises at least 12 dissociatives, almost half of which were unknown in the scientific literature prior to their introduction. Several of these, including methoxetamine, have reached widespread use internationally. A historical account of non-medical use of over 30 dissociative compounds was compiled from a diverse collection of sources. The first complete portrait of this underground market is presented along with the relevant legal, technological, and scientific developments which have driven its evolution. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reproduction opportunists in the new global sex trade: PGD and non-medical sex selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andrea M

    2011-11-01

    Regulatory differences between countries are an important driver of the cross-border trade in assisted reproduction as people move to seek services unavailable in their home countries. The development of a lucrative global trade in non-medical sex selection needs to be considered in ethical debates over its availability. I suggest that depictions of non-medical sex selection as a means of 'family balancing' or supportive of reproductive autonomy serve to distance the technologies rhetorically from the gender stereotyping inherent in their use and the commodification upon which they depend. They construct new social categories such as the 'unbalanced' family, the pathologization of 'gender disappointment' and a limited and highly individualized definition of reproductive freedom that permits medical interventions on healthy bodies. Orientalism pervades ethical debate depicting non-medical sex selection in the West as more acceptable to practices in 'Asia'. A case study of the interconnections between Australia and Thailand highlights the global economy sustaining the practice. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-Medical Prescription Stimulant Use in Graduate Students: Relationship With Academic Self-Efficacy and Psychological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Genevieve; Weyandt, Lisa L; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine graduate students' non-medical use of prescription stimulant medication, and the relationship between non-medical use of prescription stimulants with academic self-efficacy, psychological factors (i.e., anxiety, depression, and stress), and internal restlessness. The sample consisted of 807 graduate students from universities located in five geographic regions of the United States. Past-year rates of self-reported non-medical use were determined to be 5.9%, with overall lifetime prevalence of 17.5%. Observed self-reported non-medical use of prescription stimulant medications was significantly correlated with self-reported levels of anxiety and stress, various aspects of internal restlessness, and perceived safety of the medications. Findings support graduate students' motivations of non-medical prescription stimulant use to be both academic and social in nature. Effective prevention and education efforts are needed to help address the non-medical use of prescription stimulants by graduate students on university campuses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Midwestern Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…

  10. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Oonagh; Bowskill, Dianne; Lymn, Joanne S

    2011-01-11

    There is growing research on student use of podcasts in academic settings. However, there is little in-depth research focusing on student experience of podcasts, in particular in terms of barriers to, and facilitators of, podcast use and students' perceptions of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven non-medical prescribing students (average age = 43 years), all of whom were nurses, who had access to seven podcasts of key pharmacology lectures. These podcasts took the form of downloadable audio lecture recordings available through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Low, medium and high users of the podcasts took part in the interviews in order to access a variety of student experiences. Interview data was analysed using thematic template analysis to identify key themes surrounding student experience of podcast availability, particularly in relation to barriers to and facilitators of podcast use, and students' experiences of podcasts as a learning tool. Students used podcasts for a variety of reasons such as revisiting lectures, preparing for exams, to clarify or revise specific topics and, to a lesser extent, to catch up on a missed lecture. Barriers to podcast use centred mainly around technological issues. Lack of experience of the technology required to access podcasts proved a barrier for some students. A lack of access to suitable technology was also a reported barrier. Family assistance and I.T. assistance from the university helped facilitate students' use of the podcasts. Students found that using podcasts allowed them to have greater control over their learning and to gauge their learning needs, as well as helping them build their understanding of a complex topic. Students used podcasts for

  11. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lymn Joanne S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing research on student use of podcasts in academic settings. However, there is little in-depth research focusing on student experience of podcasts, in particular in terms of barriers to, and facilitators of, podcast use and students' perceptions of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven non-medical prescribing students (average age = 43 years, all of whom were nurses, who had access to seven podcasts of key pharmacology lectures. These podcasts took the form of downloadable audio lecture recordings available through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Low, medium and high users of the podcasts took part in the interviews in order to access a variety of student experiences. Interview data was analysed using thematic template analysis to identify key themes surrounding student experience of podcast availability, particularly in relation to barriers to and facilitators of podcast use, and students' experiences of podcasts as a learning tool. Results Students used podcasts for a variety of reasons such as revisiting lectures, preparing for exams, to clarify or revise specific topics and, to a lesser extent, to catch up on a missed lecture. Barriers to podcast use centred mainly around technological issues. Lack of experience of the technology required to access podcasts proved a barrier for some students. A lack of access to suitable technology was also a reported barrier. Family assistance and I.T. assistance from the university helped facilitate students' use of the podcasts. Students found that using podcasts allowed them to have greater control over their learning and to gauge their learning needs, as well as helping them build their

  12. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing research on student use of podcasts in academic settings. However, there is little in-depth research focusing on student experience of podcasts, in particular in terms of barriers to, and facilitators of, podcast use and students' perceptions of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven non-medical prescribing students (average age = 43 years), all of whom were nurses, who had access to seven podcasts of key pharmacology lectures. These podcasts took the form of downloadable audio lecture recordings available through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Low, medium and high users of the podcasts took part in the interviews in order to access a variety of student experiences. Interview data was analysed using thematic template analysis to identify key themes surrounding student experience of podcast availability, particularly in relation to barriers to and facilitators of podcast use, and students' experiences of podcasts as a learning tool. Results Students used podcasts for a variety of reasons such as revisiting lectures, preparing for exams, to clarify or revise specific topics and, to a lesser extent, to catch up on a missed lecture. Barriers to podcast use centred mainly around technological issues. Lack of experience of the technology required to access podcasts proved a barrier for some students. A lack of access to suitable technology was also a reported barrier. Family assistance and I.T. assistance from the university helped facilitate students' use of the podcasts. Students found that using podcasts allowed them to have greater control over their learning and to gauge their learning needs, as well as helping them build their understanding of a complex topic

  13. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting.Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers.Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined.Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  14. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting. Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers. Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined. Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  15. NON-MEDICAL DRUG USE AMONG INTERNS AND HOUSE-OFFICERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Singh, Rajpal; Avasthi, Ajit; Gupta, Rajeev

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Self-administered questionnaire was given to a sample of 105 interns and house officers working in Govt. Medical College, Jammu. Questionnaire was designed to obtain information about socio-demographic characteristics, the frequency of non-medical drug use during the last one year and to enquire about “reasons” for drug intake. It was found that drugs commonly used were alcohol, tobacco, tranquillizers, amphetamines, cannabis. Most of the subjects used the same for ‘company’, festivity or curiosity. PMID:22058486

  16. Oocyte banking for anticipated gamete exhaustion (AGE) is a preventive intervention, neither social nor nonmedical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Deneyer, Michel; Nekkebroeck, Julie; Tournaye, Herman

    2014-05-01

    The scope of female fertility preservation through cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex has widened from mainly oncological indications to a variety of fertility-threatening conditions. So far, no specific universally accepted denomination name has been given to cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex for the prevention of age-related fertility decline. We argue that the commonly used phrases 'social' and 'nonmedical freezing' to denote the indication for cryopreservation are not entirely correct. We suggest 'AGE banking', as this has not only the advantage of being catchy but also depicts the exact indication for the strategy, anticipated gamete exhaustion.

  17. Nonmedical out-of-pocket expenses: a hidden cost of hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFazio, Rachel; Vessey, Judith

    2011-02-01

    Health care reform has primarily focused on the costs incurred by the health care delivery system. Little attention has been placed on the magnitude of out-of-pocket (OOP) costs imposed on families as caregivers. Nonmedical OOP expenses (NOOPEs) are usually overlooked. The economic burden created by NOOPEs significantly inflates the total costs families must bear. Health care workers and policy makers must gain a better understanding of these realities. This article will discuss NOOPEs, provide a case study for illustration, and discuss strategies for nurses to assist families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Recognition of flavor in non-medical literatures of pre-Qin dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei

    2010-02-01

    By systemically sorting of non-medical literatures of pre-Qin dynasty such as the Thirteen Confucian Classics, etc, this article made an analysis on the meaning and content of flavor in that period with the Genesis and Epistemology, and pointed out that there were two meanings of the flavor: the first is the flavor or taste obtained by tasting, and the other is the five-elements flavor, a abstract flavor. The former flavor should be originated early than the later one. Besides, the article made a brief view on the functions of flavors in the health keeping and medicine.

  19. [Quality analysis by external users of the non-medical health transport unit of Alicante].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Clemor, C; Cano, F Soriano; Gimeno, F Morant

    2011-01-01

    Non-medical health transport has great health, media and social repercussions and requires a very considerable amount of human and economic resources. To describe the quality, evaluated by external users of our Health Department, in order to know what are the most important elements for external users. Cross-sectional, descriptive observational study. Population to study: patients with a social security health card who come to the Hospital of Alicante and are non-medical health transport unit users. Waiting time to be delivered to hospital in 92.7% of the cases was less than an hour, and was between one and two hours for 7.2%. The most frequent destinations were rehabilitation service and outpatient clinics. When users were asked if the would recommend this service, 60.9% said "for sure" and 39.1% said "probably yes". This study allows us to know patient needs and expectations, as well as the factors they value the most and which of our work areas to improve. Copyright © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonmedical Opioid Pain Relievers and All-Cause Mortality: A 27-Year Follow-Up From the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Smallwood, Bryan A.; Anthony, James C.; Wu, Li-Tzy; Eaton, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether nonmedical opioid pain reliever use is associated with higher mortality in the general US population. Methods. We assessed the history of nonmedical opioid pain reliever use among 9985 people interviewed at baseline of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program initiated in 1981 to 1983 in Baltimore, Maryland; St. Louis, Missouri; and Durham, North Carolina. We linked the data with the National Death Index through 2007. Results. Nonmedical opioid pain reliever use was 1.4%. Compared with no nonmedical drug use, mortality was increased for nonmedical opioid pain reliever use (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 2.53) or nonmedical use of other drugs (HR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.62). Mortality was also higher for males and for those beginning nonmedical opioid pain reliever use before aged 15 years. Conclusions. A history of nonmedical opioid pain reliever use was associated with increased mortality, in particular for males and early onset users. PMID:26691106

  1. 山东省4所医学院校非医学专业本科毕业论文质量管控的调查分析%Investigation of Quality Management and Control of Graduation Thesis of Non-medical Specialties in 4 Medical Colleges in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘典恩; 周建裕; 徐麟; 段玉平; 欧阳翔

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究山东省医学院校非医学专业本科毕业论文质量的管控因素与改进措施。方法调查山东省4所院校中非医学专业本科毕业论文的撰写主体,访谈指导教师和二级学院主管领导。结果论文总体优良率为69.1%;指导教师对论文质量的管控作用认识不高,部分指导教师质量管控的主动性较差;部分学生撰写论文所用时间偏少;制度在论文撰写中的有效管理作用发挥不佳;论文质量管控的体制存在问题;论文成绩评定欠公正。结论山东省医学院校非医学专业本科毕业论文质量较好,但应调整偏高的优良率和专业间优良率的不平衡;需加强指导教师队伍建设,提供基本的资源经费保障,进一步提高师生对论文质量管控与奖惩相关制度的知晓率;二级学院在论文质量管控中应发挥主要作用;重视答辩环节和成绩评定管理。%Objective Research the factors of quality management and control and mending measures of graduation thesis of non‐medical specialties in medical colleges .Methods Investigate the graduation thesis w riters of non‐medical specialty in 4 medical universities and interview both faculty advisers and deans .Results The excellent rate of graduation thesis in general is 69 .1% .The awareness of faculty advisers for the function of graduation thesis quality management and control is not good enough , some of them have a poor initiative about quality management and control .The time for writing grad‐uation thesis of some writers is too short .The thesis system has not play a appropriate role .There are some problems about system and mechanism for quality management and control .The grades of graduation thesis are nor very fair .Conclusion The quality of graduation thesis of non‐medical special‐ties in medical colleges is good relatively ,but should pay attention to adjust the excellent rate too high and notice the

  2. Exploring the Use of Nonmedical Sources of Prescription Drugs among Immigrant Latinos in the Rural Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissman, Aaron T.; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Bachmann, Laura H.; Montano, Jaime; Topmiller, Michael; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about access to medicine among immigrant Latinos in the United States (US). This study explored access to, and use of, prescription drugs obtained from nonmedical sources among recently arrived, Spanish-speaking immigrant Latinos in rural North Carolina (NC). Methods: Our community-based participatory research…

  3. Perceptions of personal health risks by medical and non-medical workers in a university medical center : a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Listyowardojo, Tita Alissa; Nap, Raoul E.; Johnson, Addie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are faced with many work-related choices which may depend on how they perceive risk, such as whether or not to comply with safety regulations. Little research has investigated risk perception in medical workers in comparison with non-medical workers and the ext

  4. Perceptions of personal health risks by medical and non-medical workers in a university medical center : a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Listyowardojo, Tita Alissa; Nap, Raoul E.; Johnson, Addie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are faced with many work-related choices which may depend on how they perceive risk, such as whether or not to comply with safety regulations. Little research has investigated risk perception in medical workers in comparison with non-medical workers and the ext

  5. High-fidelity simulation in the nonmedical domain: practices and potential transferable competencies for the medical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carron PN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pierre-Nicolas Carron, Lionel Trueb, Bertrand YersinEmergency Service, University Hospital Center, Lausanne, SwitzerlandAbstract: Simulation is a promising pedagogical tool in the area of medical education. High-fidelity simulators can reproduce realistic environments or clinical situations. This allows for the practice of teamwork and communication skills, thereby enhancing reflective reasoning and experiential learning. Use of high-fidelity simulators is not limited to the medical and aeronautical fields, but has developed in a large number of nonmedical organizations as well. The techniques and pedagogical tools which have evolved through the use of nonmedical simulations serve not only as teaching examples but also as avenues which can help further the evolution of the concept of high-fidelity simulation in the field of medicine. This paper presents examples of high-fidelity simulations in the military, maritime, and aeronautical fields. We compare the implementation of high-fidelity simulation in the medical and nonmedical domains, and discuss the possibilities and limitations of simulators in medicine, based on recent nonmedical applications.Keywords: high-fidelity simulation, crew resource management, experiential learning

  6. Medical and non-medical expenditure for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in China: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xian-Zhen; Shi, Ju-Fang; Liu, Jing-Shi; Huang, Hui-Yao; Guo, Lan-Wei; Zhu, Xin-Yu; Xiao, Hai-Fan; Wang, Le; Bai, Ya-Na; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Mao, A-Yan; Ren, Jian-Song; Sun, Xiao-Jie; Mai, Ling; Liu, Yu-Qin; Song, Bing-Bing; Gong, Ji-Yong; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Du, Ling-Bing; Zhou, Qi; Cao, Rong; Zhu, Lin; Ren, Ying; Lou, Pei-An; Lan, Li; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Qi, Xiao; Wang, Yuan-Zheng; Zhang, Kai; He, Jie; Dai, Min

    2017-07-03

    We aimed to assess economic burden of breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and treatment in China through a multicenter cross-sectional study, and to obtain theoretical evidence for policy-making. This survey was conducted in 37 hospital centers across 13 provinces in China from September 2012 to December 2014. We collected information on the subject characteristics. We then assessed the medical and non-medical expenditure for BC diagnosis and treatment, factors influencing the average case expense, variations between medical and non-medical expenditure at different clinical stages, economic impact of overall expenditure in newly diagnosed course after reimbursement to the patient's family, composition of non-medical expenditure and time loss for the patient and family. Among 2746 women with BC (72.6% were admitted to specialized hospitals), the overall average expenditure was US $8450 (medical expenditure: $7527; non-medical expenditure: $922). Significant differences were found among the overall expenditure in the four clinical stages (P < 0.0001); the expenditure was higher in stages III and IV than that in stages I and II, whereas the stage IV was the highest (P < 0.0001). Moreover, a higher self-reported predicted reimbursement ratio was associated with a less economic impact on the patient's family, and the average time lost was estimated as $1529. Early detection and treatment of breast cancer might be effective for decreasing the economic burden, because costs escalate as the degree of malignancy increases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Non-medical out-of-pocket expenses incurred by families during their child's hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFazio, Rachel L; Vessey, Judith A

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the nonmedical out of pocket expenses (NOOPEs) incurred by families of hospitalized children. The purpose of this study is to help nurses, other healthcare providers, hospital administrators, and policymakers better understand the NOOPEs incurred by families during their child's hospitalization. Parents of children (n = 50) who underwent orthopedic surgery at a major tertiary-care children's hospital reported all NOOPEs incurred during their child's hospitalization. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The total NOOPEs ranged from $17.00 to $4745.00 (M = $736.21) per hospitalization, with 2096 missed hours from work. Length of stay, gross family income, distance from the hospital, and Hollingshead score are significant predictors of expenses (F-ratio = 732.88, p Hospitalization is associated with numerous NOOPEs. Future research needs to investigate the total array of expenses to families.

  8. Medical and non-medical complications among children and adolescents with excessive body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albane B R; Martin, Xavier E; Saunders Gasser, Catherine; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Chamay-Weber, Catherine

    2014-09-14

    The burden of disease from childhood obesity is considerable worldwide, as it is associated with several co-morbidities, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), orthopedic and psychosocial problems. We aimed at determining the prevalence of these complications in a population of children and adolescents with body weight excess. This is a cohort study including 774 new patients (1.7 - 17.9 yrs, mean 11.1 ± 3.0) attending a pediatric obesity care center. We assessed personal and family medical histories, physical examination, systemic blood pressure, biochemical screening tests. We found that the great majority of the children suffered from at least one medical complication. Orthopedic pathologies were the most frequent (54%), followed by metabolic (42%) and cardiovascular disturbances (31%). However, non-medical conditions related to well-being, such as bullying, psychological complaints, shortness of breath or abnormal sleeping patterns, were present in the vast majority of the children (79.4%). Family history of dyslipidemia tends to correlate with the child's lipids disturbance (p = .053), and ischemic events or T2DM were correlated with cardiovascular risk factors present in the child (p = .046; p = .038, respectively). The vast majority of obese children suffer from medical and non-medical co-morbidities which must be actively screened. A positive family history for cardiovascular diseases or T2DM should be warning signs to perform further complementary tests. Furthermore, well-being related-complaints should not be underestimated as they were extremely frequent.

  9. Attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS among medical practitioners and nonmedical specialists in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabenko, Nataliya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: AIDS is the disease that has been stigmatized since its development; stigmatization of people living with HIV is an important barrier to using HIV testing and treatment. It is well known, that stigma is associated with mental disorders including depression and anxiety. Ukraine is a country with one of the highest number of annual HIV infection cases. GOALS: The goal of this study was to evaluate medical practitioners’ (surgeons, psychiatrists, therapists and students and nonmedical specialists’ attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS.METHODS: A total of 180 individuals participated in the study. Acceptance of people who have AIDS or are infected with HIV was assessed with the help of the “Attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS”. Total scores range from 50 to 10, higher scores indicate high acceptance of persons with HIV/AIDS.RESULTS: Younger participants reported higher acceptance of persons with HIV or AIDS (p.05. Medical practitioners showed greater total score, compare to nonmedical specialists (38.0 ± 6.0 vs. 34.0 ± 5.5, respectively, p<.05. A one-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the impact of medical specialty on levels of positive attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS. The actual difference in mean scores between the 4 groups was moderate (.06. Students and psychiatrists reported more positive attitudes (higher acceptance toward people with HIV and AIDS, but analyses showed, that there was not a statistically significant difference at the level in total score for the groups.CONCLUSION: In this study we evaluated the level of attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS in Ukraine. Young age and medical education were significantly associated with the positive attitudes toward people with HIV and AIDS. Our findings are important for the programs reducing the stigma and discrimination that should be addressed to the wide layers of the society.

  10. Non-medical opioid use in youth: Gender differences in risk factors and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Vicki; Serdarevic, Mirsada; Crooke, Hannah; Striley, Catherine; Cottler, Linda B

    2017-09-01

    Non-medical use (NMU) of prescription opioids in youth is of concern since they may continue this pattern into adulthood and become addicted or divert medications to others. Research into risk factors for NMU can help target interventions to prevent non-medical use of opioids in youth. The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) was conducted from 2008 to 2011. Participants 10-18years of age were recruited from entertainment venues in urban, rural and suburban areas of 10 US cities. Participants completed a survey including questions on their use of prescription opioids. NMU was defined as a non-labeled route of administration or using someone else's prescription. Information on age, gender, alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use was also collected. Summary descriptive, chi-square statistics and logistic regression were conducted using SAS 9.4. Of the 10,965 youth who provided information about past 30day prescription opioid use, prevalence of reported opioid use was 4.8% with 3.2% reported as NMU (n=345) and 1.6% as medical use (MU) only (n=180). More males than females (55.7% vs. 44.4%) reported opioid NMU (p<0.0001). Logistic regression revealed that among males (comparing NMU to MU only), current smokers were 4.4 times more likely to report opioid NMU than non-smokers (95% CI: 1.8, 10.7). Among females (comparing NMU to MU only), current smokers and alcohol users were more likely to report opioid NMU than those who had never smoked or used alcohol (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 7.0 and OR=4.1, 95% CI: 1.7, 10.4, respectively). These results suggest that further research on gender differences in opioid NMU is needed; interventions for opioid NMU may need to be gender specific to obtain the best results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How patients understand the term "nonmedical use" of prescription drugs: insights from cognitive interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Jennifer; Halkitis, Perry N; Horton, Ariana; Khan, Rubina; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    With rising rates of prescription drug abuse and associated overdose deaths, there is great interest in having accurate and efficient screening tools that identify nonmedical use of prescription drugs in health care settings. The authors sought to gain a better understanding of how patients interpret questions about misuse of prescription drugs, with the goal of improving the accuracy and acceptability of instruments intended for use in primary care. A total of 27 English-speaking adult patients were recruited from an urban safety net primary care clinic to complete a cognitive interview about a 4-item screening questionnaire for tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and misuse of prescription drugs. Detailed field notes were analyzed for overall comprehension of the screening items on illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse, the accuracy with which participants classified drugs into these categories, and whether the screening response correctly captured the participant's substance use behavior. Based on initial responses to the screening items, 6 (22%) participants screened positive for past-year prescription drug misuse, and 8 (30%) for illicit drug use. The majority (26/27) of participants correctly interpreted the item on illicit drug use, and appropriately classified drugs in this category. Eleven (41%) participants had errors in their understanding of the prescription drug misuse item. The most common error was classifying use of medications without abuse potential as nonmedical use. All cases of misunderstanding the prescription drug misuse item occurred among participants who screened negative for illicit drug use. The results suggest that terminology used to describe misuse of prescription medications may be misunderstood by many primary care patients, particularly those who do not use illicit drugs. Failure to improve upon the language used to describe prescription drug misuse in screening questionnaires intended for use in medical settings could

  12. Periodontal health knowledge of nonmedical professionals and their oral hygiene behavior in a teaching hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adesola Umeizudike

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The awareness of periodontal diseases is generally poor among Nigerians. Working within the hospital environment should give an edge to nonmedical professionals, who could help to promote periodontal health awareness in countries with an inadequate number of dental health professionals. This study aimed to determine the awareness, knowledge of periodontal diseases and oral hygiene behavior of nonmedical professionals within a hospital setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 302 nonmedical professionals in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. Pretested, self-administered, semi-structured questionnaires were utilized for data collection on sociodemography, number of years of work experience in the hospital, work cadre, awareness and knowledge of periodontal diseases, oral self-care and dental attendance pattern. Results: The awareness of periodontal disease was relatively high (60.2% in the nonmedical professionals. However, only 29.8% had adequate knowledge of periodontal diseases. Their knowledge was significantly associated with male gender (P = 0.042, higher education (P = 0.006 and nonYoruba ethnicity (P = 0.015. Their duration of work within the hospital premises did not significantly affect their periodontal health knowledge. Less than half (42.7% practiced twice or more daily brushing while only 11.9% used interdental floss for interproximal plaque removal. Their dental attendance pattern was mostly (83.5% problem-oriented rather than preventive. Conclusion: The nonmedical professionals had fairly high awareness but inadequate periodontal health knowledge and oral hygiene practices. These findings may make their role as oral health promoters a questionable one, unless, this is addressed urgently.

  13. Development of a Modified Korean East Asian Student Stress Inventory by Comparing Stress Levels in Medical Students with Those in Non-Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hee Kon; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lim, Sun-Hye; Yang, Jeong Hee; Chae, Sunguk

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students are usually under more stress than that experienced by non-medical students. Stress testing tools for Korean medical students have not been sufficiently studied. Thus, we adapted and modified the East Asian Student Stress Inventory (EASSI), a stress testing tool for Korean students studying abroad, and verified its usefulness as a stress test in Korean university students. We also compared and analyzed stress levels between medical and non-medical students. Methods...

  14. Non-medical factors affecting antenatal preferences for delivery route and actual delivery mode of women in southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Abdolhalim; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Rajaeefard, Abdolreza; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Lankarani, Kamran B; Gholami, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of the contribution of non-medical factors to mode of delivery and birth preference in Iranian pregnant women in southwestern Iran. This cohort study used data from a structured questionnaire completed in early pregnancy and information about the subsequent delivery obtained through personal contact. Women were recruited by random sampling from antenatal clinics when scheduling visits over the course of 5 weeks from December 2012 to February 2013 and were followed-up 1 month after birth. Of the 2199 women recruited, 99.63% were eligible for the study. Of the 748 women who expressed a desire to deliver their babies by cesarean section (CS) in early pregnancy, 87% had an elective cesarean section. The logistic regression analyses showed that normative beliefs (odds ratio [OR] 1.792, 95% confidence interval (1) 1.073-2.993), control beliefs (OR: 0.272, 95% CI: 0.162-0.459), and evaluation of outcomes (OR: 0.431, 95% CI: 0.268-0.692) favored the preference for cesarean section. The desire for delivery by elective cesarean section was associated with normative beliefs (OR: 1.138; 95% CI: 1.001-1.294), control beliefs (OR: 0.804; 95% CI: 0.698-0.927), and expectations about maternity care (OR: 0.772; 95% CI: 0.683-0.873), medical influences (OR: 1.150; 95% CI: 1.023-1.291), evaluation of outcome (OR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.696-0.894), age, preference for cesarean section (OR: 5.445; 95% CI: 3.928-7.546), spouse educational level, and number of live births. A woman's preference for delivery by cesarean section influenced their subsequent mode of delivery. Asking women in early pregnancy about their preferred mode of delivery provides the opportunity to extend their supports which might reduce the rate of elective cesarean section. This decision is affected by age, spouse educational level, number of live births, and preconceived maternal attitudes about delivery.

  15. Impact of alcohol and alcohol mixed with energy drinks on non-medical prescription stimulant use in a nationally representative sample of 12th-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff M; Williams, Ronald D; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 30% of high school students use energy drinks. Alcohol use and alcohol mixed with energy drink use (AmED) is associated with risky behavior, including non-medical prescription stimulant use. We assessed alcohol-only, AmED and non-medical prescription stimulant use among 12th grade students in the U.S. using a nationally representative secondary data from the 2012 Monitoring the Future Study. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression analyses were used to determine differences in non-medical prescription stimulant use by students who used alcohol-only versus AmED and to identify covariates of non-medical prescription stimulant use. Pearson-product moment coefficients were used to determine strength of variable relationships. Significant differences were found in frequency of Ritalin (p energy drink and AmED use, as the combined effects of stimulants contained in energy drinks and the depressant effects of alcohol appear to be associated with increased non-medical prescription stimulant use. Research on the influential factors related to energy drinks, alcohol, and non-medical prescription stimulants will help practitioners to more appropriately design prevention and intervention strategies addressing these high-risk behaviors. (Am J Addict 2016;25:378-384). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. Self-citation of Medical and Non-medical Universities in Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Yaminfirooz, Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-citation is one of the main challenges in the evaluation of researchers’ scientific output. This study aimed at comparing the institutional self-citation among the universities located in Northern Iran. Methods: This study was conducted as a scientometric study. Research population included all scientific productions of 16 Northern Iran Universities with at least 100 indexed documents indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) by 2 June 2015. The citation analysis section of WoS was used for data collection. SPSS was applied for data analysis. Study hypotheses were tested with two independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Results: Producing 16,399 papers, northern Iran universities had 5.33% of contribution in Iran’s scientific production. They received 84,058 citations with 17% and 12% of self-citations belonged to the non-medical and medical universities, respectively. Testing hypotheses revealed that increase in received citations significantly increases the rate of self-citation and increase in scientific production does not necessarily increase the rate of self-citation. Conclusion: The rate of self-citation in the studied universities was not relatively high. However, investigating into the factors affecting the rate of and motives for self-citation needs further research. PMID:28077903

  17. Religiosity in the non-medical use of prescription medication in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Daniel J; Jeffers, Amy J; Benotsch, Eric G; McCauley, Jessica; Bannerman, Dana; Granger, Catherine; Martin, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is a hazardous health behavior popular among young adults and college students. Past research has documented prevalence rates and risk factors associated with NMUPD, while little research has addressed protective factors. The present study examined the associations of religiosity and NMUPD in a sample of college students. Young adult (ages 18-25) college students (n = 767) completed an anonymous online survey assessing demographic variables, NMUPD, personality factors, perceptions of risk, mental health, and religiosity. Results showed that greater religiosity scores were consistently associated with lower odds of engaging in NMUPD in the past 3 months. These associations were partially mediated by the personality characteristics of conscientiousness and openness to experience as well as perceived risk of NMUPD. The effect of religiosity on NMUPD was moderated by Greek (i.e., fraternity or sorority) membership, such that those in a Greek organization showed no relation between religiosity and NMUPD, while religiosity served as a protective factor for NMUPD among those who did not have Greek membership. These results extend past research demonstrating that religiosity is protective against substance abuse/misuse. Greek status appears to negate the protective influence of religiosity on NMUPD.

  18. Parents’ Source of Vaccine Information and Impact on Vaccine Attitudes, Beliefs, and Nonmedical Exemptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey M. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, use of the Internet to obtain vaccine information has increased. Historical data are necessary to evaluate current vaccine information seeking trends in context. Between 2002 and 2003, surveys were mailed to 1,630 parents of fully vaccinated children and 815 parents of children with at least one vaccine exemption; 56.1% responded. Respondents were asked about their vaccine information sources, perceptions of these sources accuracy, and their beliefs about vaccination. Parents who did not view their child’s healthcare provider as a reliable vaccine information source were more likely to obtain vaccine information using the Internet. Parents who were younger, more highly educated, and opposed to school immunization requirements were more likely than their counterparts to use the Internet for vaccine information. Compared to parents who did not use the Internet for vaccine information, those who sought vaccine information on the Internet were more likely to have lower perceptions of vaccine safety (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18–2.35, vaccine effectiveness (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.32–2.53, and disease susceptibility (aOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.49–2.90 and were more likely to have a child with a nonmedical exemption (aOR 3.53, 95% CI, 2.61–4.76. These findings provide context to interpret recent vaccine information seeking research.

  19. Determinants of non-medically indicated cesarean deliveries in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Charles; Ridde, Valéry; Kouanda, Seni; Agier, Isabelle; Queuille, Ludovic; Dumont, Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    To identify the factors associated with non-medically indicated cesarean deliveries (NMIC) in Burkina Faso in centers where user fees for cesarean delivery were partially removed. We carried out a criteria-based audit in 22 referral hospitals, using data from a 6-month prospective observational study, to assess the proportion of NMIC. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with NMIC. The decision of cesarean delivery was not medically indicated in 24% of cases. The factors independently associated with NMIC were urban residence (adjusted OR 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.12; P=0.006), spouse's occupation other than breeder or farmer (aOR varying from 1.77 [95% CI, 1.19-2.62] to 2.15 [95% CI, 1.38-3.32] according to the profession), and cesarean decided by a general practitioner (aOR 1.61; 95% CI, 1.13-2.30; P=0.009). The high percentage of unnecessary cesarean deliveries is in contrast to the unmet needs of women who still deliver outside health facilities. NMIC is associated with both socioeconomic determinants and medical factors. Hence, interventions are needed to improve the skills of healthcare professionals and awareness of women concerning the risks associated with unnecessary cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids and Heroin Use Among Adolescents Involved in Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Philip; Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2017-03-01

    Examine the past-year prevalence of nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NUPOs), heroin use, and the concurrent NUPO and heroin in a sample of 12th graders involved in 16 different sports. A secondary analysis of nationally representative data from nine cohorts (2006-2014) of the Monitoring the Future study (n = 21,557). No differences were found between 12th graders who participated in at least one competitive sport and nonparticipants with respect to past-year NUPO, heroin use, and concurrent NUPO and heroin use. Most of the 16 sports analyzed were not associated with the three drug use outcomes. However, 12th graders who participated in ice hockey had substantially greater odds of both past-year heroin use and concurrent NUPO and heroin, while those who participated in weightlifting (NUPO and heroin) and wrestling (NUPO) had slightly higher odds of using these drugs. The study provides critical information to inform physicians, parents, and school officials of the risks associated with participating in certain high contact sports, particularly ice hockey. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Meta-analysis of non-medical treatments for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, M D; Strube, M J; Scogin, F R

    1988-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on 109 published studies which assessed the outcome of various non-medical treatments for chronic pain. Of these studies, 48 provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes. The remainder were examined according to proportion of patients rated as improved. Studies were compared as a function of type of treatment, type of pain, and type of outcome variable. In general, effect sizes were positive and of modest magnitude indicating the short-term efficacy of most treatments for most types of pain. This finding suggests that the effectiveness of treatments may be attributable not to the differences between treatments, but to the features they have in common. Mood and number of subjective symptoms consistently showed greater responses to treatment than did pain intensity, pain duration, or frequency of pain, indicating the importance of using a multidimensional framework for pain assessment. This finding also suggests that the benefit of psychological approaches to pain management may lie in reducing the fear and depression associated with pain, rather than relieving the pain itself. The present study also highlights the advantages of meta-analytic reviews.

  2. Digital social media, youth, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs: the need for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-07-26

    The tragic death of 18-year-old Ryan Haight highlighted the ethical, public health, and youth patient safety concerns posed by illicit online nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NUPM) sourcing, leading to a federal law in an effort to address this concern. Yet despite the tragedy and resulting law, the NUPM epidemic in the United States has continued to escalate and represents a dangerous and growing trend among youth and adolescents. A critical point of access associated with youth NUPM is the Internet. Internet use among this vulnerable patient group is ubiquitous and includes new, emerging, and rapidly developing technologies-particularly social media networking (eg, Facebook and Twitter). These unregulated technologies may pose a potential risk for enabling youth NUPM behavior. In order to address limitations of current regulations and promote online safety, we advocate for legislative reform to specifically address NUPM promotion via social media and other new online platforms. Using more comprehensive and modernized federal legislation that anticipates future online developments is critical in substantively addressing youth NUPM behavior occurring through the Internet.

  3. Physical activity students of the medical and non-medical degree courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Sochocka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recognition of the multiple positive effects of the physical activity confirms its influence on human’s health. Undertaking of the health oriented conducts plays an important role in the promotion of the health and in the creating of the healthier future. Academic youth should be aware of the influence of certain activities on health. The aim of the research was to analyse the physical activity performed by the full-time students of the medical and nonmedical degree courses. Material and methods: The research was conducted at the turn of 2012 and 2013. The research group, containing 553 person (n4553, consisted of the students from six Polish, both medical and non-medical, university colleges. The research utilizes the method of the diagnostic survey. Technique of the research based on the poll whose questionnaire had been created by the authors for the purpose of the research. Accuracy of the research tool was established within the method of objective judges, splithalf method was used to determine reliability (according to Spearman-Brown result 0.86. In order to define the existence of the differences or correlations between analysed immeasurable parameters chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests were used. Results: The substantial majority of the respondents – 79,5% (n4439 described themselves as physically active. The forms of activity that are performed most often among the students are: cycling – 40,5% (n4220, team sport – 27,1% (n4147, dog walking – 27,1% (n4147, group activities (aerobics, zumba, salsa – 21,2% (n4115 and swimming – 20,8% (n4113. The sex and the faculty of the studies are both important variables that have got statistically significant impact on the choice of the form of activity. Majority of the respondents – 78,3% (n4432 chooses the type of the physical activity basing on their likings and the amount of the spare time – 42,9% (n4237. Exercising of the physical activity is regarded as a

  4. Non-medical prescribing by physiotherapists: issues reported in the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joanne H; Grimmer, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Physiotherapists should be proactive in preparing themselves to participate in innovative models of health care, which are emerging from the healthcare workforce reforms in Australia. One challenging outcome of workforce change is physiotherapy (non-medical) prescribing (NMP), which is part of the extension of scope of physiotherapy practice. This paper summarises the current evidence base for Australian physiotherapists seeking to obtain prescribing rights. A targeted literature review was undertaken through EBSCO Host, Cochrane, Medline, SportsDiscus, Cinahl, Healthsource and Google.com using broad search terms to identify peer-reviewed and grey literature pertaining to NMP by physiotherapists, nationally and internationally. No critical appraisal was undertaken however literature was structured into the NHMRC hierarchy of evidence. Themes raised in the included literature were reported descriptively. There were six relevant peer-reviewed articles, of hierarchy levels III_3 and IV. There was however, comprehensive and recent grey literature to inform Australian physiotherapy NMP initiatives. Themes included the need for standard National action in relation to legislative and regulatory/registration issues, appropriate education, credentialing and supervisory requirements for physiotherapy prescribing. Many lessons can be learnt from the literature, including the importance of planned, uniform National action (rather than piecemeal state-by-state initiatives). Essential elements include appropriate training and skills-based recognition within the discipline and the broader health team, and the need to overtly demonstrate effectiveness and safety. Regularly-evaluated service-delivery models which support NMP by physiotherapists are further required, to demonstrate efficiency, timeliness, patient centredness and equity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Turnover of Non-medical Staff in Outpatient Oncology Practices: Is Building Social Capital a Solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloede, T D; Ernstmann, N; Baumann, W; Groß, S E; Ansmann, L; Nitzsche, A; Neumann, M; Wirtz, M; Schmitz, S; Schulz-Nieswandt, F; Pfaff, H

    2015-11-01

    While a lot is known about potential and actual turnover of non-medical hospital staff, only few data exist for the outpatient setting. In addition, little is known about actual instruments which leaders can use to influence staff turnover in physician practices. In the literature, the social capital of an organisation, which means the amount of trust, common values and reciprocal behaviour in the organisation, has been discussed as a possible field of action. In the present study, staff turnover as perceived by outpatient haematologists and oncologists is presented and analysed as to whether social capital is associated with that staff turnover. In conclusion, measures to increase the social capital of a practice are presented. The present study is based on data gathered in a questionnaire-based survey with members of the Professional Organisation of -Office-Based Haematologists and Oncologists (N=551). The social capital of the practice was captured from the haematologists and oncologists using an existing and validated scale. To analyse the impact of the practice's social capital on staff turnover, as perceived by the physicians, bivariate correlations and linear regression analyses were calculated. In total, 152 haematologists and oncologists participated in the study which represents a response rate of 28%. In the regression analyses, social capital appears as a significant and strong predictor of staff turnover (beta=-0.34; pstaff turnover although the underlying study design does not allow for drawing causal conclusions regarding this relationship. To create social capital in their practice, outpatient physicians may apply measures that facilitate social interaction among staff, foster trust and facilitate cooperation. Such measures may already be applied when hiring and training new staff, but also continuously when leading employees and when organising work tasks, e.g., by establishing regular team meetings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Non-medical use of opioids among HIV-infected opioid dependent individuals on opioid maintenance treatment: the need for a more comprehensive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roux Perrine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT has a positive impact on substance use and health outcomes among HIV-infected opioid dependent patients. The present study investigates non-medical use of opioids by HIV-infected opioid-dependent individuals treated with buprenorphine or methadone. Methods The MANIF 2000 study is a longitudinal study that enrolled a cohort of 476 HIV-infected opioid-dependent individuals. Data were collected in outpatient hospital services delivering HIV care in France. The sample comprised all patients receiving OMT (either methadone or buprenorphine who attended at least one follow-up visit with data on adherence to OMT (N = 235 patients, 1056 visits. Non-medical use of opioids during OMT was defined as having reported use of opioids in a non-medical context, and/or the misuse of the prescribed oral OMT by an inappropriate route of administration (injection or sniffing. After adjusting for the non-random assignment of OMT type, a model based on GEE was then used to identify predictors of non-medical use of opioids. Results Among the 235 patients, 144 (61.3% and 91 (38.9% patients were receiving buprenorphine and methadone, respectively, at baseline. Non-medical use of opioids was found in 41.6% of visits for 83% of individual patients. In the multivariate analysis, predictors of non-medical use of opioids were: cocaine, daily cannabis, and benzodiazepine use, experience of opioid withdrawal symptoms, and less time since OMT initiation. Conclusions Non-medical use of opioids was found to be comparable in OMT patients receiving methadone or buprenorphine. The presence of opioid withdrawal symptoms was a determinant of non-medical use of opioids and may serve as a clinical indicator of inadequate dosage, medication, or type of follow-up. Sustainability and continuity of care with adequate monitoring of withdrawal symptoms and polydrug use may contribute to reduced harms from ongoing non-medical use of opioids.

  7. Determinants of intention to leave among non-medical employees after a nuclear disaster: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Saeka; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey among non-medical employees working at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, in order to determine the factors associated with their intentions to leave their jobs during the nuclear disaster. Participants We asked 287 employees (166 men and 121 women) in the study. Methods We asked about their intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. We also asked about relevant factors, including the participants’ demographic factors, living situations and working environments. Results We found that in employees younger than 40 (OR=4.73, 95% CI 1.74 to 12.85, p=0.002), being married (OR=3.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 9.79, p=0.044), measurements of the ambient dose rates in their homes after the accident (OR=5.32, 95% CI 1.65 to 17.14, p=0.005), anxiety about their relationships with their colleagues after the accident (OR=3.91, 95% CI 1.51 to 10.16, p=0.005) and the influence of radiation on the workplace (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80, p=0.014) were independently associated with the non-medical employees’ intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. Conclusions Our results suggest the need for continuous risk communication regarding such factors and the provision of information about the health effects of radiation exposure to non-medical employees after nuclear disasters. PMID:27436669

  8. Adolescents' nonmedical use and excessive medical use of prescription medications and the identification of substance use subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of adolescents based on their past 12 months use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, illicit drugs, and nonmedical use and excessive medical use of prescription medications. A cross-sectional Web-based survey of adolescents from two middle and high school districts in Southeastern Michigan was conducted. The sample included 2,744 middle school (7th and 8th grade) and high school (9th through 12th grade) students. Participants had a mean age of 14.8 years (SD = 1.9 years); 50.4% were female, 64.1% were Caucasian, and 30.6% were African American. Participants completed measures of the past 12 months of substance use, parental monitoring, parental substance use, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Exploratory latent class analysis (LCA) indicated four classes. The largest class was composed of participants with low probabilities of using any substances (low/no use class), and the smallest class was composed of participants with relatively high probabilities of using all substances (multiple substances class). A third class included participants with high probabilities of using tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana (TAM). The fourth class consisted of participants with relatively high probabilities of alcohol use, nonmedical prescription drug use, and excessive medical use of prescription drugs (ANM). Female gender predicted membership in the ANM and multiple substance classes, and parental monitoring, parental substance use problems, internalizing, and externalizing problems uniquely predicted membership in all three high-risk risk classes. Results indicated three high-risk subgroups of adolescents, each characterized by a different pattern of substance use. Two risk groups are characterized by relatively high probabilities of nonmedical use and excessive medical use of prescription medications. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-medical use of prescription drugs among illicit drug users: A case study on an online drug forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönkä, Sanna; Katainen, Anu

    2017-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum. Using actor network theory (ANT), we analysed translations that mediate the online user community's relationship with pharmaceutical drugs. Differences in experienced drug effects are explained both as a process of 'learning' and as differences in brain chemistry at the receptor level. Both science- and experience-based information are shared on best practices to optimise use, avoid adverse health effects and maximise the experience of intoxication. The expanded context of doctors' practices places stress on the medical framework for drug use. Our analysis shows how the non-medical use of psychoactive pharmaceuticals relates to joint, medicalised ideas of bodies as sites of medical experimentation, as well as to the collective process of constructing 'pharmaceutical competences' in user networks. Understandings of intoxication have increasingly been permeated with the pharmacological and scientific logic of knowledge. The forum works as a platform for harm reduction inspired exchange of knowledge. However, the user community's knowledge sharing practices can generate a shared perception of a sufficient or even superior drug use experience and knowledge. This may lead to overdoses and other risky behaviour, and thereby contribute to increased harms related to non-medical use of prescription drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-Medical Use of Prescription Stimulants: A Comparison of College Students and their Same-Age Peers Who Do Not Attend College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Pomykacz, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Data show that the prevalence of non-medical use of prescription stimulants is higher among college students than their same-age peers who do not attend college. Because of this, most of the research in this area focuses on data from samples of college students and on use motivated by academic demands. There is little research that examines whether attending college increases the odds of non-medical use of prescription stimulants while including important covariates in the analytical models. The current research addresses this gap in the literature using data from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health for respondents aged 18 to 25 years old. We estimate a multivariate logistic regression model to determine whether college attendance increased the odds of non-medical use of prescription stimulants. The analysis showed that young adults who enrolled in college full-time were more likely to report non-medical use of prescription stimulants than their same-age peers who did not attend college. There was no significant difference between part-time college students and non-college students. Future research should focus on how specific aspects of the college environment, other than academic stress, may increase the risk of non-medical use of prescription stimulants.

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees (non-medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  12. Children's anxious reactions to an invasive medical procedure: The role of medical and non-medical fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy K; Halpern, Leslie F; Dangman, Barbara C; Giramonti, Karla M; Kogan, Barry A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship of medical and non-medical fears to children's anxiety, pain, and distress during an invasive medical procedure, the voiding cystourethrogram. Parents of 34 children completed the Fear Survey Schedule-II prior to their child's procedure. Child distress behaviors during the procedure were audiotaped and coded using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised. Ratings of child procedural anxiety and pain were obtained from children, parents, and examining technologists within minutes following the procedure. Associations were observed between medical fears, procedural anxiety (parent and staff reports), and coded distress behaviors. Findings may inform preparation efforts to reduce anxiety around invasive medical procedures.

  13. Disparities in HIV knowledge and attitudes toward biomedical interventions among the non-medical HIV workforce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Raniyah M; Wilson, Phill; Betancourt, Gabriela; Garcia, David; Penner, Murray; Abravanel, Rebecca; Wong, Eric Y; Parisi, Lori D

    2017-04-27

    Non-medical, community-based workers play a critical role in supporting people living with (or at risk of acquiring) HIV along the care continuum. The biomedical nature of promising advances in HIV prevention, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment-as-prevention, requires frontline workers to be knowledgeable about HIV science and treatment. This study was developed to: measure knowledge of HIV science and treatment within the HIV non-medical workforce, evaluate workers' familiarity with and attitudes toward recent biomedical interventions, and identify factors that may affect HIV knowledge and attitudes. A 62-question, web-based survey was completed in English or Spanish between 2012 and 2014 by 3663 US-based employees, contractors, and volunteers working in AIDS service organizations, state/local health departments, and other community-based organizations in a non-medical capacity. Survey items captured the following: respondent demographics, HIV science and treatment knowledge, and familiarity with and attitudes toward biomedical interventions. An average of 61% of HIV knowledge questions were answered correctly. Higher knowledge scores were associated with higher education levels, work at organizations that serve people living with HIV/AIDS or who are at a high risk of acquiring HIV, and longer tenure in the field. Lower knowledge scores were associated with non-Hispanic Black or Black race/ethnicity and taking the survey in Spanish. Similarly, subgroup analyses showed that respondents who were non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic (versus non-Hispanic white), as well as those located in the South (versus other regions) scored significantly lower. These subpopulations were also less familiar with and had less positive attitudes toward newer biomedical prevention interventions. Respondents who took the survey in Spanish (versus English) had lower knowledge scores and higher familiarity with, but generally less positive attitudes toward, biomedical interventions

  14. The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Fumiko; Nonaka, Ryouichi; Satoh Hisashi Kamimura, Kanako

    2007-03-22

    We developed a reproducible, simple, and small-scale method for determining the re-uptake and release of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine) using rat brain synaptosomes. These assays were then applied to study the effects of different kinds of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine re-uptake and release. The phenethylamine derivatives, 4-fluoroamphetamine, 2-methylamino-3,4-methylene-dioxy-propiophenone (methylone), 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine (BDB), and N-methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine (MBDB), had strong inhibitory effects on the re-uptake of dopamine, 5-HT and norepinephrine. 4-Fluoroamphetamine, methylone and BDB also strongly increased the release of the three monoamines, but MBDB increased 5-HT and norepinephrine release, but had little effect on dopamine release. However, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine (2C-E), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenethylamine (2C-C), 2,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-2) and 2,4,6-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-6), which are methoxylated phenethylamine derivatives, slightly influenced the re-uptake and release of monoamines. Alpha-metyltryptamine (AMT), a tryptamine derivative, was one of the strongest re-uptake inhibitors and releasers of the three monoamines. The tryptamine derivative, 5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), also strongly inhibited re-uptake and increased the release of the three monoamines. N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-methylisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MIPT), and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) inhibited monoamine re-uptake, but had a few effects on monoamine release. 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine (3CPP) and 1-(methoxyphenyl)piperazine (4MPP), which are piperazine derivatives, inhibited monoamine re-uptake and accelerated their release. The results suggest that some designer drugs strongly act on the central nerve system to the same

  15. Quantitative assessment of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in healthy, non-medicated experimental sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Helene; Zeiter, Stephan; Andersen, Ole K; Wieling, Ronald; Spadavecchia, Claudia

    2014-04-22

    This study aimed to characterize the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and to define the nociceptive threshold in 25 healthy, non-medicated experimental sheep in standing posture. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal lateral digital nerves of the right thoracic and the pelvic limb was performed and surface-electromyography (EMG) from the deltoid (all animals) and the femoral biceps (18 animals) or the peroneus tertius muscles (7 animals) was recorded. The behavioural reaction following each stimulation was scored on a scale from 0 (no reaction) to 5 (strong whole body reaction). A train-of-five 1ms constant-current pulse was used and current intensity was stepwise increased until NWR threshold intensity was reached. The NWR threshold intensity (It) was defined as the minimal stimulus intensity able to evoke a reflex with a minimal Root-Mean-Square amplitude (RMSA) of 20μV, a minimal duration of 10ms and a minimal reaction score of 1 (slight muscle contraction of the stimulated limb) within the time window of 20 to 130ms post-stimulation. Based on this value, further stimulations were performed below (0.9It) and above threshold (1.5It and 2It). The stimulus-response curve was described. Data are reported as medians and interquartile ranges. At the deltoid muscle It was 4.4mA (2.9-5.7) with an RMSA of 62μV (30-102). At the biceps femoris muscle It was 7.0mA (4.0-10.0) with an RMSA of 43μV (34-50) and at the peroneus tertius muscle It was 3.4mA (3.1-4.4) with an RMSA of 38μV (32-46). Above threshold, RMSA was significantly increased at all muscles. Below threshold, RMSA was only significantly smaller than at It for the peroneus tertius muscle but not for the other muscles. Data achieved in this study serve as reference for experimental or clinical applications of the conscious sheep model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sinus node dysfunction in non-medicational treatment of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria L. А.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinus node dysfunction or sick sinus syndrome (SSS includes clinical conditions such as symptomatic sinus bradycardia, sinus pauses or arrest, sinus node exit block, atrial tachycardias and chronotropic incompetence. Even though SSS incidence increases in an exponential-like manner with age, it can occur at all ages, including in the newborn. The mean age of patients with the syndrome is 68 years, with both genders being affected in approximately equal proportion. This condition occurs in 1 of every 600 cardiac patients over 65. Degenerative fibrosis of the tissues of the node has been suggested to be a common cause of SSS. Although it is still disputed. SSS is frequently associated with atrial fibrillation and flutter, tachy-bradycardia syndrome. Tachy-bradycardia syndrome is defined as sinus bradycardia coupled with atrial flutter/fibrillation or reciprocal atrial tachycardia. This syndrome is common in young patients following a surgical treatment of a congenital heart disease. Patients with chronic or persistent atrial flutter/fibrillation show high rates of cardiovascular disorders and mortality while sinus bradycardia is thought as an independent risk factor of atrial flutter/fibrillation. There are certain restrictions to medical treatment: long-term administration of the same medication (sotalol, amiodarone for atrial flutter/fibrillation can cause symptomatic bradycardia while administration of other medication (a class 1 drug increases the likelihood of ventricular arrythmias or evident bradycardia that enhances the risk of sudden cardiac death. Following atrial fibrillation ablation patients saw a significant improvement in the sinus node function, or saw a better sinus node function disrupted due to remodelling that takes place during atrial fibrillation. The surgical methods applications proved most efficient in non-medicational treatment of atrial fibrillation. In the late 1980s American surgeon J. L. Cox developed a so-called Maze

  17. Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bazarganipour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran.The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students. A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms.The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims.The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness.

  18. Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Hekmatzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarviye, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran. Materials and methods The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students). A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms. Results The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims. Conclusion The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness. PMID:24971106

  19. Prevalence of self-reported nonmedical use of prescription stimulants in North Carolina Doctor of Pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volger, Emily J; McLendon, Amber N; Fuller, Stephen H; Herring, Charles T

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, associated factors, and opinions regarding nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) in Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. An electronic survey was distributed to professional year 1 through 4 for students at 2 schools of pharmacy (public and private) in North Carolina. The survey was available for 3 weeks. Descriptive statistics (proportion of responders plus 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were used to describe the primary objective. Of the 1043 surveys distributed, 407 were completed giving a 39% response rate. The results indicated that 9% (95% CI: 6.44-11.93) of PharmD students acknowledge NMUPS at least once during their pharmacy education. Additionally, 3% (95% CI: 1.90-5.45) acknowledge NMUPS at least once during the current pharmacy school year (past 5 months). Nonmedical prescription stimulant users were 9 times more likely to participate in NMUPS prior to pharmacy school (P risk of abuse of prescription drug stimulants, which requires further research and attention. Additionally, there was a clear upward trend in the prevalence of NMUPS, and this misuse was associated with other detrimental behaviors.

  20. Performing 'pragmatic holism': Professionalisation and the holistic discourse of non-medically qualified acupuncturists and homeopaths in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine practitioners have often utilised 'holism' as a key identification mark of their practice, distancing themselves from 'the reductionist biomedicine'. However, the past couple of decades have witnessed increased engagement of several complementary and alternative medicines in professionalisation, which includes a degree of biomedical alignment while 'reducing' holistic claims in order to provide practice with a 'credible outlook' and move closer to the mainstream, a development which challenges the role of holism in complementary and alternative medicine practices. This article explores the strategies by which two groups of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, namely, non-medically qualified acupuncturists and homeopaths in the United Kingdom, pragmatically accommodate holistic notions as a professional resource, a process of negotiation between maintaining their holistic premise, on the one hand, and the drive to professionalise and enhance their societal status, on the other. Based on in-depth interviews with non-medically qualified acupuncture and homeopathy practitioners and school principals, textual analysis of practitioners' web sites and observation of practice, the findings demonstrate the dynamic approach to 'holism' in complementary and alternative medicine practice. This discourse, through which practitioners use a range of strategies in order to 'narrow' or 'expand' their holistic expression, can be described as 'pragmatic holism', by which they try to make gains from the formalisation/standardisation processes, without losing the therapies' holistic outlook and appeal.

  1. Gene expression profiling within the spleen of Clostridium perfringens-challenged Broilers fed antibiotic-medicated and non-medicated diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hai

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium perfringens (Cp is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that causes necrotic enteritis (NE in poultry when it overgrows in the small intestine. NE disease has previously been controlled through the use of growth-promoting antibiotics. This practice was recently banned in European countries, leading to significantly increased incidence of NE threatening the poultry industry. Control strategies and technology as substitutes to dietary antibiotics are therefore urgently required. To develop the substitutes, it is important to understand host immune responses to Cp infection. However, the knowledge is still lacking. We therefore investigated gene expression profiles within immunologically-relevant tissue, the spleen, in order to identify factors that are involved in immunity to NE and have potential as therapeutic targets. Results Use of a 44 K Agilent chicken genome microarray revealed significant up-regulation of many immune-associated genes in Cp-challenged chickens, including galectin 3, IFNAR1, IgY-receptor, TCRγ, granzyme A, and mannose-6-P-R, which were subsequently validated by quantitative PCR assays. Functional annotation of differentially expressed genes was conducted using the High Throughput Gene Ontology Functional Annotation database. Medicated and Non-medicated chickens had similar annotation profiles with cell activities and regulation being the most dominant biological processes following Cp infection. Conclusion Broiler chickens demonstrated an intricate and holistic magnitude of host response to Cp challenge and the development of NE. Although the influence of dietary antibiotics appeared to be less significant than the disease process, both had a considerable impact on the host response. Markers previously identified in intestinal inflammatory diseases of other species, including humans, and indicators of enhanced antibody responses, appeared to be involved in the chicken response to Cp challenge

  2. 非医学需要剖宫产的危险因素研究%The study on risk factors for cesarean section for non-medical needs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂莲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the risk factors for non-medical needs of cesarean section,and to provide evidence for controling non-medical needs of cesarean section. Methods 1070 cases expectant mothers who were gestational age ≥ 24 weeks were collected as the study.They were divided into the vaginal delivery group (control group) and non-medical needs of cesarean group (experimental group) according to the final delivery metheod.Then case-control study was done to them. Results The Proportion of residents in the town,mental and high-income families of the experimental group ware higher than the control group. The pregnant women of the experimental group were more concerned about the safety, body, smart kid, et al. and they worried about the pain and sexual life after childbirth. The pregnant women of the control were more concerned about the cost, the natural physiological processes and the post-natal recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that:a more perfect ending cesarean section,vaginal birth would affect the sex life, the doctor recommended mode of delivery, vaginal birth were natural child birth and quick recovery, pregnancy intention of cesarean section had a significant impact for pregnant women to choose caesarean. Conclusion The cognitive behavioral deviations can lead to non-medical needs of prignant women select cesarean section. Therefore, we shoule strengthen the mission mode of delivery to the pregnant women, Cognitiving advantages and disadvantages of cesarean is the key of reducing the rate of cesarean and improving the quality of obstetric.%目的:了解非医学需要剖宫产的危险因素,为非医学需要剖宫产的控制提供依据。方法收集1070例孕周≥24周的待产产妇为研究对象,根据最终分娩方式分为阴道分娩组(对照组)与非医学需要剖宫产组(试验组),然后进行病例对照研究等统计学分析。结果试验组中镇居民、脑力劳动者、高收入家庭的比例高于对

  3. Investigation of Non-Medical Students of Food Borne Parasitic Cognition Degree of Yunnan Certain Universities%云南某高校非医药学生食源性寄生虫认知程度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李普娟; 张莉; 陈旭; 刘灿; 杨小娟; 孙济泽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of a university non-medical student about the knowledge of the food-borne parasites and its prevention,control.Methods 2000 non-medical students were selected from three dif erent grand batch by stratified random sampling in May 2013,were asked to complete questionnaires about the knowledge of the food-borne parasites.Results The percentage of cognition about the food-borne parasites was 56.7%,the students had some knowledge of the relationship betweenparasiticdiseaseand life style,behavior,had some knowledge about parasites disease prevention and control.Conclusion We should strengthen the students awareness of the food-borne parasite.%目的了解某高校非医药学专业学生对食源性寄生虫和防治知识相关态度的知晓情况。方法通过分层随机抽样于2013年5月对某高校非医药学专业三个不同年级共2000名学生进行食源性寄生虫知识的问卷调查。结果某高校非医药类专业学生对食源性寄生虫总知晓率为56.74%,对寄生虫与生活方式、行为卫生关系、相关寄生虫预防知识有一定的了解。结论加强对学生的食源性寄生虫相关知识宣传力度。

  4. Image-producing procedures for non-medical applications. Benefits, risks, radiation protection; Bildgebende Verfahren im nicht medizinischen Bereich. Nutzen, Risiken, Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarwinski, Renate [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Estier, Sybille [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit (BAG), Liebefeld (Switzerland). Direktionsbereich Verbraucherschutz; Huhn, Walter [Ministerium fuer Arbeit, Integration und Soziales NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lorenz, Bernd [Lorenz Consulting, Essen (Germany); Vahlbruch, Jan [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS); Henning, Ulrich; Michel, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    A survey is given of image-producing procedures for non-medical applications, and this under technical, juridical and radiation protection aspects. The historical development of these procedures is also described. An example is given for today's practical application.

  5. Non-medical application of radioactive materials or ionizing radiation. German legal regulations; Die Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe oder ionisierender Strahlung ausserhalb der Medizin. Deutsche Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Walter [Ministerium fuer Arbeit, Integration und Soziales NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lorenz, Bernd [Lorenz Consulting, Essen (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Non-medical imaging is regulated in Germany since the 2011 radiation protection law amendment and the simultaneous X-ray regulation amendment based on the Euratom guideline 96/29. The regulations contain lists with justified and non-justified activities.

  6. Study Drugs and Academic Integrity: The Role of Beliefs about an Academic Honor Code in the Prediction of Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use for Academic Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kelsy B.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Conklin, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    The role of beliefs about academic integrity in college students' decisions to use nonmedical prescription drugs (NMPDs) in academic settings was examined. In Spring 2012 the authors obtained survey data from 645 participants at a small, undergraduate, private liberal arts institution in the Northeastern United States. A broadcast e-mail message…

  7. Use and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioid Analgesics in the General Population of Canada and Correlations with Dispensing Levels in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, harm from nonmedical prescription opioid analgesic (POA use (NMPOU has increased in recent years; however, there are limitations to the current estimates of NMPOU. The 2009 Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey presents an opportunity to produce more accurate estimates of NMPOU.

  8. The Role of Traumatic Event History in Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs among a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Building on previous research with adolescents that examined demographic variables and other forms of substance abuse in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), the current study examined potentially traumatic events, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other substance use, and delinquent behavior as…

  9. Drugs and Pregnancy: The Effects of Nonmedical Use of Drugs on Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Neonates. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse presents this report as the fifth in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the the issues of drug use and abuse. Included in this volume are summaries of the major research findings concerning the effects of nonmedical drug use on pregnancy.…

  10. Awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases among the academic staff (non-medical faculties) of University of Malaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Y K; Reddy, S C; Karina, R

    2004-08-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases (cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and refractive errors) among 473 academic staff (non-medical faculties) of University Malaya. The awareness of cataract was in 88.2%, diabetic retinopathy in 83.5%, refractive errors in 75.3% and glaucoma in 71.5% of the study population. The knowledge about all the above common eye diseases was moderate, except presbyopia which was poor. Multivariate analysis revealed that females, older people, and those having family history of eye diseases were significantly more aware and more knowledgeable about the eye diseases. Health education about eye diseases would be beneficial to seek early treatment and prevent visual impairment in the society.

  11. Nonmedical prescription drug use among US college students at a Midwest university: a partial test of social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L; Steele, Jennifer L

    2010-05-01

    We estimate the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug (NMPD) use and test social learning theory as an explanation for NMPD use based upon data from a large pilot study. Data were collected from 465 college students at a Midwestern university in the USA using a self-administered questionnaire. The sample was predominantly white (88%), 43% were female and the mean age was 22. Most participants (80%) were not members of social fraternities or sororities. A majority of students did not report NMPD use: 39.4% of respondents reported lifetime NMPD use, 31% reported past-year use, and 14.4% reported past-month use. Multivariate regression results partially supported social learning theory as an explanation for lifetime NMPD use. Limitations and suggestions for future research are suggested.

  12. Antibiotics self-medication among medical and nonmedical students at two prominent Universities in Benghazi City, Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F Ghaieth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trivial use of antibiotics is a major reason for the spread of antibiotics resistance. The aim behind undertaking this investigation was to study the prevalence antibiotics self-medication among university students in Benghazi city. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional, survey was conducted at both Libyan International Medical University and Benghazi University. A total of 665 copies of questionnaires was distributed. A total of 363 forms were completed and returned (response rate 55%. Remaining responses were either with no antibiotics use history within the past 1 year or were provided incomplete. Results: Among the respondents, 45% were males and 55% females. Males practiced self-medication more compared to females. Approximately, 43% and 46% from medical and nonmedical students, respectively, were antibiotics self-medicated. A total of 153 students (42% out of total respondents administered antibiotics for symptoms related to respiratory problems, among which 74 students (48% took antibiotics based on doctor′s prescription. Among the respondents, 94 students (27% who had antibiotics, were covered under medical insurance, and 19 (29% of the medically insured students had antibiotics without doctor′s prescription. About 14% of students did not complete their antibiotics course. Of these, 57% were medical students, and 43% were nonmedical students. The rate of self-medication among higher classes was more as compared to lower classes. About 58% of students overdosed the antibiotic, while 15% had antibiotics for <3 days, for treatment of ailments such as acne, toothache, diarrhea, earache, and tonsillitis. About 75% of students purchased the antibiotics in consultation with a pharmacist. Conclusion: Self-medication is a frequent problem among university students in Benghazi city. There is a need for an immediate intervention to address this malpractice among both students and medical practitioners.

  13. Social context and perspectives of non-medical prescription opioid use among young adults in Rhode Island: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedinak, Jesse L; Kinnard, Elizabeth N; Hadland, Scott E; Green, Traci C; Clark, Melissa A; Marshall, Brandon D L

    2016-12-01

    This pilot study examined the context of nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use and related risk behaviors among young adults in Rhode Island, a New England region with markedly high prevalence of NMPO use and overdose mortality. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 13) with young adults (18-29 year-olds) who reported current or recent NMPO use. We also conducted focus groups (two groups, n = 14 total) with professional service providers recruited from service organizations. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed, and key themes were analyzed. Participants discussed high levels of access to prescription opioids for nonmedical use via prescriptions originally provided to family and friends. The contexts described by participants included social environments such as parties, in which mixing opiates with benzodiazepines, alcohol or other types of drugs, and incidents of unintentional overdose were reported. Participants attributed risk for overdose to individual-level factors (eg, users who "couldn't handle it"), rather than contextual factors, and described negative reactions to being labeled as an "addict" or "addicted." Professional service providers had first-hand experience with young adults in treatment settings, yet limited exposure to young adults who were treatment-naïve. Young adult NMPO users described social settings where polysubstance use and pill use were common, and highlighted an aversion to being labeled as having a substance use disorder. To reduce harms of NMPO use among young adults, interventions should address the social context in which drug use and risk behaviors occur. (Am J Addict 2016;25:659-665). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  14. Antibiotics self-medication among medical and nonmedical students at two prominent Universities in Benghazi City, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaieth, Mohamed F; Elhag, Sara R M; Hussien, Mamoun E; Konozy, Emad H E

    2015-01-01

    Trivial use of antibiotics is a major reason for the spread of antibiotics resistance. The aim behind undertaking this investigation was to study the prevalence antibiotics self-medication among university students in Benghazi city. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional, survey was conducted at both Libyan International Medical University and Benghazi University. A total of 665 copies of questionnaires was distributed. A total of 363 forms were completed and returned (response rate 55%). Remaining responses were either with no antibiotics use history within the past 1 year or were provided incomplete. Among the respondents, 45% were males and 55% females. Males practiced self-medication more compared to females. Approximately, 43% and 46% from medical and nonmedical students, respectively, were antibiotics self-medicated. A total of 153 students (42%) out of total respondents administered antibiotics for symptoms related to respiratory problems, among which 74 students (48%) took antibiotics based on doctor's prescription. Among the respondents, 94 students (27%) who had antibiotics, were covered under medical insurance, and 19 (29%) of the medically insured students had antibiotics without doctor's prescription. About 14% of students did not complete their antibiotics course. Of these, 57% were medical students, and 43% were nonmedical students. The rate of self-medication among higher classes was more as compared to lower classes. About 58% of students overdosed the antibiotic, while 15% had antibiotics for <3 days, for treatment of ailments such as acne, toothache, diarrhea, earache, and tonsillitis. About 75% of students purchased the antibiotics in consultation with a pharmacist. Self-medication is a frequent problem among university students in Benghazi city. There is a need for an immediate intervention to address this malpractice among both students and medical practitioners.

  15. Antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections: a mixed-methods study of patient experiences of non-medical prescriber management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Molly; Rowbotham, Samantha; Lim, Rosemary; Deslandes, Rhian; Hodson, Karen; MacLure, Katie; Peters, Sarah; Stewart, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Objective To (1) explore patients' expectations and experiences of nurse and pharmacist non-medical prescriber-led management of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (2) examine whether patient expectations for antibiotics affect the likelihood of receiving them and (3) understand factors influencing patient satisfaction with RTI consultations. Design Mixed methods. Setting Primary care. Participants Questionnaires from 120 patients and follow-up interviews with 22 patients and 16 nurse and pharmacist non-medical prescribers (NMPs). Results Patients had multiple expectations of their consultation with 43% expecting to be prescribed an antibiotic. There was alignment between self-reported patient expectations and those perceived by NMPs. Patient expectations for non-antibiotic strategies, such as education to promote self-management, were associated with receipt of those strategies, whereas patient expectations for an antibiotic were not associated with receipt of these medications. ‘Patient-centred’ management strategies (including reassurance and providing information) were received by 86.7% of patients. Regardless of patients' expectations or the management strategy employed, high levels of satisfaction were reported for all aspects of the consultation. Taking concerns seriously, conducting a physical examination, communicating the treatment plan, explaining treatment decisions and lack of time restrictions were each reported to contribute to patient satisfaction. Conclusions NMPs demonstrate an understanding of patient expectations of RTI consultations and use a range of non-antibiotic management strategies, particularly those resembling a patient-centred approach. Overall, patients' expectations were met and prescribers were not unduly influenced by patient expectations for an antibiotic. Patients were satisfied with the consultation, indicating that strategies used by NMPs were acceptable. However, the lower levels of satisfaction among patients who

  16. [A case management programme for women with breast cancer: results of a written survey of participating medical and non-medical networking-partners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büscher, C; Thorenz, A; Grochocka, A; Koch, U; Watzke, B

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer patients are as a rule in need of a multiple sequential in-patient, day-patient and out-patient permanent treatment. The required care demands a trans-sectoral networking of all multi-professional persons involved in diagnostics, therapies, rehabilitation and aftercare. A method to develop the integration of treatment processes, as well as thereby resulting in increased effectiveness and efficiency, can constitute the concept of case management. A prerequisite for an effective implementation of case management and thus the starting point of the present survey is a well-functioning network encompassing optimal cooperation. Within the framework of the evaluation of the case management-based integrated care model "mammaNetz" for women with mamma carcinoma as a whole and against the background of the potential for innovation and improvement of case management on the one hand as well as the existence of only few empirical data otherwise, the present survey of members of a trans-sectoral network of the service centre was accomplished. Medical and non-medical networking partners of the service centre (N=168) were questioned by regular mail about different aspects of the cooperation. Identical items in both surveys were compared. The return rate for the medical networking partners is about 59% (n=35), whereby only medical network partners in private practice participated in the survey. For the non-medical networking partners about 60% (n=66) participated. Medical networking partners assess the cooperation with the service centre in reference to the exchange of information slightly more positively (66%) than the non-medical networking partners (59%). Medical networking partners are in significantly more frequent contact with the service centre and see in the cooperation significantly more advantages for their own office/facility (each with p=0.001) than non-medical networking partners. Overall the results suggest that medical as well as non-medical networking

  17. Extending the boundaries of the Declaration of Helsinki: a case study of an unethical experiment in a non-medical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, E D; Barach, P; Berman, T; Ben-David, G; Weinberger, Z

    2001-04-01

    To examine the ethical issues involved in governmental decisions with potential health risks, we review the history of the decision to raise the interurban speed limit in Israel in light of its impact on road death and injury. In 1993, the Israeli Ministry of Transportation initiated an "experiment" to raise the interurban speed limit from 90 to 100 kph. The "experiment" did not include a protocol and did not specify cut-off points for early termination in the case of adverse results. After the raise in the speed limit, the death toll on interurban roads rose as a result of a sudden increase in speeds and case fatality rates. The committee's decision is a case study in unfettered human experimentation and public health risks when the setting is non-medical and lacks a defined ethical framework. The case study states the case for extending Helsinki type safeguards to experimentation in non-medical settings.

  18. Development of a Modified Korean East Asian Student Stress Inventory by Comparing Stress Levels in Medical Students with Those in Non-Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Kon; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lim, Sun-Hye; Yang, Jeong Hee; Chae, Sunguk

    2016-01-01

    Medical students are usually under more stress than that experienced by non-medical students. Stress testing tools for Korean medical students have not been sufficiently studied. Thus, we adapted and modified the East Asian Student Stress Inventory (EASSI), a stress testing tool for Korean students studying abroad, and verified its usefulness as a stress test in Korean university students. We also compared and analyzed stress levels between medical and non-medical students. A questionnaire survey was conducted on medical and non-medical students of a national university, and the responses of 224 students were analyzed for this study. Factor analysis and reliability testing were performed based on data collected for 25 adapted EASSI questions and those on the Korean version of the Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale (GARSS). A correlation analysis was performed between the 13 modified EASSI questions and the GARSS, and validity of the modified EASSI was verified by directly comparing stress levels between the two student groups. The 13 questions adapted for the EASSI were called the modified EASSI and classified into four factors through a factor analysis and reliability testing. The Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between the modified EASSI and the Korean version of the GARSS, suggesting a complementary strategy of using both tests. The validity and reliability of the EASSI were verified. The modified Korean EASSI could be a useful stress test for Korean medical students. Our results show that medical students were under more stress than that of non-medical students. Thus, these results could be helpful for managing stress in medical students.

  19. WHAT ROLE SHOULD PUBLIC OPINION PLAY IN ETHICO-LEGAL DECISION MAKING? THE EXAMPLE OF SELECTING SEX FOR NON-MEDICAL REASONS USING PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovargue, Sara; Bennett, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we consider the prohibition on the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis to select an embryo on the basis of its sex for non -: medical reasons. We use this as a case study to explore the role that public consultations have and should play in ethico-legal decision-making. Until the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 was amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008, non-medical sex selection of an embryo was not statutorily regulated, but it was the policy of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority that such selection should not occur. However, since 2009, it has been a criminal offence to select an embryo on the basis of its sex for non-medical reasons. We consider the reasons given for this change and explore the role that 'public opinion' had in the decision-making process. On the face of it, asking the public what they think seems reasonable, fair and democratic, and those who are not in favour of public consultations being accorded great weight in matters of policy may appear out of touch and as wanting to impose their moral views on the public at large. But there are problems with doing so, especially when seeking to regulate ethically controversial issues. We discuss whether regulation should be influenced by public opinion obtained via 'public consultations', and utilise sex selection for non-medical reasons as an example of how (apparently) public opinion was used to support the criminalisation of this practice.

  20. Sequential pattern of non-medical drug use in the drug career of opiate dependents in Nagpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairagkar, N S; Wahab, S N; Kulkarni, H R

    1996-12-01

    A study was carried out in a group of opiate addicts who reported to various centers in Nagpur city, India, to know the sequential pattern of nonmedical drug use in the drug career of opiate dependents in Nagpur. The mean age of the study group was 28.2 years, the majority were males, educated up to 10th standard, employed in various occupations like petty business, vehicle driving, etc, with an average monthly income of Rs. 316. The average number of drugs ever used per person was 3.7 +/- 1.2, those recently used was 2.6 +/- 0.9 and currently used was 2.2 +/- 0.6. The study group experienced 13 drug types in their addict careers. Beedi¿cigarette was the first drug abused by the majority. Drug careers starting with beedi¿cigarette, progressing to alcohol and then to canabis and finally to heroin were observed in a majority of subjects. There appeared to be a shift from multidrug use to the singular combination of heroin and beedi¿cigarette currently. Use of all other drugs declined in favor of heroin as the career progressed. The study indicates that preventive programs should be directed at reducing the use of initial drugs like beedi¿cigarette and alcohol and also reducing the social acceptability of these drugs as measure for preventing progression to hard drugs like heroin.

  1. a Laboratory-Based X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging Scanner with Applications in Biomedical and Non-Medical Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C. K.; Diemoz, P. C.; Endrizzi, M.; Munro, P. R. T.; Szafraniec, M. B.; Millard, T. P.; Speller, R.; Olivo, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) provides a much higher visibility of low-absorbing details than conventional, attenuation-based radiography. This is due to the fact that image contrast is determined by the unit decrement of the real part of the complex refractive index of an object rather than by its imaginary part (the absorption coefficient), which can be up to 1000 times larger for energies in the X-ray regime. This finds applications in many areas, including medicine, biology, material testing, and homeland security. Until lately, XPCi has been restricted to synchrotron facilities due to its demanding coherence requirements on the radiation source. However, edge illumination XPCi, first developed by one of the authors at the ELETTRA Synchrotron in Italy, substantially relaxes these requirements and therefore provides options to overcome this problem. Our group has built a prototype scanner that adapts the edge-illumination concept to standard laboratory conditions and extends it to large fields of view. This is based on X-ray sources and detectors available off the shelf, and its use has led to impressive results in mammography, cartilage imaging, testing of composite materials and security inspection. This article presents the method and the scanner prototype, and reviews its applications in selected biomedical and non-medical disciplines.

  2. Associations Between the Big Five Personality Traits and the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs for Cognitive Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Sebastian; Schunck, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    While the number of studies of the non-medical use of prescription drugs to augment cognitive functions is growing steadily, psychological factors that can potentially help explain variance in such pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (CE) behavior are often neglected in research. This study investigates the association between the Big Five personality traits and a retrospective (prior CE-drug use) as well as a prospective (willingness to use CE drugs) measure of taking prescription drugs with the purpose of augmenting one's cognitive functions (e.g., concentration, memory, or vigilance) without medical necessity. We use data from a large representative survey of German employees (N = 6454, response rate = 29.8%). The Five Factor Model (FFM) of Personality was measured with a short version of the Big Five Personality Traits Inventory (BFI-S), which includes: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Together with this, demographic variables such as gender, age, education, and income were used as potential confounders in multiple logistic regression models. Our results show a 2.96% lifetime prevalence of CE-drug use and a 10.45% willingness to (re)use such drugs in the future. We found that less conscientious and more neurotic respondents have a higher probability of prior CE-drug use and a greater willingness to use CE drugs in the future. No significant effects were found for openness, extraversion, or agreeableness. Prior CE-drug use was strongly associated with a greater willingness to take such drugs in the future. This study shows that specific personality traits are not only associated with prior enhancement behavior, but also affect the willingness to (re)use such drugs. It helps increase understanding of the risk factors of CE-drug use, which is a health-related behavior that can entail severe side-effects for consumers. The knowledge gathered can thus help improve interventions aimed at minimizing health

  3. The attitude of the female students of medical and non-medical fields of studies towards the cervical cancer prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Olejniczak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The mortality of women with cervical cancer is one of the main problems of oncology. Poland is a country with high morbidity and mortality for this type of malignancy. In 2007, the incidence was 11.8 and the mortality was 5.0 per 100.000. Despite the availability of free Pap tests and many prevention campaigns, the incidence in Poland has remained at a constantly high level for several years. This prompted us to examine the degree of knowledge of different groups of the population about prophylaxis Aim of the research: To determine the knowledge and attitudes of students towards the prevention of cervical cancer. Material and methods: The study group are students of medical and non-medical faculties, who in total accounted for a panel of 112 people. The study was conducted at two universities: the Medical University of Warsaw and Kielce University of Technology. The diagnostic survey method: the study took the form of an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 25 closed questions on cervical cancer and its prevention. To determine whether there is a relationship between the subsidiaries, we used statistical methods such as test compliance χ 2 for a confidence level of p = 0.05, and r-Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Training in the medical school is associated with having more knowledge in the field of medicine. Conclusions: Although the respondents most frequently declared that the main reason for them reporting to a gynaecologist was for regular check-ups, the percentage of the response was insufficient to conclude that students appreciate the role of secondary prevention of cervical cancer.

  4. Impact of Non-medical Out-of-pocket Expenses on Families of Children With Cerebral Palsy Following Orthopaedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Judith A; DiFazio, Rachel L; Strout, Tania D; Snyder, Brian D

    2017-07-24

    Limited research has been conducted on the non-medical out-of-pocket expenses (NOOPEs) incurred by families of children with chronic health conditions. The study objectives were to: 1) calculate the estimated NOOPEs incurred by families during hospitalization of their child, 2) identify predictors of high NOOPEs, and 3) assess the impact of the child's chronic health condition on the family's finances. Prospective observational study. Parents were included if their child was 3-20years old, had severe, non-ambulatory cerebral palsy (CP), and scheduled for hip or spine surgery. Parents reported all NOOPEs incurred during their child's hospitalization using the Family Expense Diary. Families completed the subscales of the Impact on Family Scale and the Assessment of Caregivers Experience with Neuromuscular Disease. Descriptive and univariate and multiple hierarchical regression models were used in the analysis. Fifty two parents participated. The total NOOPEs ranged from $193.00 to $7192.71 (M=$2001.92) per hospitalization representing an average of 4% of the family's annual earned income. Caregiver age (F=8.393, phospital (F=4.497, p=0.039) were significant predictors of high NOOPEs. The subscale scores indicated that a child's chronic health condition had a significant impact on family finances. Hospitalization is associated with numerous NOOPEs that create additional financial demands for families caring for a child with severe CP. NOOPEs should be addressed when preparing families for their children's planned hospital admissions, especially those families of CSHCN who experience significant financial impacts secondary to their children's care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender Differences in Emergency Department Visits and Detox Referrals for Illicit and Nonmedical Use of Opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ju Ryoo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visits to the emergency department (ED for use of illicit drugs and opioids have increased in the past decade. In the ED, little is known about how gender may play a role in drug-related visits and referrals to treatment. This study performs gender-based comparison analyses of drug-related ED visits nationwide. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data collected from 2004 to 2011 by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN. All data were coded to capture major drug categories and opioids. We used logistic regression models to find associations between gender and odds of referral to treatment programs. A second set of models were controlled for patient “seeking detox,” or patient explicitly requesting for detox referral. Results: Of the 27.9 million ED visits related to drug use in the DAWN database, visits by men were 2.69 times more likely to involve illicit drugs than visits by women (95% CI [2.56, 2.80]. Men were more likely than women to be referred to detox programs for any illicit drugs (OR 1.12, 95% CI [1.02-1.22], for each of the major illicit drugs (e.g., cocaine: OR 1.27, 95% CI [1.15-1.40], and for prescription opioids (OR 1.30, 95% CI [1.17-1.43]. This significant association prevailed after controlling for “seeking detox.” Conclusion: Women are less likely to receive referrals to detox programs than men when presenting to the ED regardless of whether they are “seeking detox.” Future research may help determine the cause for this gender-based difference and its significance for healthcare costs and health outcomes.

  6. Roles of the non-medical prescribing leads within organisations across a Strategic Health Authority: perceived functions and factors supporting the role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rosemary Hwee Mei; Courtenay, Molly; Fleming, Gail

    2013-04-01

    Extending the roles of nurses, pharmacists and allied health professionals to include prescribing has been identified as one way of improving service provision. In the UK, over 50 000 non-medical healthcare professionals are now qualified to prescribe. Implementation of non-medical prescribing ( NMP) is crucial to realise the potential return on investment. The UK Department of Health recommends a NMP lead to be responsible for the implementation of NMP within organisations. The aim of this study was to explore the role of NMP leads in organisations across one Strategic Health Authority (SHA) and to inform future planning with regards to the criteria for those adopting this role, the scope of the role and factors enabling the successful execution of the role. Thirty-nine NMP leads across one SHA were approached. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted. Issues explored included the perceived role of the NMP lead, safety and clinical governance procedures and facilitators to the role. Transcribed audiotapes were coded and analysed using thematic analytical techniques. In total, 27/39 (69.2%) NMP leads were interviewed. The findings highlight the key role that the NMP lead plays with regards to the support and development of NMP within National Health Service trusts. Processes used to appoint NMP leads lacked clarity and varied between trusts. Only two NMP leads had designated or protected time for their role. Strategic influence, operational management and clinical governance were identified as key functions. Factors that supported the role included organisational support, level of influence and dedicated time. The NMP lead plays a significant role in the development and implementation of NMP. Clear national guidance is needed with regards to the functions of this role, the necessary attributes for individuals recruited into this post and the time that should be designated to it. This is important as prescribing is extended to include other groups of

  7. Knowledge and awareness about breast cancer and its early symptoms among medical and non-medical students of Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Mamoona; Murad, Sheeba; Furqan, Muhammad; Sultan, Aneesa; Bloodsworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally but has an even more significant impact in developing countries. Pakistan has the highest prevalence among Asian countries. A general lack of public awareness regarding the disease often results in late diagnosis and poor treatment outcomes. The literacy rate of the Southern Punjab (Pakistan) is low compared to its Northern part. It is therefore vital that university students and especially medical students develop a sound knowledge about the disease so that they can spread awareness to others who may be less educated. This study therefore considers current knowledge and understanding about the early signs of breast cancer amongst a study group of medical and non-medical university students of the Southern Punjab, Pakistan. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis of the university students was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire to assess their awareness of breast cancer from March to May 2014. A total of 566 students participated in this study, out of which 326 were non-medical and 240 were from a medical discipline. Statistical analysis was carried out using Graph Pad Prism Version 5 with a significance level set at pstudents were aware of the early warning signs of the breast cancer development. Knowledge of medical students about risk factors was significantly better than the non medical ones, but on the whole was insufficient. Our study indicated that knowledge regarding breast cancer was generally insufficient amongst the majority of the university students (75% non-medical and 55% medical) of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. This study highlights the need to formulate an awareness campaign and to organize conferences to promote breast cancer awareness among students in this region.

  8. Investigation into Self-Medication of Drugs for Primary and Adjunct Therapy in Psychiatric Diseases Among Students in Chittagong City of Bangladesh: A Comparison Between Medical and Nonmedical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nishat; Haque, Ahsanul; Aysha, Farjana

    2012-01-01

    Background: All kinds of drugs are available over the counter in Bangladesh. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the over the counter use of self medicated drugs for primary and adjunct therapy in psychiatric diseases among medical and nonmedical students. Materials and Methods: 101 medical students and 186 nonmedical students were found, who used at least one of the nine drugs (believed as antipsychotics among nonmedical people) under survey within 6 months prior to survey date. The nine drugs used for survey were domperidone, sertraline, amitriptyline, midazolam, diazepam, prochlorperazine bromazepam, flupentixol–melitracen, and clonazepam. Statistical Analysis: Snowball sampling method was used. The symptoms, diseases, etc. of the students and the length of therapies they had followed for the respective drugs were noted. Results: Among nonmedical students, several cases were found where drugs were being self medicated in wrong indications, for example, use of flupentixol melitracen and domperidone to treat headache. Conclusion: The nonmedical students chose the fast acting drugs having the strongest effects for self medication. PMID:23723537

  9. Investigation into Self-Medication of Drugs for Primary and Adjunct Therapy in Psychiatric Diseases Among Students in Chittagong City of Bangladesh: A Comparison Between Medical and Nonmedical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: All kinds of drugs are available over the counter in Bangladesh. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the over the counter use of self medicated drugs for primary and adjunct therapy in psychiatric diseases among medical and nonmedical students. Materials and Methods: 101 medical students and 186 nonmedical students were found, who used at least one of the nine drugs (believed as antipsychotics among nonmedical people under survey within 6 months prior to survey date. The nine drugs used for survey were domperidone, sertraline, amitriptyline, midazolam, diazepam, prochlorperazine bromazepam, flupentixol-melitracen, and clonazepam. Statistical Analysis: Snowball sampling method was used. The symptoms, diseases, etc. of the students and the length of therapies they had followed for the respective drugs were noted. Results: Among nonmedical students, several cases were found where drugs were being self medicated in wrong indications, for example, use of flupentixol melitracen and domperidone to treat headache. Conclusion: The nonmedical students chose the fast acting drugs having the strongest effects for self medication.

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Volume 14, No. 1, Part 3, Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Material Licensees (non-Medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  11. [Artificial illness as a result of non-medical use of anabolic androgenic steroids: A case report and a review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povzun, S A

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old female body builder who had used anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) for 18 years to build up muscle mass died from liver rupture. The cause of the latter was multiple abscesses caused by Actinomyces, which developed in the presence of immunodeficiency. The postmortem changes in different organs were due to hormonal imbalance. The paper gives the data available in the literature pertaining to the analysis of the effects of AASs taken in supraphysiological doses on the body and their non-medical application.

  12. Outcome disparities between medical personnel and nonmedical personnel patients receiving definitive surgery for colorectal cancer: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Lin, Chun-Chi; Lee, Yu-Ting; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in quality of care have always been a major challenge in health care. Providing information to patients may help to narrow such disparities. However, the relationship between level of patient information and outcomes remains to be explored. More importantly, would better-informed patients have better outcomes through their choice of higher quality providers? We hypothesize that medical professionals may have better outcomes than nonmedical professionals following definitive surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC), and their choice of provider may mediate this relationship. We identified 61,728 patients with CRC receiving definitive surgery between 2005 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical professionals were identified via the registry for medical personnel. Indicators for surgical outcome such as emergency room (ER) visits within 30 days, medical expenses, length of hospital stay (LOS), and 5-year mortality were analyzed by using fixed and random effects multivariate regression models. Compared with nonmedical personnel CRC patients, a greater proportion of medical personnel received definitive surgery from higher volume surgeons (median 390 vs 311 within the study period) and/or in higher volume hospitals (median 1527 vs 1312 within the study period). CRC patients who are medical personnel had a shorter median LOS (12 vs 14 days), lower median medical expenses (112,687 vs 121,332 New Taiwan dollars), a lower ER visit rate within 30 days (11.3% vs 13.0%), and lower 5-year mortality. After adjusting for patient characteristics, medical personnel had a significantly lower hazard of 5-year mortality, and were significantly more likely to have a LOS shorter than 14 days than their nonmedical personnel counterparts. However, after adjusting for patient and provider characteristics, while medical personnel were significantly less likely to have a long LOS, no significant difference was observed in 5-year mortality between

  13. Pharmacology as a foreign language: a preliminary evaluation of podcasting as a supplementary learning tool for non-medical prescribing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Oonagh; Bowskill, Dianne; Lymn, Joanne S

    2009-12-18

    Nurses and other health professionals in the U.K. can gain similar prescribing rights to doctors by undertaking a non-medical prescribing course. Non-medical prescribing students must have a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of prescribing to ensure safe practice. Pharmacology education at this level is complicated by the variation in students' prior subject knowledge of, and anxiety about, the subject. The recent advances in technology, particularly the potential for mobile learning, provide increased opportunities for students to familiarise themselves with lecture materials and hence promote understanding. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate both the subjective (student perception) and objective (student use and exam results) usefulness of podcasts of pharmacology lectures which were provided as an extra learning tool to two cohorts (n = 69) of non-medical prescribing students. The podcasts were made available to students through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Use of podcasts by two successive cohorts of nurse prescribing students (n = 69) was tracked through WebCT. Survey data, which was collected from 44 of these students, investigated patterns of/reasons for podcast use and perceived usefulness of podcasts as a learning tool. Of these 69 students, 64 completed the pharmacology exam. In order to examine any impact of podcasts on student knowledge, their exam results were compared with those of two historical cohorts who did not have access to podcasts (n = 70). WebCT tracking showed that 91% of students accessed at least one podcast. 93% of students used the podcasts to revisit a lecture, 85% used podcasts for revision, and 61% used the podcasts when they had a specific question. Only 22% used the podcasts because they had missed a pharmacology session. Most students (81%) generally listened to the entire podcast rather than specific sections and most (73%) used them while referring to their lecture handouts. The majority of

  14. Pharmacology as a foreign language: A preliminary evaluation of podcasting as a supplementary learning tool for non-medical prescribing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lymn Joanne S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses and other health professionals in the U.K. can gain similar prescribing rights to doctors by undertaking a non-medical prescribing course. Non-medical prescribing students must have a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of prescribing to ensure safe practice. Pharmacology education at this level is complicated by the variation in students' prior subject knowledge of, and anxiety about, the subject. The recent advances in technology, particularly the potential for mobile learning, provide increased opportunities for students to familiarise themselves with lecture materials and hence promote understanding. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate both the subjective (student perception and objective (student use and exam results usefulness of podcasts of pharmacology lectures which were provided as an extra learning tool to two cohorts (n = 69 of non-medical prescribing students. Methods The podcasts were made available to students through the virtual learning environment WebCT. Use of podcasts by two successive cohorts of nurse prescribing students (n = 69 was tracked through WebCT. Survey data, which was collected from 44 of these students, investigated patterns of/reasons for podcast use and perceived usefulness of podcasts as a learning tool. Of these 69 students, 64 completed the pharmacology exam. In order to examine any impact of podcasts on student knowledge, their exam results were compared with those of two historical cohorts who did not have access to podcasts (n = 70. Results WebCT tracking showed that 91% of students accessed at least one podcast. 93% of students used the podcasts to revisit a lecture, 85% used podcasts for revision, and 61% used the podcasts when they had a specific question. Only 22% used the podcasts because they had missed a pharmacology session. Most students (81% generally listened to the entire podcast rather than specific sections and most (73% used them while

  15. Extending the boundaries of the Declaration of Helsinki: a case study of an unethical experiment in a non-medical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, E.; Barach, P.; Berman, T.; Ben-David, G; Weinberger, Z.

    2001-01-01

    To examine the ethical issues involved in governmental decisions with potential health risks, we review the history of the decision to raise the interurban speed limit in Israel in light of its impact on road death and injury. In 1993, the Israeli Ministry of Transportation initiated an "experiment" to raise the interurban speed limit from 90 to 100 kph. The "experiment" did not include a protocol and did not specify cut-off points for early termination in the case of adverse results. After the raise in the speed limit, the death toll on interurban roads rose as a result of a sudden increase in speeds and case fatality rates. The committee's decision is a case study in unfettered human experimentation and public health risks when the setting is non-medical and lacks a defined ethical framework. The case study states the case for extending Helsinki type safeguards to experimentation in non-medical settings. Key Words: Declaration of Helsinki • human experimentation • speed limit PMID:11314157

  16. The role of patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical channels in fruit and vegetable intake among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Martinez, Lourdes; Lewis, Nehama; Freres, Derek; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    Previous research suggests positive effects of health information seeking on prevention behaviors such as diet, exercise, and fruit and vegetable consumption. The present study builds upon this research and strengthens causal claims from it by examining the lagged effect of patient-clinician information engagement on fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the indirect effect on the outcome through seeking information from nonmedical channels. The results are based on data collected from a randomly drawn sample of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry who completed mail surveys in the Fall of 2006 and 2007. There was a 65% response rate for baseline subjects (resulting n = 2,013); of those, 1,293 were interviewed 1 year later, and 1,257 were available for our analyses. Results show a positive lagged main effect of patient-clinician information engagement at baseline on fruit and vegetable consumption at follow-up (B = 0.26, SE = 0.10, p = .01). The mediation analysis shows that patient-clinician information engagement leads to increased fruit and vegetable consumption among cancer patients, in part through patients' information seeking from nonmedical channels. Implications of these findings for the cancer patient population and for physicians are discussed.

  17. Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Non-medical Prescribing versus Medical Prescribing for Acute and Chronic Disease Management in Primary and Secondary Care. Cochrane Database Syst Ver. 2016;11:CD011227.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Silva Duarte

    2017-01-01

    of evidence, among others. Prescription by pharmacists and nurses with different levels of undergraduate, specific and postgraduate education could provide comparable outcomes to medical prescription, specifically with regards to adherence to therapy, adverse events, overall satisfaction, quality of life, and resource utilisation (hospitalisations, visits to the emergency department, and consultations. Non-medical prescribers frequently had medical support available to facilitate a collaborative practice. With appropriate training and support, non-medical prescription by nurses and pharmacists can be as effective as when carried out by doctors.

  18. Non-medical use of methylphenidate: a review Uso não terapêutico do metilfenidato: uma revisão

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    Luana Freese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant medication used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. However, it has also been used for non-medical purposes, e.g. to produce euphoria, to increase self-esteem, and to achieve the so-called neurocognitive enhancement, decreasing the feeling of tiredness and increasing focus and attention. OBJECTIVE: To describe, from theoretical and contextual points of view, the potential for abuse and non-medical use of methylphenidate. METHOD: The PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords in Portuguese: metilfenidato, transtorno do déficit de atenção com hiperatividade, facilitadores dos processos cognitivos or agentes nootrópicos, and abuso de substâncias; and in English: methylphenidate, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, cognitive enhancement or nootropic agents, and substance abuse. Studies published between 1990 and 2010 were selected for review. RESULTS: Non-medical use of methylphenidate is a relevant topic that raises important ethical and scientific questions in several areas, e.g. pharmacological and neurobiological characteristics, evidence of methylphenidate use, forms of non-medical use of methylphenidate, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic application of methylphenidate. According to the review, methylphenidate can generally influence performance as a result of its stimulatory effect. Notwithstanding, evidence does not support the conclusion that it can enhance cognitive performance. CONCLUSION: Health professionals need to acquire expert knowledge and inform patients and their families on the methylphenidate potential for abuse when used with non-medical purposes.INTRODUÇÃO: O metilfenidato é um medicamento psicoestimulante usado no tratamento do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e da narcolepsia. No entanto, a droga também vem sendo utilizada com fins não terap

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF COMBINATION NON-MEDICAL TREATMENT INCLUDING FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMED ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON THE CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

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    V. V. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of physical disability in pediatric  age. The search for new methods and improvement of old rehabil- itation techniques is ongoing, due to low efficacy of the latter. Aim: To assess the efficacy of a func- tional programmed electrical muscle stimulation as a part  of combination treatment of patients with cerebral palsy in the form of spastic diplegia. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of treatment of 71 children with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia, who had  been  randomized  into two groups  depending on the type of treatment. In  the  first group,  the  patients  (n = 38 received a course of functional programmed electric stim- ulation  in combination with  other  non-medical treatment  methods.  The  second   group   (n = 33 underwent a usual  course  of electrical  stimula- tion in combination with non-medical  treatment, similar to that  in the first group. The third group (control   included   41   children   without    cere- bral palsy. Clinical and  instrumental parameters were  assessed  in all study  participants. Results: After the course of combination treatment in the group  1, the  tonus  of m. gastrocnemius was de- creased significantly by 41%, that of the posterior group  of femur muscles by 43%, adductor group of femur muscles by 36%. In the group  2, the re- spective parameters decreased by 24, 21 and 21%. Muscle power  endurance was  increased  signifi- cantly in patients of both groups: that of long back extensors by 12.5 and 6.2 sec, of m. rectus abdomi- nis by 10.6 sec and 5.2 sec, of gluteal muscles by 9.3 and 4.6 sec, of m. quadriceps  by 19.8 and 7.2 sec, of m. anterior  tibialis by 12.1 and 4.6 sec, respec- tively. After the  treatment, the  active movement volume in the large joints of lower extremities  in the group 1 patients  improved as follows: by 15.6° in hip joints, by 11.1° in knee joints and by

  20. Concurrent versus simultaneous use of alcohol and non-medical use of prescription drugs: is simultaneous use worse for mental, social, and health issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Deline, Stéphane; Studer, Joseph; N'Goran, Alexandra; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the difference between concurrent and simultaneous use of alcohol and non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) in relation to mental, social, and health issues. The 544 study participants of the Swiss ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF) had a combined use of alcohol with NMUPD during the previous 12 months. Alcohol-related problems (i.e., dependence and consequences), as well as mental, social, and health concerns (i.e., depression, general mental/physical health, and social/health consequences), were assessed. The simultaneous use of alcohol and NMUPD proved to be a greater risk factor for mental, social, and health issues than concurrent use. This study adds information regarding simultaneous polydrug use, which results in distinct effects compared to concurrent use, including important social, psychosocial, and health-related consequences.

  1. Egg freezing for non-medical uses: the lack of a relational approach to autonomy in the new Israeli policy and in academic discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkedi-Rafid, Shiri; Hashiloni-Dolev, Yael

    2012-03-01

    Recently, the Israel National Bioethics Council (INBC) issued recommendations permitting egg freezing to prevent both disease- and age-related fertility decline. The INBC report forms the basis of Israel's new policy, being one of the first countries to regulate and authorise egg freezing for what it considers to be non-medical (ie, social) uses. The ethical discussion in the INBC report is reviewed and compared with the scant ethical discourse in the academic literature on egg freezing as a means of preventing age-related loss of fertility. We argue that both the INBC recommendations and the bioethical academic discourse on egg freezing are grounded in liberal ideology, which views technology as primarily enabling. Accordingly, they promote 'individual autonomy' as exercised through informed consent. Our study suggests that a relational approach to autonomy may be a more suitable model for considering women's choices about egg freezing.

  2. Inter-Rater Reliability of Historical Data Collected by Non-Medical Research Assistants and Physicians in Patients with Acute Abdominal Pain

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    Mills, Angela M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In many academic emergency departments (ED, physicians are asked to record clinical data for research that may be time consuming and distracting from patient care. We hypothesized that non-medical research assistants (RAs could obtain historical information from patients with acute abdominal pain as accurately as physicians.METHODS: Prospective comparative study conducted in an academic ED of 29 RAs to 32 resident physicians (RPs to assess inter-rater reliability in obtaining historical information in abdominal pain patients. Historical features were independently recorded on standardized data forms by a RA and RP blinded to each others' answers. Discrepancies were resolved by a third person (RA who asked the patient to state the correct answer on a third questionnaire, constituting the "criterion standard." Inter-rater reliability was assessed using kappa statistics (kappa and percent crude agreement (CrA.RESULTS: Sixty-five patients were enrolled (mean age 43. Of 43 historical variables assessed, the median agreement was moderate (kappa 0.59 [Interquartile range 0.37-0.69]; CrA 85.9% and varied across data categories: initial pain location (kappa 0.61 [0.59-0.73]; CrA 87.7%, current pain location (kappa 0.60 [0.47-0.67]; CrA 82.8%, past medical history (kappa 0.60 [0.48-0.74]; CrA 93.8%, associated symptoms (kappa 0.38 [0.37-0.74]; CrA 87.7%, and aggravating/alleviating factors (kappa 0.09 [-0.01-0.21]; CrA 61.5%. When there was disagreement between the RP and the RA, the RA more often agreed with the criterion standard (64% [55-71%] than the RP (36% [29-45%].CONCLUSION: Non-medical research assistants who focus on clinical research are often more accurate than physicians, who may be distracted by patient care responsibilities, at obtaining historical information from ED patients with abdominal pain.

  3. Epigenetic Control of Defense Signaling and Priming in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinas, Nino A.; Saze, Hidetoshi; Saijo, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary “arms race” between plants and pathogens. PMID:27563304

  4. Epigenetic control of defense signaling and priming in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Asuela Espinas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR. These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements (TEs as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary arms race between plants and pathogens.

  5. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms and sleep quality on the relationship between the non-medical use of prescription drugs and suicidal behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Xu, Yan; Guo, Lan; Deng, Jian-Xiong; Huang, Jing-Hui; Huang, Guo-Liang; Gao, Xue; Wu, Hong; Pan, Si-Yuan; Lu, Ci-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The nature of the relationship between the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and suicide has not been clearly elucidated. Some studies have suggested that the relationship between substance use and suicidal ideation may be spurious and could be explained by other variables. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed in Guangzhou. A total of 5853 students completed questionnaires and were included in the study. NMUPD, alcohol use, illicit drug use, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and suicidal behaviors were assessed. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms and sleep quality on the relationship between NMUPD and suicidal behaviors were examined using a structural equation model. In the simple model without mediation, a positive relationship between NMUPD and suicidal behaviors in adolescents was found, which was independent of effects from the use of other substances. Both depressive symptoms and sleep quality were significant mediators of this relationship. Public health and educational professionals should survey depressive symptoms and sleep quality and provide interventions when managing suicidal behaviors among adolescents engaging in NMUPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of knowledge of HIV and other factors with individuals' attitudes toward HIV infection: a national cross-sectional survey among the Japanese non-medical working population.

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    Guoqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stigma of and discrimination because of HIV has been described as the most important obstacle to prevention and treatment efforts. The purpose of this study was to investigate negative attitudes and prejudice toward HIV among the Japanese non-medical working population and to explore contributing factors. METHODS: An online anonymous nationwide survey involving approximately 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. Questions ranged from background information and HIV knowledge to individuals' attitudes towards HIV infection in the workplace. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied for analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of participants feared transmission of HIV from infected colleagues, 34% tended to avoid contact with them and 40% had prejudiced opinions about HIV infection. Despite a relatively high level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS overall (11.9 ± 3.3 from 15 points, only 50% of individuals were aware of some issues. Greater knowledge was associated with less negative attitudes towards HIV infection (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.31-0.48 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low level of knowledge, whereas greater health consciousness was inversely related to attitude (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.50-2.58 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low health consciousness. CONCLUSION: Knowledge neutralizes peoples' negative attitudes towards HIV infection, whereas greater health consciousness may worsen them. Educational programs should balance knowledge with health consciousness to improve the efficacy of HIV interventions.

  7. A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States

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    Darkes Jack

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rule violations among elite-level sports competitors and tragedies among adolescents have largely defined the issue of non-medical anabolic-androgenic steroid (NMAAS use for the public and policy makers. However, the predominant and oft-ignored segment of the NMAAS community exists in the general population that is neither participating in competitive sports nor adolescent. A clearer profile of NMAAS users within the general population is an initial step in developing a full understanding of NMAAS use and devising appropriate policy and interventions. This survey sought to provide a more comprehensive profile of NMAAS users by accessing a large sample of user respondents from around the United States. Methods U.S.-based male NMAAS users (n = 1955 were recruited from various Internet websites dedicated to resistance training activities and use of ergogenic substances, mass emails, and print media to participate in a 291-item web-based survey. The Internet was utilized to provide a large and geographically diverse sample with the greatest degree of anonymity to facilitate participation. Results The majority of respondents did not initiate AAS use during adolescence and their NMAAS use was not motivated by athletics. The typical user was a Caucasian, highly-educated, gainfully employed professional approximately 30 years of age, who was earning an above-average income, was not active in organized sports, and whose use was motivated by increases in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and physical attractiveness. These findings question commonly held views of the typical NMAAS user and the associated underlying motivations. Conclusion The focus on "cheating" athletes and at risk youth has led to ineffective policy as it relates to the predominant group of NMAAS users. Effective policy, prevention or intervention should address the target population(s and their reasons for use while utilizing their desire for responsible use and

  8. Daily sleep quality affects drug craving, partially through indirect associations with positive affect, in patients in treatment for nonmedical use of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon-Staley, David M; Cleveland, H Harrington; Huhn, Andrew S; Cleveland, Michael J; Harris, Jonathan; Stankoski, Dean; Deneke, Erin; Meyer, Roger E; Bunce, Scott C

    2017-02-01

    Sleep disturbance has been identified as a risk factor for relapse in addiction to a range of substances. The relationship between sleep quality and treatment outcome has received relatively little attention in research on nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). This study examined the within-person association between sleep quality and craving in medically detoxified patients in residence for the treatment of NMUPD. Participants (n=68) provided daily reports of their sleep quality, negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA), and craving for an average of 9.36 (SD=2.99) days. Within-person associations of sleep quality and craving were examined using multilevel modeling. Within-person mediation analyses were used to evaluate the mediating roles of NA and PA in the relationship between sleep quality and craving. Greater cravings were observed on days of lower than usual sleep quality (γ10=-0.10, p=0.003). Thirty-one percent of the overall association between sleep quality and craving was explained by PA, such that poorer sleep quality was associated with lower PA and, in turn, lower PA was associated with greater craving. No evidence emerged for an indirect association between sleep quality and craving through NA. Daily fluctuations in sleep quality were associated with fluctuations in craving, an association partially explained by the association between sleep quality and daily PA. These data encourage further research on the relationship between sleep, affect, and craving in NMUPD patients, as well as in patients with other substance use disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of Medication and Nonmedication Methods on Working Memory of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Ahmadpanah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Working memory is the ability to keep and manipulate information in a short time. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are among the people suffering from deficiency in the active memory, and this deficiency has been attributed to the problem of frontal lobe. This study utilized a new approach with suitable tasks and methods for training active memory and assessment of its effects. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of medicinal and behavioral therapies on working memory of children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Patients and Methods The children participating in this study were 7 - 15 years old, and were diagnosed with ADHD by the psychiatrist and psychologist based on DSM-IV criteria. The intervention group comprised 8 boys and 6 girls with the average age of 11 (± 2 years, and the control group comprised 2 girls and 5 boys with an average age of 11.4 (± 3. Three children in the test group and 2 in the control group were under medicinal therapy. Results Training of working memory significantly improved the performance in nontrained areas as visual-spatial working memory as well as the performance in Raven progressive tests which are a perfect example of nonverbal, complicated reasoning tasks. Conclusions The performance of working memory improved through training, and these trainings extended to other areas of cognition functions not receiving any training. Trainings resulted in the improvement of performance in the tasks related to prefrontal area. They had also a positive and significant impact on the movement activities of hyperactive children.

  10. 未服药的强迫障碍患者脑灰质体积异常的MRI研究%Abnormal brain gray matter volume in non-medicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A MRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 李占江; 罗佳; 郭志华; 韩海英; 熊红芳; 姚淑敏

    2012-01-01

    目的:应用脑磁共振成像(MRI)基于体素的形态测量学(VBM)比较未服药的强迫障碍患者脑灰质体积与正常人群间的差异,并探讨强迫障碍患者脑灰质体积的改变与临床现象之间的相关性.方法:纳入符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)诊断标准的20例未服药的强迫障碍门诊患者,以及20名性别、年龄和受教育程度相匹配的健康对照.所有被试均接受头部磁共振扫描.采用VBM的分析方法,比较强迫障碍患者与健康对照之间脑灰质体积的差异.采用耶鲁-布郎强迫量表(Y-BOCS)、汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评估临床症状.在控制焦虑、抑郁症状的前提下,分析强迫障碍患者异常的脑灰质体积与临床现象之间的关系.结果:与对照组相比,强迫障碍组的眶额回、颞上回、颞下回、小脑、楔前叶、辅助运动区及中央后回的灰质体积减少(P<0.05,AlphaSim校正);眶额回灰质体积的减少与Y-BOCS量表总分呈负相关(r=-0.49,P<0.05).结论:本研究结果提示眶额-纹状体-丘脑环路中的眶额回在强迫障碍的发生中起重要的作用,其他脑区如颞叶和小脑灰质体积减少,可能也参与了强迫障碍的发生.%Objective: To explore the gray matter volume in non-medicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and to investigate the correlations between abnormal gray matter volume and clinical symptoms. Methods: Twenty non-medicated patients with OCD and twenty gender-, age-, education-matched healthy subjects participated in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze the MRI data. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) were used to assess clinical symptoms. Total HAMA and HAMD score were taken as covariates to control for comorbid symptoms, and then the partial

  11. Temporal trends in marijuana attitudes, availability and use in Colorado compared to non-medical marijuana states: 2003-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermeyer, Joseph; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Price, Rumi Kato; Balan, Sundari; Thurstone, Christian; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T

    2014-07-01

    In 2009, policy changes were accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of medical marijuana cardholders in Colorado. Little published epidemiological work has tracked changes in the state around this time. Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we tested for temporal changes in marijuana attitudes and marijuana-use-related outcomes in Colorado (2003-11) and differences within-year between Colorado and thirty-four non-medical-marijuana states (NMMS). Using regression analyses, we further tested whether patterns seen in Colorado prior to (2006-8) and during (2009-11) marijuana commercialization differed from patterns in NMMS while controlling for demographics. Within Colorado those reporting "great-risk" to using marijuana 1-2 times/week dropped significantly in all age groups studied between 2007-8 and 2010-11 (e.g. from 45% to 31% among those 26 years and older; p=0.0006). By 2010-11 past-year marijuana abuse/dependence had become more prevalent in Colorado for 12-17 year olds (5% in Colorado, 3% in NMMS; p=0.03) and 18-25 year olds (9% vs. 5%; p=0.02). Regressions demonstrated significantly greater reductions in perceived risk (12-17 year olds, p=0.005; those 26 years and older, p=0.01), and trend for difference in changes in availability among those 26 years and older and marijuana abuse/dependence among 12-17 year olds in Colorado compared to NMMS in more recent years (2009-11 vs. 2006-8). Our results show that commercialization of marijuana in Colorado has been associated with lower risk perception. Evidence is suggestive for marijuana abuse/dependence. Analyses including subsequent years 2012+ once available, will help determine whether such changes represent momentary vs. sustained effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal trends in marijuana attitudes, availability and use in Colorado compared to non-medical marijuana states: 2003-2011*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermeyer, Joseph; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Price, Rumi Kato; Balan, Sundari; Thurstone, Christian; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009, policy changes were accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of medical marijuana cardholders in Colorado. Little published epidemiological work has tracked changes in the state around this time. Methods Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we tested for temporal changes in marijuana attitudes and marijuana-use-related outcomes in Colorado (2003-2011) and differences within-year between Colorado and thirty-four non-medical-marijuana states (NMMS). Using regression analyses, we further tested whether patterns seen in Colorado prior to (2006-8) and during (2009-11) marijuana commercialization differed from patterns in NMMS while controlling for demographics. Results Within Colorado those reporting “great-risk” to using marijuana 1-2 times/week dropped significantly in all age groups studied between 2007-8 and 2010-11 (e.g. from 45% to 31% among those 26 years and older; p=0.0006). By 2010-11 past-year marijuana abuse/dependence had become more prevalent in Colorado for 12-17 year olds (5% in Colorado, 3% in NMMS; p=0.03) and 18-25 year olds (9% vs. 5%; p=0.02). Regressions demonstrated significantly greater reductions in perceived risk (12-17 year olds, p=0.005; those 26 years and older, p=0.01), and trend for difference in changes in availability among those 26 years and older and marijuana abuse/dependence among 12-17 year olds in Colorado compared to NMMS in more recent years (2009-11 vs. 2006-8). Conclusions Our results show that commercialization of marijuana in Colorado has been associated with lower risk perception. Evidence is suggestive for marijuana abuse/dependence. Analyses including subsequent years 2012+ once available, will help determine whether such changes represent momentary vs. sustained effects. PMID:24837585

  13. Self-worth and coping styles of non-medical majors in medical colleges%医学院校非医学专业大学生自我价值与应对方式相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦桂花; 谢博; 禹玉兰; 曾家勇

    2013-01-01

    目的探究医学院校医学专业与非医学专业学生自我价值感、应对方式的特点与关系。方法从某医学院校随机抽取医学专业与非医学专业大学生各150名,采用自我价值感量表、应对方式量表进行调查研究和统计。结果(1)非医学专业学生总体自我价值感高于医学生(t=2.43,P<0.05);一般自我价值感,包括个人取向(t=2.38,P<0.05)与社会取向(t=2.38,P<0.05)两个方面均高于医学生;而特殊自我价值感差异无统计学意义。(2)非医学专业大学生成熟应对方式类型高于医学专业大学生(t=3.07,P<0.01)。(3)大学生应对方式与自我价值感存在相关。结论医学院校可以根据医学与非医学专业学生不同的人格特征,做好课程、培养目标与办学方向等的优化设计,提高学生自我价值感和成熟应对方式,塑造健全人格。%Objective To explore the characteristics of self-esteem and coping styles between the medical students and non-medical majors in medical colleges. Methods 150 medical students and another 150 non-medical students from a medical school were selected randomly, each of participants took self-esteem and coping style scale for research. Results (1) Non-medical students’ overall sense of self-worth was higher than that of the medical students (t=2.43, P<0.05). The score on general sense of self-worth for non-medical students, including personal orientation(t=2.38, P<0.05) and social orientation (t=2.38, P<0.05) was higer than that of medical students. There was no signiifcant difference between the two groups concerning special sense of self-worth. (2) The score on mature coping style types for non-medical students was higer than that in medical students (t=3.07, P<0.01). (3) Students’ coping styles were associated with theirs presence of self-worth. Conclusion We suggest that in order to improve students' self-esteem, mature coping style, and

  14. Topical, Non-Medicated LOYON(®) in Facilitating the Removal of Scaling in Infants and Children with Cradle Cap: a Proof-of-Concept Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengge, Ulrich R

    2014-12-01

    Cradle cap is a very common condition in infants that presents as greasy, scaly patches on the scalp within the first weeks of life. Although usually disappearing by itself, the condition worries parents because of its appearance. When removing the scales, it is crucial to prevent spot bleedings to avoid infections. The investigational medical device LOYON(®) (Cetiol(®) CC, dimethicone) solution (G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, Hohenlockstedt, Germany) has the potential to meet these needs since it removes scales gently. It was, therefore, the aim of this proof-of-concept study to assess the efficacy and safety of topically applied, non-medicated LOYON(®) in facilitating the removal of scaling in infants and children with cradle cap without inducing spot bleedings. This single-center, open, proof-of-concept, pilot study was conducted in 20 male or female infants/children aged 3-36 months with clinically diagnosed cradle cap. The 8-day study period included one to three applications of LOYON(®). Clinical assessment of scaling and secondary parameters was performed at baseline and after treatment. Adverse events were recorded. A questionnaire on subjective efficacy and usability was handed out to the parents. With a maximum of three applications of LOYON(®) applied to 20 subjects, a reduction in scaling intensity from moderate or severe to very mild or mild was achieved in 80% of the subjects. Treatment success, defined as the reduction of the scaling baseline score by at least two points, was achieved in 50% of subjects. Results of this study do not indicate any safety concern. No spot bleedings were observed. LOYON(®) was generally well tolerated and overall treatment was rated as "good" by the parents/legal guardians. This study suggests that LOYON(®) is well tolerated, safe and effective in facilitating the removal of scaling in infants and children with cradle cap. With its gentle approach and rapid effect, LOYON(®) thus represents a good alternative to

  15. 非药物治疗缓解新生儿疼痛效果比较%Comparing the effects in non-medical intervention to alleviate the pain of the neonatal infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建芳; 徐亮

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate different methods in alleviation of pain in neonatal infants. Methods One hundred and sixty neonatal infants were randomly divided into four groups, 40 infants for each group, including control group, transmitting tactile sensation group ( TTS) , glucose group ( GS) and non-nutritive sucking group ( NNS) . Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and crying duration among the four groups at 20 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min before and after heel stick were compared. Results Heart rate and respiratory rate of neonatal infants at 20 seconds after heel stick were significantly higher in all groups (P 0. 05 ) . The crying durations in intervention groups was significantly shorter than that of control group (P < 0.01 ) . Crying duration in TTS group was significantly shorter than in all the other intervention groups ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusions Neonatal infants have sensitive response to acute pain stimulation. Transmitting tactile sensation, glucose and non-nutritive sucking have significant analgesic effects on neonatal infants. The non-medical intervention methods, should be used in the clinical nursing care to alleviate the pain of the neonatal infants.%目的 探讨不同干预方法缓解新生儿疼痛的效果.方法 将160例住院新生儿随机分为对照组(未干预组)、拥抱抚触(TTS)组、吸吮8%葡萄糖水(GS)组和非营养性吸吮(NNS)组各40例,在采足跟血疼痛刺激前、刺激后20 s、1min、2 min、3 min分别记录心率、呼吸频率、经皮氧饱和度和哭声持续时间.结果 穿刺后20 s各组心率、穿刺后1 min各组呼吸均较穿刺前增快,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);1 min时TTS组心率恢复至穿刺前水平;2 min时TTS组呼吸频率,GS组和NNS组心率和呼吸频率恢复至穿刺前水平;3 min时对照组恢复至穿刺前水平.各组经皮血氧饱和度穿刺前后差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).穿刺后哭声持续时间TTS组、GS组和NNS组均短于对照

  16. Macular Burns from Nonmedical Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayman Muslubaş, Işıl; Hocaoğlu, Mümin; Arf, Serra; Özdemir, Hakan; Karaçorlu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Laser devices are widely used for medical, military, industrial and entertainment purposes. This extensive and unregulated use of lasers can cause a variety of maculopathies that can result in permanent vision loss. Uncontrolled and inappropriate use of laser instruments should be prevented with strict rules. We strongly emphasize the importance of changing the general misperception that lasers are safe to use for entertainment purposes. In this study we aim to report the clinical features of three patients with a history of maculopathy caused by exposure to laser light in an entertainment venue.

  17. Macular Burns from Nonmedical Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Işıl Sayman Muslubaş; Mümin Hocaoğlu; Serra Arf

    2016-01-01

    Laser devices are widely used for medical, military, industrial and entertainment purposes. This extensive and unregulated use of lasers can cause a variety of maculopathies that can result in permanent vision loss. Uncontrolled and inappropriate use of laser instruments should be prevented with strict rules. We strongly emphasize the importance of changing the general misperception that lasers are safe to use for entertainment purposes. In this study we aim to report the clinical fe...

  18. Macular Burns from Nonmedical Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Sayman Muslubaş

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser devices are widely used for medical, military, industrial and entertainment purposes. This extensive and unregulated use of lasers can cause a variety of maculopathies that can result in permanent vision loss. Uncontrolled and inappropriate use of laser instruments should be prevented with strict rules. We strongly emphasize the importance of changing the general misperception that lasers are safe to use for entertainment purposes. In this study we aim to report the clinical features of three patients with a history of maculopathy caused by exposure to laser light in an entertainment venue.

  19. Investigation and analysis of the demodex infection between medical students and non-medical students%医学专业和非医学专业学生蠕形螨感染情况调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淼; 朱文; 刘宝; 刘静秋; 吴恩昊; 张文霞

    2016-01-01

    目的::掌握滁州地区学生蠕形螨感染状况并分析感染原因,为蠕形螨感染的预防和治疗提供实验依据。方法:采用自制问卷调查并运用透明胶带粘贴过夜法抽查医学专业学生162人和非医学专业学生186人,利用光学显微镜观察结果。结果:医学专业学生蠕形螨感染率明显低于非医学专业学生(P<0.01),而医学专业学生对蠕形螨知晓率显著高于非医学专业学生(P<0.01)。结论:普及蠕形螨知识、提高蠕形螨知晓率对预防蠕形螨感染和蠕形螨病有重要意义。%Objective:To investigate the situation of demodex infection in students in Chuzhou,and analyze its reasons for providing the experimental evidence in preventing and treating the demodex infection. Methods:One hundred and sixty-two medical students and 186 non-medical students were investigated using the transparent adhesive tape overnight method and self-made questionnaire. The demodex was observed using optical microscopy. Results:The infection rate of demodex in medical students was significantly lower than that in non-medical students(P<0. 01),and the awareness rate of demodex in medical students was significantly higher than that in non-medical students (P<0. 01). Conclusions:Popularizing the demodex knowledge and improving the demodex awareness have great significance in preventing the demodex infection and demodicidosis.

  20. Improving the Army Hospital Satisfaction and Reducing the Defects of Non-medical Factors%减少非医疗因素缺陷,提高部队医院满意度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国芳

    2013-01-01

    本文从医患沟通、医疗费用、医德医风、医院的安全保障、医院形象、医护人员素质等六方面论述了非医疗因素缺陷其对医院整体满意度的影响,并提出具体整改措施。%This article discuss the factors of affecting the overall hospital satisfaction from some aspect of non-medical reasons,such as the communication between doctors and patients,medical expenses,medical ethics,the hospital security,the image of the hospital,the medical care personnel quality,and puts forward some concrete measures of increasing overall hospital satisfaction.

  1. Effectiveness of Aquaflor (50% florfenicol) administered in feed to control mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia at a commercial tilapia production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Schleis, Susan M.; Leis, Eric; Lasee, Becky A.; Endris, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of Aquaflor (florfenicol; FFC) to control mortality caused by Streptococcus iniae in tilapia was evaluated under field conditions. The trial was initiated following presumptive diagnosis of S. iniae infection in a mixed group of fingerling (mean, 4.5 g) Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and a hybrid of Nile Tilapia×Blue Tilapia O. aureus. Diagnoses included mortality in source tank; examination of clinical signs and presence or absence of gram-positive cocci in brain, and collection of samples for microbiological review and disease confirmation of 60 moribund fish. Following presumptive diagnosis, tilapia (83/tank) were randomly transferred to each of 20 test tanks receiving the same water as the source tank (test tank water was not reused). Tilapia were offered either nonmedicated control feed or FFC-medicated feed (FFC at 15 mg/kg body weight/d; 10 tanks per regimen) for 10 consecutive days followed by a 14-d observation period during which only the nonmedicated control feed was offered. Streptococcus iniae was presumptively identified during pretreatment necropsy and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay; S. iniae was confirmed in samples taken during the dosing period but was not detected during the postdosing period. The FFC disk diffusion zone of inhibition ranged from 29 to 32 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration of FFC ranged from 2 to 4 μg/mL for the S. iniae isolates collected. Survival of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group was significantly greater at 14 d posttreatment than that of the nonmedicated controls. The odds of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group surviving to the end of the postdosing period were 1.34 times the odds of survival of tilapia assigned to the nonmedicated control group. There were no clinically apparent adverse effects associated with the administration of FFC-medicated feed in this study.

  2. Diploma in Hospital Infection Control (Dip HIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, A M; Spencer, R C; Cookson, B D; Roberts, C; Drasar, B S

    1997-11-01

    The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) has established a Diploma in Hospital Infection Control (Dip-HIC). The course for this new Diploma is run under the auspices of the Hospital Infection Society (HIS) and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) and will commence in October 1997. The aim of this course is to provide infection control staff with systematic training in the sciences relevant to hospital infection control which will allow them to provide, and to take responsibility for, a broad-based infection control service. Topics will include the epidemiology of infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, health care economics, statistics, surveillance methods and patient management. The course will be multi-disciplinary and open to UK and overseas students, both medical and non-medical.

  3. 医学专业和非医学专业大学生艾滋病知信行比较研究%Comparative Study of AIDS KAP between Medical Students and Non-medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连肖; 肖模银

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To Learn the acknowledgement,highly-risky behaviors and attitudes towards AIDS among medical students and non-rnedical students in the comprehensive university, in order to find out the defects in health-care education of AIDS and to provide scientific suggestions for drawing up all-sides and systemic measures for health education.Methods: A total of 299 medical students and 1412 non-medical students were selected by using the stratified cluster sampling method in a comprehensive university and surveyed by self-designed questionnaire.Results: The difference of AIDS awareness and attitude between medical students and non-medical students was significant-There are some students who used to have dangerous behaviors of AIDS in both medical students and non-medical students^ and the difference of behaviors between two groups is not significant. The students mainly get information of AIDS from media, like telecast and internet. Conclusion: Medical students' score is better than that of non-medical students in AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes toward AIDS, both of the two majors have a high awareness of the three major routes of AIDS transmission and basic knowledge of AIDS. Based on different characteristics and demands of different departments in universities, university authorities should draw up a systematic and particular health education measures on AIDS, meanwhile, universities should make full use of the professional status of medical students, and let them play a role of YPE to other non-medical students. Arouse the whole society to give health education of AIDS to students.%目的:了解综合性大学医学专业和非医学专业学生艾滋病相关的知识、行为以及态度,为制定全面系统的大学生艾滋病健康教育提供科学建议.方法:自行设计调查问卷,采用多级分层整群抽样方法选取医学生229名、非医学生1412名进-问卷调查.结果:医学生与非医学生对艾滋病基本知识和传播途径

  4. A survey of the non-medical college students' sexual knowledge and attitude%非医学专业大学生性知识、性观念现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢锦伟; 高昕; 范婧慧; 高喜璨; 朱俊勇

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To explore non-medical undergraduates' knowledge and awareness of sex and their demand for sex education,and to provide theoretical reference for implementation of sex education among college students.Methods:Anonymous questionnaires titled "Sex and Health" were given to non-medical undergraduates.Results:Validated questionnaire rate is 99.2% (129/130).40.3% of them know how to project safe period,with a highly significant difference between male students and female ones (P < 0.001).The main accesses to sex knowledge are from domestic and foreign videos and the Internet.There are significant differences (P < 0.05) between male and female students,between urban and rural students in terms of reading medical books and pornography.72.87% think premarital sex depends on individuals.68.99% believe that,for college students,to love is to enrich spiritual life.Conclusion:Non-medical students lack knowledge about sex.Their access to sex knowledge is limited.Their attitude towards sex is too open.It is necessary to conduct sex education among non-medical students.%目的:了解非医学专业大学生性知识来源与知晓度、性观念现状及非医学专业大学生对性教育的需求情况,为有针对性的开展大学生性教育提供理论参考.方法:匿名问卷调查《性与健康》课程的非医学专业大学生.结果:回收有效问卷99.2% (129/130),对性知识的知晓度参差不齐,对如何推算女性安全期的知晓率仅为40.31%,男女生之间有高度显著性差异(P<0.001).获得性知识的途径主要是国内外影视与上网,在医药卫生书籍、色情读物方面,男女生之间、来自城市与农村的学生之间有显著性差异(P<0.05).72.87%的学生认为婚前性行为取决于个人自由,68.99%的学生认为大学生谈恋爱是为了丰富精神生活.结论:非医学专业大学生的性知识相对缺乏,获取性知识的途径相对单一,性观念过于开放,在非医学

  5. 非医学信息学专业医学信息学教育课程的设置%Construction of medical informatics curriculum based on IMIA recommendations for non-medical informatics students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洪欣; 汤琳; 单甜甜

    2012-01-01

    According to the recommendations of the International Medical lnformatics Association(IMIA)on education in biomedical and health informatics(first revision)published by IMIA in 2010 and combining the actuality of the basic clinical information skills and medical informatics education of Chinese medical students,the related contents of medical informatics have been integrated into the teaching course based on current medical information retrieval curriculum and medical informatics curriculum for non-medical informatics students of medical colleges and universities was constructed,so that they can meet the requirements of the basic information skills under information-based medical and healthy practice.%以国际医学信息学会(International Medical Informatics Association,IMIA)2010年修订的《关于开展生物医学与健康信息学教育的建议》为依据,结合我国目前医学生基本临床信息技能及医学信息学教育现状,以医学文献检索为课程基础,构建适合高等医学院校非医学信息学专业教育的医学信息学课程,使医学生毕业后能够适应信息化条件下医疗卫生实践对基本信息技能的要求.

  6. Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD; BDO): A literature review with a focus on UK fatalities related to non-medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkery, John M; Loi, Barbara; Claridge, Hugh; Goodair, Christine; Corazza, Ornella; Elliott, Simon; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2015-06-01

    Misuse of gamma hydroxybutrate (GHB) and gamma butyrolactone (GBL) has increased greatly since the early 1990s, being implicated in a rising number of deaths. This paper reviews knowledge on GHB and derivatives, and explores the largest series of deaths associated with their non-medical use. Descriptive analyses of cases associated with GHB/GBL and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) use extracted from the UK's National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths database. From 1995 to September 2013, 159 GHB/GBL-associated fatalities were reported. Typical victims: White (92%); young (mean age 32 years); male (82%); with a drug misuse history (70%). Most deaths (79%) were accidental or related to drug use, the remainder (potential) suicides. GHB/GBL alone was implicated in 37%; alcohol 14%; other drugs 28%; other drugs and alcohol 15%. Its endogenous nature and rapid elimination limit toxicological detection. Post-mortem blood levels: mean 482 (range 0-6500; SD 758)mg/L. Results suggest significant caution is needed when ingesting GHB/GBL, particularly with alcohol, benzodiazepines, opiates, stimulants, and ketamine. More awareness is needed about risks associated with consumption.

  7. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs
non-medical use and diversion of psychotropic prescription drugs in North America: a review of sourcing routes and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Bibby, Meagan; Bouchard, Martin

    2010-12-01

    North America features some of the world's highest consumption levels for controlled psychoactive prescription drugs (PPDs; e.g. prescription opioids, benzodiazepines, stimulants), with non-medical use and related harms (e.g. morbidity, mortality) rising in key populations in recent years. While the determinants, characteristics and impacts of these 'use' problems are increasingly well documented, little is known about the 'supply' side of non-medical PPD use, much of which is facilitated by 'diversion' as a key sourcing route. This paper provides a select review of the phenomenon of PPD diversion in North America, also considering interventions and policy implications. A conceptual and empirical review of select-peer- and non-peer-reviewed research literature from 1991 to 2010 focusing upon PPD diversion in North America was conducted. The phenomenon of PPD diversion is heterogeneous. Especially among general populations, a large proportion of PPDs for non-medical use are obtained from friends or family members. Other PPD diversion routes involve 'double doctoring' or 'prescription shopping'; street drug markets; drug thefts, prescription forgeries or fraud; as well as PPD purchases from the internet. The distinct nature and heterogeneity make PPD diversion a complex and difficult target for interventions. Prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) appear to reduce overall PPD use, yet their impact on reducing diversion or non-medical use is not clear. Law enforcement is unlikely to reach PPD diversion effectively. Effective reduction will probably require reductions in overall PPD consumption volumes, although such will need to be accomplished without compromising standards of good medical (e.g. pain) care. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. 关于开展急救技术普及教育的方法研究与探讨%First aid skills education among non-medical students: experience from practice in Jiangsu University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹圣强; 眭建; 李萍萍; 陈文娟; 潘鑫; 吴敏

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004 an optional basic first aid course has been held among non-medical students in Jiangsu University in corporation with Zhenjiang Medical Emergency Center. The 24-hour curriculum includesmanual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), Heimlich maneuver, 5 basic techniques of elementary first aid (ventilation, hemostasia, wound dressing, fixation, and transportation of the wounded), on-the-spot emergency treatment of falling, traffic accidents, drowning, electric shock, suicide, etc, escape techniques and self-help and mutual aid during disasters, such as fire, toxicant gas poisoning, explosion, epidemic of infectious diseases,etc. Different forms of education, such as lecture with modernized acousto-optic technique, practical operation,academic forum, competition of theory and practice, and field exercise were integrated. In 2007 the First Aid Association of Jiangsu University was established. After 7-years' education the knowledge rate of first aid among the non-medical students was raised from 8.29% to 100%, and the qualification rate of CPR was 84.45%. The practice showed that first aid education is necessary and the current forms of education are effective.%从2004年开始江苏大学与镇江市急救医疗中心合作,在非医学生中举办讲授初级急救基础知识和基本急救技能的24学时的选修课.课程包括徒手心肺复苏(CPR),Heimlich氏手法,初级急救五项基本技术(通气、止血、包扎、固定和搬运急救技术),摔伤、交通事故伤、溺水、电击伤、自杀等常见意外伤害和常见急症的现场急救方法,以及火灾、有毒气体中毒、爆炸和常见传染病等突发事件的现场避险逃生技能和自救互救知识.教学形式多样,结合了现代化的声像技术,实际操作,学术论坛,理论和实践竞赛,野外演练等.7年后的调查表明,非医学生中急救知识合格率从8.29%升到100%,CPR合格率84.45%.实践证明急救教育非常必要,目前的教学形式是有效的.

  9. 医学目的与非医学目的基因增强产生的伦理问题辨析∗%Ethical Analysis of Medical Purpose and Non-medical Purpose Gene Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莎; 苏振兴

    2016-01-01

    作为一种新兴技术,无论医学目的基因增强还是非医学目的基因增强应用中所产生的诸多伦理问题都是不可避免的,片面的赞同或反对医学目的基因增强或非医学目的基因增强的研究和应用都是不切实际的。应该在规范基因增强技术伦理原则的基础上,构建以伦理、社会、法律相适应的基因增强技术的研究、发展及应用的管理措施,进而达到趋利避害的目的,使基因增强技术合理地利用并使之真正造福于人类社会。%As a kind of new technology, ethical issues are inevitable in medical and non-medical gene en-hancement application. It is unrealistic to unilaterally support or object to the research and application of medical and non -medical gene enhancement. Based on standardizing the ethical principle of gene enhancement tech-niques, we should build management measures of the research, development and application that adapted to ethi-cal, social and legal standards, so that we can draw on the advantages and avoid the disadvantages, and use gene enhancement reasonably and bring benefits to mankind and society.

  10. 医学院校非医学专业本科生专业承诺及其对自尊水平的影响%Professional commitment and its effect on self-esteem of non-medical professional undergradu-ates in medical colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东军; 王丽娜; 王玉锋; 杨世昌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the status of professional commitment and its effect on self-esteem of non-medical undergraduates in medical colleges. Methods Totally 410 non-medical under-graduates and 403 medical undergraduate were investigated by professional commitment of undergrad-uate scales and self-esteem questionnaire of undergraduates. T test,chi-square test,ANOVA,corre-lation analysis and multiple regression analysis were employed to do statical analysis,with P<0.05 be-ing statistical differences. Results Non-medical undergraduates’scores of professional commitment (85.11 ±11.60)and self-esteem (2.57 ±0.37)were lower than those (93.82 ±11.43)and (2.62 ± 0.35) of medical undergraduates. There were statistical differences in non-medical undergraduates’ professional commitment concerning the variables of professional consistency (t=5.657,P=0.000)and grades (F=8.528,P=0.000). Professional commitment of non-medical undergraduates was positively correlated with self-esteem. There was linear regression relationship between the variables of emotion-al commitment (P=0.005),normative commitment (P=0.006)and self-esteem. Conclusions Non-medical undergraduates' professional commitment and self-esteem levels are lower than those of medical undergraduates. The professional commitment could produce obvious effects on self-esteem.%目的:探讨医学院校非医学专业本科生的专业承诺现状及其对自尊水平的影响。方法采用大学生专业承诺量表、大学生自尊评定问卷对分层随机整群抽取的410名非医学专业及403名医学专业本科生进行问卷调查。对统计数据进行t检验、χ2检验、方差分析、相关分析与多元回归分析。结果非医学专业本科生专业承诺、自尊水平得分均低于医学专业[(85.11±11.60)分vs.(93.82±11.43)分,(2.57±0.37)分vs.(2.62±0.35)分];非医学专业本科生的专业承诺水平在所学专业与报考专业是否一致(t=5.657,P=0.000

  11. A comparative study on sub-health status and relative factors in medical and non-medical students%医学生与非医学生的亚健康状况及其相关因素的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱倩仪; 马金香; 邝燕兰; 陈微微; 张怡; 赖秀娟; 罗洁玲

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较医学生与非医学生的亚健康状况及其影响因素.方法:分层随机整群抽取广州9所大学在校部分班级学生(包括医学和非医学生)并对其亚健康状况及相关因素进行问卷调查.结果:大学生的亚健康发生率为67.54%(其中医学生为67.38%,非医学生为67.68%(P>O.05)).良好的睡眠质量、重视早餐、无吸烟和无喝酒医学生优于非医学生(Pnonmedical students. Methods Stratified randomized cluster sampling method was adopted to select 9 colleges (including medical and non-medical majors) and 1420 students. By using' Sub-health Scale of Nonphysical Worker in Guangzhou' and self-designed questionnaire the data was acquired. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors of sub-health status in medical and nonmedical students.Results 67. 54% of college students were sub-health status, and the sub-health rate was 67.38% in medical students and 67. 68% in non-medical students separately (x2 = 0. 015, P = 0 . 903). In good quality of sleep (x2 =5.048, P=0. 025), attaching importance to having breakfast (x2 =42. 366, P=0. 000), non-smoking ( x2 = 13. 659, P = 0.000 ) and non-alcoholic drinking ( x2 = 41. 814, P = 0.000)medical students did better than non-medical students. In having no

  12. [Contemporary potential of nonmedical treatment in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakon, A K; Elfimov, M A; Illarionov, V E; Ivanova, I I; Portnov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The article covers treatment results of 90 patients with primary glaucoma simplex of stage 1 and 2 (137 eyes). The authors proved that using a specified magnetotherapy method, when compared to regular medical therapy, causes more fast and marked regression in clinical symptoms and improvement of vision in patients with primary glaucoma simplex of stages 1 and 2.

  13. 非医疗因素对长期腹膜透析患者生存质量的影响%The effect of non-medical factors on the quality of life in maintenance peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田娜; 陈孟华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients and analyze the non-medical factors influencing QOL in order to explore the possible way to improve QOL in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.Methods Seventy-nine chronic renal failure patients treated with PD included in the present study.Investigated their age,sex,working status,education,medical burden and family support.Patients' QOL was evaluated by international questionnaire-KDQOL/SF-36.Patients' anxiety/depmssion status was evaluated by Hamilton depression questionnaire.Results (1)The SF-36 with its eight scales of CAPD patients were markedly lower than ordinary people (P<0.05 or<0.01).(2) Comparing with those on work,the patients without work got lower SF-36 scores[(45.78±16.93) seores vs (32.65±12.26) scores,P<0.05].Comparing with those who had medical care,the patients without medical care got much lower SF-36 scores [(49.62±13.20) scores vs (33.85±6.24) scores,P<0.05].Patients with higher income had better QOL.(3) Patients cared by their children and companion had the higheat SF-36 [(68.33±14.73) scores],while those cared by nursemaid or themselves had the lowest [(27.98±15.77) scores].(4) Among the 79 patients,43 patients (54.4%) were anxiety and 12 patients (15.2%) were depression.QOL was negatively correlated with anxiety index and depression index.Conclusion The QOL of CAPD patients are remarkably low,which is deeply influenced by many non-medical factors such as working status,medical burden,family support and emotional status.%目的 研究可能影响长期腹膜透析患者生存质量的非医疗因素,旨在为临床工作中如何提高患者的生存质量提供依据.方法 采用横断面研究方法调查79例慢性肾衰竭进行持续非卧床腹膜透析(CAPD)患者.记录患者的年龄、性别、工作状况、文化程度、医疗负担及家庭支持等情况.采用国际通用的KDQOL-SFTM1.2中的短表SF-36

  14. How Drug Control Policy and Practice Undermine Access to Controlled Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Wilson, Duncan; Fox, Edward; Wolfe, Daniel; Rasanathan, Jennifer J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Drug conventions serve as the cornerstone for domestic drug laws and impose a dual obligation upon states to prevent the misuse of controlled substances while ensuring their adequate availability for medical and scientific purposes. Despite the mandate that these obligations be enforced equally, the dominant paradigm enshrined in the drug conventions is an enforcement-heavy criminal justice response to controlled substances that prohibits and penalizes their misuse. Prioritizing restrictive control is to the detriment of ensuring adequate availability of and access to controlled medicines, thereby violating the rights of people who need them. This paper argues that the drug conventions’ prioritization of criminal justice measures—including efforts to prevent non-medical use of controlled substances—undermines access to medicines and infringes upon the right to health and the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress. While the effects of criminalization under drug policy limit the right to health in multiple ways, we draw on research and documented examples to highlight the impact of drug control and criminalization on access to medicines. The prioritization and protection of human rights—specifically the right to health and the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress—are critical to rebalancing drug policy. PMID:28630556

  15. Discussion on Non-Medical Bottleneck Factors Affecting City Grade Hospital to Carry Out Peritoneal Dialysis%市级医院开展腹膜透析的“非医疗瓶颈因素”探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万启军; 何永成; 许慧丽; 董旭; 宋海英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the non-medical bottleneck factors that affect the city grade hospitals to carry out the peritoneal dialysis(PD). Methods Retrospective analyze the clinical data of 160 cases of end-stage renal disease(ESRD) patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD) treatment from July, 1996 to December,2011 in our hospital,explore the influence of peritoneal dialysis center' s scale size,cost of dialysate,understanding of medical personnel and ESRD patients about peritoneal dialysis on the peritoneal dialysis in our hospital. Compare the difference of the main complications of CAPD between cumulative numbers of patients less than and more than 50; drop-out rate, time on treatment (TOT) ,1 year catheter intact rate and so on. Results The peritoneal dialysis was suggested only by 45. 6% of medical personnel in terms of cost-effect ratio,and by 51. 8% in terms of quality of life. Before the dialysate is charged as a drug,66. 8% of renal physicians suggested patients to choose hemodialysis,but it changed to 43.3% after dialysate is charged as a supply,there is a significant difference(P <0.05). When the cumulative numbers of patients was less than 50, the rates of drop-out rate,death rate, vessel drifting rate, rate of dialysate leaks,tunnel infection rate and PD associated peritonitis were all higher,but the TOT,1 year survival rate and 1 year vessel intact rate were lower,as compare with those when the cumulative numbers of patients was more than 50,and the difference was significance(P <0.05). Conclusion The misunderstanding of renal medicals and the ESRD patients, the way of medical payment and the size of the PD center together limited the speed of the development of PD center.%目的 探讨在市级医院开展腹透的“非医疗瓶颈因素”.方法 分析1996年7月-2011年12月间肾内科160例持续非卧床腹膜透析(CAPD)患者的临床资料,探讨腹透中心规模、腹透液计费方式、医患对腹透的认识等因

  16. Deficient grip force control in schizophrenia: behavioral and modeling evidence for altered motor inhibition and motor noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teremetz, Maxime; Amado, Isabelle; Bendjemaa, Narjes; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Lindberg, Pavel G; Maier, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    Whether upper limb sensorimotor control is affected in schizophrenia and how underlying pathological mechanisms may potentially intervene in these deficits is still being debated. We tested voluntary force control in schizophrenia patients and used a computational model in order to elucidate potential cerebral mechanisms underlying sensorimotor deficits in schizophrenia. A visuomotor grip force-tracking task was performed by 17 medicated and 6 non-medicated patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) and by 15 healthy controls. Target forces in the ramp-hold-and-release paradigm were set to 5 N and to 10% maximal voluntary grip force. Force trajectory was analyzed by performance measures and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A computational model incorporating neural control signals was used to replicate the empirically observed motor behavior and to explore underlying neural mechanisms. Grip task performance was significantly lower in medicated and non-medicated schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Three behavioral variables were significantly higher in both patient groups: tracking error (by 50%), coefficient of variation of force (by 57%) and duration of force release (up by 37%). Behavioral performance did not differ between patient groups. Computational simulation successfully replicated these findings and predicted that decreased motor inhibition, together with an increased signal-dependent motor noise, are sufficient to explain the observed motor deficits in patients. PCA also suggested altered motor inhibition as a key factor differentiating patients from control subjects: the principal component representing inhibition correlated with clinical severity. These findings show that schizophrenia affects voluntary sensorimotor control of the hand independent of medication, and suggest that reduced motor inhibition and increased signal-dependent motor noise likely reflect key pathological mechanisms of the sensorimotor deficit.

  17. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-05

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights.

  18. Acupuntura no Sistema Único de Saúde e a inserção de profissionais não-médicos Acupuncture in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS and the inclusion of non-medical professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAS Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Desde o relatório final da VIII Conferência Nacional de Saúde em 1986, busca-se a introdução de práticas alternativas de assistência à saúde no âmbito dos serviços públicos de saúde. Porém, apenas em 2006, por meio da Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares, os profissionais não-médicos puderam atuar como acupunturistas no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a evolução da acupuntura no SUS bem como a inclusão de novos acupunturistas não-médicos. MÉTODOS: Efetuou-se um estudo exploratório e descritivo cuja fonte de dados foi o Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais (SIA do SUS, disponibilizado pelo banco de dados do Ministério da Saúde, relativo às consultas em acupuntura realizadas por médicos e não-médicos entre 1999 e 2007, distribuindo-se os atendimentos segundo cidades e ano do atendimento. Para a análise da tendência temporal do número de atendimentos de acupuntura, foi utilizado o modelo de regressão linear simples, utilizando-se nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A análise da tendência temporal revelou um aumento significativo (p>0,001 de 1,1 consultas em acupuntura por 100 mil atendimentos ambulatoriais anualmente registrados entre os anos de 1999 e 2007. Foi observado um expressivo incremento no último ano do período estudado. Em 2007, 28% das consultas de acupuntura foram registradas por profissionais não-médicos em 41 cidades. CONCLUSÕES: Há expansão das consultas e do número de cidades que registram acupuntura no SUS no período do estudo.BACKGROUND: Since the final report of the 8th National Health Conference in 1986, the introduction of alternative healthcare practices within the scope of public health services has been sought. However, it was only in 2006, through the National Policy for Complementary and Integrative Practices, that non-medical professionals were allowed to act as acupuncturists within the Brazilian

  19. Uso não-médico de medicamentos psicoativos entre escolares do ensino fundamental e médio no Sul do Brasil Non-medical use of psychoactive medicines among elementary and high school students in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane da Silva Dal Pizzol

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é investigar a prevalência de uso não-médico de medicamentos entre escolares da rede de ensino público e privado de Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e sua distribuição em relação a fatores sócio-demográficos. Por meio de um delineamento transversal, foi aplicado um questionário de autopreenchimento a 5.057 estudantes a partir da quinta série do ensino fundamental até o terceiro ano do ensino médio. O questionário continha perguntas sobre o uso, sem receita médica, de anfetamínicos, ansiolíticos, barbitúricos, anticolinérgicos, opiáceos, orexígenos e anabolizantes. Da amostra, 7,7% consumiram ansiolíticos alguma vez na vida, 6,4% consumiram anfetamínicos, 2,2%, anabolizantes, e 1,1%, barbitúricos. Estudantes do sexo feminino apresentaram maior consumo de ansiolíticos e anfetamínicos, enquanto que o consumo de anabolizantes foi maior no sexo masculino. O padrão de consumo de medicamentos psicoativos é semelhante ao observado em adultos, sugerindo a necessidade de inclusão de crianças e adolescentes nas campanhas educativas para prevenção do uso indevido de medicamentos.The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for the non-medical use of psychoactive medicines among students at public and private schools of Passo Fundo, Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered to 5,057 students from the 5th grade of elementary school to the 3rd year of high school. The questionnaire contained questions about the use of amphetamines, tranquilizers, barbiturates, anticholinergics, opioids, appetite stimulants, and anabolic steroids. Of the sample total, 7.7% had consumed tranquilizers sometime during their lives, 6.4% had used amphetamines, 2.2% had used anabolic steroids, and 1.1% had used barbiturates. Female students reported significantly greater consumption of tranquilizers and amphetamines, while anabolic

  20. Real-Time Control of a Video Game Using Eye Movements and Two Temporal EEG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Nasreddine Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available EEG-controlled gaming applications range widely from strictly medical to completely nonmedical applications. Games can provide not only entertainment but also strong motivation for practicing, thereby achieving better control with rehabilitation system. In this paper we present real-time control of video game with eye movements for asynchronous and noninvasive communication system using two temporal EEG sensors. We used wavelets to detect the instance of eye movement and time-series characteristics to distinguish between six classes of eye movement. A control interface was developed to test the proposed algorithm in real-time experiments with opened and closed eyes. Using visual feedback, a mean classification accuracy of 77.3% was obtained for control with six commands. And a mean classification accuracy of 80.2% was obtained using auditory feedback for control with five commands. The algorithm was then applied for controlling direction and speed of character movement in two-dimensional video game. Results showed that the proposed algorithm had an efficient response speed and timing with a bit rate of 30 bits/min, demonstrating its efficacy and robustness in real-time control.

  1. Aerobic endurance training versus relaxation training in patients with migraine (ARMIG: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totzeck Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine is one of the most frequent headache diseases and impairs patients’ quality of life. Up to now, many randomized studies reported efficacy of prophylactic therapy with medications such as beta-blockers or anti-epileptic drugs. Non-medical treatment, like aerobic endurance training, is considered to be an encouraging alternative in migraine prophylaxis. However, there is still a lack of prospective, high-quality randomized trials. We therefore designed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic endurance training versus relaxation training in patients with migraine (ARMIG. Methods This is a single-center, open-label, prospective, randomized trial. Sixty participants with migraine are randomly allocated to either endurance training or a relaxation group. After baseline headache diary documentation over at least 4 weeks, participants in the exercise group will start moderate aerobic endurance training under a sport therapist’s supervision at least 3 times a week over a 12-week period. The second group will perform Jacobson’s progressive muscle relaxation training guided by a trained relaxation therapist, also at least 3 times a week over a 12-week period. Both study arms will train in groups of up to 10 participants. More frequent individual training is possible. The follow-up period will be 12 weeks after the training period. The general state of health, possible state of anxiety or depression, impairments due to the headache disorder, pain-related disabilities, the headache-specific locus of control, and the motor fitness status are measured with standardized questionnaires. Discussion The study design is adequate to generate meaningful results. The trial will be helpful in gaining important data on exercise training for non-medical migraine prophylaxis. Trial registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01407861.

  2. Alternative method of hemorrhage control in full strength formocresol pulpotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K S; Seale, N S; Nunn, M E; Huff, G

    2001-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the success of a formocresol pulpotomy technique in which hemostasis was obtained with the same formocresol dampened cotton pellet used to medicate the root pulp stumps and to compare the findings of this investigation with data of published formocresol pulpotomy studies in which hemorrhage was controlled by traditional means. Clinical and radiographic data were available for 194 primary molars in 112 patients with follow up times ranging from 5 to 109 months (mean = 38 months). Overall radiographic success was 87%. The most frequently observed pulpal responses were calcific metamorphosis (34%) and internal resorption (10%). Overall clinical success was 98%. Only 7 of 194 molars were extracted due to radiographic and/or clinical failure. Overall cumulative probability of survival remained high over time with a cumulative survival rate of over 94% over 4 years. The success rates for this variation of the formocresol technique are comparable to those success rates in the literature where hemostasis was obtained in a separate step using a nonmedicated cotton pellet. The results of this study suggest that using the same cotton pellet dampened with full strength formocresol to obtain hemorrhage control and medicate the root pulp is an acceptable variation of the traditional formocresol pulpotomy technique.

  3. Dietary quality as a non-medical health input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraf, Christine; Teuber, Ramona; Glauben, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this inquiry is to provide a comprehensive theoretical framework, which describes the demand for dietary quality. In our dietary health investment model, we consider the health investment character of dietary choices as well as the intertemporal health-taste trade-off. Additionally...

  4. 28 CFR 570.42 - Non-medical escorted trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., father, brother, sister, spouse, children, step-parents, and foster parents. (2) Non-emergency, non...-related functions, such an educational or religious activities, or in work-related functions. (b)...

  5. Non-medical triggers of patients' contacts to general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tina

    family practice, general practice, primary health care, health care services, health behaviour, mass media, reasons for encounter, case-crossover, time-selection bias, recall bias, bi-directional study......family practice, general practice, primary health care, health care services, health behaviour, mass media, reasons for encounter, case-crossover, time-selection bias, recall bias, bi-directional study...

  6. Communicating Medical Needs to Non-Medical Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, Kira; Miller, Robert; Doerr, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Differences in communication styles and languages between groups often lead to miscommunication, confusion, and/or frustration. Engineers, computer specialists, clinicians, and managers often utilize the English language in very different ways, with different groups using the same words to represent different concepts ("complaint" is a typical example). In addition, medical issues are often perceived as "off-nominal" and not "primary mission tasks" by managers, which can cause them to assign lower priorities to medical training time and resources. Knowledge bases differ due to variations in training and skill sets, and the goals (both immediate and long-term) of the communicators may also vary, with managers being primarily concerned with overall mission objectives, while clinicians focus on individual or group health issues. Furthermore, true communication is only possible when clinicians possess a deep understanding of mission requirements as well as the ability to communicate medical requirements on a priority basis using risk assessment, added value, and cost benefit analysis. These understandable differences may contribute to difficulties in expressing concerns and ideas in an efficient manner, particularly in projects, such as the space program or many military operations, where these varied groups must collaborate, and where the final decisions must be made by fully informed mission commanders. Methods: Three scenario-based approaches were developed utilizing decision trees and problem based learning, to help define and integrate these concepts. Results: Use of these techniques by NASA and military personnel will be presented. Discussion: To enhance communication, particularly of medical needs, one must identify the concerns and motivating factors for the other groups; for example, members of management may focus on financial concerns, a desire for risk mitigation, public perceptions, mission objectives, etc. Training clinicians to frame issues in these terms may lead to better understanding of the medical concerns by other groups.

  7. [Legal position of non-medical personnel in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, M H; Nebendahl, M; Russo, S G; Tecklenburg, A; Bauer, M

    2013-05-01

    There are currently many assistant professions in the German healthcare system which have either a more nursing or a more medical character. All these assistant professions have in common that as yet they do not require uniform training criteria but members of these professions undertake some aspects of medical activities. At the center lies the difficulty of more political than legal discussion on whether members of these assistant professions and also nursing personnel are allowed to or should undertake medical activities. This article illuminates the legal status quo.

  8. Non-Medical Uses of X–Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jalal Shokouhi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Deep and eminent pene-trance of x–ray, makes it useful and applicable in ra-diography and CT scanning of paintings, art pieces, ceramics, automummies, and even metal and glass objects especially in the field of archeology. In the world, 2 types of automummies have been described: ice-man and soap-man, whereas in Iran in addition to these, another rare kind of mummy namely salt-man, has also been discovered. Four salt-men have been identified till now. Patients & Methods: In winter of 1993, the first salt man was discovered. The first salt man's age was measured by carbon 14 to be 1700–1800 years which dates back to the powerful Sasanian emperor era ap-proximately 200 to 300 years before Islam. Radiogra-phy, 2D- and 3D-CT, high energy weighted spectros-copy, genetic analysis, microbiology and histology evaluations, carbon 14 studies, and DNA finger print-ing were done for him. Thin layer chromatography of his cloths colors, rare element assessment, archeol-ogy, metallurgy, and sociology investigations where also employed. Whereas the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th salt-men are under investigation by means of x-ray and CT scan the polymer specimen is under study to be syn-thesized by the S.L.A machine. Results: This investigation proposes the precious role of x-ray in radiology of artifacts, handicrafts and ar-cheology. Conclusion: In this way valuable museums are en-riched by cultural and historical remnants of previous powers and authority and this inspires the tourism industry with magnificent and splendid masterpieces of ancient civilizations. Preserving and recognizing them also helps to promote anthropological knowl-edge.

  9. The supply chain of medicinal controlled substances: addressing the Achilles heel of drug diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, John J

    2012-09-01

    The escalation of prescription drug abuse in the U.S. has attracted the attention of public health and safety officials as well as others puzzled by how such a tightly regulated enterprise could so easily be breached by those seeking controlled substances for nonmedical use. Prescribers and patients who use, misuse, or, in some cases, redistribute or divert these drugs have figured prominently in government strategies aimed at addressing this issue. This review departs from this paradigm and focuses on wholesale drug distributors, a highly efficient and largely behinds-the-scene link in the supply chain of controlled substances. By law, distributors are required to identify and report to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) orders for controlled substances that are suspicious and may indicate drug diversion. Ten cases are examined in which distributors were each charged with failing to prevent the diversion of millions of doses of controlled substances. Special attention is given to a payment system employed by the industry that may encourage this unlawful commerce. Court records, agency and industry reports, and other published sources are used to document referenced cases and their disposition, and recommendations are offered for improving distributors' compliance with the law.

  10. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  11. Use of Low-Cost Videomicroscopy versus Standard Videodermatoscopy in Trichoscopy: A Controlled, Blinded Noninferiority Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzì, Anna Elisa; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial. All patients underwent examination by two low-cost VMs as well as by standard VD in order to evaluate any variability in the detection of common trichoscopic features. At the end of the study, the two low-cost VMs enabled a correct identification of all hair shaft alterations; as regards follicular and/or perifollicular examination, black dots were easily recognized by both equipments, but other follicular features, such as yellow dots, white dots and perifollicular scales, were not always adequately visualized because of low color quality and/or reduced brightness and/or resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests that the potential accuracy of low-cost VMs in the evaluation of hair loss may have some pitfalls. Therefore, a low-cost VM should not be routinely used for reliable scalp trichoscopy, unless supported by individual controlled noninferiority trials. PMID:27386460

  12. Use of Low-Cost Videomicroscopy versus Standard Videodermatoscopy in Trichoscopy: A Controlled, Blinded Noninferiority Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzì, Anna Elisa; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial. All patients underwent examination by two low-cost VMs as well as by standard VD in order to evaluate any variability in the detection of common trichoscopic features. At the end of the study, the two low-cost VMs enabled a correct identification of all hair shaft alterations; as regards follicular and/or perifollicular examination, black dots were easily recognized by both equipments, but other follicular features, such as yellow dots, white dots and perifollicular scales, were not always adequately visualized because of low color quality and/or reduced brightness and/or resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests that the potential accuracy of low-cost VMs in the evaluation of hair loss may have some pitfalls. Therefore, a low-cost VM should not be routinely used for reliable scalp trichoscopy, unless supported by individual controlled noninferiority trials.

  13. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  14. Controllable dose; Dosis controlable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Anaya M, R.A. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jtar@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  15. Dream controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  16. Dream controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  17. Orally administered tylosin for the control of pneumonia in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, T; Muenster, O A; Ose, E E; Tonkinson, L

    1980-08-16

    The effectiveness of orally administered tylosin tartrate for the control of naturally occurring pneumonia was determined in 287 neonatal calves. Tylosin tartrate was mixed with reconstituted milk replacer at the time of feeding. Daily doses of 1.0 g (0.5 g BID), 2.0 g (1.0 g BID) and 4.0 g (2.0 g BID) were evaluated for periods ranging from seven to 28 days. Tylosin at the optimum dose of 2.0 g daily reduced mortality to 12 out of 95 (12.6 per cent) compared to 38 out of 89 (42.7 per cent) in the non-medicated control calves. The 1.0 g daily dose did not reduce mortality. The number of calves with moderate to severe lung lesions was also reduced by treatment at 2.0 g daily to 13 out of 95 (13.7 per cent) compared to 45 out of 89 (50.6 per cent) in the control group. All dose levels had a similar effect in reducing the severity of clinical signs indicative of respiratory disease. Tylosin treatment at all dose levels reduced the number of Pasteurella multocida isolations from lung tissue to 15/146 (10.3 per cent) compared to 61/141 (43.3 per cent) for the controls. However, there were no differences between treated and controls in the number of P haemolytica isolations. The frequency of mycoplasma isolations from lung tissue were reduced significantly by tylosin treatment at the 4.0 g and 2.0 g dose levels to 36/93 (38.7 per cent) compared to 61/86 (70.9 per cent) for the control calves.

  18. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance, susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri and levels of mannose binding lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brian C; Peatman, E; Ourth, D D; Waldbieser, G C

    2015-05-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE; containing the essential oils carvacrol, thymol, anethol, and limonene) on growth performance and disease susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Two hundred and fifty juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (7.2 ± 0.1 g) were allotted into the following treatments: Control (floating diet) and EO (floating diet supplemented with essential oils). The fish were fed their respective diets for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, all fish were exposed to virulent E. ictaluri by bath immersion (1.9 × 10(7) cfu/mL; final concentration). Plasma and tissue samples were taken to quantify protein and mRNA expression levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL). Weight gain and food conversion ratio were similar between treatments. After exposing fish to virulent E. ictaluri and monitoring mortality for 21 days, survival was 43% higher (69.5 vs 48.4%) in fish fed EO compared to fish not treated with EO (P fish compared to non-challenged fish. In the EO fish, MBL levels were similar to non-challenged fish but significantly higher than non-treated fed fish (P fish to levels observed in the EO and non-challenged fish. On d 14, MBL mRNA levels were upregulated 15-fold in fish fed EO compared to non-treated fed fish and non-challenged fish (P essential oils improved survival of channel catfish challenged with E. ictaluri. Mechanisms through which essential oils improve survival may involve MBL.

  19. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  20. Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life Cycle Information from ... Repellent that is Right for You DEET Mosquito Control Methods Success in mosquito control: an integrated approach ...

  1. Field evaluation of the effect of in-feed doxycycline for the control of ileitis in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, S C; Bourtzi-Hatzopoulou, E; Alexopoulos, C; Kritas, S K; Polyzopoulou, Z; Lekkas, S; Gardey, L

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of in-feed doxycycline (DOXY) on the control of ileitis in weaned piglets. On a farm with a previous history of ileitis outbreaks, 288 piglets at the age of weaning (25 +/- 2 days old) were divided into four experimental groups, each group comprising three pens with 24 piglets in each pen. Non-medicated animals served as negative control (NC) group, whereas groups DOXY-50, DOXY-125 and DOXY-250 received doxycycline via feed at 50, 125 and 250 ppm, respectively. Therapy lasted for 14 days followed by an observation period of 28 days. In conclusion, administration of doxycycline at a dose rate of 125 or 250 ppm had beneficial effect compared with the NC group. in terms of the reduction of diarrhoea prevalence, the enhancement of growth performance and the reduction of prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in the intestine, as shown either by the PCR method or by specific histopathological examinations. Treatment with 250 ppm of doxycycline for a fortnight interval post-weaning seems to be beneficial leading to better growth rates of piglets not only during treatment period, but also throughout the whole nursery phase.

  2. Emergency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Caprio, U.

    1982-01-01

    The main trends in the development of techniques presently used for emergency control of electric power systems are illustrated, from load-shedding to islanding, generator control, automatic reclosure of circuits, reactive power control and auxiliary aids in the control centers. Methods for improving the design criteria are reviewed. 61 refs.

  3. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand-washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torondel, Belen; Opare, David; Brandberg, Bjorn; Cobb, Emma; Cairncross, Sandy

    2014-02-14

    Moringa oleifera is a plant found in many tropical and subtropical countries. Many different uses and properties have been attributed to this plant, mainly as a nutritional supplement and as a water purifier. Its antibacterial activity against different pathogens has been described in different in vitro settings. However the potential effect of this plant leaf as a hand washing product has never been studied. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of this product using an in vivo design with healthy volunteers. The hands of fifteen volunteers were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Moringa oleifera leaf powder was tested as a hand washing product and was compared with reference non-medicated liquid soap using a cross over design following an adaptation of the European Committee for Standardization protocol (EN 1499). In a second part of tests, the efficacy of the established amount of Moringa oleifera leaf powder was compared with an inert powder using the same protocol. Application of 2 and 3 g of dried Moringa oleifera leaf powder (mean log10-reduction: 2.44 ± 0.41 and 2.58 ± 0.34, respectively) was significantly less effective than the reference soap (3.00 ± 0.27 and 2.99 ± 0.26, respectively; p Moringa oleifera (2 and 3 g) but using a wet preparation, was also significantly less effective than reference soap (p Moringa oleifera powder in dried or wet preparation (mean log10-reduction: 2.70 ± 0.27 and 2.91 ± 0.11, respectively) compared with reference soap (2.97 ± 0.28). Application of calcium sulphate inert powder was significantly less effective than the 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder (p Moringa oleifera powder in dried and wet application had the same effect as non-medicated soap when used for hand washing. Efficacious and available hand washing products could be useful in developing countries in controlling pathogenic organisms that are transmitted through contaminated hands.

  4. Information Needs of Cancer Patients and Perception of Impact of the Disease, of Self-Efficacy, and Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinki, C; Seilacher, E; Ebel, M; Ruetters, D; Kessler, I; Stellamanns, J; Rudolph, I; Huebner, J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between information needs and cancer patients' perceptions of the impact of the disease, self-efficacy, and locus of control. Using a standardized questionnaire, we obtained data from patients who attended a series of lectures. The questionnaire included questions on their information needs, sources of information, satisfaction with information, and short questionnaires on self-efficacy, perception of the disease, and locus of control of reinforcement. Data was obtained from 185 patients. Our results showed that the sources of information that were most often used were physicians (84 %), print media (68 %), and the Internet (59 %); online fora (7.5 %), non-medical practitioners (9.7 %), and telephone-based counseling (8.6 %) were only used by a minority. Patients with a high perception of their own control over the disease more often used any source of information available to them and were more often interested in acquiring additional information. Higher self-efficacy was significantly associated with the need for information on all topics. Patients with a higher external locus of control significantly more often used sources of information and had significantly more need for additional information. By contrast, there were no associations with an internal locus of control. Neither external nor internal locus of control showed any associations with satisfaction with information. Information needs seem to be higher in patients with a high external locus of control and low self-efficacy. Physicians, other professionals, and institutions that provide information may take these relationships into consideration for tailoring their services to patients.

  5. Primary care practice-based care management for chronically ill patients (PraCMan: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN56104508

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldauf Annika

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care management programmes are an effective approach to care for high risk patients with complex care needs resulting from multiple co-occurring medical and non-medical conditions. These patients are likely to be hospitalized for a potentially "avoidable" cause. Nurse-led care management programmes for high risk elderly patients showed promising results. Care management programmes based on health care assistants (HCAs targeting adult patients with a high risk of hospitalisation may be an innovative approach to deliver cost-efficient intensified care to patients most in need. Methods/Design PraCMan is a cluster randomized controlled trial with primary care practices as unit of randomisation. The study evaluates a complex primary care practice-based care management of patients at high risk for future hospitalizations. Eligible patients either suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure or any combination. Patients with a high likelihood of hospitalization within the following 12 months (based on insurance data will be included in the trial. During 12 months of intervention patients of the care management group receive comprehensive assessment of medical and non-medical needs and resources as well as regular structured monitoring of symptoms. Assessment and monitoring will be performed by trained HCAs from the participating practices. Additionally, patients will receive written information, symptom diaries, action plans and a medication plan to improve self-management capabilities. This intervention is addition to usual care. Patients from the control group receive usual care. Primary outcome is the number of all-cause hospitalizations at 12 months follow-up, assessed by insurance claims data. Secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life (SF12, EQ5D, quality of chronic illness care (PACIC, health care utilisation and costs, medication adherence (MARS, depression

  6. Neurofuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994).......These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994)....

  7. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  8. Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  9. Gaining control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enden, van der E.; Laan, van der R.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the efforts of companies to find a solution for tax risk management, tax accounting and being in control. In trying to find a solution, companies work towards an integrated tax control framework (TCF), a tax risk management and control environment embedded in the internal cont

  10. Gaining control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enden, van der E.; Laan, van der R.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the efforts of companies to find a solution for tax risk management, tax accounting and being in control. In trying to find a solution, companies work towards an integrated tax control framework (TCF), a tax risk management and control environment embedded in the internal cont

  11. Helicopter controllability

    OpenAIRE

    Carico, Dean

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The concept of helicopter controllability is explained. A background study reviews helicopter development in the U.S. General helicopter configurations, linearized equations of motion, stability, and piloting requirements are discussed. Helicopter flight controls, handling qualities, and associated specification are reviewed. Analytical, simulation and flight test methods for evaluating helicopter automatic flight control systems ar...

  12. Gaining control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enden, van der E.; Laan, van der R.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the efforts of companies to find a solution for tax risk management, tax accounting and being in control. In trying to find a solution, companies work towards an integrated tax control framework (TCF), a tax risk management and control environment embedded in the internal

  13. Optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Aschepkov, Leonid T; Kim, Taekyun; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures from a one-year course at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) as well as on workshops on optimal control offered to students at various mathematical departments at the university level. The main themes of the theory of linear and nonlinear systems are considered, including the basic problem of establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimal processes. In the first part of the course, the theory of linear control systems is constructed on the basis of the separation theorem and the concept of a reachability set. The authors prove the closure of a reachability set in the class of piecewise continuous controls, and the problems of controllability, observability, identification, performance and terminal control are also considered. The second part of the course is devoted to nonlinear control systems. Using the method of variations and the Lagrange multipliers rule of nonlinear problems, the authors prove the Pontryagin maximum principle for prob...

  14. Dynamics & Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Quantum Linear Systems Theory : Matt James, Ian Peterson • Why Quantum Control? Is...Classical linear systems theory has a history going back some 50 years, to the birth of modern control theory with Kalman’s foundational work on filtering...and LQG optimal control. Gaussian Distributions play a fundamental role in classical linear systems theory . • The PIs have shown that classical

  15. Nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    International cooperation in nuclear industries requires nuclear control as prerequisites. The concept of nuclear control is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) plays central role in implementing nuclear control. Nuclear control consists of nuclear safeguards, physical protection, and export/import control. Each member state of NPT is subject to the IAEA`s safeguards by concluding safeguards agreements with the IAEA. IAEA recommends member states to implement physical protection on nuclear materials by `The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` and `The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` of IAEA. Export/Import Control is to deter development of nuclear weapons by controlling international trade on nuclear materials, nuclear equipments and technology. Current status of domestic and foreign nuclear control implementation including recent induction of national inspection system in Korea is described and functions of recently set-up Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) under the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are also explained. 6 tabs., 11 refs. (Author).

  16. Associational control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Grosen, Sidsel Lond

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the concept of control has had a central position in research into the psychological working environment. Control has been understood as individual autonomy and individual opportunities for development. This article examines whether the concept of control has the same key...... significance in the modern workplace which is simultaneously characterized by self-management and standardization. It is concluded that the concept of control remains important, but needs to evolve from its focus on the work of individuals to a focus on the associational aspects of work if it is to retain its...... critical potential. This conclusion is supported by case studies of four Danish banks....

  17. Taking Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast gives action steps and reasons to control diabetes.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/2/2007.

  18. optimal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Rozonoer

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of optimal control for all initial data are proved for LQ-optimization problem. If these conditions are fulfilled, necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality are formulated. Basing on the results, some general hypotheses on optimal control in terms of Pontryagin's maximum condition and Bellman's equation are proposed.

  19. Detonation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2016-10-25

    Detonation control modules and detonation control circuits are provided herein. A trigger input signal can cause a detonation control module to trigger a detonator. A detonation control module can include a timing circuit, a light-producing diode such as a laser diode, an optically triggered diode, and a high-voltage capacitor. The trigger input signal can activate the timing circuit. The timing circuit can control activation of the light-producing diode. Activation of the light-producing diode illuminates and activates the optically triggered diode. The optically triggered diode can be coupled between the high-voltage capacitor and the detonator. Activation of the optically triggered diode causes a power pulse to be released from the high-voltage capacitor that triggers the detonator.

  20. Control consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandik, Pete

    2010-10-01

    Control consciousness is the awareness or experience of seeming to be in control of one's actions. One view, which I will be arguing against in the present paper, is that control consciousness is a form of sensory consciousness. In such a view, control consciousness is exhausted by sensory elements such as tactile and proprioceptive information. An opposing view, which I will be arguing for, is that sensory elements cannot be the whole story and must be supplemented by direct contributions of nonsensory, motor elements. More specifically, I will be arguing for the view that the neural basis of control consciousness is constituted by states of recurrent activation in relatively intermediate levels of the motor hierarchy. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Aiming Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    positive definite solution of A1Qy+QyAo+I--QyBBTQY=O (5.2) The logarithmic residence time of system (3.1) with the stabilizing control (5.1) in a I...a bounded is E bou,,,,dby, ii I)-2=(6 2 This completes the prooof the necesity. Suffidency: The proof is by conatnction. Select a stabilizing control u...a - . Q.LD. Proof of Theorem 3.3: It follows from the results of [151, [21] that for each y > 0, K? defined by (3.4) is a stabilizing control and

  2. Infection Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lives are lost because of the spread of infections in hospitals. Health care workers can take steps ... of infectious diseases. These steps are part of infection control. Proper hand washing is the most effective ...

  3. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  4. CONTROL ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, W.H.; Ross, H.V.

    1958-11-18

    A control rod is described for a nuclear reactor. In certaln reactor designs it becomes desirable to use a control rod having great width but relatively llttle thickness. This patent is addressed to such a need. The neutron absorbing material is inserted in a triangular tube, leaving volds between the circular insert and the corners of the triangular tube. The material is positioned within the tube by the use of dummy spacers to achleve the desired absorption pattern, then the ends of the tubes are sealed with suitable plugs. The tubes may be welded or soldered together to form two flat surfaces of any desired width, and covered with sheetmetal to protect the tubes from damage. This design provides a control member that will not distort under the action of outside forces or be ruptured by gases generated within the jacketed control member.

  5. Control Prenatal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA; M.D. Peter Soothill, MR

    2014-01-01

    Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así...

  6. Airspace Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airspace Control 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...include, but are not limited to, sensors, communications, data processing, and common operating databases. Information assurance programs such as...working group charters and coordinated quarterly meetings between the deputy CFACC (DCFACC)/deputy ACA ( DACA ), ACCE, regional air movement control

  7. Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    an aerodynamic design. A few examples of this type of flow control are winglets , fins, or dimples on a golf ball. The other type of flow control is...represented the density states of the flow field. The first parameter was the composition of the regression vector, Θ j. This regression vector was...Development Using Proper Orthogonal De- composition and Volterra Theory. In AIAA 2003-1922, 2003. A. Mani, M. Wang, and P. Moin. Resolution requirements

  8. Bilateral skin conductance, finger pulse volume, and EEG orienting response to tones of differing intensities in chronic schizophrenics and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A S; Taylor, K W; Starkey, P; Juni, S; Lubowsky, J; Paley, H

    1981-08-01

    Skin conductance (SCOR), finger pulse volume (FPV-OR), and EEG orienting responses were examined to repeated tones of either 60- or 90-dB intensity in chronic schizophrenics, nonschizophrenic psychiatric patients, and normals. SCOR reaffirmed previous findings with schizophrenics displaying significantly more frequent nonresponsiveness to 60-dB tones, and faster habituation among patients who did respond. Increased stimulus intensity decreased the incidence of nonresponsiveness to the level of controls, but did not alter the rapid habituation of schizophrenics. These results generalized fully to the FPV-OR, despite the independence demonstrated between SCOR and FPV-OR, but did not generalize to EEG response. There were no significant differences between schizophrenics and controls in EEG reactivity-only in background activity, particularly in a slowing of dominant alpha frequency in schizophrenics. Schizophrenics displayed the same degree of bilateral asymmetry as controls in both SCOR and EEG; there was no evidence of a specifically schizophrenic asymmetry. Schizophrenics nonresponsive in either SCOR or FPV-OR showed significantly greater Conceptual Disorganization and Emotional Withdrawal, and significantly less Excitement than responders in blind clinical ratings on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. None of the findings could be attributed to the effect of neuroleptics. Comparisons between medicated and nonmedicated patients showed no drug-associated effect on any OR variable under study. Drug effects were apparent only in skin conductance level (SCL). Neuroleptics were associated with a significant reduction in SCL in both schizophrenics and nonschizophrenics, together with a flattening of an otherwise incrementing SCL among schizophrenics.

  9. Controlled teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this article,we review the recent development of controlled teleportation which can be used for sharing quantum information and has important applications in remote quantum computation.We introduce the principles of a couple of controlled teleportation schemes with maximally entangled quantum channels and those with pure entangled quantum channels (non-maximally entangled states).The schemes based on maximally entangled states have the advantage of having maximal efficiency although there are differences in their implementations in experiment.In the controlled teleportation schemes using non-maximally entangled states as the quantum channels,the receiver can reconstruct the originally unknown state by adding an auxiliary particle and performing a unitary evolution.No matter what the unknown state is (a single qubit state or an m-qudit state),the auxiliary particle required is only a two-level quantum system.

  10. Controlling turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnen, Jakob; Hof, Björn

    2015-11-01

    We show that a simple modification of the velocity profile in a pipe can lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and the flow fully relaminarises. The annihilation of turbulence is achieved by a steady manipulation of the streamwise velocity component alone, greatly reducing control efforts. Several different control techniques are presented: one with a local modification of the flow profile by means of a stationary obstacle, one employing a nozzle injecting fluid through a small gap at the pipe wall and one with a moving wall, where a part of the pipe is shifted in the streamwise direction. All control techniques act on the flow such that the streamwise velocity profile becomes more flat and turbulence gradually grows faint and disappears. In a smooth straight pipe the flow remains laminar downstream of the control. Hence a reduction in skin friction by a factor of 8 and more can be accomplished. Stereoscopic PIV-measurements and movies of the development of the flow during relaminarisation are presented.

  11. Internal Controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Managing risk is essential for positioning a company for growth in the current business environment.Yet as companies around the world clamber to inplement integrated risk controls in light of corlporate meltdowns and terrorist concems,many firms fail to pull the weeds out of their own backyard in China before trying to harvest the profitable crops!

  12. Losing control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Lust, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    with respondents without lifetime assaultive behavior, those with a history of assaultive or destructive behavior reported more depressive symptoms, more stress, and higher rates of a range of impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, and skin...

  13. Rationale and design of the Miami Healthy Heart Initiative: a randomized controlled study of a community health worker intervention among Latino patients with poorly controlled diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasquillo O

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Olveen Carrasquillo,1,2 Elizabeth Patberg,1 Yisel Alonzo,1 Hua Li,2 Sonjia Kenya1 1Department of Medicine, 2Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus disproportionately affects the Latino community. Latinos with diabetes are also less likely to have adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors such as cholesterol and blood pressure. Community health workers (CHWs are increasingly being used to address various health disparity conditions, including diabetes. However, evidence of their effectiveness from randomized controlled trials is limited. Methods: The Miami Health Heart Initiative is a randomized controlled trial of 300 Latino patients with diabetes. Patients with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ≥8.0% were recruited from Miami-Dade's public hospital system. At baseline, all patients underwent phlebotomy, physical examination, and a structured 90-minute research interview. They were then randomized to either usual care or a CHW intervention called Cariño. For participants in the Cariño arm of the study, CHW services included assistance with nonmedical social services, health education, and patient navigation in which the CHWs serve as a bridge between patients and the health care system. These services were delivered through home visits, phone calls, and group visits. At 12 months, all subjects had a follow-up examination. The primary outcomes at 1 year are changes in systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein, and HbA1c. Secondary outcomes include medication adherence, medication intensification, diabetes self-efficacy, physical activity, and self-reported fruit and vegetable intake. Discussion: The Miami Healthy Heart Initiative is one of the first rigorously conducted randomized controlled trials to provide evidence on the impact of CHWs on diabetes intermediate outcomes among Latinos. If the data support our primary hypotheses, the study would lend added

  14. Eficácia da educação em saúde no tratamento não medicamentoso da hipertensão arterial Effectiveness of education in health in the non-medication treatment of arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiane Lopes Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a eficácia da educação em saúde na adesão ao tratamento não medicamentoso da hipertensão arterial. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados hábitos referentes à alimentação, à atividade física e ao uso de tabaco e álcool, bem como avaliação de medidas antropométricas e níveis pressóricos, antes e após a realização de grupos de educação em saúde em 216 hipertensos. RESULTADOS: Houve mudança estatisticamente significante no consumo de legumes, na adesão à prática de atividade, na redução do índice de massa corpórea e da circunferência abdominal e no controle da pressão arterial, após os grupos de educação em saúde. CONCLUSÃO: A educação em saúde proposta foi eficaz no incentivo à adesão ao tratamento não medicamentoso da hipertensão arterial, evidenciando a relevância da adoção dessas estratégias educacionais pelos profissionais de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To verify the efficacy of health education on the adherence to non-pharmacological treatment in arterial hypertension. METHODS: Habits related to nutrition, physical activity and use of tobacco and alcohol were analyzed, as well as assessment of anthropometric and blood pressure levels, before and after the performance of group health education in 216 hypertensive patients. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant change in the consumption of legumes, in the adherence to physical activity, in the reduction of body mass index and abdominal circumference, and in the control of arterial pressure, after the health education groups. CONCLUSION: The proposed health education was effective in incentivizing the adherence to non-pharmacological treatment in arterial hypertension, evidenced by the relevance of the adoption of these educational strategies

  15. Heliostat control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, James A.

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in a system and method of controlling heliostat in which the heliostat is operable in azimuth and elevation by respective stepper motors and including the respective steps or means for calculating the position for the heliostat to be at a commanded position, determining the number of steps in azimuth and elevation for each respective motor to get to the commanded position and energizing both the azimuth and elevation stepper motors to run in parallel until predetermined number of steps away from the closest commanded position in azimuth and elevation so that the closest position has been achieved, and thereafter energizing only the remaining motor to bring it to its commanded position. In this way, the heliostat can be started from a stowed position in the morning and operated by a computer means to its commanded position and kept correctly oriented throughout the day using only the time of the day without requiring the usual sensors and feedback apparatus. A computer, or microprocessor, can then control a plurality of many heliostats easily and efficiently throughout the day.

  16. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  17. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - ...

  18. Microarray analysis in caudal medulla of cattle orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L M; Basu, U; Williams, J L; Moore, S S; Guan, L L

    2011-10-25

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disorder in cattle characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration during prion infection through the identification of genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between experimentally infected and non-challenged cattle. Gene expression of caudal medulla from control and orally infected animals was compared by microarray analysis using 24,000 bovine oligonucleotides representing 16,846 different genes to identify DE genes associated with BSE disease. In total, 182 DE genes were identified between normal and BSE-infected tissues (>2.0-fold change, P bovine species.

  19. Comparative efficacy of the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy versus Supportive Psychotherapy for early onset chronic depression: design and rationale of a multisite randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Mathias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective treatment strategies for chronic depression are urgently needed since it is not only a common and particularly disabling disorder, but is also considered treatment resistant by most clinicians. There are only a few studies on chronic depression indicating that traditional psycho- and pharmacological interventions are not as effective as in acute, episodic depression. Current medications are no more effective than those introduced 50 years ago whereas the only psychotherapy developed specifically for the subgroup of chronic depression, the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP, faired well in one large trial. However, CBASP has never been directly compared to a non-specific control treatment. Methods/Design The present article describes the study protocol of a multisite parallel-group randomized controlled trial in Germany. The purpose of the study is to estimate the efficacy of CBASP compared to supportive psychotherapy in 268 non-medicated early-onset chronically depressed outpatients. The intervention includes 20 weeks of acute treatment with 24 individual sessions followed by 28 weeks of continuation treatment with another 8 sessions. Depressive symptoms are evaluated 20 weeks after randomisation by means of the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression (HRSD. Secondary endpoints are depressive symptoms after 12 and 48 weeks, and remission after 12, 20, and 48 weeks. Primary outcome will be analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA controlled for pre-treatment scores and site. Analyses of continuous secondary variables will be performed using linear mixed models. For remission rates, chi-squared tests and logistic regression will be applied. Discussion The study evaluates the comparative effects of a disorder-specific psychotherapy and a well designed non-specific psychological approach in the acute and continuation treatment phase in a large sample of early-onset chronically

  20. Comparative efficacy of the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy versus supportive psychotherapy for early onset chronic depression: design and rationale of a multisite randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Elisabeth; Hautzinger, Martin; Zobel, Ingo; Kriston, Levente; Berger, Mathias; Härter, Martin

    2011-08-17

    Effective treatment strategies for chronic depression are urgently needed since it is not only a common and particularly disabling disorder, but is also considered treatment resistant by most clinicians. There are only a few studies on chronic depression indicating that traditional psycho- and pharmacological interventions are not as effective as in acute, episodic depression. Current medications are no more effective than those introduced 50 years ago whereas the only psychotherapy developed specifically for the subgroup of chronic depression, the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), faired well in one large trial. However, CBASP has never been directly compared to a non-specific control treatment. The present article describes the study protocol of a multisite parallel-group randomized controlled trial in Germany. The purpose of the study is to estimate the efficacy of CBASP compared to supportive psychotherapy in 268 non-medicated early-onset chronically depressed outpatients. The intervention includes 20 weeks of acute treatment with 24 individual sessions followed by 28 weeks of continuation treatment with another 8 sessions. Depressive symptoms are evaluated 20 weeks after randomisation by means of the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression (HRSD). Secondary endpoints are depressive symptoms after 12 and 48 weeks, and remission after 12, 20, and 48 weeks. Primary outcome will be analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlled for pre-treatment scores and site. Analyses of continuous secondary variables will be performed using linear mixed models. For remission rates, chi-squared tests and logistic regression will be applied. The study evaluates the comparative effects of a disorder-specific psychotherapy and a well designed non-specific psychological approach in the acute and continuation treatment phase in a large sample of early-onset chronically depressed patients. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00970437).

  1. Relationship between fuzzy controllers and PID controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪兴

    1999-01-01

    The internal relations between fuzzy controllers and PID controllers are revealed. First, it is pointed out that a fuzzy controller with one input and one output is just a piecewise P controller. Then it is proved that a fuzzy controller with two inputs and one output is just a piecewise PD (or I) controller with interaction between P and D (or PI). At last, the conclusion that a fuzzy controller with three inputs and one output is just a piecewise PID controller with interaction among P, I and D is given. Moreover, a kind of difference scheme of fuzzy controllers is designed.

  2. Design of Controllers for Liquid Level Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Simon,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The liquid level control system is commonly used in many process control applications. The aim of the process is to keep the liquid level in the tank at the desired value. The conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller is simple, reliable and eliminates the error rate but it cannot handle complex problems. Fuzzy logic controllers are rule based systems which simulates human behavior of the process. The fuzzy controller is combined with the PID controller and then applied to the tank level control system. This paper proposes Inverse fuzzy with fuzzy logic controller for controlling liquid level system for a plant. This paper also compares the transient response as well as error indices of PID, Fuzzy logic controller, inverse fuzzy controllers. The responses of the controllers are verified through simulation. From the simulation results, it is observed that inverse fuzzy-PID controller gives the superior performance than the other controllers. The inverse fuzzy-PID controller gives better performance than the PID and fuzzy controller in terms of overshoot and settling time. Performance analysis is carried out with Liquid Flow Control System Design with Fuzzy logic controller. Results are evaluated by comparing the response time of conventional PID, fuzzy logic and Inverse fuzzy controller. Comparative analysis of the performance of different controllers is done in MATLAB and Simulink.

  3. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, ...

  4. Hierarchical Control of Thermostatically Controller Loads for Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical control of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) to provide primary frequency control support. The control architecture is comprised of three levels. At the high level, an aggregator coordinates multiple distribution substations and dispatches the primary...... respond to the frequency event autonomously. Case studies show that the proposed controller can efficiently respond to frequency events and fulfill the requirement specified by the system operator. The users’ comforts are not compromised and the short cycling of TCLs is largely reduced. Due...

  5. Design of Controllers for Liquid Level Control

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin Simon,; Elizabeth Varghese

    2015-01-01

    The liquid level control system is commonly used in many process control applications. The aim of the process is to keep the liquid level in the tank at the desired value. The conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is simple, reliable and eliminates the error rate but it cannot handle complex problems. Fuzzy logic controllers are rule based systems which simulates human behavior of the process. The fuzzy controller is combined with the PID controller and th...

  6. Mental health literacy towards depression among non-medical students at a Malaysian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A

    2010-03-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia.Method Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a pre-validated 21-item questionnaire among students at USM.Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority.Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence-based mental health care.

  7. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., sponsors of drugs containing any antibiotic intended for use in food-producing animals shall submit data... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW...

  8. 78 FR 79564 - Proposed Information Collection (Request for Supplemental Information on Medical and Nonmedical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... apply for new issue, reinstatement or change of plan on Government Life Insurance policies. Affected... to reinstate or change government life insurance. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on...

  9. Use of antibiotics among non-medical students in a Nigerian university

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    long duration of treatment (70; 17.5%), side effects experienced (60;15.0%), polypharmacy (56;14.0%), tablet size (45;11.3%), ... of respondents had no significant effect on respondents' knowledge or adherence (p>0.05). .... of “bad food”. Prevention .... A household survey in a Mexican community. ... Bulletin of World Health.

  10. KNOWLEDGE AWARENESS AND BEHAVIOUR OF NON-MEDICAL STUDENTS ABOUT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaqeem, Marium; Sadullah, Samiyah; Farooq, Muhammad Zain; Waqar, Wajiha; Fraz, Tayyab Raza

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases is the leading cause of death worldwide, yet very little data is available assessing the awareness of the younger population of Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the awareness, knowledge and the preventive measures taken to avoid the health issues related to cardiovascular diseases. It was a community based cross sectional descriptive study to assess the awareness and behavior in young non medical students. A questionnaire was developed and survey was conducted on 300 non medical students enrolled in different universities of Pakistan. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16. The sample consisted of 300 students aged between 16 and 32 years. 6.7% of the participants had history of blood pressure, 0.7% had diabetes, and 68.3% had a family history of cardiovascular diseases. 17.4% students were smokers. In the knowledge section, only 22% respondent scored above 20 out of 28 showing lack of knowledge. 42.7% participants were concerned about developing coronary artery diseases. 43.3% and 6.7% knew their blood pressure and cholesterol level respectively.33.3% and 41.7% regulate their dietary fat and salt intake respectively. Our study elucidates that cardiovascular diseases are not perceived as major risk by Non Medical Students. Lack of knowledge, physical inactivity, and high positive family history render the target population prone to cardiovascular diseases. The findings of study indicates the need for heart disease awareness campaigns for young population, to escalate the preventive actions and adoption of healthy lifestyles so as to lower the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Pakistan.

  11. On the ethics of social egg freezing and fertility preservation for nonmedical reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Karey

    2015-01-01

    Karey A Harwood Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Abstract: The practice of egg freezing reached a new milestone in 2012, when the American Society for Reproductive Medicine removed its designation as “experimental”. Studies of the safety and efficacy of egg freezing led the ASRM to recommend egg freezing for patients facing infertility due to gonadotoxic therapies, but prompted continued caution against egg ...

  12. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Malek Mahdavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.

  13. Non-medical applications of non invasive prenatal testing: ethical issues and apllicabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Tasinato, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining material for foetal molecular analysis without the need of invasive procedures has been a long wished improvement of practice in prenatal diagnostics. The demonstration of the presence of foetal cells and circulating foetal free-DNA in a sample of mother-to-be’s blood promised that a non-invasive approach for prenatal diagnostics is near to becoming a reality. The presence of foetal cells (albeit in low numbers) in maternal blood has been known since 1893, when...

  14. The Nonmedical Use of Amphetamines among the College Age Group: Recent Research concerning Epidemiology and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Amphetamines have a significant role in nontherapeutic drug use by college students. A brief history of amphetamine use by college students is presented. Considerable data implicate amphetamines in producing serious psychological and biological adverse effects. (Author/DF)

  15. Use of 'non-medical' ultrasound imaging before mid-pregnancy in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Tine J; Zingenberg, Helle

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated prospectively how many pregnant women purchase ultrasound imaging before week 20, why they purchase scans, and which professional skills and certifications women expect the person performing the scan to have. In addition, we wanted to investigate whether the women were aware...... the fetal health and development checked and 49% wanted to find out the gender of the fetus. In addition, 68% felt that they received an evaluation of the fetal health state and 58% believed that there was legislation demanding a professional authorization needed to perform ultrasound imaging. This study...... shows that there is a significant demand among pregnant women for commercial ultrasound imaging of their fetus for various reasons. Knowledge of certifications and requirements for legal authorization is, however, sparse....

  16. Evaluation of the Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale in a medical and non-medical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Mirella; Sheehan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Comorbid depression and medical illness is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes such as lower medication adherence and higher rates of subsequent mortality. Reliable and valid psychological measures capable of detecting a range of depressive symptoms found in medical settings are needed. The Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale (CDVAS) is a recently developed, brief six-item measure originally designed to assess the range and severity of depressive symptoms within a cardiac population. The current study aimed to further investigate the psychometric properties of the CDVAS in a general and medical sample. The sample consisted of 117 participants, whose mean age was 40.0 years (SD = 19.0, range 18-84). Participants completed the CDVAS, the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and a demographic and health questionnaire. The CDVAS was found to have adequate internal reliability (α = .76), strong concurrent validity with the CDS (r = .89) and the depression sub-scale of the DASS (r = .70), strong discriminant validity and strong predictive validity. The principal components analysis revealed that the CDVAS measured only one component, providing further support for the construct validity of the scale. Results of the current study indicate that the CDVAS is a short, simple, valid and reliable measure of depressive symptoms suitable for use in a general and medical sample.

  17. Worldwide Survey of Nonmedical Drug Use and Alcohol Use among Military Personnel: 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-14

    Dust" Other Hallucinogens ......... LSD, Mescaline, Peyote, STP, DOM, DMT, Psilocybin Cocaine ....................... "Coke," "Snow" Amphetamines...worries. .......... * C. I drink to relax .... * D. A drink helps cheer me up when I am in a bad mood ............. - E A drink helps me when I am depressed ...Because my living quarters are so depressing ........ ....... H Because other people expect you to drink when they are *drinking. .. ... . . .. . . * 39

  18. [The social and medicolegal aspects of maternal request or non-medically indicated cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Menachem; Shrem, David; Solt, Ido

    2013-07-01

    Patient choice cesarean or cesarean by maternal request/ demand is a controversial issue. The medical literature contains evidence based data on the medical aspects of patient choice cesarean, risks and benefits to the mother and her newborn. Fewer studies focused on the social and legal aspects of patient choice cesarean. This opinion paper discusses the social and legal aspects of patient choice cesarean.

  19. Primary nonmedically indicated cesarean section ("section on request"): evidence based or modern vogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaru, Sorina; Samueloff, Arnon

    2004-09-01

    Cesarean section, initially described as an emergency operative procedure for delivering moribund parturients, is now advocated by many as a routine technique with major advantages over vagi-nal delivery. In fact, it has been suggested that labor and vaginal delivery are no longer the desired consequence of pregnancy, a conclusion that reflects perceived medical advantages and patient and physician convenience. This article systematically reviews the various medical implications to the mother and infant of this procedure in the hope of facilitating a more rational approach to this spreading and controversial phenomenon.

  20. Toward a comparative overview of dependence potential and acute toxicity of psychoactive substances used nonmedically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, R S

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for comparing dependence potential and acute toxicity across a broad range of abused psychoactive substances. Tentative results, based on an extensive literature review of 20 substances, suggested that the margin of safety ("therapeutic index") varied dramatically between substances. Intravenous heroin appeared to have the greatest risk of dependence and acute lethality; oral psilocybin appeared to have the least. Hazards due to behavioral deficits, perceptual distortion, or chronic illness were not factored into the assessments.

  1. [The history of antitobacco actions in the last 500 years. part. 1. Non-medical actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco was brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus, who discovered it in Cuba in October, 1492. Spread of tobacco consumption was initiated by the French diplomat Jean Nicot de Villemain, who in 1560 recommended it in the form of powdered tobacco leaves to the French Queen Catherine de Medice to combat her migraine headaches, and introduced the term Nicotiana tobaccum. Tobacco consumption greatly rose after the I World War, and after the II World War it became very common, especially among man. In the first half of the 20th century the sale of tobacco products rose by 61%, and cigarettes dominated the market of tobacco products. At the beginning of the 20th century cigarettes constituted only 2% of the total sale of tobacco products, while in the middle of the 20th century--more than 80%. Although the first epidemiological papers indicating that "smoking is connected with the shortening of life span" were published in the first half of the 20th century, not until 1950 did Hill and Doll in Great Britain, and Wynder and Graham in USA in 1951 show a statistically significant correlation between cigarettes smoking and lung cancer occurrence. Many controversies according the use of tobacco accompanied it from the beginning of its presence in Europe. The conflicting opinions according to its influence to health coexisted in the 16th to 19th centuries. In this period, especially in the 19th century dominated moral and religious arguments against tobacco. In the 20th century however, and particularly in its second part, development in medical research was enhanced by civil voluntary actions against advertisement and passive smoking. This lead to the significant limitation of tobacco expansion in Europe, USA and Canada in the end of the 20th century.

  2. Worldwide Survey of Alcohol and Nonmedical Drug Use Among Military Personnel: 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    addiction , and long-term organic deter- ioration are linked closely with heavy and frequent use of alcohol (Polich, Armor, and Braiker, 1981). Among...medical/physical, mental health/emotional, family/ friends, legal, job/education, and financial problems as well as dependence, addiction , and...in measurement of use for the following ten categories of drugs: Marijuana or hashish, * PCP (phencyclidine), * LSD or other hallucinogens, * Cocaine

  3. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  4. 1999 American control conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The technical program reflects the rapid growth and strong interest in the field of control systems engineering. Leaders in the field provide a good balance between control theory and a broad spectrum of practical applications. Topics covered include: nonlinear control using backstepping; adaptive control; vibration control via command shaping; observer based fault detection; control applications; advances in passivity-based control methods; stability and time-delay systems; identification; intelligent systems; robust control; advances in control education.

  5. Controllability of delay systems with restrained controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwu, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    Using a geometric growth condition, both the function space and Euclidean controllability of a nonlinear delay system which has a compact and convex control set are characterized. This extends analogous results for ordinary differential systems, and it yields conditions under which perturbed nonlinear delay controllable systems are controllable.

  6. Efficiency of prebiotics and probiotics on the performance, yield, meat quality and presence of Salmonella spp in carcasses of free-range broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Takahashi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out in the present study. Trial I evaluated the performance, carcass yield and breast meat quality, whereas Trial II evaluated the efficacy of utilizing prebiotics + probiotics on the control of Salmonella spp incidence in the carcasses of free-range broilers. In Trial I, 688 one-day-old male chicks of the Naked Neck Label Rouge strain were used, distributed in a randomized block design arranged according to a 2 x 2 factorial: control diet or diet supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics; and two rearing systems (confined or with access to paddocks - 3m²/bird, using four replicates with 35 birds each. The birds were reared until 84 days of age following the recommendations of management and nutrition for free-range strains, and had access to paddocks after 35 days of age. Water and food were given inside the experimental poultry house. Birds fed probiotics and prebiotics in the diet and the confined birds showed better performance, carcass yield and meat quality compared to the birds of the other treatments. In Trial II, 128 one-day-old male chicks of the free-range Naked Neck Label Rouge strain were used. The birds were distributed into four treatments: NCC (non-challenged control, NCS (non-challenged supplemented, CC (challenged control and CS (challenged supplemented. There were no significant effects of adding probiotics and prebiotics in the diet in regard to Salmonella enteritidis recovery from the carcasses.

  7. Regulation and controlled synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijberts, H.J.C.; Huijberts, H.J.C.; Nijmeijer, Henk; Willems, R.M.A.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the problem of controlled synchronization as a regulator problem. In controlled synchronization one is given autonomous transmitter dynamics and controlled receiver dynamics. The question is to find a (output) feedback controller that achieves matching between transmitter and

  8. Contact Control, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-21

    The contact control code is a generalized force control scheme meant to interface with a robotic arm being controlled using the Robot Operating System (ROS). The code allows the user to specify a control scheme for each control dimension in a way that many different control task controllers could be built from the same generalized controller. The input to the code includes maximum velocity, maximum force, maximum displacement, and a control law assigned to each direction and the output is a 6 degree of freedom velocity command that is sent to the robot controller.

  9. Fuzzy Supervisory Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Control problems in the process industry are dominated by non-linear and time-varying behaviour, many inner loops, and much interaction between the control loops. Fuzzy controllers have in some cases nevertheless mimicked the control actions of a human operator. For high level control and supervi......Control problems in the process industry are dominated by non-linear and time-varying behaviour, many inner loops, and much interaction between the control loops. Fuzzy controllers have in some cases nevertheless mimicked the control actions of a human operator. For high level control...

  10. Are estimated control charts in control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, W.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Standard control chart practice assumes normality and uses estimated parameters. Because of the extreme quantiles involved, large relative errors result. Here simple corrections are derived to bring such estimated charts under control. As a criterion, suitable exceedance probabilities are used.

  11. Extreme challenges on cardiovascular control during gravity transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyden, B.; Beckers, F.; Aubert, A. E.

    Introduction. During parabolic flights transient periods of hypergravity and microgravity are created. These periods cause translocations of bodily fluids in the longitudinal axis of the body, leading to altered cardiac preload and afterload. These extreme orthostatic challenges provide a unique platform to study baroreflex-mediated responses of the cardiovascular autonomic control system. This might have important features for the development of a model of cardiovascular deconditioning that is observed in a variety of patient populations. Purpose. Until now, due to methodological restrictions, most studies have been concentrating on the analysis of cardiovascular variability in time domain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) simultaneously, using frequency domain analysis techniques (low frequency power (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz); high frequency power (HF: 0.16-0.4 Hz)), providing additional information about cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic modulation during gravity transitions. Methods. 12 healthy non-medicated volunteers (age = 24 ± 2.5 yr) underwent continuous ECG and blood pressure (BP) recordings during the 32nd and 34th parabolic flight campaign organized by ESA. The subjects performed 15 parabolas in supine and 15 parabolas in standing position. 5 transient gravity phases were abstracted; phase 1 and 5: before and after the parabola (1G); phase 2 and 4: at the ascending and descending leg of the parabola (2G); phase 3: at the apex of the parabola (0g). Phase 2, 3 and 4 last 20 seconds. Results. No significant differences were found in HRV and BPV parameters in supine position between the different gravity phases. In standing position, mean RR- interval was higher during 0G (900 ± 103 ms) compared to 1G (700 ± 87 ms) and 2G (600 ± 94 ms). Mean arterial BP remained relatively constant during 0G but tended to decrease during 2G (102 ± 2 mmHg vs. 105 ± 3 mmHg). Positive correlations were

  12. Supervisory Control of Networked Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-15

    REPORT: January 15, 2006 Problem Statement: A networked control system is a control system whose feedback path is realized over a computer...theoretical bounds derived in [Ling03a]. 6. The feedback information in a networked control system is quantized due to the digital nature of

  13. Evaluation of vardenafil for the treatment of subjective tinnitus: a controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöver Timo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vardenafil (Levitra® represents a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5 inhibitor, which is established for treatment of various diseases. There are several unpublished reports from patients stating that vardenafil has a considerable therapeutic effect on their concomitant tinnitus. This pilot study was conducted to specifically assess the effect of vardenafil in patients with chronic tinnitus. Methods This trial was based on a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Fourty-two consecutive subjects with mon- or binaural chronic tinnitus received 10 mg vardenafil (N = 21 or matching placebo tablets (N = 21 administered orally twice a day over a period of 12 weeks. Clinical examination and data acquisition took place at each visit: at baseline, after 4 weeks, after 12 weeks (end of treatment with study medication, and at non-medicated follow-up after 16 weeks. Assessment of clinical effectiveness was based on a standardized tinnitus questionnaire (TQ, the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36, audiometric measurements (mode, pitch and loudness of tinnitus; auditory thresholds and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients' blood (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, homocysteine and total antioxidative status. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by comparison of subjective and objective parameters with baseline data between both treatment groups (ANCOVA. Results Vardenafil had no superior efficacy over placebo in the treatment of chronic tinnitus during this study. The primary efficacy criterion 'TQ total score' failed to demonstrate significant improvement compared to placebo. Subjective reports of TQ subscales and general quality of life areas (SF-36, objective audiometric examinations as well as investigated biomarkers for oxidative stress did not reveal any significant treatment effects. The safety profile was favorable and consistent with that in other vardenafil

  14. Evaluation of vardenafil for the treatment of subjective tinnitus: a controlled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Birgit; Haupt, Heidemarie; Szczepek, Agnieszka J; Sandmann, Jörg; Gross, Johann; Klapp, Burghard F; Kiesewetter, Holger; Kalus, Ulrich; Stöver, Timo; Caffier, Philipp P

    2009-01-01

    Background Vardenafil (Levitra®) represents a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, which is established for treatment of various diseases. There are several unpublished reports from patients stating that vardenafil has a considerable therapeutic effect on their concomitant tinnitus. This pilot study was conducted to specifically assess the effect of vardenafil in patients with chronic tinnitus. Methods This trial was based on a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Fourty-two consecutive subjects with mon- or binaural chronic tinnitus received 10 mg vardenafil (N = 21) or matching placebo tablets (N = 21) administered orally twice a day over a period of 12 weeks. Clinical examination and data acquisition took place at each visit: at baseline, after 4 weeks, after 12 weeks (end of treatment with study medication), and at non-medicated follow-up after 16 weeks. Assessment of clinical effectiveness was based on a standardized tinnitus questionnaire (TQ), the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36), audiometric measurements (mode, pitch and loudness of tinnitus; auditory thresholds) and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients' blood (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, homocysteine and total antioxidative status). Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by comparison of subjective and objective parameters with baseline data between both treatment groups (ANCOVA). Results Vardenafil had no superior efficacy over placebo in the treatment of chronic tinnitus during this study. The primary efficacy criterion 'TQ total score' failed to demonstrate significant improvement compared to placebo. Subjective reports of TQ subscales and general quality of life areas (SF-36), objective audiometric examinations as well as investigated biomarkers for oxidative stress did not reveal any significant treatment effects. The safety profile was favorable and consistent with that in other vardenafil studies. Conclusion

  15. PID control with robust disturbance feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawai, Fukiko; Vinther, Kasper; Andersen, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance Feedback Control (DFC) is a technique, originally proposed by Fuji Electric, for augmenting existing control systems with an extra feedback for attenuation of disturbances and model errors. In this work, we analyze the robustness and performance of a PID-based control system with DFC...... and performance (if such gains exist). Finally, two different simulation case studies are evaluated and compared. Our numerical studies indicate that better performance can be achieved with the proposed method compared with a conservatively tuned PID controller and comparable performance can be achieved when...... compared with an H-infinity controller....

  16. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post

  17. Veterinary practice internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, T E

    1996-02-01

    This chapter explores the responsive management requirements critical for effective internal controls. Internal control techniques offered include the application of segregation of function, goal-orientation, performance planning, and training objectives in five veterinary practice areas. These areas are client controls, cash controls, inventory controls, purchase controls, and stock controls. Because only trusted staff members are given access to practice assets, the veterinary leadership must have a responsive management plan to protect the life of the practice while building the practice team. Methods are shared for controlling opportunities that can lead to employee fraud while concurrently building a team approach to internal controls.

  18. Controllability of asynchronous Boolean multiplex control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Wang, Xingyuan; Liu, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this article, the controllability of asynchronous Boolean multiplex control networks (ABMCNs) is studied. First, the model of Boolean multiplex control networks under Harvey' asynchronous update is presented. By means of semi-tensor product approach, the logical dynamics is converted into linear representation, and a generalized formula of control-depending network transition matrices is achieved. Second, a necessary and sufficient condition is proposed to verify that only control-depending fixed points of ABMCNs can be controlled with probability one. Third, using two types of controls, the controllability of system is studied and formulae are given to show: (a) when an initial state is given, the reachable set at time s under a group of specified controls; (b) the reachable set at time s under arbitrary controls; (c) the specific probability values from a given initial state to destination states. Based on the above formulae, an algorithm to calculate overall reachable states from a specified initial state is presented. Moreover, we also discuss an approach to find the particular control sequence which steers the system between two states with maximum probability. Examples are shown to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  19. Controllability of asynchronous Boolean multiplex control networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Wang, Xingyuan; Liu, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this article, the controllability of asynchronous Boolean multiplex control networks (ABMCNs) is studied. First, the model of Boolean multiplex control networks under Harvey' asynchronous update is presented. By means of semi-tensor product approach, the logical dynamics is converted into linear representation, and a generalized formula of control-depending network transition matrices is achieved. Second, a necessary and sufficient condition is proposed to verify that only control-depending fixed points of ABMCNs can be controlled with probability one. Third, using two types of controls, the controllability of system is studied and formulae are given to show: (a) when an initial state is given, the reachable set at time s under a group of specified controls; (b) the reachable set at time s under arbitrary controls; (c) the specific probability values from a given initial state to destination states. Based on the above formulae, an algorithm to calculate overall reachable states from a specified initial state is presented. Moreover, we also discuss an approach to find the particular control sequence which steers the system between two states with maximum probability. Examples are shown to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  20. Adaptive Extremum Control and Wind Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xin

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, i.e., adaptive extremum control and modelling and control of a wind turbine. The rst part of the thesis deals with the design of adaptive extremum controllers for some processes which have the behaviour that process should have as high e ciency as possible...... in parameters, and thus directly lends itself to parameter estimation and adaptive control. The extremum control law is derived based on static optimization of a performance function. For a process with nonlinearity at output the intermediate signal between the linear part and nonlinear part plays an important...... role. If it can be emphasis on control design. The models have beenvalidated by experimental data obtained from an existing wind turbine. The e ective wind speed experienced by the rotor of a wind turbine, which is often required by some control methods, is estimated by using a wind turbine as a wind...

  1. Adaptive Extremum Control and Wind Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xin

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, i.e., adaptive extremum control and modelling and control of a wind turbine. The rst part of the thesis deals with the design of adaptive extremum controllers for some processes which have the behaviour that process should have as high e ciency as possible...... in parameters, and thus directly lends itself to parameter estimation and adaptive control. The extremum control law is derived based on static optimization of a performance function. For a process with nonlinearity at output the intermediate signal between the linear part and nonlinear part plays an important...... role. If it can be emphasis on control design. The models have beenvalidated by experimental data obtained from an existing wind turbine. The e ective wind speed experienced by the rotor of a wind turbine, which is often required by some control methods, is estimated by using a wind turbine as a wind...

  2. Controlling chaos using an exponential control

    CERN Document Server

    Gadre, S D; Gadre, Sangeeta D; Varma, V S

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate that chaos can be controlled using a multiplicative exponential feedback control. All three types of unstable orbits - unstable fixed points, limit cycles and chaotic trajectories can be stabilized using this control. The control is effective both for maps and flows. The control is significant, particularly for systems with several degrees of freedom, as knowledge of only one variable on the desired unstable orbit is sufficient to settle the system on to that orbit. We find, that in all the cases studied, the transient time is a decreasing function of the stiffness of control. But increasing the stiffness beyond an optimum value can increase the transient time. The control can also be used to create suitable new stable attractors in a map, which did not exist in the original system.

  3. Robust H∞ control for networked control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Weiguo; Shao Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The robust H∞ control for networked control systems with both stochastic network-induced delay and data packet dropout is studied.When data are transmitted over network,the stochastic data packet dropout process can be described by a two-state Markov chain.The networked control systems with stochastic network-induced delay and data packet dropout are modeled as a discrete time Markov jump linear system with two operation modes.The sufficient condition of robust H∞ control for networked control systems stabilized by state feedback controller is presented in terms of linear matrix inequality.The state feedback controller can be constructed via the solution of a set of linear matrix inequalities.An example is given to verify the effectiveness of the method proposed.

  4. PID controllers' fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Víctor M

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an index for measuring fragility of proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers is proposed. This index relates the losses of robustness of the control loop when controller parameters change, to the nominal robustness of the control loop. Furthermore, it defines when a PID controller is fragile, nonfragile or resilient.

  5. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  6. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 467 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  7. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  8. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  9. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... System Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  10. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Asthma Contact Us Share Asthma Triggers: Gain Control Breathing Freely: Controlling Asthma Triggers This video features ... Air Quality: Biological Pollutants Help Your Child Gain Control Over Asthma Top of Page Molds About Molds ...

  11. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  12. Control System Damps Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, E. H., Jr.; Brown, T. K.; Marsh, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    New control system damps vibrations in rotating equipment with help of phase-locked-loop techniques. Vibrational modes are controlled by applying suitable currents to drive motor. Control signals are derived from sensors mounted on equipment.

  13. Nominal model predictive control

    OpenAIRE

    Grüne, Lars

    2013-01-01

    5 p., to appear in Encyclopedia of Systems and Control, Tariq Samad, John Baillieul (eds.); International audience; Model Predictive Control is a controller design method which synthesizes a sampled data feedback controller from the iterative solution of open loop optimal control problems.We describe the basic functionality of MPC controllers, their properties regarding feasibility, stability and performance and the assumptions needed in order to rigorously ensure these properties in a nomina...

  14. REMOTELY CONTROLLED SEWERS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The basics of remotely controlled sewers [1] are presented focusing on Leipzig Municipality’s sewer control project [2] located in Germany. The consequences of sewer surcharge events are outlined considering possible counter measures. The required data basis, the controllable sewer objects and their relevant control units are pointed out. The presentation is finished exposing the types of control network, possible control algorithms as well as important aspects regarding the decision for / ag...

  15. Nominal Model Predictive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Grüne, Lars

    2014-01-01

    5 p., to appear in Encyclopedia of Systems and Control, Tariq Samad, John Baillieul (eds.); International audience; Model Predictive Control is a controller design method which synthesizes a sampled data feedback controller from the iterative solution of open loop optimal control problems.We describe the basic functionality of MPC controllers, their properties regarding feasibility, stability and performance and the assumptions needed in order to rigorously ensure these properties in a nomina...

  16. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  17. Dynamic power flow controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish

    2017-03-07

    Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.

  18. Unfalsified control based on the ? controller parameterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, R. S.; Colmegna, P.; Bianchi, F.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an implementation of the unfalsified control (UC) method using the Riccati-based parameterisation of ? controllers. The method provides an infinite controller set to (un)falsify the real-time data streams seeking for the best performance. Different sets may be designed to increase the degrees of freedom of the set of controller candidates to perform UC. In general, a set of m central controllers could be designed, each one seeking different objectives and all with their own parameterisation as a function of a stable and bounded transfer matrix. For example, one controller parameterisation could be designed to solve the robust stability of a model set which covers the physical system, therefore guaranteeing feasibility. The implementation requires the online optimisation of either quadratic fractional or quadratic problems, depending on the selection of the cost function. A multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) time-varying model of a permanent magnet synchronous generator illustrates the use of this technique.

  19. Space Digital Controller for Improved Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nunes, Samuel; Daras, Gaetan; Dehez, Bruno; Maillard, Christophe; Bekemans, Marc; Michel, Raymond

    2014-08-01

    Performing digital motor control into space equipment is a new challenge. The new DPC (Digital Programmable Controller) is the first chip that we can use as a micro-controller, allowing us to drive motors with digital control schemes. In this paper, the digital control of hybrid stepper motors is considered. This kind of motor is used for solar array rotation and antenna actuation. New digital control technology brings a lot of advantages, allowing an important reduction of thermal losses inside the motor, and a reduction of thermal constraints on power drive electronic components. The opportunity to drive motors with a digital controller also brings many new functionalities like post-failure torque analysis, micro- vibrations and cogging torque reduction, or electro- mechanical damping of solar array oscillations. To evaluate the performance of the system, Field-Oriented Control (FOC) is implemented on a hybrid stepper motor. A test-bench, made of an active load, has been made to emulate the mechanical behaviour of the solar array, by the use of a torsionally-compliant model. The experimental results show that we can drastically reduce electrical power consumption, compared with the currently used open-loop control scheme.

  20. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  1. Aircraft Attitude Control by Fuzzy Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio; Matsuba, Takashi

    The fuzzy control law to improve dutch roll characteristics of aircraft was designed and its control performance was evaluated. First, the control law was designed for a small-high speed aircraft at low altitude and low-speed flight conditions. The control law was then applied to flight conditions from minimum speed to supersonic speed and from sea level to high altitude. The control performance for these conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, this control law was adapted to a large transport aircraft with no parameter changes. The evaluation showed good control performance to improve the dutch roll characteristics under all flight conditions for both small high-speed aircraft and large transport aircraft without the parameter changes. This means that the fuzzy control proved to provide effective flexible application to aircraft stability augmentation. If an aircraft in actual flight is in strong air turbulence, inputs to the fuzzy controller may exceed the limit of its effective range. To cope with this problem, the countermeasures were introduced, their methods tested, and their effectiveness proved.

  2. Control and optimal control theories with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Burghes, D N

    2004-01-01

    This sound introduction to classical and modern control theory concentrates on fundamental concepts. Employing the minimum of mathematical elaboration, it investigates the many applications of control theory to varied and important present-day problems, e.g. economic growth, resource depletion, disease epidemics, exploited population, and rocket trajectories. An original feature is the amount of space devoted to the important and fascinating subject of optimal control. The work is divided into two parts. Part one deals with the control of linear time-continuous systems, using both transfer fun

  3. Bifurcation Control, Manufacturing Planning and Formation Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Kang; Mumin Song; Ning Xi

    2005-01-01

    The paper consists of three topics on control theory and engineering applications, namely bifurcation control, manufacturing planning, and formation control. For each topic, we summarize the control problem to be addressed and some key ideas used in our recent research. Interested readers are referred to related publications for more details. Each of the three topics in this paper is technically independent from the other ones. However, all three parts together reflect the recent research activities of the first author, jointly with other researchers in different fields.

  4. Microprocessor control for standardized power control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. G.; Perry, E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of microcomputers in space-oriented power systems as a replacement for existing inflexible analog type controllers has been proposed. This study examines multiprocessor systems, various modularity concepts and presents a conceptualized power system incorporating a multiprocessor controller as well as preliminary results from a breadboard model of the proposed system.

  5. Robust control charts in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazir, H.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust agains

  6. Controlling neuronal noise using chaos control

    CERN Document Server

    Christini, D J; Christini, David J; Collins, James J

    1995-01-01

    Chaos control techniques have been applied to a wide variety of experimental systems, including magneto-elastic ribbons, lasers, chemical reactions, arrhythmic cardiac tissue, and spontaneously bursting neuronal networks. An underlying assumption in all of these studies is that the system being controlled is chaotic. However, the identification of chaos in experimental systems, particularly physiological systems, is a difficult and often misleading task. Here we demonstrate that the chaos criteria used in a recent study can falsely classify a noise-driven, non-chaotic neuronal model as being chaotic. We apply chaos control, periodic pacing, and anticontrol to the non-chaotic model and obtain results which are similar to those reported for apparently chaotic, {\\em in vitro} neuronal networks. We also obtain similar results when we apply chaos control to a simple stochastic system. These novel findings challenge the claim that the aforementioned neuronal networks were chaotic and suggest that chaos control tech...

  7. Applied predictive control

    CERN Document Server

    Sunan, Huang; Heng, Lee Tong

    2002-01-01

    The presence of considerable time delays in the dynamics of many industrial processes, leading to difficult problems in the associated closed-loop control systems, is a well-recognized phenomenon. The performance achievable in conventional feedback control systems can be significantly degraded if an industrial process has a relatively large time delay compared with the dominant time constant. Under these circumstances, advanced predictive control is necessary to improve the performance of the control system significantly. The book is a focused treatment of the subject matter, including the fundamentals and some state-of-the-art developments in the field of predictive control. Three main schemes for advanced predictive control are addressed in this book: • Smith Predictive Control; • Generalised Predictive Control; • a form of predictive control based on Finite Spectrum Assignment. A substantial part of the book addresses application issues in predictive control, providing several interesting case studie...

  8. Control of Bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    are control objectives and the challenges in obtaining good control of the bioreactor. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the bioreactor control problems and to highlight some general traits that distinguish operation of bioprocesses from operation of processes in the conventional chemical process......The purpose of bioprocess control is to ensure that the plant operates as designed. This chapter presents the fundamental principles for control of biochemical processes. Through examples, the selection of manipulated and controlled variables in the classical reactor configurations is discussed, so...... industries. It also provides a number of typical control loops for different objectives. A brief introduction to the general principles of process control, the PID control algorithm is discussed, and the design and effect of tuning are shown in an example. Finally, a discussion of novel, model-free control...

  9. Foundations Of Fuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    as any PID controller. In the nonlinear domain, the stability of four standard control surfaces is analysed by means of describing functions and Nyquist plots. The self-organizing controller (SOC) is shown to be a model reference adaptive controller. There is a possibility that a nonlinear fuzzy PID......The objective of this textbook is to acquire an understanding of the behaviour of fuzzy logic controllers. Under certain conditions a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Using that equivalence as a link, the book applies analysis methods from...... linear and nonlinear control theory. In the linear domain, PID tuning methods and stability analyses are transferred to linear fuzzy controllers. The Nyquist plot shows the robustness of different settings of the fuzzy gain parameters. As a result, a fuzzy controller is guaranteed to perform as well...

  10. Foundations Of Fuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    linear and nonlinear control theory. In the linear domain, PID tuning methods and stability analyses are transferred to linear fuzzy controllers. The Nyquist plot shows the robustness of different settings of the fuzzy gain parameters. As a result, a fuzzy controller is guaranteed to perform as well......The objective of this textbook is to acquire an understanding of the behaviour of fuzzy logic controllers. Under certain conditions a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Using that equivalence as a link, the book applies analysis methods from...... as any PID controller. In the nonlinear domain, the stability of four standard control surfaces is analysed by means of describing functions and Nyquist plots. The self-organizing controller (SOC) is shown to be a model reference adaptive controller. There is a possibility that a nonlinear fuzzy PID...

  11. CONTROLLING AND BUSINESS EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vuko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Managing business successfully in dynamic environment requires effective controlling system. Controlling is the process of defining objectives, planning and management control so that every decision maker can act in accordance with agreed objectives. Controlling function as a separate department contributes business efficiency trough ensuring transparency of business result and business processes. Controlling takes place when manager and controller cooperate. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of controlling function (i.e. controlling department in Croatian companies and to address the specific features of the function that contribute significantly to overall business performance. The research is conducted on the sample of companies listed on the Regulated market of the Zagreb Stock Exchange. Survey is used as a method to collect the data regarding the controlling function, while financial data necessary for the research are extracted from the published financial statements. Results of the research indicate that controlling department has positive effects on the business performance.

  12. Trust and controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka; Zabłocka-Kluczka Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controll...

  13. Arduino based laser control

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Muñoz, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    ARDUINO is a vey usefull platform for prototypes. In this project ARDUINO will be used for controling a Semiconductor Tuneable Laser. [ANGLÈS] Diode laser for communications control based on an Arduino board. Temperature control implementation. Software and hardware protection for the laser implementation. [CASTELLÀ] Control de un láser de comunicaciones ópticas desde el ordenador utilizando una placa Arduino. Implementación de un control de temperatura y protección software y hardware ...

  14. Trust and controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka; Zabłocka-Kluczka Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controll...

  15. Arduino based laser control

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Muñoz, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    ARDUINO is a vey usefull platform for prototypes. In this project ARDUINO will be used for controling a Semiconductor Tuneable Laser. [ANGLÈS] Diode laser for communications control based on an Arduino board. Temperature control implementation. Software and hardware protection for the laser implementation. [CASTELLÀ] Control de un láser de comunicaciones ópticas desde el ordenador utilizando una placa Arduino. Implementación de un control de temperatura y protección software y hardware ...

  16. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described. (LEW)

  17. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  18. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  19. Digital Optical Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David H.; Tipton, Charles A.; Christmann, Charles E.; Hochhausler, Nils P.

    1988-09-01

    We describe the digital optical control system (DOGS), a state-of-the-art controller for electrical feedback in an optical system. The need for a versatile optical controller arose from a number of unique experiments being performed by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. These experiments use similar detectors and actuator-controlled mirrors, but the control requirements vary greatly. The experiments have in common a requirement for parallel control systems. The DOGS satisfies these needs by allowing several control systems to occupy a single chassis with one master controller. The architecture was designed to allow upward compatibility with future configurations. Combinations of off-the-shelf and custom boards are configured to meet the requirements of each experiment. The configuration described here was used to control piston error to X/80 at a wavelength of 0.51 Am. A peak sample rate of 8 kHz, yielding a closed loop bandwidth of 800 Hz, was achieved.

  20. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  1. Step Motor Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangShuochengt; WangDan; QiaoWeimin; JingLan

    2003-01-01

    All kinds of step motors and servomotors are widely used in CSR control system, such as many vacuum valves control that set on the HIRFL-CSR; all kinds of electric switches and knobs of ECR Ion Source; equipment of CSR Beam Diagnostics and a lot of large equipment like Inside Gun Toroid and Collector Toroid of HIRFL. A typical control system include up to 32 16-I/O Control boards, and each 16-I/O Control board can control 4 motors at the same time (including 8 Limit Switches).

  2. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  3. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for...

  4. Guaranteed cost control for networked control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo XIE; Huajing FANG; Ying ZHENG

    2004-01-01

    The guaranteed cost control problem for networked control systems (NCSs) is addressed under communication constraints and varying sampling rate. First of all, a simple information-scheduling scheme is presented to describe the scheduling approach of system signals in NCSs. Then, based on such a scheme and given sampling method, the design procedure in dynamic output feedback manner is also derived which renders the closed loop system to be asymptotically stable and guarantees an upper bound of the LQ performance cost function.

  5. Embedded controllers for local board-control

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, Niko; Mini, Giuseppe; Sannino, Mario; Guzik, Zbigniew; Jacobsson, Richard; Jost, Beat

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has a large number of custom electronic boards performing high-speed data-processing. Like in any large experiment the control and monitoring of these crate-mounted boards must be integrated into the overall control-system. Traditionally this has been done by using buses like VME on the back-plane of the crates. LHCb has chosen to equip every board with an embedded micro-controller and connecting them in a large Local Area Network. The intelligence of these devices allows complex (soft) real-time control and monitoring, required for modern powerful FPGA driven electronics. Moreover each board has its own, isolated control access path, which increases the robustness of the entire system. The system is now in pre-production at several sites and will go into full production during next year. The hardware and software will be discussed and experiences from the R&D and pre-production will be reviewed, with an emphasis on advantages and difficulties of this approach to board-control.

  6. Prevention and Control of Cryptosporidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Address Submit Button What's this? Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention & Control Topics Prevention & Control - General Public Prevention & Control - ...

  7. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  8. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  9. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Error processing SSI file Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When a ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...

  10. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  11. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention Control Topics Six Basic Cholera Prevention Messages I nfection ...

  12. Nutrient Control Seminars

    Science.gov (United States)

    These Nutrient Control Seminars will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These seminars will present ...

  13. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  14. Insensitive control technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, C. A.; Pope, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    THe investigation of two insensitive controller synthesis techniques was reported. The finite dimensional inverse approach produces a time varying insensitive controller and/or parameter identifier by constructing inverse functions derived from a finite number of input output pair relationships. The MD/IM concept relies on the information matrix theory that was developed in the estimation and identification field. The MD/IM synthesis technique is based on the hypothesis that minimizing the information matrix will reduce system identifiability and consequently system sensitivity to uncertain parameters. The controllers designed with both techniques were evaluated on a realistic C-5A aircraft flight control problem. Results indicate that the FDI controller is more suited to trajectory type problems because of its time varying nature. The MD/IM controller performed as well as the top-rated controllers of the initial effort and has direct application to aircraft flight control problems.

  15. Ontology Based Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgü CAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As computer technologies become pervasive, the need for access control mechanisms grow. The purpose of an access control is to limit the operations that a computer system user can perform. Thus, access control ensures to prevent an activity which can lead to a security breach. For the success of Semantic Web, that allows machines to share and reuse the information by using formal semantics for machines to communicate with other machines, access control mechanisms are needed. Access control mechanism indicates certain constraints which must be achieved by the user before performing an operation to provide a secure Semantic Web. In this work, unlike traditional access control mechanisms, an "Ontology Based Access Control" mechanism has been developed by using Semantic Web based policies. In this mechanism, ontologies are used to model the access control knowledge and domain knowledge is used to create policy ontologies.

  16. Controls and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    King, Q

    2015-01-01

    Reliable powering of accelerator magnets requires reliable power converters and controls, able to meet the powering specifications in the long term. In this paper, some of the issues that will challenge a power converter controls engineer are discussed.

  17. Distributed computer control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suski, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the theory, applications and techniques for distributed computer control systems. Contents (partial): Real-time distributed computer control in a flexible manufacturing system. Semantics and implementation problems of channels in a DCCS specification. Broadcast protocols in distributed computer control systems. Design considerations of distributed control architecture for a thermal power plant. The conic toolset for building distributed systems. Network management issues in distributed control systems. Interprocessor communication system architecture in a distributed control system environment. Uni-level homogenous distributed computer control system and optimal system design. A-nets for DCCS design. A methodology for the specification and design of fault tolerant real time systems. An integrated computer control system - architecture design, engineering methodology and practical experience.

  18. SETI data controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosline, R. M.

    1988-02-01

    Three data controllers developed for the SETI project are described. Two are used primarily for recording and playback of SETI data from the Radio Science Surveillance System (RSSS). The third is used as a SETI station controller for DSS 13.

  19. Vacuum controls and interlocks

    CERN Document Server

    Strubin, P

    2007-01-01

    The vacuum control system is, in most cases, a subset of the general control system of an accelerator. As such, it shares the architecture and communication infrastructure of the main control system. Considered as a ‘slow process’ to control in the frame of accelerators, the vacuum control system can be built using commercial industrial controllers (PLCs). A data driven approach allows for changes in configuration without changing the software code but at the expense of a solid database. Modelling the equipment allows for easy adaptation of a variety of control units with the same functionality but different physical interfaces. It also allows for a uniform display of the available data and status values. Interlocks are required to protect the vacuum equipment itself against abnormal conditions, but also to protect other systems, like RF, which need a good vacuum to operate. They are an integral part of any vacuum control system.

  20. Fuzzy Control Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotoli, M.; Jantzen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The tutorial concerns automatic control of an inverted pendulum, especially rule based control by means of fuzzy logic. A ball balancer, implemented in a software simulator in Matlab, is used as a practical case study. The objectives of the tutorial are to teach the basics of fuzzy control......, and to show how to apply fuzzy logic in automatic control. The tutorial is distance learning, where students interact one-to-one with the teacher using e-mail....

  1. GPS Control Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Luke J. Schaub Chief, GPS Control Segment Division 29 Apr 15 GPS Control Segment Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GPS Control Segment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Center, GPS Control Segment Division,Los Angeles AFB, El Segundo,CA,90245 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S

  2. Fuzzy Control Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotoli, M.; Jantzen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The tutorial concerns automatic control of an inverted pendulum, especially rule based control by means of fuzzy logic. A ball balancer, implemented in a software simulator in Matlab, is used as a practical case study. The objectives of the tutorial are to teach the basics of fuzzy control, and t......, and to show how to apply fuzzy logic in automatic control. The tutorial is distance learning, where students interact one-to-one with the teacher using e-mail....

  3. DSP controlled power converter

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CH; Pong, MH

    1995-01-01

    A digital controller is designed and implemented by a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to replace the Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) and error amplifier compensation network in a two wheeler forward converter. The DSP controller is designed in three approaches: a) Discretization of analog controller - the design is based on the transfer function of the error amplifier compensation network. b) Digital PID controller design - the design is based on the general form of the pulse transfer function of ...

  4. Design of Fuzzy Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Design of a fuzzy controller requires more design decisions than usual, for example regarding rule base, inference engine, defuzzification, and data pre- and post processing. This tutorial paper identifies and describes the design choices related to single-loop fuzzy control, based...... on an international standard which is underway. The paper contains also a design approach, which uses a PID controller as a starting point. A design engineer can view the paper as an introduction to fuzzy controller design....

  5. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Tang-Jensen, Morten Hove

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control lacks an analytical focus on anti-corruption in practice. We examine corruption control at the micro-level as exemplified by the use of anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm. Building on concepts from studies of the cultural economy, anti...... control work. By providing also an extended view on the operations of due diligence in the wider corruption control regime the paper problematizes clear-cut distinctions and categories used in established literatures....

  6. Robust Self Tuning Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay....

  7. System for controlling apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F

    2015-05-05

    An implanted stimulation device or air control device are activated by an external radar-like sensor for controlling apnea. The radar-like sensor senses the closure of the air flow cavity, and associated control circuitry signals (1) a stimulator to cause muscles to open the air passage way that is closing or closed or (2) an air control device to open the air passage way that is closing or closed.

  8. Numerical methods in control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrmann, Volker; Xu, Hongguo

    2000-11-01

    We study classical control problems like pole assignment, stabilization, linear quadratic control and H[infinity] control from a numerical analysis point of view. We present several examples that show the difficulties with classical approaches and suggest reformulations of the problems in a more general framework. We also discuss some new algorithmic approaches.

  9. Optimal magnetic attitude control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Markley, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    because control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic...

  10. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  11. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A What's in this ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  12. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A What's in this ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  13. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  14. Controllability of Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schirmer, S G; Solomon, A I

    2003-01-01

    An overview and synthesis of results and criteria for open-loop controllability of Hamiltonian quantum systems obtained using Lie group and Lie algebra techniques is presented. Negative results for open-loop controllability of dissipative systems are discussed, and the superiority of closed-loop (feedback) control for quantum systems is established.

  15. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the NICHD Staff Directory Skip sharing on social media links Rollup Image Home > Health & Research > A-Z Topics > Contraception and Birth Control > About Page Content ​About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to ...

  16. Switching Between Multivariable Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, H.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Abrahamsen, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    A concept for implementation of multivariable controllers is presented in this paper. The concept is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. By using this architecture for implementation of multivariable controllers, it is shown how...

  17. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring Print A A A What's in ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...

  18. Distributed Power Flow Controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Z.

    2010-01-01

    In modern power systems, there is a great demand to control the power flow actively. Power flow controlling devices (PFCDs) are required for such purpose, because the power flow over the lines is the nature result of the impedance of each line. Due to the control capabilities of different types of P

  19. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  20. Controlling a leaky tap

    CERN Document Server

    Ilarraza-Lomelí, A C; Salas-Brito, A L; Ilarraza-Lomelí, Aquiles

    1999-01-01

    We apply the Ott, Grebogy and Yorke mechanism for the control of chaos to the analytical oscillator model of a leaky tap obtaining good results. We exhibit the robustness of the control against both dynamical noise and measurement noise.A possible way of controlling experimentally a leaky tap using magnetic-field-produced variations in the viscosity of a magnetorheological fluid is suggested.

  1. Informal Control code logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, Jan A

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  2. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...

  3. Distributed Power Flow Controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Z.

    2010-01-01

    In modern power systems, there is a great demand to control the power flow actively. Power flow controlling devices (PFCDs) are required for such purpose, because the power flow over the lines is the nature result of the impedance of each line. Due to the control capabilities of different types of P

  4. Switching Between Multivariable Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Abrahamsen, Rune

    2004-01-01

    it is possible to smoothly switch between multivariable controllers with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This includes also the case where one or more controllers are unstable. The concept for smooth online changes of multivariable controllers based on the YJBK architecture can also handle the start up...

  5. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch A A A What's in this article? ... Much Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  6. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill A A A What's in this article? ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  7. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring A A A What's in this article? ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  8. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot A A A What's in this article? ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  9. Power oscillation damping controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...

  10. Intelligent Distributed Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Transactions on Automatic Control , 2012. in preparation. [19] C. Yu, B. D. O. Anderson, and A. S. Morse. Gossiping periodically. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , 2011...Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, 2011. submitted. [18] J. Liu and A. S. Morse. Distributed averaging via double linear iterations. IEEE

  11. Feedback control of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    This thesis is concerned with the development an application of feedback control techniques for active sound control. Both fixed and adaptive controllers are considered. The controller design problem for active sound control is formulated as a constrained optimisation problem with an H2 performance objective, of minimising the variance of the control error, and H2 and H∞ design constraints involving control power output, disturbance enhancement, and robust stability. An Internal Model Controller with an FIR control filter is assumed. Conventional H2 design methods for feedback controllers are studied first. Although such controllers can satisfy the design constraints by employing effort terms in the quadratic cost function, they do not achieve the best possible performance, and when adapted using LMS-based algorithms, they suffer from instabilities if the plant response varies significantly. Improved H2/H∞ design methods for fixed and adaptive controllers are then developed, which achieve the best H2 performance under the design constraints, offer an improved stability when made adaptive, and in general outperform the conventional H2 controllers. The H2/H∞ design problems employ convex programming to ensure a unique solution. The Sequential Quadratic Programming methods is used for the off-line design of fixed controllers, and penalty and barrier function methods, together with frequency domain LMS-based algorithms are employed in the H2/H∞ adaptive controllers. The controllers studied and developed here were applied to three active sound control systems: a noise-reducing headset, an active headrest, and a sound radiating panel. The emphasis was put on developing control strategies that improve system performance. First, a high performance controller for the noise-reducing headset was implemented in real-time, which combines analogue and adaptive digital controllers, and can thus reject disturbances which has both broad-band and periodic components. Then

  12. Control of wastewater using multivariate control chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Jaka; Fatimah, Is; Prabowo, Rino Galang

    2017-03-01

    Wastewater treatment is a crucial process in industry cause untreated or improper treatment of wastewater may leads some problems affecting to the other parts of environmental aspects. For many kinds of wastewater treatments, the parameters of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and the Total Suspend Solid (TSS) are usual parameters to be controlled as a standard. In this paper, the application of multivariate Hotteling T2 Individual was reported to control wastewater treatment. By using wastewater treatment data from PT. ICBP, east Java branch, while the fulfillment of quality standards are based on East Java Governor Regulation No. 72 Year 2013 on Standards of Quality of Waste Water Industry and / or Other Business Activities. The obtained results are COD and TSS has a correlation with BOD values with the correlation coefficient higher than 50%, and it is is also found that influence of the COD and TSS to BOD values are 82% and 1.9% respectively. Based on Multivariate control chart Individual T2 Hotteling, it is found that BOD-COD and BOD-TSS are each one subgroup that are outside the control limits. Thus, it can be said there is a process that is not multivariate controlled, but univariately the variables of BOD, COD and TSS are within specification (standard quality) that has been determined.

  13. Approximate controllability of distributed systems by distributed controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzion Shklyar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximate controllability problem for a linear distributed control system with possibly unbounded input operator, connected in a series to another distributed system without control is investigated. An initial state of the second distributed system is considered as a control parameter. Applications to control partial equations governed by hyperbolic controller, and to control delay systems governed by hereditary controller are considered.

  14. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  15. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  16. Induction motor control design

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Riccardo; Verrelli, Cristiano M

    2010-01-01

    ""Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design for Induction Motors"" is a unified exposition of the most important steps and concerns in the design of estimation and control algorithms for induction motors. A single notation and modern nonlinear control terminology is used to make the book accessible to readers who are not experts in electric motors at the same time as giving a more theoretical control viewpoint to those who are. In order to increase readability, the book concentrates on the induction motor, eschewing the much more complex and less-well-understood control of asynchronous motors. The

  17. Control and optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinsheng, Lou

    2013-02-12

    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  18. Internet congestion control

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Subir

    2015-01-01

    Internet Congestion Control provides a description of some of the most important topics in the area of congestion control in computer networks, with special emphasis on the analytical modeling of congestion control algorithms. The field of congestion control has seen many notable advances in recent years and the purpose of this book, which is targeted towards the advanced and intermediate reader, is to inform about the most important developments in this area. The book should enable the reader to gain a good understanding of the application of congestion control theory to a number of applic

  19. Customs control of goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentor Gashi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Customs control, is regulated by law in different countries. Different countries define through the law, the control of goods.. Main purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of customs controls, and their effect in reducing avoidance of duty or tax evasion which may be caused by the import of goods of certain companies. For this reason we researched which model is implemented in developing countries and what results were reached through questionnaires. In this sense the next research question, consists in defining the moment of customs control pre or post-clearance control of goods.

  20. Controlling the intelligent building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Companies will be able to locate in intelligent buildings that offer access to a variety of sophisticated communications equipment, at the heart of which are building controls that ensure a comfortable and safe working environment for the occupants. Future buildings will include advanced telephones or workstations with built-in building control sensors for temperature, light level, and security. Advanced telecommunication systems may have telephone cabinets with built-in control functions which eliminate the need for discrete control systems. The owners and tenants will both enjoy benefits if the controls are carefully selected and designed so that they integrate into a single building package.

  1. Integration of Fire Control, Flight Control and Propulsion Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    system, the answer was by a comprehensive programme of simulation and rig testing. ix In the only paper in the programme deailing with systems for civil ...be used otherwise. At one time there was an explosive growth in the application of automatic flight control to civil transport aircraft, culminating in...nombre at l’ampleur des 6quipesenta de maintenance extgrieurs a lavion, 11 faut s’efforcer I ce qua 1. mayan privil~gif pareattant lea 6changss

  2. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

    2011-01-04

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

  3. Control, salud y bienestar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas-Auvert, Jesús A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En resumen, a pesar de que en algunas circunstancias, la exagerada percepción o necesidad de control es contraproducente para la adaptación y crecimiento psicológico, la aceptación general es que, al menos en grado moderado, el control percibido y control real son beneficios para las personas y un recurso valioso para enfrentar las dificultades en la vida. Por ello, las personas, grupos y naciones buscan sentirse dueñas de sus destinos y no víctimas de las circunstancias. Las personas y los pueblos con control son las que moldean y transforman las circunstacias, los que construyen un futuro mejor. Por ello, con objetivos preventivos y remediativos, los profesionales de la salud mental debemos promover el desarrollo y optimizacion de un control moderado y flexible como nutriente del crecimiento psicológico y bienestar biopsicosocial individual y colectivo. El trabajo aborda el significado del control, el desarrollo del control real y percibido, la relación entre control, salud y enfermedad, control, bienestar y psicopatología, la renuncia a los intentos de control, y control y terapia cognitivo-conductual.

  4. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  5. Trust and controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controlling and the teamwork in controlling were described. The role of controlling in process of trust-building to an organisation was presented. Establishing relations with the environment and systems of measurement of organisation’s achievements were presented, too.

  6. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  7. Controlling chaos faster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Christian [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience (BCCN), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Mathematics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); Kolodziejski, Christoph [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); III. Physical Institute—Biophysics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Timme, Marc [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Nonlinear Dynamics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period.

  8. Standards of resuscitation during inter-hospital transportation: the effects of structured team briefing or guideline review - A randomised, controlled simulation study of two micro-interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Erika F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Junior physicians are sometimes sent in ambulances with critically ill patients who require urgent transfer to another hospital. Unfamiliar surroundings and personnel, time pressure, and lack of experience may imply a risk of insufficient treatment during transportation as this can cause the physician to loose the expected overview of the situation. While health care professionals are expected to follow complex algorithms when resuscitating, stress can compromise both solo-performance and teamwork. Aim To examine whether inter-hospital resuscitation improved with a structured team briefing between physician and ambulance crew in preparation for transfer vs. review of resuscitation guidelines. The effect parameters were physician team leadership (requesting help, delegating tasks, time to resuscitation key elements (chest compressions, defibrillation, ventilations, medication, or a combination of these termed "the first meaningful action", and hands-off ratio. Methods Participants: 46 physicians graduated within 5 years. Design: A simulation intervention study with a control group and two interventions (structured team briefing or review of guidelines. Scenario: Cardiac arrest during simulated inter-hospital transfer. Results Forty-six candidates participated: 16 (control, 13 (review, and 17 (team briefing. Reviewing guidelines delayed requesting help to 162 seconds, compared to 21 seconds in control and team briefing groups (p = 0.021. Help was not requested in 15% of cases; never requesting help was associated with an increased hands-off ratio, from 39% if the driver's assistance was requested to 54% if not (p Conclusion Neither review nor team briefing improved the time to resuscitation key elements. Review led to an eight-fold increase in the delay to requesting help. The association between never requesting help and an increased hands-off ratio underpins the importance of prioritising available resources. Other medical

  9. Cost of dengue and other febrile illnesses to households in rural Cambodia: a prospective community-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis Harold S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The average annual reported dengue incidence in Cambodia is 3.3/1,000 among children Methods In 2006, active fever surveillance was conducted among a cohort of 6,694 children aged ≤ 15 years in 16 villages in Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Subsequently, a case-control study was performed by individually assigning one non-dengue febrile control from the cohort to each laboratory-confirmed dengue case. Parents of cases and controls were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to determine household-level, illness-related expenditures for medical and non-medical costs, and estimated income loss (see Additional file 1. The household socio-economic status was determined and its possible association with health seeking behaviour and the ability to pay for the costs of a febrile illness. Additional File 1 2006 cost study survey questionnaire, Cambodia. the questionnaire represents the data collection instrument that was developed and used during the present study. Click here for file Results Between September and November 2006, a total of 60 household heads were interviewed: 30 with dengue-positive and 30 with dengue-negative febrile children. Mean total dengue-related costs did not differ from those of other febrile illnesses (31.5 vs. 27.2 US$, p = 0.44. Hospitalization almost tripled the costs of dengue (from 14.3 to 40.1 US$ and doubled the costs of other febrile illnesses (from 17.0 to 36.2 US$. To finance the cost of a febrile illness, 67% of households incurred an average debt of 23.5 US$ and higher debt was associated with hospitalization compared to outpatient treatment (US$ 23.1 vs. US$ 4.5, p Conclusion In Cambodia, dengue and other febrile illnesses pose a financial burden to households. A possible reason for a lower rate of hospitalization among children from poor households could be the burden of higher illness-related costs and debts.

  10. A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for men who have hot flushes following prostate cancer treatment (MANCAN: trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Omar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a guided self-help cognitive behavioural intervention to alleviate problematic hot flushes (HF and night sweats (NS in men who are undergoing prostate cancer treatment. The trial and the self-help materials have been adapted from a previous RCT, which showed that a cognitive behavioural intervention reduced the self-reported problem-rating of hot flushes in women with menopausal symptoms, and in women undergoing breast cancer treatment. We hypothesize that guided self-help will be more effective than usual care in reducing HF/NS problem-rating at post treatment assessment. Methods/Design Seventy men who are undergoing treatment for prostate cancer and who have been experiencing more than ten HF/NS weekly for over a month are recruited into the trial from urology clinics in London. They are randomly allocated to either a four-week self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT treatment or to their usual care (control group. The treatment includes information and discussion about hot flushes and night sweats in the context of prostate cancer, monitoring and modifying precipitants, relaxation and paced respiration, stress management, cognitive therapy for unhelpful thoughts and beliefs, managing sleep and night sweats, and advice on maintaining these changes. Prior to randomisation, men attend a clinical interview, undergo 24-48-hour sternal skin conductance monitoring, and complete pre-treatment questionnaires (e.g., problem-rating and frequency of hot flushes and night sweats; quality of life; mood; hot flush beliefs and behaviours. Post-treatment measures (sternal skin conductance and the above questionnaires are collected four-six weeks later, and again at a six-month follow-up. Discussion MANCAN is the first randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for HF/NS for men that measures both self-reported and physiologically indexed

  11. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.

  12. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    healthy subjects (32 +/- 7 years) served as controls. Immediate heart-rate responses to a single deep inspiration was used as a measure of parasympathetic function. Heart-rate response to standing was used as a measure of sympathetic function. Supine blood pressure, heart-rate and orthostatic changes...... in blood pressure did not differ between groups. Heart-rate response to standing was greater in both medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.01). Heart-rate response to standing was greater in non-medicated compared to medicated schizophrenics (P less than 0.......05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...

  13. Robust Control Design for Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    to achieve desired performance over the full flight envelope when linear feedback is employed. Exact linearization methods [48] provide means for...designing nonlinear feedback laws which satisfy these requirements. However, exact linearization is not always compatible with control authority...specific situations. The most promising approaches appear to be those associated with methods of exact linearization . This procedure is based on some

  14. Price control and macromarketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kancir Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Price control at macro level is part of integral macro marketing strategic control system, or more precisely, part of social marketing mix control. Price impact is direct, if it is regarded in the context of needs satisfaction, and indirect, within the context of resource allocation. These two patterns of price impact define control mechanism structuring. Price control in sense of its direct impact at process of need satisfaction should comprise qualitative and quantitative level of needs satisfaction at a given price level and its structure, informational dimension of price and different disputable forms of corporate pricing policies. Control of price allocation function is based at objectives of macro marketing system management in the area of resource allocation and the role of price as allocator in contemporary market economies. Control process is founded, on one hand, at theoretical models of correlation between price and demand in different market structures, and on the other hand, at complex limits that price as allocator has, and which make whole control process even more complex because of reduction of the degree of determinism in functioning of contemporary economic systems. Control of price allocation function must be continuous and dynamic process if it is to provide for convergence with environmental changes and if it is to provide for placing control systems at micro marketing levels in the function of socially valid objectives.

  15. MULTIPLE OSCILLATION STABILIZING CONTROL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YUE,M.; SCHLUETER,R.; AZARM,M.; BARI,R.

    2004-07-23

    This paper presents a strategy that may be used to guide stabilizing control design for multiple oscillations, which are difficult to control using conventional control design procedures. A multiple oscillation phenomena is observed in an example power system. A local bifurcation and an interarea bifurcation develop in an example power system due to multiple bifurcation parameter variations. The dynamic behaviors of the bifurcating system are complex due to the overlapping of the two different bifurcation subsystems and are shown to be difficult to control. The double bifurcations are studied in this paper and in order to stabilize them, three kind of {mu}-synthesis robust controls are designed, (a) {mu}-synthesis power system stabilizer (MPSS); (b) {mu}-synthesis SVC control (MSVC); and (c) a mixed MPSS/MSVC control. Based on the bifurcation subsystem analysis, the measurement signals and locations of the controls are selected. The control performances of three kind of controls are evaluated and compared. The conclusions are given according to the analysis and time simulation results.

  16. Debt Out of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Anja; Hubert, Marco; Kenning, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a representative sample of the German population (n = 946), we explored the links between self-control, compulsive buying, and debts. Participants completed the self-control scale (Tangney, Boone, & Baumeister, 2004) and the German Addictive Buying Scale (Raab, Neuner, Reisch, & Scherhorn, 2005......). Additionally, they gave information about their real debts. It was observed that self-control was negatively related to debts while compulsive buying was positively related to debts. Detailed analyses revealed that the link between self-control and debts was fully mediated by compulsive buying. Finally......, there was a gender effect on compulsive buying: women were more prone to compulsive buying than men. Age also was significantly negatively related to compulsive buying and positively linked to self-control. Household income was not linked to self-control, compulsive buying, and debts. Implications for practice...

  17. Control in Complex Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennstam, Jens; Kärreman, Dan

    The extant research on organizational control builds on the assumption of vertical control – managers are thought to develop orders, rules and norms to control the operating core. Yet it is claimed that work becomes increasingly “knowledge intensive” and that organizations rely heavily...... for their productivity on the knowledge and creativity of their work force. In this type of “knowledge work,” the strong focus on vertical control is insufficient as it fails to account for the important operative and horizontal interactions upon which many contemporary organizations depend. Drawing on practice theory...... and an ethnographic study of engineering work, this paper theorizes control as a form of work that does not only belong to formal management, but is dispersed among various work activities, including horizontal ones. The article introduces the idea of control work as a key practice in contemporary organizations...

  18. Tautological control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a description of a new modelling framework for nonlinear/geometric control theory. The framework is intended to be—and shown to be—feedback-invariant. As such, Tautological Control Systems provides a platform for understanding fundamental structural problems in geometric control theory. Part of the novelty of the text stems from the variety of regularity classes, e.g., Lipschitz, finitely differentiable, smooth, real analytic, with which it deals in a comprehensive and unified manner. The treatment of the important real analytic class especially reflects recent work on real analytic topologies by the author. Applied mathematicians interested in nonlinear and geometric control theory will find this brief of interest as a starting point for work in which feedback invariance is important. Graduate students working in control theory may also find Tautological Control Systems to be a stimulating starting point for their research.

  19. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  20. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  1. Discrete Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Taeyoung; McClamroch, N Harris

    2007-01-01

    Discrete control systems, as considered here, refer to the control theory of discrete-time Lagrangian or Hamiltonian systems. These discrete-time models are based on a discrete variational principle, and are part of the broader field of geometric integration. Geometric integrators are numerical integration methods that preserve geometric properties of continuous systems, such as conservation of the symplectic form, momentum, and energy. They also guarantee that the discrete flow remains on the manifold on which the continuous system evolves, an important property in the case of rigid-body dynamics. In nonlinear control, one typically relies on differential geometric and dynamical systems techniques to prove properties such as stability, controllability, and optimality. More generally, the geometric structure of such systems plays a critical role in the nonlinear analysis of the corresponding control problems. Despite the critical role of geometry and mechanics in the analysis of nonlinear control systems, non...

  2. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust...... and control in organizations. The paper examines recent literature on the conceptualization of the relation between trust and control in and between organizations. The literature review shows that trust and control has been conceptualized as either substituting or complementing each other. Further......, it is found that the complementary/substitution debate calls for an explicit conceptualization of the relation between trust and control as an interactive process, in contrast to earlier conceptualizations of trust and control as two relatively static and isolated concepts. While the static perspective...

  3. [Controlling in clinical management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, K; Ellinger, K

    1999-02-01

    Managers of industrial enterprises strive continually to improve the efficiency of production, distribution and service for their customers in order to be able to compete on the market. In socially orientated non-profit-organisations this is not universe practice. Relating to section 17 Abs. 1 KHG and section 13 BPfIV of German social legislation hospital charges are refunded only, if the hospital is working efficiently and economically. Controlling is a tool to achieve these goals. Controlling coordinates the flow of information for planning and evaluation. Strategic and operative controlling are closely interrelated: Strategic controlling is directed towards new and promising activities, operative controlling supports decision--making--including future-oriented aspects-by providing and condensing information. Controlling is definitely not intended to dictate or "command" any action. Its object is to serve as an instrument or tool supporting result-oriented planning, regulating and evaluation.

  4. Quality Control Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2013-01-01

    Quality control is a constant priority in electrical, mechanical, aeronautical, and nuclear engineering – as well as in the vast domain of electronics, from home appliances to computers and telecommunications. Quality Control Applications provides guidance and valuable insight into quality control policies; their methods, their implementation, constant observation and associated technical audits. What has previously been a mostly mathematical topic is translated here for engineers concerned with the practical implementation of quality control. Once the fundamentals of quality control are established, Quality Control Applications goes on to develop this knowledge and explain how to apply it in the most effective way. Techniques are described and supported using relevant, real-life, case studies to provide detail and clarity for those without a mathematical background. Among the many practical examples, two case studies dramatize the importance of quality assurance: A shot-by-shot analysis of the errors made ...

  5. Research on Dual Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Li; Fucai Qian; Peilin Fu

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent progress by the authors in developing two solution frameworks for dual control. The first solution framework considers a class of dual control problems where there exists a parameter uncertainty in the observation equation of the LQG problem. An analytical active dual control law is derived by a variance minimization approach. The issue of how to determine an optimal degree of active learning is then addressed, thus achieving an optimality for this class of dual control problems. The second solution framework considers a general class of discrete-time LQG problems with unknown parameters in both state and observation equations. The best possible (partial) closed-loop feedback control law is derived by exploring the future nominal posterior probabilities, thus taking into account the effect of future learning when constructing the optimal nominal dual control.

  6. Debt Out of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Anja; Hubert, Marco; Kenning, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a representative sample of the German population (n = 946), we explored the links between self-control, compulsive buying, and debts. Participants completed the self-control scale (Tangney, Boone, & Baumeister, 2004) and the German Addictive Buying Scale (Raab, Neuner, Reisch, & Scherhorn, 2005......). Additionally, they gave information about their real debts. It was observed that self-control was negatively related to debts while compulsive buying was positively related to debts. Detailed analyses revealed that the link between self-control and debts was fully mediated by compulsive buying. Finally......, there was a gender effect on compulsive buying: women were more prone to compulsive buying than men. Age also was significantly negatively related to compulsive buying and positively linked to self-control. Household income was not linked to self-control, compulsive buying, and debts. Implications for practice...

  7. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  8. Microprocessor controlled static converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Szabo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to demonstrate a way of implementing a microcontroller into an DC motor speed control loop. The static power converter is a fully controlled rectifier bridge, using standard SCR's. The bridge's control signals are supplied by the microcontroller and are phase-angle or burst types. The automation loop contains a software PI-style regulator. All the experimental results shows that this aproach is flexibile enough to be used on a large scale.

  9. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    elements like core bibliographic data, controlled vocabulary terms, reviews, and tags to the retrieval performance. Our comparison is done using a test collection of over 2 million book records with information elements from Amazon, the British Library, the Library of Congress, and LibraryThing. We find...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  10. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  11. Optimal Linear Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    with Uncertain Components 44 13 Component Uncertainty Representation of Uncertain Pole-Zero Locations 46 12 A Feedback Control System 60 i 1 I vii €in...OF FEEDBACK SYSTEM ROBUSTNESS A feedback control system design is said to be robust if it is able to meet design specifications despite differences... feedback control system design problems, the design specifications usually demand that the system be "robust" against the effects of deviations within

  12. Key to Network Controllability

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Roy, Soumen

    2012-01-01

    Liu et al recently proposed a minimum number of driver nodes needed to obtain full structural controllability over a directed network. Driver nodes are unmatched nodes, from which there are directed paths to all matched nodes. Their most important assertion is that a system's controllability is to a great extent encoded by the underlying network's degree distribution, $P(k_{in}, k_{out})$. Is the controllability of a network decided almost completely by the immediate neighbourhood of a node, ...

  13. Intelligent PID controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Fliess, Michel; Join, Cédric

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Intelligent PID controllers, or i-PID controllers, are PID controllers where the unknown parts of the plant, which might be highly nonlinear and/or time-varying, are taken into account without any modeling procedure. Our main tool is an online numerical differentiator, which is based on easily implementable fast estimation and identification techniques. Several numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency of our method when compared to more classic PID regulators.

  14. Customs control of goods

    OpenAIRE

    Mentor Gashi; Ramadan Gashi

    2015-01-01

    Customs control, is regulated by law in different countries. Different countries define through the law, the control of goods.. Main purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of customs controls, and their effect in reducing avoidance of duty or tax evasion which may be caused by the import of goods of certain companies. For this reason we researched which model is implemented in developing countries and what results were reached through questionnaires. In this sense the next research que...

  15. Controls for unstable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Oliver; Hogg, Tad; Huberman, Bernardo A.

    1997-06-01

    We study the behavior of several organizations for a market based distributed control of unstable physical systems and show how a hierarchical organization is a reasonable compromise between rapid local responses with simple communication and the use of global knowledge. We also introduce a new control organization, the multihierarchy, and show that is uses less power than a hierarchy in achieving stability. The multihierarchy also has a position invariant response that can control disturbances at the appropriate scale and location.

  16. Computer aided manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  17. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  18. Nonlinear Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , AC- 48, pp. 1712-1723, (2003). [14] C.I. Byrnes, A. Isidori...Nonlinear internal models for output regulation,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , AC-49, pp. 2244-2247, (2004). [15] C.I. Byrnes, F. Celani, A...approach,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , 48 (Dec. 2003), 2172–2190. 2. C. I. Byrnes, “Differential Forms and Dynamical Systems,” to appear

  19. Modular Battery Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  20. Detonation command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2015-11-10

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  1. The ISOLDE control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, I.; Pace, A.

    1994-12-01

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained.

  2. Control functions in MFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) has been proposed as a tool for representing goals and functions of complex industrial plants and suggested as a basis for reasoning about control situations. Lind presents an introduction to MFM but do not describe how control functions are used in the modeling....... The purpose of the present paper is to serve as a companion paper to this introduction by explaining the basic principles used in MFM for representation of control functions. A theoretical foundation for modeling control functions is presented and modeling examples are given for illustration....

  3. Advanced Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun

    1999-01-01

    This book is developed as a textbook for the course Advanced Control Engineering. The book is intended for students in mechanical engineering and its aim is to provide an understanding of modern control theory as well as methodologies and applications for state space modeling and design....... For this reason, the book puts emphasis on the state-space approach. The main contents of the book includes state-space representation of dynamic systems, analysis of linear control systems, feedback control and observer design. Both continuous-time and discrete-time systems have been addressed in this book....

  4. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  5. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  6. Device Oriented Project Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  7. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  8. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  9. Mechatronics control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-15

    This book consists six chapters, which are an assembler grammar and practical use on Z801 8041/8048 and kind of assemblers and how to use, control of a microprocessor and mechatro with application of 8255, interface circuit and direction of DA converter, control of stepping motor such as introduction of it, sequence switch, drive program of stepping motor, control for DC motor such as normal rotation and abnormal rotation operation of DC motor by personal computer, control AC motor like PWM inverter and data communication among systems such as RS-232C and INTEL-HEXA format program.

  10. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  11. Intelligent networked teleoperation control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a unified framework for networked teleoperation systems involving multiple research fields: networked control systems for linear and nonlinear forms, bilateral teleoperation, trilateral teleoperation, multilateral teleoperation and cooperative teleoperation. It closely examines networked control as a field at the intersection of systems & control and robotics and presents a number of experimental case studies on testbeds for robotic systems, including networked haptic devices, robotic network systems and sensor network systems. The concepts and results outlined are easy to understand, even for readers fairly new to the subject. As such, the book offers a valuable reference work for researchers and engineers in the fields of systems & control and robotics.

  12. Quantum controlled fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Eduardo; Gruebele, Martin; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2017-09-01

    Quantum-controlled motion of nuclei, starting from the nanometer-size ground state of a molecule, can potentially overcome some of the difficulties of thermonuclear fusion by compression of a fuel pellet or in a bulk plasma. Coherent laser control can manipulate nuclear motion precisely, achieving large phase space densities for the colliding nuclei. We combine quantum wavepacket propagation of D and T nuclei in a field-bound molecule with coherent control by a shaped laser pulse to demonstrate enhancement of nuclear collision rates. Atom-smashers powered by coherent control may become laboratory sources of particle bursts, and even assist muonic fusion.

  13. Detonation command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-31

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link there between. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  14. Optimal control computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, F.

    1992-01-01

    The solution of the optimal control problem, even with low order dynamical systems, can usually strain the analytical ability of most engineers. The understanding of this subject matter, therefore, would be greatly enhanced if a software package existed that could simulate simple generic problems. Surprisingly, despite a great abundance of commercially available control software, few, if any, address the part of optimal control in its most generic form. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to present a simple computer program that will perform simulations of optimal control problems that arise from the first necessary condition and the Pontryagin's maximum principle.

  15. Control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nise, Norman S

    1995-01-01

    This completely updated new edition shows how to use MATLAB to perform control-system calculations. Designed for the professional or engineering student who needs a quick and readable update on designing control systems, the text features a series of tightly focused examples that clearly illustrate each concept of designing control systems. Most chapters conclude with a detailed application from the two case studies that run throughout the book: an antenna asimuth control system and a submarine. The author also refers to many examples of design methods.

  16. The command control; Le controle commande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billet, A.; Hilsenkopf, Ph.; Malry, Y. [Areva NP, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-09-15

    The present article has for aim to detail the stakes of the nuclear rebirth which the command-control faces: to master the technological evolutions, to bring a strong response to the problematics of qualification and reliability more sensitive by the passage to numerical and to answer the needs of renovation of existing nuclear power plants. The Areva reply to these stakes is specified. (N.C.)

  17. Control of robot dynamics using acceleration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, G. L.; Prateru, S.; Li, W.; Hinman, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    Acceleration control of robotic devices can provide improvements to many space-based operations using flexible manipulators and to ground-based operations requiring better precision and efficiency than current industrial robots can provide. This paper reports on a preliminary study of acceleration measurement on robotic motion during parabolic flights on the NASA KC-135 and a parallel study of accelerations with and without gravity arising from computer simulated motions using TREETOPS software.

  18. HVAC controls: Operation and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupton, G.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The introductory chapters review HVAC system processes and equipment, control system types and equipment, and equipment-to-control interactions. The succeeding chapters cover specific control systems functions, including electrical interlock and motor starting, electrical and electronic control system diagrams, pneumatic control system diagrams, air supply to pneumatic control systems, and control system maintenance.

  19. IBM 3705 Communications Controller

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The IBM 3705 Communications Controller is a simple computer which attaches to an IBM System/360 or System/370. Its purpose is to connect communication lines to the mainframe channel. It was a first communications controller of the popular IBM 37xx series.

  20. Coalgebra, concurrency and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCoalgebra is used to generalize notions and techniques from concurrency theory, in order to apply them to problems concerning the supervisory control of discrete event systems. The main ingredients of this approach are the characterization of controllability in terms of (a variant of)

  1. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-21

    Mecanica de Vuelo, Intersoft- ware Fagor Electronica , Phier, Standard Entel, G. Mecanica de Vuelo, Intersoft- ware Entel, G. Mecanica de Vuelo...Intersoft- ware, Logic Control Control y Aplicaciones, Dielsa, Eliop, EISA, Sainco CTNE, Fagor Electronica , Standard CTNE, Fagor Electronica , Piher...requirement has provoked a large-scale malaise in the Spanish electronics and data processing sector. The specialized magazine ACTUALIDAD ELECTRONICA

  2. Emerging Engine Control Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Chevalier, Alain

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work published by the author and co-authors, a dynamic model called a Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) was developed. This model is physically based and is intended mainly for control applications. It is especially well suited to embedded model applications in engine controllers, susch...

  3. Statistical Engine Knock Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotsky, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    A new statistical concept of the knock control of a spark ignition automotive engine is proposed . The control aim is associated with the statistical hy pothesis test which compares the threshold value to the average value of the max imal amplitud e of the knock sensor signal at a given freq uency...

  4. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-06-01

    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  5. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Hove Henriksen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control has put much emphasis on analyzing the surge of anti-corruption legislations, principles and regulatory modes at the macro level. This paper examines the micro practice of corruption control, as exemplified by the deployment of due diligence in corpo...

  6. Fast growth in control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Rico (Zulay)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe focus of this paper is on the influence of the fast growth of organizations on the design process of management control systems. What are the management accounting and control problems that a fast growth organization encounters that can be ascribed to this growth. What are the circum

  7. Robust CUSUM control charting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazir, H.Z.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.; Abbas, N.

    2013-01-01

    Cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts are very effective in detecting special causes. In general, the underlying distribution is supposed to be normal. In designing a CUSUM chart, it is important to know how the chart will respond to disturbances of normality. The focus of this article is to control

  8. Distributed Control Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    , self-reconfigurable robots, we present the concept of distributed control diffusion: distributed queries are used to identify modules that play a specific role in the robot, and behaviors that implement specific control strategies are diffused throughout the robot based on these role assignments...... perform simple obstacle avoidance in a wide range of different car-like robots constructed using ATRON modules...

  9. Herbicidal Control of Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Om Prakash; Srinivasan Ramanujam

    1980-01-01

    Necessity of the herbicidal application for controlling undesirable grasses, by the Defence Services, Military farms and Inter Service Organisations is highlighted. Control of grasses by herbicidal chemicals, registered under the Insecticides Act 1968 in this country, is reviewed apart from a mention of non-chemical methods.

  10. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  11. Bibliographic Control of Microforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Felix; Tharpe, Josephine M.

    There are two major parts to this book. The first is a study of bibliographic control of microforms, and the second is an extensive annotated bibliography of microforms. The study included a survey of 190 libraries and showed that local bibliographic control of microforms is often so inadequate that usefulness of the microform collection is…

  12. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  13. Controllability in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschorn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    An explicit expression for the reachable set is obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. This class is described by a chain condition on the Lie algebra of vector fields associated with each nonlinear system. These ideas are used to obtain a generalization of a controllability result for linear systems in the case where multiplicative controls are present.

  14. Optimal obstacle control problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li; LI Xiu-hua; GUO Xing-ming

    2008-01-01

    In the paper we discuss some properties of the state operators of the optimal obstacle control problem for elliptic variational inequality. Existence, uniqueness and regularity of the optimal control problem are established. In addition, the approximation of the optimal obstacle problem is also studied.

  15. Controllability of Discontinuous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Veliov, V. M.; Krastanov, M.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents an approach to the local controllability problem for a discontinuous system. The approach is based on a concept of tangent vector field to a generalized dynamic system, which makes possible the differential geometry tools to be applied in the discontinuous case. Sufficient controllability conditions are derived.

  16. Resisting Mind Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  17. Hair follicle growth controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenn, K S; Combates, N J; Eilertsen, K J; Gordon, J S; Pardinas, J R; Parimoo, S; Prouty, S M

    1996-10-01

    Research in hair biology has embarked in the pursuit for molecules that control hair growth. Many molecules already have been associated with the controls of hair patterning, hair maturation, and hair cycling and differentiation. Knowing how these molecules work gives us the tools for understanding and treating patients with hair disorders.

  18. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  19. Guidance and Control Software,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    FACILITIES Integration Facilities exist for each project and consist of laboratory hot mockups of the actual military computers with realistic...PCIN Al. WEP I AND CONTROL AND CONTRI IF S TO R ESI I I I AIR-SURFACE ASGW WEAPONS I CONTROL L - - L - - - - - - - J L J FIG. 2a 3. HARDWARE

  20. Avian influenza control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control strategies for avian influenza in poultry vary depending on whether the goal is prevention, management, or eradication. Components used in control programs include: 1) education which includes communication, public awareness, and behavioral change, 2) changes to production and marketing sys...

  1. Temperature-controlled resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, T. G.

    1969-01-01

    Electrical resistance of a carbon-pile resistor is controlled by the compression or relaxation of a pile of carbon disks by a thermally actuated bimetallic spring. The concept is advantageous in that it is direct-acting, can cover a wide range of controllable characteristics, and can handle considerable power directly.

  2. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  3. Joystick controller for JIWY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, Tijs

    2003-01-01

    JIWY is a mechatronic device with two rotational degrees of freedom, with a camera as its `end effector¿. JIWY can be controlled with a joystick. Each joint is steered by a joystick axis. The x-axis and the y-axis control the horizontal joint respectively the vertical joint. A model of the total sys

  4. Rethinking Coercive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Evan

    2009-12-01

    The critical appraisals of Coercive Control focus largely on what my analysis implies for intervention, a matter to which the book devotes only limited space. In this reply, I reiterate core concepts in the book and acknowledge that much more work is needed to translate the realities of coercive control into practical legal and advocacy strategies. I review how coercive control differs from partner assaults and so why it merits a distinct response; the extent to which coercive control targets gender identity; the wisdom of complementing the focus on violence with an emphasis on male domination, sexual inequality and personal liberty; what this implies for shelters and the law; why sexual inequality differentiates coercive control from female partner abuse of men; how sexual equality can be both cause and antidote for coercive control; why I think an affirmative concept of freedom is essential to grasp the human rights violations inflicted by coercive control; and what it means to "story" coercive control by integrating women into the larger liberty narrative on which our national identity rests.

  5. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  6. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  7. Proxemic-aware controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledo, David; Greenberg, Saul; Marquardt, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Remote controls facilitate interactions at-a-distance with appliances. However, the complexity, diversity, and in-creasing number of digital appliances in ubiquitous com-puting ecologies make it increasingly difficult to: (1) dis-cover which appliances are controllable; (2) select a par-ticular a...

  8. App de control alimentari

    OpenAIRE

    Calvet López, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    App de control alimentari és una aplicació per a smartphone que ajuda l'usuari a portar una dieta alimentària rica i equilibrada. App de control alimentari es una aplicación para smartphone que ayuda al usuario a llevar una dieta alimenticia rica y equilibrada. Master thesis for the Multimedia program.

  9. Checking quality control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    How is quality control doing within the community of GIS, web-services based on geo-information, GI etc.?......How is quality control doing within the community of GIS, web-services based on geo-information, GI etc.?...

  10. Methods for specifying the target difference in a randomised controlled trial: the Difference ELicitation in TriAls (DELTA) systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Jenni; Adewuyi, Temitope E; Vale, Luke D; Harrild, Kirsten; Fraser, Cynthia; Gurung, Tara; Altman, Douglas G; Briggs, Andrew H; Fayers, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R; Norrie, John D; Harvey, Ian M; Buckley, Brian; Cook, Jonathan A

    2014-05-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are widely accepted as the preferred study design for evaluating healthcare interventions. When the sample size is determined, a (target) difference is typically specified that the RCT is designed to detect. This provides reassurance that the study will be informative, i.e., should such a difference exist, it is likely to be detected with the required statistical precision. The aim of this review was to identify potential methods for specifying the target difference in an RCT sample size calculation. A comprehensive systematic review of medical and non-medical literature was carried out for methods that could be used to specify the target difference for an RCT sample size calculation. The databases searched were MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Methodology Register, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index, EconLit, the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), and Scopus (for in-press publications); the search period was from 1966 or the earliest date covered, to between November 2010 and January 2011. Additionally, textbooks addressing the methodology of clinical trials and International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) tripartite guidelines for clinical trials were also consulted. A narrative synthesis of methods was produced. Studies that described a method that could be used for specifying an important and/or realistic difference were included. The search identified 11,485 potentially relevant articles from the databases searched. Of these, 1,434 were selected for full-text assessment, and a further nine were identified from other sources. Fifteen clinical trial textbooks and the ICH tripartite guidelines were also reviewed. In total, 777 studies were included, and within them, seven methods were identified-anchor, distribution, health economic, opinion-seeking, pilot study, review of

  11. Methods for specifying the target difference in a randomised controlled trial: the Difference ELicitation in TriAls (DELTA systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Hislop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Randomised controlled trials (RCTs are widely accepted as the preferred study design for evaluating healthcare interventions. When the sample size is determined, a (target difference is typically specified that the RCT is designed to detect. This provides reassurance that the study will be informative, i.e., should such a difference exist, it is likely to be detected with the required statistical precision. The aim of this review was to identify potential methods for specifying the target difference in an RCT sample size calculation.A comprehensive systematic review of medical and non-medical literature was carried out for methods that could be used to specify the target difference for an RCT sample size calculation. The databases searched were MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Methodology Register, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index, EconLit, the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC, and Scopus (for in-press publications; the search period was from 1966 or the earliest date covered, to between November 2010 and January 2011. Additionally, textbooks addressing the methodology of clinical trials and International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH tripartite guidelines for clinical trials were also consulted. A narrative synthesis of methods was produced. Studies that described a method that could be used for specifying an important and/or realistic difference were included. The search identified 11,485 potentially relevant articles from the databases searched. Of these, 1,434 were selected for full-text assessment, and a further nine were identified from other sources. Fifteen clinical trial textbooks and the ICH tripartite guidelines were also reviewed. In total, 777 studies were included, and within them, seven methods were identified-anchor, distribution, health economic, opinion-seeking, pilot

  12. A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for women who have menopausal symptoms following breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1: Trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellier Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    of medical services measure at six months post-randomisation. Discussion MENOS 1 is the first randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for hot flushes and night sweats that measures both self-reported and physiologically indexed symptoms. The results will inform future clinical practice by developing an evidence-based, non-medical treatment, which can be delivered by trained health professionals. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13771934

  13. Asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with an increased number of days lost from school, exacerbations and days in hospital. Furthermore, children with uncontrolled asthma have more frequent contacts with the health-care system. Recent...... studies have added new information about the effects of poorly controlled asthma on a range of important, but less studied outcomes, including risk of obesity, daily physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, stress, concentration and focused attention, learning disabilities and risk of depression. From...... these studies it seems that poor asthma control may have a greater impact on the child than previously thought. This may have important long-term consequences for the child such as an increased risk of life-style associated diseases and poorer school performance. The level of control seems to be the most...

  14. Control systems under attack?

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The enormous growth of the Internet during the last decade offers new means to share and distribute both information and data. In Industry, this results in a rapprochement of the production facilities, i.e. their Process Control and Automation Systems, and the data warehouses. At CERN, the Internet opens the possibility to monitor and even control (parts of) the LHC and its four experiments remotely from anywhere in the world. However, the adoption of standard IT technologies to Distributed Process Control and Automation Systems exposes inherent vulnerabilities to the world. The Teststand On Control System Security at CERN (TOCSSiC) is dedicated to explore the vulnerabilities of arbitrary Commercial-Of-The-Shelf hardware devices connected to standard Ethernet. As such, TOCSSiC should discover their vulnerabilities, point out areas of lack of security, and address areas of improvement which can then be confidentially communicated to manufacturers. This paper points out risks of accessing the Control and Automa...

  15. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...... used for controller design and simulation respectively. A short section then discusses published literature from industry. Finally a conclusion is given discussing established results, open challenges and necessary research. An appendix present a method for optimising the energy in a one row wind...

  16. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  17. A TRNSYS microprocessor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piessens, L. P.; Beckman, W. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    A truth table approach is employed to model the operation of a microprocessor controller for a solar energy system. Using the simulation code TRNSYS, a parameter is added to stop iteration procedures which potentially could become endless as the program seeks a solution to a set of governing equations at the same time as a pump or switch is turned off, thus creating a stable mode of iteration. The simulation of control logic also includes comparisons between input signals in order to arrive at a choice of output control signals. Temperatures are the normal input signals, and additional input may be mass flow rate, insolation, and night setbacks. Techniques for identifying typographical errors in the control logic are explored, as are the effects of the time step size chosen. Results are presented of simulations of month-long operation of a solar system and primary loop control strategies.

  18. Discrete Variational Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Fernando; de Diego, David Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops numerical methods for optimal control of mechanical systems in the Lagrangian setting. It extends the theory of discrete mechanics to enable the solutions of optimal control problems through the discretization of variational principles. The key point is to solve the optimal control problem as a variational integrator of a specially constructed higher-dimensional system. The developed framework applies to systems on tangent bundles, Lie groups, underactuated and nonholonomic systems with symmetries, and can approximate either smooth or discontinuous control inputs. The resulting methods inherit the preservation properties of variational integrators and result in numerically robust and easily implementable algorithms. Several theoretical and a practical examples, e.g. the control of an underwater vehicle, will illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  19. Discrete Variational Optimal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Fernando; Kobilarov, Marin; Martín de Diego, David

    2013-06-01

    This paper develops numerical methods for optimal control of mechanical systems in the Lagrangian setting. It extends the theory of discrete mechanics to enable the solutions of optimal control problems through the discretization of variational principles. The key point is to solve the optimal control problem as a variational integrator of a specially constructed higher dimensional system. The developed framework applies to systems on tangent bundles, Lie groups, and underactuated and nonholonomic systems with symmetries, and can approximate either smooth or discontinuous control inputs. The resulting methods inherit the preservation properties of variational integrators and result in numerically robust and easily implementable algorithms. Several theoretical examples and a practical one, the control of an underwater vehicle, illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  20. Propulsion controlled aircraft research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has been conducting flight, ground simulator, and analytical studies to investigate the use of thrust modulation on multi-engine aircraft for emergency flight control. Two general methods of engine only control have been studied; manual manipulation of the throttles by the pilot, and augmented control where a computer commands thrust levels in response to pilot attitude inputs and aircraft motion feedbacks. This latter method is referred to as the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) System. A wide variety of aircraft have been investigated. Simulation studies have included the B720, F-15, B727, B747 and MD-11. A look at manual control has been done in actual flight on the F15, T-38, B747, Lear 25, T-39, MD-11 and PA-30 Aircraft. The only inflight trial of the augmented (PCA) concept has been on an F15, the results of which will be presented below.