Vanderdrift, Laura E; Agnew, Christopher R; Wilson, Juan E
Two studies investigated the process by which individuals in nonmarital romantic relationships characterized by low commitment move toward enacting leave behaviors. Predictions based on the behavioral, goal, and implementation intention literatures were tested using a measure of dissolution consideration developed for this research. Dissolution consideration assesses how salient relationship termination is for an individual while one's relationship is intact. Study 1 developed and validated a measure of dissolution consideration and Study 2 was a longitudinal test of the utility of dissolution consideration in predicting the enactment of leave behaviors. Results indicated that dissolution consideration mediates the association between commitment and enacting leave behaviors, is associated with taking more immediate action, and provides unique explanatory power in leave behavior beyond the effect of commitment alone. Collectively, the findings suggest that dissolution consideration is an intermediate step between commitment and stay/leave behavior in close relationships.
Simon, Robin W; Barrett, Anne E
Although social scientists have long assumed that intimate social relationships are more closely associated with women's than men's mental health, recent research indicates that there are no gender differences in the advantages of marriage and disadvantages of unmarried statuses when males' and females' distinct expressions of emotional distress are considered. These findings have led to the conclusion that there has been a convergence in the importance of intimate relationships for men's and women's mental health. However, these patterns may not be evident for nonmarital romantic relationships among current cohorts of young adults. In this article, we examine the associations among several dimensions of these relationships and symptoms of both depression and substance abuse/dependence in a diverse sample of young adults in Miami, Florida. We find gender differences that vary across dimensions of relationships: While current involvements and recent breakups are more closely associated with women's than men's mental health, support and strain in an ongoing relationship are more closely associated with men's than women's emotional well-being. Our findings highlight the need to consider the period in the life course as well as experiences of specific cohorts of men and women when theorizing about gender differences in the importance of intimate relationships for mental health.
Simon, Robin W.; Barrett, Anne E.
Although social scientists have long assumed that intimate social relationships are more closely associated with women's than men's mental health, recent research indicates that there are no gender differences in the advantages of marriage and disadvantages of unmarried statuses when males' and females' distinct expressions of emotional distress…
Full Text Available Past work on the relationship between cohabitation and childbearing shows that cohabitation increases fertility compared to being single, and does so more for intended than unintended births. Most work in this area, however, does not address concerns that fertility and union formation are joint processes, and that failing to account for the joint nature of these decisions can bias estimates of cohabitation on childbearing. For example, cohabitors may be more likely to plan births because they see cohabitation as an acceptable context for childbearing; alternatively, they may be more likely to marry than their single counterparts. In this paper, I use a modeling approach that accounts for the stable, unobserved characteristics of women common to nonmarital fertility and union formation as a way of estimating the effect of cohabitation on nonmarital fertility net of cohabitors' potentially greater likelihood of marriage. I distinguish between intended and unintended fertility to better understand variation in the perceived acceptability of cohabitation as a setting for childbearing. I find that accounting for unmeasured heterogeneity reduces the estimated effect of cohabitation on intended childbearing outside of marriage by up to 50%, depending on race/ethnicity. These results speak to cohabitation's evolving place in the family system, suggesting that cohabitation may be a step on the way to marriage for some, but an end in itself for others.
DeLeone, Felicia Yang; Lichter, Daniel T; Strawderman, Robert L
For Latinos, high rates of nonmarital fertility reinforce economic inequality and slow the pace of social and economic incorporation into American society. Changes in the nonmarital fertility ratio--nonmarital births as a percentage of all births (NMFR)--among women aged 15-44 over the period 1994-2005 were partitioned into three components: changes in marital and in nonmarital fertility, and in the proportion of women who were married. Annual birth data were drawn from the national Natality Detail File, and population estimates were drawn from the Current Population Surveys. Analyses were conducted for blacks, whites and Latinas, as well as for selected subgroups of Latinas; differences in NMFRs between racial and ethnic groups were also calculated. NMFRs were largely unchanged between 1994 and 2002, and then began to rise; they averaged 43% for Latinas, 69% for blacks and 23% for whites over the study period. In 2005, 48% of births to Latinas were nonmarital. Most of the rise in Latinas' NMFR was linked to a decline in marriage. Among foreign-born Latinas, a six-percentage-point increase in the NMFR was due mostly to a rise in nonmarital fertility and a decline in marital fertility, which offset the beneficial effects of a rising marriage rate. The difference between Latinas' and whites' NMFRs was largely attributed to Latinas' higher nonmarital fertility, whereas the difference between blacks' and whites' NMFRs was driven mostly by lower marriage rates among blacks. Efforts to reduce out-of-wedlock childbearing among Latinas are needed, and programs should promote healthy marriages, especially among foreign-born Latinas.
Cherlin, Andrew J; Ribar, David; Yasutake, Suzumi
Many aggregate-level studies suggest a relationship between economic inequality and socio-demographic outcomes such as family formation, health, and mortality; but individual-level evidence is lacking. Nor is there satisfactory evidence on the mechanisms by which inequality may have an effect. We study the determinants of transitions to a nonmarital first birth as a single parent or as a cohabiting parent compared to transitions to marriage prior to a first birth among unmarried, childless young adults in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort, from 1997 to 2011. We include measures of county-group-level household income inequality and of the availability of jobs typically held by high-school graduates and which pay above-poverty wages. We find that greater income inequality is associated with a reduced likelihood of transitioning to marriage prior to a first birth for both women and men. The association between levels of inequality and transitions to marriage can be partially accounted for by the availability of jobs of the type we measured. Some models also suggest that greater income inequality is associated with a reduced likelihood of transitioning to a first birth while cohabiting.
Carlson, Marcia J; VanOrman, Alicia G; Pilkauskas, Natasha V
Despite the dramatic rise in U.S. nonmarital childbearing in recent decades, limited attention has been paid to factors affecting nonmarital fatherhood (beyond studies of young fathers). In this article, we use data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to examine the antecedents of nonmarital fatherhood, as compared to marital fatherhood. Overall, we find the strongest support across both data sets for education and race/ethnicity as key predictors of having a nonmarital first birth, consistent with prior literature about women's nonmarital childbearing and about men's early/teenage fatherhood. Education is inversely related to the risk of nonmarital fatherhood, and minority (especially black) men are much more likely to have a child outside of marriage than white men. We find little evidence that employment predicts nonmarital fertility, although it does strongly (and positively) predict marital fertility. High predicted earnings are also associated with a greater likelihood of marital childbearing but with a lower likelihood of nonmarital childbearing. Given the socioeconomic disadvantage associated with nonmarital fatherhood, this research suggests that nonmarital fatherhood may be an important aspect of growing U.S. inequality and stratification both within and across generations.
Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi
We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.
Kulauzov Maša M.
Full Text Available Proposed amendments to the article 130 of Serbian Civil Code (henceforth: SCC of 1844 regarding establishment of non-marital paternity were scrutinized in this paper. Originally, establishment of non-marital paternity was granted, but with significant restriction that presumed parent could have been declared the father of an illegitimate child only if he had recognized paternity. That is the reason why in 1855 the Supreme Court suggested amendment to the provision concerning determination of paternity. According to proposed modification, evidence that presumed father was on intimate terms with child's mother in the time of conception should have been sufficient for establishment of paternity. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Serbian 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, the Ministry of Justice, the State Council and Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević were not interested in bettering their position by widening possibilities of determination of fatherhood. Subsequently, in 1868 the amendment was passed by which non-marital paternity could not have been established by a court order, subject to certain exceptions (if one raped or abducted a woman, and the time of conception coincided with the time of abduction or rape. Since 1868 paternity could have been determined solely subject to the consent, i.e. recognition of the illegitimate father.
Full Text Available Non-marital cohabitation, as a community of life of two people connected only by the feeling of love and desire for living together, without form and registration, is an institution as old as marriage. Throughout history, attitude of the legislator has been changing from forbidding to ignoring it. In our society there is a negative attitude towards non-marital cohabitations, which is the result of patriarchal ideas and customs. However, the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia and the Family Law equate marriage and non-marital cohabitation. In this paper, the author will try to determine to what extent in terms of effects the marital and non-marital cohabitation are equal, or to what extent the rights of non-marital partners are recognized. The subject of analysis are primarily the Constitution and Family law, but also many other regulations governing the issues relating to the rights and obligations of non-marital cohabitation partners. In fact, although Family law equalizes marriage and non-marital cohabitation, they are not equal either de facto or de jure. The author will try to point out the deficiencies in the legal regulations, the practical problems and suggest possible and better solutions.
Sadagopan, Srivatsun; Zarco, Wilbert; Freiwald, Winrich A
The primate brain contains distinct areas densely populated by face-selective neurons. One of these, face-patch ML, contains neurons selective for contrast relationships between face parts. Such contrast-relationships can serve as powerful heuristics for face detection. However, it is unknown whether neurons with such selectivity actually support face-detection behavior. Here, we devised a naturalistic face-detection task and combined it with fMRI-guided pharmacological inactivation of ML to test whether ML is of critical importance for real-world face detection. We found that inactivation of ML impairs face detection. The effect was anatomically specific, as inactivation of areas outside ML did not affect face detection, and it was categorically specific, as inactivation of ML impaired face detection while sparing body and object detection. These results establish that ML function is crucial for detection of faces in natural scenes, performing a critical first step on which other face processing operations can build.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and describe the difficulties faced by families with nonmarital children (especially single-parent, available help and support, participation of the father in raising a child, and expected institutional help. That represents a first step toward better understanding of these families. The paper presents part of the results of research carried out in Belgrade with the aim of insight into the phenomenon of nonmarital childbearing at the individual level. It was conducted on a sample of 100 respondents, mothers of nonmarital children, who attend preschool. The survey was anonymous, carried out by the interview method. For this purpose a questionnaire with more than 50 questions was made, standardized to a great extent. In this paper, the focus is on the hardships and needs of the group of lone mothers. Though some issues take into account the answers of all respondents (21 cohabited mothers and 79 lone mothers, the analysis is largely related to the experiences and reflections of lone mothers. The 2011 Census data on prevalence of consensual unions and characteristics of persons living in them, as well as earlier data on the acknowledgment of paternity, do not indicate that nonmarital childbearing in Serbia takes place primarily in stable unions. It is realistic to assume that a large percentage of mothers with nonmarital children are lone mothers. The research results are generally consistent with the findings of relevant studies from our and foreign countries. As the largest difficulties, lone mothers emphasize financial problems, unemployment, housing difficulties, and child care, as well as a pronounced feeling of loneliness. Most of them in solving problems and rising children rely on their parents and siblings, with whom they often live in the same household. Every fifth lone mother when faced with a major problem, and every ninth in everyday raising a child can count on the father of the child. About a
In the article "Cohort Effects on Non-marital Fertility," in this issue of "Social Forces," Jean Stockard employs a novel strategy for disentangling cohort, period, and age effects on the non-marital fertility ratio. In a model with fixed-effect controls for age and for time period, the author documents evidence for three cohort-specific factors…
Messner, Steven F.; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Robinson, Bryan K.
Using pooled, time-series data for a sample of 15 developed nations, we assess the effect of divorce rates on gender-specific suicide rates for youths aged 15-19 with models of relative cohort size, lagged nonmarital fertility, and an interaction term for divorce rates and nonmarital fertility. The results reveal that, for young men, relative…
Boyle, Andrea M; O'Sullivan, Lucia F
Little is known about the features, depth, and quality of communication in heterosexual dating relationships that include computer-mediated communication (CMC). This study examined these features as well as CMC's potential to facilitate self-disclosure and information-seeking. It also evaluated whether partner CMC interactions play a role in partner intimacy and communication quality. Young adults (N = 359; 18-24) attending postsecondary education institutions completed an online survey about their CMC use. To be included in the study, all participants were in established dating relationships at the time of the study and reported daily communication with their partner. CMC was linked to partners' disclosure of nonintimate information. This personal self-disclosure was linked positively to relationship intimacy and communication quality, beyond contributions from face-to-face interactions. Breadth (not depth) of self-disclosure and positively valenced interactions, in particular, proved key to understanding greater levels of intimacy in dating relationships and better communication quality as a function of CMC. CMC provides opportunities for partners to stay connected and to improve the overall quality of their intimacy and communication.
Perelli-Harris, B.; Sigle-Rushton, W.; Lappegard, T.; Kreyenfeld, M.; Keizer, R.; Berghammer, C.
Nearly every European country has experienced some increase in nonmarital childbearing, largely due to increasing births within cohabitation. Relatively few studies in Europe, however, investigate the educational gradient of childbearing within cohabitation or how it changed over time. Using
Mir, Ali M; Wajid, Abdul; Pearson, Stephen; Khan, Mumraiz; Masood, Irfan
In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16-45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8-7.7, p pornographic materials (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 3.0-7.7, p pornographic materials (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5-7.2, p = 0.002). To prevent the spread of STI's in Pakistan, preventive interventions should focus on reaching out to young uneducated men offering them with appropriate counselling and skills to adopt "safe sex practices" through workplace orientation sessions; while for youth in schools, life skills education be included in the curriculum. Through public-private partnership stigmatised groups should be reached through established community networks and provided with information on accessing voluntary counseling and treatment centres.
Tillema, T.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.
Although the spectacular spread of wired and wireless communication technologies such as the Internet and mobile phone have been discussed extensively in the academic literature, knowledge of the interactions among face-to-face (F2F) and electronic communication modes and their implications for
Andy H Ng
Full Text Available Recent theory suggests that face recognition accuracy is affected by people’s motivations, with people being particularly motivated to remember ingroup versus outgroup faces. In the current research we suggest that those higher in interdependence should have a greater motivation to remember ingroup faces, but this should depend on how ingroups are defined. To examine this possibility, we used a joint individual difference and cultural approach to test (a whether individual differences in interdependence would predict face recognition accuracy, and (b whether this effect would be moderated by culture. In Study 1 European Canadians higher in interdependence demonstrated greater recognition for same-race (White, but not cross-race (East Asian faces. In Study 2 we found that culture moderated this effect. Interdependence again predicted greater recognition for same-race (White, but not cross-race (East Asian faces among European Canadians; however, interdependence predicted worse recognition for both same-race (East Asian and cross-race (White faces among first-generation East Asians. The results provide insight into the role of motivation in face perception as well as cultural differences in the conception of ingroups.
Turano, Maria Teresa; Viggiano, Maria Pia
The relationship between face recognition ability and socioemotional functioning has been widely explored. However, how aging modulates this association regarding both objective performance and subjective-perception is still neglected. Participants, aged between 18 and 81 years, performed a face memory test and completed subjective face recognition and socioemotional questionnaires. General and social anxiety, and neuroticism traits account for the individual variation in face recognition abilities during adulthood. Aging modulates these relationships because as they age, individuals that present a higher level of these traits also show low-level face recognition ability. Intriguingly, the association between depression and face recognition abilities is evident with increasing age. Overall, the present results emphasize the importance of embedding face metacognition measurement into the context of these studies and suggest that aging is an important factor to be considered, which seems to contribute to the relationship between socioemotional and face-cognitive functioning.
Vasilenko, Sara A
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how nonmarital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kim, Yujin; Raley, R Kelly
Research in the 1980s pointed to the lower marriage rates of blacks as an important factor contributing to race differences in non-marital fertility. Our analyses update and extend this prior work to investigate whether cohabitation has become an important contributor to this variation. We use data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and to identify the relative contribution of population composition (i.e. percent sexually active single and percent cohabiting) versus rates (pregnancy rates, post-conception marriage rates) to race-ethnic variation in non-marital fertility rates (N=7,428). We find that the pregnancy rate among single (not cohabiting) women is the biggest contributor to race-ethnic variation in the non-marital fertility rate and that contraceptive use patterns among racial minorities explains the majority of the race-ethnic differences in pregnancy rates.
Habib, Syed Rashid; Shiddi, Ibraheem Al; Al-Sufyani, Mohammed D; Althobaiti, Fahad A
To determine the relationship of tooth form with the face form by different observers and further investigate the inter observer agreement on tooth forms, face forms, their relationship among male Saudis. A comparative cross-sectional study. Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA, from February till August 2013. Ninety four male participants aged 18 - 35 years were randomly recruited for the study. Full-face and anterior teeth (intraoral) digital photographs in the frontal plane were recorded. The outline tracings of the face and the tooth were obtained using Autocad (version 2010) software. The outline of the tooth was enlarged proportionately, without altering the length to width ratio to fit the face outline. The outlines were then evaluated visually by 6 prosthodontists and results were tabulated. The most common type of face form (49.65%) and tooth form (56.38%) was square tapering. Using the visual method, a good relationship (31.41%), moderate relationship (35.31%), weak relationship (19.68%) and no relationship (13.65%) between the tooth form and face form was found by the observers. Overall kappa for inter observer agreement on face form, tooth form and their relationship was 0.24, 0.17 and 0.26 respectively. The kappa values showed a fair agreement between the observers. The study results indicated that there was no highly defined relationship between the tooth form and face form in the studied Saudi subpopulation. A fair agreement was found between the observers for classifying the tooth forms, face froms and their relationship.
Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe
for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... already secured their popular status on the heterosexual marketplace in the broad context of the school. Thus SnapChat functions both as a challenge to beauty norms of ‘flawless faces’ and as a reinscription of these same norms by further manifesting the exclusive status of the popular girl...
Tach, Laura M.; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah
This study used the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,481) to test whether the association between marital quality and divorce is moderated by premarital cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. Prior research identified lower marital quality as a key explanation for why couples who cohabit or have children…
Smoliga, James M.; Zavorsky, Gerald S.
In recent years, various studies have attempted to understand human evolution by examining relationships between athletic performance or physical fitness and facial attractiveness. Over a wide range of five homogeneous groups (n = 327), there is an approximate 3% shared variance between facial attractiveness and athletic performance or physical fitness (95% CI = 0.5–8%, p = 0.002). Further, studies relating human performance and attractiveness often have major methodological limitations that ...
Full Text Available Accumulating behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the idea of infantile (cute faces as highly biologically relevant stimuli rapidly and unconsciously capturing attention and eliciting positive/affectionate behaviors, including willingness to care. It has been hypothesized that the presence of infantile physical and behavioral features in companion (or pet animals (i.e. dogs and cats might form the basis of our attraction to these species. Preliminary evidence has indeed shown that the human attentional bias toward the baby schema may extend to animal facial configurations. In this review, the role of facial cues, specifically of infantile traits and facial signals (i.e. eyes gaze as emotional and communicative signals is highlighted and discussed as regulating human-animal bond, similarly to what can be observed in the adult-infant interaction context. Particular emphasis is given to the neuroendocrine regulation of social bond between humans and animals through oxytocin secretion. Instead of considering companion animals as mere baby substitutes for their owners, in this review we highlight the central role of cats and dogs in human lives. Specifically, we consider the ability of companion animals to bond with humans as fulfilling the need for attention and emotional intimacy, thus serving similar psychological and adaptive functions as human-human friendships. In this context, facial cuteness is viewed not just as a releaser of care/parental behavior, but more in general as a trait motivating social engagement. To conclude, the impact of this information for applied disciplines is briefly described, particularly in consideration of the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of contacts with animals for human health and wellbeing.
Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca
Accumulating behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the idea of infantile (cute) faces as highly biologically relevant stimuli rapidly and unconsciously capturing attention and eliciting positive/affectionate behaviors, including willingness to care. It has been hypothesized that the presence of infantile physical and behavioral features in companion (or pet) animals (i.e., dogs and cats) might form the basis of our attraction to these species. Preliminary evidence has indeed shown that the human attentional bias toward the baby schema may extend to animal facial configurations. In this review, the role of facial cues, specifically of infantile traits and facial signals (i.e., eyes gaze) as emotional and communicative signals is highlighted and discussed as regulating the human-animal bond, similarly to what can be observed in the adult-infant interaction context. Particular emphasis is given to the neuroendocrine regulation of the social bond between humans and animals through oxytocin secretion. Instead of considering companion animals as mere baby substitutes for their owners, in this review we highlight the central role of cats and dogs in human lives. Specifically, we consider the ability of companion animals to bond with humans as fulfilling the need for attention and emotional intimacy, thus serving similar psychological and adaptive functions as human-human friendships. In this context, facial cuteness is viewed not just as a releaser of care/parental behavior, but, more in general, as a trait motivating social engagement. To conclude, the impact of this information for applied disciplines is briefly described, particularly in consideration of the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of contacts with animals for human health and wellbeing.
Smoliga, James M; Zavorsky, Gerald S
In recent years, various studies have attempted to understand human evolution by examining relationships between athletic performance or physical fitness and facial attractiveness. Over a wide range of five homogeneous groups (n = 327), there is an approximate 3% shared variance between facial attractiveness and athletic performance or physical fitness (95% CI = 0.5-8%, p = 0.002). Further, studies relating human performance and attractiveness often have major methodological limitations that limit their generalizability. Thus, despite statistical significance, the association between facial attractiveness and human performance has questionable biological importance. Here, we present a critique of these studies and provide recommendations to improve the quality of future research in this realm. © 2015 The Author(s).
Full Text Available In this age of unprecedented expansion of media and information dissemination and sharing, the use of electronic means should be reconsidered. The use of new technologies should be studied to understand how it may affect the relationship between patient and therapist during psychotherapy or psychoanalytic treatments. This study offers a critical discussion of the effect of technologies on clinical practice, and vignettes are used to describe their impact on frame, anonymity, abstinence and therapeutic neutrality. Transfer and countertransference issues resulting from these changes are also discussed. The potential benefits of new technologies in psychotherapy are appreciated, but the authors draw attention to the need to reflect about the presence of the therapist in those technologies and the preservation of the therapeutic setting, so that a satisfactory progression of the work of the dyad is ensured. This study also discusses the use of technologies in the expansion of learning and application of the therapeutic technique to overcome geographic and time barriers, among others.
Hald, Gert Martin; Mulya, Teguh Wijaya
Using a sample of Indonesian university students and a cross sectional design, this study investigated prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption in Indonesia, a religious, sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws. Further, the association...... between pornography consumption and common non-marital sexual behaviours was explored. The study found that in this sample, pornography is as widely and readily consumed as in comparable international studies predominantly utilising Western background samples from more sexually liberal and less religious...... countries with very few laws on pornography. Gender differences in patterns of pornography consumption were pronounced and comparable with findings in international counterpart studies. For men only, pornography consumption was found to significantly predict common sexual behaviours in non-marital relations...
Perelli-Harris, B.; Sigle-Rushton, W.; Lappegard, T.; Kreyenfeld, M.; Keizer, R.; Berghammer, C.
Nearly every European country has experienced some increase in nonmarital childbearing, largely due to increasing births within cohabitation. Relatively few studies in Europe, however, investigate the educational gradient of childbearing within cohabitation or how it changed over time. Using retrospective union and fertility histories, we employ competing risk hazard models to examine the educational gradient of childbearing in cohabitation in 8 countries across Europe. In all countries studi...
Hald, Gert Martin; Mulya, Teguh Wijaya
Using a sample of Indonesian university students and a cross sectional design, this study investigated prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption in Indonesia, a religious, sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws. Further, the association between pornography consumption and common non-marital sexual behaviours was explored. The study found that in this sample, pornography is as widely and readily consumed as in comparable international studies predominantly utilising Western background samples from more sexually liberal and less religious countries with very few laws on pornography. Gender differences in patterns of pornography consumption were pronounced and comparable with findings in international counterpart studies. For men only, pornography consumption was found to significantly predict common sexual behaviours in non-marital relations. The study is the first to provide insights into prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption and its association with common non-marital sexual behaviours in a sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws.
Relationships that have not been formalized by marriage but that function like marriage are increasingly common among couples. Many of these relationships involve children who are related to only one of the adults but who have established parent-child relationships with both adults. This raises questions about how best to preserve children's…
Vasilenko, Sara A.
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how non-marital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. PMID:27854469
Full Text Available Background: Collaborative working between professionals is a key component of integrated care. The academic literature on it largely focuses either on integration between health and social care or on the dynamics of power and identity between doctors and nurses. With the proliferation and extension of nursing roles, there is a need to examine collaborative working amongst different types of nurses. Method: This study explored experiences of collaborative working amongst generalist and specialist nurses, in community and acute settings. We carried out semi-structured interviews, incorporating the Pictor technique, with 45 nurses, plus 33 other key stakeholders. Transcripts were analysed using Template Analysis. This article focuses on one major thematic area that emerged from the analysis: the significance of interpersonal relationships amongst nurses, and between them and other professionals, patients and carers. Results: Relationship issues were ubiquitous in participants’ accounts of collaborative working. Good personal relationships facilitated collaboration; face-to-face interaction was especially valued. Relationships were recognized as requiring effort, especially in new roles. Organisational changes could disrupt productive personal networks. Conclusion: Relationship issues are integral to successful collaborative working. Policy and practice leaders must take this into account in future service developments. Further research into collaborative relationships in different settings is needed.
Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah; Parent, Justin
African American youth from single-mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their nonmarital coparents who participated in a study of African American single-mother families with an 11-16-year-old child. Specifically, the study examines: (a) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; (b) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and (c) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single-mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. © 2014 FPI, Inc.
Kayser, Karen; Acquati, Chiara; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Mark, Kristen; Wittmann, Daniela; Karam, Eli
Despite the adverse effects that treatment for colorectal cancer can have on patients' quality of life and, in particular, their intimate relationships, very little research has been conducted on the psychosocial adjustment for both patients and their partners/spouses. The aim of this systematic review was to examine dyadic studies of adjustment in couples in which one partner has been diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Pub Med, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Social Sciences Abstracts (EBSCO), and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for studies reporting quality of life outcomes for colorectal cancer patients and their partners/spouses. Only studies that included dyads in the sample were eligible for inclusion. The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to evaluate each study. A total of 277 studies were identified, of which 9 studies met the inclusion criteria (N = 388 couples). The methodological quality of the studies was high in that they used standardized instruments validated with their samples, conducted dyadic data analyses (when appropriate), and used longitudinal designs. A synthesis of the studies revealed that (1) relationship factors (eg, support, communication, dyadic coping, and relationship satisfaction) affect adjustment to cancer; (2) cancer-related distress impacts each partner's adjustment or the relationship; and (3) gender, role (patient/caregiver), and clinical characteristics (treatment, mental health) can mediate adjustment to cancer. The quality of the relationship can influence patients' and their partners' adjustment to colorectal cancer. Psychosocial interventions that address relationship issues may be beneficial to couples facing the challenges of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yu, Q Y; Wang, F L; Xu, P; Wen, H J; Xiong, Y X; Yang, J; Long, Y; He, H J; Shi, J; Lyu, P
Objective: The goal of this research was to understand the demographic distribution and related factors of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission (non-commercial transmission) for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Methods: Data related to HIV/AIDS infected by non-marital heterosexual transmission and whose present address was in Qian Dongnan, were collected from Information System on the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control. Information included demographic characteristics, the members of non-marital sex partners, transmission path, detection source, CD4(+)T lymphocyte level, et al. cases belong to homosexual history, injective drug use or non-classified non-marital heterosexuality transmission were excluded, totally collect HIV/AIDS 919 cases. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze potential factors associated with non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission. In addition, in March and June 2017, using a convenience sampling, we conducted one-to-one interviews among 10 HIV/AIDS who were infected by non-marital heterosexuality and had non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual experience in Kaili Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The content of the interview included basic information, sexual orientation, the main place of making friends and sexual behavior, attitude to commercial heterosexuality and non-martial and non-commercial heterosexuality and so on. Results: Out of the 919 cases, 645 (70.2%) were male, the proportion of non-commercial transmission was 55.06% (506). The proportion of female HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission was 84.7% (232), which was higher than male (42.5%(274)) (χ(2)=138.35, Pcommercial transmission was 61.5% (275), which was higher than other religion (52.2%(412)) (χ(2)=6.32, P= 0.012). The proportion of HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission who had 0-5 non-marital sexual partners was 58.8% (498), which was higher than who had>5 non-marital
Background: There has been a rapid spread of non-marital childbearing in the Czech Republic during the last two decades. At the same time, the low birth weight rates of children born to married and unmarried mothers have converged. Objective: The goal is to explain the diminishing gap in low birth weight. Two explanations are assessed: the changing selection of unmarried mothers from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups, and increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Methods: Data fro...
Full Text Available Background: There has been a rapid spread of non-marital childbearing in the Czech Republic during the last two decades. At the same time, the low birth weight rates of children born to married and unmarried mothers have converged. Objective: The goal is to explain the diminishing gap in low birth weight. Two explanations are assessed: the changing selection of unmarried mothers from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups, and increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Methods: Data from birth register are analysed. Marital status (married vs. unmarried disparities in low birth weight are modelled using logistic regression. Further analyses are then performed with a detailed measurement of partnership status. This detailed variable is partially missing and is thus supplemented with multiple imputation. Results: The main explanation for the narrowing gap between the outcomes of children born to married and unmarried mothers is the increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Unmarried motherhood has become less detrimental to a child's birth weight net of maternal demographic characteristics. The decline in selection from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups has also contributed to the convergence. However, the convergence of birth weight trends towards marital children seems to refer mostly to children of partnered mothers, with children of single mothers lagging behind. Conclusions: The positive trends in the health of non-marital children are interpreted as being the result of the increasing institutionalisation of parenthood in non-marital unions. However, this does not apply to unpartnered motherhood, which continues to represent a health disadvantage.
Neeraj; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
We study the multi-scale temporal correlations and causality connections between the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) monthly average closing price indexes for a period of 300 months, encompassing the time period of the liberalisation of the Indian economy and its gradual global exposure. In multi-scale analysis; clearly identifiable 1, 2 and 3 year non-stationary periodic modulations in NYSE and BSE have been observed, with NYSE commensurating changes in BSE at 3 years scale. Interestingly, at one year time scale, the two exchanges are phase locked only during the turbulent times, while at the scale of three year, in-phase nature is observed for a much longer time frame. The two year time period, having characteristics of both one and three year variations, acts as the transition regime. The normalised NYSE's stock value is found to Granger cause those of BSE, with a time lag of 9 months. Surprisingly, observed Granger causality of high frequency variations reveals BSE behaviour getting reflected in the NYSE index fluctuations, after a smaller time lag. This Janus faced relationship, shows that smaller stock exchanges may provide a natural setting for simulating market fluctuations of much bigger exchanges. This possibly arises due to the fact that high frequency fluctuations form an universal part of the financial time series, and are expected to exhibit similar characteristics in open market economies.
Craig, Belinda M; Lipp, Ottmar V
Young adult participants are faster to detect young adult faces in crowds of infant and child faces than vice versa. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for more efficient attentional capture by own-age than other-age faces, but could alternatively reflect faster rejection of other-age than own-age distractors, consistent with the previously reported other-age categorization advantage: faster categorization of other-age than own-age faces. Participants searched for own-age faces in other-age backgrounds or vice versa. Extending the finding to different other-age groups, young adult participants were faster to detect young adult faces in both early adolescent (Experiment 1) and older adult backgrounds (Experiment 2). To investigate whether the own-age detection advantage could be explained by faster categorization and rejection of other-age background faces, participants in experiments 3 and 4 also completed an age categorization task. Relatively faster categorization of other-age faces was related to relatively faster search through other-age backgrounds on target absent trials but not target present trials. These results confirm that other-age faces are more quickly categorized and searched through and that categorization and search processes are related; however, this correlational approach could not confirm or reject the contribution of background face processing to the own-age detection advantage. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Pallett, Pamela M.; Cohen, Shereen J.; Dobkins, Karen R.
The current study tested fine discrimination of upright and inverted faces and objects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as compared to age- and IQ-matched controls. Discrimination sensitivity was tested using morphed faces and morphed objects, and all stimuli were equated in low-level visual characteristics (luminance, contrast,…
Lee, Athene K W; Gansler, David A; Zhang, Nanyin; Jerram, Matthew W; King, Jean A; Fulwiler, Carl
Mindfulness is paying attention, non-judgmentally, to experience in the moment. Mindfulness training reduces depression and anxiety and influences neural processes in midline self-referential and lateralized somatosensory and executive networks. Although mindfulness benefits emotion regulation, less is known about its relationship to anger and the corresponding neural correlates. This study examined the relationship of mindful awareness and brain hemodynamics of angry face processing, and the impact of mindfulness training. Eighteen healthy volunteers completed an angry face processing fMRI paradigm and measurement of mindfulness and anger traits. Ten of these participants were recruited from a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) class and also completed imaging and other assessments post-training. Self-reported mindful awareness increased after MBSR, but trait anger did not change. Baseline mindful awareness was negatively related to left inferior parietal lobule activation to angry faces; trait anger was positively related to right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral angular gyrus. No significant pre-post changes in angry face processing were found, but changes in trait mindful awareness and anger were associated with sub-threshold differences in paralimbic activation. These preliminary and hypothesis-generating findings, suggest the analysis of possible impact of mindfulness training on anger may begin with individual differences in angry face processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Predicting personality is crucial when communicating with people. It has been revealed that the perceived attractiveness or beauty of the face is a cue. As shown in the well-known what is beautiful is good stereotype, perceived attractiveness is often associated with desirable personality. Although such research on attractiveness used mainly the face isolated from other body parts, the face is not always seen in isolation in the real world. Rather, it is surrounded by one’s hairstyle, and is perceived as a part of total presence. In human vision, perceptual organization/integration occurs mostly in a bottom up, task-irrelevant fashion. This raises an intriguing possibility that task-irrelevant stimulus that is perceptually integrated with a target may influence our affective evaluation. In such a case, there should be a mutual influence between attractiveness perception of the face and surrounding hair, since they are assumed to share strong and unique perceptual organization. In the current study, we examined the influence of a task-irrelevant stimulus on our attractiveness evaluation, using face and hair as stimuli. The results revealed asymmetrical influences in the evaluation of one while ignoring the other. When hair was task-irrelevant, it still affected attractiveness of the face, but only if the hair itself had never been evaluated by the same evaluator. On the other hand, the face affected the hair regardless of whether the face itself was evaluated before. This has intriguing implications on the asymmetry between face and hair, and perceptual integration between them in general. Together with data from a post-hoc questionnaire, it is suggested that both implicit non-selective and explicit selective processes contribute to attractiveness evaluation. The findings provide an understanding of attractiveness perception in real-life situations, as well as a new paradigm to reveal unknown implicit aspects of information integration for
Elphinston, Rachel A; Noller, Patricia
Young people's exposure to social network sites such as Facebook is increasing, along with the potential for such use to complicate romantic relationships. Yet, little is known about the overlaps between the online and offline worlds. We extended previous research by investigating the links between Facebook intrusion, jealousy in romantic relationships, and relationship outcomes in a sample of undergraduates currently in a romantic relationship. A Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire was developed based on key features of technological (behavioral) addictions. An eight-item Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire with a single-factor structure was supported; internal consistency was high. Facebook intrusion was linked to relationship dissatisfaction, via jealous cognitions and surveillance behaviors. The results highlight the possibility of high levels of Facebook intrusion spilling over into romantic relationships, resulting in problems such as jealousy and dissatisfaction. The results have implications for romantic relationships and for Facebook users in general.
Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin
African American youth from single mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their non-marital coparents who participated in a study of African American single mother families with an 11 to 16 year old child. Specifically, the study examines: 1) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; 2) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and 3) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. PMID:24479612
Nguyen, Thao B; Pezdek, Kathy; Wixted, John T
Discrimination accuracy is usually higher for same- than for cross-race faces, a phenomenon known as the cross-race effect (CRE). According to prior research, the CRE occurs because memories for same- and cross-race faces rely on qualitatively different processes. However, according to a continuous dual-process model of recognition memory, memories that rely on qualitatively different processes do not differ in recognition accuracy when confidence is equated. Thus, although there are differences in overall same- and cross-race discrimination accuracy, confidence-specific accuracy (i.e., recognition accuracy at a particular level of confidence) may not differ. We analysed datasets from four recognition memory studies on same- and cross-race faces to test this hypothesis. Confidence ratings reliably predicted recognition accuracy when performance was above chance levels (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) but not when performance was at chance levels (Experiment 4). Furthermore, at each level of confidence, confidence-specific accuracy for same- and cross-race faces did not significantly differ when overall performance was above chance levels (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) but significantly differed when overall performance was at chance levels (Experiment 4). Thus, under certain conditions, high-confidence same-race and cross-race identifications may be equally reliable.
Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.
Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…
Karraker, Amelia; Sicinski, Kamil; Moynihan, Donald
A growing literature documents the importance of physical attractiveness in young and middle adulthood for romantic, marital, and sexual relationships, but little is known about how attractiveness in adolescence matters to intimate relationships in later life. We ask: does attractiveness early in life convey ongoing benefits late in life, or do such benefits erode over time? We use multivariate regression models and more than 50 years of data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine the connections between adolescent physical attractiveness and intimate relationships (i.e., sexual activity and access to potential sexual partners) in later life. We find that adolescent attractiveness facilitates sexual activity in later life. This relationship is largely driven by attractiveness increasing the probability of having access to potential sexual partners. However, attractiveness is not related to sexual activity among married couples, even after controlling for marital duration. Men, those in good health, and wealthier individuals are also more likely to engage in several facets of intimate relationships. These findings highlight the importance of relationship context for later life sexual activity and begin to explicate the pathways through which factors across the life course-particularly attractiveness-influence sexual activity in later life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Substance abuse in pregnant and recently postpartum women is a major public health concern because of effects on the infant and on the ability of the adult to care for the infant. In addition to the negative health effects of teratogenic substances on fetal development, substance use can contribute to difficulties associated with the social and behavioral aspects of parenting. Neural circuits associated with parenting behavior overlap with circuits involved in addiction (e.g., frontal, striatal and limbic systems and thus may be co-opted for the craving/reward cycle associated with substance use and abuse and be less available for parenting. The current study investigates the degree to which neural circuits associated with parenting are disrupted in mothers who are substance-using. Specifically, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural response to emotional infant cues (faces and cries in substance-using compared to non-using mothers. In response to both faces (of varying emotional valence and cries (of varying distress levels, substance-using mothers evidenced reduced neural activation in regions that have been previously implicated in reward and motivation as well as regions involved in cognitive control. Specifically, in response to faces, substance users showed reduced activation in prefrontal regions, including the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as visual processing (occipital lobes and limbic regions (parahippocampus and amygdala. Similarly, in response to infant cries substance-using mothers showed reduced activation relative to non-using mothers in prefrontal regions, auditory sensory processing regions, insula and limbic regions (parahippocampus and amygdala. These findings suggest that infant stimuli may be less salient for substance-using mothers, and such reduced saliency may impair developing infant-caregiver attachment and the ability of mothers to respond appropriately to their
Li, Qin; Wang, Hua Jing; You, Jane; Li, Zhao Ming; Li, Jin Xue
In some large-scale face recognition task, such as driver license identification and law enforcement, the training set only contains one image per person. This situation is referred to as one sample problem. Because many face recognition techniques implicitly assume that several (at least two) images per person are available for training, they cannot deal with the one sample problem. This paper investigates principal component analysis (PCA), Fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and locality preserving projections (LPP) and shows why they cannot perform well in one sample problem. After that, this paper presents four reasons that make one sample problem itself difficult: the small sample size problem; the lack of representative samples; the underestimated intra-class variation; and the overestimated inter-class variation. Based on the analysis, this paper proposes to enlarge the training set based on the inter-class relationship. This paper also extends LDA and LPP to extract features from the enlarged training set. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Full Text Available In some large-scale face recognition task, such as driver license identification and law enforcement, the training set only contains one image per person. This situation is referred to as one sample problem. Because many face recognition techniques implicitly assume that several (at least two images per person are available for training, they cannot deal with the one sample problem. This paper investigates principal component analysis (PCA, Fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA, and locality preserving projections (LPP and shows why they cannot perform well in one sample problem. After that, this paper presents four reasons that make one sample problem itself difficult: the small sample size problem; the lack of representative samples; the underestimated intra-class variation; and the overestimated inter-class variation. Based on the analysis, this paper proposes to enlarge the training set based on the inter-class relationship. This paper also extends LDA and LPP to extract features from the enlarged training set. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi
It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.
Lee, Soon-Ho; Chang, Dong-Seon; Kang, O-Seok; Kim, Hwa-Hyun; Kim, Hackjin; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a patient's preference for a doctor's face is associated with better assessments of relational empathy in the patient-doctor relationship after the first clinical consultation. A total of 110 patients enrolled in a traditional Korean medical clinic participated in the study. Patients' preference for doctors' faces was assessed by a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) task, with 60 different pairs of six different Asian male doctors' faces. One of the six doctors then carried out the initial clinical consultation for these patients. The patient-doctor relationship was assessed using the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) measure. The data of all patients' simulated preferences for a doctor's face and their assessment values of a doctor's relational empathy was compared, and no significant correlation was found between both values (r=-0.024, p>0.809). These findings suggest that the perceived empathy in the patient-doctor relationship is not influenced by the patient's preference for a certain doctor's face. The first impression of a doctor is often determined by his appearance and look. However, whether or not the patient particularly prefers a doctor's face does not seem to matter in developing a good patient-doctor relationship.
Geng, Qi; Bruland, Amund; Macias, Francisco Javier
The consumption of TBM disc cutters is influenced by the ground conditions (e.g. intact rock properties, rock mass properties, etc.), the TBM boring parameters (e.g. thrust, RPM, penetration, etc.) and the cutterhead design parameters (e.g. cutterhead shape, cutter layout). Previous researchers have done much work on the influence of the ground conditions and TBM boring parameters on cutter consumption; however, limited research has been found on the relationship between the cutterhead design and cutter consumption. The purpose of the present paper is to study the influence of layout on consumption for the TBM face cutters. Data collected from six tunnels (i.e. the Røssåga Headrace Tunnel in Norway, the Qinling Railway Tunnel in China, tubes 3 and 4 of the Guadarrama Railway Tunnel in Spain, the parallel tubes of the Vigo-Das Maceiras Tunnel in Spain) were used for analysis. The cutter consumption shape curve defined as the fitted function of the normalized cutter consumption versus the cutter position radius is found to be uniquely determined by the cutter layout and was used for analysis. The straightness and smoothness indexes are introduced to evaluate the quality of the shape curves. The analytical results suggest that the spacing of face cutters in the inner and outer parts of cutterhead should to be slightly larger and smaller, respectively, than the average spacing, and the difference of the position angles between the neighbouring cutters should be constant among the cutter positions. The 2-spiral layout pattern is found to be better than other layout patterns in view of cutter consumption and cutterhead force balance.
Conway, Claire A; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C
Most previous studies of face preferences have investigated the physical cues that influence face preferences. Far fewer studies have investigated the effects of cues to the direction of others' social interest (i.e. gaze direction) on face preferences. Here we found that unpartnered women demonstrated stronger preferences for direct gaze (indicating social interest) from feminine male faces than from masculine male faces when judging men's attractiveness for long-term relationships, but not when judging men's attractiveness for short-term relationships. Moreover, unpartnered women's preferences for direct gaze from feminine men were stronger for long-term than short-term relationships, but there was no comparable effect for judgements of masculine men. No such effects were evident among women with romantic partners, potentially reflecting different motivations underlying partnered and unpartnered women's judgements of men's attractiveness. Collectively these findings (1) complement previous findings whereby women demonstrated stronger preferences for feminine men as long-term than short-term partners, (2) demonstrate context-sensitivity in the integration of physical and social cues in face preferences, and (3) suggest that gaze preferences may function, at least in part, to facilitate efficient allocation of mating effort.
Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
Recent research demonstrates that perceptions of gender mistrust are implicated in lower marriage rates among low-income populations. Yet few quantitative studies have examined the factors predicting gender mistrust during adolescence and whether it influences the quality of subsequent nonmarital romantic relationships. Analysis of three waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (N = 1,106) indicates that in addition to neighborhood poverty rates, parents’ own gender mistru...
Schneider, Daniel; Hastings, Orestes P
The United States has become increasingly characterized by stark class divides in family structure. Poor women are less likely to marry than their more affluent counterparts but are far more likely to have a birth outside of marriage. Recent theoretical and qualitative work at the intersection of demography and cultural sociology suggests that these patterns are generated because poor women have high, nearly unattainable, economic standards for marriage but make a much weaker connection between economic standing and fertility decisions. We use the events of the Great Recession, leveraging variation in the severity of the crisis between years and across states, to examine how exposure to worse state-level economic conditions is related to poor women's likelihood of marriage and of having a nonmarital birth between 2008 and 2012. In accord with theory, we find that women of low socioeconomic status (SES) exposed to worse economic conditions are indeed somewhat less likely to marry. However, we also find that unmarried low-SES women exposed to worse economic conditions significantly reduce their fertility; economic standing is not disconnected from nonmarital fertility. Our results suggest that economic concerns were connected to fertility decisions for low-SES unmarried women during the Great Recession.
Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Dotsch, R.; Corneille, O.
Previous research has demonstrated that, presumably as a way to protect one’s current romantic relationship, individuals involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship tend to give lower attractiveness ratings to attractive opposite-sex others as compared to uninvolved individuals (i.e., the
Karremans, Johan C.; Dotsch, Ron; Corneille, Olivier
Previous research has demonstrated that, presumably as a way to protect one's current romantic relationship, individuals involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship tend to give lower attractiveness ratings to attractive opposite-sex others as compared to uninvolved individuals (i.e., the "derogation effect"). The present study importantly…
Corbett, Blythe A; Newsom, Cassandra; Key, Alexandra P; Qualls, Lydia R; Edmiston, E Kale
Background Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impairment in reciprocal social communication, which includes deficits in social cognition and behavior. Since social cognition and social behavior are considered to be interdependent, it is valuable to examine social processes on multiple levels of analysis. Neuropsychological measures of face processing often reveal deficits in social cognition in ASD including the ability to identify and remember facial information. However, the ...
Ross, Kaile M; Ranby, Krista W; Wooldridge, Jennalee S; Robertson, Cary; Lipkus, Isaac M
Prostate cancer may affect quality of life in men diagnosed as well as their spouses. Changes in health may disrupt the couple's relationship functioning which disrupts recovery. This study examined how mental and physical health relates to relationship satisfaction for couples at diagnosis through the year following treatment. Patients with stage I-II prostate cancer and their spouses (N = 159 couples) were recruited from a urology clinic and completed questionnaires at diagnosis, 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months post prostatectomy on demographics, mental and physical health quality of life, and relationship satisfaction. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was employed to examine effects of each partners' mental and physical health on their own and their partner's relationship satisfaction. Patients and spouses had declined mental and physical health at 1 month post-surgery. Health improved at 6 and 12 months but did not fully return to pre-surgery levels. Actor effects showed that patient's physical health consistently predicted own relationship satisfaction. Both patient's and spouse's mental health consistently related to their own relationship satisfaction. Partner effects showed that patient's and spouse's physical health had an effect on each other's relationship satisfaction at 1 month. Spouse's mental health predicted patient's relationship satisfaction throughout the year following treatment. The effects of patient and spouse mental and physical health quality of life on their own as well as their partner's relationship satisfaction differed across time which will inform psychosocial interventions for couples with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sakai, Jun; Funayama, Masato; Kanetake, Jun
Rebreathing is a model for the relationship between a prone sleeping position and sudden infant death syndrome. This study used a mechanical simulation model to establish the relationship between types of bedding and rebreathing potential for an infant placed prone (face down) at different postnatal ages. The infant mannequin was connected to a respirator set to deliver physiologically appropriate combinations of tidal volume (V(T)) and respiratory rates (RR) across a range of postnatal ages (0-18 months). Before measurements were made, CO(2) flow was regulated to 5+/-0.1% of end-tidal PCO(2) (EtCO(2)). After the model was placed in a prone position, any increase in the fractional concentration of inspired CO(2) (FiCO(2)) was measured. FiCO(2) increased immediately and rapidly, and reached a maximum value within a few minutes. The maximum FiCO(2) ranged from under 2% to over 10%, depending on the bedding. FiCO(2) was also affected by V(T) and RR. This model is not applicable to actual infants because of the large tissue stores of CO(2) in infants; however, it is useful for evaluation of gas diffusibility of bedding and will simplify the investigation of sleeping environments when a baby is found dead with its face covered by soft bedding. In general, the higher the FiCO(2), the greater the rebreathing potential. Theoretically, considering the paucity of body stores of O(2), changes in FiO(2) would be affected not by changes in FiCO(2), but by CO(2) production and gas movement around the infant's face. The rapid decrease of FiO(2) is approximated at the inverse of the FiCO(2) timecourse, suggesting the significance of not only CO(2) accumulation but also O(2) deprivation in the potential space around the baby's face.
Akincigil, Ayse; Munch, Shari; Niemczyk, Kristen C
Existing literature has documented the associations between marital status and maternal depression within the first year postpartum. Using data that is representative of urban non-marital births in the United States with a large over-sample of non-marital births, we investigate the association of maternal depression with not only marital status but also relationship quality with the father of the baby. Quality is independently associated with maternal depression after controlling for marital status and other variables that have been documented as risk factors for maternal depression. In addition, relationship quality explains away the associations between marital status and maternal depression. After controlling for relationship quality, single women were no more likely to be depressed compared to married or cohabiting women.
This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...
Full Text Available The relationship of the financial deepening to the interest rate has become an important study for the Southeast Asia countries, especially preparation for entering the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC in 2015. This study will explore the effect of interest rates on deposits and credit to the financial deepening in ASEAN 5. By using VECM showed that Indonesia, the Philippines and Singapore possessed a similar pattern where lending rates negatively affect financial deepening, while the deposit rate positive effect. In contrast to Malaysia and Thailand, deposit rates had a negative impact on financial depth, while the loan interest rate was positive. Meanwhile, using panel data for the ASEAN 5 showed that the effect of interest rates on loans to the depth of the financial sector is negative, whereas the effect of deposit rate was positive
Full Text Available This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowable. As with contradictory propositions about homosexuality, contradiction does not undermine discourse but makes it stronger and more agile. Este artículo utiliza la teoría Queer, más concretamente la literatura sobre Bowers vs. Hardwick, para analizar los debates sobre la legislación propuesta en Quebec en relación al velo. La teoría Queer arroja luz sobre las respuestas legales al velo. Los debates parlamentarios en Quebec reconstituyen la forma de gobierno, especialmente como secular y unido. El documento pone de relieve el carácter contradictorio e inestable de cuatro binarios: texto legislativo frente a las prácticas sociales; legislación frente a estado; mayoría versus minoría; y conocible frente a incognoscible. Al igual que con las proposiciones contradictorias acerca de la homosexualidad, la contradicción no socava el discurso, sino que lo hace más fuerte y más ágil.
Full Text Available Escherichia coli O104:H4 was identified as an emerging pathogen during the spring and summer of 2011 and was responsible for a widespread outbreak that resulted in the deaths of 50 people and sickened over 4075. Traditional phenotypic and genotypic assays, such as serotyping, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, permit identification and classification of bacterial pathogens, but cannot accurately resolve relationships among genotypically similar but pathotypically different isolates. To understand the evolutionary origins of E. coli O104:H4, we sequenced two strains isolated in Ontario, Canada. One was epidemiologically linked to the 2011 outbreak, and the second, unrelated isolate, was obtained in 2010. MLST analysis indicated that both isolates are of the same sequence type (ST678, but whole-genome sequencing revealed differences in chromosomal and plasmid content. Through comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of five O104:H4 ST678 genomes, we identified 167 genes in three gene clusters that have undergone homologous recombination with distantly related E. coli strains. These recombination events have resulted in unexpectedly high sequence diversity within the same sequence type. Failure to recognize or adjust for homologous recombination can result in phylogenetic incongruence. Understanding the extent of homologous recombination among different strains of the same sequence type may explain the pathotypic differences between the ON2010 and ON2011 strains and help shed new light on the emergence of this new pathogen.
Anne J Lagomarcino
Full Text Available For present-day biotas, close relationships have been documented between the number of species in a given region and the area of the region. To date, however, there have been only limited studies of these relationships in the geologic record, particularly for ancient marine biotas. The recent development of large-scale marine paleontological databases, in conjunction with enhanced geographical mapping tools, now allow for their investigation. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in comparing the environmental and paleobiological properties of two broad-scale marine settings: epicontinental seas, broad expanses of shallow water covering continental areas, and open-ocean-facing settings, shallow shelves and coastlines that rim ocean basins. Recent studies indicate that spatial distributions of taxa and the kinetics of taxon origination and extinction may have differed in these two settings. Against this backdrop, we analyze regional Genus-Area Relationships (GARs of Late Cretaceous marine invertebrates in epicontinental sea and open-ocean settings using data from the Paleobiology Database. We present a new method for assessing GARs that is particularly appropriate for fossil data when the geographic distribution of these data is patchy and uneven. Results demonstrate clear relationships between genus richness and area for regions worldwide, but indicate that as area increases, genus richness increases more per unit area in epicontinental seas than in open-ocean settings. This difference implies a greater degree of compositional heterogeneity as a function of geographic area in epicontinental sea settings, a finding that is consistent with the emerging understanding of physical differences in the nature of water masses between the two marine settings.
Min, Stella; Taylor, Miles G
The present study employs discrete-time hazard regression models to investigate the relationship between student loan debt and the probability of transitioning to either marital or nonmarital first childbirth using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). Accounting for nonrandom selection into student loans using propensity scores, our study reveals that the effect of student loan debt on the transition to motherhood differs among white, black, and Hispanic women. Hispanic women holding student loans experience significant declines in the probability of transitioning to both marital and nonmarital motherhood, whereas black women with student loans are significantly more likely to transition to any first childbirth. Indebted white women experience only a decrease in the probability of a marital first birth. The results from this study suggest that student loans will likely play a key role in shaping future demographic patterns and behaviors.
Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.
The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184
Shawn N Geniole
Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio, is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01. In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively and masculinity (negatively ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".
Geniole, Shawn N; Keyes, Amanda E; Mondloch, Catherine J; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M
The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36) = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".
Full Text Available ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After ...
Full Text Available ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic ...
Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher
artist Marnix de Nijs' Physiognomic Scrutinizer is an interactive installation whereby the viewer's face is scanned and identified with historical figures. The American artist Zach Blas' project Fag Face Mask consists of three-dimensional portraits that blend biometric facial data from 30 gay men's faces...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled...
Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova
unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...
Crosnoe, Robert; Wildsmith, Elizabeth
Working from a life course perspective, this study examined the links between mothers' fertility and relationship statuses and children's early school achievement and how these links varied by race/ethnicity and immigration status. Analyses of nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed…
Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our ...
Full Text Available ... not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and clinicians share their experiences with PTSD ...
Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...
Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos Learn ...
Richler, Jennifer J; Floyd, R Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel
Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically.
Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong
This study examined preferences for masculinity across faces, bodies, and personality traits in 462 homosexual and bisexual men in China. The impact of sexual self-labels (tops, bottoms, and versatiles) and attitude toward male masculinity on preferences for masculinity were also examined. Participants were asked to select the seven most desirable personality traits for a romantic partner from a list of 32 traits of gender roles. A series of 10 masculinized and feminized dimorphic images of male faces and bodies were then presented to participants, who were required to identify their preferred image. The results indicated that participants preferred more masculine faces, bodies, and personality traits. Significant differences in preferences for masculinity were found between tops, bottoms, and versatiles, with both bottoms and versatiles preferring more masculine faces, bodies, and personality traits than did tops. In addition, preferences for masculinity across faces, bodies, and traits showed a significant positive correlation with each other for all sexual self-labels, indicating a consistent preference for masculinity. Attitude toward male masculinity was significantly correlated with facial, body, and trait preferences; individuals with more rigid attitudes toward male masculinity (low acceptance of femininity in males) preferred more masculine characters. These results indicate a consistent preference for masculinity between both physical features (faces and bodies) and personality traits (instrumentality) that may be affected by observer perception.
Full Text Available ... at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, ...
Full Text Available ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic event — ... you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is ...
Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta
In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…
Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert
Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.
Seok, Joon; Hong, Ji Yeon; Choi, Sun Young; Park, Kui Young; Kim, Beom Joon
There is an increasing interest in skin rejuvenation using hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers beyond the improvement of deep wrinkles and volume deficiencies, which have been primary research foci in the past. We conducted a pilot study using a sample of six middle-aged male subjects. Using an automatic intradermal injector with 0.020 mL of material contained in each injection point with a total of 100 points, 2 mL of non-cross-HA filler was injected into the entire face at every treatment session. We administered injections of HA for a total of three sessions per subject at 2-week intervals and evaluated the results using a corneometer, TEWL, cutometer, measures of patient satisfaction, and the global aesthetic improvement scale (GAIS). Corneometer values increased steadily at each measurement, while the average value of TEWL increased in comparison with baseline after each application of the procedure. However, values returned to readings similar to those at 4 weeks after complete termination of the procedures. Cutometer values differed between the baseline and after procedures. All patients were assessed as "very much improved" or "much improved" according to GAIS, and all were pleased with the outcomes of treatment in terms of the enhancement of moisture, elasticity, and brightness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fletcher, Kingsley I; Butavicius, Marcus A; Lee, Michael D
Accurate matching of unfamiliar faces is vital in security and forensic applications, yet previous research has suggested that humans often perform poorly when matching unfamiliar faces. Hairstyle and facial hair can strongly influence unfamiliar face matching but are potentially unreliable cues. This study investigated whether increased attention to the more stable internal face features of eyes, nose, and mouth was associated with more accurate face-matching performance. Forty-three first-year psychology students decided whether two simultaneously presented faces were of the same person or not. The faces were displayed for either 2 or 6 seconds, and had either similar or dissimilar hairstyles. The level of attention to internal features was measured by the proportion of fixation time spent on the internal face features and the sensitivity of discrimination to changes in external feature similarity. Increased attention to internal features was associated with increased discrimination in the 2-second display-time condition, but no significant relationship was found in the 6-second condition. Individual differences in eye-movements were highly stable across the experimental conditions.
Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.
This study examines processes linking inner-city community violence exposure to subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. Hypothesized risk and protective factors from three ecological domains -- children's parent and peer relationships and individual characteristics -- were examined for mediating, moderating or independent roles in predicting problem behavior among 667 children over three years of middle school. Mediation was not found. However, parent and peer variables moderated the association between exposure and internalizing problems. Under high exposure, normally protective factors (e.g., attachment to parents) were less effective in mitigating exposure's effects than under low exposure; attachment to friends was more effective. Individual competence was independently associated with decreased internalizing problems. Variables from all domains, and exposure, were independently associated with externalizing problems. Protective factors (e.g., parent attachment) predicted decreased problems; risk factors (e.g., friends' delinquency) predicted increased problems. Results indicate community violence reduction as essential in averting inner-city adolescents' poor behavioral outcomes. PMID:21643493
Full Text Available This essay examines the significance and transformation of shame in the context of digitalization, in particular, the psychosocial and psychological consequences of shifts in the boundaries between public and private manifest in the contemporary digital world. Moreover, it will examine the dynamic relationships of shame, humiliation and shamelessness as they develop in digital environments characterized by the dissolution of physical and communicative presence, as well as the, in turn, changing functions, ambivalences and affective pitfalls of self-presentation. On the basis of descriptions and commentaries by contemporary adolescents on the significance of social networks and on their own digital self-presentation, it will identify mechanisms for dealing with the imagined, projected or abnegated gaze of the other in the net.
del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.
Non-marital romantic relationship dissolution is amongst the most stressful life events experienced by young adults. Yet, some individuals experience posttraumatic growth following relationship dissolution. Little is known about the specific and differential contribution of trait-like and event...... Distress Scale) following a recent relationship dissolution. Initially, 148 participants completed measures of trait-like and dissolution-specific cognitive processing, growth, and distress (T1). A subsample completed a seven-month follow-up (T2). Higher frequency of relationship-dissolution intrusive...... thoughts predicted concurrent distress after accounting for brooding and relationship characteristics. Further, higher brooding and lower reflection predicted higher distress prospectively. Concurrent growth was predicted by both higher brooding and more deliberate relationship-dissolution thoughts...
In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different
Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit
Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…
Kujath, Carlyne L
Previous studies have claimed that social-networking sites are used as a substitute for face-to-face interaction, resulting in deteriorating relationship quality and decreased intimacy among its users. The present study hypothesized that this type of communication is not a substitute for face-to-face interaction; rather, that it is an extension of communication with face-to-face partners. A survey was administered to examine the use of Facebook and MySpace in this regard among 183 college students. The study confirmed that Facebook and MySpace do act as an extension of face-to-face interaction, but that some users do tend to rely on Facebook and MySpace for interpersonal communication more than face-to-face interaction.
Zou, Wilman W W; Yuen, Pong C
This paper addresses the very low resolution (VLR) problem in face recognition in which the resolution of the face image to be recognized is lower than 16 × 16. With the increasing demand of surveillance camera-based applications, the VLR problem happens in many face application systems. Existing face recognition algorithms are not able to give satisfactory performance on the VLR face image. While face super-resolution (SR) methods can be employed to enhance the resolution of the images, the existing learning-based face SR methods do not perform well on such a VLR face image. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel approach to learn the relationship between the high-resolution image space and the VLR image space for face SR. Based on this new approach, two constraints, namely, new data and discriminative constraints, are designed for good visuality and face recognition applications under the VLR problem, respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed SR algorithm based on relationship learning outperforms the existing algorithms in public face databases.
Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya
This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication.
Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya
Abstract This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication. PMID:25405782
Biotti, Federica; Wu, Esther; Yang, Hua; Jiahui, Guo; Duchaine, Bradley; Cook, Richard
Upright face perception is thought to involve holistic processing, whereby local features are integrated into a unified whole. Consistent with this view, the top half of one face appears to fuse perceptually with the bottom half of another, when aligned spatially and presented upright. This 'composite face effect' reveals a tendency to integrate information from disparate regions when faces are presented canonically. In recent years, the relationship between susceptibility to the composite effect and face recognition ability has received extensive attention both in participants with normal face recognition and participants with developmental prosopagnosia. Previous results suggest that individuals with developmental prosopagnosia may show reduced susceptibility to the effect suggestive of diminished holistic face processing. Here we describe two studies that examine whether developmental prosopagnosia is associated with reduced composite face effects. Despite using independent samples of developmental prosopagnosics and different composite procedures, we find no evidence for reduced composite face effects. The experiments yielded similar results; highly significant composite effects in both prosopagnosic groups that were similar in magnitude to the effects found in participants with normal face processing. The composite face effects exhibited by both samples and the controls were greatly diminished when stimulus arrangements were inverted. Our finding that the whole-face binding process indexed by the composite effect is intact in developmental prosopagnosia indicates that other factors are responsible for developmental prosopagnosia. These results are also inconsistent with suggestions that susceptibility to the composite face effect and face recognition ability are tightly linked. While the holistic process revealed by the composite face effect may be necessary for typical face perception, it is not sufficient; individual differences in face recognition ability
Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.
We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…
Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.
Editing faces in movies is of interest in the special effects industry. We aim at producing effects such as the addition of accessories interacting correctly with the face or replacing the face of a stuntman with the face of the main actor. The system introduced in this thesis is based on a 3D generative face model. Using a 3D model makes it possible to edit the face in the semantic space of pose, expression, and identity instead of pixel space, and due to its 3D nature allows...
The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011). The section 2 is reported by an officer of Date City, which localizes at 60 km northern west of the Plant, borders on Iitate Village of Fukushima prefecture, and is indicated as the important area of contamination search (IACS), which the reporter has been conducted for as responsible personnel. In July 2011, the ambient dose was as high as 3.0-3.5 mc-Sv/h and the tentative storage place of contaminated materials was decided by own initiative of residents of a small community, from which the real decontamination started in the City. The target dose after decontamination was defined to be 1.0 mc-Sv/h: however, 28/32 IACS municipalities in the prefecture had not defined the target although they had worked for 2 years after the Accident for their areas exceeding the standard 0.23 mc-Sv/h. At the moment of decontamination of the reporter's own house, he noticed that resident's concerns had directed toward its work itself, not toward the target dose, and wondered if these figures had obstructed to correctly face the radiation. At present that about 2.5 years have passed since the Accident, all of Date citizens have personal accumulated glass dosimeters for seeing the effective external dose and it seems that their dose will not exceed 1 mSv/y if the ambient dose estimated is 0.3-5 mc-Sv/h. Media run to popularity not to face radiation, experts tend to hesitate to face media and residents, and radiation dose will be hardly reduced to zero, despite that correct understanding of radiation is a shorter way for residents' own ease: facing radiation is facing residents. (T.T.)
Jain, Anil K
.... Specifically, the report addresses the problem of detecting faces in color images in the presence of various lighting conditions and complex backgrounds as well as recognizing faces under variations...
Masip, David; Lapedriza, Agata; Vitria, Jordi
In this chapter we introduce the importance of the external features in face classification problems, and propose a methodology to extract the external features obtaining an aligned feature set. The extracted features can be used as input to any standard pattern recognition classifier, as the classic feature extraction approaches dealing with internal face regions in the literature. The resulting scheme follows a top-down segmentation approach to deal with the diversity inherent to the extern...
Wyse, Jessica JB; Harding, David J.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.
In dominant theories of criminal desistance, marital relationship formation is understood to be a key “turning point” away from deviant behavior. Empirical studies supporting this claim have largely focused on the positive role of marriage in men's desistance from crime, and relatively few studies have examined the role that non-marital relationships may play in desistance. Drawing on 138 longitudinal in-depth interviews with 22 men and women reentering society from prison, this paper extends the scope of desistance research by additionally considering the significance of more fleeting and fluid relationships, and the diverse processes through which romantic relationships of all sorts are linked with criminal behaviors. We present an empirically-based typology detailing six processes, grouped within three conceptual categories, through which romantic relationships had their effects. These pathways include material circumstances, social bonds and interactions, and emotional supports and stressors. We also consider gender differences in these processes. While more tenuous bonds to marginally conventional partners would seem to exert little effect, as one of the few relationships and social roles available to many former prisoners, we found that they wielded important influence, if not always in a positive direction. PMID:25484489
Lamparello, Brooke M; Bueno, Ericka M; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C; Pomahac, Bohdan
Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify topics applicable to face transplant patients. The team identified unique features of face transplantation that warrant comprehensive patient education. We created a 181-page handbook to provide subjects interested in pursuing transplantation with a written source of information on the process and team members and to address concerns they may have. While the handbook covers a wide range of topics, it is easy to understand and visually appealing. Face transplantation has many unique aspects that must be relayed to the patients pursuing this novel therapy. Since candidates lack third-party support groups and programs, the transplant team must provide an extensive educational component to enhance this complex process. As face transplantation continues to develop, programs must create sound education programs that address patients' needs and concerns to facilitate optimal care.
Zhang, Chun; Du, Jianxia; Sun, Li; Ding, Yi
Technology has been quickly changing human interactions, traditional practices, and almost every aspect of our lives. It is important to maintain effective face-to-face communication and interactions between teachers and families. Nonetheless, technology and its tools can also extend and enhance family-teacher relationships and partnerships. This…
Yanguas, Íñigo; Flores, Alayne
The present study had two main goals: to explore performance differences in a task-based environment between face-to-face (FTF) and oral computer-mediated communication (OCMC) groups, and to investigate the relationship between trait-like willingness to communicate (WTC) and performance in the FTF and OCMC groups. Students from two intact…
Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano
This is a comment on an article by Perrett et al., on the same issue of Nature, investigating face perception. With computer graphics, Perrett and colleagues have produced exaggerated male and female faces, and asked people to rate them with respect to femininity or masculinity, and personality traits such as intelligence, emotionality and so on. The key question is: what informations do faces (and sexual signals in general) convey? One view, supported by Perrett and colleagues, is that all a...
Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z
Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.
This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be
Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A
Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lier, R.J. van
We have made cyclic morphing animations using two different faces. The morphing animations gradually evolved from one face to the other, and vice versa. When free viewing, the perceived changes were not very large, but the changes could easily be observed. Observers were asked to fixate on a dot
Lima, M. L.; Marques, S.; Muiños, G.; Camilo, C.
WOS:000392847900002 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) Positive social relations are known to have a beneficial impact on health, however, little is known about the links of health with online relationships. In this study, we compare face-to-face and virtual friendships in their association with health. By building on previous results of studies conducted on the well-being of college students, we expect to find stronger associations of face-to-face friendships with health than of those establis...
Full Text Available Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon. While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.
Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi
Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.
Jain, Anil K
This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...
Sampaio, Cristina; Reinke, Victoria; Mathews, Jeffrey; Swart, Alexandra; Wallinger, Stephen
We applied a metacognitive approach to investigate confidence in recognition of prototypical faces. Participants were presented with sets of faces constructed digitally as deviations from prototype/base faces. Participants were then tested with a simple recognition task (Experiment 1) or a multiple-choice task (Experiment 2) for old and new items plus new prototypes, and they showed a high rate of confident false alarms to the prototypes. Confidence and accuracy relationship in this face recognition paradigm was found to be positive for standard items but negative for the prototypes; thus, it was contingent on the nature of the items used. The data have implications for lineups that employ match-to-suspect strategies.
Michael Storper; Anthony J. Venables
This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features; it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and develop formal economic models of two of them. Face-to-face is particular...
Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carr?, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.
The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judge...
Full Text Available Facial expressions of basic emotions have been widely used to investigate the neural substrates of emotion processing, but little is known about the exact meaning of subjective changes provoked by perceiving facial expressions. Our assumption was that fearful faces would be related to the processing of potential threats, whereas angry faces would be related to the processing of proximal threats. Experimental studies have suggested that serotonin modulates the brain processes underlying defensive responses to environmental threats, facilitating risk assessment behavior elicited by potential threats and inhibiting fight or flight responses to proximal threats. In order to test these predictions about the relationship between fearful and angry faces and defensive behaviors, we carried out a review of the literature about the effects of pharmacological probes that affect 5-HT-mediated neurotransmission on the perception of emotional faces. The hypothesis that angry faces would be processed as a proximal threat and that, as a consequence, their recognition would be impaired by an increase in 5-HT function was not supported by the results reviewed. In contrast, most of the studies that evaluated the behavioral effects of serotonin challenges showed that increased 5-HT neurotransmission facilitates the recognition of fearful faces, whereas its decrease impairs the same performance. These results agree with the hypothesis that fearful faces are processed as potential threats and that 5-HT enhances this brain processing.
Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg
Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition.
Full Text Available The use of computer-generated (CG stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.
Full Text Available Nowadays, we can see a new form of relationships between males and females, called non-marital cohabitation (concubinage that is known as”white marriage” in Journalistic literature and Speaking Some youth . It seems that such a new lifestyle emerges from most of the large metropolitan areas. In this article we have tried to obtain more understanding about the effective reasons and backgrounds in the couple’s decision, who attempted to form such a relationship (non-marital cohabitation, the process that is involved in, and finally the consequences that they have actually experienced or confronted. Using the free and depth-interview techniques as well as grounded theory, data were gathered and analyzed from 16 cohabited couples. After analyzing the research findings, categories that are consequences of this lifestyle are as follow: “reduction in family’s function and importance”, “migration”, “Tehran city without supervision” as a contextual conditions, “Negative attitudes to customary marriage”, “feminist beliefs” and “lack of faith and adherence to religious values” as a Caused conditions, “Involved in romance”, “become familiar with cohabitation” as an interferer conditions, “cohabitation as an equal relationship”, “cohabitation as a relationship with an open end”, “satisfactory experience of this lifestyle”, “internal obstacles relations”, “external limitation of the relationship” as an interactions, “endure the disadvantage of relation’s termination” and "marriage or promise to marry in order to overcome the external obstacles". Finally, the concept of " cohabitation fleeting relationship of modern conflict with traditional values in the context of the Tehran metropolis" was chosen as a core category".
B. Imperatori; D. Ruta
Purpose — The chapter explores if and how online and face-to-face organizational environments can interact, and if and how this interaction could foster managerial practices to sustain personal growth, organizational development, and employee–organization relationships. Methodology — Research project is based on an emblematic case study: fubles.com is a social sport sharing platform with one of the most active sport communities in Europe. This case is representative of a novel initiative, ...
This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....
Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Hamlin, Iain
The results of two experiments are presented in which participants engaged in a face-recognition or a voice-recognition task. The stimuli were face-voice pairs in which the face and voice were co-presented and were either "matched" (same person), "related" (two highly associated people), or "mismatched" (two unrelated people). Analysis in both experiments confirmed that accuracy and confidence in face recognition was consistently high regardless of the identity of the accompanying voice. However accuracy of voice recognition was increasingly affected as the relationship between voice and accompanying face declined. Moreover, when considering self-reported confidence in voice recognition, confidence remained high for correct responses despite the proportion of these responses declining across conditions. These results converged with existing evidence indicating the vulnerability of voice recognition as a relatively weak signaller of identity, and results are discussed in the context of a person-recognition framework.
Kohske Takahashi; Katsumi Watanabe
Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cuei...
Sagonas, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja
Recently, it has been shown that excellent results can be achieved in both facial landmark localization and pose-invariant face recognition. These breakthroughs are attributed to the efforts of the community to manually annotate facial images in many different poses and to collect 3D facial data. In
If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.
... or sun damage, you might also consider a skin-resurfacing procedure. A face-lift can be done in combination with some other cosmetic procedures, such as a brow lift or eyelid surgery. Why it's done As you get older, your facial skin changes — sagging and becoming loose. This can make ...
This article discusses the problems facing the electric power industry and professional personnel as a result of economic downturn and the resulting down sizing of individual companies and utilities. The author proposes that the most efficient use of technology will have greater impact in making a utility more competitive than reducing the head count
1473, 83 APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE -,1 - " P V 7 V - • ... f -N- PRE FACE This final...dimensionless mass m and support damping 1), ~ at-e aisas M"= -1,,i -4 4) y positive. ’he damping D is Ihe tinplete system of momeints acting on tile
Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Roek, M.A.E.
We explored the possibility that an emotional facial expression exists specifically for signalling sexual interest. We selected photographs of twenty-eight fashion models (male and female) with large portfolios (range 81 - 1593), choosing only face photographs in which the model was looking into the
Stewart, C. E.; And Others
Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…
Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential. (author)
Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming
Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.
This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…
During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…
Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.
Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....
Companies that provide technology or project management involving a wise range of risks will increasingly find much more complex contractual relationships with their customers. This is due largely to the pressures exerted on those relationships by third parties. This paper explores the relationships between private contractors and their customers (frequently government agencies) and how risks affect those relationships. Perceptions of risk sometimes outweigh genuine risks, and the distinction between the two is often irrelevant. Media, site neighbors, adversaries, regulators, and national officials often tip the balance between reality and perception
While blended learning combines online and face-to-face teaching, research on blended learning has primarily focused on the role of technology and the opportunities it creates for engaging students. Less focus has been put on face-to-face activities in blended learning. This paper argues...... that it is not only the online activities in blended learning that provide new opportunities for rethinking pedagogy in higher education, it is also imperative to reconsider the face-to-face activities when part of the learning is provided online. Based on a review of blended learning in business and management...... education, we identify what forms of teaching and learning are suggested to take place face-to-face when other activities are moved online. We draw from the Community of Inquiry framework to analyze how face-to-face activities contribute to a blended learning pedagogy and discuss the implications...
Anne M Burrows
Full Text Available While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech?Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers.These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial musculature to slow down while the function of this muscle
The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.
Jiang, J.; Dai, B.; Peng, D.; Zhu, C.; Liu, L.; Lu, C.
Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-...
Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter
This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ageing is a biological process that results from changes at a cellular level, particularly modification of mRNA. The face is affected by the same physiological process and results in skeletal, muscular, and cutaneous ageing; ligamentous attenuation, descent of fat, and ageing of the appendages. I describe these changes on a structural and clinical basis and summarise possible solutions for a rejuvenation surgeon. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey
Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that i...
Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle
Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129
Liu, Chang Hong; Bhuiyan, Md. Al-Amin; Ward, James; Sui, Jie
The relationship between pose and illumination learning in face recognition was examined in a yes-no recognition paradigm. The authors assessed whether pose training can transfer to a new illumination or vice versa. Results show that an extensive level of pose training through a face-name association task was able to generalize to a new…
Jessica Emeline Goold
Full Text Available Faces spontaneously capture attention. However, which special attributes of a face underlie this effect are unclear. To address this question, we investigate how gist information, specific visual properties and differing amounts of experience with faces affect the time required to detect a face. Three visual search experiments were conducted investigating the rapidness of human observers to detect Mooney face images. Mooney images are two-toned, ambiguous images. They were used in order to have stimuli that maintain gist information but limit low-level image properties. Results from the experiments show: 1 although upright Mooney faces were searched inefficiently, they were detected more rapidly than inverted Mooney face targets, demonstrating the important role of gist information in guiding attention towards a face. 2 Several specific Mooney face identities were searched efficiently while others were not, suggesting the involvement of specific visual properties in face detection. 3 By providing participants with unambiguous gray-scale versions of the Mooney face targets prior to the visual search task, the targets were detected significantly more efficiently, suggesting that prior experience with Mooney faces improves the ability to extract gist information for rapid face detection. However, a week of training with Mooney face categorization did not lead to even more efficient visual search of Mooney face targets. In summary, these results reveal that specific local image properties cannot account for how faces capture attention. On the other hand, gist information alone cannot account for how faces capture attention either. Prior experience facilitates the effect of gist on visual search of faces, making faces a special object category for guiding attention.
Ledborg Hansen, Richard
-rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-to-face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper......-‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... for the same reasons – that the growing amount of digitized communication “out there” represents data waiting to be sifted, analyzed and decoded. In this paper “Facebook behavior” refers to a particular behavior characterized by presenting your self and representations of selected self in the hope of getting...
David F Nichols
Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.
Prabowo, Hendro; Dewi, Mahargyantari P.
Within the perspective of environmental psychology, there are some forms of earth destruction such as global warming, deforestation, pollution, and species extinction. These have been caused by the massive growth of population that inevitably means more housingis needed while at the same time, agricultural land for food production has been shrinking. Nisbet, Zelenski, and Murphy (2009) proposed that personal relationships with nature may provide some insight into the way people treat the environment. In other words, disconnection from the natural world may be contributing to our planet's destruction. In addition, Koger and Winter (2011) proposed green urban planning and green buildings as solution not only for overcoming the destruction, but also they are useful to reduce stress. Wilson (1984) pioneered the term "biophilia" to refer to a fundamental hypothesized, genetically based human need and propensity to affiliate with "life and lifelike processes." Studies have shown, for example, that even minimal connection with nature—such as looking at it through a window—can promote the healing of hospitalized patients; can increase health in the workplace; and can reduce the frequency of illness in prisons. In hundreds of other studies, interaction with pets has shown a wide range of benefits forclinical patients—from adults with Alzheimer's disease to children with autism—as well as for people within the general population (Kahn, Severson, & Ruckert, 2009). This paper is an attempt to collect data regarding the efforts of cities today in adapting to nature, such as Barcelona which tried to control the bird population with contraception;Austin city coexists with bats; dozens of cities in the US which conform with bees and honey, and Masdar city that is designed along with its nature.
Bright, S.; Aletti, V.
This stunning book explores the symbiotic relationship between contemporary portrait photography and fashion. The book presents the intensely unconventional, often unnervingly intimate portraiture being made by five of the most creative and original fashion photographers at work in the world
Lee, Mindy; Murphy, Karen; Andrews, Glenda
Positive face-to-face human interactions are known to benefit well-being. Drawing upon previous work regarding the interference of media (via technological devices or print) in social interaction, the aim of this study was to identify whether using media during face-to-face interaction could potentially limit the positive effect of interaction on well-being. Participants were 437 university students who completed an online survey which assessed media multitasking behaviors, well-being (trait depression, trait anxiety, social anxiety, empathy, and psychological well-being), and personality traits (Big-5 and narcissism). Face-to-face interaction was positively associated with well-being. However, when media use during face-to-face interaction was considered, there was a negative relationship with well-being (more depression, more anxiety, and less psychological well-being). Those who used certain media types, such as phone or video chatting, listening to music, and gaming, while interacting with others, also had lower scores on measures of empathy. Regression analyses showed significant contributions by these media types to empathy levels, even after controlling for age, gender, and personality traits. Face-to-face media multitasking was related to higher levels of narcissism and neuroticism, and lower levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness. This study provides insight into the possible role of media multitasking during face-to-face interaction on psychosocial outcomes.
Calabrese, Francesco; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D; Ratti, Carlo
In this study we analyze one year of anonymized telecommunications data for over one million customers from a large European cellphone operator, and we investigate the relationship between people's calls and their physical location. We discover that more than 90% of users who have called each other have also shared the same space (cell tower), even if they live far apart. Moreover, we find that close to 70% of users who call each other frequently (at least once per month on average) have shared the same space at the same time--an instance that we call co-location. Co-locations appear indicative of coordination calls, which occur just before face-to-face meetings. Their number is highly predictable based on the amount of calls between two users and the distance between their home locations--suggesting a new way to quantify the interplay between telecommunications and face-to-face interactions.
Full Text Available In this study we analyze one year of anonymized telecommunications data for over one million customers from a large European cellphone operator, and we investigate the relationship between people's calls and their physical location. We discover that more than 90% of users who have called each other have also shared the same space (cell tower, even if they live far apart. Moreover, we find that close to 70% of users who call each other frequently (at least once per month on average have shared the same space at the same time--an instance that we call co-location. Co-locations appear indicative of coordination calls, which occur just before face-to-face meetings. Their number is highly predictable based on the amount of calls between two users and the distance between their home locations--suggesting a new way to quantify the interplay between telecommunications and face-to-face interactions.
Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab
Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.
G, Litvinskiy G; Babyuk, G V; Yakovenko, V A
Mining face equipment includes drilling advance wells, drilling using explosives on the contour bore holes, loading and transporting the crushed mass, drilling reinforcement shafts, injecting reinforcement compounds and moving the timber. Camouflet explosives are used to form relaxed rock stress beyond the mining area to decrease costs of reinforcing the mining area by using nonstressed rock in the advance well as support. The strengthening solution is injected through advanced cementing wells before drilling the contour bores as well as through radial cementing wells beyond the timbers following loading and transport of the mining debris. The advance well is 50-80 m.
will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La......Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...
Čufer, Matija; Knežević, Anja
Face-to-face communication is of key importance for successful socialization of a person into a society. Social media makes a good complement to such form of communication. Parents and pedagogical workers must be aware of children not replacing face-to-face communication for communication through the social media in the process of education and growing up. Young people nevertheless frequently communicate through the social media. For this reason, we tried to extract positive features of those...
Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa
Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…
Therefore, this study assessed students‟ perception on Intensive Face to Face sessions. The study specifically aimed at identifying students‟ perception on quality of interaction between tutors and students and between students on the other hand. It also explored the nature of challenges students meet in attending face to ...
Geelen, M.J.A.J.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Elfring, J.
In this (traineeship)report two possible methods of face recognition were presented. The first method describes how to detect and recognize faces by using the SURF algorithm. This algorithm finally was not used for recognizing faces, with the reason that the Eigenface algorithm was an already tested
De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey
Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/.
Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.
This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs
Huang, Wanyi; Wu, Xia; Hu, Liping; Wang, Lei; Ding, Yulong; Qu, Zhe
The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to reinvestigate the earliest face familiarity effect (FFE: ERP differences between familiar and unfamiliar faces) that genuinely reflects cognitive processes underlying recognition of familiar faces in long-term memory. To trigger relatively early FFEs, participants were required to categorize upright and inverted famous faces and unknown faces in a task that placed high demand on face recognition. More importantly, to determine whether an observed FFE was linked to on-line face recognition, systematical investigation about the relationship between the FFE and behavioral performance of face recognition was conducted. The results showed significant FFEs on P1, N170, N250, and P300 waves. The FFEs on occipital P1 and N170 (faces, and were not correlated with any behavioral measure (accuracy, response time) or modulated by learning, indicating that they might merely reflect low-level visual differences between face sets. In contrast, the later FFEs on occipito-temporal N250 (~230ms) and centro-parietal P300 (~350ms) showed consistent polarities for upright and inverted faces. The N250 FFE was individually correlated with recognition speed for upright faces, and could be obtained for inverted faces through learning. The P300 FFE was also related to behavior in many aspects. These findings provide novel evidence supporting that cognitive discrimination of familiar and unfamiliar faces starts no less than 200ms after stimulus onset, and the familiarity effect on N250 may be the first electrophysiological correlate underlying recognition of familiar faces in long-term memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...
apparent coincidence that the same normalization should do for time and uncertainty with Kenneth Arrow, Michael Boskin, Frank Hahn, Hugh Rose, Amartya ... Sen , and John Wise at various times, and the possible relationship between the structure of a criterion function and an information tree such as that
Most of the approaches in automatic face analysis rely solely on static appearance. However, temporal analysis of expressions reveals interesting patterns. For a better understanding of the human face, this thesis focuses on temporal changes in the face, and dynamic patterns of expressions. In
Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different
Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face
Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.
The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a
China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...... the previous ones. ASEAN can potentially make a great contribution to a peaceful transformation of the international system. How to resolve the South China Sea disputes peacefully will be a critical task for both the ASEAN and Chinese leaders in the next decade or two....
Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit
's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians......: A qualitative study consisting of ten individual interviews with Danish midwives, all of whom had taken part in late TOP. RESULTS: Current practice of late TOP resembles the practice of normal deliveries and is influenced by a growing personalisation of the aborted foetus. The midwives strongly supported women...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...
Axelrod, Vadim; Bar, Moshe; Rees, Geraint
Understanding the mechanisms of unconscious processing is one of the most substantial endeavors of cognitive science. While there are many different empirical ways to address this question, the use of faces in such research has proven exceptionally fruitful. We review here what has been learned about unconscious processing through the use of faces and face-selective neural correlates. A large number of cognitive systems can be explored with faces, including emotions, social cueing and evaluation, attention, multisensory integration, and various aspects of face processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Jianfeng; Yuan, Ye; Yu, Gang
The performance of face detection has been largely improved with the development of convolutional neural network. However, the occlusion issue due to mask and sunglasses, is still a challenging problem. The improvement on the recall of these occluded cases usually brings the risk of high false positives. In this paper, we present a novel face detector called Face Attention Network (FAN), which can significantly improve the recall of the face detection problem in the occluded case without comp...
Winkler, Dietmar R.
Little historic context is generally provided regarding design phenomena; ideas, names, events and relationships are disregarded in design's typical superficial coverage; it is as though design exists in a vacuum. This paper seeks to put Helvetica, the face, the font and the movie into context by exploring its relationship to Swiss Design…
Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.
Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.
Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.
Full Text Available In this rapidly changing age, with virtually all information available on the Internet including courses, students may not find any reason to physically attend the lectures. In spite of the many benefits the online lectures and materials bring to teaching, this drift from the traditional (norm face-to-face lectures is also creating further barriers, such as difficulty in communicating and building personal relationships, between students and instructor. In this paper we carry out a study that presents and analyzes factors that motivate students to attend a (1 face-to-face instruction in-class versus an (2 online class. This study is based on an anonymous and voluntary survey that was conducted in the School of Engineering at University of Victoria, BC, Canada. This paper presents and shares the detailed results and analysis of this survey that also includes some interesting and useful comments from the students. Based on the results, analysis and comments the paper suggests methodologies of how to improve face-to-face in-class instructions to make them more relevant to the current global information age.
Otsuka, Yumiko; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Hill, Harold C; Kobayashi, Megumi; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K
Just as faces share the same basic arrangement of features, with two eyes above a nose above a mouth, human eyes all share the same basic contrast polarity relations, with a sclera lighter than an iris and a pupil, and this is unique among primates. The current study examined whether this bright-dark relationship of sclera to iris plays a critical role in face recognition from early in development. Specifically, we tested face discrimination in 7- and 8-month-old infants while independently manipulating the contrast polarity of the eye region and of the rest of the face. This gave four face contrast polarity conditions: fully positive condition, fully negative condition, positive face with negated eyes ("negative eyes") condition, and negated face with positive eyes ("positive eyes") condition. In a familiarization and novelty preference procedure, we found that 7- and 8-month-olds could discriminate between faces only when the contrast polarity of the eyes was preserved (positive) and that this did not depend on the contrast polarity of the rest of the face. This demonstrates the critical role of eye contrast polarity for face recognition in 7- and 8-month-olds and is consistent with previous findings for adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Largay, Julie A; Wang, Xuanwen; Cain, Chris Trahan; Romano, Nancy
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has published reports detailing the results of investigations on selected work-related fatalities through the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program since 1982. Information from construction-related FACE reports was coded into the Construction FACE Database (CFD). Use of the CFD was illustrated by analyzing major CFD variables. A total of 768 construction fatalities were included in the CFD. Information on decedents, safety training, use of PPE, and FACE recommendations were coded. Analysis shows that one in five decedents in the CFD died within the first two months on the job; 75% and 43% of reports recommended having safety training or installing protection equipment, respectively. Comprehensive research using FACE reports may improve understanding of work-related fatalities and provide much-needed information on injury prevention. The CFD allows researchers to analyze the FACE reports quantitatively and efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
This thesis deals with new forms of communication particularly electronic ones. The main goal is to distinguish electronic communication from face to face communication in a way that differs from traditional media theories. By using examples of the most important medium in electronic communication, Internet, it is shown that nowadays we have such forms of electronic communication that surpass the traditional classification of oral/written communication, immediate/mediate communication, face t...
Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie
Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...
Milica Antić Gaber
We believe that in the present thematic issue we have succeeded in capturing an important part of the modern European research dynamic in the field of migration. In addition to well-known scholars in this field several young authors at the beginning their research careers have been shortlisted for the publication. We are glad of their success as it bodes a vibrancy of this research area in the future. At the same time, we were pleased to receive responses to the invitation from representatives of so many disciplines, and that the number of papers received significantly exceeded the maximum volume of the journal. Recognising and understanding of the many faces of migration are important steps towards the comprehensive knowledge needed to successfully meet the challenges of migration issues today and even more so in the future. It is therefore of utmost importance that researchers find ways of transferring their academic knowledge into practice – to all levels of education, the media, the wider public and, of course, the decision makers in local, national and international institutions. The call also applies to all authors in this issue of the journal.
Full Text Available Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenous communities for healing from the continuing traumatic effects of colonization, and the increasing corporatization of the academy as an apparatus of the neo-liberal state – to specify only a few. Edited by Professors Ljubica Matek and Jasna Poljak Rehlicki, these essays deploy a broad range of contemporary theories, representing recent developments in cultural studies, the new economic criticism, postcolonial film studies, feminism and gender studies, and the new historicism. The eleven essays selected by Matek and Rehlicki offer convincing support for their claim that humanistic research delving into Anglophone literature, far from being a “non-profitable” pursuit in an increasingly technologized society, affords clarifying insights into contemporary “economic, cultural, and social processes in the globalizing and globalized culture of the West” (ix.
Lima, Maria Luisa; Marques, Sibila; Muiños, Gabriel; Camilo, Cristina
Positive social relations are known to have a beneficial impact on health, however, little is known about the links of health with online relationships. In this study, we compare face-to-face and virtual friendships in their association with health. By building on previous results of studies conducted on the well-being of college students, we expect to find stronger associations of face-to-face friendships with health than of those established through Facebook. Furthermore, we expect to test the mediating role of social capital variables in this process. Two large-scale studies conducted in community samples (Study 1 = 350 urban residents; Study 2 = 803 urban and rural residents) showed that the number and quality of face-to-face friendships were directly associated with self-reported health status, however, the same did not occur with Facebook friendships. Moreover, the association of face-to-face friendships with health was totally mediated by bonding (mostly) but also bridging social capital. These results, replicated in both studies, were found controlling for confounding variables such as age, gender, education, living alone, self-esteem, and socioeconomic status. This pattern of results emphasizes the gains of face-to-face over online friendships for individuals’ health status in community samples. PMID:28194125
Lima, Maria Luisa; Marques, Sibila; Muiños, Gabriel; Camilo, Cristina
Positive social relations are known to have a beneficial impact on health, however, little is known about the links of health with online relationships. In this study, we compare face-to-face and virtual friendships in their association with health. By building on previous results of studies conducted on the well-being of college students, we expect to find stronger associations of face-to-face friendships with health than of those established through Facebook. Furthermore, we expect to test the mediating role of social capital variables in this process. Two large-scale studies conducted in community samples (Study 1 = 350 urban residents; Study 2 = 803 urban and rural residents) showed that the number and quality of face-to-face friendships were directly associated with self-reported health status, however, the same did not occur with Facebook friendships. Moreover, the association of face-to-face friendships with health was totally mediated by bonding (mostly) but also bridging social capital. These results, replicated in both studies, were found controlling for confounding variables such as age, gender, education, living alone, self-esteem, and socioeconomic status. This pattern of results emphasizes the gains of face-to-face over online friendships for individuals' health status in community samples.
Bruce D Keefe
Full Text Available Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.
This paper implements and compares different techniques for face detection and recognition. One is find where the face is located in the images that is face detection and second is face recognition that is identifying the person. We study three techniques in this paper: Face detection using self organizing map (SOM), Face recognition by projection and nearest neighbor and Face recognition using SVM.
Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N
Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species
Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang
Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hu, Chao S; Wang, Qiandong; Han, Tong; Weare, Ethan; Fu, Genyue
Past research has demonstrated differential recognition of emotion on faces of different races. This paper reports the first study to explore differential emotion attribution to neutral faces of different races. Chinese and Caucasian adults viewed a series of Chinese and Caucasian neutral faces and judged their outward facial expression: neutral, positive, or negative. The results showed that both Chinese and Caucasian viewers perceived more Chinese faces than Caucasian faces as neutral. Nevertheless, Chinese viewers attributed positive emotion to Caucasian faces more than to Chinese faces, whereas Caucasian viewers attributed negative emotion to Caucasian faces more than to Chinese faces. Moreover, Chinese viewers attributed negative and neutral emotion to the faces of both races without significant difference in frequency, whereas Caucasian viewers mostly attributed neutral emotion to the faces. These differences between Chinese and Caucasian viewers may be due to differential visual experience, culture, racial stereotype, or expectation of the experiment. We also used eye tracking among the Chinese participants to explore the relationship between face-processing strategy and emotion attribution to neutral faces. The results showed that the interaction between emotion attribution and face race was significant on face-processing strategy, such as fixation proportion on eyes and saccade amplitude. Additionally, pupil size during processing Caucasian faces was larger than during processing Chinese faces.
Cardon, Peter W.
In Chinese culture, the concept of face refers to personal dignity, prestige, and status and serves to maintain harmony in social relationships and hierarchies. The fear of the loss of face permeates Chinese society. In business, face loss may disrupt deals and harm goodwill. However, limited empirical research has addressed the emotional…
Frisby, Brandi N.; Berger, Erin; Burchett, Molly; Herovic, Emina; Strawser, Michael G.
Participation is considered a positive student classroom behavior that can also create a face-threatening classroom climate that may be alleviated through interpersonal relationships with the instructor. Participants (N?=?189) categorized as low apprehensives perceived less face threat and more face support when participating; moderate…
Fugate, Jennifer M B; Gendron, Maria; Nakashima, Satoshi F; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word). Moreover, participants showed both decreased sensitivity (d') to discriminate between target and distractor faces, as well as altered response biases (c; more likely to answer "yes") when primed with an emotion word (compared with a control word). In Experiment 3 we showed that emotion words had more of an effect on perceptual memory judgments when the structural information in the target face was limited, as well as when participants were only able to categorize the face with a partially congruent emotion word. The overall results are consistent with the idea that emotion words affect the encoding of emotional faces in perceptual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available There is some evidence that faces with a happy expression are recognized better than faces with other expressions. However, little is known about whether this happy face advantage also applies to perceptual face matching, and whether similar differences exist among other expressions. Using a sequential matching paradigm, we systematically compared the effects of seven basic facial expressions on identity recognition. Identity matching was quickest when a pair of faces had an identical happy/sad/neutral expression, poorer when they had a fearful/surprise/angry expression, and poorest when they had a disgust expression. Faces with a happy/sad/fear/surprise expression were matched faster than those with an anger/disgust expression when the second face in a pair had a neutral expression. These results demonstrate that effects of facial expression on identity recognition are not limited to happy faces when a learned face is immediately tested. The results suggest different influences of expression in perceptual matching and long-term recognition memory.
Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various diﬀerent ﬁelds for example in security. Throughout the years this ﬁeld evolved and there are many approaches and many diﬀerent algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as eﬀective...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....
Fysh, Matthew C; Bindemann, Markus
This study presents the Kent Face Matching Test (KFMT), which comprises 200 same-identity and 20 different-identity pairs of unfamiliar faces. Each face pair consists of a photograph from a student ID card and a high-quality portrait that was taken at least three months later. The test is designed to complement existing resources for face-matching research, by providing a more ecologically valid stimulus set that captures the natural variability that can arise in a person's appearance over time. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate that the KFMT provides a challenging measure of face matching but correlates with established tests. Experiment 1 compares a short version of this test with the optimized Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT). In Experiment 2, a longer version of the KFMT, with infrequent identity mismatches, is correlated with performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and the Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT). The KFMT is freely available for use in face-matching research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Van Dillen, L.F.; Lakens, D.; Bos, van den K.
The present research demonstrates that the attention bias to angry faces is modulated by how people categorize these faces. Since facial expressions contain psychologically meaningful information for social categorizations (i.e., gender, personality) but not for non-social categorizations (i.e.,
Salah, Albert Ali; Alyüz, Neşe; Akarun, Lale
3D has become an important modality for face biometrics. The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a one-to-all registration approach, which means each new facial surface is registered to all faces in the gallery, at a great computational cost. We explore the approach of registering the new facial surface to an average face model (AFM), which automatically establishes correspondence to the pre-registered gallery faces. Going one step further, we propose that using a couple of well-selected AFMs can trade-off computation time with accuracy. Drawing on cognitive justifications, we propose to employ category-specific alternative average face models for registration, which is shown to increase the accuracy of the subsequent recognition. We inspect thin-plate spline (TPS) and iterative closest point (ICP) based registration schemes under realistic assumptions on manual or automatic landmark detection prior to registration. We evaluate several approaches for the coarse initialization of ICP. We propose a new algorithm for constructing an AFM, and show that it works better than a recent approach. Finally, we perform simulations with multiple AFMs that correspond to different clusters in the face shape space and compare these with gender and morphology based groupings. We report our results on the FRGC 3D face database.
Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza
A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…
Full Text Available I’m scared. I’m nervous. In a few short weeks the contractors and electricians will take over my library for several months. They will drill huge gouges in the concrete floor, hammer, saw, scrape,move, wire, etc. No doubt they may have to be asked to keep their voices down once or twice. Half of the print journal collection will be relocated to accommodate a new teaching lab that will also double as an information commons. The planning has been going on for many months. We have consulted with other libraries, reviewed the literature, identified the needs of our various user groups, measured space,tested technical possibilities, and met with architects and engineers. Up until now the new lab was an organic idea on paper, discussed over coffee and in meetings. That’s fairly easy to deal with. But just around the corner it becomes a reality and I’m a bag of nerves. Have we made the right decisions? Will it address all our needs? Is there anything I forgot to consider? What if our users don’t like it? What if it is a complete failure?!Theoretically, it should be ok. I’ve followed the right steps and worked with a creative, talented and dedicated team. This is different from trying out a new instructional technique or reorganizing the information desk. This is big. I talk the evidence based talk regularly, but now I am walking the walk in a bigger way than I had ever imagined. Change can be frightening. Moving out of comfort zones is not easy. Having said that, the challenge can be invigorating and the change, refreshing. I find myself welcoming the change as much as I dread it. I’ll face my fears and see it through to the implementation and evaluations and beyond. And hey, no matter what the outcome, it should make for a good paper. If anyone else out there is going through a similar process, I’d be interested in comparing notes. I invite you to try something new this year in your work environment or in your professional activities
Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra M; Wagner, Thomas R
The objective of this study was to investigate specific interpersonal communication motives that college students use to flirt through texting versus face to face (FtF). Four hundred college students (101 men, 299 women) were surveyed and reported using various communication motives to flirt using texting with a potential romantic partner. College students reported specific motives for flirting. Women reported flirting through text and FtF for pleasure motives significantly more than men, whereas men reported flirting for control and relaxation. In addition, men were more likely to flirt FtF for escape compared with women. Findings suggest that individuals are likely to flirt for pleasure if they are in a committed romantic relationship compared with those not in a committed relationship.
Full Text Available There is a growing interest in dimensionality reduction techniques for face recognition, however, the traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms often transform the input face image data into vectors before embedding. Such vectorization often ignores the underlying data structure and leads to higher computational complexity. To effectively cope with these problems, a novel dimensionality reduction algorithm termed distance adaptive tensor discriminative geometry preserving projection (DATDGPP is proposed in this paper. The key idea of DATDGPP is as follows: first, the face image data are directly encoded in high-order tensor structure so that the relationships among the face image data can be preserved; second, the data-adaptive tensor distance is adopted to model the correlation among different coordinates of tensor data; third, the transformation matrix which can preserve discrimination and local geometry information is obtained by an iteration algorithm. Experimental results on three face databases show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other representative dimensionality reduction algorithms.
Bilalić, Merim; Langner, Robert; Ulrich, Rolf; Grodd, Wolfgang
The fusiform face area (FFA) is involved in face perception to such an extent that some claim it is a brain module for faces exclusively. The other possibility is that FFA is modulated by experience in individuation in any visual domain, not only faces. Here we test this latter FFA expertise hypothesis using the game of chess as a domain of investigation. We exploited the characteristic of chess, which features multiple objects forming meaningful spatial relations. In three experiments, we show that FFA activity is related to stimulus properties and not to chess skill directly. In all chess and non-chess tasks, experts' FFA was more activated than that of novices' only when they dealt with naturalistic full-board chess positions. When common spatial relationships formed by chess objects in chess positions were randomly disturbed, FFA was again differentially active only in experts, regardless of the actual task. Our experiments show that FFA contributes to the holistic processing of domain-specific multipart stimuli in chess experts. This suggests that FFA may not only mediate human expertise in face recognition but, supporting the expertise hypothesis, may mediate the automatic holistic processing of any highly familiar multipart visual input.
Laura V Cuaya
Full Text Available Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.
Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier
As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss
Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan
Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is
Reddy, K Siva Prasad
A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.
Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.
Sinno, Sammy; Schwitzer, Jonathan; Anzai, Lavinia; Thorne, Charles H
Face lifting is one of the most common operative procedures for facial aging and perhaps the procedure most synonymous with plastic surgery in the minds of the lay public, but no verifiable documentation of patient satisfaction exists in the literature. This study is the first to examine face-lift outcomes and patient satisfaction using a validated questionnaire. One hundred five patients undergoing a face lift performed by the senior author (C.H.T.) using a high, extended-superficial musculoaponeurotic system with submental platysma approximation technique were asked to complete anonymously the FACE-Q by e-mail. FACE-Q scores were assessed for each domain (range, 0 to 100), with higher scores indicating greater satisfaction with appearance or superior quality of life. Fifty-three patients completed the FACE-Q (50.5 percent response rate). Patients demonstrated high satisfaction with facial appearance (mean ± SD, 80.7 ± 22.3), and quality of life, including social confidence (90.4 ± 16.6), psychological well-being (92.8 ± 14.3), and early life impact (92.2 ± 16.4). Patients also reported extremely high satisfaction with their decision to undergo face lifting (90.5 ± 15.9). On average, patients felt they appeared 6.9 years younger than their actual age. Patients were most satisfied with the appearance of their nasolabial folds (86.2 ± 18.5), cheeks (86.1 ± 25.4), and lower face/jawline (86.0 ± 20.6), compared with their necks (78.1 ± 25.6) and area under the chin (67.9 ± 32.3). Patients who responded in this study were extremely satisfied with their decision to undergo face lifting and the outcomes and quality of life following the procedure.
Trombello, Joseph M; Schoebi, Dominik; Bradbury, Thomas N
Data from 172 newlywed couples were collected over the first 4 years of marriage to test how behaviors demonstrated during marital interactions moderate associations between depressive symptoms and subsequent life stressors. Depressive symptoms and behaviors coded from problem-solving and social support interactions were analyzed as predictors of nonmarital stressors that were interpersonal and dependent on the participant's actions. Behavioral codes were found to moderate 3 of 16 symptom-to-life event associations for husbands. Husbands' reports of more depressive symptoms predicted greater levels of stress when husbands' positive affect and hard negative affect during problem-solving were relatively infrequent and when wives made frequent displays of positive behaviors during husbands' support topics. These effects remained after controlling for marital satisfaction. For wives, behavioral moderators did not interact with depressive symptoms to predict changes in stress, but marital satisfaction consistently interacted with depressive symptoms to predict future stressors beyond interpersonal behaviors. Specifically, for wives, stress generation was more evident when relationship satisfaction was low than when it was high. Our results, though different for men and women, suggest that relationship functioning can alter associations between depressive symptoms and life stress in the early years of marriage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: A large body of research has compared relationship satisfaction and quality in cohabiting versus married relationships. Despite increased recognition of couples in living apart together (LAT relationships, very little research has examined the experiences of couples in LAT relationships compared to co-residential unions. Objective: Our aim is to develop knowledge about the experiences of different union types by investigating relationship satisfaction of people in LAT, cohabiting, and marital relationships. We differentiate those with intentions to marry for cohabiters, and those with intentions to marry or live together in LAT relationships. We also examine differences by gender and country. Methods: Using data from Wave 1 of the Generations and Gender Survey in France, Germany, Australia, and Russia (n = 9,604, OLS regressions are estimated to investigate a differences in relationship satisfaction across relationship types, and b across countries. Results: Married people have the highest levels of relationship satisfaction. People in non-marital unions with intentions to marry or live together are significantly more satisfied than those without marriage or cohabitation intentions. Those in LAT relationships with no intentions to live together have the lowest levels of relationship satisfaction. There is evidence of cross-national variation with differences in relationship satisfaction by union type most pronounced in Australia and Russia. Gender differences are found with women reporting lower levels of relationship satisfaction than men. Conclusions: LAT relationships are qualitatively different to co-residential unions. It is important to further develop our understanding of the experiences of couples in these relationships.
Schein, Stevie S; Langlois, Judith H
We examined the relationship between infant attractiveness and adult affect by investigating whether differing levels of infant facial attractiveness elicit facial muscle movement correlated with positive and negative affect from adults (N=87) using electromyography. Unattractive infant faces evoked significantly more corrugator supercilii and levator labii superioris movement (physiological correlates of negative affect) than attractive infant faces. These results suggest that unattractive infants may be at risk for negative affective responses from adults, though the relationship between those responses and caregiving behavior remains elusive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Woumans, Evy; Martin, Clara D; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Assche, Eva; Costa, Albert; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter
Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which was associated with only one language, during simulated Skype conversations. Afterward, these participants performed a language production task in which they generated words associated with the words produced by familiar and unfamiliar faces displayed on-screen. When responding to familiar faces, participants produced words faster if the faces were speaking the same language as in the previous Skype simulation than if the same faces were speaking a different language. Furthermore, this language priming effect disappeared when it became clear that the interlocutors were actually bilingual. These findings suggest that faces can prime a language, but their cuing effect disappears when it turns out that they are unreliable as language cues. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dakshina Ranjan Kisku
Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.
Xing, Junliang; Niu, Zhiheng; Huang, Junshi; Hu, Weiming; Zhou, Xi; Yan, Shuicheng
Face alignment acts as an important task in computer vision. Regression-based methods currently dominate the approach to solving this problem, which generally employ a series of mapping functions from the face appearance to iteratively update the face shape hypothesis. One keypoint here is thus how to perform the regression procedure. In this work, we formulate this regression procedure as a sparse coding problem. We learn two relational dictionaries, one for the face appearance and the other one for the face shape, with coupled reconstruction coefficient to capture their underlying relationships. To deploy this model for face alignment, we derive the relational dictionaries in a stage-wised manner to perform close-loop refinement of themselves, i.e., the face appearance dictionary is first learned from the face shape dictionary and then used to update the face shape hypothesis, and the updated face shape dictionary from the shape hypothesis is in return used to refine the face appearance dictionary. To improve the model accuracy, we extend this model hierarchically from the whole face shape to face part shapes, thus both the global and local view variations of a face are captured. To locate facial landmarks under occlusions, we further introduce an occlusion dictionary into the face appearance dictionary to recover face shape from partially occluded face appearance. The occlusion dictionary is learned in a data driven manner from background images to represent a set of elemental occlusion patterns, a sparse combination of which models various practical partial face occlusions. By integrating all these technical innovations, we obtain a robust and accurate approach to locate facial landmarks under different face views and possibly severe occlusions for face images in the wild. Extensive experimental analyses and evaluations on different benchmark datasets, as well as two new datasets built by ourselves, have demonstrated the robustness and accuracy of our proposed
Starnini, Michele; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo
Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here ...
Encinas, Enrique; Mitchell, Robb
Cyrafour is an activity that considers the opportunities of using human avatars (cyranoids) for empathic interpersonal remote communication. An unscripted conversation between two individuals (the sources) is transmitted through radio waves and reproduced by two copresent subjects (the cyranoids...
Antón, Susan C
Facial remains of Homo erectus are rare and their scarcity hinders our understanding of the variability and relationships in this taxon. Previously undescribed fragments of the peri-orbital region and unidentified matches between fragments of Olduvai Hominid 12 (OH 12) enhance comparison of the African H. erectus hypodigm. The newly reconstructed upper face and maxilla of OH 12 is most similar in size and shape to that of KNM-ER 3733, despite being as much as one million years younger than the Koobi Fora hominin. However, the posterior vault and mastoid region of OH 12 are most similar to OH 9. This combination of morphology suggests that the relationship between the Olduvai and Koobi Fora portions of the H. erectus hypodigm requires reconsideration.
Cory A. Rieth
Full Text Available We report three behavioral experiments on the spatial characteristics evoking illusory face and letter detection. False detections made to pure noise images were analyzed using a modified reverse correlation method in which hundreds of observers rated a modest number of noise images (480 during a single session. This method was originally developed for brain imaging research, and has been used in a number of fMRI publications, but this is the first report of the behavioral classification images. In Experiment 1 illusory face detection occurred in response to scattered dark patches throughout the images, with a bias to the left visual field. This occurred despite the use of a fixation cross and expectations that faces would be centered. In contrast, illusory letter detection (Experiment 2 occurred in response to centrally positioned dark patches. Experiment 3 included an oval in all displays to spatially constrain illusory face detection. With the addition of this oval the classification image revealed an eyes/nose/mouth pattern. These results suggest that face detection is triggered by a minimal face-like pattern even when these features are not centered in visual focus.
Tuk, M.A.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smidts, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.
Previous research suggests that people form impressions of others based on their facial appearance in a very fast and automatic manner, and this especially holds for trustworthiness. However, as yet, this process has been investigated mostly in a social vacuum without taking interpersonal factors
Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I
Several evolutionarily relevant sources of individual differences in face preference have been documented for women. Here, we examine three such sources of individual variation in men's preference for female facial femininity: term of relationship, partnership status and self-perceived attractiveness. We show that men prefer more feminine female faces when rating for a short-term relationship and when they have a partner (Study 1). These variables were found to interact in a follow-up study (Study 2). Men who thought themselves attractive also preferred more feminized female faces for short-term relationships than men who thought themselves less attractive (Study 1 and Study 2). In women, similar findings for masculine preferences in male faces have been interpreted as adaptive. In men, such preferences potentially reflect that attractive males are able to compete for high-quality female partners in short-term contexts. When a man has secured a mate, the potential cost of being discovered may increase his choosiness regarding short-term partners relative to unpartnered men, who can better increase their short-term mating success by relaxing their standards. Such potentially strategic preferences imply that men also face trade-offs when choosing relatively masculine or feminine faced partners. In line with a trade-off, women with feminine faces were seen as more likely to be unfaithful and more likely to pursue short-term relationships (Study 3), suggesting that risk of cuckoldry is one factor that may limit men's preferences for femininity in women and could additionally lead to preferences for femininity in short-term mates. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.
Masumoto, Kouhei; Yaguchi, Takaharu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tani, Hideaki; Tozuka, Keisuke; Kondo, Narihiko; Okada, Shuichi
A number of interventions have been undertaken to develop and promote social networks among community-dwelling older adults. However, it has been difficult to examine the effects of these interventions, because of problems in assessing interactions. The present study was designed to quantitatively measure and visualize face-to-face interactions among elderly participants in an exercise program. We also examined relationships among interactional variables, personality and interest in community involvement, including interactions with the local community. Older adults living in the same community were recruited to participate in an exercise program that consisted of four sessions. We collected data on face-to-face interactions of the participants by using a wearable sensor technology device. Network analysis identified the communication networks of participants in the exercise program, as well as changes in these networks. Additionally, there were significant correlations between the number of people involved in face-to-face interactions and changes in both interest in community involvement and interactions with local community residents, as well as personality traits, including agreeableness. Social networks in the community are essential for solving problems caused by the aging society. We showed the possible applications of face-to-face interactional data for identifying core participants having many interactions, and isolated participants having only a few interactions within the community. Such data would be useful for carrying out efficient interventions for increasing participants' involvement with their community. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1752-1758. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K
We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...
Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Perton, M.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Weaver, R. L.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, G.; Luzon, F.; McGarr, A.
relationship of average autocorrelations with the imaginary part of Green function at the source. Preliminary results are displayed in data sets from Chilpancingo, Mexico, and the Tautona Gold Mine, South Africa, that strongly suggest that equipartition, that guarantees the diffuse nature of seismic fields, has more than one face. Acknowledgements. Partial supports from DGAPA-UNAM, Project IN114706, Mexico; from Proyect MCyT CGL2005-05500-C02/BTE, Spain; from project DyETI of INSU-CNRS, France, and from the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo are greatly appreciated.
Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Evangelista, Emma; Ewing, Louise; Peters, Marianne; Taylor, Libby
Perceptual adaptation not only produces striking perceptual aftereffects, but also enhances coding efficiency and discrimination by calibrating coding mechanisms to prevailing inputs. Attention to simple stimuli increases adaptation, potentially enhancing its functional benefits. Here we show that attention also increases adaptation to faces. In Experiment 1, face identity aftereffects increased when attention to adapting faces was increased using a change detection task. In Experiment 2, figural (distortion) face aftereffects increased when attention was increased using a snap game (detecting immediate repeats) during adaptation. Both were large effects. Contributions of low-level adaptation were reduced using free viewing (both experiments) and a size change between adapt and test faces (Experiment 2). We suggest that attention may enhance adaptation throughout the entire cortical visual pathway, with functional benefits well beyond the immediate advantages of selective processing of potentially important stimuli. These results highlight the potential to facilitate adaptive updating of face-coding mechanisms by strategic deployment of attentional resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Del Líbano, Mario; Calvo, Manuel G; Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Recio, Guillermo
This study investigated (a) how prototypical happy faces (with happy eyes and a smile) can be discriminated from blended expressions with a smile but non-happy eyes, depending on type and intensity of the eye expression; and (b) how smile discrimination differs for human perceivers versus automated face analysis, depending on affective valence and morphological facial features. Human observers categorized faces as happy or non-happy, or rated their valence. Automated analysis (FACET software) computed seven expressions (including joy/happiness) and 20 facial action units (AUs). Physical properties (low-level image statistics and visual saliency) of the face stimuli were controlled. Results revealed, first, that some blended expressions (especially, with angry eyes) had lower discrimination thresholds (i.e., they were identified as "non-happy" at lower non-happy eye intensities) than others (especially, with neutral eyes). Second, discrimination sensitivity was better for human perceivers than for automated FACET analysis. As an additional finding, affective valence predicted human discrimination performance, whereas morphological AUs predicted FACET discrimination. FACET can be a valid tool for categorizing prototypical expressions, but is currently more limited than human observers for discrimination of blended expressions. Configural processing facilitates detection of in/congruence(s) across regions, and thus detection of non-genuine smiling faces (due to non-happy eyes). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study presents a new approach based on artificial neural networks for generating one biometric feature (faces from another (only fingerprints. An automatic and intelligent system was designed and developed to analyze the relationships among fingerprints and faces and also to model and to improve the existence of the relationships. The new proposed system is the first study that generates all parts of the face including eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, ears and face border from only fingerprints. It is also unique and different from similar studies recently presented in the literature with some superior features. The parameter settings of the system were achieved with the help of Taguchi experimental design technique. The performance and accuracy of the system have been evaluated with 10-fold cross validation technique using qualitative evaluation metrics in addition to the expanded quantitative evaluation metrics. Consequently, the results were presented on the basis of the combination of these objective and subjective metrics for illustrating the qualitative properties of the proposed methods as well as a quantitative evaluation of their performances. Experimental results have shown that one biometric feature can be determined from another. These results have once more indicated that there is a strong relationship between fingerprints and faces.
Ozkaya, Necla; Sagiroglu, Seref
This study presents a new approach based on artificial neural networks for generating one biometric feature (faces) from another (only fingerprints). An automatic and intelligent system was designed and developed to analyze the relationships among fingerprints and faces and also to model and to improve the existence of the relationships. The new proposed system is the first study that generates all parts of the face including eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, ears and face border from only fingerprints. It is also unique and different from similar studies recently presented in the literature with some superior features. The parameter settings of the system were achieved with the help of Taguchi experimental design technique. The performance and accuracy of the system have been evaluated with 10-fold cross validation technique using qualitative evaluation metrics in addition to the expanded quantitative evaluation metrics. Consequently, the results were presented on the basis of the combination of these objective and subjective metrics for illustrating the qualitative properties of the proposed methods as well as a quantitative evaluation of their performances. Experimental results have shown that one biometric feature can be determined from another. These results have once more indicated that there is a strong relationship between fingerprints and faces. PMID:22399877
GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua
A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.
Considering the importance of the face in social survival and evidence from evolutionary psychology of visual self-recognition, it is reasonable that we expect neural mechanisms for higher social-cognitive processes to underlie self-face recognition. A decade of neuroimaging studies so far has, however, not provided an encouraging finding in this respect. Self-face specific activation has typically been reported in the areas for sensory-motor integration in the right lateral cortices. This observation appears to reflect the physical nature of the self-face which representation is developed via the detection of contingency between one's own action and sensory feedback. We have recently revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex, implicated in socially nuanced self-referential process, is activated during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for reference. The posterior cingulate cortex has also exhibited this activation modulation, and in the separate experiment showed a response to attractively manipulated self-face suggesting its relevance to positive self-value. Furthermore, the regions in the right lateral cortices typically showing self-face-specific activation have responded also to the face of one's close friend under the rich social context. This observation is potentially explained by the fact that the contingency detection for physical self-recognition also plays a role in physical social interaction, which characterizes the representation of personally familiar people. These findings demonstrate that neuroscientific exploration reveals multiple facets of the relationship between self-face recognition and social-cognitive process, and that technically the manipulation of social context is key to its success.
Stommel, W.J.P.; van der Houwen, F.
In this article, we analyze how clients in online counseling by email do complaining. Complaining is a "face-threatening act" and can jeopardize the relationship between interlocutors. In online health interventions, we see high dropout rates. We suggest that because the interaction between client
The paper established that communication, supervisorstudent relationship, access to literature, plagiarism, and poor writing skills among some students are some of the key challenges facing students and supervisors in writing dissertations/theses at OUT. The paper recommends that communication between students and ...
Rutherford, M. D.; Troubridge, Erin K.; Walsh, Jennifer
Fixating an emotional facial expression can create afterimages, such that subsequent faces are seen as having the opposite expression of that fixated. Visual afterimages have been used to map the relationships among emotion categories, and this method was used here to compare ASD and matched control participants. Participants adapted to a facial…
Fu, Yun; Guo, Guodong; Huang, Thomas S
Human age, as an important personal trait, can be directly inferred by distinct patterns emerging from the facial appearance. Derived from rapid advances in computer graphics and machine vision, computer-based age synthesis and estimation via faces have become particularly prevalent topics recently because of their explosively emerging real-world applications, such as forensic art, electronic customer relationship management, security control and surveillance monitoring, biometrics, entertainment, and cosmetology. Age synthesis is defined to rerender a face image aesthetically with natural aging and rejuvenating effects on the individual face. Age estimation is defined to label a face image automatically with the exact age (year) or the age group (year range) of the individual face. Because of their particularity and complexity, both problems are attractive yet challenging to computer-based application system designers. Large efforts from both academia and industry have been devoted in the last a few decades. In this paper, we survey the complete state-of-the-art techniques in the face image-based age synthesis and estimation topics. Existing models, popular algorithms, system performances, technical difficulties, popular face aging databases, evaluation protocols, and promising future directions are also provided with systematic discussions.
McCloskey, Michael S; Phan, K Luan; Angstadt, Mike; Fettich, Karla C; Keedy, Sarah; Coccaro, Emil F
Individuals with intermittent explosive disorder (IED) were previously found to exhibit amygdala hyperactivation and relatively reduced orbital medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) activation to angry faces while performing an implicit emotion information processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This study examines the neural substrates associated with explicit encoding of facial emotions among individuals with IED. Twenty unmedicated IED subjects and twenty healthy, matched comparison subjects (HC) underwent fMRI while viewing blocks of angry, happy, and neutral faces and identifying the emotional valence of each face (positive, negative or neutral). We compared amygdala and OMPFC reactivity to faces between IED and HC subjects. We also examined the relationship between amygdala/OMPFC activation and aggression severity. Compared to controls, the IED group exhibited greater amygdala response to angry (vs. neutral) facial expressions. In contrast, IED and control groups did not differ in OMPFC activation to angry faces. Across subjects amygdala activation to angry faces was correlated with number of prior aggressive acts. These findings extend previous evidence of amygdala dysfunction in response to the identification of an ecologically-valid social threat signal (processing angry faces) among individuals with IED, further substantiating a link between amygdala hyperactivity to social signals of direct threat and aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
György A Homola
Full Text Available Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships.
Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime
The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.
This paper responds to key aspects of Bill Dixon's article, Understanding 'Pointy Face': What is criminology for?1 It suggests that criminology should unambiguously be 'for' social justice in South Africa's transhistorically unequal context. South African prison statistics are used as a conceptual shortcut to briefly highlight ...
A.A. Salah (Albert Ali); N. Alyuz; L. Akarun
htmlabstractThe accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a costly one-to-all registration approach, which requires the registration of each facial surface to all
Afraz, Arash; Boyden, Edward S; DiCarlo, James J
Neurons that respond more to images of faces over nonface objects were identified in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex of primates three decades ago. Although it is hypothesized that perceptual discrimination between faces depends on the neural activity of IT subregions enriched with "face neurons," such a causal link has not been directly established. Here, using optogenetic and pharmacological methods, we reversibly suppressed the neural activity in small subregions of IT cortex of macaque monkeys performing a facial gender-discrimination task. Each type of intervention independently demonstrated that suppression of IT subregions enriched in face neurons induced a contralateral deficit in face gender-discrimination behavior. The same neural suppression of other IT subregions produced no detectable change in behavior. These results establish a causal link between the neural activity in IT face neuron subregions and face gender-discrimination behavior. Also, the demonstration that brief neural suppression of specific spatial subregions of IT induces behavioral effects opens the door for applying the technical advantages of optogenetics to a systematic attack on the causal relationship between IT cortex and high-level visual perception.
Caro, N M; Else, D
The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),
Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on-site and on-time. At this point, the use of smart cameras – of which the popularity has been increasing – is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image-processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high-bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general-purpose processors. In smart cameras – which are real-life applications of such methods – the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola-Jones face detection method – which was reported to run faster on PCs – was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub-region and mask-based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed-point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub-regions and from each sub-region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements – like face expression, illumination, etc. – were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for recognition. Thanks to its
Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire
their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...
Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich
We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...
Daws, Laura Beth
Courses: This activity will work in any face-to-face communication lecture course. Objectives: By the end of the semester in a face-to-face lecture class, every student will have engaged in verbal discussion.
Bru, Jan Gunnar
The article puts the attention to market relations in connection with the Norwegian petroleum industry. The paradox facing Norwegian yards involved in the offshore industry is that while the sector is now experiencing a market boom, within two years contractors could find themselves scrambling for work in a reduced market. 1 tab
Face recognition is a technology that appeals to the imagination of many people. This is particularly reflected in the popularity of science-fiction films and forensic detective series such as CSI, CSI New York, CSI Miami, Bones and NCIS. Although these series tend to be set in the present, their
This colloquium aimed to analyze the relations between the climatic changes and extreme meteorological events and on the associated risks. It provides information and knowledge on the state of the art concerning the today scientific knowledge, the prevention measures and the adaptation facing the risks and the difficult estimation of the climatic damages costs. (A.L.B.)
Jacobs, Judith Bula
Discusses attitudes of 12 families participating in group which was formed to focus on issues related to the possibility of a nuclear disaster. Why and how these families are facing the nuclear taboo plus various outcomes of doing so are discussed as well as the role of the professional in encouraging such openness about these difficult issues.…
Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille
Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our
Tervo, John N.
Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.
Full Text Available In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures. To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH, are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER at a given depth of field (DoF and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones.
Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan
Investigated development of face-to-face communication in infants between 1 and 14 weeks old and their mothers. Found a curvilinear development of early face-to-face communication, with increases occurring between weeks 4 and 9. When placed on a sofa, infants' face-to-face communication was longer than when they were held. Girls spent a longer…
Bolsen, Toby; Evans, Michael; Fleming, Anna McCaghren
This article reports results from a large study comparing four different approaches to teaching Introduction to American Government: (1) traditional, a paper textbook with 100% face-to-face lecture-style teaching; (2) breakout, a paper textbook with 50% face-to-face lecture-style teaching and 50% face-to-face small-group breakout discussion…
Rochlen, Aaron B.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Zack, Jason S.
This article reports on the development of measures of attitudes toward online and face-to-face counseling. Overall, participants expressed more favorable evaluations of face-to-face counseling than of online counseling. Significant correlations were found between online and face-to-face counseling with traditional help-seeking attitudes, comfort…
Pavlova, Marina A; Guerreschi, Michele; Tagliavento, Lucia; Gitti, Filippo; Sokolov, Alexander N; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Fazzi, Elisa
Faces convey valuable information for social cognition, effective interpersonal interaction, and non-verbal communication. Face perception is believed to be atypical in autism, but the origin of this deficit is controversial. Dominant featural face encoding is suggested to be responsible for face tuning scarcity. Here we used a recently developed Face-n-Food paradigm for studying face tuning in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The key benefit of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face processing. In a spontaneous recognition task, adolescents with autism and typically developing matched controls were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The set of images was shown in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Thresholds for recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face in ASD individuals were substantially higher than in typically developing controls: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which controls easily recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This outcome not only lends support to atypical face tuning, but provides novel insights into the origin of face encoding deficits in autism.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...
Full Text Available The quality of the smartphone’s camera enables us to capture high quality pictures at a high resolution, so we can perform different types of recognition on these images. Face detection is one of these types of recognition that is very common in our society. We use it every day on Facebook to tag friends in our pictures. It is also used in video games alongside Kinect concept, or in security to allow the access to private places only to authorized persons. These are just some examples of using facial recognition, because in modern society, detection and facial recognition tend to surround us everywhere. The aim of this article is to create an appli-cation for smartphones that can recognize human faces. The main goal of this application is to grant access to certain areas or rooms only to certain authorized persons. For example, we can speak here of hospitals or educational institutions where there are rooms where only certain employees can enter. Of course, this type of application can cover a wide range of uses, such as helping people suffering from Alzheimer's to recognize the people they loved, to fill gaps persons who can’t remember the names of their relatives or for example to automatically capture the face of our own children when they smile.
Thompson, Laura A; Malloy, Daniel M; Cone, John M; Hendrickson, David L
We introduce a novel paradigm for studying the cognitive processes used by listeners within interactive settings. This paradigm places the talker and the listener in the same physical space, creating opportunities for investigations of attention and comprehension processes taking place during interactive discourse situations. An experiment was conducted to compare results from previous research using videotaped stimuli to those obtained within the live face-to-face task paradigm. A headworn apparatus is used to briefly display LEDs on the talker's face in four locations as the talker communicates with the participant. In addition to the primary task of comprehending speeches, participants make a secondary task light detection response. In the present experiment, the talker gave non-emotionally-expressive speeches that were used in past research with videotaped stimuli. Signal detection analysis was employed to determine which areas of the face received the greatest focus of attention. Results replicate previous findings using videotaped methods.
Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun
Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…
Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Isabelle
Humans' face ability develops and matures with extensive experience in perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with faces that move most of the time. However, how facial movements affect 1 core aspect of face ability--holistic face processing--remains unclear. Here we investigated the influence of rigid facial motion on holistic and part-based…
How often have you read an article and then Googled the author to see him or her? How often have you swiped right or left just looking at the faces without reading the profile on Tinder? Seeking faces and trying to put faces to names happens every day but Hans Belting has brought together Face and
Murad, Muna S; Spiers, Judith A; Guirguis, Lisa M
A collaborative patient-pharmacist interaction is fundamental to greater patient satisfaction with pharmacy care and improved medication adherence. Effective pharmacist-patient communication occurs when both pharmacist and patient are able to successfully attend to not only the typical tasks and goals of the interaction but also basic face needs that underlie all social interaction; autonomy, competence or esteem, and fellowship. Addressing face needs occurs through conventional and strategic communication strategies that respond to the emerging needs throughout an interaction. Pharmacist-patient interactions are not just about transfer of information and medications. Both parties assess the situation, the others' intentions within the context of their own goals and this influences how they choose to act throughout the interaction. Face-work Theory provides a framework to understand these interaction processes in pharmacist-patient communication. The aim of this study was to determine face needs, threats and the strategic communication strategies used to address these within community pharmacist-patient interactions. This exploratory descriptive study drew upon principles of ethology to first describe naturally occurring behaviour and then to interpret this behaviour within the context of Face-work theory. Twenty-five audio-recorded community pharmacist-patient interactions were collected and analyzed. The average length of these interactions was 3:67 min with a range of 0.39 s-9:35 min. Multiple face needs for both pharmacist and patient were evident in most interactions. Autonomy, competence and fellowship face needs were negotiated in the following contexts: participative relationships, concordant role expectations, sensitive topics, and negotiating expertise and knowledge. Competence face needs for both parties were the most dominant need found in negotiating role expectations. The most common communication strategies used to support face were solidarity
Taubert, Jessica; Wardle, Susan G.; Flessert, Molly; Leopold, David A.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.
Face perception in humans and non-human primates is rapid and accurate[1–4]. In the human brain, a network of visual processing regions is specialized for faces[5–7]. Although face processing is a priority of the primate visual system, face detection is not infallible. Face pareidolia is the compelling illusion of perceiving facial features on inanimate objects, such as the illusory face on the surface of the moon. Although face pareidolia is commonly experienced by humans, its presence in ot...
Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang
Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new
Human face as a physical human recognition can be used as a unique identity for computer to recognize human by transforming human face with face algorithm as simple text number which can be primary key for human. Human face as single identity for human will be done by making a huge and large world centre human face database, where the human face around the world will be recorded from time to time and from generation to generation. Architecture database will be divided become human face image ...
Hershler, Orit; Golan, Tal; Bentin, Shlomo; Hochstein, Shaul
Faces are detected more rapidly than other objects in visual scenes and search arrays, but the cause for this face advantage has been contested. In the present study, we found that under conditions of spatial uncertainty, faces were easier to detect than control targets (dog faces, clocks and cars) even in the absence of surrounding stimuli, making an explanation based only on low-level differences unlikely. This advantage improved with eccentricity in the visual field, enabling face detection in wider visual windows, and pointing to selective sparing of face detection at greater eccentricities. This face advantage might be due to perceptual factors favoring face detection. In addition, the relative face advantage is greater under flanked than non-flanked conditions, suggesting an additional, possibly attention-related benefit enabling face detection in groups of distracters.
Sorenson, Susan B; Spear, Devan
Age at first marriage has risen substantially and birth rates are at a record low; people are spending more time in relationships that, by comparison, have fewer emotional, financial, and legal commitments. Little research has examined intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence in current and former adult (vs. adolescent) dating relationships. Such information is relevant to federal firearms policies that are based on the nature of an intimate relationship. We examined assaultive behaviors by the type and status of the relationship - current spouse, former spouse, current boyfriend or girlfriend, and former boyfriend or girlfriend - in 31,206 IPV incidents responded to by Philadelphia police in 2013. Over 80% of the IPV incidents involved individuals in non-marital relationships. Incidents involving current boyfriends or girlfriends had the highest percentage of violent behaviors (e.g., punch, strangle). They also were more likely than current spouses to use bodily weapons (hands, fists, or feet) or non-gun weapons (knives, bats, etc.) (AOR = 1.19 and 1.43, respectively), to injure their victims (AOR = 1.37), and to be arrested (AOR = 1.46). Former unmarried partners had the highest odds of stalking their intimate (AOR = 3.37) and violating a restraining order (AOR = 2.61). Gun use was similar across relationship type. A growing portion of the population is not protected by federal policies designed to keep guns out of the hands of abusers. Current boyfriends and girlfriends are a risk to their intimates. Federal data collection practices and firearm policies merit updating to more fully take into account dating, same-sex marriage, and other partnerships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi
The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.
Full Text Available The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.
Pavlova, Marina A; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N; Barisnikov, Koviljka
Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing.
de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José
Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.
André Rodrigues de Souza
Full Text Available Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.
Davis, Philip J; Spady, Donald; Forgie, Sarah E D
There is little evidence that surgical mask use by physicians in the operating room (OR) reduces surgical site infections (SSIs), but masks do protect the wearer from potentially infectious splashes. Face shields offer even more protection because they cover the eyes, but they may be perceived as offering less protection to the patient than do masks. The objectives of this study were to ascertain if there were predictors to determine which OR physicians are continuing to use masks and what their reasons are for doing so, and which OR physicians would accept face shields and their reasons for doing so. We surveyed the province of Alberta's surgeons, general practice (GP) surgeons, anesthesiologists, and GP anesthetists to determine how many physicians in the OR wear surgical masks, their reasons for wearing surgical masks (ethical, legal, protection of the patient, protection of the wearer), and if they believe that face shields offer more protection to the patient or to the wearer. We also sought to examine which demographic factors affected their responses. The data were examined with chi(2) analysis to assess the relationships of age and practitioner type, and for various outcome variables. A significance level of P masks; masks are worn to prevent the spread of disease, not because it is tradition to do so; masks protect the wearer more than do face shields; and wearing face shields alone will subject the patient to higher rates of SSIs. Surgeons are more likely than are anesthesiologists to wear surgical masks in the OR and wear a surgical mask and a face shield if the patient has risk factors for a blood borne infection. According to our survey, age and profession were the most important variables that affected the potential use of surgical masks and face shields. Younger OR physicians likely would be amenable to using face shields in addition to masks in the OR to protect themselves from exposure to blood or bodily fluids.
Chen, Haiwen; Russell, Richard; Nakayama, Ken; Livingstone, Margaret
Adaptation can shift what individuals identify to be a prototypical or attractive face. Past work suggests that low-level shape adaptation can affect high-level face processing but is position dependent. Adaptation to distorted images of faces can also affect face processing but only within sub-categories of faces, such as gender, age, and race/ethnicity. This study assesses whether there is a representation of face that is specific to faces (as opposed to all shapes) but general to all kinds of faces (as opposed to subcategories) by testing whether adaptation to one type of face can affect perception of another. Participants were shown cartoon videos containing faces with abnormally large eyes. Using animated videos allowed us to simulate naturalistic exposure and avoid positional shape adaptation. Results suggest that adaptation to cartoon faces with large eyes shifts preferences for human faces toward larger eyes, supporting the existence of general face representations. PMID:20465173
Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian
Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.
Wilson, Rebecca; Pascalis, Olivier; Blades, Mark
We investigated whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have a deficit in recognising familiar faces. Children with ASD were given a forced choice familiar face recognition task with three conditions: full faces, inner face parts and outer face parts. Control groups were children with developmental delay (DD) and typically…
Raviteja, Thaluru; Karanam, Srikrishna; Yeduguru, Dinesh Reddy V.
Human face detection plays a vital role in many applications like video surveillance, managing a face image database, human computer interface among others. This paper proposes a robust algorithm for face detection in still color images that works well even in a crowded environment. The algorithm uses conjunction of skin color histogram, morphological processing and geometrical analysis for detecting human faces. To reinforce the accuracy of face detection, we further identify mouth and eye regions to establish the presence/absence of face in a particular region of interest.
Lewicki, David G.; Heath, Gregory F.
The surface durability life of helical face gears and isotropic super-finished (ISF) face gears was investigated. Experimental fatigue tests were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Endurance tests were performed on 10 sets of helical face gears in mesh with tapered involute helical pinions, and 10 sets of ISF-enhanced straight face gears in mesh with tapered involute spur pinions. The results were compared to previous tests on straight face gears. The life of the ISF configuration was slightly less than that of previous tests on straight face gears. The life of the ISF configuration was slightly greater than that of the helical configuration.
In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.
Robotham, Ro Julia; Starrfelt, Randi
included, as a control, which makes designing experiments all the more challenging. Three main strategies have been used to overcome this problem, each of which has limitations: 1) Compare performances on typical tests of the three stimulus types (e.g., a Face Memory Test, an Object recognition test...... this framework to classify tests and experiments aiming to compare processing across these categories, it becomes apparent that core differences in characteristics (visual and semantic) between the stimuli make the problem of designing comparable tests an insoluble conundrum. By analyzing the experimental...
In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural-science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet is an overview of the science strategy and describes how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.
de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves
In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing...... in Spanish and address forms in European Portuguese, we view P1 and P2 as being far more complex than the literature suggests, with subgroups (different types of laypersons and researchers, respectively). At the micro-level we will describe the roles each subgroup plays in the interpretative process...
Full Text Available An Elastic Bunch Graph Map (EBGM algorithm is being proposed in this research paper that successfully implements face recognition using Gabor filters. The proposed system applies 40 different Gabor filters on an image. As aresult of which 40 images with different angles and orientation are received. Next, maximum intensity points in each filtered image are calculated and mark them as Fiducial points. The system reduces these points in accordance to distance between them. The next step is calculating the distances between the reduced points using distance formula. At last, the distances are compared with database. If match occurs, it means that the image is recognized.
Full Text Available Rapid detection of evolutionarily relevant threats (e.g., fearful faces is important for human survival. The ability to rapidly detect fearful faces exhibits high variability across individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between behavioral detection ability and brain activity, using both event-related potential (ERP and event-related oscillation (ERO measurements. Faces with fearful or neutral facial expressions were presented for 17 ms or 200 ms in a backward masking paradigm. Forty-two participants were required to discriminate facial expressions of the masked faces. The behavioral sensitivity index d' showed that the detection ability to rapidly presented and masked fearful faces varied across participants. The ANOVA analyses showed that the facial expression, hemisphere, and presentation duration affected the grand-mean ERP (N1, P1, and N170 and ERO (below 20 Hz and lasted from 100 ms to 250 ms post-stimulus, mainly in theta band brain activity. More importantly, the overall detection ability of 42 subjects was significantly correlated with the emotion effect (i.e., fearful vs. neutral on ERP (r = 0.403 and ERO (r = 0.552 measurements. A higher d' value was corresponding to a larger size of the emotional effect (i.e., fearful--neutral of N170 amplitude and a larger size of the emotional effect of the specific ERO spectral power at the right hemisphere. The present results suggested a close link between behavioral detection ability and the N170 amplitude as well as the ERO spectral power below 20 Hz in individuals. The emotional effect size between fearful and neutral faces in brain activity may reflect the level of conscious awareness of fearful faces.
Stela Nazareth Meneghel
Full Text Available This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and the life quality of the affected women. Our understanding is that violence is one of the most effective methods of controlling women in societies scarred with gender hierarchies. The structure of the seminar focused on three main discussion themes: breaking up with the violence, mechanisms for working with gender and hearing the services. These themes were chosen aiming at looking for ways to help the women and to explore efficient mechanisms to combat, reduce and, if possible, eliminate the violence perpetrated against women. At the end of the seminar, we reiterate the political commitment on the accomplishment of the public policies to face violence and the fight against all inequality, discrimination and violence forms based on gender.
Full Text Available Previous research on the feeling of face has long described face as a complicated phenomenon in Confucian societies. Indeed, the feeling of face is highly context dependent. One may have very different (having or losing face perception if the same face event occurs in a different context. To better capture the features of how face is felt, effects on possible responses need to be considered. Therefore, this article adopts a perspective of psychosocial equilibrium to elaborate people’s feeling of face in Taiwan, a Confucian society. The first section illustrates the concept of psychosocial equilibrium and its psychodynamic effects on people’s feeling of face. Then, the second section of this article takes positive social situations (having face events as backdrop to exhibit how people balance their psychosocial equilibrium with different relationships. Following the positive social situations, the third section of this article then focuses on the negative situations (losing face events to explain how losing face is felt due to unbalance of psychosocial equilibrium with one’s relation in that specific context.
Previous research on the feeling of "face" has long described "face" as a complicated phenomenon in Confucian societies. Indeed, the feeling of face is highly context dependent. One may have very different (having or losing) face perception if the same face event occurs in a different context. To better capture the features of how face is felt, effects on possible responses need to be considered. Therefore, this article adopts a perspective of psychosocial equilibrium to elaborate people's feeling of face in Taiwan, a Confucian society. The first section illustrates the concept of psychosocial equilibrium and its psychodynamic effects on people's feeling of face. Then, the second section of this article takes positive social situations (having face events) as backdrop to exhibit how people balance their psychosocial equilibrium with different relationships. Following the positive social situations, the third section of this article then focuses on the negative situations (losing face events) to explain how losing face is felt due to unbalance of psychosocial equilibrium with one's relation in that specific context.
Govindan, Kannan; Chaudhuri, Atanu
insights. Results show that arms-length relationship between the customer and the 3PLs has strong influence on other risks and there is a need for collaborative relationships between 3PLs and its customers. Moreover, analysis indicates that the 3PLs need to improve internal processes related to quality......This paper analyses the interrelationships between risks faced by third party logistics service providers (3PLs) in relation to one of its customers using DEMATEL. Novel analysis of both within and between risk categories and generation of threshold value to prioritize risks generate useful...... management, flexibility of its operations and also geographical coverage of their services....
Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.
In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due...
Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kveraga, Kestutis; Naik, Paulami; Ahlfors, Seppo P.
The tendency to perceive faces in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of faces is an example of pareidolia. Perception of ‘real’ faces has been associated with a cortical response signal arising at about 170ms after stimulus onset; but what happens when non-face objects are perceived as faces? Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we found that objects incidentally perceived as faces evoked an early (165ms) activation in the ventral fusiform cortex, at a time and location similar t...
Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing
People are able to simultaneously process multiple dimensions of facial properties. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. This paper examined the processing of facial emotion, face race and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interfered with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gend...
Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki
Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms, respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2) was impaired when a first target (T1) was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA); identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention. PMID:24994994
Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2 was impaired when a first target (T1 was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms SOA; identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention.
Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne
The guest editors' introduction to the Special Issue on managing creativity in business market relationships positions the topic at the intersection between interorganizational research and creativity research. It introduces three paradoxes that managers of such processes face: a) the tension...
Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R
There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klink, P. Christiaan; Boucherie, Daphne; Denys, Damiaan; Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Self, Matthew W.
Faces are important visual objects for humans and other social animals. A complex network of specialized brain areas is involved in the recognition and interpretation of faces. This network needs to strike a balance between being sensitive enough to distinguish between different faces with similar
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite to...
In this thesis, we presented a detailed study of the face verification problem on the mobile device, covering every component of the system. The study includes face detection, registration, normalization, and verification. Furthermore, the information fusion problem is studied to verify face
Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Bui, T.D.; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Hamza, H.M.
In this paper, we introduce a novel method of automatically finding the training set of RBF networks for morphing a prototype face to represent a new face. This is done by automatically specifying and adjusting corresponding feature points on a target face. The RBF networks are then used to transfer
The portals of the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. (DAtF) and of the Informationskreis KernEnergie (IK) changed face effective June 24, 2009. On-line appearance was in need of modernization after the last relaunches and the additional new industry dialog portal, ''Zeit fuer Energieverantwortung.'' The starting page of the industry portal, which receives a high level of attention as indicated by 130,000 monthly hits, was streamlined in its structure. The design was modernized and made clearer. Depending on the depth of information wanted, users are guided by the new structure to the required level of detailed technical information. Up to 200,000 monthly hits are confirming the popularity and importance of this information portal. The main pages can be found under these Web addresses: www.kernenergie.de, www.kernfragen.de, www.kernenergie.de/energieverantwortung. (orig.)
Chrzavzez, G; Chrzavzez, J P; D'Erceville, T; Kharrat, N; Barbillon, C; Pilz, F
Of 249 patients with facial injuries admitted to the Department of Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hôpital Bel Air, Thionville, France, between 1981 and 1982, 45 (18%) were cases of injury from sporting activities. The particular characteristics of the latter lesions were their predominance in males, their increased seasonal frequency in spring and early summer, the high incidence of damage to the nasal pyramid and maxillomalar complex, and the fact that the most implicated sport was football (71% of cases). Whereas most accidents resulted in relatively minor lesions, three cases--including two from riding--involved severe, complex injuries comparable to those seen in certain car accidents. Findings in this series confirm the natural "bumper" property of the face. Emphasis is placed on the importance of well-conducted training, and the need to eliminate consideration of sport as a means for expressing aggressiveness that is not always possible in daily life.
Dykiert, Dominika; Bates, Timothy C; Gow, Alan J; Penke, Lars; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J
To investigate whether and to what extent mortality is predictable from facial photographs of older people. High-quality facial photographs of 292 members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, taken at the age of about 83 years, were rated in terms of apparent age, health, attractiveness, facial symmetry, intelligence, and well-being by 12 young-adult raters. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to study associations between these ratings and mortality during a 7-year follow-up period. All ratings had adequate reliability. Concurrent validity was found for facial symmetry and intelligence (as determined by correlations with actual measures of fluctuating asymmetry in the faces and Raven Standard Progressive Matrices score, respectively), but not for the other traits. Age as rated from facial photographs, adjusted for sex and chronological age, was a significant predictor of mortality (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.65) and remained significant even after controlling for concurrent, objectively measured health and cognitive ability, and the other ratings. Health as rated from facial photographs, adjusted for sex and chronological age, significantly predicted mortality (hazard ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.99) but not after adjusting for rated age or objectively measured health and cognition. Rated attractiveness, symmetry, intelligence, and well-being were not significantly associated with mortality risk. Rated age of the face is a significant predictor of mortality risk among older people, with predictive value over and above that of objective or rated health status and cognitive ability.
Duval, Elizabeth R; Lovelace, Christopher T; Aarant, Justin; Filion, Diane L
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of both facial expression and face gender on startle eyeblink response patterns at varying lead intervals (300, 800, and 3500ms) indicative of attentional and emotional processes. We aimed to determine whether responses to affective faces map onto the Defense Cascade Model (Lang et al., 1997) to better understand the stages of processing during affective face viewing. At 300ms, there was an interaction between face expression and face gender with female happy and neutral faces and male angry faces producing inhibited startle. At 3500ms, there was a trend for facilitated startle during angry compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that affective expressions are perceived differently in male and female faces, especially at short lead intervals. Future studies investigating face processing should take both face gender and expression into account. © 2013.
Weeks, Jennifer C; Biss, Renée K; Murphy, Kelly J; Hasher, Lynn
Difficulty remembering faces and corresponding names is a hallmark of cognitive aging, as is increased susceptibility to distraction. Given evidence that older adults spontaneously encode relationships between target pictures and simultaneously occurring distractors (a hyper-binding phenomenon), we asked whether memory for face-name pairs could be improved through prior exposure to faces presented with distractor names. In three experiments, young and older adults performed a selective attention task on faces while ignoring superimposed names. After a delay, they learned and were tested on face-name pairs that were either maintained or rearranged from the initial task but were not told of the connection between tasks. In each experiment, older but not younger participants showed better memory for maintained than for rearranged pairs, indicating that older adults' natural propensity to tacitly encode and bind relevant and irrelevant information can be employed to aid face-name memory performance.
Re, Daniel E; Dzhelyova, Milena; Holzleitner, Iris J; Tigue, Cara C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I
Facial appearance has a well-documented effect on perceived leadership ability. Face judgments of leadership ability predict political election outcomes across the world, and similar judgments of business CEOs predict company profits. Body height is also associated with leadership ability, with taller people attaining positions of leadership more than their shorter counterparts in both politics and in the corporate world. Previous studies have found some face characteristics that are associated with leadership judgments, however there have been no studies with three-dimensional faces. We assessed which facial characteristics drive leadership judgments in three-dimensional faces. We found a perceptual relationship between height and leadership ability. We also found that facial maturity correlated with leadership judgments, and that faces of people with an unhealthily high body mass index received lower leadership ratings. We conclude that face attributes associated with body size and maturity alter leadership perception, and may influence real-world democratic leadership selection.
Amato, Paul R.; Maynard, Rebecca A.
Since the 1970s, the share of U.S. children growing up in single-parent families has doubled, a trend that has disproportionately affected disadvantaged families. Paul Amato and Rebecca Maynard argue that reversing that trend would reduce poverty in the short term and, perhaps more important, improve children's growth and development over the long…
South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle
Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced…
Taubert, Jessica; Wardle, Susan G; Flessert, Molly; Leopold, David A; Ungerleider, Leslie G
Face perception in humans and nonhuman primates is rapid and accurate [1-4]. In the human brain, a network of visual-processing regions is specialized for faces [5-7]. Although face processing is a priority of the primate visual system, face detection is not infallible. Face pareidolia is the compelling illusion of perceiving facial features on inanimate objects, such as the illusory face on the surface of the moon. Although face pareidolia is commonly experienced by humans, its presence in other species is unknown. Here we provide evidence for face pareidolia in a species known to possess a complex face-processing system [8-10]: the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). In a visual preference task [11, 12], monkeys looked longer at photographs of objects that elicited face pareidolia in human observers than at photographs of similar objects that did not elicit illusory faces. Examination of eye movements revealed that monkeys fixated the illusory internal facial features in a pattern consistent with how they view photographs of faces . Although the specialized response to faces observed in humans [1, 3, 5-7, 14] is often argued to be continuous across primates [4, 15], it was previously unclear whether face pareidolia arose from a uniquely human capacity. For example, pareidolia could be a product of the human aptitude for perceptual abstraction or result from frequent exposure to cartoons and illustrations that anthropomorphize inanimate objects. Instead, our results indicate that the perception of illusory facial features on inanimate objects is driven by a broadly tuned face-detection mechanism that we share with other species. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
O'Rourke, Sean; Eskritt, Michelle; Bosacki, Sandra
We explored Canadian adolescents', emergent adults', and adults' understandings of deception in computer mediated communication (CMC) compared to face to face (FtF). Participants between 13 and 50 years read vignettes of different types of questionable behaviour that occurred online or in real life, and were asked to judge whether deception was involved, and the acceptability of the behaviour. Age groups evaluated deception similarly; however, adolescents held slightly different views from adults about what constitutes deception, suggesting that the understanding of deception continues to develop into adulthood. Furthermore, CMC behaviour was rated as more deceptive than FtF in general, and participants scoring higher on compassion perceived vignettes to be more deceptive. This study is a step towards better understanding the relationships between perceptions of deception across adolescence into adulthood, mode of communication, and compassion, and may have implications for how adults communicate with youth about deception in CMC and FtF contexts. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We live in an age of ‘selfies.’ Yet, how we look at our own faces has seldom been systematically investigated. In this study we test if the visual processing of the highly familiar self-face is different from other faces, using psychophysics and eye-tracking. This paradigm also enabled us to test the association between the psychophysical properties of self-face representation and visual processing strategies involved in self-face recognition. Thirty-three adults performed a self-face recognition task from a series of self-other face morphs with simultaneous eye-tracking. Participants were found to look longer at the lower part of the face for self-face compared to other-face. Participants with a more distinct self-face representation, as indexed by a steeper slope of the psychometric response curve for self-face recognition, were found to look longer at upper part of the faces identified as ‘self’ vs. those identified as ‘other’. This result indicates that self-face representation can influence where we look when we process our own vs. others’ faces. We also investigated the association of autism-related traits with self-face processing metrics since autism has previously been associated with atypical self-processing. The study did not find any self-face specific association with autistic traits, suggesting that autism-related features may be related to self-processing in a domain specific manner.
Cao, Zhicheng; Schmid, Natalia A.
Matching images acquired in different electromagnetic bands remains a challenging problem. An example of this type of comparison is matching active or passive infrared (IR) against a gallery of visible face images, known as cross-spectral face recognition. Among many unsolved issues is the one of quality disparity of the heterogeneous images. Images acquired in different spectral bands are of unequal image quality due to distinct imaging mechanism, standoff distances, or imaging environment, etc. To reduce the effect of quality disparity on the recognition performance, one can manipulate images to either improve the quality of poor-quality images or to degrade the high-quality images to the level of the quality of their heterogeneous counterparts. To estimate the level of discrepancy in quality of two heterogeneous images a quality metric such as image sharpness is needed. It provides a guidance in how much quality improvement or degradation is appropriate. In this work we consider sharpness as a relative measure of heterogeneous image quality. We propose a generalized definition of sharpness by first achieving image quality parity and then finding and building a relationship between the image quality of two heterogeneous images. Therefore, the new sharpness metric is named heterogeneous sharpness. Image quality parity is achieved by experimentally finding the optimal cross-spectral face recognition performance where quality of the heterogeneous images is varied using a Gaussian smoothing function with different standard deviation. This relationship is established using two models; one of them involves a regression model and the other involves a neural network. To train, test and validate the model, we use composite operators developed in our lab to extract features from heterogeneous face images and use the sharpness metric to evaluate the face image quality within each band. Images from three different spectral bands visible light, near infrared, and short
This book provides readers with a simplified and comprehensive account of the cognitive and neural bases of face perception in humans. Faces are ubiquitous in our environment and we rely on them during social interactions. The human face processing system allows us to extract information about the identity, gender, age, mood, race, attractiveness and approachability of other people in about a fraction of a second, just by glancing at their faces. By introducing readers to the most relevant research on face recognition, this book seeks to answer the questions: “Why are humans so fast at recognizing faces?”, “Why are humans so efficient at recognizing faces?”, “Do faces represent a particular category for the human visual system?”, What makes face perception in humans so special?, “Can our face recognition system fail”? This book presents the author’s findings on face perception during his research studies on both normal subjects and subjects with prosopagnosia, a neurological disorder cha...
Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia
Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.
Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg
Full Text Available Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.
Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Weiner, Kevin S; Kay, Kendrick; Gomez, Jesse
Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective regions composing this network. We emphasize the importance of the neural tissue properties and white matter connections of each region, as these anatomical properties may be tightly linked to the functional characteristics of the ventral face network. We end by considering how empirical investigations of the neural architecture of the face network may inform the development of computational models and shed light on how computations in the face network enable efficient face perception.
Tates, Kiek; Antheunis, Marjolijn L; Kanters, Saskia; Nieboer, Theodoor E; Gerritse, Maria Be
Despite the emergence of Web-based patient-provider contact, it is still unclear how the quality of Web-based doctor-patient interactions differs from face-to-face interactions. This study aimed to examine (1) the impact of a consultation medium on doctors' and patients' communicative behavior in terms of information exchange, interpersonal relationship building, and shared decision making and (2) the mediating role of doctors' and patients' communicative behavior on satisfaction with both types of consultation medium. Doctor-patient consultations on pelvic organ prolapse were simulated, both in a face-to-face and in a screen-to-screen (video) setting. Twelve medical interns and 6 simulated patients prepared 4 different written scenarios and were randomized to perform a total of 48 consultations. Effects of the consultations were measured by questionnaires that participants filled out directly after the consultation. With respect to patient-related outcomes, satisfaction, perceived information exchange, interpersonal relationship building, and perceived shared decision making showed no significant differences between face-to-face and screen-to-screen consultations. Patients' attitude toward Web-based communication (b=-.249, P=.02 and patients' perceived time and attention (b=.271, P=.03) significantly predicted patients' perceived interpersonal relationship building. Patients' perceived shared decision making was positively related to their satisfaction with the consultation (b=.254, P=.005). Overall, patients experienced significantly greater shared decision making with a female doctor (mean 4.21, SD 0.49) than with a male doctor (mean 3.66 [SD 0.73]; b=.401, P=.009). Doctor-related outcomes showed no significant differences in satisfaction, perceived information exchange, interpersonal relationship building, and perceived shared decision making between the conditions. There was a positive relationship between perceived information exchange and doctors
With the diffusion of networked technology, personal relationships can be easily formed and maintained online today. Similar to a face-to-face situation, conflict is also seen in these online relationships. Early theories suggested that computer-mediated communication (CMC) tends to increase conflicts because of the lack of social-context cues, and CMC is not rich enough to manage conflict. As CMC has become part of our daily life, we often face conflict online, and thus we need to understand how people manage conflict online. This study explored how online users manage interpersonal conflict. Self-report survey data from 159 university students were analyzed to examine their conflict-management styles in association with the perceived closeness of the online relationship and a future intention toward the relationship. The results indicated that online users select cooperative management styles to handle conflict in their close relationships. In addition, online users avoid less cooperative styles when they want to continue the relationship.
Pancherz, Hans; Knapp, Verena; Erbe, Christina; Heiss, Anja Melina
To test Ricketts' 1982 hypothesis that facial beauty is measurable by comparing attractive and nonattractive faces of females and males with respect to the presence of the divine proportions. The analysis of frontal view facial photos of 90 cover models (50 females, 40 males) from famous fashion magazines and of 34 attractive (29 females, five males) and 34 nonattractive (13 females, 21 males) persons selected from a group of former orthodontic patients was carried out in this study. Based on Ricketts' method, five transverse and seven vertical facial reference distances were measured and compared with the corresponding calculated divine distances expressed in phi-relationships (f=1.618). Furthermore, transverse and vertical facial disproportion indices were created. For both the models and patients, all the reference distances varied largely from respective divine values. The average deviations ranged from 0.3% to 7.8% in the female groups of models and attractive patients with no difference between them. In the male groups of models and attractive patients, the average deviations ranged from 0.2% to 11.2%. When comparing attractive and nonattractive female, as well as male, patients, deviations from the divine values for all variables were larger in the nonattractive sample. Attractive individuals have facial proportions closer to the divine values than nonattractive ones. In accordance with the hypothesis of Ricketts, facial beauty is measurable to some degree. COPYRIGHT © 2009 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.
Morse, B.; Morse, J.; Beaulieu, P.; Pratt, Y. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Stander, E. [State Univ. of New York, Cobleskill College, Cobleskill, NY (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Cote, A.; Tarras, A.; Noel, P. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada). IREQ
This paper reported on a joint research project between Laval University and Hydro-Quebec to study ice forces on dams in an effort to harmonize design criteria and develop mitigation strategies. This paper introduced the project and explored some of the preliminary results of the 2007-2008 field season. Ice displacement, ice stresses and ice forces on the LaGabelle dam were measured at several locations. The paper identified and discussed the complex relationships between data sets and discussed the spatial-temporal variability of the ice forces and its impact on design criteria. The project objective was to develop design criteria for ice forces on dams and to provide a scientific basis for interpreting and harmonizing existing recommended criteria. The methodology and site description were presented. It was concluded that the ice processes in a reservoir near a dam face subject to water fluctuations are quite complex. Therefore, in order to know the real average pressure on the dam, a significant amount of panels are required, having important implications for determining safe design values. 9 refs., 10 figs.
Giovanni B. Caputo
Full Text Available In normal observers, gazing at one’s own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the apparition of strange faces. Observers see distortions of their own faces, but they often see hallucinations like monsters, archetypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and animals. In this research, patients with depression were compared to healthy controls with respect to strange-face apparitions. The experiment was a 7-minute mirror-gazing test (MGT under low illumination. When the MGT ended, the experimenter assessed patients and controls with a specifically designed questionnaire and interviewed them, asking them to describe strange-face apparitions. Apparitions of strange faces in the mirror were very reduced in depression patients compared to healthy controls. Depression patients compared to healthy controls showed shorter duration of apparitions; minor number of strange faces; lower self-evaluation rating of apparition strength; lower self-evaluation rating of provoked emotion. These decreases in depression may be produced by deficits of facial expression and facial recognition of emotions, which are involved in the relationship between the patient (or the patient’s ego and his face image (or the patient’s bodily self that is reflected in the mirror.
Caputo, Giovanni B; Bortolomasi, Marco; Ferrucci, Roberta; Giacopuzzi, Mario; Priori, Alberto; Zago, Stefano
In normal observers, gazing at one's own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the apparition of strange faces. Observers see distortions of their own faces, but they often see hallucinations like monsters, archetypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and animals. In this research, patients with depression were compared to healthy controls with respect to strange-face apparitions. The experiment was a 7-minute mirror-gazing test (MGT) under low illumination. When the MGT ended, the experimenter assessed patients and controls with a specifically designed questionnaire and interviewed them, asking them to describe strange-face apparitions. Apparitions of strange faces in the mirror were very reduced in depression patients compared to healthy controls. Depression patients compared to healthy controls showed shorter duration of apparitions; minor number of strange faces; lower self-evaluation rating of apparition strength; lower self-evaluation rating of provoked emotion. These decreases in depression may be produced by deficits of facial expression and facial recognition of emotions, which are involved in the relationship between the patient (or the patient's ego) and his face image (or the patient's bodily self) that is reflected in the mirror.
Sugden, Nicole A; Marquis, Alexandra R
Infants show facility for discriminating between individual faces within hours of birth. Over the first year of life, infants' face discrimination shows continued improvement with familiar face types, such as own-race faces, but not with unfamiliar face types, like other-race faces. The goal of this meta-analytic review is to provide an effect size for infants' face discrimination ability overall, with own-race faces, and with other-race faces within the first year of life, how this differs with age, and how it is influenced by task methodology. Inclusion criteria were (a) infant participants aged 0 to 12 months, (b) completing a human own- or other-race face discrimination task, (c) with discrimination being determined by infant looking. Our analysis included 30 works (165 samples, 1,926 participants participated in 2,623 tasks). The effect size for infants' face discrimination was small, 6.53% greater than chance (i.e., equal looking to the novel and familiar). There was a significant difference in discrimination by race, overall (own-race, 8.18%; other-race, 3.18%) and between ages (own-race: 0- to 4.5-month-olds, 7.32%; 5- to 7.5-month-olds, 9.17%; and 8- to 12-month-olds, 7.68%; other-race: 0- to 4.5-month-olds, 6.12%; 5- to 7.5-month-olds, 3.70%; and 8- to 12-month-olds, 2.79%). Multilevel linear (mixed-effects) models were used to predict face discrimination; infants' capacity to discriminate faces is sensitive to face characteristics including race, gender, and emotion as well as the methods used, including task timing, coding method, and visual angle. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin
Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Danker, Stephanie Harvey
Adolescents face complex dilemmas such as challenging issues of identity and self-concept, and struggles with building and maintaining relationships. These issues must be embraced in the art classroom. This Instructional Resource will focus on the concept of brand--connecting visual art, marketing, and psychology--and center on ideas found in the…
Coates, Dennis; Humphreys, Brad, R.; Kane, John; Vachris, Michelle, A.
This paper describes an experiment focused on measuring and explaining differences in students learning between online and face-to-face modes of instruction in college level principles of economics courses. Our results indicate that students in face-to-face sections scored better on the Test of Understanding College Economics (TUCE) than students…
National Literacy Trust, 2010
Between March 2009 and March 2011, Talk To Your Baby has been engaged in a research project, under the title of Face to Face, to identify key messages for parents and carers in relation to communicating with babies and young children, and has examined the most effective ways to promote these messages to parents and carers. The Face to Face project…
Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep
This purpose of this study was to understand e-learners and face to face learners' views towards learning English through e-learning in vocational higher school context and to determine the role of academic achievement and gender in e-learning and face to face learning. This study was conducted at a state-run university in 2012-2013 academic year…
This classroom research explores the probable consequences of a blended Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYLs) course comprised of Moodle applications and face to face instruction in the English Language Teaching (ELT) context. Contrary to previous face to face only procedure, the course was divided into two segments: traditional classroom…
Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Bishop-Clark, Cathy
Describes a study of undergraduate students that assessed the effects of synchronous (Internet chat) and asynchronous (Internet discussion board) computer-mediated communication on subsequent face-to-face discussions. Results showed that face-to-face discussions preceded by computer-mediated communication were perceived to be more enjoyable.…
Katrin Martina Kliegl
Full Text Available The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009 reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model’s gaze was oriented towards the observer. We aimed at replicating this effect for face direction. Moreover, we explored the effect of face direction on the duration perception sad faces. Controlling for the sex of the face model and the participant, female and male participants rated the duration of neutral, angry and sad face stimuli of both sexes photographed from different perspectives in a bisection task. In line with current findings, we report a significant overestimation of angry compared to neutral face stimuli that was modulated by face direction. Moreover, the perceived duration of sad face stimuli did not differ from that of neutral faces and was not influenced by face direction. Furthermore, we found that faces of the opposite sex appeared to last longer than those of the same sex. This outcome is discussed with regards to stimulus parameters like the induced arousal, social relevance and an evolutionary context.
Brownstein, Barry; Brownstein, Deborah; Gerlowski, Daniel A.
The challenges of online learning include ensuring that the learning outcomes are at least as robust as in the face-to-face sections of the same course. At the University of Baltimore, both online sections and face-to-face sections of core MBA courses are offered. Once admitted to the MBA, students are free to enroll in any combination of…
Kenzig, Melissa J
Online education has grown dramatically over the past decade. Instructors who teach face-to-face courses are being called on to adapt their courses to the online environment. Many instructors do not have sufficient training to be able to effectively move courses to an online format. This commentary discusses the growth of online learning, common challenges faced by instructors adapting courses from face-to-face to online, and best practices for translating face-to-face courses into online learning opportunities. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.
In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086
Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kveraga, Kestutis; Naik, Paulami; Ahlfors, Seppo P.
The tendency to perceive faces in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of faces is an example of pareidolia. Perception of ‘real’ faces has been associated with a cortical response signal arising at about 170ms after stimulus onset; but what happens when non-face objects are perceived as faces? Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we found that objects incidentally perceived as faces evoked an early (165ms) activation in the ventral fusiform cortex, at a time and location similar to that evoked by faces, whereas common objects did not evoke such activation. An earlier peak at 130 ms was also seen for images of real faces only. Our findings suggest that face perception evoked by face-like objects is a relatively early process, and not a late re-interpretation cognitive phenomenon. PMID:19218867
Yao, Peng; Wu, Huaqiang; Gao, Bin; Eryilmaz, Sukru Burc; Huang, Xueyao; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Qingtian; Deng, Ning; Shi, Luping; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Qian, He
Conventional hardware platforms consume huge amount of energy for cognitive learning due to the data movement between the processor and the off-chip memory. Brain-inspired device technologies using analogue weight storage allow to complete cognitive tasks more efficiently. Here we present an analogue non-volatile resistive memory (an electronic synapse) with foundry friendly materials. The device shows bidirectional continuous weight modulation behaviour. Grey-scale face classification is experimentally demonstrated using an integrated 1024-cell array with parallel online training. The energy consumption within the analogue synapses for each iteration is 1,000 × (20 ×) lower compared to an implementation using Intel Xeon Phi processor with off-chip memory (with hypothetical on-chip digital resistive random access memory). The accuracy on test sets is close to the result using a central processing unit. These experimental results consolidate the feasibility of analogue synaptic array and pave the way toward building an energy efficient and large-scale neuromorphic system.
Lieb-Lundell, Cornelia C E
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first of 3 syndromes identified as a health condition related to fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene dysfunction. The other 2 syndromes are fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency syndrome (FXPOI) and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), which together are referred to as fragile X-associated disorders (FXDs). Collectively, this group comprises the 3 faces of fragile X. Even though the 3 conditions share a common genetic defect, each one is a separate health condition that results in a variety of body function impairments such as motor delay, musculoskeletal issues related to low muscle tone, coordination limitations, ataxia, tremor, undefined muscle aches and pains, and, for FXTAS, a late-onset neurodegeneration. Although each FXD condition may benefit from physical therapy intervention, available evidence as to the efficacy of intervention appropriate to FXDs is lacking. This perspective article will discuss the genetic basis of FMR1 gene dysfunction and describe health conditions related to this mutation, which have a range of expressions within a family. Physical therapy concerns and possible assessment and intervention strategies will be introduced. Understanding the intergenerational effect of the FMR1 mutation with potential life-span expression is a key component to identifying and treating the health conditions related to this specific genetic condition. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.
Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel
As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion.
Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel
As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion. PMID:25429276
Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta
The concept of "social self" is often described as a representation of the self-reflected in the eyes or minds of others. Although the appearance of one's own face has substantial social significance for humans, neuroimaging studies have failed to link self-face recognition and the likely neural substrate of the social self, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). We assumed that the social self is recruited during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for comparison of social values. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the modulation of neural responses to the faces of the self and of a close friend in a social context. We identified an enhanced response in the ventral MPFC and right occipitoparietal sulcus in the social context specifically for the self-face. Neural response in the right lateral parietal and inferior temporal cortices, previously claimed as self-face-specific, was unaffected for the self-face but unexpectedly enhanced for the friend's face in the social context. Self-face-specific activation in the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and self-face-specific reduction of activation in the left middle temporal gyrus and the right supramarginal gyrus, replicating a previous finding, were not subject to such modulation. Our results thus demonstrated the recruitment of a social self during self-face recognition in the social context. At least three brain networks for self-face-specific activation may be dissociated by different patterns of response-modulation in the social context, suggesting multiple dynamic self-other representations in the human brain. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Garrido, Lúcia; Duchaine, Brad
Cognitive models propose that face recognition is accomplished through a series of discrete stages, including perceptual representation of facial structure, and encoding and retrieval of facial information. This implies that impaired face recognition can result from failures of face perception, face memory, or both. Studies of acquired prosopagnosia, autism spectrum disorders, and the development of normal face recognition support the idea that face perception and face memory are distinct processes, yet this distinction has received little attention in developmental prosopagnosia (DP). To address this issue, we tested the face perception and face memory of children and adults with DP. By definition, face memory is impaired in DP, so memory deficits were present in all participants. However, we found that all children, but only half of the adults had impaired face perception. Thus, results from adults indicate that face perception and face memory are dissociable, while the results from children provide no evidence for this division. Importantly, our findings raise the possibility that DP is qualitatively different in childhood versus adulthood. We discuss theoretical explanations for this developmental pattern and conclude that longitudinal studies are necessary to better understand the developmental trajectory of face perception and face memory deficits in DP. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kirsten A. Dalrymple
Full Text Available Cognitive models propose that face recognition is accomplished through a series of discrete stages, including perceptual representation of facial structure, and encoding and retrieval of facial information. This implies that impaired face recognition can result from failures of face perception, face memory, or both. Studies of acquired prosopagnosia, autism spectrum disorders, and the development of normal face recognition support the idea that face perception and face memory are distinct processes, yet this distinction has received little attention in developmental prosopagnosia (DP. To address this issue, we tested the face perception and face memory of children and adults with DP. By definition, face memory is impaired in DP, so memory deficits were present in all participants. However, we found that all children, but only half of the adults had impaired face perception. Thus, results from adults indicate that face perception and face memory are dissociable, while the results from children provide no evidence for this division. Importantly, our findings raise the possibility that DP is qualitatively different in childhood versus adulthood. We discuss theoretical explanations for this developmental pattern and conclude that longitudinal studies are necessary to better understand the developmental trajectory of face perception and face memory deficits in DP.
Manippa, Valerio; Padulo, Caterina; Brancucci, Alfredo
Previous evidence showed the presence of a straight relationship between feeding behavior and emotions. Despite that, no studies have focused on the influence of emotional faces on food processing. In our study, participants were presented with 72 couples of visual stimuli composed of a neutral, happy, or disgusted faces (5000 ms duration in Experiment 1, adaptation; 150 ms in Experiment 2, priming) followed by a food stimulus (1500 ms). Food stimuli were grouped in pleasant foods, further divided in natural and transformed, and unpleasant rotten foods. The task consisted in judging the food valence (as 'pleasant' or 'unpleasant') by keypress. Results showed a different pattern of response based on the transformation level of food. In general, the evaluation of natural foods was more rapid compared with transformed foods, maybe for their simplicity and healthier perception. In addition, transformed foods yielded incongruent responses with respect to the preceding emotional face, whereas natural foods yielded congruent responses with respect to it. These effects were independent of the duration of the emotional face (i.e., adaptation or priming paradigm) and may depend on pleasant food stimuli salience.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate which affective component guides cognitive processing of emotional facial expressions. According to the threat hypothesis, processing of angry faces is prioritized by the human cognitive system, because rapid detection of threat has a large adaptive value. The negativity hypothesis presumes that distressing emotional experiences of other people attract attention, regardless of whether they represent danger or not. The emotionality hypothesis proposes that positive emotional facial expressions can capture attention as effective as negative ones, while the happy face superiority hypothesis predicts that happy faces are prioritized. In the present study, which was conducted on 24 participants, change detection paradigm was used, because that procedure enables insight into the later stage of information processing. The results obtained show that happy facial expressions are heavily prioritized by the human cognitive system. In explanation of these results, that clearly support the happy face superiority hypothesis, we propose that angry expressions are initially prioritized by our cognitive system, because we benefit from early detection of potential threat in the environment, but in later cognitive processing, happy expressions are given the priority, because smiling is a valuable mechanism for forming and maintaining cooperative relationships. Besides the theoretical relevance, the present study is also valuable methodologically, because we demonstrated that change detection paradigm can be efficiently used for the research of emotional facial expressions processing.
Biederman, I; Kalocsai, P
A number of behavioural phenomena distinguish the recognition of faces and objects, even when members of a set of objects are highly similar. Because faces have the same parts in approximately the same relations, individuation of faces typically requires specification of the metric variation in a holistic and integral representation of the facial surface. The direct mapping of a hypercolumn-like pattern of activation onto a representation layer that preserves relative spatial filter values in...
Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja; Petersen, Anders
Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition......, a lower perceptual threshold, and higher processing speed for words compared to letters. In sum, we find no evidence that reading skills are abnormal in developmental prosopagnosia, a finding that may challenge the recently proposed hypothesis that reading development and face processing abilities...
Hansen, Dan Witzner; Larsen, Rasmus; Lauze, F
A face detection method based on a boosted classifier using images from a time-of-flight sensor is presented. We show that the performance of face detection can be improved when using both depth and gray scale images and that the common use of integration of hypotheses for verification can...... be relaxed. Based on the detected face we employ an active contour method on depth images for full head segmentation....
Liu, Xiaoyue; Dai, Yugang; He, Xiangzhen; Wan, Fucheng
The face model has always been a research challenge in computer graphics, which involves the coordination of multiple organs in faces. This article explained two kinds of face modeling method which is based on the data driven and based on parameter control, analyzed its content and background, summarized their advantages and disadvantages, and concluded muscle model which is based on the anatomy of the principle has higher veracity and easy to drive.
Lungu, Anita; Sun, Michael
Even with recent advances in psychological treatments and mobile technology, online computerized therapy is not yet popular. College students, with ubiquitous access to technology, experiencing high distress, and often nontreatment seekers, could be an important area for online treatment dissemination. Finding ways to reach out to college students by offering psychological interventions through technology, devices, and applications they often use, might increase their engagement in treatment. This study evaluates college students' reported willingness to seek help for emotional distress through novel delivery mediums, to play computer games for learning emotional coping skills, and to disclose personal information online. We also evaluated the role of ethnicity and level of emotional distress in help-seeking patterns. A survey exploring our domains of interest and the Mental Health Inventory ([MHI] as mental health index) were completed by 572 students (mean age 18.7 years, predominantly Asian American, female, and freshmen in college). More participants expressed preference for online versus face-to-face professional help. We found no relationship between MHI and help-seeking preference. A third of participants were likely to disclose at least as much information online as face-to-face. Ownership of mobile technology was pervasive. Asian Americans were more likely to be nontreatment seekers than Caucasians. Most participants were interested in serious games for emotional distress. Our results suggest that college students are very open to creative ways of receiving emotional help such as playing games and seeking emotional help online, suggesting a need for online evidence-based treatments.
Wang, Qiandong; Xiao, Naiqi G.; Quinn, Paul C.; Hu, Chao S.; Qian, Miao; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
Recent studies have shown that participants use different eye movement strategies when scanning own- and other-race faces. However, it is unclear (1) whether this effect is related to face recognition performance, and (2) to what extent this effect is influenced by top-down or bottom-up facial information. In the present study, Chinese participants performed a face recognition task with Chinese faces, Caucasian faces, and racially ambiguous morphed face stimuli. For the racially ambiguous faces, we led participants to believe that they were viewing either own-race Chinese faces or other-race Caucasian faces. Results showed that (1) Chinese participants scanned the nose of the true Chinese faces more than that of the true Caucasian faces, whereas they scanned the eyes of the Caucasian faces more than those of the Chinese faces; (2) they scanned the eyes, nose, and mouth equally for the ambiguous faces in the Chinese condition compared with those in the Caucasian condition; (3) when recognizing the true Chinese target faces, but not the true target Caucasian faces, the greater the fixation proportion on the nose, the faster the participants correctly recognized these faces. The same was true when racially ambiguous face stimuli were thought to be Chinese faces. These results provide the first evidence to show that (1) visual scanning patterns of faces are related to own-race face recognition response time, and (2) it is bottom-up facial physiognomic information of racial categories that mainly contributes to face scanning. However, top-down knowledge of racial categories can influence the relationship between face scanning patterns and recognition response time. PMID:25497461
Besson, G; Barragan-Jason, G; Thorpe, S J; Fabre-Thorpe, M; Puma, S; Ceccaldi, M; Barbeau, E J
Verifying that a face is from a target person (e.g. finding someone in the crowd) is a critical ability of the human face processing system. Yet how fast this can be performed is unknown. The 'entry-level shift due to expertise' hypothesis suggests that - since humans are face experts - processing faces should be as fast - or even faster - at the individual than at superordinate levels. In contrast, the 'superordinate advantage' hypothesis suggests that faces are processed from coarse to fine, so that the opposite pattern should be observed. To clarify this debate, three different face processing levels were compared: (1) a superordinate face categorization level (i.e. detecting human faces among animal faces), (2) a face familiarity level (i.e. recognizing famous faces among unfamiliar ones) and (3) verifying that a face is from a target person, our condition of interest. The minimal speed at which faces can be categorized (∼260ms) or recognized as familiar (∼360ms) has largely been documented in previous studies, and thus provides boundaries to compare our condition of interest to. Twenty-seven participants were included. The recent Speed and Accuracy Boosting procedure paradigm (SAB) was used since it constrains participants to use their fastest strategy. Stimuli were presented either upright or inverted. Results revealed that verifying that a face is from a target person (minimal RT at ∼260ms) was remarkably fast but longer than the face categorization level (∼240ms) and was more sensitive to face inversion. In contrast, it was much faster than recognizing a face as familiar (∼380ms), a level severely affected by face inversion. Face recognition corresponding to finding a specific person in a crowd thus appears achievable in only a quarter of a second. In favor of the 'superordinate advantage' hypothesis or coarse-to-fine account of the face visual hierarchy, these results suggest a graded engagement of the face processing system across processing
Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kveraga, Kestutis; Naik, Paulami; Ahlfors, Seppo P
The tendency to perceive faces in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of faces is an example of pareidolia. Perception of 'real' faces has been associated with a cortical response signal arising at approximately 170 ms after stimulus onset, but what happens when nonface objects are perceived as faces? Using magnetoencephalography, we found that objects incidentally perceived as faces evoked an early (165 ms) activation in the ventral fusiform cortex, at a time and location similar to that evoked by faces, whereas common objects did not evoke such activation. An earlier peak at 130 ms was also seen for images of real faces only. Our findings suggest that face perception evoked by face-like objects is a relatively early process, and not a late reinterpretation cognitive phenomenon.
Zhu, Min; Hu, Yinying; Tang, Xiaochen; Luo, Junlong; Gao, Xiangping
Self-face advantage refers to adults' response to self-face is faster than that to other-face. A stop-signal task was used to explore how self-face advantage interacted with response inhibition. The results showed that reaction times of self-face were faster than that of other-face not in the go task but in the stop response trials. The novelty of the finding was that self-face has shorter stop-signal reaction time compared to other-face in the successful inhibition trials. These results indicated the processing mechanism of self-face may be characterized by a strong response tendency and a corresponding strong inhibition control.
Zhang, Tong; Gomes, Herman Martins
With the pervasiveness of monitoring cameras installed in public areas, schools, hospitals, work places and homes, video analytics technologies for interpreting these video contents are becoming increasingly relevant to people's lives. Among such technologies, human face detection and tracking (and face identification in many cases) are particularly useful in various application scenarios. While plenty of research has been conducted on face tracking and many promising approaches have been proposed, there are still significant challenges in recognizing and tracking people in videos with uncontrolled capturing conditions, largely due to pose and illumination variations, as well as occlusions and cluttered background. It is especially complex to track and identify multiple people simultaneously in real time due to the large amount of computation involved. In this paper, we present a survey on literature and software that are published or developed during recent years on the face tracking topic. The survey covers the following topics: 1) mainstream and state-of-the-art face tracking methods, including features used to model the targets and metrics used for tracking; 2) face identification and face clustering from face sequences; and 3) software packages or demonstrations that are available for algorithm development or trial. A number of publically available databases for face tracking are also introduced.
Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco
3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s
Jakobsen, Krisztina V; Umstead, Lindsey; Simpson, Elizabeth A
Adults detect conspecific faces more efficiently than heterospecific faces; however, the development of this own-species bias (OSB) remains unexplored. We tested whether 6- and 11-month-olds exhibit OSB in their attention to human and animal faces in complex visual displays with high perceptual load (25 images competing for attention). Infants (n = 48) and adults (n = 43) passively viewed arrays containing a face among 24 non-face distractors while we measured their gaze with remote eye tracking. While OSB is typically not observed until about 9 months, we found that, already by 6 months, human faces were more likely to be detected, were detected more quickly (attention capture), and received longer looks (attention holding) than animal faces. These data suggest that 6-month-olds already exhibit OSB in face detection efficiency, consistent with perceptual attunement. This specialization may reflect the biological importance of detecting conspecific faces, a foundational ability for early social interactions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Swapnil Vitthal Tathe
Full Text Available Advancement in computer vision technology and availability of video capturing devices such as surveillance cameras has evoked new video processing applications. The research in video face recognition is mostly biased towards law enforcement applications. Applications involves human recognition based on face and iris, human computer interaction, behavior analysis, video surveillance etc. This paper presents face tracking framework that is capable of face detection using Haar features, recognition using Gabor feature extraction, matching using correlation score and tracking using Kalman filter. The method has good recognition rate for real-life videos and robust performance to changes due to illumination, environmental factors, scale, pose and orientations.
Elder, Ruth L; Lewis, Peter A; Windsor, Carol A; Wheeler, Margaret; Forster, Elizabeth; Foster, Joanne; Chapman, Helen
Chronic nursing shortages have placed increasing pressure on many nursing schools to recruit greater numbers of students with the consequence of larger class sizes. Larger class sizes have the potential to lead to student disengagement. This paper describes a case study that examined the strategies used by a group of nursing lecturers to engage students and to overcome passivity in a Bachelor of Nursing programme. A non-participant observer attended 20 tutorials to observe five academics deliver four tutorials each. Academics were interviewed both individually and as a group following the completion of all tutorial observations. All observations, field notes, interviews and focus groups were coded separately and major themes identified. From this analysis two broad categories emerged: getting students involved; and engagement as a struggle. Academics used a wide variety of techniques to interest and involve students. Additionally, academics desired an equal relationship with students. They believed that both they and the students had some power to influence the dynamics of tutorials and that neither party had ultimate power. The findings of this study serve to re-emphasise past literature which suggests that to engage students, the academics must also engage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Higo, Naoki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Minemura, Juichi; Xu, Bujie; Nozawa, Takayuki; Ogata, Taiki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo; Miyake, Yoshihiro
Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results confirm an
Full Text Available Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results
Wang, Jianzhong; Yi, Yugen; Zhou, Wei; Shi, Yanjiao; Qi, Miao; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Baoxue; Kong, Jun
Recently, Sparse Representation-based Classification (SRC) has attracted a lot of attention for its applications to various tasks, especially in biometric techniques such as face recognition. However, factors such as lighting, expression, pose and disguise variations in face images will decrease the performances of SRC and most other face recognition techniques. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose a robust face recognition method named Locality Constrained Joint Dynamic Sparse Representation-based Classification (LCJDSRC) in this paper. In our method, a face image is first partitioned into several smaller sub-images. Then, these sub-images are sparsely represented using the proposed locality constrained joint dynamic sparse representation algorithm. Finally, the representation results for all sub-images are aggregated to obtain the final recognition result. Compared with other algorithms which process each sub-image of a face image independently, the proposed algorithm regards the local matching-based face recognition as a multi-task learning problem. Thus, the latent relationships among the sub-images from the same face image are taken into account. Meanwhile, the locality information of the data is also considered in our algorithm. We evaluate our algorithm by comparing it with other state-of-the-art approaches. Extensive experiments on four benchmark face databases (ORL, Extended YaleB, AR and LFW) demonstrate the effectiveness of LCJDSRC.
Full Text Available Recently, Sparse Representation-based Classification (SRC has attracted a lot of attention for its applications to various tasks, especially in biometric techniques such as face recognition. However, factors such as lighting, expression, pose and disguise variations in face images will decrease the performances of SRC and most other face recognition techniques. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose a robust face recognition method named Locality Constrained Joint Dynamic Sparse Representation-based Classification (LCJDSRC in this paper. In our method, a face image is first partitioned into several smaller sub-images. Then, these sub-images are sparsely represented using the proposed locality constrained joint dynamic sparse representation algorithm. Finally, the representation results for all sub-images are aggregated to obtain the final recognition result. Compared with other algorithms which process each sub-image of a face image independently, the proposed algorithm regards the local matching-based face recognition as a multi-task learning problem. Thus, the latent relationships among the sub-images from the same face image are taken into account. Meanwhile, the locality information of the data is also considered in our algorithm. We evaluate our algorithm by comparing it with other state-of-the-art approaches. Extensive experiments on four benchmark face databases (ORL, Extended YaleB, AR and LFW demonstrate the effectiveness of LCJDSRC.
Kramer, Robin S S; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike
We describe InterFace, a software package for research in face recognition. The package supports image warping, reshaping, averaging of multiple face images, and morphing between faces. It also supports principal components analysis (PCA) of face images, along with tools for exploring the "face space" produced by PCA. The package uses a simple graphical user interface, allowing users to perform these sophisticated image manipulations without any need for programming knowledge. The program is available for download in the form of an app, which requires that users also have access to the (freely available) MATLAB Runtime environment.
Pea, Roy; Nass, Clifford; Meheula, Lyn; Rance, Marcus; Kumar, Aman; Bamford, Holden; Nass, Matthew; Simha, Aneesh; Stillerman, Benjamin; Yang, Steven; Zhou, Michael
An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Quist, Michelle C; Watkins, Christopher D; Smith, Finlay G; Little, Anthony C; Debruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C
Although men displaying cues of good physical condition possess traits that are desirable in a mate (e.g., good health), these men are also more likely to possess antisocial characteristics that are undesirable in a long-term partner (e.g., aggression and tendency to infidelity). How women resolve this trade-off between the costs and benefits associated with choosing a mate in good physical condition may lead to strategic variation in women's mate preferences. Because the costs of choosing a mate with antisocial personality characteristics are greater in long- than short-term relationships, women's sociosexuality (i.e., the extent to which they are interested in uncommitted sexual relationships) may predict individual differences in their mate preferences. Here we investigated variation in 99 heterosexual women's preferences for facial symmetry, a characteristic that is thought to be an important cue of physical condition. Symmetry preferences were assessed using pairs of symmetrized and original (i.e., relatively asymmetric) versions of 10 male and 10 female faces. Analyses showed that women's sociosexuality, and their sociosexual attitude in particular, predicted their preferences for symmetry in men's, but not women's, faces; women who reported being more interested in short-term, uncommitted relationships demonstrated stronger attraction to symmetric men. Our findings present new evidence for potentially adaptive variation in women's symmetry preferences that is consistent with trade-off theories of attraction.
Macko, W; Kostyack, P T
Few decisions can affect an organization more than the selection of an outsourcing or interim management partner. More and more health care organizations face such decisions in today's competitive market in order to face new business needs. Making these relationships successful can be important for health care organizations seeking competitive advantages or seeking immediately accessible management support. These relationships, however, require careful partner selection and development. Success in outsourcing and interim management relationships is contingent upon a thorough selection process, a strong contract that has clearly and explicitly detailed responsibilities and a culture-sensitive business rapport between the client and selected partner.
Čutović Tatjana; Jović Nebojša; Kozomara Ružica; Radojčić Julija; Janošević Mirjana; Mladenović Irena; Matijević Stevo
Background/Aim. The middle part of the face, that is the maxilla, has always been mentioned as a possible etiologic factor of skeletal Class III. However, the importance of the relationship of maxillary retroposition towards the cranial base is still unclear, although it has been examined many times. The aim of this study was to conduct cephalometric analysis of the morphology of maxilla, including the whole middle part of the face in patients with divergen...
Aveta, Achille; Casati, Paolo
Facial injuries are often accompanied by soft tissue injuries. The complexity of these injuries is represented by the potential for loss of relationships between the functional and the aesthetic subunits of the head. Most reviews of craniofacial trauma have concentrated on fractures. With this article, we want to emphasize the importance of early aesthetic reconstruction of the face in polytrauma patients. We present 13 patients with soft tissue injuries of the face, treated in our emergency department in the 'day one surgery", without "second look"procedures. The final result always restored a sense of normalcy to the face. The face is the first most visible part of the human anatomy, so, in emergency, surgeons must pay special attention also to the reconstruction of the face, in polytrauma patients.
Bernard Marius 't Hart
Full Text Available The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications ("Viola-Jones" algorithm achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections ("real faces", false positives ("illusory faces" and correctly rejected locations ("non faces". Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system.
Liao, Hsin-I; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Yeh, Su-Ling
Familiarity leads to preference (e.g., the mere exposure effect), yet it remains unknown whether it is objective familiarity, that is, repetitive exposure, or subjective familiarity that contributes to preference. In addition, it is unexplored whether and how different emotions influence familiarity-related preference. The authors investigated whether happy or sad faces are preferred or perceived as more familiar and whether this subjective familiarity judgment correlates with preference for different emotional faces. An emotional face--happy or sad--was paired with a neutral face, and participants rated the relative preference and familiarity of each of the paired faces. For preference judgment, happy faces were preferred and sad faces were less preferred, compared with neutral faces. For familiarity judgment, happy faces did not show any bias, but sad faces were perceived as less familiar than neutral faces. Item-by-item correlational analyses show preference for sad faces--but not happy faces--positively correlate with familiarity. These results suggest a direct link between positive emotion and preference, and argue at least partly against a common cause for familiarity and preference. Instead, facial expression of different emotional valence modulates the link between familiarity and preference.
Hsieh, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Kae-Horng; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Han, Chin-Chuan; Fan, Kuo-Chin
Robust face recognition under illumination variations is an important and challenging task in a face recognition system, particularly for face recognition in the wild. In this paper, a face image preprocessing approach, called spatial adaptive shadow compensation (SASC), is proposed to eliminate shadows in the face image due to different lighting directions. First, spatial adaptive histogram equalization (SAHE), which uses face intensity prior model, is proposed to enhance the contrast of each local face region without generating visible noises in smooth face areas. Adaptive shadow compensation (ASC), which performs shadow compensation in each local image block, is then used to produce a wellcompensated face image appropriate for face feature extraction and recognition. Finally, null-space linear discriminant analysis (NLDA) is employed to extract discriminant features from SASC compensated images. Experiments performed on the Yale B, Yale B extended, and CMU PIE face databases have shown that the proposed SASC always yields the best face recognition accuracy. That is, SASC is more robust to face recognition under illumination variations than other shadow compensation approaches.
Otto, Charles; Wang, Dayong; Jain, Anil K
Given a large collection of unlabeled face images, we address the problem of clustering faces into an unknown number of identities. This problem is of interest in social media, law enforcement, and other applications, where the number of faces can be of the order of hundreds of million, while the number of identities (clusters) can range from a few thousand to millions. To address the challenges of run-time complexity and cluster quality, we present an approximate Rank-Order clustering algorithm that performs better than popular clustering algorithms (k-Means and Spectral). Our experiments include clustering up to 123 million face images into over 10 million clusters. Clustering results are analyzed in terms of external (known face labels) and internal (unknown face labels) quality measures, and run-time. Our algorithm achieves an F-measure of 0.87 on the LFW benchmark (13 K faces of 5,749 individuals), which drops to 0.27 on the largest dataset considered (13 K faces in LFW + 123M distractor images). Additionally, we show that frames in the YouTube benchmark can be clustered with an F-measure of 0.71. An internal per-cluster quality measure is developed to rank individual clusters for manual exploration of high quality clusters that are compact and isolated.
Saman Sepehri Nejad
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a cartoon face generation method that stands on a component-based facial feature extraction approach. Given a frontal face image as an input, our proposed system has the following stages. First, face features are extracted using an extended Active Shape Model. Outlines of the components are locally modified using edge detection, template matching and Hermit interpolation. This modification enhances the diversity of output and accuracy of the component matching required for cartoon generation. Second, to bring cartoon-specific features such as shadows, highlights and, especially, stylish drawing, an array of various face photographs and corresponding hand-drawn cartoon faces are collected. These cartoon templates are automatically decomposed into cartoon components using our proposed method for parameterizing cartoon samples, which is fast and simple. Then, using shape matching methods, the appropriate cartoon component is selected and deformed to fit the input face. Finally, a cartoon face is rendered in a vector format using the rendering rules of the selected template. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of our approach in generating life-like cartoon faces.
McKelvie, S J
For 20 faces, 85 subjects selected either a distinctive feature or a distinctive trait. For faces with spectacles, the eyes were judged to be most prominent, and the people were judged to be dull and intelligent. Results are discussed in terms of the physical attractiveness stereotype.
Emotional Labor, Face and Guan xi are all relevant to performance, appearance, and emotional feelings, which are essential elements in work place. In other words, not only front-line workers, but all employees in an organization is faced up with the three
Erik J Schlicht
Full Text Available Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent.
Righart, Ruthger; Burra, Nicolas; Vuilleumier, Patrik
Perceptual filling-in occurs when visual stimuli are recognized in impoverished viewing conditions. Whether missing information is filled-in during face perception and which stages might be involved in this process are still unresolved questions. Because an identity can be brought to mind by seeing eyes only, we hypothesized that missing information might be filled-in from a memory trace for the whole face identity. We presented participants with faces in phase 1 and later we presented eyes-only in phase 2. For some of these eyes in phase 2, the whole face had been presented in the previous phase, for others identical eyes had been presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed an N170 component that was more negative when eyes were preceded by a whole face in the previous phase compared to eyes preceded by identical eyes-only. A more positive-going late positive complex (LPC) was also found, suggesting enhanced retrieval of face memory representations when eyes were preceded by whole faces. Our results show that pre-existing representations of face identity can influence early stages of visual encoding, 170 ms after stimulus onset. These effects may reflect top-down modulation by memory on visual recognition processes by filling-in the missing facial information.
Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van
Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if
Dutta, A.; van Rootseler, R.T.A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan
Face recognition is a challenging problem for surveillance view images commonly encountered in a forensic face recognition case. One approach to deal with a non-frontal test image is to synthesize the corresponding frontal view image and compare it with frontal view reference images. However, it is
Results show that in both groups of subjects face immersion in water (at either temperature) with breath-hold significantly increased BP, QRS amplitude, PR interval, QT interval and R-R interval. Face immersion thus caused a significant reduction in heart rate (HR). However, in both groups of subjects, the changes in BP ...
Narins, Rhoda S; Carruthers, Jean; Flynn, Timothy C; Geister, Thorin L; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Hardas, Bhushan; Himmrich, Silvia; Jones, Derek; Kerscher, Martina; de Maio, Maurício; Mohrmann, Cornelia; Pooth, Rainer; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Buchner, Larry; Benter, Ursula; Breitscheidel, Lusine; Carruthers, Alastair
Aging in the lower face leads to lines, wrinkles, depression of the corners of the mouth, and changes in lip volume and lip shape, with increased sagging of the skin of the jawline. Refined, easy-to-use, validated, objective standards assessing the severity of these changes are required in clinical research and practice. To establish the reliability of eight lower face scales assessing nasolabial folds, marionette lines, upper and lower lip fullness, lip wrinkles (at rest and dynamic), the oral commissure and jawline, aesthetic areas, and the lower face unit. Four 5-point rating scales were developed to objectively assess upper and lower lip wrinkles, oral commissures, and the jawline. Twelve experts rated identical lower face photographs of 50 subjects in two separate rating cycles using eight 5-point scales. Inter- and intrarater reliability of responses was assessed. Interrater reliability was substantial or almost perfect for all lower face scales, aesthetic areas, and the lower face unit. Intrarater reliability was high for all scales, areas and the lower face unit. Our rating scales are reliable tools for valid and reproducible assessment of the aging process in lower face areas. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nearly all tunnels bored in soft soils have encountered problems with the stability of the tunnel face. In several cases these problems led to an extended stand-still of the boring process. A better understanding of the face stability, and of the soil conditions around the tunnel boring machine, can
Davidenko, Nicolas; Flusberg, Stephen J.
Visual processing is highly sensitive to stimulus orientation; for example, face perception is drastically worse when faces are oriented inverted vs. upright. However, stimulus orientation must be established in relation to a particular reference frame, and in most studies, several reference frames are conflated. Which reference frame(s) matter in…
Hayward, William G; Crookes, Kate; Chu, Ming Hon; Favelle, Simone K; Rhodes, Gillian
Although many researchers agree that faces are processed holistically, we know relatively little about what information holistic processing captures from a face. Most studies that assess the nature of holistic processing do so with changes to the face affecting many different aspects of face information (e.g., different identities). Does holistic processing affect every aspect of a face? We used the composite task, a common means of examining the strength of holistic processing, with participants making same-different judgments about configuration changes or component changes to 1 portion of a face. Configuration changes involved changes in spatial position of the eyes, whereas component changes involved lightening or darkening the eyebrows. Composites were either aligned or misaligned, and were presented either upright or inverted. Both configuration judgments and component judgments showed evidence of holistic processing, and in both cases it was strongest for upright face composites. These results suggest that holistic processing captures a broad range of information about the face, including both configuration-based and component-based information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Teasley, Stephanie D.
This emerging technology report reviews a new development in educational technology, student-facing dashboards, which provide comparative performance feedback to students calculated by Learning Analytics-based algorithms on data generated from university students' use of educational technology. Instructor- and advisor-facing dashboards emerged as…
Devue, C.J.; Belopolsky, A.V.; Theeuwes, J.
Even though it is generally agreed that face stimuli constitute a special class of stimuli, which are treated preferentially by our visual system, it remains unclear whether faces can capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner. Moreover, there is a long-standing debate regarding the mechanism
Comaschi, F.; Stuijk, S.; Basten, T.; Corporaal, H.
The problem of online face tracking from unconstrained videos is still unresolved. Challenges range from coping with severe online appearance variations to coping with occlusion. We propose RFTD (Robust Face Tracking-by-Detection), a system which combines tracking and detection into a single
A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...
Zhang, Hua; Liu, Duanduan; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zha, H.; Taniguchi, R.-I.; Maybank, S.
In this paper, we present a face alignment approach using granular features, boosting, and an evolutionary search algorithm. Active Appearance Models (AAM) integrate a shape-texture-combined morphable face model into an efficient fitting strategy, then Boosting Appearance Models (BAM) consider the
Riby, Deborah M.; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H.; Robinson, Lucy J.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M.
Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii)…
Kowalski, M.; Grudzień, A.; Palka, N.; Szustakowski, M.
Biometrics refers to unique human characteristics. Each unique characteristic may be used to label and describe individuals and for automatic recognition of a person based on physiological or behavioural properties. One of the most natural and the most popular biometric trait is a face. The most common research methods on face recognition are based on visible light. State-of-the-art face recognition systems operating in the visible light spectrum achieve very high level of recognition accuracy under controlled environmental conditions. Thermal infrared imagery seems to be a promising alternative or complement to visible range imaging due to its relatively high resistance to illumination changes. A thermal infrared image of the human face presents its unique heat-signature and can be used for recognition. The characteristics of thermal images maintain advantages over visible light images, and can be used to improve algorithms of human face recognition in several aspects. Mid-wavelength or far-wavelength infrared also referred to as thermal infrared seems to be promising alternatives. We present the study on 1:1 recognition in thermal infrared domain. The two approaches we are considering are stand-off face verification of non-moving person as well as stop-less face verification on-the-move. The paper presents methodology of our studies and challenges for face recognition systems in the thermal infrared domain.
Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.
Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…
Yang, Yuan; Qiu, Yihong; Schouten, Alfred C.
Face perception is mediated by a distributed brain network comprised of the core system at occipito-temporal areas and the extended system at other relevant brain areas involving bilateral hemispheres. In this study we explored how the brain connectivity changes over the time for face-sensitive
Full Text Available The rapid recognition of familiar faces is crucial for social interactions. However the actual speed with which recognition can be achieved remains largely unknown as most studies have been carried out without any speed constraints. Different paradigms have been used, leading to conflicting results, and although many authors suggest that face recognition is fast, the speed of face recognition has not been directly compared to fast visual tasks. In this study, we sought to overcome these limitations. Subjects performed three tasks, a familiarity categorization task (famous faces among unknown faces, a superordinate categorization task (human faces among animal ones and a gender categorization task. All tasks were performed under speed constraints. The results show that, despite the use of speed constraints, subjects were slow when they had to categorize famous faces: minimum reaction time was 467 ms, which is 180 ms more than during superordinate categorization and 160 ms more than in the gender condition. Our results are compatible with a hierarchy of face processing from the superordinate level to the familiarity level. The processes taking place between detection and recognition need to be investigated in detail.
Refugee women face daunting healthcare needs ... Women faced long waits to get care, sometimes resorting to offering bribes for services. ... Equally important, it brought home “that the women I spoke with in this study are people, just like you ...
Dillon, Kristen G.; Conway, Courtney J.
Our understanding of life history evolution has benefited from debates regarding the underlying causes, and geographic ubiquity, of spatial patterns in avian clutch sizes. Past studies have revealed that birds lay smaller clutch sizes at higher elevation. However, in most previous studies, investigators have failed to adequately control for elevational differences in breeding phenology. To better understand the elevational gradient in avian clutch size, we need to know how clutch size changes across the entire elevational breeding range of a species (i.e., the shape of the relationship between elevation and clutch size), and whether the elevational gradient in clutch size is merely an artifact of elevational gradients in breeding phenology or breeding season length. We examined the relationship between breeding elevation and clutch size of Red-faced Warblers (Cardellina rubrifrons) along a 1000-m elevational gradient in Arizona. Our objectives were to determine how clutch size changed with elevation, and if the relationship between clutch size and elevation merely reflected elevational changes in breeding season length or phenology. The proportion of 5-egg clutches decreased and the proportion of 3- and 4-egg clutches increased non-linearly with increasing elevation, even after controlling for the elevational gradient in nest initiation date. Thus, average clutch size declined across the elevational breeding range of Red-faced Warblers, but this decline was not due to elevational variation in breeding phenology. Timing of breeding changed, but the duration of the breeding season did not change appreciably across the elevational gradient. Hence, elevational differences in breeding season length or breeding phenology cannot explain why Red-faced Warblers (and perhaps other birds) breeding at higher elevations have smaller clutches.
J. Marinda van Zyl
Full Text Available A large number of unqualified and under-qualified in-service teachers are holding back socio-economical development in South Africa, a newly industrialized country. Open and distance learning (ODL provides an innovative strategy and praxis for developing and newly industrialized countries to reach their educational and socio-economical objectives through professional development and training. In order to examine factors which affect the success of ODL offered by the North-West University in South Africa, a qualitative and quantitative research approach is used. Factors examined include face-to-face classroom contact, the implementation and use of ICTs, and e-readiness. The relationships between these factors are also discussed. A questionnaire was administered to 87 teacher-students in four Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE programs to collect quantitative data regarding aspects of their classes and the e-readiness of students. This data was qualitatively elaborated upon by three semi-structured, open-ended focus-group interviews. Besides descriptive statistics, Spearman’s rank-order correlations (r were determined between variables pertaining to negative feelings towards face-to-face classroom contact, ODL as students’ choice of delivery mode, and students’ positive attitude towards information and communication technology (ICT. Combined quantitative and qualitative findings were used to evaluate the effectiveness of contact classes as well as the e-readiness of students towards the attainment of ODL development Phase D. This phase refers to UNESCO’s description of ICT implementation, integration, and use. Relationships (Spearman’s rank-order correlations between ODL, as teacher-students’ choice of educational delivery mode, and aspects of their e-readiness suggest that the e-readiness of teacher-students is implicit to their choice of ODL as educational delivery mode for professional development.
Full Text Available In cognitive psychology, studies concerning the face tend to focus on questions about face recognition, theory of mind and empathy. Questions about the face, however, also fit into a very different set of issues that are central to ethics. Based especially on the work of Levinas, philosophers have come to see that reference to the face of another person can anchor conceptions of moral responsibility and ethical demand. Levinas points to a certain irreducibility and transcendence implicit in the face of the other. In this paper I argue that the notion of transcendence involved in this kind of analysis can be given a naturalistic interpretation by drawing on recent interactive approaches to social cognition found in developmental psychology, phenomenology, and the study of autism.
Full Text Available Congenital asymmetric crying face is an anomalia caused by unilateral absence or weakness of depressor anguli oris muscle The major finding of the disease is the absence or weakness in the outer and lower movement of the commissure during crying. The other expression muscles are normal and the face is symmetric at rest. The asymmetry in congenital asymmetric crying face is most evident during infancy but decreases by age. Congenital asymmetric crying face can be associated with cervicofacial, musclebone, respiratory, genitourinary and central nervous system anomalia. It is diagnosed by physical examination. This paper presents a six days old infant with Congenital asymmetric crying face and discusses the case in terms of diagnosis and disease features.
Jakobsen, Lisa; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Erichsen, Lars
tunnel in Copenhagen more than 2.5 km face logs were made in 467 locations at underground stations, shafts, caverns and along bored tunnels. Over 160 geotechnical boreholes, many with geophysical logging were executed prior to construction works. The bedrock consists of Paleogene "Copenhagen limestone......The requirement for excavation support can be assessed from face logging. Face logs can also improve our knowledge of lithological and structural conditions within bedrock and supplement information from boreholes and geophysical logs. During the construction of 8 km metro tunnel and 4 km heating....... The induration degrees recorded in face logs and boreholes are compared and correlated. Distinct geophysical log markers are used to divide the limestone into three units. These marker horizons are correlated between face logs and geotechnical boreholes. A 3D model of the strength variations recorded within...
Nikisins, Olegs; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Greitans, Modris
Facial images are of critical importance in many real-world applications from gaming to surveillance. The current literature on facial image analysis, from face detection to face and facial expression recognition, are mainly performed in either RGB, Depth (D), or both of these modalities. But......, such analyzes have rarely included Thermal (T) modality. This paper paves the way for performing such facial analyzes using synchronized RGB-D-T facial images by introducing a database of 51 persons including facial images of different rotations, illuminations, and expressions. Furthermore, a face recognition...... algorithm has been developed to use these images. The experimental results show that face recognition using such three modalities provides better results compared to face recognition in any of such modalities in most of the cases....
PSA to help raise retailers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations related to the sale of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to people under 18 and the requirement to sell products face-to-face.
Air transportation facilitates face-to-face interactions across borders for the spatial expansion of manufacturing production. I investigate the impact of international flights on FDI entry by Japanese firms. I find that FDI entry significantly increases with the weekly frequency of flights from Japan, and the positive impact increases with a proxy for an intensity of face-to-face communication between the parent firm and foreign affiliate. The results are robust to estimation methods, additi...
Gottschalk, Andrew; Flocke, Susan A.
PURPOSE Contrary to physicians’ concerns that face-to-face patient time is decreasing, data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) indicate that between 1988 and 1998, durations of primary care outpatient visits have increased. This study documented how physicians spend time during the workday, including time outside the examination room, and compared observed face-to-face patient care time with that reported in NAMCS.
de Klerk, Carina C. J. M.; Gliga, Teodora; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.
Face recognition difficulties are frequently documented in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It has been hypothesized that these difficulties result from a reduced interest in faces early in life, leading to decreased cortical specialization and atypical development of the neural circuitry for face processing. However, a recent study…
de Heering, Adelaide; Rossion, Bruno; Maurer, Daphne
Adults are experts at recognizing faces but there is controversy about how this ability develops with age. We assessed 6- to 12-year-olds and adults using a digitized version of the Benton Face Recognition Test, a sensitive tool for assessing face perception abilities. Children's response times for correct responses did not decrease between ages 6…
Nasrabad, Rafat Rezapour
Today, several studies in the field to identify key factors in the success and agility of health care organizations to improve their performance in the face of changes have taken place in the context of customer relationship management among them. The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of customer relationship management, goals and benefits by considering its relationship with value creation for clients and treatment. Results showed concern for organizations today, creating cust...
Ivcevic, Zorana; Ambady, Nalini
Social networking sites such as Facebook represent a unique and dynamic social environment. This study addresses three theoretical issues in personality psychology in the context of online social networking sites: (a) the temporal consistency of Facebook activity, (b) people's awareness of their online behavior, and (c) comparison of social behavior on Facebook with self- and informant-reported behavior in real life. Facebook Wall pages of 99 college students (mean age = 19.72) were downloaded six times during 3 weeks and coded for quantity and quality of activity. Everyday social interactions were assessed by self- and friend report. Facebook activity showed significant consistency across time, and people demonstrated awareness of their online behavior. There was significant similarity between everyday traits and interactions and Facebook behavior (e.g., more posts by friends are related to Agreeableness). Some differences between online and everyday interactions warrant further research (e.g., individuals with more positive offline relationships are less likely to engage in back-and-forth conversations on Facebook). The results indicate substantial similarity between online and offline social behavior and identify avenues for future research on the possible use of Facebook to compensate for difficulty in everyday interactions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Alegría, C Aramburu
• Transsexual persons are increasing their visibility in society, and health care providers and others (such as social workers) will be called upon to help with issues that transsexual persons face. Challenges that face transsexual persons often include issues involving relationships. Psychiatric and mental health nurses and other caregivers can increase their therapeutic skills in working with couples that include transsexual persons by becoming aware of these challenges and subsequent activities that can help with them. • This research study looks at couple relationships in which one partner reveals male-to-female transsexual identity. These are relationships that were established as man-woman and now will transition into relationships that include a male-to-female person and a female partner. • Common challenges for these couples include issues related to: (1) sexual identity and relationship uncertainty; (2) male-to-female transition decision making; and (3) presenting in public. • Relationship maintenance activities that helped the couples in the study maintain and strengthen their relationships through these challenges include: (1) communication; (2) self-talk (for example, putting the situation in perspective); (3) social networks; (4) positive interactions; (5) impression management (for example, managing displays of affection in public); and (6) social activism. This qualitative study describes the relational dynamics that help sustain relationships of couples that include male-to-female transsexual persons (MTF) and their natal female partners (NF) following disclosure of transsexualism. Relationship challenges and relationship maintenance activities are identified. Each partner in 17 MTF-NF couples participated in individual surveys and interviews. The data were coded for themes related to relationship challenges and activities. MTF-NF couples experience challenges within the contexts of their relationships and of society. These challenges
Hills, Peter J; Marquardt, Zoe; Young, Isabel; Goodenough, Imogen
Sad people recognize faces more accurately than happy people (Hills et al., 2011). We devised four hypotheses for this finding that are tested between in the current study. The four hypotheses are: (1) sad people engage in more expert processing associated with face processing; (2) sad people are motivated to be more accurate than happy people in an attempt to repair their mood; (3) sad people have a defocused attentional strategy that allows more information about a face to be encoded; and (4) sad people scan more of the face than happy people leading to more facial features to be encoded. In Experiment 1, we found that dysphoria (sad mood often associated with depression) was not correlated with the face-inversion effect (a measure of expert processing) nor with response times but was correlated with defocused attention and recognition accuracy. Experiment 2 established that dysphoric participants detected changes made to more facial features than happy participants. In Experiment 3, using eye-tracking we found that sad-induced participants sampled more of the face whilst avoiding the eyes. Experiment 4 showed that sad-induced people demonstrated a smaller own-ethnicity bias. These results indicate that sad people show different attentional allocation to faces than happy and neutral people.
Full Text Available Recently face recognition is attracting much attention in the society of network multimedia information access. Areas such as network security, content indexing and retrieval, and video compression benefits from face recognition technology because "people" are the center of attention in a lot of video. Network access control via face recognition not only makes hackers virtually impossible to steal one's "password", but also increases the user-friendliness in human-computer interaction. Indexing and/or retrieving video data based on the appearances of particular persons will be useful for users such as news reporters, political scientists, and moviegoers. For the applications of videophone and teleconferencing, the assistance of face recognition also provides a more efficient coding scheme. In this paper, we give an introductory course of this new information processing technology. The paper shows the readers the generic framework for the face recognition system, and the variants that are frequently encountered by the face recognizer. Several famous face recognition algorithms, such as eigenfaces and neural networks, will also be explained.
Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.
O'Toole, Alice; Tistarelli, Massimo
The study of human face recognition by psychologists and neuroscientists has run parallel to the development of automatic face recognition technologies by computer scientists and engineers. In both cases, there are analogous steps of data acquisition, image processing, and the formation of representations that can support the complex and diverse tasks we accomplish with faces. These processes can be understood and compared in the context of their neural and computational implementations. In this chapter, we present the essential elements of face recognition by humans and machines, taking a perspective that spans psychological, neural, and computational approaches. From the human side, we overview the methods and techniques used in the neurobiology of face recognition, the underlying neural architecture of the system, the role of visual attention, and the nature of the representations that emerges. From the computational side, we discuss face recognition technologies and the strategies they use to overcome challenges to robust operation over viewing parameters. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a look at some recent studies that compare human and machine performances at face recognition.
Full Text Available Even though it is generally agreed that face stimuli constitute a special class of stimuli, which are treated preferentially by our visual system, it remains unclear whether faces can capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner. Moreover, there is a long-standing debate regarding the mechanism underlying the preferential bias of selecting faces. Some claim that faces constitute a set of special low-level features to which our visual system is tuned; others claim that the visual system is capable of extracting the meaning of faces very rapidly, driving attentional selection. Those debates continue because many studies contain methodological peculiarities and manipulations that prevent a definitive conclusion. Here, we present a new visual search task in which observers had to make a saccade to a uniquely colored circle while completely irrelevant objects were also present in the visual field. The results indicate that faces capture and guide the eyes more than other animated objects and that our visual system is not only tuned to the low-level features that make up a face but also to its meaning.
Wang, Qiandong; Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Hu, Chao S; Qian, Miao; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
Recent studies have shown that participants use different eye movement strategies when scanning own- and other-race faces. However, it is unclear (1) whether this effect is related to face recognition performance, and (2) to what extent this effect is influenced by top-down or bottom-up facial information. In the present study, Chinese participants performed a face recognition task with Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces. For the racially ambiguous faces, we led participants to believe that they were viewing either own-race Chinese faces or other-race Caucasian faces. Results showed that (1) Chinese participants scanned the nose of the true Chinese faces more than that of the true Caucasian faces, whereas they scanned the eyes of the Caucasian faces more than those of the Chinese faces; (2) they scanned the eyes, nose, and mouth equally for the ambiguous faces in the Chinese condition compared with those in the Caucasian condition; (3) when recognizing the true Chinese target faces, but not the true target Caucasian faces, the greater the fixation proportion on the nose, the faster the participants correctly recognized these faces. The same was true when racially ambiguous face stimuli were thought to be Chinese faces. These results provide the first evidence to show that (1) visual scanning patterns of faces are related to own-race face recognition response time, and (2) it is bottom-up facial physiognomic information that mainly contributes to face scanning. However, top-down knowledge of racial categories can influence the relationship between face scanning patterns and recognition response time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krezdorn, Nicco; Alhefzi, Muayyad; Perry, Bridget; Aycart, Mario A; Tasigiorgos, Sotirios; Bueno, Ericka M; Green, Jordan R; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Caterson, Edward J
Trismus can be a challenging consequence of ballistic trauma to the face, and has rarely been described in the setting of face transplantation. Almost half of all current face transplant recipients in the world received transplantation to restore form and function after a ballistic injury. Here we report our experience and challenges with long standing trismus after face transplantation. We reviewed the medical records of our face transplant recipients whose indication was ballistic injury. We focused our review on trismus and assessed the pre-, peri- and postoperative planning, surgery and functional outcomes. Two patients received partial face transplantation, including the midface for ballistic trauma. Both patients suffered from impaired mouth opening, speech intelligibility, and oral competence. Severe scarring of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) required intraoperative release in both patients, and additional total condylectomy on the left side 6 months posttransplant for 1 patient. Posttransplant, both patients achieved an improvement in mouth opening; however, there was persistent trismus. One year after transplantation, range of motion of the jaw had improved for both patients. Independent oral food intake was possible 1 year after surgery, although spillage of liquids and mixed consistency solids persisted. Speech intelligibility testing showed impairments in the immediate postoperative period, with improvement to over 85% for both patients at 1 year posttransplant. Ballistic trauma to the face and subsequent reconstructive measures can cause significant scarring and covert injuries to structures such as the TMJ, resulting in long standing trismus. Meticulous individual planning prior to interventions such as face transplantation must take these into account. We encourage intraoperative evaluation of these structures as well as peri- and postoperative treatment when necessary. Due to the nature of the primary injury, functional outcomes after face
... representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. 266.6 Section 266.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. Before the Board selects a... listed in § 266.4 of this part. An employee of the Board may also conduct a face-to-face interview with...
... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods... Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be held Tuesday, March 13, 2012, at 2 p.m...
... documentation must also describe how the health status of the recipient at the time of the face-to-face... [CMS 2348-P] RIN 0938-AQ36 Medicaid Program; Face-to-Face Requirements for Home Health Services; Policy... document the existence of a face-to-face encounter (including through the use of telehealth) with the...
... wishes to obtain the required purpose statement by mail rather than by a face-to-face interview. Personal... without benefit of face-to-face interview. 221.115 Section 221.115 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE...) Interpretations § 221.115 Accepting a purpose statement through the mail without benefit of face-to-face interview...
Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel
As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class mat...
Chen, Sheng; Liu, Yang; Gao, Xiang; Han, Zhen
In this paper, we proposed a class of extremely efficient CNN models, MobileFaceNets, which use less than 1 million parameters and are specifically tailored for high-accuracy real-time face verification on mobile and embedded devices. We first make a simple analysis on the weakness of common mobile networks for face verification. The weakness has been well overcome by our specifically designed MobileFaceNets. Under the same experimental conditions, our MobileFaceNets achieve significantly sup...
Full Text Available In previous studies, the relationship between facial attractiveness and memory has been inconsistent. We investigated the effect of facial attractiveness on recognition memory in terms of gender and judgment contents. Both female and male facial images were judged for their attractiveness and personal character, and incidental memory was tested later. Recognition performance was shown as d' and analyzed with 2 (participant's gender x 2 (condition of attractiveness ANOVA. The interaction was significant for female faces but not for male faces. It is, therefore, suggested that the difference of gender affects the recognition memory concerning facial attractiveness. In particular, attractiveness of female faces had different effects for female participants when compared to other combinations. As a control, the interaction for female faces was not significant when the task was to judge the physical features such as the size of eyes and the angle of mouth. In sum, unattractive faces were better recognized than attractive faces in general except for the case when women judged attractiveness of female faces. These results suggest that there may be an effect of attention to attractiveness on recognition memory that is particularly strong when women look at female faces.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new framework for face recognition with varying illumination based on DCT total variation minimization (DTV, a Gabor filter, a sub-micro-pattern analysis (SMP and discriminated accumulative feature transform (DAFT. We first suppress the illumination effect by using the DCT with the help of TV as a tool for face normalization. The DTV image is then emphasized by the Gabor filter. The facial features are encoded by our proposed method - the SMP. The SMP image is then transformed to the 2D histogram using DAFT. Our system is verified with experiments on the AR and the Yale face database B.
Sochenkova, A.; Sochenkov, I.; Makovetskii, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Melnikov, A.
Computer vision tasks are remaining very important for the last couple of years. One of the most complicated problems in computer vision is face recognition that could be used in security systems to provide safety and to identify person among the others. There is a variety of different approaches to solve this task, but there is still no universal solution that would give adequate results in some cases. Current paper presents following approach. Firstly, we extract an area containing face, then we use Canny edge detector. On the next stage we use convolutional neural networks (CNN) to finally solve face recognition and person identification task.
Jamal Ahmad Dargham
Full Text Available Face recognition is an important biometric method because of its potential applications in many fields, such as access control, surveillance, and human-computer interaction. In this paper, a face recognition system that fuses the outputs of three face recognition systems based on Gabor jets is presented. The first system uses the magnitude, the second uses the phase, and the third uses the phase-weighted magnitude of the jets. The jets are generated from facial landmarks selected using three selection methods. It was found out that fusing the facial features gives better recognition rate than either facial feature used individually regardless of the landmark selection method.
Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Pujol, Jesus; Batalla, Iolanda; Harrison, Ben J; Bosque, Javier; Ibern-Regàs, Immaculada; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Deus, Joan; López-Solà, Marina; Pifarré, Josep; Menchón, José M; Cardoner, Narcís
Psychopaths show a reduced ability to recognize emotion facial expressions, which may disturb the interpersonal relationship development and successful social adaptation. Behavioral hypotheses point toward an association between emotion recognition deficits in psychopathy and amygdala dysfunction. Our prediction was that amygdala dysfunction would combine deficient activation with disturbances in functional connectivity with cortical regions of the face-processing network. Twenty-two psychopaths and 22 control subjects were assessed and functional magnetic resonance maps were generated to identify both brain activation and task-induced functional connectivity using psychophysiological interaction analysis during an emotional face-matching task. Results showed significant amygdala activation in control subjects only, but differences between study groups did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, psychopaths showed significantly increased activation in visual and prefrontal areas, with this latest activation being associated with psychopaths' affective-interpersonal disturbances. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed a reciprocal reduction in functional connectivity between the left amygdala and visual and prefrontal cortices. Our results suggest that emotional stimulation may evoke a relevant cortical response in psychopaths, but a disruption in the processing of emotional faces exists involving the reciprocal functional interaction between the amygdala and neocortex, consistent with the notion of a failure to integrate emotion into cognition in psychopathic individuals.
Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W
Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Huis in 't Veld, Elisabeth; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice
This study addresses two central and controversial issues in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), configuration- versus feature-based face processing and the influence of affective information from either facial or bodily expressions on face recognition. A sample of 10 DPs and 10 controls were tested with a previously developed face and object recognition and memory battery (Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test, FEAST), a task measuring the influence of emotional faces and bodies on face identity matching (Face-Body Compound task), and an emotionally expressive face memory task (Emotional Face Memory task, FaMe-E). We show that DPs were impaired in upright, but not inverted, face matching but they performed at the level of controls on part-to-whole matching. Second, DPs showed impaired memory for both neutral and emotional faces and scored within the normal range on the Face-Body Compound task. Third, configural perception but not feature-based processing was significantly associated with memory performance. Taken together the results indicate that DPs have a deficit in configural processing at the perception stage that may underlie the memory impairment.
Lewis, Amelia K; Porter, Melanie A; Williams, Tracey A; Bzishvili, Samantha; North, Kathryn N; Payne, Jonathan M
This study aimed to investigate face scan paths and face perception abilities in children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and how these might relate to emotion recognition abilities in this population. The authors investigated facial emotion recognition, face scan paths, and face perception in 29 children with NF1 compared to 29 chronological age-matched typically developing controls. Correlations between facial emotion recognition, face scan paths, and face perception in children with NF1 were examined. Children with NF1 displayed significantly poorer recognition of fearful expressions compared to controls, as well as a nonsignificant trend toward poorer recognition of anger. Although there was no significant difference between groups in time spent viewing individual core facial features (eyes, nose, mouth, and nonfeature regions), children with NF1 spent significantly less time than controls viewing the face as a whole. Children with NF1 also displayed significantly poorer face perception abilities than typically developing controls. Facial emotion recognition deficits were not significantly associated with aberrant face scan paths or face perception abilities in the NF1 group. These results suggest that impairments in the perception, identification, and interpretation of information from faces are important aspects of the social-cognitive phenotype of NF1. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing
People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender). PMID:27840621
Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Gors, Jason D; Gobbini, M Ida
Personally familiar faces are processed more robustly and efficiently than unfamiliar faces. The human face processing system comprises a core system that analyzes the visual appearance of faces and an extended system for the retrieval of person-knowledge and other nonvisual information. We applied multivariate pattern analysis to fMRI data to investigate aspects of familiarity that are shared by all familiar identities and information that distinguishes specific face identities from each other. Both identity-independent familiarity information and face identity could be decoded in an overlapping set of areas in the core and extended systems. Representational similarity analysis revealed a clear distinction between the two systems and a subdivision of the core system into ventral, dorsal and anterior components. This study provides evidence that activity in the extended system carries information about both individual identities and personal familiarity, while clarifying and extending the organization of the core system for face perception.
Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing
People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender).
Armas, Alana; Meyer, Samantha B; Corbett, Kitty K; Pearce, Alex R
Patient-provider communication is critical in primary care. Canada's unique health system, population distribution, and cultural context suggest there is value in addressing the topic in the Canadian context. We conducted a scoping review to synthesize recent Canadian literature to inform practice in primary care settings and identify research agendas for patient-provider communication in Canada. Using Arksey and O'Malley's framework we searched four literature databases: Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL and EMBASE. We extracted 21,932 articles published between 2010 and 2017. A total of 108 articles met the inclusion criteria. The articles were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis to identify major themes. Four major themes were identified: information sharing, relationships, health system challenges, and development and use of communication tools. Our review identified a need for Canadian research regarding: communication in primary care with Aboriginal, immigrant, and rural populations; the impact of medical tourism on primary care; and how to improve communication to facilitate continuity of care. Challenges providers face in primary care in Canada include: communicating with linguistically and culturally diverse populations; addressing issues that emerge with the rise of medical tourism; a need for decision aids to improve communication with patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vergara, Franz H; Sheridan, Daniel J; Sullivan, Nancy J; Budhathoki, Chakra
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a face-to-face meeting with patients by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge would result in increased telephone follow-up (TFU) reach rates posthospital discharge. Acute care adult medicine inpatient units. A quasiexperimental design was utilized. Two adult inpatient medicine units were selected as the intervention and comparison groups. The framework of the study is the transitions theory. A convenience sampling technique was used, whereby 88 eligible patients on the intervention unit received face-to-face meetings prehospital discharge whereas 123 patients on the comparison unit received standard care (no face-to-face meetings). Cross-tabulation and chi-square tests were employed to examine the association of face-to-face meeting intervention and TFU reach rates. Implementing brief (face-to-face meetings by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge resulted in a TFU reach rate of 87% on the intervention unit, whereas the comparison unit only had a 58% TFU reach rate (p communication with more patients posthospital discharge. A brief prehospital discharge face-to-face meeting with patients assisted them to understand the reasons for a posthospital discharge telephone call, identified the best times to call using accurate telephone numbers, and taught patients how best to prepare for the call. In addition, by meeting patients face-to-face, the telephonic case manager was no longer an unknown person on the telephone asking them questions about their medical condition. These factors combined may have significantly helped to increase TFU reach rates.
Zheng, Yufeng; Blasch, Erik
The performance of face recognition can be improved using information fusion of multimodal images and/or multiple algorithms. When multimodal face images are available, cross-modal recognition is meaningful for security and surveillance applications. For example, a probe face is a thermal image (especially at nighttime), while only visible face images are available in the gallery database. Matching a thermal probe face onto the visible gallery faces requires crossmodal matching approaches. A few such studies were implemented in facial feature space with medium recognition performance. In this paper, we propose a cross-modal recognition approach, where multimodal faces are cross-matched in feature space and the recognition performance is enhanced with stereo fusion at image, feature and/or score level. In the proposed scenario, there are two cameras for stereo imaging, two face imagers (visible and thermal images) in each camera, and three recognition algorithms (circular Gaussian filter, face pattern byte, linear discriminant analysis). A score vector is formed with three cross-matched face scores from the aforementioned three algorithms. A classifier (e.g., k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, binomial logical regression [BLR]) is trained then tested with the score vectors by using 10-fold cross validations. The proposed approach was validated with a multispectral stereo face dataset from 105 subjects. Our experiments show very promising results: ACR (accuracy rate) = 97.84%, FAR (false accept rate) = 0.84% when cross-matching the fused thermal faces onto the fused visible faces by using three face scores and the BLR classifier.
This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value
Gelskov, Sofie; Kouider, Sid
The ability to detect and focus on faces is a fundamental prerequisite for developing social skills. But how well can infants detect faces? Here, we address this question by studying the minimum duration at which faces must appear to trigger a behavioral response in infants. We used a preferential...... looking method in conjunction with masking and brief presentations (300 ms and below) to establish the temporal thresholds of visibility at different stages of development. We found that 5 and 10 month-old infants have remarkably similar visibility thresholds about three times higher than those of adults....... By contrast, 15 month-olds not only revealed adult-like thresholds, but also improved their performance through memory-based strategies. Our results imply that the development of face visibility follows a non-linear course and is determined by a radical improvement occurring between 10 and 15 months....
The face is the most common location of acne. Here, there are 4 to 6 millimeter red ( ... scars and fistulous tract formation (connecting passages). Severe acne may have a profound psychological impact and may ...
This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value
Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja
We propose a correlation-based approach to parametric object alignment particularly suitable for face analysis applications which require efficiency and robustness against occlusions and illumination changes. Our algorithm registers two images by iteratively maximizing their correlation coefficient
... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Global Research Global ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Each day, between 12 to 13 U.S. workers die as a result of a traumatic injury on the job. Investigations conducted through the FACE program allow the identification...
Cihan Mehmet Kadipasaoglu
Full Text Available Prevailing theories suggests that cortical regions responsible for face perception operate in a serial, feed-forward fashion. Here, we utilize invasive human electrophysiology to evaluate serial models of face-processing via measurements of cortical activation, functional connectivity, and cortico-cortical evoked potentials. We find that task-dependent changes in functional connectivity between face-selective regions in the inferior occipital (f-IOG and fusiform gyrus (f-FG are bidirectional, not feed-forward, and emerge following feed-forward input from early visual cortex (EVC to both of these regions. Cortico-cortical evoked potentials similarly reveal independent signal propagations between EVC and both f-IOG and f-FG. These findings are incompatible with serial models, and support a parallel, distributed network underpinning face perception in humans.
Over the past few decades, face recognition has become a rapidly growing research topic due to the increasing demands in many applications of our daily life such as airport surveillance, personal identification in law enforcement, surveillance systems, information safety, securing financial transactions, and computer security. The objective of this thesis is to develop a face recognition system capable of recognizing persons with a high recognition capability, low processing time, and under different illumination conditions, and different facial expressions. The thesis presents a study for the performance of the face recognition system using two techniques; the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and the Zernike Moments (ZM). The performance of the recognition system is evaluated according to several aspects including the recognition rate, and the processing time. Face recognition systems that use visual images are sensitive to variations in the lighting conditions and facial expressions. The performance of these systems may be degraded under poor illumination conditions or for subjects of various skin colors. Several solutions have been proposed to overcome these limitations. One of these solutions is to work in the Infrared (IR) spectrum. IR images have been suggested as an alternative source of information for detection and recognition of faces, when there is little or no control over lighting conditions. This arises from the fact that these images are formed due to thermal emissions from skin, which is an intrinsic property because these emissions depend on the distribution of blood vessels under the skin. On the other hand IR face recognition systems still have limitations with temperature variations and recognition of persons wearing eye glasses. In this thesis we will fuse IR images with visible images to enhance the performance of face recognition systems. Images are fused using the wavelet transform. Simulation results show that the fusion of visible and
Security Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...including attention to management practices and key success factors. HOMELAND SECURITY Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership www.gao.gov/cgi...significant management and coordination challenges if it is to provide this leadership and be successful in preventing and responding to any future
This book provides a step by step approach that explains the most important extension components and their features. All the major features are explained by using the JobHub application with supporting screenshots.If you are an intermediate to advanced level user (or developer) who already has a basic working knowledge of PrimeFaces, then this book is for you.The only thing you need to know is Java Server Faces(JSF).
Full Text Available Face recognition is not rooted in a universal eye movement information-gathering strategy. Western observers favor a local facial feature sampling strategy, whereas Eastern observers prefer sampling face information from a global, central fixation strategy. Yet, the precise qualitative (the diagnostic and quantitative (the amount information underlying these cultural perceptual biases in face recognition remains undetermined.To this end, we monitored the eye movements of Western and Eastern observers during a face recognition task, with a novel gaze-contingent technique: the Expanding Spotlight. We used 2° Gaussian apertures centered on the observers' fixations expanding dynamically at a rate of 1° every 25ms at each fixation - the longer the fixation duration, the larger the aperture size. Identity-specific face information was only displayed within the Gaussian aperture; outside the aperture, an average face template was displayed to facilitate saccade planning. Thus, the Expanding Spotlight simultaneously maps out the facial information span at each fixation location.Data obtained with the Expanding Spotlight technique confirmed that Westerners extract more information from the eye region, whereas Easterners extract more information from the nose region. Interestingly, this quantitative difference was paired with a qualitative disparity. Retinal filters based on spatial frequency decomposition built from the fixations maps revealed that Westerners used local high-spatial frequency information sampling, covering all the features critical for effective face recognition (the eyes and the mouth. In contrast, Easterners achieved a similar result by using global low-spatial frequency information from those facial features.Our data show that the face system flexibly engages into local or global eye movement strategies across cultures, by relying on distinct facial information span and culturally tuned spatially filtered information. Overall, our
Su, Junzhu; Tan, Qingleng; Fang, Fang
Using combined psychophysics and event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the effect of perceptual learning on face gender discrimination and probe the neural correlates of the learning effect. Human subjects were trained to perform a gender discrimination task with male or female faces. Before and after training, they were tested with the trained faces and other faces with the same and opposite genders. ERPs responding to these faces were recorded. Psychophysical results showed that training significantly improved subjects' discrimination performance and the improvement was specific to the trained gender, as well as to the trained identities. The training effect indicates that learning occurs at two levels-the category level (gender) and the exemplar level (identity). ERP analyses showed that the gender and identity learning was associated with the N170 latency reduction at the left occipital-temporal area and the N170 amplitude reduction at the right occipital-temporal area, respectively. These findings provide evidence for the facilitation model and the sharpening model on neuronal plasticity from visual experience, suggesting a faster processing speed and a sparser representation of face induced by perceptual learning.
D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R
Perceptual body size distortions have traditionally been studied using subjective, qualitative measures that assess only one type of body representation-the conscious body image. Previous research on perceived body size has typically focused on measuring distortions of the entire body and has tended to overlook the face. Here, we present a novel psychophysical method for determining perceived body size that taps into implicit body representation. Using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC), participants were sequentially shown two life-size images of their own face, viewed upright, upside down, or tilted 90°. In one interval, the width or length dimension was varied, while the other interval contained an undistorted image. Participants reported which image most closely matched their own face. An adaptive staircase adjusted the distorted image to hone in on the image that was equally likely to be judged as matching their perceived face as the accurate image. When viewed upright or upside down, face width was overestimated and length underestimated, whereas perception was accurate for the on-side views. These results provide the first psychophysically robust measurements of how accurately healthy participants perceive the size of their face, revealing distortions of the implicit body representation independent of the conscious body image.
Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Hou, Zeng-Guang
Faces convey a wealth of social signals, including race, expression, identity, age and gender, all of which have attracted increasing attention from multi-disciplinary research, such as psychology, neuroscience, computer science, to name a few. Gleaned from recent advances in computer vision, computer graphics, and machine learning, computational intelligence based racial face analysis has been particularly popular due to its significant potential and broader impacts in extensive real-world applications, such as security and defense, surveillance, human computer interface (HCI), biometric-based identification, among others. These studies raise an important question: How implicit, non-declarative racial category can be conceptually modeled and quantitatively inferred from the face? Nevertheless, race classification is challenging due to its ambiguity and complexity depending on context and criteria. To address this challenge, recently, significant efforts have been reported toward race detection and categorization in the community. This survey provides a comprehensive and critical review of the state-of-the-art advances in face-race perception, principles, algorithms, and applications. We first discuss race perception problem formulation and motivation, while highlighting the conceptual potentials of racial face processing. Next, taxonomy of feature representational models, algorithms, performance and racial databases are presented with systematic discussions within the unified learning scenario. Finally, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potentially important cross-cutting themes and research directions for the issue of learning race from face.
Pang Ying Han
Full Text Available Graph-based subspace learning is a class of dimensionality reduction technique in face recognition. The technique reveals the local manifold structure of face data that hidden in the image space via a linear projection. However, the real world face data may be too complex to measure due to both external imaging noises and the intra-class variations of the face images. Hence, features which are extracted by the graph-based technique could be noisy. An appropriate weight should be imposed to the data features for better data discrimination. In this paper, a piecewise weighting function, known as Eigenvector Weighting Function (EWF, is proposed and implemented in two graph based subspace learning techniques, namely Locality Preserving Projection and Neighbourhood Preserving Embedding. Specifically, the computed projection subspace of the learning approach is decomposed into three partitions: a subspace due to intra-class variations, an intrinsic face subspace, and a subspace which is attributed to imaging noises. Projected data features are weighted differently in these subspaces to emphasize the intrinsic face subspace while penalizing the other two subspaces. Experiments on FERET and FRGC databases are conducted to show the promising performance of the proposed technique.
Hsiao, Janet H; Liu, Tina T
In English word recognition, the best recognition performance is usually obtained when the initial fixation is directed to the left of the center (optimal viewing position, OVP). This effect has been argued to involve an interplay of left hemisphere lateralization for language processing and the perceptual experience of fixating at word beginnings most often. While both factors predict a left-biased OVP in visual word recognition, in face recognition they predict contrasting biases: People prefer to fixate the left half-face, suggesting that the OVP should be to the left of the center; nevertheless, the right hemisphere lateralization in face processing suggests that the OVP should be to the right of the center in order to project most of the face to the right hemisphere. Here, we show that the OVP in face recognition was to the left of the center, suggesting greater influence from the perceptual experience than hemispheric asymmetry in central vision. In contrast, hemispheric lateralization effects emerged when faces were presented away from the center; there was an interaction between presented visual field and location (center vs. periphery), suggesting differential influence from perceptual experience and hemispheric asymmetry in central and peripheral vision.
Shao, Ming; Zhang, Yizhe; Fu, Yun
Learning discriminant face representation for pose-invariant face recognition has been identified as a critical issue in visual learning systems. The challenge lies in the drastic changes of facial appearances between the test face and the registered face. To that end, we propose a high-level feature learning framework called "collaborative random faces (RFs)-guided encoders" toward this problem. The contributions of this paper are three fold. First, we propose a novel supervised autoencoder that is able to capture the high-level identity feature despite of pose variations. Second, we enrich the identity features by replacing the target values of conventional autoencoders with random signals (RFs in this paper), which are unique for each subject under different poses. Third, we further improve the performance of the framework by incorporating deep convolutional neural network facial descriptors and linking discriminative identity features from different RFs for the augmented identity features. Finally, we conduct face identification experiments on Multi-PIE database, and face verification experiments on labeled faces in the wild and YouTube Face databases, where face recognition rate and verification accuracy with Receiver Operating Characteristic curves are rendered. In addition, discussions of model parameters and connections with the existing methods are provided. These experiments demonstrate that our learning system works fairly well on handling pose variations.
Liu, Xiao; Sawada, Yoshie; Takizawa, Takako; Sato, Hiroko; Sato, Mahito; Sakamoto, Hironosuke; Utsugi, Toshihiro; Sato, Kunio; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Shinichi; Sakamaki, Tetsuo
The objective of this study was to compare doctor-patient communications in clinical consultations via telemedicine technology to doctor-patient communications in face-to-face clinical consultations. Five doctors who had been practicing internal medicine for 8 to 18 years, and twenty patients were enrolled in this study; neither doctors nor patients had previous experience of telemedicine. The patients received both a telemedicine consultation and a face-to-face consultation. Three measures--video observation, medical record volume, and participants' satisfaction--were used for the assessment. It was found that the time spent on the telemedicine consultation was substantially longer than the time spent on the face-to-face consultation. No statistically significant differences were found in the number of either closed or open-ended questions asked by doctors between both types of consultation. Empathy-utterances, praise-utterances, and facilitation-utterances were, however, seen less in the telemedicine consultations than in the face-to-face consultations. The volume of the medical records was statistically smaller in the telemedicine consultations than in the face-to-face consultations. Patients were satisfied with the telemedicine consultation, but doctors were dissatisfied with it and felt hampered by the communication barriers. This study suggests that new training programs are needed for doctors to develop improved communication skills and the ability to express empathy in telemedicine consultations.
Tsugawa, Sho; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki
Research on link prediction for social networks has been actively pursued. In link prediction for a given social network obtained from time-windowed observation, new link formation in the network is predicted from the topology of the obtained network. In contrast, recent advances in sensing technology have made it possible to obtain face-to-face behavioral networks, which are social networks representing face-to-face interactions among people. However, the effectiveness of link prediction techniques for face-to-face behavioral networks has not yet been explored in depth. To clarify this point, here we investigate the accuracy of conventional link prediction techniques for networks obtained from the history of face-to-face interactions among participants at an academic conference. Our findings were (1) that conventional link prediction techniques predict new link formation with a precision of 0.30-0.45 and a recall of 0.10-0.20, (2) that prolonged observation of social networks often degrades the prediction accuracy, (3) that the proposed decaying weight method leads to higher prediction accuracy than can be achieved by observing all records of communication and simply using them unmodified, and (4) that the prediction accuracy for face-to-face behavioral networks is relatively high compared to that for non-social networks, but not as high as for other types of social networks.
Alicia P Melis
Full Text Available In face-to-face bargaining tasks human adults almost always agree on an equal split of resources. This is due to mutually recognized fairness and equality norms. Early developmental studies on sharing and equality norms found that egalitarian allocations of resources are not common before children are 5 or 6 years old. However, recent studies have shown that in some face-to face collaborative situations, or when recipients express their desires, children at much younger ages choose equal allocations. We investigated the ability of 3.5 and 5-year-olds to negotiate face-to-face, whether to collaborate to obtain an equal or an unequal distribution of rewards. We hypothesized that the face-to-face interaction and interdependency between partners would facilitate egalitarian outcomes at both ages. In the first experiment we found that 5-year-olds were more egalitarian than 3.5-year-olds, but neither of the age classes shared equally. In the second experiment, in which we increased the magnitude of the inequality, we found that children at both ages mostly agreed on the unequal distribution. These results show that communication and face-to-face interactions are not sufficient to guarantee equal allocations at 3-5 years of age. These results add to previous findings suggesting that in the context of non-collaboratively produced resources it is only after 5 years of age that children use equality norms to allocate resources.
Zhou, Hongjun; Chen, Pei; Shen, Wei
In this research, we present a framework for multi-view face detect and recognition system based on cascade face detector and improved Dlib. This method is aimed to solve the problems of low efficiency and low accuracy in multi-view face recognition, to build a multi-view face recognition system, and to discover a suitable monitoring scheme. For face detection, the cascade face detector is used to extracted the Haar-like feature from the training samples, and Haar-like feature is used to train a cascade classifier by combining Adaboost algorithm. Next, for face recognition, we proposed an improved distance model based on Dlib to improve the accuracy of multiview face recognition. Furthermore, we applied this proposed method into recognizing face images taken from different viewing directions, including horizontal view, overlooks view, and looking-up view, and researched a suitable monitoring scheme. This method works well for multi-view face recognition, and it is also simulated and tested, showing satisfactory experimental results.
Hildebrandt, A; Kiy, A; Reuter, M; Sommer, W; Wilhelm, O
Face cognition, including face identity and facial expression processing, is a crucial component of socio-emotional abilities, characterizing humans as highest developed social beings. However, for these trait domains molecular genetic studies investigating gene-behavior associations based on well-founded phenotype definitions are still rare. We examined the relationship between 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms - related to serotonin-reuptake - and the ability to perceive and recognize faces and emotional expressions in human faces. For this aim we conducted structural equation modeling on data from 230 young adults, obtained by using a comprehensive, multivariate task battery with maximal effort tasks. By additionally modeling fluid intelligence and immediate and delayed memory factors, we aimed to address the discriminant relationships of the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms with socio-emotional abilities. We found a robust association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and facial emotion perception. Carriers of two long (L) alleles outperformed carriers of one or two S alleles. Weaker associations were present for face identity perception and memory for emotional facial expressions. There was no association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and non-social abilities, demonstrating discriminant validity of the relationships. We discuss the implications and possible neural mechanisms underlying these novel findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
A model for designing online learning was developed and implemented in a Registered Nurse-to-Bachelor of Science in Nursing course using online and face-to-face methodologies. The combination of online and face-to-face learning modalities may help the student who is a novice Internet explorer or seasoned Web navigator by offering technological support as well as providing constant in-person feedback regarding course requirements. The face-to-face component facilitates a sense of community and peer support that sometimes is lacking in an entirely online course. During the 2 semesters this model was used, students expressed satisfaction with having the course facilitator/professor physically available for consultation and advisement. Evaluation of this online/on-site course is ongoing and uses computer-administered qualitative questionnaires, a facilitator-moderated focus group, and Likert-type course evaluations.
Zhang, Yi-Qing; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Shu-Min; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiang
Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts is vital both for understanding the spread of airborne pathogens and word-of-mouth spreading of information. Although many efforts have been devoted to model these temporal networks, there are still two important social features, public activity and individual reachability, have been ignored in these models. Here we present a simple model that captures these two features and other typical properties of empirical face-to-face contact networks. The model describes agents which are characterized by an attractiveness to slow down the motion of nearby people, have event-triggered active probability and perform an activity-dependent biased random walk in a square box with periodic boundary. The model quantitatively reproduces two empirical temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts which are testified by their network properties and the epidemic spread dynamics on them.
Wong, Kah P; Bonn, Gregory; Tam, Cai L; Wong, Chee P
Increasingly, online counseling is considered to be a cost-effective and highly accessible method of providing basic counseling and mental health services. To examine the potential of online delivery as a way of increasing overall usage of services, this study looked at students' attitudes toward and likelihood of using both online and/or face-to-face counseling. A survey was conducted with 409 students from six universities in Malaysia participating. Approximately 35% of participants reported that they would be likely to utilize online counseling services but would be unlikely to participate in face-to-face counseling. Based on these results, it is suggested that offering online counseling, in addition to face-to-face services, could be an effective way for many university counseling centers to increase the utilization of their services and thus better serve their communities.
Barlow, Ingrid G; Liu, Lili; Sekulic, Angela
This study compared outcomes of wheelchair seating and positioning interventions provided by telerehabilitation (n=10) and face-to-face (n=20; 10 in each of two comparison groups, one urban and one rural). Comparison clients were matched to the telerehabilitation clients in age, diagnosis, and type of seating components received. Clients and referring therapists rated their satisfaction and identified if seating intervention goals were met. Clients recorded travel expenses incurred or saved, and all therapists recorded time spent providing service. Wait times and completion times were tracked. Clients seen by telerehabilitation had similar satisfaction ratings and were as likely to have their goals met as clients seen face-to-face; telerehabilitation clients saved travel costs. Rural referring therapists who used telerehabilitation spent more time in preparation and follow-up than the other groups. Clients assessed by telerehabilitation had shorter wait times for assessment than rural face-to-face clients, but their interventions took as long to complete. PMID:25945159
Kah P. Wong
Full Text Available Increasingly, online counseling is considered to be a cost-effective and highly accessible method of providing basic counseling and mental health services. To examine the potential of online delivery as a way of increasing overall usage of services, this study looked at students’ attitudes toward and likelihood of using both online and/or face-to-face counseling. A survey was conducted with 409 students from six universities in Malaysia participating. Approximately 35% of participants reported that they would be likely to utilize online counseling services but would be unlikely to participate in face-to-face counseling. Based on these results, it is suggested that offering online counseling, in addition to face-to-face services, could be an effective way for many university counseling centers to increase the utilization of their services and thus better serve their communities.
Full Text Available Pedagogic frailty and concept mapping can simultaneously encourage personal and organisational change by supporting critical reflection and resilience. These ideas are nascent within higher education institutions and currently, at the University of Surrey, are only developed through face-to-face sessions. This revealed the need for a scalable intervention which engages academics with the discourse on introspective and professional development practices. In response, we have created the design for a blended programme of online foundation for concept mapping leading to face-to-face workshops to explore the pedagogic frailty model. This paper will discuss some significant challenges arising from transitioning self-reflective practices from face-to-face to online spaces. In the process, we will consider ways in which learning design can take the learner context into account.
Borah, Gregory L; Rankin, Marlene K
Increasingly, third-party insurers deny coverage to patients with posttraumatic and congenital facial deformities because these are not seen as "functional." Recent facial transplants have demonstrated that severely deformed patients are willing to undergo potentially life-threatening surgery in search of a normal physiognomy. Scant quantitative research exists that objectively documents appearance as a primary "function" of the face. This study was designed to establish a population-based definition of the functions of the human face, rank importance of the face among various anatomical areas, and determine the risk value the average person places on a normal appearance. Voluntary adult subjects (n = 210) in three states aged 18 to 75 years were recruited using a quota sampling technique. Subjects completed study questionnaires of demography and bias using the Gamble Chance of Death Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The face ranked as the most important anatomical area for functional reconstruction. Appearance was the fifth most important function of the face, after breathing, sight, speech, and eating. Normal facial appearance was rated as very important for one to be a functioning member of American society (p = 0.01) by 49 percent. One in seven subjects (13 percent) would accept a 30 to 45 percent risk of death to obtain a "normal" face. Normal appearance is a primary function of the face, based on a large, culturally diverse population sample across the lifespan. Normal appearance ranks above smell and expression as a function. Restoration of facial appearance is ranked the most important anatomical area for repair. Normal facial appearance is very important for one to be a functional member of American society.
Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Brochard, Renaud
The role of gender categories in prototype formation during face recognition was investigated in 2 experiments. The participants were asked to learn individual faces and then to recognize them. During recognition, individual faces were mixed with faces, which were blended faces of same or different genders. The results of the 2 experiments showed…
Haar, F.B. Ter; Veltkamp, R.C.
Morphable face models have proven to be an effective tool for 3D face modeling and face recognition, but the extension to 3D face scans with expressions is still a challenge. The two main difficulties are (1) how to build a new morphable face model that deals with expressions, and (2) how to fit
Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel; Wenger, Michael J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.
Researchers have used several composite face paradigms to assess holistic processing of faces. In the selective attention paradigm, participants decide whether one face part (e.g., top) is the same as a previously seen face part. Their judgment is affected by whether the irrelevant part of the test face is the same as or different than the…
Full Text Available Face identity and facial expression are processed in two distinct neural pathways. However, most of the existing face adaptation literature studies them separately, despite the fact that they are two aspects from the same face. The current study conducted a systematic comparison between these two aspects by face adaptation, investigating how top- and bottom-half face parts contribute to the processing of face identity and facial expression. A real face (sad, “Adam” and its two size-equivalent face parts (top- and bottom-half were used as the adaptor in separate conditions. For face identity adaptation, the test stimuli were generated by morphing Adam's sad face with another person's sad face (“Sam”. For facial expression adaptation, the test stimuli were created by morphing Adam's sad face with his neutral face and morphing the neutral face with his happy face. In each trial, after exposure to the adaptor, observers indicated the perceived face identity or facial expression of the following test face via a key press. They were also tested in a baseline condition without adaptation. Results show that the top- and bottom-half face each generated a significant face identity aftereffect. However, the aftereffect by top-half face adaptation is much larger than that by the bottom-half face. On the contrary, only the bottom-half face generated a significant facial expression aftereffect. This dissociation of top- and bottom-half face adaptation suggests that face parts play different roles in face identity and facial expression. It thus provides further evidence for the distributed systems of face perception.
Postel, Marloes G; de Haan, Hein A; Ter Huurne, Elke D; Becker, Eni S; de Jong, Cor A J
The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client-therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. To determine whether e-therapy and face-to-face groups differed from each other and changed over time. We compared the baseline characteristics of four naturalistic groups (N = 4593): two e-therapy groups (2005-2006 and 2008-2009) and two consecutive series of ambulant face-to-face clients admitted for treatment as usual. The characteristics we were interested in were gender, age, education level, working situation, and earlier treatment for drinking problems. The results showed that the baseline characteristics of e-therapy and face-to-face clients differed by gender, education level, work situation, prior alcohol treatment, and age. We also found that both e-therapy groups differed over time by gender, work situation, and prior alcohol treatment. The e-therapy program successfully attracted clients who were different from those who were represented in regular face-to-face alcohol treatment services. This indicates that e-therapy decreases the barriers to treatment facilities and enhances the accessibility. However, the e-therapy population changed over time. Although the e-therapy program still reached an important new group of clients in 2008-2009, this group showed more overlap with the traditional face-to-face group of clients probably as a result of improved acceptance of e-therapy in the general population. Although e-therapy seems to be better accepted in the general population, anonymous treatment seems necessary to reach a broader range of problem drinkers.
Bobak, A.K.; Hancock, P.J.B.; Bate, Sarah
ndividuals employed in forensic or security settings are often required to compare faces of ID holders to document photographs, or to recognize the faces of suspects in Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) footage. It has long been established that both tasks produce a high error rate amongst typical perceivers. This study sought to determine the performance of individuals with exceptionally good face memory ("super-recognizers") on applied facial identity matching and memory tasks. In Experiment...
07.11.14 KB. Emailed author re copyright. Author says that copyright is retained by author. Ok to add to spiral Automated face recognition and identi cation softwares are becoming part of our daily life; it nds its abode not only with Facebooks auto photo tagging, Apples iPhoto, Googles Picasa, Microsofts Kinect, but also in Homeland Security Departments dedicated biometric face detection systems. Most of these automatic face identification systems fail where the e ects of aging come into...
Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Dawel, Amy; Pidcock, Madeleine; Hall, Ashleigh; McKone, Elinor
We report the existence of a previously undescribed group of people, namely individuals who are so poor at recognition of other-race faces that they meet criteria for clinical-level impairment (i.e., they are "face-blind" for other-race faces). Testing 550 participants, and using the well-validated Cambridge Face Memory Test for diagnosing face blindness, results show the rate of other-race face blindness to be nontrivial, specifically 8.1% of Caucasians and Asians raised in majority own-race countries. Results also show risk factors for other-race face blindness to include: a lack of interracial contact; and being at the lower end of the normal range of general face recognition ability (i.e., even for own-race faces); but not applying less individuating effort to other-race than own-race faces. Findings provide a potential resolution of contradictory evidence concerning the importance of the other-race effect (ORE), by explaining how it is possible for the mean ORE to be modest in size (suggesting a genuine but minor problem), and simultaneously for individuals to suffer major functional consequences in the real world (e.g., eyewitness misidentification of other-race offenders leading to wrongful imprisonment). Findings imply that, in legal settings, evaluating an eyewitness's chance of having made an other-race misidentification requires information about the underlying face recognition abilities of the individual witness. Additionally, analogy with prosopagnosia (inability to recognize even own-race faces) suggests everyday social interactions with other-race people, such as those between colleagues in the workplace, will be seriously impacted by the ORE in some people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Zhou Jianfeng; Gu Boqin
The heat transfer model of the rotating ring and the stationary ring of mechanical seal was built. The method to calculate the frictional heat that transferred by the rings was given. the coupling analysis of the frictional heat of fluid film and thermal deformation of end faces was carried out by using FEA and BP ANN, and the relationship among the rotational speed ω, the fluid film thickness h i on the inner diameter of sealing face and the radial separation angle β of deformed end faces was obtained. Corresponding to a given ω, h i and β can be obtained by the equilibrium condition between the closing force and the bearing force of fluid film. The relationship between the leakage rate and the closing force was analyzed, and the fundamental of controlling the leakage rate by regulating the closing force was also discussed. (authors)
Verbena Lúcia Medeiros Costa
Full Text Available Our aim in this study is to investigate the linguistic strategies professors use at the University to mitigate their disagreements, reach their academic and scientific interests and save each others’ face. Disagreement is a threatening speech act which threatens the individual’s positive face. It implies criticism, disapproval and contradicts our desire to be socially approved and appreciated. At the Academy it seems to be much more complex, hence the necessity to be studied. Our study is based on Brown and Levinson’s Politeness Theory (1978, 1987; on Goffman’s idea of face (1967 and on some assumptions of Conversation Analysis. The result suggests that professors care about each other’s face and also about their social relationships and, to preserve them, use different mitigating strategies, but they will not hesitate to prove that their ideas are the most reasonable and must be adopted.
Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang
-looking sources have better success in attracting votes and policy support. Yet, are all nonverbal source cues similarly received irrespective of audience, or does their reception vary across audiences? Specifically, we ask whether some physical traits are received positively by some audiences but backfire...... for others. Utilizing research on ideological stereotypes and the determinants of facial preferences, we focus on the relationship between the facial dominance of the source and the ideology of the receiver. Across five studies, we demonstrate that a dominant face is a winning face when the audience...... is conservative but backfires and decreases success when the audience is liberal. On the other hand, a non-dominant face constitutes a winning face among liberal audiences but backfires among conservatives. These effects seemingly stem from deep-seated psychological responses and shape both the election...
Bonin, Patrick; Perret, Cyril; Méot, Alain; Ferrand, Ludovic; Mermillod, Martial
A set of 105 photographs of celebrities has been standardized in French on distinctiveness, proper name agreement, face agreement, age of acquisition (AoA), and subjective frequency. Statistics on the collected variables for photographs are provided. The relationships between these variables have been analyzed. Face naming latencies have also been collected for the photographs of celebrities, and several multiple regression analyses have been carried out on naming latencies and percentages of tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomena. Themain determinants of naming speed included AoA, face agreement, and name agreement. In addition, AoA, together with distinctiveness and face agreement, reliably predicted the percentages of TOTs. The norms, photographs of the celebrities, and spoken naming latencies corresponding to the celebrities are available on the Internet at norms.celebrities.googlepages.com and should be of great use to researchers interested in the processing of famous people.
Liu, Mingnan; Wang, Yichen
Although academic research on homosexuality relies heavily on survey data, there has been limited study of the survey method of asking relevant questions. This study examines the effect of survey mode on responses to questions about homosexual rights. We find significant mode effects among heterosexual respondents, who are more likely to support equal access to employment, military service, adoption, and marriage for homosexual people in face-to-face surveys than in Web surveys. They are also more likely to choose to not respond when face-to-face than online. Homosexual respondents do not show mode effects for either substantive responses or item nonresponse rate.
Pereira, Diane; Ponte, Filomena; Costa, Eleonora
Este estudo analisou as diferenças entre jovens e idosos ao nível das atitudes e dos conhecimentos face ao envelhecimento e face à sexualidade na terceira idade, a relação entre as variáveis em estudo, e os preditores das atitudes negativas face ao envelhecimento e das atitudes negativas face à sexualidade na terceira idade. Cento e cinquenta e três jovens universitários e 42 idosos participaram no estudo. Os resultados indicaram que os jovens apresentam um menor nível de conhecimentos acerca...
Fulton, Erika K; Bulluck, Megan; Hertzog, Christopher
It is unclear why women have superior episodic memory of faces, but the benefit may be partially the result of women engaging in superior processing of facial expressions. Therefore, we hypothesized that orienting instructions to attend to facial expression at encoding would significantly improve men's memory of faces and possibly reduce gender differences. We directed 203 college students (122 women) to study 120 faces under instructions to orient to either the person's gender or their emotional expression. They later took a recognition test of these faces by either judging whether they had previously studied the same person or that person with the exact same expression; the latter test evaluated recollection of specific facial details. Orienting to facial expressions during encoding significantly improved men's recognition of own-gender faces and eliminated the advantage that women had for male faces under gender orienting instructions. Although gender differences in spontaneous strategy use when orienting to faces cannot fully account for gender differences in face recognition, orienting men to facial expression during encoding is one way to significantly improve their episodic memory for male faces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Cuijpers, Pim
During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlisted, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about...... the relative efficacy of ICBT as compared to face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 1418 participants, guided ICBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions were directly compared to face-to-face CBT within the same trial. Out of the 2078...
Atick, Joseph J.; Griffin, Paul M.; Redlich, A. N.
Recent advances in image and pattern recognition technology- -especially face recognition--are leading to the development of a new generation of information systems of great value to the law enforcement community. With these systems it is now possible to pool and manage vast amounts of biometric intelligence such as face and finger print records and conduct computerized searches on them. We review one of the enabling technologies underlying these systems: the FaceIt face recognition engine; and discuss three applications that illustrate its benefits as a problem-solving technology and an efficient and cost effective investigative tool.
Stock, G. M.; Glazner, A. F.; Ratajeski, K.; Law, B.
El Capitan in Yosemite Valley, California, is one of the world’s most accessible large granitic rock faces. At nearly 1 km tall, the vertical southeast face of El Capitan provides unique insight into igneous processes contributing to the assembly of the Sierra Nevada batholith ~103 million years ago. Although the base and summit dome of El Capitan have been mapped in detail, the vertical face has so far eluded comprehensive attempts at geologic mapping. We have combined field mapping by technical rock climbing with high-resolution gigapixel photography to develop the first detailed digital geologic map of the southeast face (North America Wall). Geologic units exposed on the face include the El Capitan and Taft Granites, at least two phases of dioritic intrusions, hybridized rocks, and late-stage aplite/pegmatite dikes and pods. We map these units on a high resolution far-range base image derived from a high-resolution panoramic photograph, and verify contact relationships with close-range field photographs and visual observations from anchor points along major climbing routes. Mapping of contact relationships between these units reveals the sequence of intrusion of the various units, as well as the relationship of the mafic intrusions with the more voluminous granites. Geologic mapping of the southeast face also informs geologic hazards by constraining the source area for lithologically distinct rock falls; for example, geologic mapping confirms that a 2.2 x 106 m3 rock avalanche that occurred circa 3,600 years ago originated from near the summit of El Capitan, within an area dominated by Taft Granite. In addition to expanding mapping to the southwest face, future mapping efforts will focus on integrating the high resolution base map with airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data to produce a three-dimensional geologic map of one of the most iconic rock formations in the world.
Boogaard, B.K.; Bock, B.B.; Oosting, S.J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.; Zijpp, van der A.J.
Society’s relationship with modern animal farming is an ambivalent one: on the one hand there is rising criticism about modern animal farming; on the other hand people appreciate certain aspects of it, such as increased food safety and low food prices. This ambivalence reflects the two faces of
Continuum elastic theory was used to establish the relationships between the force of interaction required to constrict dislocation partials, energy of constriction and climb velocity of the constricted thermal jogs, in order to examine the effect of stacking fault energy (SFE) on steady state creep rate of face centered cubic ...