WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonmammalian species companion

  1. Plasticizer endocrine disruption: Highlighting developmental and reproductive effects in mammals and non-mammalian aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; Wallace, Sarah J; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2015-08-01

    Due to their versatility, robustness, and low production costs, plastics are used in a wide variety of applications. Plasticizers are mixed with polymers to increase flexibility of plastics. However, plasticizers are not covalently bound to plastics, and thus leach from products into the environment. Several studies have reported that two common plasticizers, bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, induce adverse health effects in vertebrates; however few studies have addressed their toxicity to non-mammalian species. The aim of this review is to compare the effects of plasticizers in animals, with a focus on aquatic species. In summary, we identified three main chains of events that occur in animals exposed to BPA and phthalates. Firstly, plasticizers affect development by altering both the thyroid hormone and growth hormone axes. Secondly, these chemicals interfere with reproduction by decreasing cholesterol transport through the mitochondrial membrane, leading to reduced steroidogenesis. Lastly, exposure to plasticizers leads to the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, the increase of fatty acid oxidation, and the reduction in the ability to cope with the augmented oxidative stress leading to reproductive organ malformations, reproductive defects, and decreased fertility. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...

  3. Spermatogenesis in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudney, J

    1995-12-15

    mode of spermatogenesis and this is particularly true of the stage of spermiogenesis where the morphology of the species-specific spermatozoon is determined. Moreover, unlike amniotes, many anamniotes display a spermatogenic wave manifest, depending upon the species, either at the level of the cyst or seminiferous lobule. This variation in the organization of the testis makes certain anamniotes perfect models for investigating germ cell development and maturation. For instance, the presence of a spermatogenic wave provides an opportunity to manually isolate discrete germ cell stages for analysis of specific Sertoli/germ cell interactions. Furthermore, for many anamniotes, germ cells mature in association with a morphologically poorly developed Sertoli cell. This seeming independence of Sertoli cell regulation allows the in vitro culture of isolated germ cells of some species of anamniotes through several developmental stages. Thus, due either to the anatomical organization of the testis, or structural simplicity of the germinal units, nonmammalian vertebrates can provide excellent experimental animal models for investigating many basic problems of male reproduction.

  4. Reactive oxygen species (ROS: Beneficial companions of plants’ developmental processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are continuously generated inevitably in the redox reactions of plants, including respiration and photosynthesis. In earlier studies, ROS were considered as toxic by-products of aerobic pathways of the metabolism. But in recent years, concept about ROS has changed because they also participate in developmental processes of plants by acting as signaling molecules. In plants, ROS regulate many developmental processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, programmed cell death, seed germination, gravitropism, root hair growth and pollen tube development, senescence, etc. Despite much progress, a comprehensive update of advances in the understanding of the mechanisms evoked by ROS that mediate in cell proliferation and development are fragmentry and the matter of ROS perception and the signaling cascade remains open. Therefore, keeping in view the above facts, an attempt has been made in this article to summarize the recent findings regarding updates made in the regulatory action of ROS at various plant developmental stages, which are still not well known.

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS): Beneficial Companions of Plants’ Developmental Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rachana; Singh, Samiksha; Parihar, Parul; Mishra, Rohit K.; Tripathi, Durgesh K.; Singh, Vijay P.; Chauhan, Devendra K.; Prasad, Sheo M.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated inevitably in the redox reactions of plants, including respiration and photosynthesis. In earlier studies, ROS were considered as toxic by-products of aerobic pathways of the metabolism. But in recent years, concept about ROS has changed because they also participate in developmental processes of plants by acting as signaling molecules. In plants, ROS regulate many developmental processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, programmed cell death, seed germination, gravitropism, root hair growth and pollen tube development, senescence, etc. Despite much progress, a comprehensive update of advances in the understanding of the mechanisms evoked by ROS that mediate in cell proliferation and development are fragmentry and the matter of ROS perception and the signaling cascade remains open. Therefore, keeping in view the above facts, an attempt has been made in this article to summarize the recent findings regarding updates made in the regulatory action of ROS at various plant developmental stages, which are still not well-known. PMID:27729914

  6. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression.

  7. The evolution of farnesoid X, vitamin D, and pregnane X receptors: insights from the green-spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigriviridis and other non-mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullman Seth W

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The farnesoid X receptor (FXR, pregnane X receptor (PXR, and vitamin D receptor (VDR are three closely related nuclear hormone receptors in the NR1H and 1I subfamilies that share the property of being activated by bile salts. Bile salts vary significantly in structure across vertebrate species, suggesting that receptors binding these molecules may show adaptive evolutionary changes in response. We have previously shown that FXRs from the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus and zebrafish (Danio rerio are activated by planar bile alcohols found in these two species. In this report, we characterize FXR, PXR, and VDR from the green-spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigriviridis, an actinopterygian fish that unlike the zebrafish has a bile salt profile similar to humans. We utilize homology modelling, docking, and pharmacophore studies to understand the structural features of the Tetraodon receptors. Results Tetraodon FXR has a ligand selectivity profile very similar to human FXR, with strong activation by the synthetic ligand GW4064 and by the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid. Homology modelling and docking studies suggest a ligand-binding pocket architecture more similar to human and rat FXRs than to lamprey or zebrafish FXRs. Tetraodon PXR was activated by a variety of bile acids and steroids, although not by the larger synthetic ligands that activate human PXR such as rifampicin. Homology modelling predicts a larger ligand-binding cavity than zebrafish PXR. We also demonstrate that VDRs from the pufferfish and Japanese medaka were activated by small secondary bile acids such as lithocholic acid, whereas the African clawed frog VDR was not. Conclusions Our studies provide further evidence of the relationship between both FXR, PXR, and VDR ligand selectivity and cross-species variation in bile salt profiles. Zebrafish and green-spotted pufferfish provide a clear contrast in having markedly different primary bile salt profiles

  8. Sleep and orexins in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Although a precise definition of "sleep" has yet to be established, sleep-like behaviors have been observed in all animals studied to date including mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates. Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides that are involved in the regulation of many physiological functions, including feeding, thermoregulation, cardiovascular control, as well as the control of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. To date, the knowledge on the functions of orexins in nonmammalian vertebrates is still limited, but the similarity of the structures of orexins and their receptors among vertebrates suggest that they have similar conserved physiological functions. This review describes our current knowledge on sleep in nonmammalian vertebrates (birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish) and the possible role of orexins in the regulation of their energy homeostasis and arousal states.

  9. Evolutionary patterns of RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The role of RNA-based duplication, or retroposition, in the evolution of new gene functions in mammals, plants, and Drosophila has been widely reported. However, little is known about RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates. In this study, we screened ten non-mammalian chordate genomes for retrocopies and investigated their evolutionary patterns. We identified numerous retrocopies in these species. Examination of the age distribution of these retrocopies revealed no burst of young retrocopies in ancient chordate species. Upon comparing these non-mammalian chordate species to the mammalian species, we observed that a larger fraction of the non-mammalian retrocopies was under strong evolutionary constraints than mammalian retrocopies are, as evidenced by signals of purifying selection and expression profiles. For the Western clawed frog, Medaka, and Sea squirt, many retrogenes have evolved gonad and brain expression patterns, similar to what was observed in human. Testing of retrogene movement in the Medaka genome, where the nascent sex chrosomes have been well assembled, did not reveal any significant gene movement. Taken together, our analyses demonstrate that RNA-based duplication generates many functional genes and can make a significant contribution to the evolution of non-mammalian genomes.

  10. N2-fixation and residual N effect of four legume species and four companion grass species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Søegaard, Karen; Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin

    2012-01-01

    and climatic conditions. We conducted a field experiment on a sandy soil at two nitrogen levels with seven two-species forage mixtures: alfalfa, bird's-foot trefoil, red clover, or white clover in mixture with perennial ryegrass, and white clover in mixture with meadow fescue, timothy, or hybrid ryegrass. We...... found high N2-fixation of more than 300 kg N ha−1 from both red clover and alfalfa even when the two mixtures received 300 kg total-N ha−1 in cattle slurry. The addition of cattle slurry N fertilizer lowered N2-fixation for white clover and red clover as expected, but for bird's-foot trefoil and alfalfa...... no changes in the proportion of N derived from N2-fixation was observed. We conclude that the competition for available soil N from perennial ryegrass in mixture was an important factor for the proportion of N in alfalfa, white clover, and bird's-foot trefoil obtained from N2-fixation. White clover had...

  11. Divergent Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Staphylococcus Species Constitute a Drug Target for Treating Infections in Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Christine L.; Morris, Daniel O.; Rankin, Shelley C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus species are a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections in humans and animals, and the antibiotics used to treat these infections are often the same. Methicillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections are becoming more common in human and veterinary medicine. From a “One Health” perspective, this overlap in antibiotic use and resistance raises concerns over the potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis revealed that Staphylococcus species use divergent pathways to synthesize isoprenoids. Species frequently associated with skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals, including S. schleiferi and S. pseudintermedius, use the nonmevalonate pathway. In contrast, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. lugdunensis use the mevalonate pathway. The antibiotic fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of the nonmevalonate pathway, was effective in killing canine clinical staphylococcal isolates but had no effect on the growth or survival of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. These data identify an essential metabolic pathway in Staphylococcus that differs among members of this genus and suggest that drugs such as fosmidomycin, which targets enzymes in the nonmevalonate pathway, may be an effective treatment for certain staphylococcal infections. IMPORTANCE Drug-resistant Staphylococcus species are a major concern in human and veterinary medicine. There is a need for new antibiotics that exhibit a selective effect in treating infections in companion and livestock animals and that would not be used to treat human bacterial infections. We have identified fosmidomycin as an antibiotic that selectively targets certain Staphylococcus species that are often encountered in skin infections in cats and dogs. These findings expand our understanding of Staphylococcus evolution and may have direct implications for treating staphylococcal infections in veterinary medicine. PMID:27704053

  12. Cloning, expression, cellular distribution, and role in chemotaxis of a C5a receptor in rainbow trout: the first identification of a C5a receptor in a nonmammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Li, Jun; Peters, Rodney; Hansen, John; Matlapudi, Anjan; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2004-01-01

    C3a, C4a, and C5a anaphylatoxins generated during complement activation play a key role in inflammation. C5a is the most potent of the three anaphylatoxins in eliciting biological responses. The effects of C5a are mediated by its binding to C5a receptor (C5aR, CD88). To date, C5aR has only been identified and cloned in mammalian species, and its evolutionary history remains ill-defined. To gain insights into the evolution, conserved structural domains, and functions of C5aR, we have cloned and characterized a C5aR in rainbow trout, a teleost fish. The isolated cDNA encoded a 350-aa protein that showed the highest sequence similarity to C5aR from other species. Genomic analysis revealed the presence of one continuous exon encoding the entire open reading frame. Northern blot analysis showed significant expression of the trout C5a receptor (TC5aR) message in PBLs and kidney. Flow cytometric analysis showed that two Abs generated against two different areas of the extracellular N-terminal region of TC5aR positively stained the same leukocyte populations from PBLs. B lymphocytes and granulocytes comprised the majority of cells recognized by the anti-TC5aR. More importantly, these Abs inhibited chemotaxis of PBLs toward a chemoattractant fraction purified from complement-activated trout serum. Our data suggest that the split between C5aR and C3aR from a common ancestral molecule occurred before the emergence of teleost fish. Moreover, we demonstrate that the overall structure of C5aR as well as its role in chemotaxis have remained conserved for >300 million years.

  13. Droid Companion

    CERN Document Server

    Butow, Eric

    2011-01-01

    New owner of a Droid? Enjoy it even more with this perfect guide Congratulations on owning one of the hottest smartphones on the planet—more than 400,000 new Android phones are activated every day! Now get the very most out your new Droid with this handy companion by your side. Covering several versions of the Droid phones in one comprehensive guide, this book provides you with helpful information on everything from setup to the fun features of each Droid model. You'll quickly get up to speed on everything from email, browsing, and calendars to photos, maps, apps, security, and more. Hig

  14. Google+ companion

    CERN Document Server

    Hattersley, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Get the inside scoop on the newest social networking site: Google+ If you think you've seen it all when it comes to social networking sites, you haven't seen Google+ yet! Built from the ground up to be useful to both desktop and mobile users, Google+ offers the same great features as other popular social network sites?yet, Google+ goes one step further by integrating popular Google technologies and introducing exciting new and unique features such as "Circles," "Hang," and "Sparks." Using clear, step-by-step instructions, Google+ Companion helps you master this amazing new social networking te

  15. Morphological and molecular evolution of the ultimobranchial gland of nonmammalian vertebrates, with special reference to the chicken C cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    This review summarizes the current understanding of the nonmammalian ultimobranchial gland from morphological and molecular perspectives. Ultimobranchial anlage of all animal species develops from the last pharyngeal pouch. The genes involved in the development of pharyngeal pouches are well conserved across vertebrates. The ultimobranchial anlage of nonmammalian vertebrates and monotremes does not merge with the thyroid, remaining as an independent organ throughout adulthood. Although C cells of all animal species secrete calcitonin, the shape, cellular components and location of the ultimobranchial gland vary from species to species. Avian ultimobranchial gland is unique in several phylogenic aspects; the organ is located between the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves at the upper thorax and is densely innervated by branches emanating from them. In chick embryos, TuJ1-, HNK-1-, and PGP 9.5-immunoreactive cells that originate from the distal vagal (nodose) ganglion, colonize the ultimobranchial anlage and differentiate into C cells; neuronal cells give rise to C cells. Like C cells of mammals, the cells of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and also a subset of C cells of birds, appear to be derived from the endodermal epithelium forming ultimobranchial anlage. Thus, the avian ultimobranchial C cells may have dual origins, neural progenitors and endodermal epithelium. Developmental Dynamics 246:719-739, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Non-Mammalian Vertebrates: Distinct Models to Assess the Role of Ion Gradients in Energy Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Caroline E; Kentch, Kyle P; Renquist, Benjamin J

    2017-01-01

    Animals store metabolic energy as electrochemical gradients. At least 50% of mammalian energy is expended to maintain electrochemical gradients across the inner mitochondrial membrane (H(+)), the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca(++)), and the plasma membrane (Na(+)/K(+)). The potential energy of these gradients can be used to perform work (e.g., transport molecules, stimulate contraction, and release hormones) or can be released as heat. Because ectothermic species adapt their body temperature to the environment, they are not constrained by energetic demands that are required to maintain a constant body temperature. In fact, ectothermic species expend seven to eight times less energy than similarly sized homeotherms. Accordingly, ectotherms adopt low metabolic rates to survive cold, hypoxia, and extreme bouts of fasting that would result in energy wasting, lactic acidosis and apoptosis, or starvation in homeotherms, respectively. Ectotherms have also evolved unique applications of ion gradients to allow for localized endothermy. Endothermic avian species, which lack brown adipose tissue, have been integral in assessing the role of H(+) and Ca(++) cycling in skeletal muscle thermogenesis. Accordingly, the diversity of non-mammalian vertebrate species allows them to serve as unique models to better understand the role of ion gradients in heat production, metabolic flux, and adaptation to stressors, including obesity, starvation, cold, and hypoxia.

  17. The Pocket Companion's architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    The Pocket Companion is a small personal portable computer with wireless communication facilities. The typical use of the Pocket Companion induces a number of requirements concerning security, performance, energy consumption, communication and size. The energy consumption due to the increasing

  18. Mottled Mice and Non-Mammalian Models of Menkes Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Lipiński, Paweł; Grzmil, Paweł; Starzyński, Rafał; Pierzchała, Olga; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2015-01-01

    Menkes disease is a multi-systemic copper metabolism disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked ATP7A gene and characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and severe connective tissue defects. The ATP7A protein is a copper (Cu)-transporting ATPase expressed in all tissues and plays a critical role in the maintenance of copper homeostasis in cells of the whole body. ATP7A participates in copper absorption in the small intestine and in copper transport to the central nervous system (CNS) across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Cu is essential for synaptogenesis and axonal development. In cells, ATP7A participates in the incorporation of copper into Cu-dependent enzymes during the course of its maturation in the secretory pathway. There is a high degree of homology (>80%) between the human ATP7A and murine Atp7a genes. Mice with mutations in the Atp7a gene, called mottled mutants, are well-established and excellent models of Menkes disease. Mottled mutants closely recapitulate the Menkes phenotype and are invaluable for studying Cu-metabolism. They provide useful models for exploring and testing new forms of therapy in Menkes disease. Recently, non-mammalian models of Menkes disease, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio mutants were used in experiments which would be technically difficult to carry out in mammals.

  19. Mottled mice and non-mammalian models of Menkes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    malgorzata elenartowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Menkes disease is a multi-systemic copper metabolism disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked ATP7A gene and characterised by progressive neurodegeneration and severe connective tissue defects. The ATP7A protein is a Copper (Cu-transporting ATPase expressed in all tissues and plays a critical role in the maintenance of copper homeostasis in cells of the whole body. ATP7A participates in copper absorption in the small intestine and in copper transport to the CNS across the blood-brain-barrier and blood–cerebrospinal fluid- barrier. Cu is essential for synaptogenesis and axonal development. In cells, ATP7A participates in the incorporation of copper into Cu-dependent enzymes during the course of its maturation in the secretory pathway. There is a high degree of homology (>80% between the human ATP7A and murine Atp7a genes. Mice with mutations in the Atp7a gene, called mottled mutants, are well-established and excellent models of Menkes disease. Mottled mutants closely recapitulate the Menkes phenotype and are invaluable for studying Cu-metabolism. They provide useful models for exploring and testing new forms of therapy in Menkes disease. Recently, non-mammalian models of Menkes disease, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio mutants were used in experiments which would be technically difficult to carry out in mammals.

  20. A new polymorphic and multicopy MHC gene family related to nonmammalian class I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leelayuwat, C.; Degli-Esposti, M.A.; Abraham, L.J. [Univ. of Western Australia, Perth (Australia); Townend, D.C. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia); Dawkins, R.L. [Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia)]|[Univ. of Western Australia, Perth (Australia)]|[Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The authors have used genomic analysis to characterize a region of the central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) spanning {approximately} 300 kilobases (kb) between TNF and HLA-B. This region has been suggested to carry genetic factors relevant to the development of autoimmune diseases such as myasthenia gravis (MG) and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Genomic sequence was analyzed for coding potential, using two neural network programs, GRAIL and GeneParser. A genomic probe, JAB, containing putative coding sequences (PERB11) located 60 kb centromeric of HLA-B, was used for northern analysis of human tissues. Multiple transcripts were detected. Southern analysis of genomic DNA and overlapping YAC clones, covering the region from BAT1 to HLA-F, indicated that there are at least five copies of PERB11, four of which are located within this region of the MHC. The partial cDNA sequence of PERB11 was obtained from poly-A RNA derived from skeletal muscle. The putative amino acid sequence of PERB11 shares {approximately} 30% identity to MHC class I molecules from various species, including reptiles, chickens, and frogs, as well as to other MHC class I-like molecules, such as the IgG FcR of the mouse and rat and the human Zn-{alpha}2-glycoprotein. From direct comparison of amino acid sequences, it is concluded that PERB11 is a distinct molecule more closely related to nonmammalian than known mammalian MHC class I molecules. Genomic sequence analysis of PERB11 from five MHC ancestral haplotypes (AH) indicated that the gene is polymorphic at both DNA and protein level. The results suggest that the authors have identified a novel polymorphic gene family with multiple copies within the MHC. 48 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Characterization of companion animal pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Y Z; Kafarnik, C; Guest, D J

    2017-07-05

    Pluripotent stem cells have the capacity to grow indefinitely in culture and differentiate into derivatives of the three germ layers. These properties underpin their potential to be used in regenerative medicine. Originally derived from early embryos, pluripotent stem cells can now be derived by reprogramming an adult cell back to a pluripotent state. Companion animals such as horses, dogs, and cats suffer from many injuries and diseases for which regenerative medicine may offer new treatments. As many of the injuries and diseases are similar to conditions in humans the use of companion animals for the experimental and clinical testing of stem cell and regenerative medicine products would provide relevant animal models for the translation of therapies to the human field. In order to fully utilize companion animal pluripotent stem cells robust, standardized methods of characterization must be developed to ensure that safe and effective treatments can be delivered. In this review we discuss the methods that are available for characterizing pluripotent stem cells and the techniques that have been applied in cells from companion animals. We describe characteristics which have been described consistently across reports as well as highlighting discrepant results. Significant steps have been made to define the in vitro culture requirements and drive lineage specific differentiation of pluripotent stem cells in companion animal species. However, additional basic research to compare pluripotent stem cell types and define characteristics of pluripotency in companion animal species is still required. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Astronomy: Tycho's mystery companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, David

    2004-10-01

    A famous sixteenth century supernova, seen by Tycho Brahe, is still a hot topic. The stellar explosion might have been initiated by a companion star -- and modern astronomers have at last identified it.

  3. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  4. Microsporidiosis in Vertebrate Companion Exotic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Vergneau-Grosset

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Veterinarians caring for companion animals may encounter microsporidia in various host species, and diagnosis and treatment of these fungal organisms can be particularly challenging. Fourteen microsporidial species have been reported to infect humans and some of them are zoonotic; however, to date, direct zoonotic transmission is difficult to document versus transit through the digestive tract. In this context, summarizing information available about microsporidiosis of companion exotic animals is relevant due to the proximity of these animals to their owners. Diagnostic modalities and therapeutic challenges are reviewed by taxa. Further studies are needed to better assess risks associated with animal microsporidia for immunosuppressed owners and to improve detection and treatment of infected companion animals.

  5. Disease Risk Assessments Involving Companion Animals : an Overview for 15 Selected Pathogens Taking a European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijks, J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/151266093; Cito, F; Cunningham, A A; Rantsios, A T; Giovannini, A

    Prioritization of companion animal transmissible diseases was performed by the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO) project. The project considered diseases occurring in domesticated species commonly kept as pets, such as

  6. The physics companion

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Updated and expanded with new topics, The Physics Companion, 2nd Edition offers a unique and educational approach to learning physics at a level suitable for first-year science students. This new edition expands the presentation to include senior topics, such as statistical mechanics, quantum physics, and nuclear physics.

  7. Blackwell Companion to Phonology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostendorp, M.; Ewen, C.J.; Hume, B.; Rice, K.

    2011-01-01

    "The Companion to Phonology" will be the major reference work of the field, drawing together nearly 150 contributions from almost all of the globally recognized, leading scholars in an estimated five-volume set. The international editorial team represents a diverse range of approaches and methodolog

  8. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  9. Companion animals and human health: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Edney, A T

    1995-01-01

    Domestic animals share our environment in a variety of ways. One of these ways is as companions in and around our homes. Although a wide variety of species are kept in households for this purpose, the great majority are dogs and cats. Sharing our environment with such animals has a profound effect on the health of the humans concerned. As keeping companion animals is a very widespread activity, about 50% of all households in the Western world have some sort of animal, the effects are far reac...

  10. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  11. The Toilet Companion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Laurens; Hansen, Nico; Möller, Ragna-Lisa;

    2015-01-01

    pleasure. Despite our aims in providing joy and stimulation, participants from field trials with the Toilet Companion reported experiencing the brush as undesirable, predominantly because the sounds produced by the brush would make private toilet room activities publicly perceivable. The design...... intervention thus challenged the social boundaries of the otherwise private context of the toilet room, opening up an interesting area for design- ethnographic research about perception of space, where interactive artifacts can be mobilized to deliberately breach public, social, personal, and intimate spaces....

  12. Sensitivity to tuberculin and to a nonmammalian sensitin in Mandalay District, Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, T; Garbajosa, P G; Matĕjka, M; Tamondong, C T; Gyi, M G; Guld, J

    1975-01-01

    Delayed hypersensitivity that can be demonstrated with either a strong dose of tuberculin or a conventional dose of a sensitin prepared from certain nonmammalian mycobacteria (mycobacteria of Runyon Groups II and III, e.g., Mycobacterium avium), is known to be highly prevalent in most tropical and many subtropical areas and rare in many temperate zones. Whether such sensitivity interacts significantly with tuberculosis or with leprosy is not known.A study of reactions to tuberculin (PPD-S) and to a sensitin prepared from M. intracellulare (PPD-B) was carried out in villages close to an area in which a clinical trial of the preventive effect of BCG against leprosy was being conducted. The population had not been vaccinated with BCG. Some of the villages were in river valleys that become flooded every year for a long period during the rainy season; others were on slopes above the area subject to floods. The findings showed that sensitivity to the nonmammalian sensitin was prevalent in the area, and thus confirmed previous findings of low-grade tuberculin sensitivity in Burma and neighbouring countries. No difference in this prevalence was found between flooded and nonflooded villages.

  13. A companion to Part 2 of the World Checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida): Laniatores – Samooidea, Zalmoxoidea and Grassatores incertae sedis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A series of databases is being prepared to list the valid species of Opiliones worldwide. This paper containing nomenclatural acts is meant to accompany Part 2, which includes the members of the infraorder Grassatores of the superfamilies Samooidea and Zalmoxoidea plus the Grassatores currently not allocated to any family (i.e. Grassatores incertae sedis). New information The following 32 taxonomic changes are proposed here: (1-3) The Afrotropical genera Hovanoceros Lawrence, 1959, Malgaceros Lawrence, 1959 and Tetebius Roewer, 1949 (all currently in Samoidae) are all newly transferred to Biantidae. (4-5) Microminua soerenseni Soares & Soares, 1954, from Brazil is newly transferred to Tibangara (Gonyleptoidea: Cryptogeobiidae), newly combined as Tibangara soerenseni new comb., new familial allocation for the species. (6-7) The new genus Llaguenia Gen. nov is erected for the South American species Zamora peruviana Roewer, 1956, newly combined as Llaguenia peruviana new comb., and newly placed in Gonyleptoidea: Cranaidae (Prostygninae). (8) Bebedoura Roewer, 1949, known from a single Brazilian species, is transferred from Tricommatinae to Grassatores incertae sedis. (9) Microconomma Roewer, 1915, known from a single Cameroonian species, is transferred from Samoidae to Grassatores incertae sedis. (10) Stygnomimus Roewer, 1927, with two Indomalayan species and hitherto included in the Stygnommatidae, is here formally considered Grassatores incertae sedis. (11) Bichito González-Sponga, 1998, known from a single Venezuelan species, originally described in Phalangodidae: Phalangodinae, and currently in Grassatores incertae sedis is transferred to Samoidae. (12) The Neotropical genus Microminua Sørensen, 1932, currently with two species, is newly transferred from Kimulidae to Samoidae. (13-14) Cornigera González-Sponga, 1987 (currently in Samoidae), is newly considered a junior subjective synonym of Microminua, and its single species is combined

  14. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, litt

  15. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L.A.; Brown, I.H.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Jong, de M.D.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  16. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L.A.; Brown, I.H.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Jong, de M.D.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  17. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society,

  18. Non-mammalian models reveal the role of alternative ligands for thyroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Aurea; Lazcano, Iván; Hernández-Puga, Gabriela; Olvera, Aurora

    2017-03-04

    Thyroid hormones, or THs, are well-known regulators of a wide range of biological processes that occur throughout the lifespan of all vertebrates. THs act through genomic mechanisms mediated by thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). The main product of the thyroid gland is thyroxine or T4, which can be further transformed by different biochemical pathways to produce at least 15 active or inactive molecules. T3, a product of T4 outer-ring deiodination, has been recognized as the main bioactive TH. However, growing evidence has shown that other TH derivatives are able to bind to, and/or activate TRs, to induce thyromimetic effects. The compiled data in this review points to at least two of these TR alternative ligands: TRIAC and T2. Taking this into account, non-mammalian models have proven to be advantageous to explore new TH derivatives with potential novel actions, prompting a re-evaluation of the role and mechanism of action of TR alternative ligands that were previously believed to be inactive. The functional implications of these ligands across different vertebrates may require us to reconsider current established notions of thyroid physiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulatory peptides and control of food intake in non-mammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J

    2001-03-01

    The current view of the control of food intake involves a central feeding system in the hypothalamus receiving input from peripheral systems. The presence of food in the gut stimulates the release of several regulatory peptides that control gut motility and secretion. Some of these peptides also act as feedback satiety signals, responsible for termination of a meal. Among the regulatory peptides suggested as peripheral satiety signals are cholecystokinin and gastrin releasing peptide. A more long-term peripheral regulation of food intake has also been postulated and leptin has been suggested as a regulator of food intake. Several regulatory peptides mediate orexigenic or anorexigenic effects in the central feeding system. Neuropeptide Y and galanin both act centrally and stimulate the intake of food, while corticotropin releasing factor reduces food intake. At present, most information about the regulation of food intake is gained from mammalian studies and these findings are used as a base for a discussion on the current knowledge of how regulatory peptides control appetite in non-mammalian vertebrates.

  20. Routledge companion to intelligence studies

    CERN Document Server

    Dover, Robert; Hillebrand, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies provides a broad overview of the growing field of intelligence studies. The recent growth of interest in intelligence and security studies has led to an increased demand for popular depictions of intelligence and reference works to explain the architecture and underpinnings of intelligence activity. Divided into five comprehensive sections, this Companion provides a strong survey of the cutting-edge research in the field of intelligence studies: Part I: The evolution of intelligence studies; Part II: Abstract approaches to intelligence; Part III: Historical approaches to intelligence; Part IV: Systems of intelligence; Part V: Contemporary challenges. With a broad focus on the origins, practices and nature of intelligence, the book not only addresses classical issues, but also examines topics of recent interest in security studies. The overarching aim is to reveal the rich tapestry of intelligence studies in both a sophisticated and accessible way. This Companion...

  1. Disease Risk Assessments Involving Companion Animals : an Overview for 15 Selected Pathogens Taking a European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijks, J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/151266093; Cito, F; Cunningham, A A; Rantsios, A T; Giovannini, A

    2016-01-01

    Prioritization of companion animal transmissible diseases was performed by the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO) project. The project considered diseases occurring in domesticated species commonly kept as pets, such as do

  2. Historical Companion to Postcolonial Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      The Companion contains 240 entries written by more than 150 acknowledged scholars of postcolonial history and literature, and covers major events, ideas, movements, and figures in postcolonial histories.  In addition, for each region, there are long survey essays on historiography and women's h...

  3. First supernova companion star found

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 222 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Supernova 1993J exploding (artist’s impression) New observations with the Hubble Space Telescope allow a look into a supernova explosion under development. In this artist’s view the red supergiant supernova progenitor star (left) is exploding after having transferred about 10 solar masses of hydrogen gas to the blue companion star (right). This interaction process happened over about 250 years and affected the supernova explosion to such an extent that SN 1993J was later known as one of the most peculiar supernovae ever seen. Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 4200 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) The site of the Supernova 1993J explosion A virtual journey into one of the spiral arms of the grand spiral Messier 81 (imaged with the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, left) reveals the superb razor-sharp imaging power of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (Hubble’s WFPC2 instrument, below). The close-up (with Hubble’s ACS, to the right) is centred on the newly discovered companion star to Supernova 1993J that itself is no longer visible. The quarter-circle around the supernova companion is a so-called light echo originating from sheets of dust in the galaxy reflecting light from the original supernova explosion. Supernova 1993J explosing site hi-res Size hi-res: 1502 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Close-up of the Supernova 1993J explosion site (ACS/HRC image) This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the area in Messier 81 where Supernova 1993J exploded. The companion to the supernova ‘mother star’ that remains after the explosion is seen in the centre of the image. The image is taken with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys and is a combination of four exposures taken with ACS’ High Resolution Camera. The exposures were taken through two near-UV filters (250W

  4. Imaginary companions in childhood and adult creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W A

    1979-01-01

    Case material is presented to illustrate the thesis that the ability to create an imaginary companion during childhood is an early expression of the special ego aptitudes found in creative individuals in adult life. Such "companions" allow these children to attempt to master creatively a variety of narcissistic mortifications suffered in reality and to displace unacceptable affects. In creative adults who had imaginary companions in childhood, the early fantasies serve as an organizing schema in memory for the childhood traumata. Stimuli in adult life which evoke the earlier traumata may revive the original imaginary companion fantasies. These then serve as nodal bases for the creation of specific adult works of art.

  5. A Companion to Classical Receptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Villiers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This recent addition to the excellent Blackwell Companions series looks at the various forms of classical reception currently being researched as well as those deemed to have future importance. The diversity and volume of the themes and approaches contained in this book are truly impressive. As Hardwick and Stray state in their introduction, this collection “has been constructed on the basis that the activators of reception are many and varied and that we all gain from encountering examples from outside our own immediate areas of knowledge” (p. 4. Throughout the book they stay true to this motto and traditional approaches to classical reception are not given prominence over more recent (sometimes contentious approaches such as film studies, cultural politics and photography. The same goes for the various cultures involved and there is even a chapter on Greek drama in South Africa.

  6. TGTG, G clustering and other signals near non-mammalian vertebrate mRNA 3' termini: some implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, R

    1986-06-01

    Analysis of non-mammalian vertebrate DNA sequences in the 500 nucleotides preceding and 200 nucleotides following mRNA 3' termini yields some distinct signals. In addition to the well known AATAAA sequence, TGTG recurs very frequently further downstream. GGGG, TGGG, GGAG and GAGG are frequent in this region too. It is suggested that unlike the AATAAA mRNA cleavage/processing signal, the other signals noted above are signals on the DNA, i.e. they are signals for mRNA termination. An asymmetric distribution of some complementary sequences, e.g. TGTG vs. CACA, GGGG vs. CCCC, on the same DNA strand is noted as well. A few other signals are also observed.

  7. The system architecture of the Pocket Companion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In the Moby Dick project we design the architecture of a so-called Pocket Companion. It is a small personal portable computer with wireless communication facilities for every day use. The typical use of the Pocket Companion induces a number of requirements concerning security, performance, energy co

  8. Companion diagnostics: a regulatory perspective from the last 5 years of molecular companion diagnostic approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Donna M; Hu, Yun-Fu; Philip, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Companion diagnostics are essential for the safe and effective use of the corresponding therapeutic products. The US FDA has approved a number of companion diagnostics used to select cancer patients for treatment with contemporaneously approved novel therapeutics. The processes of co-development and co-approval of a therapeutic product and its companion diagnostic have been a learning experience that continues to evolve. Using several companion diagnostics as examples, this article describes the challenges associated with the scientific, clinical and regulatory hurdles faced by FDA and industry alike. Taken together, this discussion is intended to assist manufacturers toward a successful companion diagnostics development plan.

  9. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Miscellaneous Exotic Companion Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Angela M; Miwa, Yasutsugu

    2016-09-01

    Unusual mammalian species such as the hedgehog, sugar glider, and miniature pig are encountered with increasing frequency in exotic companion medicine. Disease of the oral cavity can occur in any species; although occasionally encountered in exotic mammalian species, it is rarely described in the literature. Anatomy and dentition vary significantly; diagnosis and treatment are often extrapolated from that known in other species. The best-documented disease of the oral cavity in this group of species is oral neoplasia in the hedgehog.

  10. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  11. Transmission of MRSA between companion animals and infected human patients presenting to outpatient medical care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jorge Pinto; Anderson, Kevin L; Correa, Maria T; Lyman, Roberta; Ruffin, Felicia; Reller, L Barth; Fowler, Vance G

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. The importance of companion animals as reservoirs of human infections is currently unknown. The companion animals of 49 MRSA-infected outpatients (cases) were screened for MRSA carriage, and their bacterial isolates were compared with those of the infected patients using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Rates of MRSA among the companion animals of MRSA-infected patients were compared to rates of MRSA among companion animals of pet guardians attending a "veterinary wellness clinic" (controls). MRSA was isolated from at least one companion animal in 4/49 (8.2%) households of MRSA-infected outpatients vs. none of the pets of the 50 uninfected human controls. Using PFGE, patient-pets MRSA isolates were identical for three pairs and discordant for one pair (suggested MRSA inter-specie transmission p-value = 0.1175). These results suggest that companion animals of MRSA-infected patients can be culture-positive for MRSA, representing a potential source of infection or re-infection for humans. Further studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA human-animal inter-specie transmission.

  12. Transmission of MRSA between companion animals and infected human patients presenting to outpatient medical care facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pinto Ferreira

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a significant pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. The importance of companion animals as reservoirs of human infections is currently unknown. The companion animals of 49 MRSA-infected outpatients (cases were screened for MRSA carriage, and their bacterial isolates were compared with those of the infected patients using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. Rates of MRSA among the companion animals of MRSA-infected patients were compared to rates of MRSA among companion animals of pet guardians attending a "veterinary wellness clinic" (controls. MRSA was isolated from at least one companion animal in 4/49 (8.2% households of MRSA-infected outpatients vs. none of the pets of the 50 uninfected human controls. Using PFGE, patient-pets MRSA isolates were identical for three pairs and discordant for one pair (suggested MRSA inter-specie transmission p-value = 0.1175. These results suggest that companion animals of MRSA-infected patients can be culture-positive for MRSA, representing a potential source of infection or re-infection for humans. Further studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA human-animal inter-specie transmission.

  13. Brown Dwarf Companions to White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Burleigh, M R; Dobbie, P D; Farihi, J; Napiwotzki, R; Maxted, P F L; Barstow, M A; Jameson, R F; Casewell, S L; Gänsicke, B T; Marsh, T R

    2011-01-01

    Brown dwarf companions to white dwarfs are rare, but recent infra-red surveys are slowly reveal- ing examples. We present new observations of the post-common envelope binary WD0137-349, which reveals the effects of irradiation on the ~ 0.05M* secondary, and new observations of GD 1400 which show that it too is a close, post-comon envelope system. We also present the lat- est results in a near-infrared photometric search for unresolved ultracool companions and to white dwarfs with UKIDSS. Twenty five DA white dwarfs were identified as having photometric excesses indicative of a low mass companion, with 8-10 of these having a predicted mass in the range asso- ciated with brown dwarfs. The results of this survey show that the unresolved (< 2") brown dwarf companion fraction to DA white dwarfs is 0.3 \\leq fWD+BD \\leq 1.3%.

  14. Companion's effects upon resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, C V; Abreu-Rodrigues, J

    2008-10-01

    In order to investigate the effects of a companion's presence on resistance to change, five rats were trained under a multiple schedule comprised of components with high versus low rate of water reinforcement. After response rates became stable, water was given to the subjects prior to the experimental sessions, and these were conducted both in the absence and in the presence of a companion, which also could be responding or merely present. Results showed that the companion's presence increased resistance to satiation, mainly during the component with the higher reinforcement rate. These results suggest that the effect of the companion's presence may interact with reinforcement rate in determining response rate and resistance to satiation.

  15. Model companions of theories with an automorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Kikyo, Hirotaka

    1998-01-01

    For a theory $T$ in $L, T_\\sigma$ is the theory of the models of $T$ with an automorphism $\\sigma$. If $T$ is an unstable model complete theory without the independence property, then $T_\\sigma$ has no model companion. If $T$ is an unstable model complete theory and $T_\\sigma$ has the amalgamation property, then $T_\\sigma$ has no model companion. If $T$ is model complete and has the fcp, then $T_\\sigma$ has no model completion.

  16. Novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Jessica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Papillomaviruses (PVs are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota. This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1. It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF sequence showed the highest percentage of sequence identities to human PV5 (57.9% and Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus PV1 (55.4%, thus, establishing a new clade. According to phylogenetic analysis, the MsPV1 genome clusters with PVs of mammalian rather than sauropsid hosts.

  17. A substellar companion to Pleiades HII 3441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mihoko; Matsuo, Taro; Yamamoto, Kodai; Samland, Matthias; Sudo, Jun; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takahiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Akiyama, Eiji; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kwon, Jungmi; McElwain, Michael W.; Mede, Kyle; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Oh, Daehyeon; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P.; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-09-01

    We find a new substellar companion to the Pleiades member star, Pleiades HII 3441, using the Subaru telescope with adaptive optics. The discovery is made as part of the high-contrast imaging survey to search for planetary-mass and substellar companions in the Pleiades and young moving groups. The companion has a projected separation of 0{^''.}49 ± 0{^''.}02 (66 ± 2 au) and a mass of 68 ± 5 MJ based on three observations in the J-, H-, and Ks-bands. The spectral type is estimated to be M7 (˜2700 K), and thus no methane absorption is detected in the H band. Our Pleiades observations result in the detection of two substellar companions including one previously reported among 20 observed Pleiades stars, and indicate that the fraction of substellar companions in the Pleiades is about 10.0^{+26.1}_{-8.8}%. This is consistent with multiplicity studies of both the Pleiades stars and other open clusters.

  18. A Substellar Companion to Pleiades HII 3441

    CERN Document Server

    Konishi, Mihoko; Yamamoto, Kodai; Samland, Matthias; Sudo, Jun; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takahiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Akiyama, Eiji; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph C; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kwon, Jungmi; Mcelwain, Michael W; Mede, Kyle; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Mart'in, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Oh, Daehyeon; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Schlieder, Joshua E; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-01-01

    We find a new substellar companion to the Pleiades member star, Pleiades HII 3441, using the Subaru telescope with adaptive optics. The discovery is made as part of the high-contrast imaging survey to search for planetary-mass and substellar companions in the Pleiades and young moving groups. The companion has a projected separation of 0".49 +/- 0".02 (66 +/- 2 AU) and a mass of 68 +/- 5 M_J based on three observations in the J-, H-, and K_S-band. The spectral type is estimated to be M7 (~2700 K), and thus no methane absorption is detected in the H band. Our Pleiades observations result in the detection of two substellar companions including one previously reported among 20 observed Pleiades stars, and indicate that the fraction of substellar companions in the Pleiades is about 10.0 +26.1/-8.8 %. This is consistent with multiplicity studies of both the Pleiades stars and other open clusters.

  19. A substellar companion to Pleiades HII 3441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mihoko; Matsuo, Taro; Yamamoto, Kodai; Samland, Matthias; Sudo, Jun; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takahiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Akiyama, Eiji; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kwon, Jungmi; McElwain, Michael W.; Mede, Kyle; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Oh, Daehyeon; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P.; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-12-01

    We find a new substellar companion to the Pleiades member star, Pleiades HII 3441, using the Subaru telescope with adaptive optics. The discovery is made as part of the high-contrast imaging survey to search for planetary-mass and substellar companions in the Pleiades and young moving groups. The companion has a projected separation of 0{^''.}49 ± 0{^''.}02 (66 ± 2 au) and a mass of 68 ± 5 MJ based on three observations in the J-, H-, and Ks-bands. The spectral type is estimated to be M7 (˜2700 K), and thus no methane absorption is detected in the H band. Our Pleiades observations result in the detection of two substellar companions including one previously reported among 20 observed Pleiades stars, and indicate that the fraction of substellar companions in the Pleiades is about 10.0^{+26.1}_{-8.8}%. This is consistent with multiplicity studies of both the Pleiades stars and other open clusters.

  20. Body size reductions in nonmammalian eutheriodont therapsids (Synapsida) during the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlocker, Adam K

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the 'Lilliput effect,' a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts) using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion) models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma) consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1) active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2) geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns.

  1. Homologue of mammalian apolipoprotein A-Ⅱ in non-mammalian vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malay Choudhury; Shoji Yamada; Masaharu Komatsu; Hideki Kishimura; Seiichi Ando

    2009-01-01

    Although apolipoprotein with molecular weight 14 kDa (apo-14 kDa) is associated with fish plasma highdensity lipoproteins(HDLs),it remains to be determined whether apo-14 kDa is the homologue of mammalian apoA-Ⅱ.We have obtained the full cDNA sequences that encode Japanese eel and rainbow trout apo-14 kDa.Homologues of Japanese eel apo-14 kDa sequence could be found in 14 fish species deposited in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank or TGI database.Fish apo14 kDa lacks propeptide and contains more internal repeats than mammalian apoA-Ⅱ.Nevertheless,phylogenetic analysis allowed fish apo-14 kDa to be the homologue of mammalian apoA-Ⅱ.In addition,in silico cloning of the TGI,Ensembl,or NCBI database revealed apoA-Ⅱs in dog,chicken,green anole lizard,and African clawed frog whose sequences had not so far been available,suggesting both apoA-Ⅰ and apoA-Ⅱas fundamental constituents of vertebrate HDLs.

  2. Gas-Rich Companions of Isolated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, D J; Wilcots, Eric M.

    1999-01-01

    We have used the VLA to search for gaseous remnants of the galaxy formation process around six extremely isolated galaxies. We found two distinct HI clouds around each of two galaxies in our sample (UGC 9762 & UGC 11124). These clouds are rotating and appear to have optical counterparts, strongly implying that they are typical dwarf galaxies. The companions are currently weakly interacting with the primary galaxy, but have short dynamical friction timescales (~1 Gyr) suggesting that these triple galaxy systems will shortly collapse into one massive galaxy. Given that the companions are consistent with being in circular rotation about the primary galaxy, and that they have small relative masses, the resulting merger will be a minor one. The companions do, however, contain enough gas that the merger will represent a significant infusion of fuel to drive future star formation, bar formation, or central activity, while building up the mass of the disk thus making these systems important pieces of the galaxy f...

  3. A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg O.; Pedersen, Stig Andur; Hendricks, Vincent F.

    The aim of philosophy of technology is to help us understand technology's complex interrelationships with the environment, society, culture - and with our very existence. A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is the first comprehensive, authoritative reference source for this burgeoning...... and increasingly important field. Drawing on groundbreaking new essays by a distinguished team of multi-disciplinary experts, A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology delves deeply into technology's impact on our lives and on society. The essays both represent a variety of epistemological approaches, including...... those of the humanities, social studies, natural science, sociology, psychology, and engineering sciences and reflect a diversity of philosophical traditions such as pragmatism, analytical philosophy, and phenomenology. Erudite and authoritative, A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is a major...

  4. Body size reductions in nonmammalian eutheriodont therapsids (Synapsida during the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K Huttenlocker

    Full Text Available The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the 'Lilliput effect,' a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1 active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2 geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns.

  5. The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: neuroendocrine regulation of catecholamine secretion in non-mammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Steve F; Capaldo, Anna

    2011-11-16

    If severe enough, periods of acute stress in animals may be associated with the release of catecholamine hormones (noradrenaline and adrenaline) into the circulation; a response termed the acute humoral adrenergic stress response. The release of catecholamines from the sites of storage, the chromaffin cells, is under neuroendocrine control, the complexity of which appears to increase through phylogeny. In the agnathans, the earliest branching vertebrates, the chromaffin cells which are localized predominantly within the heart, lack neuronal innervation and thus catecholamine secretion in these animals is initiated solely by humoral mechanisms. In the more advanced teleost fish, the chromaffin cells are largely confined to the walls of the posterior cardinal vein at the level of the head kidney where they are intermingled with the steroidogenic interrenal cells. Catecholamine secretion from teleost chromaffin cells is regulated by a host of cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways that ensure sufficient redundancy and flexibility in the secretion process to permit synchronized responses to a myriad of stressors. The complexity of catecholamine secretion control mechanisms continues through the amphibians, reptiles and birds although neural (cholinergic) regulation may become increasingly important in birds. Discrete adrenal glands are present in the non-mammalian tetrapods but unlike in mammals, there is no clear division of a steroidogenic cortex and a chromaffin cell enriched medulla. However, in all groups, there is an obvious intermingling of chromaffin and steroiodogenic cells. The association of the two cell types may be particularly important in the amphibians and birds because like in mammals, the enzyme catalysing the methylation of noradrenaline to adrenaline, PNMT, is under the control of the steroid cortisol.

  6. Japanese medaka: a non-mammalian vertebrate model for studying sex and age-related bone metabolism in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admane H Shanthanagouda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In human, a reduction in estrogen has been proposed as one of the key contributing factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rodents are conventional models for studying postmenopausal osteoporosis, but the major limitation is that ovariectomy is needed to mimic the estrogen decline after menopause. Interestingly, in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes, we observed a natural drop in plasma estrogen profile in females during aging and abnormal spinal curvature was apparent in old fish, which are similar to postmenopausal women. It is hypothesized that estrogen associated disorders in bone metabolism might be predicted and prevented by estrogen supplement in aging O. latipes, which could be corresponding to postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In O. latipes, plasma estrogen was peaked at 8 months old and significantly declined after 10, 11 and 22 months in females. Spinal bone mineral density (BMD and micro-architecture by microCT measurement progressively decreased and deteriorated from 8 to 10, 12 and 14 months old, which was more apparent in females than the male counterparts. After 10 months old, O. latipes were supplemented with 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, a potent estrogen mimic at 6 and 60 ng/mg fish weight/day for 4 weeks, both reduction in spinal BMD and deterioration in bone micro-architecture were significantly prevented. The estrogenic effect of EE2 in O. latipes was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four key estrogen responsive genes in the liver. In general, bone histomorphometric analyses indicated significantly lowered osteoblasts and osteoclasts numbers and surfaces on vertebrae of EE2-fed medaka. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate osteoporosis development associated with natural drop in estrogen level during aging in female medaka, which could be attenuated by estrogen treatment. This small size fish is a unique alternative non-mammalian vertebrate model for studying estrogen-related molecular

  7. The evolving potential of companion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    The scope of companion diagnostics in cancer has undergone significant shifts in the past few years, with increased development of targeted therapies and novel testing platforms. This has provided new opportunities to effect unprecedented paradigm shifts in the application of personalized medicine principles for patients with cancer. These shifts involve assay platforms, analytes, regulations, and therapeutic approaches. As opportunities involving each of these facets of companion diagnostics expand, close collaborations between key stakeholders should be enhanced to ensure optimal performance characteristics and patient outcomes.

  8. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X. Chen; J. S. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We report the possible accretion from companion in the massive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO are connected by the shock-excited 4.5 m emission, suggesting that the massive star may form through accreting material from the companion in this system.

  9. Searching for Long-Period Companions and False Positives within the APOGEE Catalog of Companion Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy; Troup, Nicholas William; Majewski, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a large-scale, high-resolution, H-band, spectroscopic survey that has acquired high S/N spectra of 146,000 stars distributed across the Galactic bulge, disk, and halo with a radial velocity (RV) precision of ~100 m/s. We follow up stellar companion detections from the APOGEE DR12 catalog of 382 total APOGEE-identified companions, of which 376 are previously unknown companion candidates. The APOGEE team strives not only to continue expanding the census of extrasolar companions, but also to confirm and characterize our RV detections through a variety of means.We present findings from our investigation of the Kozai mechanism, which explains the development of close-orbiting binaries through an ejected third companion. To do so, we are undertaking a targeted search for long-period companions with hopes to provide further evidence for the Kozai mechanism. This hunt for longer period companions begins with a search for long-term RV trends within the APOGEE data. We have also obtained diffraction-limited imaging using speckle interferometry at WIYN and Gemini North Observatories, as well as AO LMIRcam images from the LBT, to make direct searches for long-period stellar companions.It is critical to purge our companion candidate detections of false positives, and we discuss several methods we are pursuing to do this. For example, highly active stars have been observed to mimic RV measurements. We have obtained optical high-resolution spectral follow-ups from the ARC 3.5m, the HET, and MMT to analyze potential stellar activity indicators such as Calcium H and K. Emission detected in these well-known stellar activity indicators suggests a false radial velocity measurement.

  10. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Future aspects and perceptions of companion animal nutrition and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P; Swanson, K S

    2015-03-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our lives and are now considered to be and treated as family members in a majority of households in the United States. Because of the high number of pets that now exist, an increasingly stronger pet-human bond, and the importance placed on health and longevity, the pet food industry has realized steady growth over the last few decades. Despite past successes and opportunities that exist in the future, there are also challenges that must be considered. This review will present a brief overview of the current pet food industry and address some of the key issues moving forward. In regards to companion animal research, recent advances and future needs in the areas of canine and feline metabolism, aging, clinical disease, and the gut microbiome using molecular and high-throughput assays; chemical, in vitro, and in vivo testing of feed ingredients; and innovative pet food processing methods is discussed. Training the future workforce for the pet food industry is also of great importance. Recent trends on student demographics and their species and careers of interest, changing animal science department curricula, and technology's impact on instruction are provided. Finally, the sustainability of the pet food industry is discussed. Focus was primarily placed on the disconnect that exists between opinions and trends of consumers and the nutrient recommendations for dogs and cats, the desire for increasing use of animal-based and human-grade products, the overfeeding of pets and the pet obesity crisis, and the issues that involve the evaluation of primary vs. secondary products in terms of sustainability. Moving forward, the pet food industry will need to anticipate and address challenges that arise, especially those pertaining to consumer expectations, the regulatory environment, and sustainability. Given the already strong and increasingly dynamic market for pet foods and supplies, an academic environment primed to supply a

  11. Overlooked wide companions of nearby F stars

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Ralf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We checked a sample of 545 F stars within 50 pc for wide companions using existing near-infrared and optical sky surveys. METHODS: Applying the common proper motion (CPM) criterion, we detected wide companion candidates with 6-120 arcsec angular separations by visual inspection of multi-epoch finder charts and by searching in proper motion catalogues. Final proper motions were measured by involving positional measurements from up to eleven surveys. Spectral types of red CPM companions were estimated from their absolute $J$-band magnitudes based on the Hipparcos distances of the primaries. RESULTS: In addition to about 100 known CPM objects, we found 19 new CPM companions and confirmed 31 previously known candidates. A few CPM objects are still considered as candidates according to their level of proper motion agreement. Among the new objects there are nine M0-M4, eight M5-M6, one $\\approx$L3.5 dwarf (HD 3861B), and one white dwarf (WD) (HD 2726B), whereas we confirmed two K, 19 M0-M4, six M5-M6, two ear...

  12. A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the first reference guide to the political, cultural and economic histories that form the subject-matter of postcolonial literatures written in English. The focus of the Companion is principally on the histories of postcolonial literatures in the Anglophone world - Africa, the Middle East...

  13. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  14. Structures induced by companions in galactic discs

    CERN Document Server

    Kyziropoulos, P; Gravvanis, G; Patsis, P

    2016-01-01

    Using N-body simulations we study the structures induced on a galactic disc by repeated flybys of a companion in decaying eccentric orbit around the disc. Our system is composed by a stellar disc, bulge and live dark matter halo, and we study the system's dynamical response to a sequence of a companion's flybys, when we vary i) the disc's temperature (parameterized by Toomre's Q-parameter) and ii) the companion's mass and initial orbit. We use a new 3D Cartesian grid code: MAIN (Mesh-adaptive Approximate Inverse N-body solver). The main features of MAIN are reviewed, with emphasis on the use of a new Symmetric Factored Approximate Sparse Inverse (SFASI) matrix in conjunction with the multigrid method that allows the efficient solution of Poisson's equation in three space variables. We find that: i) companions need to be assigned initial masses in a rather narrow window of values in order to produce significant and more long-standing non-axisymmetric structures (bars and spirals) in the main galaxy's disc by t...

  15. Uusi raamatuid : a companion to the history of the book

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tutvustus: A companion to the history of the book / edited by Simon Eliot and Jonathan Rose. - Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub., 2007. - xvi, 599 lk. : ill. - (Blackwell companions to literature and culture ; 48)

  16. Uusi raamatuid : a companion to the history of the book

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tutvustus: A companion to the history of the book / edited by Simon Eliot and Jonathan Rose. - Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub., 2007. - xvi, 599 lk. : ill. - (Blackwell companions to literature and culture ; 48)

  17. Asymmetry measures for QSOs and companions

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchings, J B

    2008-01-01

    An asymmetry index is derived from ellipse-fitting to galaxy images, that gives weight to faint outer features and is not strongly redshift-dependent. These measures are made on a sample of 13 2MASS QSOs and their neighbour galaxies, and a control sample of field galaxies from the same wide-field imaging data. The QSO host galaxy asymmetries correlate well with visual tidal interaction indices previously published. The companion galaxies have somewhat higher asymmetry than the control galaxy sample, and their asymmetry is inversely correlated with distance from the QSO. The distribution of QSO-companion asymmetry indices is different from that for matched control field galaxies at the $\\sim95%$ significance level. We present the data and discuss this evidence for tidal and other disturbances in the vicinity of QSOs.

  18. Prevalence of imaginary companions in a normal child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D; Rouse, H; Doswell, S; Ainsworth, C; Dawson, O; Simms, K; Edwards, L; Faulconbridge, J

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 1800 children between the ages of 5 and 12 years were randomly selected and asked whether they had present or past experiences of imaginary companions. It was found that 829 (46.2%) children reported experiences of imaginary companions. These findings were unexpected as previous studies had suggested that imaginary companions are generally experienced by fewer, much younger children. There were no significant differences in creativity scores between children who reported imaginary companions compared with those who did not. Imaginary companions were reported by more girls than boys, and were not restricted to very young children.

  19. The Oxford Companion to the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Paul L.

    2001-06-01

    Here is a wealth of information on planet Earth, ranging from the heights of the ionsphere down to the red-hot molten core. Written by some 200 expert contributors, and illustrated with over 600 pictures, including 16 pages of color plates, The Oxford Companion to the Earth offers 900 alphabetically arranged entries that cover everything from deserts and wetlands to mountains, caves, glaciers, and coral reefs. There are articles on natural phenomena such as tornadoes and tsunamis, volcanoes and earthquakes, jet streams and weather fronts; on the history of Earth, including the origin of life, Burgess Shale fauna, dinosaurs, and the Ice Ages; on key figures, such as Agassiz, Cuvier, Darwin, and Lamarck; and on such important ecological concerns as acid rain, the ozone layer, industrial waste disposal, and the greenhouse effect. The Companion also examines the great sources of wealth to be found in the Earth, from coal and oil to gold, silver, and diamonds, and many curious land formations, from sinkholes and fiords to yardangs and quicksand. There are brief entries on rock types, from amber to travertine, and extensive essays on cutting-edge aspects of the earth sciences, such as seismology and marine geology. The Companion includes extensive cross-references, suggested further reading, an index, and many useful appendices, with a geological timescale, facts and figures about the Earth, and a table of chemical elements. The Oxford Companion to the Earth is a unique reference work, offering unrivaled coverage of our home planet. Generously illustrated and vividly written, it is a treasure house of information for all lovers of natural history, geology, and ecology, whether professional or amateur.

  20. Extension of Companion Modeling Using Classification Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Daisuke; Bousquet, François; Ishida, Toru

    Companion Modeling is a methodology of refining initial models for understanding reality through a role-playing game (RPG) and a multiagent simulation. In this research, we propose a novel agent model construction methodology in which classification learning is applied to the RPG log data in Companion Modeling. This methodology enables a systematic model construction that handles multi-parameters, independent of the modelers ability. There are three problems in applying classification learning to the RPG log data: 1) It is difficult to gather enough data for the number of features because the cost of gathering data is high. 2) Noise data can affect the learning results because the amount of data may be insufficient. 3) The learning results should be explained as a human decision making model and should be recognized by the expert as being the result that reflects reality. We realized an agent model construction system using the following two approaches: 1) Using a feature selction method, the feature subset that has the best prediction accuracy is identified. In this process, the important features chosen by the expert are always included. 2) The expert eliminates irrelevant features from the learning results after evaluating the learning model through a visualization of the results. Finally, using the RPG log data from the Companion Modeling of agricultural economics in northeastern Thailand, we confirm the capability of this methodology.

  1. Characterization of the Companion to $\\mu$ Her

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Lewis C; Aguilar, Jonathan; Carson, Joseph; Crepp, Justin; Beichman, Charles; Brenner, Douglas; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Luszcz-Cook, Statia; Dekany, Richard; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hinkley, Sasha; King, David; Lockhart, Thomas G; Nilsson, Ricky; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Parry, Ian R; Pueyo, Laurent; Rice, Emily L; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Vasisht, Gautam; Veicht, Aaron; Wang, Ji; Zhai, Chengxing; Zimmerman, Neil T

    2016-01-01

    $\\mu$ Her is a nearby quadruple system with a G-subgiant primary and several low mass companions arranged in a 2+2 architecture. While the BC components have been well characterized, the Ab component has been detected astrometrically and with direct imaging but there has been some confusion over its nature, in particular whether the companion is stellar or substellar. Using near-infrared spectroscopy we are able to estimate the spectral type of the companion as a M4$\\pm$1V star. In addition, we have measured the astrometry of the system for over a decade. We combined the astrometry with archival radial velocity measurements to compute an orbit of the system. From the combined orbit, we are able to compute the mass sum of the system. Using the estimated mass of the primary, we estimate the mass of the secondary as 0.32 M_sun, which agrees with the estimated spectral type. Our computed orbit is preliminary due to the incomplete orbital phase coverage, but it should be sufficient to predict ephemerides over the ...

  2. Common Proper Motion Companions to Nearby Stars: Ages and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, V V; Hennessy, G S

    2008-01-01

    A set of 41 nearby stars (closer than 25 pc) is investigated which have very wide binary and common proper motion (CPM) companions at projected separations between 1000 and $200 000$ AU. These companions are identified by astrometric positions and proper motions from the NOMAD catalog. Based mainly on measures of chromospheric and X-ray activity, age estimation is obtained for most of 85 identified companions. Color -- absolute magnitude diagrams are constructed to test if CPM companions are physically related to the primary nearby stars and have the same age. Our carefully selected sample includes three remote white dwarf companions to main sequence stars and two systems (55 Cnc and GJ 777A) of multiple planets and distant stellar companions. Ten new CPM companions, including three of extreme separations, are found. Multiple hierarchical systems are abundant; more than 25% of CPM components are spectroscopic or astrometric binaries or multiples themselves. Two new astrometric binaries are discovered among ne...

  3. Parental Website-Descriptions of Children's Imaginary Companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine C Jellesma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Past research shows that imaginary companions are a normal phenomenon in childhood and do not indicate risk for psychopathology. The aim of this study was to see if parents are nevertheless concerned about imaginary companions. Internet-forums were searched in English, German, and Dutch in order to answer this question. Parental messages about present imaginary companions were analysed. Analyses of 89 posts made on a diverse set of internet-forums for parents revealed that half the parents expressed concerns about imaginary companions, especially parents with children older than 4.5 years old. When the imaginary companion was older than the child, parents were more likely to be concerned. Almost all messages were about imaginary companions, which might indicate that parents are less concerned about personified objects. The results signify that parents need more information in order to ensure they know imaginary companions are a normal childhood-experience.

  4. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichment. They need to be evaluated for use by taking into account the following: the species of an animal, its needs, habits and capabilities, the type of an enrichment device, the device's ability to stimulate the animal's interest and the safety of the device. Enrichment programmes should always include two forms of enrichment: behavioral enrichment and environmental enrichment. Enrichment comes in many forms such as structural or physical enrichment, sensory enrichment (auditory and olfactory stimulation, dietary enrichment, manipulatable enrichment and social enrichment.

  5. Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 2: Companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berny, Philippe; Caloni, Francesca; Croubels, Siska; Sachana, Magda; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Davanzo, Franca; Guitart, Raimon

    2010-03-01

    This is the second in a series of three review articles on animal poisoning in Europe and focuses on cases in pet animals and horses in five European countries (Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain) reported over the last decade. In the participating countries, dogs were the most commonly poisoned species, particularly younger animals. The majority of cases in companion animals resulted from exposure to insecticides, although rodenticides (especially anticoagulants and strychnine) posed a significant risk. In all five countries, horses and cats appeared to be more susceptible to plant toxins. Intoxications with herbicides, metals, household products and drugs for veterinary and human use were reported sporadically. The review demonstrates the importance of increased awareness so as to minimise poisoning episodes and emphasises the need to establish a European system for the recording of poisoning data. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A spectral differential characterization of low-mass companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubchik Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach with which the dynamical mass of low-mass companions around cool stars can be found. In order to discover companions to late-type stars the stellar spectrum is removed. For this we substract two spectra obtained at different orbital phases from each other in order to discover the companion spectrum in the difference spectrum in which the companion lines appear twice (positive and negative signal. The resulting radial velocity difference of these two signals provides the true mass of the companion. For our test case GJ1046, an M2V dwarf with a low-mass companion that most likely is a brown dwarf we select the CO line region in the K-band. We show that the dynamical mass of a faint companion to an M dwarf can be determined using our spectral differential technique. Only if the companion rotates rapidly and has a small radial velocity amplitude due to a high mass, does blending occur for all lines so that our approach fails. In addition to determining the companion mass, we restore the single companion spectrum from the difference spectrum using singular value decomposition.

  7. Accessing Cultural Artifacts Through Digital Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study that explores how the introduction of a digital companion agent for a museum exploration game changes children’s engagement with the presented artworks. To this end, a mobile application was developed featuring a monster agent that has eaten the artworks, which the chi...... the children had now to find in the museum. Results show that in comparison to the paper-based version of the exploration game, children engaged in more interactions with the actual cultural artifacts and showed a significantly higher retention rate for details of the involved artworks....

  8. The Photoshop CS4 Companion for Photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Story, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    "Derrick shows that Photoshop can be friendly as well as powerful. In part, he does that by focusing photographers on the essential steps of an efficient workflow. With this guide in hand, you'll quickly learn how to leverage Photoshop CS4's features to organize and improve your pictures."-- John Nack, Principal Product Manager, Adobe Photoshop & BridgeMany photographers -- even the pros -- feel overwhelmed by all the editing options Photoshop provides. The Photoshop CS4 Companion for Photographers pares it down to only the tools you'll need most often, and shows you how to use those tools as

  9. An R companion to linear statistical models

    CERN Document Server

    Hay-Jahans, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on user-developed programming, An R Companion to Linear Statistical Models serves two audiences: those who are familiar with the theory and applications of linear statistical models and wish to learn or enhance their skills in R; and those who are enrolled in an R-based course on regression and analysis of variance. For those who have never used R, the book begins with a self-contained introduction to R that lays the foundation for later chapters.This book includes extensive and carefully explained examples of how to write programs using the R programming language. These examples cove

  10. Optimal Release Control of Companion Satellite System Using Electromagnetic Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengwen Xu,Peng Shi; Yushan Zhao∗

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic forces generated by the inter⁃action of component satellites can be used to release companion satellites. Optimal release trajectories for companion satellite system using inter⁃electromagnetic forces were investigated. Firstly, nonlinear relative motion dynamic equations of a two⁃craft electromagnetic companion satellite system were derived in spatial polar coordinates. Then principles of electromagnetic satellite formation flying were introduced. Secondly, the characteristics of the electromagnetic companion satellites release were analyzed and optimal release trajectories of companion satellites using electromagnetic forces were obtained using Gauss pseudospectral method. Three performance criteria were chosen as minimum time, minimum acceleration of the separation distance and minimum control acceleration. Finally, three release examples including expansion along separation distance, rotation in orbital plane and stable formation reconfiguration were given to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Results indicated that the release trajectories can converge to optimal solutions effectively and the concept of release companion satellites using electromagnetic forces is practicable.

  11. An astrometric search for a stellar companion to the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlmutter, S.

    1986-11-25

    A companion star within 0.8 pc of the Sun has been postulated to explain a possible 26 Myr periodicity in mass extinctions of species on the Earth. Such a star would already be catalogued in the Yale Bright Star catalogue unless it is fainter than m/sub nu/ = 6.5; this limits the possible stellar types for an unseen companion to red dwarfs, brown dwarfs, or compact objects. Red dwarfs account for about 75% of these possible stars. We describe here the design and development of an astrometric search for a nearby red dwarf companion with a six-month peak-to-peak parallax of greater than or equal to2.5 arcseconds. We are measuring the parallax of 2770 candidate faint red stars selected from the Dearborn Observatory catalogue. An automated 30-inch telescope and CCD camera system collect digitized images of the candidate stars, along with a 13' x 16' surrounding field of background stars. Second-epoch images, taken a few months later, are registered to the first epoch images using the background stars as fiducials. An apparent motion, m/sub a/, of the candidate stars is found to a precision of sigma/sub m//sub a/ approx. = 0.08 pixel approx. = 0.2 arcseconds for fields with N/sub fiducial/ greater than or equal to 10 fiducial stars visible above the background noise. This precision is sufficient to detect the parallactic motion of a star at 0.8 pc with a two month interval between the observation epochs. Images with fewer fiducial stars above background noise are observed with a longer interval between epochs. If a star is found with high parallactic motion, we will confirm its distance with further parallax measurements, photometry, and spectral studies, and will measure radial velocity and proper motion to establish its orbit. We have demonstrated the search procedure with observations of 41 stars, and have shown that none of these is a nearby star. 37 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Veterinarian satisfaction with companion animal visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jane R; Adams, Cindy L; Bonnett, Brenda N; Larson, Susan; Roter, Debra L

    2012-04-01

    To measure veterinarian satisfaction with companion animal visits through an adaptation of a previously validated physician visit satisfaction scale and to identify demographic, personality, appointment, and communication factors that contribute to veterinarian visit satisfaction. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Random sample of 50 companion animal practitioners in southern Ontario, Canada, and convenience sample of 300 clients and their pets. For each practitioner, 6 clinical appointments were videotaped, and the resulting 300 videotapes were analyzed by use of the Roter interaction analysis system. The physician satisfaction scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and interpersonal reactivity index were used to measure veterinarian visit satisfaction, self-esteem, and empathy, respectively. Linear regression analysis was conducted to study the relationship between factors and veterinarian visit satisfaction. Veterinarian visit satisfaction ranged from 1 to 5 (mean ± SD, 3.97 ± 0.99) and differed significantly between wellness appointments (mean scale score, 4.13) and problem appointments (mean scale score, 3.81). Various elements of client and veterinarian communication as well as personality measures of veterinarian self-esteem and empathy were associated with veterinarian satisfaction. The specific factors differed depending on the nature of the appointment. Results suggested that veterinarian visit-specific satisfaction is enhanced through the use of communication that builds relationships with clients and is associated with degrees of veterinarian empathetic concern and veterinarian self-esteem. The implications extend to overall job satisfaction and its potential link to the health and well-being of individual veterinarians.

  13. Discovery of a novel glucagon-like peptide (GCGL) and its receptor (GCGLR) in chickens: evidence for the existence of GCGL and GCGLR genes in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Meng, Fengyan; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Guian; Li, Juan

    2012-11-01

    Glucagon (GCG), glucagon-related peptides, and their receptors have been reported to play important roles including the regulation of glucose homeostasis, gastrointestinal activity, and food intake in vertebrates. In this study, we identified genes encoding a novel glucagon-like peptide (named GCGL) and its receptor (GCGLR) from adult chicken brain using RACE and/or RT-PCR. GCGL was predicted to encode a peptide of 29 amino acids (cGCGL(1-29)), which shares high amino acid sequence identity with mammalian and chicken GCG (62-66%). GCGLR is a receptor of 430 amino acids and shares relatively high amino acid sequence identity (53-55%) with the vertebrate GCG receptor (GCGR). Using a pGL3-CRE-luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated that synthetic cGCGL(1-29), but not its structurally related peptides, i.e. exendin-4 and GCG, could potently activate GCGLR (EC(50): 0.10 nm) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, indicating that GCGLR can function as a GCGL-specific receptor. RT-PCR assay revealed that GCGL expression is mainly restricted to several tissues including various brain regions, spinal cord, and testes, whereas GCGLR mRNA is widely expressed in adult chicken tissues with abundant expression noted in the pituitary, spinal cord, and various brain regions. Using synteny analysis, GCGL and GCGLR genes were also identified in the genomes of fugu, tetraodon, tilapia, medaka, coelacanth, and Xenopus tropicalis. As a whole, the discovery of GCGL and GCGLR genes in chickens and other nonmammalian vertebrates clearly indicates a previously unidentified role of GCGL-GCGLR in nonmammalian vertebrates and provides important clues to the evolutionary history of GCG and GCGL genes in vertebrates.

  14. A MATLAB companion for multivariable calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    Offering a concise collection of MatLab programs and exercises to accompany a third semester course in multivariable calculus, A MatLab Companion for Multivariable Calculus introduces simple numerical procedures such as numerical differentiation, numerical integration and Newton''s method in several variables, thereby allowing students to tackle realistic problems. The many examples show students how to use MatLab effectively and easily in many contexts. Numerous exercises in mathematics and applications areas are presented, graded from routine to more demanding projects requiring some programming. Matlab M-files are provided on the Harcourt/Academic Press web site at http://www.harcourt-ap.com/matlab.html.* Computer-oriented material that complements the essential topics in multivariable calculus* Main ideas presented with examples of computations and graphics displays using MATLAB * Numerous examples of short code in the text, which can be modified for use with the exercises* MATLAB files are used to implem...

  15. The impact of companions on stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, Orsola

    2016-01-01

    Stellar astrophysicists are increasingly taking into account the effects of orbiting companions on stellar evolution. New discoveries, many thanks to systematic time-domain surveys, have underlined the role of binary star interactions in a range of astrophysical events, including some that were previously interpreted as due uniquely to single stellar evolution. Here, we review classical binary phenomena such as type Ia supernovae, and discuss new phenomena such as intermediate luminosity transients, gravitational wave-producing double black holes, or the interaction between stars and their planets. Finally, we examine the reassessment of well-known phenomena in light of interpretations that include both single and binary stars, for example supernovae of type Ib and Ic or luminous blue variables. At the same time we contextualise the new discoveries within the framework and nomenclature of the corpus of knowledge on binary stellar evolution. The last decade has heralded an era of revival in stellar astrophysic...

  16. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Lester, K. V. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Orosz, J. A. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1221 (United States); Peters, G. J., E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: rmatson@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: guo@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: lester@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: gjpeters@mucen.usc.edu [Space Sciences Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.

  17. [Current situation and challenges in companion diagnostics development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Miwa

    2014-12-01

    The personalized health care, it is defined as a medical care which provide the optimal therapy for each individual in consideration of a patient's individual difference, such as a genetic background and a physiological state. A companion diagnosis to stratify a patient appropriately is essential for the spread of personalized health care, and it is important that a companion diagnostic reagent used for the companion diagnosis is properly developed and clinically applied. However, as for the development of companion diagnostics and pharmaceuticals that require it, there are still many challenges such as its business model of cooperation of diagnostics companies and pharmaceutical companies, also, the regulations related to companion diagnostics. Furthermore, even in clinical practice, there are many issues such as the way of reimbursement for companion diagnostics and also the handling of laboratory developed test (LDT) as companion diagnostics. These are issues that should continue to discuss with industry, government and academia. In this report, from the point of view of a diagnostics company, we discuss the various challenges in clinical applications from the development of companion diagnostics.

  18. Do companion diagnostics make economic sense for drug developers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit

    2012-09-15

    Drug developers are grappling with the impact of personalized medicine on their portfolios. The combination of molecular diagnostics with targeted biologic therapies has been hailed as a recent innovation with few historical analogs to guide behavior. However, if the definition of companion diagnostics is broadened to include any drug whose FDA approved label requires diagnostic testing before prescription then over 50 drugs across multiple therapeutic areas arise. Most importantly for current drug developers, these drugs represent a wide variety of market situations and with sufficient historical data to evaluate different commercialization strategies for the combination. Included in these examples are drugs which were not initially launched with companion diagnostics but were required to implement companion diagnostics after they were on the market for a period of time. The historical case studies demonstrate that companion diagnostics are neither a universal panacea nor an unmitigated disaster for drug developers but require an understanding of specific situations to determine the utility of companion diagnostics. Numerous case studies highlight how companion diagnostics have been a boon to drug developers including Iressa, statins, Soriatane, Arthrotec, Promacta, Nplate, Letairis, and Tracleer. Other examples provide lessons on how to avoid pitfalls such as Accutane, Ticlid, Tegretol, Ziagen, Actigall and Clozaril. By carefully evaluating these case studies, drug developers can gain insight on the appropriate companion diagnostic strategy to implement for their specific situation and develop the elements of a successful companion diagnostic strategy.

  19. Disease Risk Assessments Involving Companion Animals: an Overview for 15 Selected Pathogens Taking a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, J M; Cito, F; Cunningham, A A; Rantsios, A T; Giovannini, A

    2016-07-01

    Prioritization of companion animal transmissible diseases was performed by the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO) project. The project considered diseases occurring in domesticated species commonly kept as pets, such as dogs and cats, but also included diseases occurring in captive wild animals and production animal species. The prioritization process led to the selection of 15 diseases of prime public health relevance, agricultural economic importance, or both. An analysis was made of the current knowledge on the risk of occurrence and transmission of these diseases among companion animals, and from companion animals to man (zoonoses) or to livestock. The literature was scanned for risk assessments for these diseases. Studies were classified as import risk assessments (IRAs) or risk factor analyses (RFAs) in endemic areas. For those pathogens that are absent from Europe, only IRAs were considered; for pathogens present throughout Europe, only RFAs were considered. IRAs were identified for seven of the eight diseases totally or partially absent from Europe. IRAs for classical rabies and alveolar echinococcosis found an increased risk for introduction of the pathogen into officially disease-free areas as a consequence of abandoning national rules and adopting the harmonized EU rules for pet travel. IRAs for leishmaniosis focused on risk associated with the presence of persistently infected dogs in new geographical areas, taking into consideration the risk of disease establishment should a competent vector arise. IRAs for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and West Nile fever indicated that the likelihood of introduction via companion animals was low. IRAs for bluetongue paid no attention to the risk of introduction via companion animals, which was also the case for IRAs for foot-and-mouth disease, the only disease considered to be absent from Europe. RFAs dealing with the risk factors for

  20. Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Steven

    2012-08-27

    This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals-the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster-are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals.

  1. Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven White

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals—the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster—are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals.

  2. The Health Technology Assessment of companion diagnostics: experience of NICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Sarah K; Crabb, Nick; George, Elisabeth; Marlow, Mirella; Newland, Adrian

    2014-03-15

    Companion diagnostics are used to aid clinical decision making to identify patients who are most likely to respond to treatment. They are becoming increasingly important as more new pharmaceuticals receive licensed indications that require the use of a companion diagnostic to identify the appropriate patient subgroup for treatment. These pharmaceuticals have proven benefit in the treatment of some cancers and other diseases, and also have potential to precisely tailor treatments to the individual in the future. However, the increasing use of companion diagnostics could place a substantial burden on health system resources to provide potentially high volumes of testing. This situation, in part, has led policy makers and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) bodies to review the policies and methods used to make reimbursement decisions for pharmaceuticals requiring companion diagnostics. The assessment of a pharmaceutical alongside the companion diagnostic used in the clinical trials may be relatively straightforward, although there are a number of challenges associated with assessing pharmaceuticals where a range of alternative companion diagnostics are available for use in routine clinical practice. The UK HTA body, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), has developed policy for considering companion diagnostics using its Technology Appraisal and Diagnostics Assessment Programs. Some HTA bodies in other countries have also adapted their policies and methods to accommodate the assessment of companion diagnostics. Here, we provide insight into the HTA of companion diagnostics for reimbursement decisions and how the associated challenges are being addressed, in particular by NICE. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "The Precision Medicine Conundrum: Approaches to Companion Diagnostic Co-development."

  3. MHC-like molecules in some nonmammalian vertebrates can be detected by some cross-reactive xenoantisera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Skjoedt, K; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    Rabbit antisera raised to human and chicken MHC molecules were used to immunoprecipitate cross-reactive molecules from biosynthetically and cell surface-labeled spleen and/or blood cells of representative vertebrate species. Five major points emerged: 1) There were many nonspecific cross-reaction......Rabbit antisera raised to human and chicken MHC molecules were used to immunoprecipitate cross-reactive molecules from biosynthetically and cell surface-labeled spleen and/or blood cells of representative vertebrate species. Five major points emerged: 1) There were many nonspecific cross...

  4. Low-mass visual companions to nearby G-dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Complete census of wide visual companions to nearby G-dwarf stars can be achieved by selecting candidates from the 2MASS Point-Source Catalog and checking their status by second-epoch imaging. Such data are obtained for 124 candidates with separations up to 20", 47 of which are shown to be new physical low-mass stellar companions. A list of visual binaries with G-dwarf primaries is produced by combining newly found companions with historical data. Maximum likelihood analysis leads to the companion frequency of 0.13+-0.015 per decade of separation. The mass ratio is distributed almost uniformly, with a power-law index between -0.4 and 0. The remaining uncertainty in the index is related to modeling of the companion detection threshold in 2MASS. These findings are confirmed by alternative analysis of wider companions in 2MASS, removing the contamination by background stars statistically. Extension of this work will lead to a complete detection of visual companions - a necessary step towards reaching unbiased mu...

  5. The orbit and companions of the classical Cepheid FF Aql

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Welch, Douglas L.; Scarfe, Colin D.; Teays, Terry J.

    1990-01-01

    New radial velocities of the classical Cepheid FF Aql have been obtained and combined with previous observations to provide a revised orbit. A companion has been detected at 1800 A in IUE spectra with a spectral type of A9 V to F3 V. If the Cepheid has an evolutionary mass, then the mass ratio is M1/M2 = 3.8. A companion recently detected by speckle interferometry is in a longer-period orbit if it is a physical companion. In this case it is also an evolved star. The possible fourth member of the system, the visual companion, is unlikely to be a member of the system. The companion at 6 arcsec is unlikely to be a physical companion. Cepheids (in the 'free-fall' descending branch of the light curve) and nonvariable supergiants are shown to have a different spectral slope between 2900 and 1800 A for the same (B-V)0. IUE spectra of Polaris are rediscussed using other Cepheid spectra as comparison stars, and it is concluded that there is probably no sign of a companion.

  6. Stellar Companions to Stars with Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Patience, J; Ghez, A M; McCabe, C; McLean, I S; Larkin, J E; Prato, L; Kim, S S; Lloyd, J P; Liu, M C; Graham, J R; MacIntosh, B A; Gavel, D T; Max, C E; Bauman, B J; Olivier, S S; Wizinowich, P; Acton, D S; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2002-01-01

    A combination of high-resolution and wide-field imaging reveals two binary stars and one triple star system among the sample of the first 11 stars with planets detected by radial velocity variations. High resolution speckle or adaptive optics (AO) data probe subarcsecond scales down to the diffraction limit of the Keck 10-m or Lick 3-m, and direct images or AO images are sensitive to a wider field, extending to 10" or 38", depending upon the camera. One of the binary systems -- HD 114762 -- was not previously known to be a spatially resolved multiple system; additional data taken with the combination of Keck adaptive optics and NIRSPEC are used to characterize the new companion. The second binary system -- Tau Boo -- was a known multiple with two conflicting orbital solutions; the current data will help constrain the discrepant estimates of periastron time and separation. Another target -- 16 Cyg B -- was a known common proper motion binary, but the current data resolve a new third component, close to the wid...

  7. Neurologic conditions causing lameness in companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J J; Platt, S R; Clayton, L A

    2001-01-01

    Animals presented with non-weight-bearing lameness are a diagnostic challenge for the veterinarian. It is extremely important to distinguish between orthopedic and neurologic causes of lameness, because the diagnostic and therapeutic plans can be quite different. Myopathies can be confused with orthopedic disease because of gait abnormalities and associated muscle pain. Common myopathies seen in companion animal medicine include polymyositis, muscular dystrophy, endocrine and infectious myopathies, and myasthenia gravis. Lameness caused by disease of the nerve root or nerve is confused with orthopedic disease because of the disturbances of a nerve's sensory distribution (nerve-root signature) or disruption of the motor innervation. The diseases of the nerve root or nerve discussed are lateralized intervertebral disk disease, spinal cord neoplasia, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and traumatic neuropathies. The diagnosis of these diseases requires careful attention to the signalment, a complete history, and a thorough physical examination focusing on the neurologic and orthopedic components. Ancillary testing should be selected based on these results and a minimum database. Electrodiagnostic testing, radiography, and advanced imaging may help to localize the lesion more precisely and sometimes to confirm the diagnosis. Surgical exploration and histopathology often provide the definitive diagnosis. These cases of non-weight-bearing lameness are a diagnostic challenge, but when successful resolution can be reached, it is gratifying to the clinician, client, and patient.

  8. Antimicrobial use in food and companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John F

    2008-12-01

    The vast literature on antimicrobial drug use in animals has expanded considerably recently as the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis in human medicine leads to questions about all usage of antimicrobial drugs, including long-term usage in intensively managed food animals for growth promotion and disease prevention. Attention is also increasingly focusing on antimicrobial use and on bacterial resistance in companion animals, which are in intimate contact with the human population. They may share resistant bacteria with their owners, amplify resistant bacteria acquired from their owners, and act as a reservoir for human infection. Considerable effort is being made to describe the basis of AMR in bacterial pathogens of animals. Documentation of many aspects of use of antimicrobials in animals is, however, generally less developed and only a few countries can describe quantities of drugs used in animals to kg levels annually. In recent years, many national veterinary associations have produced 'prudent use guidelines' to try to improve antimicrobial drug use and decrease resistance, but the impact of guidelines is unknown. Within the evolving global movement for 'antimicrobial stewardship', there is considerable scope to improve many aspects of antimicrobial use in animals, including infection control and reduction of use, with a view to reducing resistance and its spread, and to preserving antimicrobial drugs for the future.

  9. Companion animals in palliative care: a hidden quality option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanneberger, S; Köhler, U

    2013-01-01

    In the light of the unprecedented demographic changes in many countries it is important to review and adapt existing strategies for giving old and incurable patients the adequate health care. Based on available data the importance of companion animals needs to be considered as part of individual care planning. Despite intensive research in other areas of health care, there is limited data concerning the use of companion animals in palliative care. The field demands much more recognition. For many people companion animals can be a chance for better quality of life.

  10. Companion diagnostics: the key to personalized medicine. Foreword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst

    2015-02-01

    This special focus issue of Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics on in vitro companion diagnostics aims to provide the reader with up-to-date knowledge on this fast-evolving area of medical research. Companion diagnostics takes up a central role in the development of targeted drugs and to a large extent, the success of this type of therapy depends on their performance. Companion diagnostic assays have a single patient as a point of reference and they will be decisive for the move toward a more precise and individualized pharmacotherapy. The 'first generation' of companion diagnostic assays relies on single biomarker detection but with our increasing understanding of disease pathophysiology a new generation of assays is under development, which will be based on patient profiling and multiplex platforms.

  11. Distinguishing Between Stellar and Planetary Companions With Phase Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    Exoplanets which are detected using the radial velocity technique have a well-known ambiguity of their true mass, caused by the unknown inclination of the planetary orbit with respect to the plane of the sky. Constraints on the inclination are aided by astrometric follow-up in rare cases or, in ideal situations, through subsequent detection of a planetary transit. As the predicted inclination decreases, the mass of the companion increases leading to a change in the predicted properties. Here we investigate the changes in the mass, radius, and atmospheric properties as the inclination pushes the companion from the planetary into the brown dwarf and finally low-mass star regimes. We determine the resulting detectable photometric signatures in the predicted phase variation as the companion changes properties and becomes self-luminous. We apply this to the HD 114762 and HD 162020 systems for which the minimum masses of the known companions places them at the deuterium-burning limit.

  12. Inverse of invertible standard multi-companion matrices with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem I. El Shekh Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inverse of invertible standard multi-companion matrices will be derived and introduced as a new technique for generation of periodic autoregression models to get the desired spectrum and extract the parameters of the model from it when the information of the standard multi-companion matrices is not enough for the extracting of the parameters of the model. We will find explicit expressions for the generalized eigenvectors of the inverse of invertible standard multi-companion matrices such that each generalized eigenvector depends on the corresponding eigenvalue therefore we obtain a parameterization of the inverse of invertible standard multi-companion matrix through the eigenvalues and these additional quantities. The results can be applied to statistical estimation, simulation and theoretical studies of periodically correlated and multivariate time series in both discrete and continuous-time series.

  13. Complementary versus companion diagnostics: apples and oranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christopher-Paul; Bryan, Crystal; Garafalo, Steven; McKiernan, Marie

    2015-01-01

    There have been several major problems that have plagued biopharmaceutical development since the end of the 1990s, but two in particular have reached the point where they are impacting the economic viability of the industry: the lack of efficacy of new drugs and increasing competition among therapeutics that broadly attack certain common diseases and disease areas. The US FDA has noted that the era of one-size-fits-all treatment may well be reaching its end days as companies increasingly adopt approaches that involve biomarkers (there are now commercial databases that purport to track over 11,000 of them). Pharmacogenomic biomarkers in particular are used to create diagnostics that help to differentiate or stratify the likely outcomes a patient will experience with a drug, which can now be said to be targeted or tailored to patients with particular traits (i.e., personalized), leading to an era of so-called precision medicine. As more is understood about diseases and the why and how of their effects on people through advances in biomarkers and genomics, personalized medicine is becoming a natural result of biomedical science and a natural trajectory for the innovation-based biopharmaceutical industry. The focus of this article is to examine an apparent divergence in that trajectory engendered by a growing differentiation in the approaches to personalized medicines in terms of their accompanying diagnostics: companion diagnostics are typically linked to a specific drug within its approved label, while complementary diagnostics are associated more broadly, usually not with a specific drug but with a class of drugs, and not confined to specific uses by labeling, with consequent ramifications for economic, regulatory and strategic considerations.

  14. The current and future state of companion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit; Ressler, Dan; Snyder, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Companion diagnostics are an indispensable part of personalized medicine and will likely continue to rapidly increase in number and application to disease areas. The first companion diagnostics were launched in the 1980s and in the face of significant initial skepticism from drug developers as to whether segmenting a drug's market through a diagnostic was advisable. The commercial success of drugs such as Herceptin® (trastuzumab) and Gleevec® (imatinib), which both require testing with companion diagnostics before they can be prescribed, has moved the entire companion diagnostic field forward. From an initial start of a handful of oncology drugs with corresponding diagnostics, the field has expanded to include multiple therapeutic areas, and the number of combinations has grown by 12-fold. Based on drugs in clinical trials, the rapid growth will likely continue for the foreseeable future. This expansion of companion diagnostics will also have a global component as markets in Europe will evolve in a similar but not identical pattern as the US. One of the greatest challenges to future growth in companion diagnostics is aligning the incentives of all stakeholders. A major driver of growth will continue to be the economic incentives for drug developers to pair their products with diagnostics. However, diagnostic companies are caught between the conflicting demands of two major stakeholders, pharmaceutical companies on one hand and payers/providers on the other. Regulators are also becoming more demanding in aligning development time lines between drugs and diagnostics. In order to survive and prosper, diagnostic companies will need to think more broadly about companion diagnostics than the historical match between a specific drug and a single diagnostic. They will also have to continue the process of consolidation and global expansion that the industry has already begun. Despite these potential obstacles, companion diagnostics have become one of the hottest areas of

  15. THE CLOSE STELLAR COMPANIONS TO INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Trenti, Michele [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2016-03-01

    When embedded in dense cluster cores, intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) acquire close stellar or stellar-remnant companions. These companions are not only gravitationally bound, but also tend to hierarchically isolate from other cluster stars through series of multibody encounters. In this paper we study the demographics of IMBH companions in compact star clusters through direct N-body simulations. We study clusters initially composed of 10{sup 5} or 2 × 10{sup 5} stars with IMBHs of 75 and 150 solar masses, and we follow their evolution for 6–10 Gyr. A tight, innermost binary pair of IMBH and stellar object rapidly forms. The IMBH has a companion with an orbital semimajor axis at least three times tighter than the second-most-bound object over 90% of the time. These companionships have typical periods on the order of years and are subject to cycles of exchange and destruction. The most frequently observed, long-lived pairings persist for ∼10{sup 7} years. The demographics of IMBH companions in clusters are diverse: they include both main-sequence, giant stars and stellar remnants. Companion objects may reveal the presence of an IMBH in a cluster in one of several ways. The most-bound companion stars routinely suffer grazing tidal interactions with the IMBH, offering a dynamical mechanism to produce repeated flaring episodes like those seen in the IMBH candidate HLX-1. The stellar winds of companion stars provide a minimum quiescent accretion rate for IMBHs, with implications for radio searches for IMBH accretion in globular clusters. Finally, gravitational wave inspirals of compact objects occur with promising frequency.

  16. The electronics companion devices and circuits for physicists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Updated and expanded with new topics, The Electronics Companion: Devices and Circuits for Physicists and Engineers, 2nd Edition presents a full course in introductory electronics using a unique and educational presentation technique that is the signature style of the author’s companion books. This concise yet detailed book covers introductory electrical principles (DC and AC circuits), the physics of electronics components, circuits involving diodes and transistors, transistors amplifiers, filtering, operational amplifiers, digital electronics, transformers, instrumentation, and power supplies.

  17. Promoting childbirth companions in South Africa: a randomised pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Helen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most women delivering in South African State Maternity Hospitals do not have a childbirth companion; in addition, the quality of care could be better, and at times women are treated inhumanely. We piloted a multi-faceted intervention to encourage uptake of childbirth companions in state hospitals, and hypothesised that lay carers would improve the behaviour of health professionals. Methods We conducted a pilot randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote childbirth companions in hospital deliveries. We promoted evidence-based information for maternity staff at 10 hospitals through access to the World Health Organization Reproductive Health Library (RHL, computer hardware and training to all ten hospitals. We surveyed 200 women at each site, measuring companionship, and indicators of good obstetric practice and humanity of care. Five hospitals were then randomly allocated to receive an educational intervention to promote childbirth companions, and we surveyed all hospitals again at eight months through a repeat survey of postnatal women. Changes in median values between intervention and control hospitals were examined. Results At baseline, the majority of hospitals did not allow a companion, or access to food or fluids. A third of women were given an episiotomy. Some women were shouted at (17.7%, N = 2085, and a few reported being slapped or struck (4.3%, N = 2080. Despite an initial positive response from staff to the childbirth companion intervention, we detected no difference between intervention and control hospitals in relation to whether a companion was allowed by nursing staff, good obstetric practice or humanity of care. Conclusion The quality and humanity of care in these state hospitals needs to improve. Introducing childbirth companions was more difficult than we anticipated, particularly in under-resourced health care systems with frequent staff changes. We were unable to determine whether the presence

  18. Generalized Identities of Companion Fibonacci-Like Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Bhatnagar; Bijendra Singh; Omprakash Sikhwal

    2013-01-01

    The Fibonacci sequence, Lucas sequence, Pell sequence, Pell-Lucas sequence, Jacobsthalsequence and Jacobsthal-Lucas sequence are most prominent examples of second order recursivesequences. In this paper, we deal with two companion Fibonacci- Like sequences which aregeneralization of Fibonacci-Like sequence. Further we obtain some generalized identities amongthe terms of companion Fibonacci-Like sequences, Jacobsthal and Jacobsthal-Lucas sequencesthrough Binet’s formulae.

  19. No surviving evolved companions of the progenitor of SN 1006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Hernández, Jonay I; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Tabernero, Hugo M; Montes, David; Canal, Ramon; Méndez, Javier; Bedin, Luigi R

    2012-09-27

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to occur when a white dwarf made of carbon and oxygen accretes sufficient mass to trigger a thermonuclear explosion. The accretion could be slow, from an unevolved (main-sequence) or evolved (subgiant or giant) star (the single-degenerate channel), or rapid, as the primary star breaks up a smaller orbiting white dwarf (the double-degenerate channel). A companion star will survive the explosion only in the single-degenerate channel. Both channels might contribute to the production of type Ia supernovae, but the relative proportions of their contributions remain a fundamental puzzle in astronomy. Previous searches for remnant companions have revealed one possible case for SN 1572 (refs 8, 9), although that has been questioned. More recently, observations have restricted surviving companions to be small, main-sequence stars, ruling out giant companions but still allowing the single-degenerate channel. Here we report the results of a search for surviving companions of the progenitor of SN 1006 (ref. 14). None of the stars within 4 arc minutes of the apparent site of the explosion is associated with the supernova remnant, and we can firmly exclude all giant and subgiant stars from being companions of the progenitor. In combination with previous results, our findings indicate that fewer than 20 per cent of type Ia supernovae occur through the single-degenerate channel.

  20. Identification and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Austrian companion animals and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncaric, Igor; Künzel, Frank; Licka, Theresia; Simhofer, Hubert; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate

    2014-01-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, resistance gene patterns and genetic relatedness of a collection of Austrian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 89 non-repetitive MRSA isolates collected during routine veterinary microbiological examinations from April 2004 to the end of 2012, and one isolate from 2013 were used for this study. The presence of mecA and other resistance genes was confirmed by PCR. Isolates were genotyped by spa typing, two multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) analyses, SCCmec typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR targeting Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST) was performed using PCR assays. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Five sequence types (STs-ST398, ST254, ST22, ST5 and ST1), SCCmec types II, IVa, V, and non-type-abele, 8 spa-types (t003, t011, t036, t127, t386, t1348, and t4450), and two isolates could not be assigned, 21 MLVA-14Orsay types Multiplex-PCR MLVA (mMLVA) displayed 17 different MLVA types. The present study is the most comprehensive dealing with MRSA from Austrian companion animals and horses. The results confirm that MRSA ST398 is present in a wide range of animal species and is predominant especially in horses. In other companion animals it is unclear whether the infections with the different MRSA isolates investigated in the present study truly represents a rare phenomenon or may be an emerging problem in companion animals.

  1. Evolutionary background for stress-coping styles: relationships between physiological, behavioral, and cognitive traits in non-mammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverli, Øyvind; Sørensen, Christina; Pulman, Kim G T; Pottinger, Tom G; Korzan, Wayne; Summers, Cliff H; Nilsson, Göran E

    2007-01-01

    Reactions to stress vary between individuals, and physiological and behavioral responses tend to be associated in distinct suites of correlated traits, often termed stress-coping styles. In mammals, individuals exhibiting divergent stress-coping styles also appear to exhibit intrinsic differences in cognitive processing. A connection between physiology, behavior, and cognition was also recently demonstrated in strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) selected for consistently high or low cortisol responses to stress. The low-responsive (LR) strain display longer retention of a conditioned response, and tend to show proactive behaviors such as enhanced aggression, social dominance, and rapid resumption of feed intake after stress. Differences in brain monoamine neurochemistry have also been reported in these lines. In comparative studies, experiments with the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveal connections between monoaminergic activity in limbic structures, proactive behavior in novel environments, and the establishment of social status via agonistic behavior. Together these observations suggest that within-species diversity of physiological, behavioral and cognitive correlates of stress responsiveness is maintained by natural selection throughout the vertebrate sub-phylum.

  2. Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Gosby, Alison K; Simpson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy (nPE), and consequently will over- and under-ingest nPE on diets with low or high PE, respectively. This pattern of macronutrient regulation has led to the protein leverage hypothesis, which proposes that the rise in obesity has been caused partly by a shift towards diets with reduced PE:nPE ratios relative to the set point for protein regulation. We discuss potential causes of this mismatch, including environmentally induced reductions in the protein density of the human diet and factors that might increase the regulatory set point for protein and hence exacerbate protein leverage. Economics--the high price of protein compared with fats and carbohydrates--is one factor that might contribute to the reduction of dietary protein concentrations. The possibility that rising atmospheric CO₂ levels could also play a role through reducing the PE:nPE ratios in plants and animals in the human food chain is discussed. Factors that reduce protein efficiency, for example by increasing the use of ingested amino acids in energy metabolism (hepatic gluconeogenesis), are highlighted as potential drivers of increased set points for protein regulation. We recommend that a similar approach is taken to understand the rise of obesity in other species, and identify some key gaps in the understanding of nutrient regulation in companion animals.

  3. The current and future state of companion diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amit Agarwal,1 Dan Ressler,2 Glenn Snyder1 1Deloitte Consulting LLP, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Deloitte Consulting LLP, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Companion diagnostics are an indispensable part of personalized medicine and will likely continue to rapidly increase in number and application to disease areas. The first companion diagnostics were launched in the 1980s and in the face of significant initial skepticism from drug developers as to whether segmenting a drug's market through a diagnostic was advisable. The commercial success of drugs such as Herceptin® (trastuzumab and Gleevec® (imatinib, which both require testing with companion diagnostics before they can be prescribed, has moved the entire companion diagnostic field forward. From an initial start of a handful of oncology drugs with corresponding diagnostics, the field has expanded to include multiple therapeutic areas, and the number of combinations has grown by 12-fold. Based on drugs in clinical trials, the rapid growth will likely continue for the foreseeable future. This expansion of companion diagnostics will also have a global component as markets in Europe will evolve in a similar but not identical pattern as the US. One of the greatest challenges to future growth in companion diagnostics is aligning the incentives of all stakeholders. A major driver of growth will continue to be the economic incentives for drug developers to pair their products with diagnostics. However, diagnostic companies are caught between the conflicting demands of two major stakeholders, pharmaceutical companies on one hand and payers/providers on the other. Regulators are also becoming more demanding in aligning development time lines between drugs and diagnostics. In order to survive and prosper, diagnostic companies will need to think more broadly about companion diagnostics than the historical match between a specific drug and a single diagnostic. They will also have to continue the process of

  4. [The presence of a companion in the primary care consultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabián, J L; Pérez Franco, B

    2015-01-01

    The presence of an adult accompanying the patient in the consulting room is a significant fact that deserves the attention of the physician. Some types of companions and their presence in the consultation have been described and may improve communication, patient management, and participatory decision making, achieving greater patient satisfaction. Consultations with companion are generally longer, and patients accompanied are often elderly, women, less educated, and with poorer physical and mental health. But it is not known exactly what is the significance of a consultation with a companion. It may be a semiological fact to keep in mind for the family diagnosis, or it may be the risks of their presence, the influence of medication, or the importance of the doctors themselves that are the cause of the presence of a companion. Different communication skills must be achieved during the interview with the companion in the consultation, rather than with the patient alone. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. A Massive Substellar Companion to the Massive Giant HD 119445

    CERN Document Server

    Omiya, Masashi; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Sato, Bun'ei; Kambe, Eiji; Kim, Kang-Min; Yoon, Tae Seog; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Masuda, Seiji; Toyota, Eri; Urakawa, Seitaro; Takada-Hidai, Masahide

    2009-01-01

    We detected a brown dwarf-mass companion around the intermediate-mass giant star HD 119445 (G6III) using the Doppler technique. This discovery is the first result from a Korean-Japanese planet search program based on precise radial velocity measurements. The radial velocity of this star exhibits a periodic Keplerian variation with a period, semi-amplitude and eccentricity of 410.2 days, 413.5 m/s and 0.082, respectively. Adopting a stellar mass of 3.9 M_solar, we were able to confirm the presence of a massive substellar companion with a semimajor axis of 1.71 AU and a minimum mass of 37.6 M_Jup, which falls in the middle of the brown dwarf-mass region. This substellar companion is the most massive ever discovered within 3 AU of a central intermediate-mass star. The host star also ranks among the most massive stars with substellar companions ever detected by the Doppler technique. This result supports the current view of substellar systems that more massive substellar companions tend to exist around more massi...

  6. Signatures of A Companion Star in Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    While type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) have been used as precise cosmological distance indicators, their progenitor systems remain unresolved. One of the key questions is if there is a non-degenerate companion star at the time of a thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf (WD). In this paper, we investigate if an interaction between the SN ejecta and the companion star may result in observable footprints around the maximum brightness and thereafter, by performing multi-dimensional radiation transfer simulations based on hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction. We find that such systems result in variations in various observational characteristics due to different viewing directions, while the predicted behaviors (redder and fainter for the companion direction) are opposite to what were suggested by the previous study. The variations are generally modest and within observed scatters. However, the model predicts trends between some observables different from observationally derived, thus a large sample of SNe Ia...

  7. An active, asynchronous companion to a redback millisecond pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    van Staden, André

    2016-01-01

    PSR\\,J1723$-$2837 is a "redback" millisecond pulsar (MSP) with a low-mass companion in a 14.8\\,h orbit. The system's properties closely resemble those of "transitional" MSPs that alternate between spin-down and accretion-powered states. In this paper we report on long-term photometry of the 15.5\\,mag companion to the pulsar. We use our data to illustrate that the star experiences sporadic activity which we attribute to starspots. We also find that the companion is not tidally locked and infer $P_{\\rm s}/P_{\\rm b}= 0.9974(7)$ for the ratio between the rotational and orbital periods. We place constraints on various parameters, including the irradiation efficiency and pulsar mass. Finally, we discuss similarities with other redback MSPs and conclude that starspots provide the most likely explanation for the often seen irregular and asymmetric optical lightcurves.

  8. An Active, Asynchronous Companion to a Redback Millisecond Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staden, André D.; Antoniadis, John

    2016-12-01

    PSR J1723-2837 is a “redback” millisecond pulsar (MSP) with a low-mass companion in a 14.8 hr orbit. The system’s properties closely resemble those of “transitional” MSPs that alternate between spin-down and accretion-powered states. In this Letter, we report on long-term photometry of the 15.5 mag companion to the pulsar. We use our data to illustrate that the star experiences sporadic activity, which we attribute to starspots. We also find that the companion is not tidally locked and infer {P}{{s}}/{P}{{b}}=0.9974(7) for the ratio between the rotational and orbital periods. Finally, we place constraints on various parameters, including the irradiation efficiency and pulsar mass. We discuss similarities with other redback MSPs and conclude that starspots may provide the most likely explanation for the often seen irregular and asymmetric optical light curves.

  9. Close Binary Progenitors and Ejected Companions of Thermonuclear Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, S.; Kupfer, T.; Heber, U.; Nemeth, P.; Ziegerer, E.; Irrgang, A.; Schindewolf, M.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Barlow, B. N.; Bloemen, S.

    2017-03-01

    Hot subdwarf stars (sdO/Bs) are evolved core helium-burning stars with very thin hydrogen envelopes, which can be formed by common envelope ejection. Close sdB binaries with massive white dwarf (WD) companions are potential progenitors of thermonuclear supernovae type Ia (SN Ia). We discovered such a progenitor candidate as well as a candidate for a surviving companion star, which escapes from the Galaxy. More candidates for both types of objects have been found by cross-matching known sdB stars with proper motion and light curve catalogues. We found 72 sdO/B candidates with high Galactic restframe velocities, 12 of them might be unbound to our Galaxy. Furthermore, we discovered the second-most compact sdB+WD binary known. However, due to the low mass of the WD companion, it is unlikely to be a SN Ia progenitor.

  10. Perceptions among university students in Seville (Spain of the rabbit as livestock and as a companion animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rabbit has various utilities and roles, mainly as a meat-producing animal, game species, companion animal, laboratory animal or pest. Among these roles, rabbit breeding for meat has traditionally prevailed in the Mediterranean countries. However, in recent decades the practice of keeping this species as a companion animal has been on the rise; a factor that could be changing public perception of the rabbit. A survey of 492 university students from Seville, Andalusia, Spain, was conducted to determine young people’s perceptions of the rabbit as livestock and as a companion species. The rabbit received the lowest score when regarded as livestock compared to the pig, cow, goat, sheep and hen. Regarding companion animals, young Spanish people preferred the dog and cat, respectively. The rabbit and the hamster were rated at the same level as a pet, while the budgerigar was rated lower than these two mammals by women and higher by men. The goldfish occupied the last position among the pet species in the women’s perceptions. With regard to the perception of various rabbit breeds and varieties when evaluated as pets, it was found that the pet Lop Dwarf, Netherland Dwarf, Angora and Lionhead breeds were rated higher than a typical meat breed (New Zealand White and than the wild rabbit. The gender of the young people surveyed influenced their perception of the rabbit. Women rated the rabbit lower as livestock while they rated it higher as a pet, also rating the pet rabbit breeds higher than men did. It is proposed that, in keeping with the rabbit’s attributes related to its cuteness, conceptually linked with pets, young Andalusian people’s perception of the rabbit is ambivalent and this perception might partly be shifting from perceiving it as livestock to regarding it as a pet.

  11. Direct detection of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Ben R.

    This thesis presents the first direct detection of a substellar companion of a star other than the Sun. This object, a brown dwarf called Gliese 229B, presented a unique opportunity to characterize low-temperature brown dwarfs for the first time. The discovery and initial spectrum of Gliese 229B show that the object must be substellar based on its intrinsic luminosity of 6.4×10-6Lsolar and its cool surface temperature, 900 K. Detailed study of Gliese 229B includes extensive photometric measurements from 0.5 to 12 μm, high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy from 0.84 to 5.0 μm and the detection of 0'' t; yr-1 of orbital motion. These results are presented in Chapters 2 and 3. A detailed review of brown dwarf science leads to a complete and scientifically meaningful definition of the classes ``planet'' and ``brown dwarf''' in Chapter 1. After the discovery of Gliese 229B, which was found in a survey for companions of young stars, we began an extensive search for brown dwarf companions in orbit about all known stars within 8 pc of the Sun and with δ > -35°. The search includes optical coronagraphic and infrared direct imaging of these stars, conducted on the Palomar 60' and 200' telescopes respectively. The search was designed to find companions of each star without color bias. While the search revealed no other brown dwarf companions of these stars, it did uncover 6 new stellar companions. The sensitivity limits of the survey permit the detection of brown dwarfs up to four magnitudes fainter than Gliese 229B around 90% of the stars. The sensitivity is, however, not uniform spatially or from star to star. This limits our ability to make strong statements about the prevalence of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars. The survey does have sensitivity to all stellar companions between 3 and 30' from the survey stars, however. Chapter 5 describes related work on very low-mass stars in the Pleiades star cluster. This optical spectroscopy involved trying to find a

  12. Cosmic-Lab: Optical companions to binary Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Pallanca, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond Pulsars (MSPs) are fast rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars. According to the "canonical recycling scenario", MSPs form in binary systems containing a neutron star which is spun up through mass accretion from the evolving companion. Therefore, the final stage consists of a binary made of a MSP and the core of the deeply peeled companion. In the last years, however an increasing number of systems deviating from these expectations has been discovered, thus strongly indicating that our understanding of MSPs is far to be complete. The identification of the optical companions to binary MSPs is crucial to constrain the formation and evolution of these objects. In dense environments such as Globular Clusters (GCs), it also allows us to get insights on the cluster internal dynamics. By using deep photometric data, acquired both from space and ground-based telescopes, we identified 5 new companions to MSPs. Three of them being located in GCs and two in the Galactic Field. The three new identification...

  13. Lithium in Open Cluster Red Giants Hosting Substellar Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Carlberg, Joleen K; Cunha, Katia; Carpenter, Kenneth G

    2015-01-01

    We have measured stellar parameters, [Fe/H], lithium abundances, rotation, and 12C/13C in a small sample of red giants in three open clusters that are each home to a red giant star that hosts a substellar companion (NGC2423 3, NGC4349 127, and BD+12 1917 in M67). Our goal is to explore whether the presence of substellar companions influences the Li content. Both 12C/13C and stellar rotation are measured as additional tracers of stellar mixing. One of the companion hosts, NGC2423 3, is found to be Li-rich with A(Li)_NLTE=1.56 dex, and this abundance is significantly higher than the A(Li) of the two comparison stars in NGC2423. All three substellar companion hosts have the highest A(Li) and 12C/13C when compared to the control red giants in their respective clusters; however, except for NGC2423 3, at least one control star has similarly high abundances within the uncertainties. Higher A(Li) could suggest that the formation or presence of planets plays a role in the degree of internal mixing on or before the red...

  14. Murray Pittock, ed., The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Romanticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Malzahn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Murray Pittock, ed., The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Romanticism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011. Pp. 251. ISBN 978-0-7486-3845-1 (hardback. £ 65.00. ISBN 978-0-7486-3846-8 (paperback. £ 21.99.

  15. Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Kevin J; Petersen, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States.

  16. The Role of Companion Animals throughout the Family Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wendy G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the roles that companion animals play in the lives of American families, and discusses how those roles change as families progress through the stages of the family life cycle. It highlights the importance of pets in the lives of children and the benefits they receive from such relationships. It also presents information…

  17. Towards a Sociological Understanding of Robots as Companions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oost, van Ellen; Reed, Darren; Lamers, Maarten H.; Verbeek, Fons J.

    2011-01-01

    While Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) have, in the past, primarily mediated or facilitated emotional bonding between humans, contemporary robot technologies are increasingly making the bond between human and robots the core issue. Thinking of robots as companions is not only a developm

  18. Binary sdB Stars with Massive Compact Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, S; Edelmann, H; Heber, U; Napiwotzki, R

    2008-01-01

    The masses of compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes are fundamental to astrophysics, but very difficult to measure. We present the results of an analysis of subluminous B (sdB) stars in close binary systems with unseen compact companions to derive their masses and clarify their nature. Radial velocity curves were obtained from time resolved spectroscopy. The atmospheric parameters were determined in a quantitative spectral analysis. Based on high resolution spectra we were able to measure the projected rotational velocity of the stars with high accuracy. In the distribution of projected rotational velocities signs of tidal locking with the companions are visible. By detecting ellipsoidal variations in the lightcurve of an sdB binary we were able to show that subdwarf binaries with orbital periods up to 0.6 d are most likely synchronized. In this case, the inclination angles and companion masses of the binaries can be tightly constrained. Five invisible companions have masses that ar...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3506-1 - Companion sitting placement services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the employee-employer relationship when, under §§ 31.3121(d)-1 and 31.3121(d)-2, that relationship... companion sitting placement service, this section has no effect upon that employee-employer relationship. (e.... Issues such as hours of work, amount of payment, and the method by which the services are performed...

  20. Statistical analysis of bound companions in the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelin, Martin; Binggeli, Bruno

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The rich and nearby Coma cluster of galaxies is known to have substructure. We aim to create a more detailed picture of this substructure by searching directly for bound companions around individual giant members. Methods: We have used two catalogs of Coma galaxies, one covering the cluster core for a detailed morphological analysis, another covering the outskirts. The separation limit between possible companions (secondaries) and giants (primaries) is chosen as MB = -19 and MR = -20, respectively for the two catalogs. We have created pseudo-clusters by shuffling positions or velocities of the primaries and search for significant over-densities of possible companions around giants by comparison with the data. This method was developed and applied first to the Virgo cluster. In a second approach we introduced a modified nearest neighbor analysis using several interaction parameters for all galaxies. Results: We find evidence for some excesses due to possible companions for both catalogs. Satellites are typically found among the faintest dwarfs (MB type giants (spirals) in the outskirts, which is expected in an infall scenario of cluster evolution. A rough estimate for an upper limit of bound galaxies within Coma is 2-4%, to be compared with 7% for Virgo. Conclusions: The results agree well with the expected low frequency of bound companions in a regular cluster such as Coma. To exploit the data more fully and reach more detailed insights into the physics of cluster evolution we suggest applying the method also to model clusters created by N-body simulations for comparison.

  1. Leishmaniosis of companion animals in Europe: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia

    2015-02-28

    Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne zoonotic disease endemic in southern Europe, but which is spreading northwards. Millions of dogs, cats and other non-conventional companion animals susceptible to L. infantum, living in European households, may develop a severe disease and contribute to the spread of leishmaniosis because of travelling or re-homing. Dogs are the main reservoir but other new reservoirs have recently been incriminated. Sand flies remain the sole proven vector and non-vectorial transmission has been reported at individual level and in areas where the vector is absent. Clinical disease affects only a proportion of infected dogs and a complex genetic background of immune response is responsible for this susceptibility. There is a wide range of serological and parasitological diagnostic tools available whose cost-effective use depends on a reasoned approach. Clinical response to treatment of sick dogs is variable. Clinical cure is often obtained but clinical recurrence can occur and post-therapy follow up should be maintained life-long. In Europe, vaccination can be combined with individual protection with pyrethroids as part of an integrated approach to prevention. L. infantum is the only species isolated from cats in Europe and xenodiagnosis substantiated that infected cats are infectious for sand flies. Feline infection may be frequent in endemic areas, but prevalence is generally lower than in dogs. When cats are tested by both serological and molecular techniques discordant results are often observed. Feline cases have been reported from endemic areas in Italy, France, Spain and Portugal, but four cases were also diagnosed in Switzerland in cats that had travelled to or been imported from Spain. Half of the cases were diagnosed in cats with impaired immune responses. Clinical manifestations compatible with feline leishmaniosis include lymph node enlargement, skin and mucocutaneous lesions, ocular lesions, chronic

  2. Effects of a calm companion on fear reactions in naive test horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2008-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: In fear-eliciting situations, horses tend to show flight reactions that can be dangerous for both horse and man. Finding appropriate methods for reducing fearfulness in horses has important practical implications. Objectives: To investigate whether the presence...... of a calm companion horse influences fear reactions in naive subject horses. Hypotheses: The presence of a habituated (calm) companion horse in a fear-eliciting situation can reduce fear reactions in naive subject horses, compared to subject horses with a nonhabituated companion (control). Methods......: Minimally handled (n = 36), 2-year-old stallions were used, 18 as subjects and 18 as companions. Companion horses (n = 9) were habituated to an otherwise frightening, standardised test stimulus (calm companions), whereas the rest (n = 9) of the companion horses remained nonhabituated (control companions...

  3. The role of companions in aiding older cancer patients to recall medical information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates information recall in unaccompanied and accompanied older cancer patients and their companions.Methods: One hundred cancer patients (aged >/=65 years) and 71 companions completed a recall questionnaire after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment.

  4. 45 CFR 2551.46 - What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provide supportive service without injury to themselves or the clients served. (e) Meals and recognition...) Leadership incentive. Senior Companions who serve as volunteer leaders, assisting new Senior Companions or...

  5. LOW-MASS TERTIARY COMPANIONS TO SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES. I. COMMON PROPER MOTION SURVEY FOR WIDE COMPANIONS USING 2MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Peter R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 3003, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy, E-mail: peter.allen@fandm.edu [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We report the first results of a multi-epoch search for wide (separations greater than a few tens of AU), low-mass tertiary companions of a volume-limited sample of 118 known spectroscopic binaries within 30 pc of the Sun, using the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog and follow-up observations with the KPNO and CTIO 4 m telescopes. Note that this sample is not volume complete but volume limited, and, thus, there is incompleteness in our reported companion rates. We are sensitive to common proper motion companions with separations from roughly 200 AU to 10,000 AU ({approx}10'' {yields} {approx} 10'). From 77 sources followed-up to date, we recover 11 previously known tertiaries, 3 previously known candidate tertiaries, of which 2 are spectroscopically confirmed and 1 rejected, and 3 new candidates, of which 2 are confirmed and 1 rejected. This yields an estimated wide tertiary fraction of 19.5{sup +5.2}{sub -3.7}%. This observed fraction is consistent with predictions set out in star formation simulations where the fraction of wide, low-mass companions to spectroscopic binaries is >10%.

  6. Imprints of the ejecta-companion interaction in Type Ia supernovae: main-sequence, subgiant, and red giant companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehner, P.; Plewa, T.; Langer, N.

    2017-02-01

    We study supernova ejecta-companion interactions in a sample of realistic semidetached binary systems representative of Type Ia supernova progenitor binaries in a single-degenerate scenario. We model the interaction process with the help of a high-resolution hydrodynamic code assuming cylindrical symmetry. We find that the ejecta hole has a half-opening angle of 40-50° with the density by a factor of 2-4 lower, in good agreement with the previous studies. Quantitative differences from the past results in the amounts and kinematics of the stripped companion material and levels of contamination of the companion with the ejecta material can be explained by different model assumptions and effects due to numerical diffusion. We analyse and, for the first time, provide simulation-based estimates of the amounts and of the thermal characteristics of the shock-heated material responsible for producing a prompt, soft X-ray emission. Besides the shocked ejecta material, considered in the original model by Kasen, we also account for the stripped, shock-heated envelope material of stellar companions, which we predict partially contributes to the prompt emission. The amount of the energy deposited in the envelope is comparable to the energy stored in the ejecta. The total energy budget available for the prompt emission is by a factor of about 2-4 smaller than originally predicted by Kasen. Although the shocked envelope has a higher characteristic temperature than the shocked ejecta, the temperature estimates of the shocked material are in good agreement with the Kasen's model. The hottest shocked plasma is produced in the subgiant companion case.

  7. Social Work Practitioners and the Human-Companion Animal Bond: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U. S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social…

  8. Encouraging Student Reflection and Articulation Using a Learning Companion: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Bradley; Linton, Frank; Gaimari, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Our 1998 paper "Encouraging Student Reflection and Articulation using a Learning Companion" (Goodman et al. 1998) was a stepping stone in the progression of learning companions for intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). A simulated learning companion, acting as a peer in an intelligent tutoring environment ensures the availability of a…

  9. Taian Companion Machinery Co.,Ltd:Seize Opportunities Relying on Self-Intellectual Innovatio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherry Liu

    2011-01-01

    Since its first participation of ShanghaiTex 2011 last year,Companion Machinery Co.,Ltd hasmade an important step,"letting theworld know Companion Machinery,and making Companion Machinery go outside" by upholding concepts of "Being friends, partners and collaborators".

  10. Hunting for Optical Companions to Binary Msps in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    Here we present a proposal which exploits the re-newed potential of HST after the Service Mission 4 for probing the population of binary Millisecond Pulsars {MSPs} in Globular Clusters. In particular we intend to: {1} extend the search for optical counterparts in Terzan 5, by pushing the performance of the WFC3 IR channel to sample the entire MS extension down to M=0.1 Mo; {2} perform a deep multi-band search of MSP companions with the WFC3, in 3 clusters {namely NGC6440, M28 and M5}, where recent radio observations have found particularly interesting objects; {3} derive an accurate radial velocity {with STIS} of the puzzling optical companion COM6266B recently discovered by our group, to firmly assess its cluster membership.This program is the result of a large collaboration among the three major groups {lead by Freire, Ransom and Possenti} which are performing extensive MSP search in GCs in the radio bands, and our group which has a large experience in performing accurate stellar photometry in crowded environments. This collaboration has produced a number of outstanding discoveries. In fact, three of the 6 optical counterparts to binary MSP companions known to date in GCs have been discovered by our group. The observations here proposed would easily double/triple the existing sample of known MSP companions, allowing the first meaningful approach to the study of the formation, evolution and recycling process of pulsar in GCs. Moreover, since most of binary MSPs in GCs are thought to form via stellar interactions in the high density core regions, the determination of the nature of the companion and the incidence of this collisionally induced population has a significant impact on our knowledge of the cluster dynamics. Even more interesting, the study of the optical companions to NSs in GCs allows one to derive tighter constraints {than those obtainable for NS binaries in the Galactic field} on the system properties. This has, in turn, an intrisic importance for

  11. Towards a Sociological Understanding of Robots as Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oost, Ellen; Reed, Darren

    While Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) have, in the past, primarily mediated or facilitated emotional bonding between humans, contemporary robot technologies are increasingly making the bond between human and robots the core issue. Thinking of robots as companions is not only a development that opens up huge potential for new applications, it also raises social and ethical issues. In this paper we will argue that current conceptions of human-robot companionship are primarily rooted in cognitive psychological traditions and provide important, yet limited understanding of the companion relationship. Elaborating on a sociological perspective on the appropriation of new technology, we will argue for a richer understanding of companionship that takes the situatedness (in location, network and time) of the use-context into account.

  12. Psychometric Properties and Structures of Passionate and Companionate Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Karandashev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After many decades of romantic relationship research, there is a new focus on a multidimensional model of love. This empirical study examines the multidimensionality and psychometrics of Passionate and Companionate love, based on an extensive study of 413 participants using Multidimensional Love Scale (MLS. A new statistical approach employed in this study explores the typology and structure of love. The statistical approach included the combination of Two-Step Cluster Analysis of cases and Principle Component Analysis of dimensions while using centered variable scores. The results reveal a typology of love based on its multidimensional structure. Further analysis revealed two main types of love: Passionate and Companionate, both containing several factors allowing for interpretation of their multidimensional structures. The MLS subscales and detailed psychometric analysis measuring specific love dimensions are incorporated to allow further research in other studies.

  13. Development and validating an educational booklet for childbirth companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Mara Rocha Teles

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The article describes the steps in producing and validating an educational booklet for childbirth companions. Method Methodological study conducted in 2011 consisting of the following steps: situational assessment; establishing brochure content; content selection and referencing; drafting the text; design of illustrations; layout; consultation of specialists; consultation of target audience; amendments; proofreading; evaluation using the Flesch Reading Ease Formula. The topics portrayed the sequence of events involving support from gestation to the postpartum period. Results The concordance rate among companions was greater than or equal to 81.8% for the topics organisation, writing style, presentation and motives. The overall Content Validity Index of the booklet was 0.94. The booklet was classified as easy reading or very easy reading according to the results of the Flesch Reading Ease Formula. Conclusion The presentation and content of the manual were validated for use with the target audience by the specialists and representatives of the target audience.

  14. Academic probation and companioning: Three perspectives on experience and support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Arcand *

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explored the process of academic companioning as experienced by five undergraduate probationary students and as supported by two professional resource persons. Data was collected through multiple in-depth interviews and analyzed using a threedimensional narrative inquiry space, which provided a fitting framework for a thematic narrative analysis. A document analysis was also used to determine how the conceptual foundation of the academic companioning program aligned with the students’ experience. Our analysis suggests congruence between the multiple sources of data examined. Key findings shed light on the nature of the companion’s role defined by a specific form of guidance and attendance to students’ self-confidence. Findings also illustrate how the program’s structure caters to students experience by facilitating an acknowledgement their own needs, helping them better understand the university context, and offering personal support.

  15. Detection of a Hot Binary Companion of $\\eta$ Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Iping, R C; Gull, T R; Massa, D L; Hillier, D J; Iping, Rosina C.; Sonneborn, George; Gull, Theodore R.; Massa, Derck L.

    2005-01-01

    We report the detection of a hot companion of $\\eta$ Carinae using high resolution spectra (905 - 1180 \\AA) obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (\\fuse) satellite. Observations were obtained at two epochs of the 2024-day orbit: 2003 June during ingress to the 2003.5 X-ray eclipse and 2004 April several months after egress. These data show that essentially all the far-UV flux from \\etacar shortward of \\lya disappeared at least two days before the start of the X-ray eclipse (2003 June 29), implying that the hot companion, \\etaB, was also eclipsed by the dense wind or extended atmosphere of \\etaA. Analysis of the far-UV spectrum shows that \\etaB is a luminous hot star. The \

  16. Period After The Role of Ignorant Companions Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Nedim Yektar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  Companions changed the bad aspects in the poetry of ignorance era.  Therefore, they are not totally opposed to the poetry. Poems were evaluated in accordance with the meaning of the words in them. They didn’t read the poems in which bad words were found and didn’t let them to be read. Companions who had engaged with poetry before being Muslims, used that for jihad or for different charities in Islam. During the allegiance to the Prophet in front of him, during the war, during the request for assistance and in sadness, did they read poems without saying any words which mean ‘sin’.

  17. An Interactive Web-based Environment using Human Companion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Bouhadada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the architecture of an Interactive Learning Environment (ILE on internet using companions, one of which is a human and geographically distant from the learning site. The achieved system rests on a 3-tier customer/server architecture (customer, web server, data and applications server where human and software actors can communicate via the internet and use the DTL learning strategy. It contains five main actors: a tutor actor in charge to guide the learner; a system actor whose role is to manage and to control the accesses to the system; a teacher actor in charge of the management and the updating of the different bases; a learner actor who represents the main actor of the system for whom is dedicated the teaching. Also, a learning companion actor whose role can be sometimes as an assistant, and other times as a troublemaker.

  18. Implementation of a companion diagnostic in the clinical laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, Irene; Pinzani, Pamela; Simi, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    A companion diagnostic test provides information that is essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding therapeutic product as indicated in the drug instructions. The implementation of a companion diagnostic follows the rules of a molecular test for somatic mutations in a routine...... of mutation under study, the sample to be assayed and its preparation procedure. In addition, the results of a molecular assay require a complex interpretation process of the analytical data as the patient's genotype, the translation of the identified variant into a predicted phenotype and knowledge......, as an example, the BRAF genotype analysis in tumor tissue samples for identification of melanoma patients that can benefit treatment with BRAF inhibitors. The manuscript is focused on the following aspects: i) medical rationale, ii) methodologies of analysis, iii) laboratory performance evaluation and iv...

  19. Brown dwarfs as close companions to white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bodenheimer, Peter; Black, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of the radiation flux emitted by a white dwarf primary on the evolution of a closely orbiting brown dwarf (BD) companion is investigated. Full stellar evolutionary calculations are presented for both isolated and thermal bath cases, including effects of large variations in the atmospheric grain opacities. High grain opacities significantly increase the radii of the BDs, but the thermal bath does not. The major influence of the thermal bath is to increase substantially the surface temperature and luminosity of the BD at a given age. These results are compared with the observational properties of the possible BD companion of the white dwarf G29-38. Inclusion of both physical effects, high grain opacities and thermal bath, increases the mass range (0.034-0.063 solar masses) of viable models significantly, yet the final determination of whether the object is indeed a BD requires improvements in the observations of the system's properties.

  20. Storytelling with robots: Learning companions for preschool children's language development

    OpenAIRE

    Kory, Jacqueline Marie; Breazeal, Cynthia Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Children's oral language skills in preschool can predict their academic success later in life. As such, increasing children's skills early on could improve their success in middle and high school. To this end, we propose that a robotic learning companion could supplement children's early language education. The robot targets both the social nature of language learning and the adaptation necessary to help individual children. The robot is designed as a social character that interacts with chil...

  1. Pathology of the exotic companion mammal gastrointestinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavill, Drury

    2014-05-01

    A variety of disease agents can affect the gastrointestinal tract of the exotic companion mammal, some of which can pose zoonotic health concerns. Many conditions present with nonspecific clinical signs (lethargy, variable degrees of diarrhea, and for most sick rodents, presenting hunched with spiky fur), necessitating additional laboratory testing to reach a diagnosis. Primary tumors of the digestive tract are also presented as well as miscellaneous conditions ranging from toxins to trauma.

  2. Vegetarian versus Meat-Based Diets for Companion Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Andrew; Leitsberger, Madelaine

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Many owners of companion animals are interested in vegetarian diets for their animals, as concerns increase about the consequences of animal farming, for health, animal welfare, and the environment. However, are vegetarian diets for cats and dogs nutritionally balanced and healthy? This article comprehensively reviews the evidence published to date from four studies that have examined the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets for cats and dogs. To obtain additional informati...

  3. Companion diagnostics-a tool to improve pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst; Hersom, Maria

    2016-12-01

    The variability of pharmacotherapy can be of a significant magnitude, and the main reason for this is often diseases heterogeneity. Patients who have similar diagnoses very often respond differently to the same pharmacological intervention, with great variability in both efficacy and safety outcome. Despite having discussed personalized medicine for more than a decade, we still see that most drug prescriptions for severe chronic diseases are largely based on 'trial and error' and not on solid biomarker data. However, with the advance of molecular diagnostics and a subsequent increased understanding of disease mechanisms, things are slowly changing. Within the last few years, we have seen an increasing number of predictive biomarker assays being developed to guide the use of targeted cancer drugs. This type of assay is called companion diagnostics and is developed in parallel to the drug using the drug-diagnostic co-development model. The development of companion diagnostics is a relatively new discipline and in this review, different aspects will be discussed including clinical and regulatory issues. Furthermore, examples of drugs, such as the ALK and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, that have been approved recently together with a companion or complimentary diagnostic will be given.

  4. [Optimal Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis with Companion Diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shunichi

    2015-11-01

    The medical strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has markedly advanced in recent years. The introduction of biologics in addition to methotrexate, an anchor drug, has made it possible to not only suppress pain and inflammation (clinical remission), but also inhibit joint destruction (structural remission), leading to cure from the disease. Since the condition and pathology are heterogeneous among individual patients, optimal treatment for each patient based on the use of companion diagnostics is desired (precision medicine). ACPA is important to diagnose RA, but also to assess the prognosis. ACPA is also a part of companion diagnostics for preclinical RA because it has been found to be positive before the onset. Treatment should be performed under consideration of the disease state such as activity, prognosis regarding joint destruction, and complications. It is also important to clarify the patient characteristics, such as responsiveness to the drugs and risk of adverse effects. Biomarkers, such as proteomics and pharmacogenomics, have been reported as companion diagnostics for optimal treatment of RA. RA is a multifactorial disorder with clinically heterogeneous features. Gene-environment interaction is closely involved in the production of ACPA, and then secondary stimuli to joints may lead to symptoms of RA. Joint injury, emotional stress, and infections often trigger the onset of RA. It is possible to cure RA, achieving complete remission, by early aggressive treatment and returning to the pre-clinical state with environmental improvement. [Review

  5. Medical learning in a private hospital: patients' and companions' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur de Carvalho Jatobá e Sousa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Contact with patients has important implications for medical students' education. Previous studies have shown that patients in teaching hospitals have positive views about medical education. The aim here was to assess the acceptability of medical education among patients and their companions in a non-teaching private hospital that is planning to implement a medical teaching program in the near future. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a 200-bed tertiary-care private hospital in Brasília. METHODS: Between March and April 2005, patients and their companions in three different sections of the hospital (intensive care unit, ward and emergency waiting room were surveyed using a questionnaire. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 209 volunteers. The majority of the volunteers (178; 85% said that they would allow a student to be present during consultations. Of these, 102 (57% said that they would like to have a student present. Acceptance of the presence of students was higher among males (males 93%; females 81%; P = 0.026. Intensive care unit respondents said that they would like medical students to be present more frequently than the other two groups said this (ward 48%; emergency room 49%; intensive care unit 74%; P = 0.011. CONCLUSIONS: Not only were medical students well accepted but also their presence during consultations was desired by many patients and their companions. These findings may be of great value for plans to implement medical teaching programs in private hospitals.

  6. Binary Formation Mechanisms: Constraints from the Companion Mass Ratio Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Reggiani, Maddalena M

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical comparison of the mass ratio distribution of companions, as observed in different multiplicity surveys, to the most recent estimate of the single object mass function (Bochanski et al. 2010). The main goal of our analysis is to test whether or not the observed companion mass ratio distribution (CMRD) as a function of primary star mass and star formation environment is consistent with having been drawn from the field star IMF. We consider samples of companions for M dwarfs, solar type and intermediate mass stars, both in the field as well as clusters or associations, and compare them with populations of binaries generated by random pairing from the assumed IMF for a fixed primary mass. With regard to the field we can reject the hypothesis that the CMRD was drawn from the IMF for different primary mass ranges: the observed CMRDs show a larger number of equal-mass systems than predicted by the IMF. This is in agreement with fragmentation theories of binary formation. For the open cluster...

  7. Ultraviolet emission from main-sequence companions of AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of known binary Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are symbiotic systems (i.e. with a WD as a secondary star), main-sequence companions of AGB stars can be more numerous, even though they are more difficult to find because the primary high luminosity hampers the detection of the companion at visual wavelengths. However, in the ultraviolet the flux emitted by a secondary with T eff > 5500 ~ 6000 K may prevail over that of the primary, and then it can be used to search for candidates to binary AGB stars. In this work, theoretical atmosphere models are used to calculate the UV excess in the GALEX near- and far-UV bands due to a main-sequence companion. After analysing a sample of confirmed binary AGB stars, we propose as a criterium for binarity: (1) the detection of the AGB star in the GALEX far-UV band and/or (2) a GALEX near-UV observed-to-predicted flux ratio > 20. These criteria have been applied to a volume-limited sample of AGB stars within 500 pc of the Sun; 34 out of the sample of...

  8. A Be-type star with a black hole companion

    CERN Document Server

    Casares, J; Ribo, M; Ribas, I; Paredes, J M; Herrero, A; Simon-Diaz, S

    2014-01-01

    Stellar-mass black holes have all been discovered through X-ray emission, which arises from the accretion of gas from their binary companions (this gas is either stripped from low-mass stars or supplied as winds from massive ones). Binary evolution models also predict the existence of black holes accreting from the equatorial envelope of rapidly spinning Be-type stars (stars of the Be type are hot blue irregular variables showing characteristic spectral emission lines of hydrogen). Of the ~80 Be X-ray binaries known in the Galaxy, however, only pulsating neutron stars have been found as companions. A black hole was formally allowed as a solution for the companion to the Be star MWC 656 (also known as HD 215227), although that was based on a single radial velocity curve of the Be star, a mistaken spectral classification and rough estimates of the inclination angle. Here we report observations of an accretion disk line mirroring the orbit of the Be star. This, together with an improved radial velocity curve of ...

  9. Vegetarian versus Meat-Based Diets for Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew; Leitsberger, Madelaine

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Many owners of companion animals are interested in vegetarian diets for their animals, as concerns increase about the consequences of animal farming, for health, animal welfare, and the environment. However, are vegetarian diets for cats and dogs nutritionally balanced and healthy? This article comprehensively reviews the evidence published to date from four studies that have examined the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets for cats and dogs. To obtain additional information, we surveyed 12 pet food companies detailed in the most recent study. We also examined the nutritional soundness of meat-based companion-animal diets, and reviewed the evidence concerning the health status of vegetarian, carnivorous and omnivorous companion animals. Both cats and dogs may thrive on vegetarian diets, but these must be nutritionally complete and reasonably balanced. Owners should also regularly monitor urinary acidity, and should correct urinary alkalinisation through appropriate dietary additives, if necessary. Abstract Companion animal owners are increasingly concerned about the links between degenerative health conditions, farm animal welfare problems, environmental degradation, fertilizers and herbicides, climate change, and causative factors; such as animal farming and the consumption of animal products. Accordingly, many owners are increasingly interested in vegetarian diets for themselves and their companion animals. However, are vegetarian canine and feline diets nutritious and safe? Four studies assessing the nutritional soundness of these diets were reviewed, and manufacturer responses to the most recent studies are provided. Additional reviewed studies examined the nutritional soundness of commercial meat-based diets and the health status of cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian and meat-based diets. Problems with all of these dietary choices have been documented, including nutritional inadequacies and health problems. However, a significant and

  10. Evidence for functional heterogeneity of sieve element-companion cell complexes in minor vein phloem of Alonsoa meridionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V; Rudashevskaya, Elena L; Demchenko, Kirill N; Pakhomova, Marina V; Batashev, Denis R; Gamalei, Yuri V; Lohaus, Gertrud; Pawlowski, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    Two modes of phloem loading have been proposed, apoplastic and symplastic, depending on the structure of sieve element-companion cell complexes (SE-CCCs) in minor vein phloem. Species are usually classified as either apoplastic or symplastic loaders although the cytology of SE-CCCs in minor veins of the majority of plants indicates that both mechanisms can be simultaneously involved in phloem loading. The functions of structurally different SE-CCCs in minor veins of the stachyose-translocating plant Alonsoa meridionalis were examined. A stachyose synthase gene, AmSTS1, was expressed in intermediary cells but not in the ordinary companion cell of the same vein. In contrast, sucrose transporter AmSUT1 protein was present in ordinary companion cells but not in the neighbouring intermediary cells. These data reveal the principles of phloem sap formation in A. meridionalis and, probably, in many other dicots. The two types of SE-CCCs within one and the same minor vein load different carbohydrates, using contrasting mechanisms for their delivery into the phloem. Lateral sieve pores in the minor vein phloem lead to mixing of the carbohydrates soon after loading. While symplastic and apoplastic pathways can function simultaneously during phloem loading, they are separated at the level of different SE-CCCs combined in phloem endings.

  11. Grief and Bereavement Issues and the Loss of a Companion Animal: People Living with a Companion Animal, Owners of Livestock, and Animal Support Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Companion animals play various roles in people's lives and these roles can impact on loss, grief, bereavement and mourning when the animal has been lost, whether that is through death, when missing, or when relinquished. This paper considers not only companion animal owners, but also those who own farm animals and those who work in animal service…

  12. FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. III. AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskorz, Danielle; Knutson, Heather A.; Ngo, Henry; Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Muirhead, Philip S. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom); Morton, Timothy D., E-mail: dpiskorz@gps.caltech.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of nearby field stars indicate that stellar binaries are common, yet little is known about the effects that these companions may have on planet formation and evolution. The Friends of Hot Jupiters project uses three complementary techniques to search for stellar companions to known planet-hosting stars: radial velocity monitoring, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, we examine high-resolution K band infrared spectra of fifty stars hosting gas giant planets on short-period orbits. We use spectral fitting to search for blended lines due to the presence of cool stellar companions in the spectra of our target stars, where we are sensitive to companions with temperatures between 3500 and 5000 K and projected separations less than 100 AU in most systems. We identify eight systems with candidate low-mass companions, including one companion that was independently detected in our AO imaging survey. For systems with radial velocity accelerations, a spectroscopic non-detection rules out scenarios involving a stellar companion in a high inclination orbit. We use these data to place an upper limit on the stellar binary fraction at small projected separations, and show that the observed population of candidate companions is consistent with that of field stars and also with the population of wide-separation companions detected in our previous AO survey. We find no evidence that spectroscopic stellar companions are preferentially located in systems with short-period gas giant planets on eccentric and/or misaligned orbits.

  13. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents.

  14. Concise Review: Stem Cell Trials Using Companion Animal Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Andrew M; Dow, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of stem cells in humans would benefit from more realistic animal models. In veterinary medicine, companion animals naturally develop many diseases that resemble human conditions, therefore, representing a novel source of preclinical models. To understand how companion animal disease models are being studied for this purpose, we reviewed the literature between 2008 and 2015 for reports on stem cell therapies in dogs and cats, excluding laboratory animals, induced disease models, cancer, and case reports. Disease models included osteoarthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's fistulas, meningoencephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis-like), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Sjogren's syndrome-like), atopic dermatitis, and chronic (end-stage) kidney disease. Stem cells evaluated in these studies included mesenchymal stem-stromal cells (MSC, 17/19 trials), olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC, 1 trial), or neural lineage cells derived from bone marrow MSC (1 trial), and 16/19 studies were performed in dogs. The MSC studies (13/17) used adipose tissue-derived MSC from either allogeneic (8/13) or autologous (5/13) sources. The majority of studies were open label, uncontrolled studies. Endpoints and protocols were feasible, and the stem cell therapies were reportedly safe and elicited beneficial patient responses in all but two of the trials. In conclusion, companion animals with naturally occurring diseases analogous to human conditions can be recruited into clinical trials and provide realistic insight into feasibility, safety, and biologic activity of novel stem cell therapies. However, improvements in the rigor of manufacturing, study design, and regulatory compliance will be needed to better utilize these models. Stem Cells 2016;34:1709-1729. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  15. ASSERT FY16 Analysis of Feedstock Companion Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nguyen, Thuy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nair, Shyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hess, J. Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Meeting Co-Optima biofuel production targets will require large quantities of mobilized biomass feedstock. Mobilization is of key importance as there is an abundance of biomass resources, yet little is available for purchase, let alone at desired quantity and quality levels needed for a continuous operation, e.g., a biorefinery. Therefore Co-Optima research includes outlining a path towards feedstock production at scale by understanding routes to mobilizing large quantities of biomass feedstock. Continuing along the vertically-integrated path that pioneer cellulosic biorefineries have taken will constrain the bioenergy industry to high biomass yield areas, limiting its ability to reach biofuel production at scale. To advance the cellulosic biofuels industry, a separation between feedstock supply and conversion is necessary. Thus, in contrast to the vertically integrated supply chain, two industries are required: a feedstock industry and a conversion industry. The split is beneficial for growers and feedstock processers as they are able to sell into multiple markets. That is, depots that produce value-add feedstock intermediates that are fully fungible in both the biofuels refining and other, so-called companion markets. As the biofuel industry is currently too small to leverage significant investment in up-stream infrastructure build-up, it requires an established (companion) market to secure demand, which de-risks potential investments and makes a build-up of processing and other logistics infrastructure more likely. A common concern to this theory however is that more demand by other markets could present a disadvantage for biofuels production as resource competition may increase prices leading to reduced availability of low-cost feedstock for biorefineries. To analyze the dynamics across multiple markets vying for the same resources, particularly the potential effects on resource price and distribution, the Companion Market Model (CMM) has been developed in this

  16. Physical rehabilitation after total joint arthroplasty in companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Doyle, Nancy D; Pyke, Joanna Freeman

    2015-01-01

    Patients who have total joint arthroplasty have varying needs related to rehabilitation. In the short term, rehabilitation should be used in all dogs to identify high-risk patients and to minimize the likelihood of postoperative complications. Many patients undergoing total hip replacement recover uneventfully without needing long-term physiotherapy. All patients undergoing total knee replacement and total elbow replacement need rehabilitation to restore limb use and maximize their functional recovery. This article presents rehabilitation considerations for companion animals undergoing total hip replacement, total knee replacement, and total elbow replacement; postoperative complications and how to mitigate risks; and anticipated patient outcomes.

  17. Douglas Gray et al., ed. The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen MORRISON

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Students and other readers of English medieval literature might well be forgiven for doubting the usefulness of yet another guide to the life and works of Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340-1400, around whom a veritable publishing industry has developed in the course of the last few decades. In the case of the Oxford Companion, expertly edited by Professor Douglas Gray of Oxford University, such doubts are misplaced: students and teachers alike will derive great profit and pleasure from this compact,...

  18. Model Companions of T_\\sigma for stable T

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, John; Shelah, Saharon

    2001-01-01

    Let T be a complete first order theory in a countable relational language L . We assume relation symbols have been added to make each formula equivalent to a predicate. Adjoin a new unary function symbol sigma to obtain the language L_sigma; T_sigma is obtained by adding axioms asserting that sigma is an L-automorphism. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for T_sigma to have a model companion when T is stable. Namely, we introduce a new condition: T_sigma admits obstructions, and s...

  19. Is there an isovector companion of the X(2175)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquera-Araujo, C.A., E-mail: vaquera@fisica.ugto.m [Departamento de Fisica, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Lomas del Bosque 103, Fraccionamiento Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Napsuciale, M., E-mail: mauro@fisica.ugto.m [Departamento de Fisica, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Lomas del Bosque 103, Fraccionamiento Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2009-11-16

    In this Letter we study the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -}->phipi{sup 0}eta with the pi{sup 0}eta system in an isoscalar s-wave configuration. We use a formalism recently developed for the study of e{sup +}e{sup -}->phipipi and e{sup +}e{sup -}->phiK{sup +}K{sup -}. The obtained cross section is within the reach of present e{sup +}e{sup -} machines. Measuring this channel would test the absence of an isovector companion of the X(2175) as predicted by the three body approach to this resonance.

  20. Tearing up a misaligned accretion disc with a binary companion

    CERN Document Server

    Doğan, Suzan; King, Andrew; Price, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. We calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. We run hydrodynamical simulations to check these results, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and generally enhances accretion on to the central object. This applies in many cases of astrophysical accretion, e.g. supermassive black hole binaries and X--ray binaries.

  1. Individual differences in children's private speech: the role of imaginary companions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paige E; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2013-11-01

    Relations between children's imaginary companion status and their engagement in private speech during free play were investigated in a socially diverse sample of 5-year-olds (N=148). Controlling for socioeconomic status, receptive verbal ability, total number of utterances, and duration of observation, there was a main effect of imaginary companion status on type of private speech. Children who had imaginary companions were more likely to engage in covert private speech compared with their peers who did not have imaginary companions. These results suggest that the private speech of children with imaginary companions is more internalized than that of their peers who do not have imaginary companions and that social engagement with imaginary beings may fulfill a similar role to social engagement with real-life partners in the developmental progression of private speech. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope: Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Schaefer, Gail H; Mason, Brian D; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera~3 (WFC3) of 70 Galactic Cepheids, typically within 1~kpc, with the aim of finding resolved physical companions. The WFC3 field typically covers the 0.1 pc area where companions are expected. In this paper, we identify 39 Cepheids having candidate companions, based on their positions in color--magnitude diagrams, and having separations $\\geq$5$"$ from the Cepheids. We use follow-up observations of 14 of these candidates with XMM-Newton, and of one of them with ROSAT, to separate X-ray-active young stars (probable physical companions) from field stars (chance alignments). Our preliminary estimate, based on the optical and X-ray observations, is that only 3\\% of the Cepheids in the sample have wide companions. Our survey easily detects resolved main-sequence companions as faint as spectral type K\

  3. Stem cells and regenerative medicine in domestic and companion animals: a multispecies perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, N N; Ambrósio, C E; Piedrahita, J A

    2014-10-01

    Since their original isolation, the majority of the work on embryonic stem cells (ESC) has been carried out in mice. While the mouse is an outstanding model for basic research, it also has considerable limitations for translational work, especially in the area of regenerative medicine. This is due to a combination of factors that include physiological and size differences when compared to humans. In contrast, domestic animal species, such as swine, and companion animal species, such as dogs, provide unique opportunities to develop regenerative medicine protocols that can then be utilized in humans. Unfortunately, at present, the state of knowledge related to, and availability of, ESC from domestic animals vary among species such as pig, horse, dog and cat, and without exception lags significantly behind the mouse and human. It is clear that much still needs to be discovered. The 'stem cell-like' cell lines being reported are still not satisfactorily used in regenerative medicine, due to reasons such as heterogeneity and chromosomal instability. As a result, investigators have searched for alternate source of cells that can be used for regenerative medicine. This approach has uncovered a range of adult stem cells and adult progenitor cells that have utility in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we review a range of stem cells, from ESC to induced pluripotent stem cells, and discuss their potential application in the field of regenerative medicine.

  4. Dynamical analyses of the companions orbiting eclipsing binaries II. Z Draconis with four companions close to 6:3:2:1 mean motion resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Jinzhao; Selam, Selim O; Gümüş, Damla

    2014-01-01

    All available mid-eclipse times of the short-period eclipsing binary Z Draconis are analysed, and multiple cyclic variations are found. Based on the light-travel time model, we find three companions around Z Draconis, and one or more possible short-period companions. The derived orbital periods suggest that the three outer companions and an inner one are in a near 6:3:2:1 mean-motion resonances. The most outer companion has the minimum mass of $\\sim0.7M_{\\bigodot}$, whereas other companions are M dwarfs. We have studied the stabilities of the companions moving on a series of mutually inclined orbits. The results show that no orbital configurations can survive for 200 yr. We speculate that the instability of the system can be attributed to the uncertainties of the short-period companions, which result from the low-precision mid-eclipse times. Thus, secular CCD observations with much higher precision are needed in the future.

  5. Vegetarian versus Meat-Based Diets for Companion Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Knight

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Companion animal owners are increasingly concerned about the links between degenerative health conditions, farm animal welfare problems, environmental degradation, fertilizers and herbicides, climate change, and causative factors; such as animal farming and the consumption of animal products. Accordingly, many owners are increasingly interested in vegetarian diets for themselves and their companion animals. However, are vegetarian canine and feline diets nutritious and safe? Four studies assessing the nutritional soundness of these diets were reviewed, and manufacturer responses to the most recent studies are provided. Additional reviewed studies examined the nutritional soundness of commercial meat-based diets and the health status of cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian and meat-based diets. Problems with all of these dietary choices have been documented, including nutritional inadequacies and health problems. However, a significant and growing body of population studies and case reports have indicated that cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian diets may be healthy—including those exercising at the highest levels—and, indeed, may experience a range of health benefits. Such diets must be nutritionally complete and reasonably balanced, however, and owners should regularly monitor urinary acidity and should correct urinary alkalinisation through appropriate dietary additives, if necessary.

  6. Mid infrared observations of Van Maanen 2: no substellar companion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farihi, J; Becklin, E; Macintosh, B

    2004-11-03

    The results of a comprehensive infrared imaging search for the putative 0.06 M{sub {circle_dot}} astrometric companion to the 4.4 pc white dwarf van Mannen 2 are reported. Adaptive optics images acquired at 3.8 {micro}m reveal a diffraction limited core of 0.09 inch and no direct evidence of a secondary. Models predict that at 5 Gyr, a 50 M{sub J} brown dwarf would be only 1 magnitude fainter than van Maanen 2 at this wavelength and the astrometric analysis suggested a separation of 0.2 inch. In the case of a chance alignment along the line of sight, a 0.4 mag excess should be measured. An independent photometric observation at the same wavelength reveals no excess. In addition, there exist published ISO observations of van Maanen 2 at 6.8 {micro}m and 15.0 {micro}m which are consistent with photospheric flux of a 6750 K white dwarf. If recent brown dwarf models are correct, there is no substellar companion with T{sub eff} {approx}> 500 K.

  7. Vegetarian versus Meat-Based Diets for Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew; Leitsberger, Madelaine

    2016-09-21

    Companion animal owners are increasingly concerned about the links between degenerative health conditions, farm animal welfare problems, environmental degradation, fertilizers and herbicides, climate change, and causative factors; such as animal farming and the consumption of animal products. Accordingly, many owners are increasingly interested in vegetarian diets for themselves and their companion animals. However, are vegetarian canine and feline diets nutritious and safe? Four studies assessing the nutritional soundness of these diets were reviewed, and manufacturer responses to the most recent studies are provided. Additional reviewed studies examined the nutritional soundness of commercial meat-based diets and the health status of cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian and meat-based diets. Problems with all of these dietary choices have been documented, including nutritional inadequacies and health problems. However, a significant and growing body of population studies and case reports have indicated that cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian diets may be healthy-including those exercising at the highest levels-and, indeed, may experience a range of health benefits. Such diets must be nutritionally complete and reasonably balanced, however, and owners should regularly monitor urinary acidity and should correct urinary alkalinisation through appropriate dietary additives, if necessary.

  8. [Cigarette as "companion": a critical gender approach to women's smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Márcia Terezinha Trotta; Simões-Barbosa, Regina Helena

    2008-12-01

    This article presents the main results of a study that examined the symbolic and material meanings of women's smoking, adopting a critical and qualitative gender approach. Semi-structured interviews were held with 14 women smokers in different stages of the smoking cessation process. The research locus was a tobacco treatment program located in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The findings showed how deeply smoking is interwoven in these women's social and gender trajectories, playing a decisive support role when they have to deal with various difficulties in life. The cigarette as a "companion" emerged as the main empirical category, as something always available to quell anxiety and loneliness, as well as a source of pleasure and relaxation. The critical gender approach evidenced how women's reproductive and productive work overload reinforces their tobacco dependency. In health care, in order to attain women smokers' adherence to the arduous cessation process, it is crucial to consider the complex relations between social and gender dimensions when cigarettes are viewed as a "companion".

  9. A puzzling millisecond pulsar companion in NGC 6266

    CERN Document Server

    Cocozza, G; Possenti, A; Beccari, G; Lanzoni, B; Ranson, S; Rood, R T; D'Amico, N

    2008-01-01

    We report on the optical identification of the companion to the eclipsing millisecond pulsar PSR J1701$-$3006B in the globular cluster NGC 6266. A relatively bright star with an anomalous red colour and an optical variability ($\\sim$ 0.2 mag) that nicely correlates with the orbital period of the pulsar ($\\sim$ 0.144 days) has been found nearly coincident with the pulsar nominal position. This star is also found to lie within the error box position of an X-ray source detected by Chandra observations, thus supporting the hypothesis that some interaction is occurring between the pulsar wind and the gas streaming off the companion. Although the shape of the optical light curve is suggestive of a tidally deformed star which has nearly completely filled its Roche lobe, the luminosity ($\\sim 1.9 L_\\odot$) and the surface temperature ($\\sim 6000$ K) of the star, deduced from the observed magnitude and colours, would imply a stellar radius significantly larger than the Roche lobe radius. Possible explanations for this...

  10. Companion diagnostics in oncology - current status and future aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst

    2013-01-01

    A large number of targeted anticancer drugs are currently under development and most of them will have a companion diagnostic linked to their use. If a diagnostic assay is developed in conjunction with a targeted anticancer drug, such an assay will later end up determining the conditions for the use of the drug after its approval. The assay then becomes a kind of 'gatekeeper' in relation to which patients should be treated with the drug in question. This 'gatekeeper' role implies that companion diagnostic assays must live up to the same regulatory standards and requirements known from drug development. The assays must have proven to be analytically robust and reliable and to have demonstrated clinical utility before they are routinely used in the clinic. In the drug-diagnostic codevelopment model, several 'traditional' study designs have been used to demonstrate clinical utility. However, if we are to benefit from the increasing knowledge provided by molecular oncology, new ways should be developed to demonstrate the clinical utility of drug-diagnostic combinations. The development of such an approach will require a rethinking at different levels and is likely to include a number of ethical, regulatory and practical challenges.

  11. Chemical abundances of stars with brown-dwarf companions

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, D Mata; Israelian, G; Santos, N C; Sahlmann, J; Udry, S

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that stars with giant planets are on average more metal-rich than stars without giant planets, whereas stars with detected low-mass planets do not need to be metal-rich. With the aim of studying the weak boundary that separates giant planets and brown dwarfs (BDs) and their formation mechanism, we analyze the spectra of a sample of stars with already confirmed BD companions both by radial velocity and astrometry. We employ standard and automatic tools to perform an EW-based analysis and to derive chemical abundances from CORALIE spectra of stars with BD companions. We compare these abundances with those of stars without detected planets and with low-mass and giant-mass planets. We find that stars with BDs do not have metallicities and chemical abundances similar to those of giant-planet hosts but they resemble the composition of stars with low-mass planets. The distribution of mean abundances of $\\alpha$-elements and iron peak elements of stars with BDs exhibit a peak at about solar abundance...

  12. Robot companions and ethics a pragmatic approach of ethical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Gérard

    2013-12-01

    From his experience as ethical expert for two Robot Companion prototype projects aiming at empowering older MCI persons to remain at home and to support their family carers, Gerard Cornet, Gerontologist, review the ethical rules, principles and pragmatic approaches in different cultures. The ethical process of these two funded projects, one European, Companionable (FP7 e-inclusion call1), the other French, Quo vadis (ANR tecsan) are described from the inclusion of the targeted end users in the process, to the assessment and ranking of their main needs and whishes to design the specifications, test the performance expected. Obstacles to turn round and limits for risks evaluation (directs or implicit), acceptability, utility, respect of intimacy and dignity, and balance with freedom and security and frontiers to artificial intelligence are discussed As quoted in the discussion with the French and Japanese experts attending the Toulouse Robotics and medicine symposium (March 26th 2011), the need of a new ethical approach, going further the present ethical rules is needed for the design and social status of ethical robots, having capacity cas factor of progress and global quality of innovation design in an ageing society.

  13. Pre-explosion companion stars in Type Iax supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Abate, Carlo; Wang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax) are proposed as one new sub-class of SNe Ia since they present sufficiently distinct observational properties from the bulk of SNe Ia. SNe Iax are the most common of all types of peculiar SNe by both number and rate, with an estimated rate of occurrence of about 5-30% of the total SN Ia rate. However, the progenitor systems of SNe Iax are still uncertain. Analyzing pre-explosion images at SN Iax positions provides a direct way to place strong constraints on the nature of progenitor systems of SNe Iax. In this work, we predict pre-explosion properties of binary companion stars in a variety of potential progenitor systems by performing detailed binary evolution calculations with the one-dimensional stellar evolution code STARS. This will be helpful for constraining progenitor systems of SNe Iax from their pre-explosion observations. With our binary evolution calculations, it is found that the non-degenerate helium (He) companion star to both a massive C/O WD (> 1.1 solar mass) and ...

  14. Planetary companions orbiting M giants HD 208527 and HD 220074

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B -C; Park, M -G

    2012-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the present study is to research the origin of planetary companions by using a precise radial velocity (RV) survey. Methods. The high-resolution spectroscopy of the fiber-fed Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO) is used from September 2008 to June 2012. Results. We report the detection of two exoplanets in orbit around HD 208527 and HD 220074 exhibiting periodic variations in RV of 875.5 +/- 5.8 and 672.1 +/- 3.7 days. The RV variations are not apparently related to the surface inhomogeneities and a Keplerian motion of the planetary companion is the most likely explanation. Assuming possible stellar masses of 1.6 +/- 0.4 and 1.2 +/- 0.3 M_Sun, we obtain the minimum masses for the exoplanets of 9.9 +/- 1.7 and 11.1 +/- 1.8 M_Jup around HD 208527 and HD 220074 with an orbital semi-major axis of 2.1 +/- 0.2 and 1.6 +/- 0.1 AU and an eccentricity of 0.08 and 0.14, respectively. We also find that the previously known spectral class...

  15. Companion animal veterinarians' use of clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, M L; Fitzgerald, J R

    2013-09-01

    To describe the communication techniques used by clients and veterinarians during companion animal visits in Australia. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 64 veterinary consultations were audiotaped and analysed with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS); clients completed appointment level measures, including their satisfaction and perceptions of relational communication. Participants were 24 veterinarians and 64 clients. Statements intended to reassure clients were expressed frequently in the consultations, but in 59% of appointments empathy statements were not expressed towards either the client or the patient. In 10% of appointments, veterinarians did not used any open-ended questions. Overall client satisfaction was high and veterinarians' expressions of empathy directed to the client resulted in higher levels of client satisfaction. Clients' perceptions of relational communication were related to several veterinarian and client nonverbal scales. A focus on developing evidence-based clinical communication skills is expected to further enhance the veterinarian-client-patient relationship and associated clinical outcomes. Particular recommendations include the development of a broader emotion-handling repertoire, increased emphasis on the use of open-ended enquiry, including assessment of the client's perspective, as well as attention to aspects of nonverbal communication. The study provides preliminary evidence for the importance of verbal expressions of empathy during the companion animal consultation. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Planetary companions around the metal-poor star HIP 11952

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, J.; Roccatagliata, V.; Fedele, D.; Henning, Th.; Pasquali, A.; Rodríguez-Ledesma, M. V.; Caffau, E.; Seemann, U.; Klement, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Aims: We carried out a radial-velocity survey to search for planets around metal-poor stars. In this paper we report the discovery of two planets around HIP 11952, a metal-poor star with [Fe/H] = -1.9 that belongs to our target sample. Methods: Radial velocity variations of HIP 11952 were monitored systematically with FEROS at the 2.2 m telescope located at the ESO La Silla observatory from August 2009 until January 2011. We used a cross-correlation technique to measure the stellar radial velocities (RV). Results: We detected a long-period RV variation of 290 d and a short-period one of 6.95 d. The spectroscopic analysis of the stellar activity reveals a stellar rotation period of 4.8 d. The Hipparcos photometry data shows intra-day variabilities, which give evidence for stellar pulsations. Based on our analysis, the observed RV variations are most likely caused by the presence of unseen planetary companions. Assuming a primary mass of 0.83 M⊙, we computed minimum planetary masses of 0.78 MJup for the inner and 2.93 MJup for the outer planet. The semi-major axes are a1 = 0.07 AU and a2 = 0.81 AU, respectively. Conclusions: HIP 11952 is one of very few stars with [Fe/H] < -1.0 which have planetary companions. This discovery is important to understand planet formation around metal-poor stars.

  17. The nature of the companion star in Circinus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Helen M; Gibson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We present optical spectra and images of the X-ray binary Circinus X-1. The optical light curve of Cir X-1 is strongly variable, changing in brightness by 1.2 magnitudes in the space of four days. The shape of the light curve is consistent with that seen in the 1980s, when the X-ray and radio counterparts of the source were at least ten times as bright as they are currently. We detect strong, variable H-alpha emission lines, consisting of multiple components which vary with orbital phase. We estimate the extinction to the source from the strength of the diffuse interstellar bands and the Balmer decrement; the two methods give A_V = 7.6 +/- 0.6 mag and A_V > 9.1 mag respectively. The optical light curve can be modelled as arising from irradiation of the companion star by the central X-ray source, where a low-temperature star fills its Roche lobe in an orbit of moderate eccentricity (e ~ 0.4). We suggest that the companion star is over-luminous and under-dense, due to the impact of the supernova which occurred ...

  18. Speckle suppression and companion detection using coherent differential imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bottom, Michael; Bartos, Randall D; Shelton, J Chris; Serabyn, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Residual speckles due to aberrations arising from optical errors after the split between the wavefront sensor and the science camera path are the most significant barriers to imaging extrasolar planets. While speckles can be suppressed using the science camera in conjunction with the deformable mirror, this requires knowledge of the phase of the electric field in the focal plane. We describe a method which combines a coronagraph with a simple phase-shifting interferometer to measure and correct speckles in the full focal plane. We demonstrate its initial use on the Stellar Double Coronagraph at the Palomar Observatory. We also describe how the same hardware can be used to distinguish speckles from true companions by measuring the coherence of the optical field in the focal plane. We present results observing the brown dwarf HD 49197b with this technique, demonstrating the ability to detect the presence of a companion even when it is buried in the speckle noise, without the use of any standard "calibration" te...

  19. Intra-Binary Shock Heating of Black Widow Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Romani, Roger W

    2016-01-01

    The low mass companions of evaporating binary pulsars (black widows and their ilk) are strongly heated on the side facing the pulsar. However in high-quality photometric and spectroscopic data the heating pattern does not match that expected for direct pulsar illumination. Here we explore heating mediated by an intra-binary shock (IBS). We develop a simple analytic model and implement it in the popular `ICARUS' light curve code. The model is parameterized by the wind momentum ratio beta and velocity v_Rel v_orb and assumes that the reprocessed pulsar wind emits prompt particles or radiation to heat the companion surface. We illustrate an interesting range of light curve asymmetries controlled by these parameters. The code also computes the IBS synchrotron emission pattern, and thus can model black widow X-ray light curves. As a test we apply the results to the high quality asymmetric optical light curves of PSR J2215+5135; the resulting fit gives a substantial improvement upon direct heating models and produc...

  20. A comparative study of partogram in normal labour with and without a constant caring companion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Rajgire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In today's world with the concept of changing childbirth, where there is a 'women centered approach', the idea of a constant caring companion has reemerged. In a busy labour ward patients may deliver safely but it may contribute to patient's dissatisfaction, as they do not feel cared for. The constant caring companion would prove an important asset to the doctor and nurses involved in the management of the women in labour. Methods: Prospective study carried out in 120 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Results: Patients with constant caring companion had significant lower percentage (13.3% of pain level as compared to those without companion. The mean satisfaction score of the patients with ccc was 90.66 whereas the score of the group without ccc was 30.33 which statistically highly significant. 42 of the patients with ccc and 39 patients without ccc opted for known female relative as constant caring companion. All woman in the study group and 97% in the control group would recommend a constant caring companion to the pregnant woman. Conclusions: Women with a constant caring companion have a more fulfilling and satisfactory experience of the labour process which cannot be said about the women without ccc. Since no negative impact was observed due to the presence of a constant caring companion, this practice may be recommended. The constant caring companion would prove an important asset to the doctor involved in the management of labouring women.

  1. A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Alborzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010.Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (3 years, sex, breed and regionResults: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57% were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hip­pobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp. were identified on 9 (7.14%, 7 (5.56%, 6 (4.76%, 3 (2.38%, 3 (2.38%, 2 (1.59%, 2 (1.59% and one (0.79% of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%. Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67 than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59, age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22 and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42, but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P>0.05.Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert

  2. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A; Meadows, Nick A; Schuh, A; Manescu, Katie E; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L; Brindley, David A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  3. RESOLVED COMPANIONS OF CEPHEIDS: TESTING THE CANDIDATES WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Ave., Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, California 91023 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M{sub ⊙}). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au.

  4. Wide cool and ultracool companions to nearby stars from Pan-STARRS 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deacon, Niall R. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Best, William M. J.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Morgan, Jeff S.; Tonry, John L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Dupuy, Trent [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mann, Andrew W. [Harlan J. Smith Fellow, Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Redstone, Joshua A. [Equatine Labs, 89 Antrim Street, #2, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Price, Paul A., E-mail: deacon@mpia.de [Princeton University Observatory, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2014-09-10

    We present the discovery of 57 wide (>5'') separation, low-mass (stellar and substellar) companions to stars in the solar neighborhood identified from Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) data and the spectral classification of 31 previously known companions. Our companions represent a selective subsample of promising candidates and span a range in spectral type of K7-L9 with the addition of one DA white dwarf. These were identified primarily from a dedicated common proper motion search around nearby stars, along with a few as serendipitous discoveries from our Pan-STARRS 1 brown dwarf search. Our discoveries include 23 new L dwarf companions and one known L dwarf not previously identified as a companion. The primary stars around which we searched for companions come from a list of bright stars with well-measured parallaxes and large proper motions from the Hipparcos catalog (8583 stars, mostly A-K dwarfs) and fainter stars from other proper motion catalogs (79170 stars, mostly M dwarfs). We examine the likelihood that our companions are chance alignments between unrelated stars and conclude that this is unlikely for the majority of the objects that we have followed-up spectroscopically. We also examine the entire population of ultracool (>M7) dwarf companions and conclude that while some are loosely bound, most are unlikely to be disrupted over the course of ∼10 Gyr. Our search increases the number of ultracool M dwarf companions wider than 300 AU by 88% and increases the number of L dwarf companions in the same separation range by 82%. Finally, we resolve our new L dwarf companion to HIP 6407 into a tight (0.''13, 7.4 AU) L1+T3 binary, making the system a hierarchical triple. Our search for these key benchmarks against which brown dwarf and exoplanet atmosphere models are tested has yielded the largest number of discoveries to date.

  5. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee eLuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid innovation in (epigenetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the United States, there are only twenty-three Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved companion diagnostics on the market for eleven unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for thirty-six hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and thirty-four non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  6. Resolved Companions of Cepheids: Testing the Candidates with X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2016-04-01

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M⊙). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).

  7. Comparative genomics analysis of the companion mechanisms of Bacillus thuringiensis Bc601 and Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 in bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-06-29

    Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus endophyticus both act as the companion bacteria, which cooperate with Ketogulonigenium vulgare in vitamin C two-step fermentation. Two Bacillus species have different morphologies, swarming motility and 2-keto-L-gulonic acid productivities when they co-culture with K. vulgare. Here, we report the complete genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis Bc601 and eight plasmids of B. endophyticus Hbe603, and carry out the comparative genomics analysis. Consequently, B. thuringiensis Bc601, with greater ability of response to the external environment, has been found more two-component system, sporulation coat and peptidoglycan biosynthesis related proteins than B. endophyticus Hbe603, and B. endophyticus Hbe603, with greater ability of nutrients biosynthesis, has been found more alpha-galactosidase, propanoate, glutathione and inositol phosphate metabolism, and amino acid degradation related proteins than B. thuringiensis Bc601. Different ability of swarming motility, response to the external environment and nutrients biosynthesis may reflect different companion mechanisms of two Bacillus species. Comparative genomic analysis of B. endophyticus and B. thuringiensis enables us to further understand the cooperative mechanism with K. vulgare, and facilitate the optimization of bacterial consortium.

  8. Mass-transfer in close binary and their companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Zhu, Liying; Li, Linjia

    2016-07-01

    Secular and/or cyclical orbital period variations of close binaries can be derived by analyzing the (O-C) diagram. The secular variations are usually explained as mass transfer between components, while the most plausible explanation of the cyclic period changes is the light-travel time effect (LTTE) through the presence of a third body. Mass transfer and additional companions in close binary systems are important for understanding the formation and evolution of the systems. Here, UV light curves of several close binaries based on the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) observations are presented and analyzed with the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) method. Then, based on those light-curve solutions and new analysis of the orbital period variations, the multiplicity, geometrical structure and evolution state of targets are discussed.

  9. Companion classroom activities for "stop faking it!" force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Never has it been so easy for educators to learn to teach physical science with confidence. Award-winning author Bill Robertson launched his bestselling Stop Faking It! series in 2002 with Force and Motion--offering elementary and middle school teachers a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching physical science with confidence. Combining easy-to-understand if irreverent explanations and quirky diagrams, Stop Faking It! Force and Motion helped thousands of teachers, parents, and homeschoolers conquer topics from Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. Now Companion Classroom Activities for Stop Faking It! Force and Motion proves an ideal supplement to the original book or a valuable resource of its own. The hands-on activities and highly readable explanations allow students to first investigate concepts, then discuss learned concepts, and finally apply the concepts to everyday situations. Robertson's wit and humor are sure to keep students and teachers entertained while they tackle topics ...

  10. Lithium in Open Cluster Red Giants Hosting Substellar Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured stellar parameters, [Fe/H], lithium abundances, rotation, and (12)C/13C in a small sample of red giants (RGs) in three open clusters that are each home to a RG star that hosts a substellar companion (SSC) (NGC 2423 3, NGC 4349 127, and BD+12 1917 in M67). Our goal is to explore whether the presence of SSCs influences the Li content. Both (12)C/13C and stellar rotation are measured as additional tracers of stellar mixing. One of the companion hosts, NGC 2423?3, is found to be Li-rich with A(Li)(sub NLTE) = 1.56 dex, and this abundance is significantly higher than the A(Li) of the two comparison stars in NGC 2423. All three SSC hosts have the highest A(Li) and (12)C/13C when compared to the control RGs in their respective clusters; however, except for NGC 2423?3, at least one control star has similarly high abundances within the uncertainties. Higher A(Li) could suggest that the formation or presence of planets plays a role in the degree of internal mixing on or before the RG branch. However, a multitude of factors affect A(Li) during the RG phase, and when the abundances of our sample are compared with the abundances of RGs in other open clusters available in the literature, we find that they all fall well within a much larger distribution of A(Li) and (12)C/13C. Thus, even the high Li in NGC 2423 3 cannot be concretely tied to the presence of the SSC.

  11. The Harpoon Security System for Helper Programs on a Pocket Companion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.; van Os, Daniel

    We present a security framework for executing foreign programs, called helpers, on a Pocket Companion: a wireless hand-held computer. A helper program as proposed in this paper is a service program that can migrate once from a server to a Pocket Companion or vice-versa. A helper program is

  12. Pallet Users State Their Preferences For Used Pallets - Companion Stringers Cited as Biggest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Ronen Roudik; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    A study recently completed by VA Tech in Blacksburg, VA, found that half companion stringers have the greatest negative impact on purchasers of used pallets, followed by split deckboards, protruding nails, and full companion stringers. Repairs using metal plates had relatively little affect on the value of the pallet. The study provides new information concerning the...

  13. Artificial companions: empathy and vulnerability mirroring in human-robot relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Under what conditions can robots become companions and what are the ethical issues that might arise in human-robot companionship relations? I argue that the possibility and future of robots as companions depends (among other things) on the robot’s capacity to be a recipient of human empathy, and tha

  14. Two Wide Planetary-Mass Companions to Solar-Type Stars in Upper Scorpius

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, Michael J; Martinache, Frantz; Law, Nicholas M; Hillenbrand, Lynne A

    2010-01-01

    At wide separations, planetary-mass and brown dwarf companions to solar type stars occupy a curious region of parameters space not obviously linked to binary star formation or solar-system scale planet formation. These companions provide insight into the extreme case of companion formation (either binary or planetary), and due to their relative ease of observation when compared to close companions, they offer a useful template for our expectations of more typical planets. We present the results from an adaptive optics imaging survey for wide (50-500 AU) companions to solar type stars in Upper Scorpius. We report one new discovery of a ~14 M_J companion around GSC 06214-00210, and confirm that the candidate planetary mass companion 1RXS J160929.1-210524 detected by Lafreniere et al (2008) is in fact co-moving with its primary star. In our survey, these two detections correspond to ~4% of solar type stars having companions in the 6-20 M_J mass and 200-500 AU separation range. This figure is higher than would be...

  15. The Harpoon Security System for Helper Programs on a Pocket Companion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerard J.M.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Os, van Daniel

    1997-01-01

    We present a security framework for executing foreign programs, called helpers, on a Pocket Companion: a wireless hand-held computer. A helper program as proposed in this paper is a service program that can migrate once from a server to a Pocket Companion or vice-versa. A helper program is convenien

  16. A Comparison of Spectroscopic versus Imaging Techniques for Detecting Close Companions to Kepler Objects of Interest

    CERN Document Server

    Teske, Johanna K; Hirsch, Lea; Furlan, Elise; Horch, Elliott P; Howell, Steve B; Ciardi, David R; Gonzales, Erica; Crepp, Justin R

    2015-01-01

    (Abbreviated) Kepler planet candidates require both spectroscopic and imaging follow-up observations to rule out false positives and detect blended stars. [...] In this paper, we examine a sample of 11 Kepler host stars with companions detected by two techniques -- near-infrared adaptive optics and/or optical speckle interferometry imaging, and a new spectroscopic deblending method. We compare the companion Teff and flux ratios (F_B/F_A, where A is the primary and B is the companion) derived from each technique, and find no cases where both companion parameters agree within 1sigma errors. In 3/11 cases the companion Teff values agree within 1sigma errors, and in 2/11 cases the companion F_B/F_A values agree within 1sigma errors. Examining each Kepler system individually considering multiple avenues (isochrone mapping, contrast curves, probability of being bound), we suggest two cases for which the techniques most likely agree in their companion detections (detect the same companion star). Overall, our results...

  17. The interaction of core-collapse supernova ejecta with a companion star

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Roepke, Friedrich K; Moriya, Takashi J; Kruckow, Matthias; Stancliffe, Richard J; Izzard, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    The progenitors of many CCSNe are expected to be in binary systems. After the SN explosion, the companion may suffer from mass stripping and be shock heated as a result of the impact of the SN ejecta. If the binary system is disrupted, the companion is ejected as a runaway or hypervelocity star. By performing a series of 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the collision of SN ejecta with the companion star, we investigate how CCSN explosions affect their companions. We use the BEC code to construct the detailed companion structure at the time of SN explosion. The impact of the SN blast wave on the companion is followed by means of 3D SPH simulations using the Stellar GADGET code. For main-sequence (MS) companions, we find that the amount of removed mass, impact velocity, and chemical contamination of the companion that results from the impact of the SN ejecta, strongly increases with decreasing binary separation and increasing explosion energy. Their relationship can be approximately fitted by power laws, which ...

  18. What is it like to be a robot? Natural empathy, artificial companions, and vulnerability mirroring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Can robots become companions, and if so, what are the necessary conditions and what are the ethical issues that might arise in human-robot companionship relations? I argue that the possibility and future of robots as companions depends (among other things) on the robot's capacity to be a recipient o

  19. Spectroscopic Analysis of subluminous B Stars in Binaries with compact Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, S; Edelmann, H; Heber, U; Napiwotzki, R

    2006-01-01

    The masses of compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes are fundamental to astrophysics, but very difficult to measure. We present the results of an analysis of subluminous B (sdB) stars in close binary systems with unseen compact companions to derive their masses and clarify their nature. Radial velocity curves were obtained from time resolved spectroscopy. The atmospheric parameters were determined in a quantitative spectral analysis. Based on high resolution spectra we were able to measure the projected rotational velocity of the stars with high accuracy. The assumption of orbital synchronization makes it possible to constrain inclination angle and companion mass of the binaries. Five invisible companions have masses that are compatible with that of normal white dwarfs or late type main sequence stars. But four sdBs have very massive companions like heavy white dwarfs > 1 Mo, neutron stars or even black holes. Such a high fraction of massive compact companions is not expected from cu...

  20. A COMPARISON OF SPECTROSCOPIC VERSUS IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING CLOSE COMPANIONS TO KEPLER OBJECTS OF INTEREST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teske, Johanna K. [Carnegie DTM, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hirsch, Lea [Astronomy Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Furlan, Elise; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gonzales, Erica; Crepp, Justin R., E-mail: jteske@carnegiescience.edu [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Kepler planet candidates require both spectroscopic and imaging follow-up observations to rule out false positives and detect blended stars. Traditionally, spectroscopy and high-resolution imaging have probed different host star companion parameter spaces, the former detecting tight binaries and the latter detecting wider bound companions as well as chance background stars. In this paper, we examine a sample of 11 Kepler host stars with companions detected by two techniques—near-infrared adaptive optics and/or optical speckle interferometry imaging, and a new spectroscopic deblending method. We compare the companion effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) and flux ratios (F{sub B}/F{sub A}, where A is the primary and B is the companion) derived from each technique and find no cases where both companion parameters agree within 1σ errors. In 3/11 cases the companion T{sub eff} values agree within 1σ errors, and in 2/11 cases the companion F{sub B}/F{sub A} values agree within 1σ errors. Examining each Kepler system individually considering multiple avenues (isochrone mapping, contrast curves, probability of being bound), we suggest two cases for which the techniques most likely agree in their companion detections (detect the same companion star). Overall, our results support the advantage that the spectroscopic deblending technique has for finding very close-in companions (θ ≲ 0.″02–0.″05) that are not easily detectable with imaging. However, we also specifically show how high-contrast AO and speckle imaging observations detect companions at larger separations (θ ≥ 0.″02–0.″05) that are missed by the spectroscopic technique, provide additional information for characterizing the companion and its potential contamination (e.g., position angle, separation, magnitude differences), and cover a wider range of primary star effective temperatures. The investigation presented here illustrates the utility of combining the two techniques to reveal higher

  1. The Creative Use of Companion Values in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development: Exploring the Educative Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Jim; Östman, Leif; Håkansson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Our paper addresses the emergence and evolution of values in educational settings. It builds upon and extends earlier work on companion meanings to develop a theory of the creative use of companion values and meanings in education. The recognition of companion values in educational practices highlight epistemological, ethical, and aesthetic…

  2. A Foray Into Not-Quite Companion Species: Design Experiments With Urbananimals As Significant Others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenskjold, Tau Ulv; Jönsson, Li

    2013-01-01

    within a growing interest in animals in contemporary design research. Through analysis of the design experiments and the subsequent discussion, we argue, that a foray into interspecies relations, can inform the practical research agenda, and, help to re-articulate the dominant anthropocentricity......This paper examines the project, Urban Animals and Us, as a journey - or foray - into the ‘terrain vague’ between people and (other) animals with whom we share urban space. Through three design experiments developed around speculative prototypes and co-design tools, we attempt to bring ’wild’ urban...... of design research....

  3. Chinese children's imaginary companions: Relations with peer relationships and social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiyi; Fu, Hong; Wan, Yingjia; Zhou, Nan; Xu, Hui

    2016-09-25

    We investigated relationships between Chinese children's imaginary companions (ICs) and peer relationships and social competence in 160 children, aged 5-6 years old. Children and their mothers participated in the interviews regarding the details of the children's ICs, including the type of the companion and the quality of the child-IC relationship. Peer relationships were assessed using sociometric nomination and perceived popularity nomination. Teachers rated children's social competence. Here, 55 children (34.3%) were deemed to have engaged in imaginary companion play. There was no relationship between imaginary companion types and child-IC relationship qualities. Children with invisible friends received more positive nominations than children with personified objects. Children with egalitarian relationships received more positive nominations and popularity nominations, but fewer negative nominations and unpopularity nominations than children with hierarchical relationships. Compared with children with hierarchical relationships, teachers rated the children with egalitarian relationships higher in social competence. The results suggest that imaginary companion types and relationship qualities may represent different dimensions of imaginary companions, calling attentions to the different mechanisms underlying imaginary companion types and relationship qualities with respect to social functioning.

  4. Resolved Companions of Cepheids: Testing the Candidates with X-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E; Schaefer, Gail H; Mason, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    We have made {\\it XMM-Newton\\/} observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved ($\\geq$5$\\arcsec$) companion stars based on our earlier {\\it HST\\/} WFC3 imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. {\\it XMM-Newton\\/} exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 $ M_\\odot$.) The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S~Nor \\#4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S~Nor \\#4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S~Mus and R~Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent {\\it Chandra} observation of S Mus shows th...

  5. Social work practitioners and the human-companion animal bond: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U.S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social work with humans, and their challenges, coping mechanisms, and resiliency factors, seems called for. Yet there is little in the social work literature that identifies what social workers are doing in this area. Thus, this descriptive study sought to explore nationally what social work practitioners know and are doing in the area of the human and companion animal relationships. Findings include that social work practitioners appear to have basic knowledge of the negative and positive relationships between humans and companion animals. About one-third are including questions about companion and other animals in their intake assessments, and a little less than 25 percent are including companion and other animals in their intervention practice. The vast majority have had no special training or coursework to do so. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  6. Cost Implications of Value-Based Pricing for Companion Diagnostic Tests in Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Gregory S

    2016-07-01

    Many interpretations of personalized medicine, also referred to as precision medicine, include discussions of companion diagnostic tests that allow drugs to be targeted to those individuals who are most likely to benefit or that allow treatment to be designed in a way such that individuals who are unlikely to benefit do not receive treatment. Many authors have commented on the clinical and competitive implications of companion diagnostics, but there has been relatively little formal analysis of the cost implications of companion diagnostics, although cost reduction is often cited as a significant benefit of precision medicine. We investigate the potential impact on costs of precision medicine implemented through the use of companion diagnostics. We develop a framework in which the costs of companion diagnostic tests are determined by considerations of profit maximization and cost effectiveness. We analyze four scenarios that are defined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the new drug in the absence of a companion diagnostic test. We find that, in most scenarios, precision medicine strategies based on companion diagnostics should be expected to lead to increases in costs in the short term and that costs would fall only in a limited number of situations.

  7. Spatial kinematics of Brightest Cluster Galaxies and their close companions from Integral Field Unit spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brough, S; Sharp, R G; von der Linden, A; Couch, Warrick J

    2011-01-01

    We present Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectroscopy of four brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at z~0.1. Three of the BCGs have close companions within a projected radius of 20 kpc and one has no companion within that radius. We calculate the dynamical masses of the BCGs and their companions to be 1.4x10^11companions of the BCGs are bound using the observed masses and velocity offsets. We show that the lowest mass companion (1:4) is not bound while the two nearly equal mass (1:1.45 and 1:1.25) companions are likely to merge with their host BCGs in 0.35 Gyr in major, dry mergers. We conclude that some BCGs continue to grow from major merging even at z~0. We analyse the stellar kinematics of these systems using the \\lambda_R parameter developed by the SAURON team. This offers a new and unique means to measure the stellar angular momentum of BCGs and make a direct comparison to other early-type galaxies. The BCGs and their companions have simila...

  8. Companions to APOGEE Stars I: A Milky Way-Spanning Catalog of Stellar and Substellar Companion Candidates and their Diverse Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Troup, Nicholas W; De Lee, Nathan; Carlberg, Joleen; Majewski, Steven R; Fernandez, Martin; Covey, Kevin; Chojnowski, S Drew; Pepper, Joshua; Nguyen, Duy T; Stassun, Keivan; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Wisniewski, John P; Fleming, Scott W; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Frinchaboy, Peter M; García-Hernández, D A; Ge, Jian; Hearty, Fred; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Pan, Kaike; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Schneider, Donald P; Shetrone, Matthew D; Wilson, John; Zamora, Olga

    2016-01-01

    In its three years of operation, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1) observed $>$14,000 stars with enough epochs over a sufficient temporal baseline for the fitting of Keplerian orbits. We present the custom orbit-fitting pipeline used to create this catalog, which includes novel quality metrics that account for the phase and velocity coverage of a fitted Keplerian orbit. With a typical RV precision of $\\sim100-200$ m s$^{-1}$, APOGEE can probe systems with small separation companions down to a few Jupiter masses. Here we present initial results from a catalog of 382 of the most compelling stellar and substellar companion candidates detected by APOGEE, which orbit a variety of host stars in diverse Galactic environments. Of these, 376 have no previously known small separation companion. The distribution of companion candidates in this catalog shows evidence for an extremely truncated brown dwarf (BD) desert with a paucity of BD companions o...

  9. Galactic orbits of selected companions of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    High-accuracy absolute proper motions, radial velocities, and distances have now been measured for a number of dwarf-galaxy companions of the Milky Way, making it possible to study their 3D dynamics. Galactic orbits for 11 such galaxies (Fornax, Sagittarius, Ursa Minor, LMC, SMC, Sculptor, Sextans, Carina, Draco, Leo I, Leo II) have been derived using two previously refined models for the Galactic potential with the Navarro-Frenk-White and Allen-Santillán expressions for the potential of the dark-matter halo, and two different masses for the Galaxy within 200 kpc—0.75 × 1012 M ⊙ and 1.45 × 1012 M ⊙. The character of the orbits of most of these galaxies indicates that they are tightly gravitationally bound to the Milky Way, even with the lower-mass model for the gravitational potential. One exception is the most distant galaxy in the list, Leo I, whose orbit demonstrates that it is only weakly gravitationally bound, even using the higher-mass model of the gravitational potential.

  10. The low-mass companion of GQ Lup

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, E W; Wuchterl, G; Mugrauer, M; Bedalov, A; Hauschildt, P H

    2005-01-01

    Using NACO on the VLT in the imaging mode we have detected an object at a distance of only 0.7 arcsec from GQ Lup. The object turns out to be co-moving. We have taken two K-band spectra with a resolution of lambda /Delta lambda=700. In here, we analyze the spectra in detail. We show that the shape of spectrum is not spoiled by differences in the Strehl ratio in the blue and in the red part, as well as differential refraction. We reanalyze the spectra and derive the spectral type of the companion using classical methods. We find that the object has a spectral type between M9V and L4V, which corresponds to a Teff between 1600 and 2500 K. Using GAIA-dusty models, we find that the spectral type derivation is robust against different log(g)-values. The Teff derived from the models is again in the range between 1800 and 2400 K. While the models reproduce nicely the general shape of the spectrum, the 12CO-lines in the spectrum have about half the depth as those in the model. We speculate that this difference might b...

  11. COS Spectroscopy of White Dwarf Companions to Blue Stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.; Geller, Aaron M.; Knigge, Christian; Mathieu, Robert D.; Sills, Alison; Leiner, Emily; Leigh, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Complete membership studies of open stellar clusters reveal that 25% of the evolved stars follow alternative pathways in stellar evolution, meaning something in the history of these stars changed their composition or mass (or both). In order to draw a complete picture of stellar evolution we must include these canonically "strange" stars in our definition of standard stellar populations. The formation mechanism of blue straggler stars, traditionally defined to be brighter and bluer than the main sequence turnoff in a star cluster, has been an outstanding question for almost six decades. Recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) far-ultraviolet (far-UV) observations directly reveal that the blue straggler stars in the old (7 Gyr) open cluster NGC 188 are predominantly formed through mass transfer. We will present HST far-UV COS spectroscopy of white dwarf companions to blue stragglers. These white dwarfs are the remnants of the mass transfer formation process. The effective temperatures and surface gravities of the white dwarfs delineate the timeline of blue straggler formation in this cluster. The existence of these binaries in a well-studied cluster environment provides an unprecedented opportunity to observationally constrain mass transfer models and inform our understanding of many other alternative pathway stellar products.

  12. Deep search for companions to probable young brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, G; Boccaletti, A; Cruz, K; Lagrange, A -M; Zuckerman, B; Bessell, M S; Beuzit, J -L; Bonnefoy, M; Dumas, C; Lowrance, P; Mouillet, D; Song, I

    2012-01-01

    We have obtained high contrast images of four nearby, faint, and very low mass objects 2MASSJ04351455-1414468, SDSSJ044337.61+000205.1, 2MASSJ06085283-2753583 and 2MASSJ06524851-5741376 (here after 2MASS0435-14, SDSS0443+00, 2MASS0608-27 and 2MASS0652-57), identified in the field as probable isolated young brown dwarfs. Our goal was to search for binary companions down to the planetary mass regime. We used the NAOS-CONICA adaptive optics instrument (NACO) and its unique capability to sense the wavefront in the near-infrared to acquire sharp images of the four systems in Ks, with a field of view of 28"*28". Additional J and L' imaging and follow-up observations at a second epoch were obtained for 2MASS0652-57. With a typical contrast DKs= 4.0-7.0 mag, our observations are sensitive down to the planetary mass regime considering a minimum age of 10 to 120 Myr for these systems. No additional point sources are detected in the environment of 2MASS0435-14, SDSS0443+00 and 2MASS0608-27 between 0.1-12" (i.e about 2 t...

  13. Unveiling new stellar companions from the PIONIER exozodi survey

    CERN Document Server

    Marion, Lindsay; Ertel, Steve; Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste Le; Defrere, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the EXOZODI survey is to detect and characterize circumstellar dust and to propose the first statistical study of exozodiacal disks in the near-infrared using telescopes in both hemispheres. For this purpose, Ertel et al. have conducted in 2012 a survey of nearby main sequence stars with VLTI/PIONIER to search for the presence of circumstellar dust. This survey, carried out during 12 nights, comprises about 100 stars. For each star, we obtained typically three OBs and we searched for circumstellar emission based on the measurement of squared visibilities at short baselines. A drop in the measured visibilities with respect to the expected photospheric visibility indicates the presence of resolved emission around the target star. It is however generally not possible to conclude on the morphology of the detected emission based solely on the squared visibilities. Here, we focus on closure phases to search for faint companions around the whole sample. Indeed, to derive robust statistics on the occ...

  14. Dawes Review 6: The Impact of Companions on Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Orsola; Izzard, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Astrophysicists are increasingly taking into account the effects of orbiting companions on stellar evolution. New discoveries have underlined the role of binary star interactions in a range of astrophysical events, including some that were previously interpreted as being due uniquely to single stellar evolution. We review classical binary phenomena, such as type Ia supernovae, and discuss new phenomena, such as intermediate luminosity transients, gravitational wave-producing double black holes, and the interaction between stars and their planets. Finally, we reassess well-known phenomena, such as luminous blue variables, in light of interpretations that include both single and binary stars. At the same time we contextualise the new discoveries within the framework of binary stellar evolution. The last decade has seen a revival in stellar astrophysics as the complexity of stellar observations is increasingly interpreted with an interplay of single and binary scenarios. The next decade, with the advent of massive projects such as the Square Kilometre Array, the James Webb Space Telescope, and increasingly sophisticated computational methods, will see the birth of an expanded framework of stellar evolution that will have repercussions in many other areas of astrophysics such as galactic evolution and nucleosynthesis.

  15. Companion animals symposium: humanized animal models of the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gootenberg, D B; Turnbaugh, P J

    2011-05-01

    Humans and other mammals are colonized by trillions of microorganisms, most of which reside in the gastrointestinal tract, that provide key metabolic capabilities, such as the biosynthesis of vitamins and AA, the degradation of dietary plant polysaccharides, and the metabolism of orally administered therapeutics. Although much progress has been made by studying the human microbiome directly, comparing the human microbiome with that of other animals, and constructing in vitro models of the human gut, there remains a need to develop in vivo models where host, microbial, and environmental parameters can be manipulated. Here, we discuss some of the initial results from a promising method that enables the direct manipulation of microbial community structure, environmental exposures, host genotype, and other factors: the colonization of germ-free animals with complex microbial communities, including those from humans or other animal donors. Analyses of these resulting "humanized" gut microbiomes have begun to reveal 1) that key microbial activities can be transferred from the donor to the recipient animal (e.g., microbial reduction of cholesterol and production of equol), 2) that dietary shifts can affect the composition, gene abundance, and gene expression of the gut microbiome, 3) the succession of the microbial community in infants and ex-germ-free adult animals, and 4) the biogeography of these microbes across the length of gastrointestinal tract. Continued studies of humanized and other intentionally colonized animal models stand to provide new insight into not only the human microbiome, but also the microbiomes of our animal companions.

  16. Testing Refrigeration Trucks for the Emergency Evacuation of Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Vaughan A; Ellifrit, Nancy; Sime, Debra; Rowe, Mike; Hogue, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in sealed refrigerator trucks scheduled to be used for transporting companion animals (dogs and cats) during an emergency evacuation. A total of 122 nonhuman animals (total weight = 1,248 kg) housed in individual crates were loaded into a 16-m refrigeration truck. Once they were loaded, the doors were closed and the percentages of O2 and CO2 were measured every 5 min by O2 and CO2 analyzers, and they were used to quantify the changes in gas pressure in the sealed truck. CO2 had a much higher-than-predicted increase, and O2 had a higher-than-predicted decrease. These 2 pressures in combination with the functionality of the respiratory system will limit the animal's ability to load O2, and over time, they will initiate asphyxia or suffocation. Over time, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the sealed truck will decrease, causing hypoxia, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) will increase, causing hypercapnia.

  17. Small Inner Companions of Warm Jupiters: Lifetimes and Legacies

    CERN Document Server

    Van Laerhoven, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Although warm jupiters are generally too far from their stars for tides to be important, the presence of an inner planetary companion to a warm jupiter can result in tidal evolution of the system. Insight into the process and its effects comes form classical secular theory of planetary perturbations. The lifetime of the inner planet may be shorter than the age of the system, because the warm jupiter maintains its eccentricity and hence promotes tidal migration into the star. Thus a warm jupiter observed to be alone in its system might have previously cleared away any interior planets. Before its demise, even if an inner planet is of terrestrial scale, it may promote damping of the warm jupiter's eccentricity. Thus any inferences of the initial orbit of an observed warm jupiter must include the possibility of a greater initial eccentricity than would be estimated by assuming it had always been alone. Tidal evolution involving multiple planets also enhances the internal heating of the planets, which readily exc...

  18. A planetary companion around the K giant eps Corona Borealis

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Park, Myeong-Gu; Mkrtichian, David E; Kim, Kang-Min

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Our aim is to search for and study the origin of the low-amplitude and long-periodic radial velocity (RV) variations in K giants. Methods. We present high-resolution RV measurements of K2 giant epsilon CrB from February 2005 to January 2012 using the fiber-fed Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO). Results. We find that the RV measurements for epsilon CrB exhibit a periodic variation of 417.9 +/- 0.5 days with a semi-amplitude of 129.4 +/- 2.0 m/s. There is no correlation between RV measurements and chromospheric activity in the Ca II H region, the Hipparcos photometry, or bisector velocity span. Conclusions. Keplerian motion is the most likely explanation, with the RV variations arising from an orbital motion. Assuming a possible stellar mass of 1.7 +/- 0.1 M_Sun for epsilon CrB, we obtain a minimum mass for the planetary companion of 6.7 +/- 0.3 M_Jup with an orbital semi-major axis of 1.3 AU and eccentricity of 0.11. We also discuss th...

  19. Revealing {\\delta} Cephei's Secret Companion and Intriguing Past

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Richard I; Holl, Berry; Eyer, Laurent; Palaversa, Lovro; Mowlavi, Nami; Süveges, Maria; Roelens, Maroussia

    2015-01-01

    Classical Cepheid variable stars are crucial calibrators of the cosmic distance scale thanks to a relation between their pulsation periods and luminosities. Their archetype, {\\delta} Cephei, is an important calibrator for this relation. In this paper, we show that {\\delta} Cephei is a spectroscopic binary based on newly-obtained high-precision radial velocities. We combine these new data with literature data to determine the orbit, which has period 2201 days, semi-amplitude 1.5 km/s, and high eccentricity (e = 0.647). We re-analyze Hipparcos intermediate astrometric data to measure {\\delta} Cephei's parallax ($\\varpi = 4.09 \\pm 0.16$ mas) and find tentative evidence for an orbital signature, although we cannot claim detection. We estimate that Gaia will fully determine the astrometric orbit. Using the available information from spectroscopy, velocimetry, astrometry, and Geneva stellar evolution models ($M_{\\delta Cep} ~ 5.0 - 5.25 M_\\odot$), we constrain the companion mass to within $0.2 < M_2 < 1.2 M_\\...

  20. Planetary companions around the metal-poor star HIP 11952

    CERN Document Server

    Setiawan, J; Fedele, D; Henning, Th; Pasquali, A; Rodríguez-Ledesma, M V; Caffau, E; Seemann, U; Klement, R J; 10.1051/0004-6361/201117826

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We carried out a radial-velocity survey to search for planets around metal-poor stars. In this paper we report the discovery of two planets around HIP 11952, a metal-poor star with [Fe/H]= -1.9 that belongs to our target sample. Methods. Radial velocity variations of HIP 11952 were monitored systematically with FEROS at the 2.2 m telescope located at the ESO La Silla observatory from August 2009 until January 2011. We used a cross-correlation technique to measure the stellar radial velocities (RV). Results. We detected a long-period RV variation of 290 d and a short-period one of 6.95 d. The spectroscopic analysis of the stellar activity reveals a stellar rotation period of 4.8 d. The Hipparcos photometry data shows intra-day variabilities, which give evidence for stellar pulsations. Based on our analysis, the observed RV variations are most likely caused by the presence of unseen planetary companions. Assuming a primary mass of 0.83 M\\odot, we computed minimum planetary masses of 0.78 MJup for the inne...

  1. The Exemplar T8 Subdwarf Companion of Wolf 1130

    CERN Document Server

    Mace, Gregory N; Cushing, Michael C; Gelino, Christopher R; McLean, Ian S; Logsdon, Sarah E; Wright, Edward L; Skrutskie, Michael F; Beichman, Charles A; Eisenhardt, Peter R; Kulas, Kristin R

    2013-01-01

    We have discovered a wide separation (188.5") T8 subdwarf companion to the sdM1.5+WD binary Wolf 1130. Companionship of WISE J200520.38+542433.9 is verified through common proper motion over a ~3 year baseline. Wolf 1130 is located 15.83 +/- 0.96 parsecs from the Sun, placing the brown dwarf at a projected separation of ~3000 AU. Near-infrared colors and medium resolution (R~2000-4000) spectroscopy establish the uniqueness of this system as a high-gravity, low-metallicity benchmark. Although there are a number of low-metallicity T dwarfs in the literature, WISE J200520.38+542433.9 has the most extreme inferred metallicity to date with [Fe/H] = -0.64 +/- 0.17 based on Wolf 1130. Model comparisons to this exemplar late-type subdwarf support it having an old age, a low metallicity, and a small radius. However, the spectroscopic peculiarities of WISE J200520.38+542433.9 underscore the importance of developing the low-metallicity parameter space of the most current atmospheric models.

  2. Plague: Infections of Companion Animals and Opportunities for Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra C.F. Oyston

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a zoonotic disease, normally circulating in rodent populations, transmitted to humans most commonly through the bite of an infected flea vector. Secondary infection of the lungs results in generation of infectious aerosols, which pose a significant hazard to close contacts. In enzootic areas, plague infections have been reported in owners and veterinarians who come into contact with infected pets. Dogs are relatively resistant, but can import infected fleas into the home. Cats are acutely susceptible, and can present a direct hazard to health. Reducing roaming and hunting behaviours, combined with flea control measures go some way to reducing the risk to humans. Various vaccine formulations have been developed which may be suitable to protect companion animals from contracting plague, and thus preventing onward transmission to man. Since transmission has resulted in a number of fatal cases of plague, the vaccination of domestic animals such as cats would seem a low cost strategy for reducing the risk of infection by this serious disease in enzootic regions.

  3. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee.

  4. Dynamic companion harmonic circuit models for analysis of power systems with embedded power electronics devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, H.; Madrigal, M. [Programa de Graduados e Investigacion en Ingenieria Electrica, Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Morelia (Mexico); Vyakaranam, B.; Rarick, R.; Villaseca, F.E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cleveland State University, OH (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper a methodology that extends the dynamic harmonic domain (DHD) analysis of large networks is presented. The method combines DHD analysis and discrete companion circuit modeling resulting in a powerful analytic technique called dynamic companion harmonic circuit modeling. It provides for a complete dynamic harmonic analysis of the system while preserving the advantages of discrete companion circuit models. The methodology is illustrated by its application to a three-node power system, where reactive power compensation is achieved using a fixed-capacitor, thyristor-controlled reactor (FC-TCR) and its control system. (author)

  5. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacter spp. isolates from companion animals in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Kajino, Akari; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated the resistance rates to ampicillin (93.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (93.3%), cefmetazole (93.3%), chloramphenicol (46.7%), ciprofloxacin (43.3%), tetracycline (40.0%), ceftazidime (33.3%), cefotaxime (33.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (28.3%), gentamicin (23.3%), and meropenem (0%). Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs in 16 of 18 ESC-resistant E. cloacae isolates but not in the other species. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 8), followed by SHV-12 (n = 7), and CTX-M-3 (n = 1). As for AmpC β-lactamases, CMY-2 (n = 2) and DHA-1 (n = 2) were identified in ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains with or without ESBLs. All of the ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains also harbored one or two PMQRs, including qnrB (n = 15), aac(6’)-Ib-cr (n = 8), and qnrS (n = 2). Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, E. cloacae clones of ST591-SHV-12, ST171-CTX-M-15, and ST121-CTX-M-15 were detected in one or several hospitals. These results suggested intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of E. cloacae clones co-harboring ESBLs and PMQRs among companion animals. This is the first report on the large-scale monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant isolates

  6. Most sub-arcsecond companions of Kepler exoplanet candidate host stars are gravitationally bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ciardi, David R., E-mail: horche2@southernct.edu, E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov, E-mail: everett@noao.edu, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.edu [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Using the known detection limits for high-resolution imaging observations and the statistical properties of true binary and line-of-sight companions, we estimate the binary fraction of Kepler exoplanet host stars. Our speckle imaging programs at the WIYN 3.5 m and Gemini North 8.1 m telescopes have observed over 600 Kepler objects of interest and detected 49 stellar companions within ∼1 arcsec. Assuming binary stars follow a log-normal period distribution for an effective temperature range of 3000-10,000 K, then the model predicts that the vast majority of detected sub-arcsecond companions are long period (P > 50 yr), gravitationally bound companions. In comparing the model predictions to the number of real detections in both observational programs, we conclude that the overall binary fraction of host stars is similar to the 40%-50% rate observed for field stars.

  7. How companion animals contribute to the fight against cancer in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Thamm, VMD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Companion animals and their human guardians suffer from many of the same types of cancer and are often treated with many of the same drugs. Moreover, the overall tumour biology is much more similar between humans and companion animals than between humans and rodent tumor models. Therefore, it is proposed that pre-clinical evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics should more often include appropriately designed trials in companion animals with cancer to more accurately predict efficacy and toxicity in humans. For example, studies in dogs with cancer have been used to assess efficacy and design human clinical trials of immunotherapy, gene therapy, sustained release drug delivery and liposomal drug delivery. In the future, such studies will ultimately benefit not only humans, but also companion animals with cancer.

  8. Potential Benefits of Companion Animals for Self-Care Children. Reviews of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D. Terry; McKenry, Patrick C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the potential benefits of having pets for self-care children. Researchers suggest that companion animals can lower blood pressure, show up high on a list of children's helpers and indirectly increase feelings of safety. (RJC)

  9. 45 CFR 2551.71 - What requirements govern the assignment of Senior Companions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) Result in person-to-person supportive relationships with each client served. (2) Support the.... Senior Companions with special skills or demonstrated leadership ability may assist newer Senior...

  10. Detecting the Companions and Ellipsoidal Variations of RS CVn Primaries: I. sigma Geminorum

    CERN Document Server

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M; Henry, Gregory W; Fekel, Francis C; Williamson, Michael H; Pourbaix, Dimitri; Latham, David W; Latham, Christian A; Torres, Guillermo; Baron, Fabien; Che, Xiao; Kraus, Stefan; Schaefer, Gail H; Aarnio, Alicia N; Korhonen, Heidi; Harmon, Robert O; Brummelaar, Theo A ten; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Turner, Nils H

    2015-01-01

    To measure the properties of both components of the RS CVn binary sigma Geminorum (sigma Gem), we directly detect the faint companion, measure the orbit, obtain model-independent masses and evolutionary histories, detect ellipsoidal variations of the primary caused by the gravity of the companion, and measure gravity darkening. We detect the companion with interferometric observations obtained with the Michigan InfraRed Combiner (MIRC) at Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array with a primary-to-secondary H-band flux ratio of 270+/-70. A radial velocity curve of the companion was obtained with spectra from the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5-m Tillinghast Reflector at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO). We additionally use new observations from the Tennessee State University Automated Spectroscopic and Photometric Telescopes (AST and APT, respectively). From our orbit, we determine model-independent masses of the components (M_1 ...

  11. A Substellar Companion in a 1.3 yr Nearly-circular Orbit of HD 16760

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Bunei; Ida, Shigeru; Harakawa, Hiroki; Omiya, Masashi; Johnson, John A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Toyota, Eri; Hori, Yasunori; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W; Peek, Kathryn M G

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of a substellar companion orbiting the G5 dwarf HD 16760 from the N2K sample. Precise Doppler measurements of the star from Subaru and Keck revealed a Keplerian velocity variation with a period of 466.47+-0.35 d, a semiamplitude of 407.71+-0.84 m/s, and an eccentricity of 0.084+-0.003. Adopting a stellar mass of 0.78+-0.05 M_Sun, we obtain a minimum mass for the companion of 13.13+-0.56 M_JUP, which is close to the planet/brown-dwarf transition, and the semimajor axis of 1.084+-0.023 AU. The nearly circular orbit despite the large mass and intermediate orbital period makes this companion unique among known substellar companions.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mass limits on substellar companions (Reffert+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reffert, S.; Quirrenbach, A.

    2011-08-01

    We fitted the astrometric orbits of 310 substellar companions around 258 stars, which were all discovered via the radial velocity method, to the Hipparcos intermediate astrometric data provided by van Leeuwen (2007, Astrophys. Space Library 350). (2 data files).

  13. Bartonella species in small mammals and their potential vectors in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tawisa; Jiyipong; Sathaporn; Jittapalapong; Serge; Morand; Jean-Marc; Rolain

    2014-01-01

    In this article,authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents,insectivores,bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia.Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors.The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs.Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals,and from human patients in Asia.Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes(glt.A and rpoB) and the internal transcribed spacer fragment.Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.

  14. Bartonella species in small mammals and their potential vectors in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tawisa Jiyipong; Sathaporn Jittapalapong; Serge Morand; Jean-Marc Rolain

    2014-01-01

    In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia. Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA and rpoB) and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.

  15. Bartonella species in small mammals and their potential vectors in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawisa Jiyipong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia. Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA and rpoB and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.

  16. Hepatic phase I and phase II biotransformations in quail and trout: comparison to other species commonly used in toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregus, Z; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Harvey, M J; Rozman, K; Klaassen, C D

    1983-03-15

    The ability of quail and trout to perform a number of representative phase I and phase II biotransformations was examined. To facilitate interspecies comparisons, metabolism of the same substrates was examined simultaneously under uniform conditions for rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea pig, cat, and dog. Both nonmammalian species can metabolize four representative substrates of phase I mixed-function oxidases and one substrate of epoxide hydrolase, though activity tended to be lower than that of the mammals. Important differences in the conjugative pathways were also noted. Among these differences were the quail's relative deficiency in glutathione conjugation and the trout's low ability to conjugate sulfate compounds. Trout liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity was remarkably high toward testosterone and bilirubin, while quail liver formed glucuronides of naphthol, p-nitrophenol, and digitoxigenin-monodigitoxoside. Also noteworthy was the high N-acetyltransferase activity of both quail and trout toward isoniazid, beta-naphthylamine, and 2-aminofluorene. Differences in substrate specificity for a given enzymatic pathway may be an indication that multiple forms of drug metabolizing systems also occur in these nonmammalian species. Observation of several hundred- or even thousand-fold differences between species in their enzyme activities for certain substrates under uniform conditions re-emphasizes the need for caution in extrapolation of xenobiotic metabolism from one species to another.

  17. The interaction of core-collapse supernova ejecta with a companion star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Tauris, T. M.; Röpke, F. K.; Moriya, T. J.; Kruckow, M.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Izzard, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The progenitors of many core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are expected to be in binary systems. After the SN explosion in a binary, the companion star may suffer from mass stripping and be shock heated as a result of the impact of the SN ejecta. If the binary system is disrupted by the SN explosion, the companion star is ejected as a runaway star, and in some cases as a hypervelocity star. Aims: By performing a series of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical simulations of the collision of SN ejecta with the companion star, we investigate how CCSN explosions affect their binary companion. Methods: We use the BEC stellar evolution code to construct the detailed companion structure at the moment of SN explosion. The impact of the SN blast wave on the companion star is followed by means of 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations using the Stellar GADGET code. Results: For main-sequence (MS) companion stars, we find that the amount of removed stellar mass, the resulting impact velocity, and the chemical contamination of the companion that results from the impact of the SN ejecta strongly increases with decreasing binary separation and increasing explosion energy. Their relationship can be approximately fitted by power laws, which is consistent with the results obtained from impact simulations of Type Ia SNe. However, we find that the impact velocity is sensitive to the momentum profile of the outer SN ejecta and, in fact, may decrease with increasing ejecta mass, depending on the modeling of the ejecta. Because most companion stars to Type Ib/c CCSNe are in their MS phase at the moment of the explosion, combined with the strongly decaying impact effects with increasing binary separation, we argue that the majority of these SNe lead to inefficient mass stripping and shock heating of the companion star following the impact of the ejecta. Conclusions: Our simulations show that the impact effects of Type Ib/c SN ejecta on the structure of MS companion

  18. The Masses of Black Holes with Wolf-Rayet Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas; Steiner, James F.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Binder, Breanna A.; Yang, Jun; Cappallo, Rigel

    2016-04-01

    Black Holes with Wolf-Rayet companions represent a channel for forming the most massive stellar BHs. The recent, stunning LIGO detection of the gravitational wave signature from a merging stellar BH binary points to the importance of understanding the progenitor systems formation and evolution. The BH+WR binary IC 10 X-1 holds important clues to the puzzle, by helping establish the upper observed BH mass and pointing to an association between maximum possible BH mass and low metallicity environments. However, securing dynamical mass determiniations for WR+BH binaries appears to be complicated by interaction between the radiation field of the BH and the stellar wind. This causes a substantial change to our understanding of IC 10 X-1, and by extension to the mass distribution of BH binaries. A high precision ephemeris derived from a decade of Chandra/XMM X-ray timing observations, when combined with the optical RV curve, reveals a surprizing simultenaity of mid X-ray eclipse and the maximum blueshift velocity of He II emission lines. The optical emission lines appear to originate in a shielded sector of the WR star's stellar wind which escapes total X-ray ionization by the compact object. Unravelling this projection effect is necessary to obtain the system's true mass function. Complementary Chandra, XMM and NuStar datasets offer new insights into the mass and spin of the BH, and the structure of the photo-ionized wind. We will discuss possible routes toward the mass function in BH+WR binaries via multi-wavelength observations, and the additional leverage provided by further constraining the orbital period derivative.

  19. The Kepler Eclipsing System KIC 5621294 and Its Substellar Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius

    2015-03-01

    We present the physical properties of KIC 5621294, showing light and timing variations from the Kepler photometry. Its light curve displays partial eclipses and the O’Connell effect, with Max II fainter than Max I, which was fitted quite well by applying third-body and spot effects to the system. The results indicate that the eclipsing pair is a classical Algol-type system with parameters of q = 0.22, i = 76.°8, and Δ(T1-T2) = 4235 K, in which the detached primary component fills about 77% of its limiting lobe. Striking discrepancies exist between the primary and secondary eclipse times obtained with the method of Kwee & van Woerden. These are mainly caused by surface inhomogeneities due to spot activity detected in our light curve synthesis. The 1253 light curve timings from the Wilson-Devinney code were used for a period study. It was found that the orbital period of KIC 5621294 has varied due to periodic variation overlaid on a downward parabola. The sinusoidal variation with a period of 961 days and a semi-amplitude of 22.5 s most likely arises from a light-time effect due to a third component with a mass of {{M}3}sin {{i}3} = 46.9 MJup, which is in good agreement with that calculated from the light curve itself. If its orbital inclination is larger than about 40°, the mass of the circumbinary object would possibly match a brown dwarf. The parabolic variation could not be fully explained by either a mass transfer between the binary components or angular momentum via magnetic braking. It is possible that the parabola may be the only observed part of a period modulation caused by the presence of another companion in a wider orbit.

  20. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-06

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  1. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Fahey, Jr.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential

  2. The Kepler eclipsing system KIC 5621294 and its substellar companion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kshong@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    We present the physical properties of KIC 5621294, showing light and timing variations from the Kepler photometry. Its light curve displays partial eclipses and the O’Connell effect, with Max II fainter than Max I, which was fitted quite well by applying third-body and spot effects to the system. The results indicate that the eclipsing pair is a classical Algol-type system with parameters of q = 0.22, i = 76.°8, and Δ(T{sub 1}−T{sub 2}) = 4235 K, in which the detached primary component fills about 77% of its limiting lobe. Striking discrepancies exist between the primary and secondary eclipse times obtained with the method of Kwee and van Woerden. These are mainly caused by surface inhomogeneities due to spot activity detected in our light curve synthesis. The 1253 light curve timings from the Wilson–Devinney code were used for a period study. It was found that the orbital period of KIC 5621294 has varied due to periodic variation overlaid on a downward parabola. The sinusoidal variation with a period of 961 days and a semi-amplitude of 22.5 s most likely arises from a light-time effect due to a third component with a mass of M{sub 3}sini{sub 3} = 46.9 M{sub Jup}, which is in good agreement with that calculated from the light curve itself. If its orbital inclination is larger than about 40°, the mass of the circumbinary object would possibly match a brown dwarf. The parabolic variation could not be fully explained by either a mass transfer between the binary components or angular momentum via magnetic braking. It is possible that the parabola may be the only observed part of a period modulation caused by the presence of another companion in a wider orbit.

  3. Three new massive companions in the planet-brown dwarf boundary detected with SOPHIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santerne A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the detection of three new massive companions to mainsequence stars based on precise radial velocities obtained with the SOPHIE spectrograph, as part of an ongoing programme to search for extrasolar planets. The minimum masses of the detected companions range from around 16 Mjup to around 60 Mjup, and therefore lie at both sides of the boundary between massive extrasolar planets and brown dwarves.

  4. Disease transmission from companion parrots to dogs and cats: what is the real risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jamie M; Speer, Brian; Opitz, Noel

    2011-11-01

    A number of common misconceptions exist regarding the degree of transmission from companion parrots to dogs and cats. Concern regarding bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic transmission is generally unfounded, because disease transmission between companion parrots and dogs and cats is not well-documented. Infections with Mycobacterium spp, Aspergillus spp, Giardia spp, Chlamydophila psittaci, Salmonella spp, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Cryptosporidium spp, and avian influenza are often considered possible transmissible diseases, causing pet caregivers unwarranted concerns.

  5. Hints for Hidden Planetary Companions to Hot Jupiters in Stellar Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2017-02-01

    Searches for stellar companions to hot Jupiters (HJs) have revealed that planetary systems hosting an HJ are approximately three times more likely to have a stellar companion with a semimajor axis between 50 and 2000 au, compared to field stars. This correlation suggests that HJ formation is affected by the stellar binary companion. A potential model is high-eccentricity migration, in which the binary companion induces high-eccentricity Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations in the proto-HJ orbit, triggering orbital migration driven by tides. A pitfall of this “binary-LK” model is that the observed stellar binaries hosting HJs are typically too wide to produce HJs in sufficient numbers because of suppression by short-range forces. We propose a modification to the binary-LK model in which there is a second giant planet orbiting the proto-HJ at a semimajor axis of several tens of au. Such companions are currently hidden to observations, but their presence could be manifested by a propagation of the perturbation of the stellar binary companion inward to the proto-HJ, thereby overcoming the barrier imposed by short-range forces. Our model does not require the planetary companion orbit to be eccentric and/or inclined with respect to the proto-HJ, but its semimajor axis should lie in a specific range given the planetary mass and binary semimajor axis, and the inclination with respect to the binary should be near 40° or 140°. Our prediction for planetary companions to HJs in stellar binaries should be testable by future observations.

  6. Friends of Hot Jupiters III: An Infrared Spectroscopic Search for Low-Mass Stellar Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Piskorz, Danielle; Ngo, Henry; Muirhead, Philip S; Batygin, Konstantin; Crepp, Justin R; Hinkley, Sasha; Morton, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of nearby field stars indicate that stellar binaries are common, yet little is known about the effects that these companions may have on planet formation and evolution. The Friends of Hot Jupiters project uses three complementary techniques to search for stellar companions to known planet-hosting stars: radial velocity monitoring, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, we examine high-resolution K band infrared spectra of fifty stars hosting gas giant planets on short-period orbits. We use spectral fitting to search for blended lines due to the presence of cool stellar companions in the spectra of our target stars, where we are sensitive to companions with temperatures between 3500-5000 K and projected separations less than 100 AU in most systems. We identify eight systems with candidate low-mass companions, including one companion that was independently detected in our AO imaging survey. For systems with radial velocity accelerations, a spectroscopic non-detection rul...

  7. Astrometric and photometric monitoring of GQ Lup and its sub-stellar companion

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Seifahrt, Andreas; Schmidt, Tobias; Vogt, Nikolaus

    2008-01-01

    Neuhaeuser et al. (2005) presented direct imaging evidence for a sub-stellar companion to the young T Tauri star GQ Lup. Common proper motion was highly significant, but no orbital motion was detected. Faint luminosity, low gravity, and a late-M/early-L spectral type indicated that the companion is either a planet or a brown dwarf. We have monitored GQ Lup and its companion in order to detect orbital and parallactic motion and variability in its brightness. We also search for closer and fainter companions. We have taken six more images with the VLT Adaptive Optics instrument NACO from May 2005 to Feb 2007, always with the same calibration binary from Hipparcos for both astrometric and photometric calibration. By adding up all the images taken so far, we search for additional companions. The position of GQ Lup A and its companion compared to a nearby non-moving background object varies as expected for parallactic motion by about one pixel (2 \\pi with parallax \\pi). We could not find evidence for variability of...

  8. An Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Companions of SW Lyncis

    CERN Document Server

    Hinse, Tobias C; Wittenmyer, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamical stability of the proposed companions orbiting the Algol type short-period eclipsing binary SW Lyncis (Kim et al. 2010). The two candidate companions are of stellar to sub-stellar nature, and were inferred from timing measurements of the system's primary and secondary eclipses. We applied well-tested numerical techniques to accurately integrate the orbits of the two companions and to test for chaotic dynamical behaviour. We carried out the stability analysis within a systematic parameter survey varying both the geometries and orientation of the orbits of the companions, as well as their masses. In all our numerical integrations we found that the proposed SW Lyn multi-body system is highly unstable on time-scales on the order of 1000 years. Our results cast doubt on the interpretation that the timing variations are caused by two companions. This work demonstrates that a straightforward dynamical analysis can help to test whether a best-fit companion-based model is a physically...

  9. Exploring the brown dwarf desert: new substellar companions from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Ghezzi, Luan; Kimock, Ben; Willis, Kevin; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian; Fleming, Scott W.; Agol, Eric; Troup, Nicholas; Paegert, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.; Stassun, Keivan; Varosi, Frank; Zhao, Bo; Jian, Liu; Li, Rui; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Santiago, Basílio X.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; del Peloso, E. F.

    2017-06-01

    Planet searches using the radial velocity technique show a paucity of companions to solar-type stars within ˜5 au in the mass range of ˜10-80 MJup. This deficit, known as the brown dwarf desert, currently has no conclusive explanation. New substellar companions in this region help assess the reality of the desert and provide insight to the formation and evolution of these objects. Here, we present 10 new brown dwarf and 2 low-mass stellar companion candidates around solar-type stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. These companions were selected from processed MARVELS data using the latest University of Florida Two Dimensional pipeline, which shows significant improvement and reduction of systematic errors over previous pipelines. The 10 brown dwarf companions range in mass from ˜13 to 76 MJup and have orbital radii of less than 1 au. The two stellar companions have minimum masses of ˜98 and 100 MJup. The host stars of the MARVELS brown dwarf sample have a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.03 ± 0.08 dex. Given our stellar sample we estimate the brown dwarf occurrence rate around solar-type stars with periods less than ˜300 d to be ˜0.56 per cent.

  10. The Close Companion Mass-Ratio Distribution of Intermediate-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gullikson, Kevin; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Binary stars and higher-order multiple systems are an ubiquitous outcome of star formation, especially as the system mass increases. The companion mass-ratio distribution is a unique probe into the conditions of the collapsing cloud core and circumstellar disk(s) of the binary fragments. Inside $a \\sim 1000$ AU the disks from the two forming stars can interact, and additionally companions can form directly through disk fragmentation. We should therefore expect the mass-ratio distribution of close companions ($a \\lesssim 100$ AU) to differ from that of wide companions. This prediction is difficult to test using traditional methods, especially with intermediate-mass primary stars, for a variety of observational reasons. We present the results of a survey searching for companions to A- and B-type stars using the direct spectral detection method, which is sensitive to late-type companions within $\\sim 1"$ of the primary and which has no inner working angle. We estimate the temperatures and surface gravity of most...

  11. Is the X-ray pulsating companion of HD 49798 a possible type Ia supernova progenitor?

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dong-Dong; Wu, Cheng-Yuan; Wang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    HD 49798 (a hydrogen depleted subdwarf O6 star) with its massive white dwarf (WD) companion has been suggested to be a progenitor candidate of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). However, it is still uncertain whether the companion of HD 49798 is a carbon-oxygen (CO) WD or an oxygen-neon (ONe) WD. A CO WD will explode as an SN Ia when its mass grows approach to Chandrasekhar mass, while the outcome of an accreting ONe WD is likely to be a neutron star. We followed a series of Monte Carlo binary population synthesis approach to simulate the formation of ONe WD + He star systems. We found that there is almost no orbital period as large as HD 49798 with its WD companion in these ONe WD + He star systems based on our simulations, which means that the companion of HD 49798 might not be an ONe WD. We suggest that the companion of HD 49798 is most likely a CO WD, which can be expected to increase its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass limit by accreting He-rich material from HD 49798. Thus, HD 49798 with its companion may prod...

  12. Stellar Companions to the Exoplanet Host Stars HD 2638 and HD 164509

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittrock, Justin M.; Kane, Stephen R.; Horch, Elliott P.; Hirsch, Lea; Howell, Steve B.; Ciardi, David R.; Everett, Mark E.; Teske, Johanna K.

    2016-11-01

    An important aspect of searching for exoplanets is understanding the binarity of the host stars. It is particularly important, because nearly half of the solar-like stars within our own Milky Way are part of binary or multiple systems. Moreover, the presence of two or more stars within a system can place further constraints on planetary formation, evolution, and orbital dynamics. As part of our survey of almost a hundred host stars, we obtained images at 692 and 880 nm bands using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) at the Gemini-North Observatory. From our survey, we detect stellar companions to HD 2638 and HD 164509. The stellar companion to HD 2638 has been previously detected, but the companion to HD 164509 is a newly discovered companion. The angular separation for HD 2638 is 0.512 ± 0.″002 and for HD 164509 is 0.697+/- 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 002. This corresponds to a projected separation of 25.6 ± 1.9 au and 36.5 ± 1.9 au, respectively. By employing stellar isochrone models, we estimate the mass of the stellar companions of HD 2638 and HD 164509 to be 0.483 ± 0.007 M ⊙ and 0.416+/- 0.007 {M}⊙ , respectively, and their effective temperatures to be 3570 ± 8 K and 3450 ± 7 K, respectively. These results are consistent with the detected companions being late-type M dwarfs.

  13. Clonal spread of highly successful ST15-CTX-M-15 Klebsiella pneumoniae in companion animals and horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Christa; Stamm, Ivonne; Pfeifer, Yvonne;

    2014-01-01

    senders from Germany and other European countries) mainly from companion animals and horses from October 2008 to March 2010. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PFGE were performed including human isolates for comparative purposes. RESULTS: The overall ESBL rate was 8% for Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical relevance and molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella species in animals. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities and presence of ESBLs were examined among Klebsiella spp. (n = 1519) from clinical samples (>1200....... pneumoniae. Most K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae ESBL producers were isolated from soft tissue infections (29.3%) and urinary tract infections (14.9%). The major ESBL type was CTX-M-15 (85.4%), located on different plasmid scaffolds (HI2, I1, FIA, FIB, FII, A/C, R and N). Other ESBL genes, such as bla...

  14. Formation of millisecond pulsars with CO white dwarf companions - II. Accretion, spin-up, true ages and comparison to MSPs with He white dwarf companions

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M; Kramer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are mainly characterised by their spin periods, B-fields and masses - quantities which are largely affected by previous interactions with a companion star in a binary system. In this paper, we investigate the formation mechanism of MSPs by considering the pulsar recycling process in both intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (IMXBs) and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The IMXBs mainly lead to the formation of binary MSPs with a massive carbon-oxygen (CO) or an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf (ONeMg WD) companion, whereas the LMXBs form recycled pulsars with a helium white dwarf (He WD) companion. We discuss the accretion physics leading to the spin-up line in the PPdot-diagram and demonstrate that such a line cannot be uniquely defined. We derive a simple expression for the amount of accreted mass needed for any given pulsar to achieve its equilibrium spin and apply this to explain the observed differences of the spin distributions of recycled pulsars with different types of companion...

  15. THE ECLIPSING SYSTEM EP ANDROMEDAE AND ITS CIRCUMBINARY COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Park, Jang-Ho, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com, E-mail: pooh107162@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We present new long-term CCD photometry for EP And acquired during the period 2007-2012. The light curves display total eclipses at primary minima and season-to-season light variability. Our synthesis for all available light curves indicates that the eclipsing pair is a W-type overcontact binary with parameters of q = 2.578, i = 83. Degree-Sign 3, {Delta}T = 27 K, f = 28%, and l{sub 3} = 2%-3%. The asymmetric light curves in 2007 were satisfactorily modeled by a cool spot on either of the eclipsing components from a magnetic dynamo. Including our 95 timing measurements, a total of 414 times of minimum light spanning about 82 yr was used for a period study. A detailed analysis of the eclipse timing diagram revealed that the orbital period of EP And has varied as a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two periodic variations, with cycle lengths of P{sub 3} = 44.6 yr and P{sub 4} = 1.834 yr and semi-amplitudes of K{sub 3} = 0.0100 days and K{sub 4} = 0.0039 days, respectively. The observed period increase at a fractional rate of +1.39 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} is in excellent agreement with that calculated from the W-D code and can be plausibly explained by some combination of mass transfer from the primary to the secondary star and angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking. The most reasonable explanation for both cycles is a pair of light-travel-time effects driven by the possible existence of a third and fourth component with projected masses of M{sub 3} = 0.25 M{sub Sun} and M{sub 4} = 0.90 M{sub Sun }. The more massive companion could be revealed using high-resolution spectroscopic data extending over the course of a few years and could also be a binary itself. It is possible that the circumbinary objects may have played an important role in the formation and evolution of the eclipsing pair, which would cause it to have a short initial orbital period and thus evolve into an overcontact configuration by angular momentum loss.

  16. Teaching robot companions: the role of scaffolding and event structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Nuno; Saunders, Joe; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Nehaniv, Chrystopher

    2008-06-01

    For robots to be more capable interaction partners they will necessarily need to adapt to the needs and requirements of their human companions. One way that the human could aid this adaptation may be by teaching the robot new ways of doing things by physically demonstrating different behaviours and tasks such that the robot learns new skills by imitating the learnt behaviours in appropriate contexts. In human-human teaching, the concept of scaffolding describes the process whereby the teacher guides the pupil to new competence levels by exploiting and extending existing competencies. In addition, the idea of event structuring can be used to describe how the teacher highlights important moments in an overall interaction episode. Scaffolding and event structuring robot skills in this way may be an attractive route in achieving robot adaptation; however, there are many ways in which a particular behaviour might be scaffolded or structured and the interaction process itself may have an effect on the robot's resulting performance. Our overall research goal is to understand how to design an appropriate human-robot interaction paradigm where the robot will be able to intervene and elicit knowledge from the human teacher in order to better understand the taught behaviour. In this article we examine some of these issues in two exploratory human-robot teaching scenarios. The first considers task structuring from the robot's viewpoint by varying the way in which a robot is taught. The experimental results illustrate that the way in which teaching is carried out, and primarily how the teaching steps are decomposed, has a critical effect on the efficiency of human teaching and the effectiveness of robot learning. The second experiment studies the problem from the human's viewpoint in an attempt to study the human teacher's spontaneous levels of event segmentation when analysing their own demonstrations of a routine home task to a robot. The results suggest the existence of some

  17. AN M DWARF COMPANION AND ITS INDUCED SPIRAL ARMS IN THE HD 100453 PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Ruobing [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rafikov, Roman [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Wagner, Kevin, E-mail: rdong2013@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Recent VLT/SPHERE near-infrared imaging observations revealed two spiral arms with a near m = 2 rotational symmetry in the protoplanetary disk around the ∼1.7 M{sub ⊙} Herbig star HD 100453. A ∼0.3 M{sub ⊙} M dwarf companion, HD 100453 B, was also identified at a projected separation of 120 AU from the primary. In this Letter, we carry out hydrodynamic and radiative transfer simulations to examine the scattered light morphology of the HD 100453 disk as perturbed by the companion on a circular and coplanar orbit. We find that the companion truncates the disk at ∼45 AU in scattered light images, and excites two spiral arms in the remaining (circumprimary) disk with a near m = 2 rotational symmetry. Both the truncated disk size and the morphology of the spirals are in excellent agreement with the SPHERE observations at Y, J, H, and K1-bands, suggesting that the M dwarf companion is indeed responsible for the observed double-spiral-arm pattern. Our model suggests that the disk is close to face on (inclination angle ∼5°), and that the entire disk-companion system rotates counterclockwise on the sky. The HD 100453 observations, along with our modeling work, demonstrate that double spiral arm patterns in near-infrared scattered light images can be generically produced by companions, and support future observations to identify the companions responsible for the arms observed in the MWC 758 and SAO 206462 systems.

  18. HD 106906 b: A PLANETARY-MASS COMPANION OUTSIDE A MASSIVE DEBRIS DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Vanessa; Reiter, Megan; Morzinski, Katie; Males, Jared; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hinz, Philip M.; Stark, Daniel; Close, Laird M.; Follette, Katherine B.; Rodigas, Timothy [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Meshkat, Tiffany; Kenworthy, Matthew [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Mamajek, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Briguglio, Runa; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Weinberger, Alycia J., E-mail: vbailey@as.arizona.edu [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a planetary-mass companion, HD 106906 b, with the new Magellan Adaptive Optics (MagAO) + Clio2 system. The companion is detected with Clio2 in three bands: J, K{sub S} , and L', and lies at a projected separation of 7.''1 (650 AU). It is confirmed to be comoving with its 13 ± 2 Myr F5 host using Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys astrometry over a time baseline of 8.3 yr. DUSTY and COND evolutionary models predict that the companion's luminosity corresponds to a mass of 11 ± 2 M {sub Jup}, making it one of the most widely separated planetary-mass companions known. We classify its Magellan/Folded-Port InfraRed Echellette J/H/K spectrum as L2.5 ± 1; the triangular H-band morphology suggests an intermediate surface gravity. HD 106906 A, a pre-main-sequence Lower Centaurus Crux member, was initially targeted because it hosts a massive debris disk detected via infrared excess emission in unresolved Spitzer imaging and spectroscopy. The disk emission is best fit by a single component at 95 K, corresponding to an inner edge of 15-20 AU and an outer edge of up to 120 AU. If the companion is on an eccentric (e > 0.65) orbit, it could be interacting with the outer edge of the disk. Close-in, planet-like formation followed by scattering to the current location would likely disrupt the disk and is disfavored. Furthermore, we find no additional companions, though we could detect similar-mass objects at projected separations >35 AU. In situ formation in a binary-star-like process is more probable, although the companion-to-primary mass ratio, at <1%, is unusually small.

  19. Gene therapy by electroporation for the treatment of chronic renal failure in companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Melissa A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH plasmid-based therapy for the treatment of chronic renal failure and its complications was examined. Companion dogs (13.1 ± 0.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.01 kg and cats (13.2 ± 0.9 years, 8.5 ± 0.37 kg received a single 0.4 mg or 0.1 mg species-specific plasmid injection, respectively, intramuscularly followed by electroporation, and analyzed up to 75 days post-treatment; controls underwent electroporation without plasmid administration. Results Plasmid-treated animals showed an increase in body weight (dogs 22.5% and cats 3.2% compared to control animals, and displayed improved quality of life parameters including significant increases in appetite, activity, mentation and exercise tolerance levels. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, the downstream effector of GHRH levels were increased in the plasmid treated animals. Hematological parameters were also significantly improved. Protein metabolism changes were observed suggesting a shift from a catabolic to an anabolic state in the treated animals. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine did not show any significant changes suggesting maintenance of kidney function whereas the control animal's renal function deteriorated. Treated animals survived longer than control animals with 70% of dogs and 80% of cats surviving until study day 75. Only 17% and 40% of the control dogs and cats, respectively, survived to day 75. Conclusion Improved quality of life, survival and general well-being indicate that further investigation is warranted, and show the potential of a plasmid-based therapy by electroporation in preventing and managing complications of renal insufficiency.

  20. Syndromic surveillance in companion animals utilizing electronic medical records data: development and proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H. Kass

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to recognize and address communicable and point-source epidemics in dog and cat populations, this project created a near real-time syndromic surveillance system devoted to companion animal health in the United States. With over 150 million owned pets in the US, the development of such a system is timely in light of previous epidemics due to various causes that were only recognized in retrospect. The goal of this study was to develop epidemiologic and statistical methods for veterinary hospital-based surveillance, and to demonstrate its efficacy by detection of simulated foodborne outbreaks using a database of over 700 hospitals. Data transfer protocols were established via a secure file transfer protocol site, and a data repository was constructed predominantly utilizing open-source software. The daily proportion of patients with a given clinical or laboratory finding was contrasted with an equivalent average proportion from a historical comparison period, allowing construction of the proportionate diagnostic outcome ratio and its confidence interval for recognizing aberrant heath events. A five-tiered alert system was used to facilitate daily assessment of almost 2,000 statistical analyses. Two simulated outbreak scenarios were created by independent experts, blinded to study investigators, and embedded in the 2010 medical records. Both outbreaks were detected almost immediately by the alert system, accurately detecting species affected using relevant clinical and laboratory findings, and ages involved. Besides demonstrating proof-in-concept of using veterinary hospital databases to detect aberrant events in space and time, this research can be extended to conducting post-detection etiologic investigations utilizing exposure information in the medical record.

  1. Factors influencing satisfaction with emergency department medical service: Patients' and their companions' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Heesook; Yom, Young-Hee

    2017-01-01

    To examine the individual determinants that influence satisfaction with medical services at the emergency department and to compare the factors that influence satisfaction for the patients, compared with their companions. Using data from the 2009 Korea Health Panel Survey, Andersen's behavioral model was used to examine the factors that affect satisfaction with service. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with the data. Patients who were older, female, and employed were more satisfied with the service, as were patients who visited more frequently and those who had non-surgical treatment. Companions who had less education, were accompanying non-Medicaid-holders, and spent a longer time in the emergency department were less likely to be satisfied. This was in contrast to those who spent a shorter amount of time in the emergency department and who visited due to illness, rather than injury; these companions were more satisfied with the service. When all the factors were analyzed simultaneously, they differed significantly between the two groups of patients and companions. Different factors contributed to the satisfaction with the services for the patients and their companions. In order to increase the satisfaction levels and improve the quality of care in emergency departments, it is necessary to consider more specific approaches that reflect the different perspectives of the visitors to the emergency department. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  2. Friends in low places: The impact of locations and companions on 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Young, Chelsie M; Tomkins, Mary M; DiBello, Angelo M; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined how various locations and companions were associated with hazardous drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The sample included 912 college students (57% female) who completed an online survey to examine 21st birthday drinking. Locations included bars, friends' houses, restaurants, outdoor barbecues, homes, parents' homes, and Fraternity/Sorority houses. Companions included friends, family members, casual acquaintances, roommates, significant others, Fraternity/Sorority members, and none (alone). Participants consumed an average of 7.6 drinks and reached an average eBAC of .15 during their 21st birthday celebrations. Locations accounted for 20%/18% of the variance in number of drinks and eBAC, respectively, whereas companions accounted for 23%/20% of the variance. Drinking with romantic partners was associated with less drinking, whereas drinking with Fraternity/Sorority members was associated with more drinking. Stepwise regressions combining locations and companions suggested that, overall, celebrating in a bar setting and with Fraternity and Sorority members were the strongest variables associated with drinking. With the exception of a bar setting, companions were the most important contextual factors associated with 21st birthday drinking.

  3. Organizational and leadership perceptions assessment: opportunities and challenges using the Baldrige companion surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lisa M; Perla, Rocco J; Carifio, James; Bernhardt, Jean M; Slayton, Val W

    2011-01-01

    Combining the use of employee perception surveys with sound analytical techniques and models is critical to capturing high quality data from which effective decisions can be made in complex healthcare settings. This study used the Baldrige Award companion surveys with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) framework to identify discordant perceptions of hospital staff and leadership in the areas of customer focus, knowledge management, and results that were significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 levels. Senior leaders in the organization found the ANOVA framework helpful as they interpreted results from the Baldrige companion surveys and planned future improvement activities. During the execution of our study a number of difficulties and challenges arose that are not uncommon to survey administration in smaller settings, such as community hospitals, or in larger hospital settings with no research staff or research staff with relevant psychometric expertise. Our experience suggests that the Baldrige companion survey process would be enhanced by providing organizations with general guidance and protocols for optimal survey administration and data analysis. The purpose of this article is to outline the ANOVA model we used with the Baldrige companion surveys and to provide guidance related to the administration and analysis of these companion surveys for those that use them.

  4. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU PSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Boucher, Anne [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal H3C 3J7 (Canada); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Allard, France; Homeier, Derek [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574 CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Christopher R., E-mail: naud@astro.umontreal.ca [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present the discovery of a comoving planetary-mass companion ∼42'' (∼2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, a likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i – z color (>3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5 ± 1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates T {sub eff} = 1000-1100 K and log g = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 M {sub Jup} for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE 9.

  5. The Endurance of Love: Passionate and Companionate Love in Newlywed and Long-term Marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Utne O’Brien

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Most theorists assume that the passage of time will have a very different impact on passionate versus companionate love. Passionate love is said to decline fairly quickly, while companionate love is thought to remain fairly stable (or actually increase over time.This hypothesis was tested in two studies. In Study 1, we interviewed 53 newlywed couples soon after their marriages and again one year later, when presumably (for some the “honeymoon was over.” In Study 2, we interviewed a random sample of 240 older women, ranging in age from 50-82, who had been married varying lengths of time. (The median length of marriage was 33 years. We asked about their passionate and companionate love for their partners and their partner’s love for them. In Study 1, it was found that although newlywed men and women loved with equal passion, women tended to love their partners more companionately than they were loved in return. (This is in accord with previous research with dating couples. The results for people married many years were more complex.Finally, we turned to the question with which we are most concerned: What impact does time have on love? In both Study 1 and Study 2, time did have a corrosive effect on love—but to our surprise it appeared to have an equally detrimental effect on both passionate and companionate love.

  6. Long-term tidal evolution of short-period planets with companions

    CERN Document Server

    Mardling, Rosemary A

    2007-01-01

    Of the fourteen transiting extrasolar planetary systems for which radii have been measured, at least three appear to be considerably larger than theoretical estimates suggest. It has been proposed by Bodenheimer, Lin & Mardling that undetected companions acting to excite the orbital eccentricity are responsible for these oversized planets, as they find new equilibrium radii in response to being tidally heated. In the case of HD 209458, this hypothesis has been rejected by some authors because there is no sign of such a companion at the 5 m/s level, and because it is difficult to say conclusively that the eccentricity is non-zero. Transit timing analysis [...]. Whether or not a companion is responsible for the large radius of HD 209458b, almost certainly some short-period systems have companions which force their eccentricities to nonzero values. This paper is dedi. to quantifying this effect. The eccentricity of a short-period planet will only be excited as long as its (non-resonant) companion's eccentric...

  7. Korean-Japanese Planet Search Program: Substellar Companions around Intermediate-Mass Giants

    CERN Document Server

    Omiya, Masashi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Sato, Bun'ei; Kim, Kang-Min; Yoon, Tae Seog; Kambe, Eiji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Masuda, Seiji; Toyota, Eri; Urakawa, Seitaro; Takada-Hidai, Masahide

    2011-01-01

    A Korean-Japanese planet search program has been carried out using the 1.8m telescope at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO) in Korea, and the 1.88m telescope at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO) in Japan to search for planets around intermediate-mass giant stars. The program aims to show the properties of planetary systems around such stars by precise Doppler survey of about 190 G or K type giants together with collaborative surveys of the East-Asian Planet Search Network. So far, we detected two substellar companions around massive intermediate-mass giants in the Korean-Japanese planet search program. One is a brown dwarf-mass companion with 37.6 $M_{\\mathrm{J}}$ orbiting a giant HD 119445 with 3.9 $M_{\\odot}$, which is the most massive brown dwarf companion among those found around intermediate-mass giants. The other is a planetary companion with 1.8 $M_{\\mathrm{J}}$ orbiting a giant star with 2.4 $M_{\\odot}$, which is the lowest-mass planetary companion among those detected around giant s...

  8. Constraints on the Binary Companion to the SN Ic 1994I Progenitor

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D; Zapartas, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (SNe), marking the deaths of massive stars, are among the most powerful explosions in the Universe, responsible, e.g., for a predominant synthesis of chemical elements in their host galaxies. The majority of massive stars are thought to be born in close binary systems. To date, putative binary companions to the progenitors of SNe may have been detected in only two cases, SNe 1993J and 2011dh. We report on the search for a companion of the progenitor of the Type Ic SN 1994I, long considered to have been the result of binary interaction. Twenty years after explosion, we used the Hubble Space Telescope to observe the SN site in the ultraviolet (F275W and F336W bands), resulting in deep upper limits on the expected companion: F275W > 26.1 mag and F336W > 24.7 mag. These allows us to exclude the presence of a main sequence companion with a mass >~ 10 Msun. Through comparison with theoretical simulations of possible progenitor populations, we show that the upper limits to a companion detect...

  9. A Radio Search For Pulsar Companions To SDSS Low-Mass White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Agueros, Marcel A; Silvestri, Nicole M; Kleinman, S J; Anderson, Scott F; Liebert, James W

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a search for pulsar companions to 15 low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs; M < 0.4 M_Sun) at 820 MHz with the NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These LMWDs were spectroscopically identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and do not show the photometric excess or spectroscopic signature associated with a companion in their discovery data. However, LMWDs are believed to evolve in binary systems and to have either a more massive WD or a neutron star as a companion. Indeed, evolutionary models of low-mass X-ray binaries, the precursors of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), produce significant numbers of LMWDs (e.g., Benvenuto & De Vito 2005), suggesting that the SDSS LMWDs may have neutron star companions. No convincing pulsar signal is detected in our data. This is consistent with the findings of van Leeuwen et al. (2007), who conducted a GBT search for radio pulsations at 340 MHz from unseen companions to eight SDSS WDs (five are still considered LMWDs; the three others are now classified as "...

  10. Wide companions to Hipparcos stars within 67 pc of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    A catalog of common-proper-motion (CPM) companions to stars within 67 pc of the Sun is constructed based on the SUPERBLINK proper-motion survey. It contains 1392 CPM pairs with angular separations 30" < \\rho < 1800", relative proper motion between the two components less than 25 mas/yr, magnitudes and colors of the secondaries consistent with those of dwarfs in the (M_V,V-J) diagram. In addition, we list 21 candidate white-dwarf CPM companions with separations under 300", about half of which should be physical. We estimate a 0.31 fraction of pairs with red-dwarf companions to be physical systems (about 425 objects), while the rest (mostly wide pairs) are chance alignments. For each candidate companion, the probability of a physical association is evaluated. The distribution of projected separations s of the physical pairs between 2 kAU and 64 kAU follows f(s) ~ s^{-1.5}, which decreases faster than \\"Opik's law. We find that Solar-mass dwarfs have no less than 4.4% +/- 0.3% companions with separations l...

  11. “HE MADE ME SPECIAL”: IMAGINARY COMPANIONS, FUNCTIONS AND PARENTAL ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Benincasa Velludo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Imaginary companions are one especially elaborated form of pretend play, so frequent in their creators’ daily lives that they can actually serve the function of keeping them company. The characteristics of these types of fantasy creations, as well as their possible functions, were investigated in a sample of 18 children between 6 and 7 years of age (M = 85 months, SD = 4,82; range = 76 – 94 months; 10 girls e 8 boys who had imaginary companions. These children participated in a larger study that aimed at comparing sociocognitive and language development in children with (n = 18 and without imaginary companions (n = 22. In order to investigate parental attitudes toward the phenomenon, parents/caretakers of children (from both groups from the first study were invited to participate, and 11 (10 mothers and 1 grandmother accepted the invitation. The reported characteristics of imaginary companions were diverse (i.e., physical appearance, type, age, for how long they have been friends, and their functions were associated with different needs, such as company, fun or emotional comfort. Whereas the majority of parents associated the phenomenon with an exercise of imagination, some believed the experience could be indicative of problems, for example, a loss of contact with reality or the influence of evil entities. The findings of the present research are consistent with international studies on imaginary companions. We hope these results may contribute to advancing this line of investigation in Brazil.

  12. The APOGEE DR13 Catalog of Stellar and Substellar Companion Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Nicholas William; APOGEE RV Variability Working Group

    2017-01-01

    The SDSS Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), expanding beyond its original intent as a Galactic structure survey, has demonstrated its capability as a radial velocity (RV) machine with the publication of a catalog of stellar and substellar companion candidates based on SDSS’s 12th data release (DR12). We expand upon this work by taking advantage of the improved parameters and additional information provided in APOGEE’s latest data release (DR13) to build an improved catalog of stellar and substellar companions. The newly available rotational velocity measurements provides an additional check against false-positive orbital solutions, and aids investigations of the role of tidal interactions in shaping the brown dwarf desert. In addition, we present initial tests of an automated cross-corellation function (CCF) bisector analysis code that allows us to detect spectrally unresolved companions and, in some cases, break the inclination degeneracy of RV detections. Finally, we present analysis of the detailed chemical abundances of the host stars in our sample. In particular, we use this abundance information to disentangle the formation mechanisms of brown dwarf companions from those of gas giant planets and low mass stellar companions.

  13. The MHC molecules of nonmammalian vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Skjoedt, K; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    There is very little known about the long-term evolution of the MHC and MHC-like molecules. This is because both the theory (the evolutionary questions and models) and the practice (the animals systems, functional assays and reagents to identify and characterize these molecules) have been difficu...

  14. The MHC molecules of nonmammalian vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Skjoedt, K; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    to develop. There is no molecular evidence yet to decide whether vertebrate immune systems (and particularly the MHC molecules) are evolutionarily related to invertebrate allorecognition systems, and the functional evidence can be interpreted either way. Even among the vertebrates, there is great...

  15. Shadows of our Former Companions: How the Single-Degenerate Binary Type Ia Supernova Scenario Affects Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, William J; Owen, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    Here we present three-dimensional high resolution simulations of Type Ia supernova in the presence of a non-degenerate companion. We find that the presence of a nearby companion leaves a long-lived hole in the supernova ejecta. In particular, we aim to study the long term evolution of this hole as the supernova ejecta interacts with the surrounding interstellar medium. Using estimates for the x-ray emission, we find that the hole generated by the companion remains for many centuries after the interaction between the ejecta and the interstellar medium. We also show that the hole is discernible over a wide range of viewing angles and companion masses.

  16. Inferring the Composition of Super-Jupiter Mass Companions of Pulsars with Radio Line Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Alak; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-02-01

    We propose using radio line spectroscopy to detect molecular absorption lines (such as OH at 1.6–1.7 GHz) before and after the total eclipse of black widow and other short orbital period binary pulsars with low-mass companions. The companion in such a binary may be ablated away by energetic particles and high-energy radiation produced by the pulsar wind. The observations will probe the eclipsing wind being ablated by the pulsar and constrain the nature of the companion and its surroundings. Maser emission from the interstellar medium stimulated by a pulsar beam might also be detected from the intrabinary medium. The short temporal resolution allowed by the millisecond pulsars can probe this medium with the high angular resolution of the pulsar beam.

  17. Challenges and opportunities for next-generation sequencing in companion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Erick; Chien, Jeremy; Ong, Frank S; Fan, Jian-Bing

    2015-02-01

    The rapid decline in sequencing costs has allowed next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays, previously ubiquitous only in research laboratories, to begin making inroads into molecular diagnostics. Genotypic assays - DNA sequencing - include whole genome sequencing, whole exome sequencing, focused assays that target only a handful of genes. Phenotypic assays comprise a broader spectrum of options and can query a variety of epigenetic modifications of DNA (such as ChIP-seq, bisulfite sequencing, DNase-I hypersensitivity site-sequencing, Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements-sequencing, etc.) that regulate gene expression-related processes or gene expression (RNA-sequencing) itself. To date, the US FDA has only cleared 12 DNA-based companion diagnostic tests, all in cancer. Although challenges exist for NGS in companion diagnostics, the wide-ranging capabilities of NGS offer extraordinary opportunities for the development and implementation of NGS-based companion diagnostics to probe oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and cancer-enabling genes.

  18. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cito, F.; Rijks, J.; Rantsios, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    on methods described by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Modifications were applied to allow for the paucity of specific information on companion animal transmissible diseases. The OIE method was also adapted to the subject and to the regional scope of the interprofessional network addressing......A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals....... In this study, available epidemiological data for diseases transmissible from companion animals to man were analysed with the aim of developing a procedure suitable for their prioritization within a European framework. A new method and its associated questionnaire and scoring system were designed based...

  19. An upper limit to the mass of a close companion candidate to {\\sigma} Ori E

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, José A; Lillo-Box, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The famous, very young, helium rich, magnetically-active, radio and X-ray emitter, short-period rotationally variable, spectroscopically peculiar star {\\sigma} Ori E may have a close late-type stellar companion, which could explain flaring activity observed in some {\\sigma} Ori E X-ray light curves. In 2009, Bouy et al. announced the detection of a faint companion candidate in the Ks band at 0.330 arcsec (130 AU) to the B2 Vp primary. Here, we carry out z'-band lucky imaging with AstraLux at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope in an attempt to constrain the properties of the companion candidate to {\\sigma} Ori E. We impose a maximum mass of 2.0+0.2-0.1 Msol and an earliest spectral type of K2+/-1, which leaves the door open to a new, inexpensive, near-infrared, adaptive-optics study.

  20. Parallactic Motion for Companion Discovery: An M-Dwarf Orbiting Alcor

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman, Neil; Hinkley, Sasha; Brenner, Douglas; Parry, Ian R; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Beichman, Charles; Crepp, Justin R; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C; Burruss, Rick; King, David L; Soummer, Rémi; Dekany, Richard; Shao, Michael; Bouchez, Antonin; Roberts, Jennifer E; Hunt, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The A5V star Alcor has an M3-M4 dwarf companion, as evidenced by a novel astrometric technique. Imaging spectroscopy combined with adaptive optics coronagraphy allowed for the detection and spectrophotometric characterization of the point source at a contrast of ~6 J- and H-band magnitudes and separation of 1" from the primary star. The use of an astrometric pupil plane grid allowed us to determine the projected separations between the companion and the coronagraphically occulted primary star to <=3 milliarcsecond precision at two observation epochs. Our measurements demonstrate common parallactic and proper motion over the course of 103 days, significantly shorter than the period of time needed for most companion confirmations through proper motion measurements alone. This common parallax method is potentially more rigorous than common proper motion, ensuring that the neighboring bodies lie at the same distance, rather than relying on the statistical improbability that two objects in close proximity to ea...

  1. Spin–Orbit Misalignment of Merging Black Hole Binaries with Tertiary Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Lai, Dong

    2017-09-01

    We study the effect of an external companion on the orbital and spin evolution of merging black hole (BH) binaries. A sufficiently nearby and inclined companion can excite Lidov–Kozai (LK) eccentricity oscillations in the binary, thereby shortening its merger time. During such LK-enhanced orbital decay, the spin axis of the BH generally exhibits chaotic evolution, leading to a wide range (0°–180°) of the final spin–orbit misalignment angle from an initially aligned configuration. For systems that do not experience eccentricity excitation, only modest (≲ 20^\\circ ) spin–orbit misalignment can be produced, and we derive an analytic expression for the final misalignment using the principle of adiabatic invariance. The spin–orbit misalignment directly impacts the gravitational waveform and can be used to constrain the formation scenarios of BH binaries and dynamical influences of external companions.

  2. [Reception in the hospital environment: perspectives of companions of hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, Adelina Giacomelli; dos Santos, José Luis Guedes; Pradebon, Vania Marta; Schimith, Maria Denise

    2009-03-01

    Reception procedures are one of the main guidelines concerning the health care production, even though the studies on this subject are focused upon primary health care. This paper aimed to understand the way reception is experienced by the companions of hospitalized patients and discuss their difficulties while accompanying the patients in a hospital environment. This is a qualitative study, conducted with 77 companions of patients hospitalized in a university hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected through interviews and examined by the content analysis. According to the companions' perceptions, the reception procedure is associated to clarifying rules and routines, as well as meals delivery; the main difficulties were related to the physical structure and the noise in the hospital environment. A need for reconsidering the established models for health assistance is pointed, as well as the importance of improving health care practices based on light technology.

  3. Substellar Companions to Evolved Intermediate-Mass Stars: HD 145457 and HD 180314

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Bun'ei; Liu, Yujuan; Harakawa, Hiroki; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Kambe, Eiji; Toyota, Eri; Murata, Daisuke; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Masuda, Seiji; Takeda, Yoichi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Ando, Hiroyasu; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Ida, Shigeru; Zhao, Gang; Han, Inwoo

    2010-01-01

    We report the detections of two substellar companions orbiting around evolved intermediate-mass stars from precise Doppler measurements at Subaru Telescope and Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. HD 145457 is a K0 giant with a mass of 1.9 M_sun and has a planet of minimum mass m_2sini=2.9 M_J orbiting with period of P=176 d and eccentricity of e=0.11. HD 180314 is also a K0 giant with 2.6 M_sun and hosts a substellar companion of m_2sin i=22 M_J, which falls in brown-dwarf mass regime, in an orbit with P=396 d and e=0.26. HD 145457 b is one of the innermost planets and HD 180314 b is the seventh candidate of brown-dwarf-mass companion found around intermediate-mass evolved stars.

  4. Evaluation of a Digital Companion for Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Lazar, Amanda; Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a digital companion system used by older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We utilized a commercially available system that is comprehensive in its functionalities (including conversation ability, use of pictures and other media, and reminders) to explore the system’s impact on older adults ‘ social interactions, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and acceptance of the system. Study Design: We conducted a three-month mixed methods evaluation study of the digital companion. Results: Ten female community-dwelling older adults (average age 78.3 years) participated in the study. Overall, participants utilized the tool regularly and appreciated its presence and their interactions. Participants scored higher at the end of the study in cognition and social support scales, and lower in presence of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Findings indicate the feasibility of a digital companion for people with MCI and inform the need for additional research. PMID:28269845

  5. On the Brightness of Surviving Companions in Type Ia Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, Kazuhiro; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    The progenitor systems for type Ia supernovae are still controversial. One of the methods to test the proposed scenario for the progenitor systems is to identify companions that are supposed to survive according to the so-called single degenerate scenario. These companions might be affected by supernova ejecta. We present several numerical simulations of surviving red-giant companions whose envelopes were stripped and heated. We find that red-giants with less-massive helium cores ($\\lesssim0.30\\,M_{\\odot}$) can be so faint after the supernovae that we cannot detect them. In addition, we apply the results to the case of SNR 0509-67.5, and put constraints on the helium core mass, envelope stripping, and energy injection under the single degenerate scenario for type Ia supernovae.

  6. All creatures great and minute: a public policy primer for companion animal zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaser, J K; Clark, E E; Meyers, N M

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 63% of US households have at least one pet, a large percentage of which are considered family members. Pet owners can derive substantial physical and psychological benefits from interaction with companion animals. However, pet ownership is not without risks; zoonotic diseases are increasingly drawing the attention of healthcare professionals, policy makers and the general public. While zoonoses of 'traditional' pets are widely recognized and their prevention and treatment factors are generally known, the growing popularity of 'non-traditional' pets has the potential to facilitate human exposure to novel zoonoses. However, the greatest risk of zoonoses probably arises from animals taken directly from the wild to serve as pets. Non-governmental organizations, state veterinary associations and others have been calling for increased regulation of animal imports, some proposing that all 'exotics' be banned from the pet trade. Because zoonotic diseases of companion animals are influenced by interacting factors of ecological, technical, socio-economic, and political origin, efforts to minimize their impact need be multi-dimensional, simultaneously addressing both the ecological and socio-political drivers of disease emergence and transmission. This study is intended to serve as a primer for animal care professionals seeking to engage with policy makers and the pet industry on the prevention of companion animal zoonoses. We provide background on the human-animal bond, risks of zoonoses associated with groups of companion animals, and the public policy context, as well as identify the factors needed to build a comprehensive approach to companion animal zoonoses risk management. Also included are examples of innovative, non-regulatory initiatives designed to limit the spread and impact of companion animal zoonoses, including a reptile salmonella poster, the National Reptile Improvement Plan, Habitattitude campaign, Pet Zoonoses Committee, and a wildlife disease

  7. RPR test for serological survey of rabbit syphilis in companion rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kumiko; Tagawa, Masayo; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2003-07-01

    Since the RPR (rapid plasma regain) test was found to be useful for the diagnosis of rabbit syphilis, serological survey by this test has been carried out in Japanese companion rabbits. A hundred virgin household rabbits kept alone and without signs and history of syphilis were examined by RPR test from April 2001 to March 2002, in Tokyo, Japan. The test was positive in 35 cases and negative in 65 cases. RPR negative rabbits should be selected for breeding to prevent the spread of rabbit syphilis in companion rabbits in Japan.

  8. Multidrug resistant bacteria in companion animals: impact on animal health and zoonotic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro

    The role of companion animals as a source of antibiotic resistant bacteria has historically been given little emphasis when compared with that of food animals. However, various resistant bacteria may cause serious treatment problems in companion animal medicine. Some of the most important multidrug......-resistant bacteria include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. These bacteria will be described with focus on their prevalence across Europe, their impact on animal...

  9. Social Environment and Control Status of Companion Animal-Borne Zoonoses in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, Hiromi; Omoe, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary The risk of companion animal-borne zoonoses has been rising in Japan with the tendency for increasing number of households to ever-growing numbers and varieties of animals as pets. In response, the Japanese government has implemented measures for the domestic and border control of zoonoses. However, it is impossible to determine whether these measures have adequately controlled the transmission of companion animal-borne zoonoses, due to a lack of (i) direct evidence linking companion animal involvement in disease and (ii) understanding of current trends in disease outbreak. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data necessary to make this determination and identify these trends. Abstract Changing social and environmental factors have been the cause of an increase in the number and variety of animals are being imported into Japan. Moreover, the number of Japanese households are keeping companion animals has also risen. These factors, along with the high density of the Japanese population and the low percentage of registered dogs, have increased the risk of animal-to-human transmission of zoonoses. To control zoonosis outbreaks, the Japanese government has implemented a three-stage approach for the border control of zoonoses and has stipulated the monitoring and reporting of eight companion animal-borne zoonoses under the Rabies Prevention Law and the Infectious Diseases Control Law. The fact that no case of human and animal rabies has been reported over the past 50 years indicates that these measures are highly effective in preventing rabies transmission. Although it is known that the total number of possible companion animal-borne zoonosis outbreaks decreased between 2005 and 2009 when compared with numbers between 2001 and 2004, the number of zoonosis cases that can be attributed to transmission by companion animals remains unclear. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data

  10. EVOLUTIONARY TRAJECTORIES OF ULTRACOMPACT 'BLACK WIDOW' PULSARS WITH VERY LOW MASS COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and Instituto de Astrofisica de La Plata (IALP), CCT-CONICET-UNLP, Paseo del Bosque S/N (B1900FWA), La Plata (Argentina); Horvath, J. E., E-mail: obenvenu@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: adevito@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: foton@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, R. do Matao 1226 (05508-090), Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-10

    The existence of millisecond pulsars with planet-mass companions in close orbits is challenging from the stellar evolution point of view. We calculate in detail the evolution of binary systems self-consistently, including mass transfer, evaporation, and irradiation of the donor by X-ray feedback, demonstrating the existence of a new evolutionary path leading to short periods and compact donors as required by the observations of PSR J1719-1438. We also point out the alternative of an exotic nature of the companion planet-mass star.

  11. The model companion of the class of pseudocomplemented semilattices is finitely axiomatizable

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Joël

    2012-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that the class $\\mathcal{PCSL}^{ec}$ of existentially closed pseudocomplemented semilattices is finitely axiomatizable by appropriately extending the finite axiomatization of the class $\\mathcal{\\mathcal{PCSL}}^{ac}$ of algebraically closed pseudocomplemented semilattices presented in Rupp, Addler, and Schmid. Because $\\mathcal{PCSL}^{ec}$ coincides with the model companion of the class $\\mathcal{PCSL}$ of pseudocomplemented semilattices this addendum to Rupp, Addler, and Schmid solves the problem posed by Albert and Burris in the final paragraph of their paper: "Does the class of pseudocomplemented semilattices have a finitely axiomatizable model companion?"

  12. Evolutionary trajectories of ultra-compact "black widow" pulsars with very low mass companions

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuto, O G; Horvath, J E

    2012-01-01

    The existence of millisecond pulsars with planet-mass companions (Bailes et al., 2011) in close orbits is challenging from the stellar evolution point of view. We calculate in detail the evolution of binary systems self-consistently, including mass transfer, evaporation and irradiation of the donor by X-rays feedback, demonstrating the existence of a new evolutionary path leading to short periods and compact donors as required by the observations of PSR J1719-1438. We also point out the alternative of an exotic nature of the companion planet-mass star.

  13. HW Vir's Companion: a M-type Dwarf, or maybe a giant rotating spherical Mirror?

    CERN Document Server

    Edelmann, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    From optical high-resolution spectra the nature of the unseen companion of HW Vir is determined without detection of any spectral features originating from the secondary itself. Using radial velocity measurements from the primary hot subdwarf B star and from weak additional absorption lines detected close to the secondary eclipse, probably caused by reflected light off the surface of the secondary, the mass and radius of the companion is determined. The values are consistent with those of a M type main sequence star.

  14. Origins of knowledge: Insights from precocial species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eVersace

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural responses are influenced by knowledge acquired during the lifetime of an individual and by predispositions transmitted across generations. Establishing the origin of knowledge and the role of the unlearned component is a challenging task, given that both learned and unlearned knowledge can orient perception, learning, and the encoding of environmental features since the first stages of life. Ethical and practical issues constrain the investigation of unlearned knowledge in altricial species, including human beings. On the contrary, precocial animals can be tested on a wide range of tasks and capabilities immediately after birth and in controlled rearing conditions. Insects and precocial avian species are very convenient models to dissect the knowledge systems that enable young individuals to cope with their environment in the absence of specific previous experience. We present the state of the art of research on the origins of knowledge that come from different models and disciplines. Insects have been mainly used to investigate unlearned sensory preferences and prepared learning mechanisms. The relative simplicity of the neural system and fast life cycle of insects make them ideal models to investigate the neural circuitry and evolutionary dynamics of unlearned traits. Among avian species, chicks of the domestic fowl have been the focus of many studies, and showed to possess unlearned knowledge in the sensory, physical, spatial, numerical and social domains. Solid evidence shows the existence of unlearned knowledge in different domains in several species, from sensory and social preferences to the left-right representation of the mental number line. We show how non-mammalian models of cognition, and in particular precocial species, can shed light into the adaptive value and evolutionary history of unlearned knowledge.

  15. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    habitat (forests: range 0.8-2.2 ticks/100 m(2)) between three and seven times lower than the density of D. reticulatus in its typical habitat. In regions endemic for marsh ticks, this tick species constitutes the main risk of tick infestation for livestock and dogs throughout the year. Livestock and companion animals are competent hosts for D. reticulatus, enabling the completion of the tick's life cycle. Anti-tick treatment should be adjusted to marsh tick seasonal activity and drug sensitivity.

  16. Immunolocalization of solanaceous SUT1 proteins in companion cells and xylem parenchyma: new perspectives for phloem loading and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Bianca; Stadler, Ruth; Sauer, Norbert

    2008-09-01

    Leaf sucrose (Suc) transporters are essential for phloem loading and long-distance partitioning of assimilates in plants that load their phloem from the apoplast. Suc loading into the phloem is indispensable for the generation of the osmotic potential difference that drives phloem bulk flow and is central for the long-distance movement of phloem sap compounds, including hormones and signaling molecules. In previous analyses, solanaceous SUT1 Suc transporters from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were immunolocalized in plasma membranes of enucleate sieve elements. Here, we present data that identify solanaceous SUT1 proteins with high specificity in phloem companion cells. Moreover, comparisons of SUT1 localization in the abaxial and adaxial phloem revealed higher levels of SUT1 protein in the abaxial phloem of all three solanaceous species, suggesting different physiological roles for these two types of phloem. Finally, SUT1 proteins were identified in files of xylem parenchyma cells, mainly in the bicollateral veins. Together, our data provide new insight into the role of SUT1 proteins in solanaceous species.

  17. New M, L, and T Dwarf Companions to Nearby Stars from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, Kevin L; McCurdy, Nicholas S; Mace, Gregory N; Melso, Nicole D; Star, Kimberly M; Young, Michael D; Terrien, Ryan C; McLean, Ian S; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Rhode, Katherine L

    2012-01-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dw...

  18. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Swain West 319, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Davy Kirkpatrick, J., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  19. Exploring Learning Performance toward Cognitive Approaches of a Virtual Companion System in LINE App for m-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Wen; Wu, Min-Ping

    2013-01-01

    This paper used a Virtual Companion System (VCS) to examine how specific design variables within virtual learning companion affect the learning process of learners as defined by the cognitive continuum of field-dependent, field-independent and field-mixed learners in LINE app for m-learning. The data were collected from 198 participants in a…

  20. Children with Imaginary Companions Focus on Mental Characteristics When Describing Their Real-life Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paige E.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Relations between having an imaginary companion (IC) and (i) descriptions of a real-life friend, (ii) theory of mind performance, and (iii) reported prosocial behaviour and behavioural difficulties were investigated in a sample of 5-year-olds (N?=?159). Children who had an IC were more likely than their peers without an IC to describe their best…

  1. Imaginary Companions, Theory of Mind and Emotion Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Pons, Francisco; Bender, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of imaginary companions (ICs) has received little attention in developmental psychology, even though it can be observed in approximately 25% of preschool-aged children. Only a few studies have investigated the effect of ICs on children's theory of mind and emotion understanding, and the results are partial or inconsistent. This…

  2. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SUPERGIANT H I SHELL AND PUTATIVE COMPANION IN NGC 6822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; O' Leary, Erin M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Bigiel, Frank [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Cole, Andrew A.; Walter, Fabian [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart 7001, Tasmania (Australia); De Blok, W.J.G., E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: eoleary@macalester.edu, E-mail: dweisz@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: bigiel@uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: andrew.cole@utas.edu.au, E-mail: edeblok@ast.uct.ac.za, E-mail: walter@mpia.de [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)

    2012-03-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging of six positions spanning 5.8 kpc of the H I major axis of the Local Group dIrr NGC 6822, including both the putative companion galaxy and the large H I hole. The resulting deep color-magnitude diagrams show that NGC 6822 has formed >50% of its stars in the last {approx}5 Gyr. The star formation histories of all six positions are similar over the most recent 500 Myr, including low-level star formation throughout this interval and a weak increase in star formation rate during the most recent 50 Myr. Stellar feedback can create the giant H I hole, assuming that the lifetime of the structure is longer than 500 Myr; such long-lived structures have now been observed in multiple systems and may be the norm in galaxies with solid-body rotation. The old stellar populations (red giants and red clump stars) of the putative companion are consistent with those of the extended halo of NGC 6822; this argues against the interpretation of this structure as a bona fide interacting companion galaxy and against its being linked to the formation of the H I hole via an interaction. Since there is no evidence in the stellar population of a companion galaxy, the most likely explanation of the extended H I structure in NGC 6822 is a warped disk inclined to the line of sight.

  3. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cito, F; Rijks, J; Rantsios, A T; Cunningham, A A; Baneth, G; Guardabassi, L; Kuiken, T; Giovannini, A

    2016-01-01

    A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals. In this stud

  4. Assessing the Effect of Stellar Companions from High-resolution Imaging of Kepler Objects of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Lea A.; Ciardi, David R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Everett, Mark E.; Furlan, Elise; Saylors, Mindy; Horch, Elliott P.; Howell, Steve B.; Teske, Johanna; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2017-03-01

    We report on 176 close (imaging near 170 hosts of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). These Kepler targets were prioritized for imaging follow-up based on the presence of small planets, so most of the KOIs in these systems (176 out of 204) have nominal radii filters with adaptive optics, speckle imaging, lucky imaging, or the Hubble Space Telescope. Multi-filter photometry provides color information on the companions, allowing us to constrain their stellar properties and assess the probability that the companions are physically bound. We find that 60%-80% of companions within 1″ are bound, and the bound fraction is >90% for companions within 0.″5 the bound fraction decreases with increasing angular separation. This picture is consistent with simulations of the binary and background stellar populations in the Kepler field. We also reassess the planet radii in these systems, converting the observed differential magnitudes to a contamination in the Kepler bandpass and calculating the planet radius correction factor, X R = R p (true)/R p (single). Under the assumption that planets in bound binaries are equally likely to orbit the primary or secondary, we find a mean radius correction factor for planets in stellar multiples of X R = 1.65. If stellar multiplicity in the Kepler field is similar to the solar neighborhood, then nearly half of all Kepler planets may have radii underestimated by an average of 65%, unless vetted using high-resolution imaging or spectroscopy.

  5. No Neutron Star Companion To The Lowest Mass SDSS White Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Agueros, Marcel; Camilo, Fernando; Kilic, Mukremin; Anderson, Scott; Freire, Paulo; Kleinman, Scot; Liebert, James; Silvestri, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    SDSS J091709.55+463821.8 (hereafter J0917+4638) is the lowest surface gravity white dwarf (WD) currently known, with log g = 5.55 +/- 0.05 (M ~ 0.17 M_sun; Kilic et al. 2007a,b). Such low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs) are believed to originate in binaries that evolve into WD/WD or WD/neutron star (NS) systems. An optical search for J0917+4638's companion showed that it must be a compact object with a mass >= 0.28 M_sun (Kilic 2007b). Here we report on Green Bank Telescope 820 MHz and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of J0917+4638 intended to uncover a potential NS companion to the LMWD. No convincing pulsar signal is detected in our radio data. Our X-ray observation also failed to detect X-ray emission from J0917+4638's companion, while we would have detected any of the millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc. We conclude that the companion is almost certainly another WD.

  6. The night sky companion a yearly guide to sky-watching 2008-2009

    CERN Document Server

    Plotner, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    The Night Sky Companion is a comprehensive guide to what can be explored in the heavens on a nightly basis. Designed to appeal to readers at all skill levels, it provides a digest for sky watchers interested in all types of astronomical information.

  7. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  8. Veterinarians’ role in clients’ decision‑making regarding seriously ill companion animal patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Lassen, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    Background: When companion animals become seriously ill clients may have doubts about treatment choices, if any, and turn to veterinarians for help. But how should veterinarians reply? Influence on clients’ decision-making may or may not be acceptable—depending on one’s attitude to principles suc...

  9. HD 106906 b: A planetary-mass companion outside a massive debris disk

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Vanessa; Reiter, Megan; Morzinski, Katie; Males, Jared; Su, Kate Y L; Hinz, Philip M; Kenworthy, Matthew; Stark, Daniel; Mamajek, Eric; Briguglio, Runa; Close, Laird M; Follette, Katherine B; Puglisi, Alfio; Rodigas, Timothy; Weinberger, Alycia J; Xompero, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a planetary-mass companion, HD 106906 b, with the new Magellan Adaptive Optics (MagAO) + Clio2 system. The companion is detected with Clio2 in three bands: $J$, $K_S$, and $L^\\prime$, and lies at a projected separation of 7.1'' (650 AU). It is confirmed to be comoving with its $13\\pm2$ Myr-old F5 host using Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys astrometry over a time baseline of 8.3 yr. DUSTY and COND evolutionary models predict the companion's luminosity corresponds to a mass of $11\\pm2 M_{Jup}$, making it one of the most widely separated planetary-mass companions known. We classify its Magellan/Folded-Port InfraRed Echellette $J/H/K$ spectrum as L$2.5\\pm1$; the triangular $H$-band morphology suggests an intermediate surface gravity. HD 106906 A, a pre-main-sequence Lower Centaurus Crux member, was initially targeted because it hosts a massive debris disk detected via infrared excess emission in unresolved Spitzer imaging and spectroscopy. The disk emission is best fit...

  10. Eccentricity modulation of a close-in planet by a companion: Application to GJ 436 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xiao; ZHOU JiLin

    2009-01-01

    GJ 436b is a Neptune-size planet with 23.2 Earth masses in an elliptical orbit of period 2.64 days and eccentricity 0.16. With a typical tidal dissipation factor (Q'~106) as that of a giant planet with convective envelope, its orbital circularization timescale under internal tidal dissipation is around 1 Ga, at least two times less than the stellar age (> 3 Ga). A plausible mechanism is that the eccentricity of GJ 436b is modulated by a planetary companion due to their mutual perturbation. Here we investigate this possi-bility from the dynamical viewpoint. A general method is given to predict the possible locations of the dynamically coupled companions, including nearby/distance non-resonant or mean motion resonance orbits with the first planet. Applying the method to GJ 436 system, we find it is very unlikely that the eccentricity of GJ 436b is maintained at the present location by a nearby/distance companion through secular perturbation or mean motion resonance. In fact, in all these simulated cases, GJ 436b will un-dergo eccentricity damp and orbital decay, leaving the present location within the stellar age. However, these results do not rule out the possible existence of planet companions in nearby/distance orbits, although they are not able to maintain the eccentricity of GJ 436b.

  11. A Search for Substellar Companions to the Two Nearest Brown Dwarf Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melso, N D; Luhman, K L

    2015-01-01

    WISE J104915.57-531906.1 A+B and WISE J085510.83-071442.5 were recently discovered as the third and fourth closest known systems to the Sun, respectively (2.0 and 2.3 pc). The former consists of a L8+T0.5 binary and the latter is a probable Y dwarf and is the coldest known brown dwarf (~250 K). We present a search for common proper motion companions to these brown dwarfs using multi-epoch mid-infrared images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have also obtained near-infrared adaptive optics images of WISE J104915.57-531906.1 A+B with the Very Large Telescope to search for companions at smaller separations than reached by Spitzer. No new companions are detected in either system. At projected separations of 25-420" (50-840 AU) for WISE J104915.57-531906.1 A+B and 4-420" (9-970 AU) for WISE J085510.83-071442.5, the Spitzer images are sensitive to companions with M_4.5=1 M_Jup for ages of >=1 Gyr and temperatures of >=150 K. The detection limit in the adaptive optics images of WISE J104915.57-531906.1 A+B is dH...

  12. The Development of a Robot-Based Learning Companion: A User-Centered Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Zeng; Su, Mu-Chun; Chen, Sherry Y.; Chen, Gow-Dong

    2015-01-01

    A computer-vision-based method is widely employed to support the development of a variety of applications. In this vein, this study uses a computer-vision-based method to develop a playful learning system, which is a robot-based learning companion named RobotTell. Unlike existing playful learning systems, a user-centered design (UCD) approach is…

  13. Discovery of a Low-Mass Companion to the F7V star HD 984

    CERN Document Server

    Meshkat, T; Mamajek, E E; Quanz, S P; Chauvin, G; Kenworthy, M A; Rameau, J; Meyer, M R; Lagrange, A -M; Lannier, J; Delorme, P

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a low-mass companion to the nearby (d = 47 pc) F7V star HD 984. The companion is detected 0.19" away from its host star in the L' band with the Apodizing Phase Plate on NaCo/VLT and was recovered by L'-band non-coronagraphic imaging data taken a few days later. We confirm the companion is co-moving with the star with SINFONI integral field spectrograph H+K data. We present the first published data obtained with SINFONI in pupil-tracking mode. HD 984 has been argued to be a kinematic member of the 30 Myr-old Columba group, and its HR diagram position is not altogether inconsistent with being a ZAMS star of this age. By consolidating different age indicators, including isochronal age, coronal X-ray emission, and stellar rotation, we independently estimate a main sequence age of 115$\\pm$85 Myr (95% CL) which does not rely on this kinematic association. The mass of directly imaged companions are usually inferred from theoretical evolutionary tracks, which are highly dependent on the age...

  14. A Mid-Infrared Search for the Outer Companion in a Millisecond Pulsar Triple System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kaplan; S. Ransom; I. Stairs; J. Hessels

    2012-01-01

    Only two systems with pulsars and multiple companions are known, but they offer a wealth of information about dynamics, binary evolution, and the pulsars themselves. We have recently discovered a bright new millisecond pulsar in a very exotic stellar system: a hierarchical triple system with a low-m

  15. Supplement A: Use Cases. A Companion to the OCLC Research Report, Registering Researchers in Authority Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Yoshimura, Karen; Altman, Micah; Conlon, Michael; Cristán, Ana Lupe; Dawson, Laura; Dunham, Joanne; Hickey, Thom; Hill, Amanda; Hook, Daniel; Horstmann, Wolfram; MacEwan, Andrew; Schreur, Philip; Smart, Laura; Wacker, Melanie; Woutersen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    This report is a companion piece to OCLC Research Report, "Registering Researchers in Authority Files" (ED564924). While the main report summarizes the results of the research conducted by the OCLC Research Registering Researchers in Authority Files Task Group in 2012-2014, details of this research are provided in these supplementary…

  16. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    of antimicrobial resistant bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in companion animals in Europe. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 22 256 bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with UTI was determined. Samples were collected between 2008 and 2013 from 16 laboratories of 14 European countries...

  17. 76 FR 65518 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of a Companion Diagnostic Kit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... effect of an anti- cancer agent in the treatment of kidney, lung, and breast cancers that includes at...: This invention concerns methods for the prognosis for a subject with cancer and to evaluate therapeutic... a Companion Diagnostic Kit for Predicting Therapeutic Efficacy of Anti- Cancer Agents...

  18. An Investigation of the Fantasy Predisposition and Fantasy Style of Children with Imaginary Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, Paula

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the author tested whether children with imaginary companions (ICs) have a different fantasy life than do children without ICs. To measure the fantasy life of the 74 children aged 3.2 to 8.7 years, the author modified the Children's Fantasy Interview (E. Rosenfeld, L. R. Huesmann, L. D. Eron, & J. V. Torney-Purta, 1982) to make…

  19. The slow spin of the young substellar companion GQ Lupi b and its orbital configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Henriette; Ginski, Christian; de Kok, Remco J.; Snellen, Ignas A. G.; Brogi, Matteo; Birkby, Jayne L.

    2016-09-01

    The spin of a planet or brown dwarf is related to the accretion process, and therefore studying spin can help promote our understanding of the formation of such objects. We present the projected rotational velocity of the young substellar companion GQ Lupi b, along with its barycentric radial velocity. The directly imaged exoplanet or brown dwarf companion joins a small but growing ensemble of wide-orbit, substellar companions with a spin measurement. The GQ Lupi system was observed at high spectral resolution (R ~ 100 000), and in the analysis we made use of both spectral and spatial filtering to separate the signal of the companion from that of the host star. We detect both CO (S/N = 11.6) and H2O (S/N = 7.7) in the atmosphere of GQ Lupi b by cross-correlating with model spectra, and we find it to be a slow rotator with a projected rotational velocity of 5.3+ 0.9-1.0 km s-1. The slow rotation is most likely due to its young age of process of accreting material and angular momentum. We measure the barycentric radial velocity of GQ Lupi b to be 2.0 ± 0.4 km s-1, and discuss the allowed orbital configurations and their implications for formation scenarios for GQ Lupi b.

  20. New Low-Mass Wide Companions to Members of the Sco-Cen OB Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Molly; Mamajek, Eric E.; Luhman, Kevin; Murphy, Simon

    2017-01-01

    We have conducted a survey for wide common proper motion companions to 512 members of the Upper Cen-Lup (UCL) and Lower Cen-Cru (LCC) subgroups of the Sco-Cen OB association using astrometry and photometry from the SPM4 catalog. Companion candidates were selected within 3 arcminutes (23 kau = 0.11 pc at d = 130 pc). We find that 12% of the Sco-Cen members have stellar companions in the separation range 3-20 kau. Optical spectra of 16 candidate companions were taken with the new COSMOS spectrograph on the Blanco 4-m telescope and the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope. The spectroscopic survey yielded 14 M-type stars with Na I surface gravity index indicative of pre-MS status, of which half were Li-rich (along with two background giant interlopers). Seven stars in the range M1-M4.5 appear to be Li depleted, but otherwise seem to be pre-MS due to their chromospheric activity, low surface gravity via the Na I index, and their co- movement with other young stars in Sco-Cen. We suggest that these stars represent the Li depletion boundary for UCL and LCC. We acknowledge support from NSF award AST-1313029 and the REU Site in Physics and Astrophysics at the University of Rochester supported by NSF award PHY-1156339.

  1. Imaginary Companions, Theory of Mind and Emotion Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Pons, Francisco; Bender, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of imaginary companions (ICs) has received little attention in developmental psychology, even though it can be observed in approximately 25% of preschool-aged children. Only a few studies have investigated the effect of ICs on children's theory of mind and emotion understanding, and the results are partial or inconsistent. This…

  2. Animal Companions: Fostering Children's Effort-Making by Nurturing Virtual Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Hong; Liao, Calvin; Chien, Tzu-Chao; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual character is a significant application in the research field of technology-enhanced learning. In this study, the concept of animal companions, "non-smart" virtual characters, is proposed as a way to encourage students to promote effort-making learning behaviours. The two underpinning design rationales are first discussed followed by the…

  3. What Kind of Tool Is a Review? Editors' Introduction to Companion Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Grant, Carl A.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a set of companion essays that examine reviews as a mode of inquiry. Explores the practice and outcomes of reviews in their political and conceptual contexts as research methodology and considers what a review is, what it reveals, who benefits from a review, and the actions implied by review findings. (SLD)

  4. An ALMA Disk Mass for the Candidate Protoplanetary Companion to FW Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Adam L; Bowler, Brendan P; Herczeg, Gregory; Ireland, Michael J; Liu, Michael C; Metchev, Stanimir; Cruz, Kelle L

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the FW Tau system, a close binary pair of M5 stars with a wide-orbit (300 AU projected separation) substellar companion. The companion is extremely faint and red in the optical and near-infrared, but boasts a weak far-infrared excess and optical/near-infrared emission lines indicative of a primordial accretion disk of gas and dust. The component-resolved 1.3 mm continuum emission is found to be associated only with the companion, with a flux (1.78 +/- 0.03 mJy) that indicates a dust mass of 1-2 M_Earth. While this mass reservoir is insufficient to form a giant planet, it is more than sufficient to produce an analog of the Kepler-42 exoplanetary system or the Galilean satellites. The mass and geometry of the disk-bearing FW Tau companion remains unclear. Near-infrared spectroscopy shows deep water bands that indicate a spectral type later than M5, but substantial veiling prevents a more accurate determination of the effective temperature (and hence mass). Both a disk-bearing "pl...

  5. The White Dwarf Binary Pathways Survey I: A sample of FGK stars with white dwarf companions

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, S G; Schreiber, M R; Gansicke, B T; Zorotovic, M; Ren, J J

    2016-01-01

    The number of white dwarf plus main-sequence star binaries has increased rapidly in the last decade, jumping from only ~30 in 2003 to over 3000. However, in the majority of known systems the companion to the white dwarf is a low mass M dwarf, since these are relatively easy to identify from optical colours and spectra. White dwarfs with more massive FGK type companions have remained elusive due to the large difference in optical brightness between the two stars. In this paper we identify 934 main-sequence FGK stars from the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey in the southern hemisphere and the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey in the northern hemisphere, that show excess flux at ultraviolet wavelengths which we interpret as the likely presence of a white dwarf companion. We obtained Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra for nine systems which confirmed that the excess is indeed caused, in all cases, by a hot compact companion, eight being white dwarfs and one ...

  6. Undergraduate Training in Companion Animal Preventive Medicine at Louisiana State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech-Nielsen, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The veterinary curriculum at the LSU School of Veterinary Medicine has developed an undergraduate professional training program in companion animal preventive medicine--a new area of specialization--as a field of clinical practice. Curricula for years three and four are described. (Author/MLW)

  7. Assistive technology design and development for acceptable robotics companions for ageing years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirabdollahian, F.; op den Akker, R.; Bedaf, S.; Bormann, R.; Draper, H.; Evers, V.; Gallego Pérez, J.; Gelderblom, G.J.; Gutierrez Ruiz, C.; Hewson, D.; Hu, N.; Kröse, B.; Lehmann, H.; Marti, P.; Michel, H.; Prevot-Huille, H.; Reiser, U.; Saunders, J.; Sorell, T.; Stienstra, J.; Syrdal, D.; Walters, M.; Dautenhahn, K.

    2013-01-01

    A new stream of research and development responds to changes in life expectancy across the world. It includes technologies which enhance well-being of individuals, specifically for older people. The ACCOMPANY project focuses on home companion technologies and issues surrounding technology

  8. Mass and period limits on the ringed companion transiting the young star J1407

    CERN Document Server

    Kenworthy, M A; Kraus, A; Triaud, A H M J; Mamajek, E E; Scott, E L; Ségransan, D; Ireland, M; Hambsch, F -J; Reichart, D E; Haislip, J B; LaCluyze, A P; Moore, J P; Frank, N R

    2014-01-01

    The young (~16 Myr) pre-main-sequence star in Sco-Cen 1SWASP J140747.93-394542.6, hereafter referred to as J1407, underwent a deep eclipse in 2007 April, bracketed by several shallower eclipses in the surrounding 54 d. This has been interpreted as the first detection of an eclipsing ring system circling a substellar object (dubbed J1407b). We report on a search for this companion with Sparse Aperture Mask imaging and direct imaging with both the UT4 VLT and Keck telescopes. Radial velocity measurements of J1407 provide additional constraints on J1407b and on short period companions to the central star. Follow-up photometric monitoring using the PROMPT-4 and ROAD observatories during 2012-2014 has not yielded any additional eclipses. Large regions of mass-period space are ruled out for the companion. For circular orbits the companion period is constrained to the range 3.5-13.8 yr (a ~ 2.2-5.6 au), and masses greater than 80 M_Jup are ruled out at 3 sigma significance over these periods. The complex ring system...

  9. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU Psc

    CERN Document Server

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Saumon, Didier; Morley, Caroline V; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek; Beichman, Charles A; Gelino, Christopher R; Boucher, Anne

    2014-01-01

    We present the discovery of a co-moving planetary-mass companion ~42" (~2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i - z color (> 3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5+-1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates Teff = 1000-1100 K and logg = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 MJup for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for ...

  10. Assistive technology design and development for acceptable robotics companions for ageing years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amirabdollahian; R. op den Akker; S. Bedaf; R. Bormann; H. Draper; V. Evers; J. Gallego Pérez; G.J. Gelderblom; C. Gutierrez Ruiz; D. Hewson; N. Hu; B. Kröse; H. Lehmann; P. Marti; H. Michel; H. Prevot-Huille; U. Reiser; J. Saunders; T. Sorell; J. Stienstra; D. Syrdal; M. Walters; K. Dautenhahn

    2013-01-01

    A new stream of research and development responds to changes in life expectancy across the world. It includes technologies which enhance well-being of individuals, specifically for older people. The ACCOMPANY project focuses on home companion technologies and issues surrounding technology developmen

  11. Stellar Companions to the Exoplanet Host Stars HD 2638 and HD 164509

    CERN Document Server

    Wittrock, Justin M; Horch, Elliott P; Hirsch, Lea; Howell, Steve B; Ciardi, David R; Everett, Mark E; Teske, Johanna K

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of searching for exoplanets is understanding the binarity of the host stars. It is particularly important because nearly half of the solar-like stars within our own Milky Way are part of binary or multiple systems. Moreover, the presence of two or more stars within a system can place further constraints on planetary formation, evolution, and orbital dynamics. As part of our survey of almost a hundred host stars, we obtained images at 692 nm and 880 nm bands using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) at the Gemini-North Observatory. From our survey, we detect stellar companions to HD 2638 and HD 164509. The stellar companion to HD 2638 has been previously detected, but the companion to HD 164509 is a newly discovered companion. The angular separation for HD 2638 is $0.512 \\pm 0.002\\arcsec$ and for HD 164509 is $0.697 \\pm 0.002\\arcsec$. This corresponds to a projected separation of $25.6 \\pm 1.9$ AU and $36.5 \\pm 1.9$ AU, respectively. By employing stellar isochrone models, we e...

  12. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cito, F; Rijks, J; Rantsios, A T; Cunningham, A A; Baneth, G; Guardabassi, L; Kuiken, T; Giovannini, A

    2016-01-01

    A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals. In this stud

  13. The Binary Companion of Young, Relativistic Pulsar J1906+0746

    CERN Document Server

    van Leeuwen, Joeri; Stairs, Ingrid H; Lorimer, D R; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cognard, I; Desvignes, G; Freire, P C C; Janssen, G H; Kramer, M; Lyne, A G; Nice, D J; Ransom, S M; Stappers, B W; Weisberg, J M

    2014-01-01

    PSR J1906+0746 is a young pulsar in the relativistic binary with the second-shortest known orbital period, of 3.98 hours. We here present a timing study based on five years of observations, conducted with the 5 largest radio telescopes in the world, aimed at determining the companion nature. Through the measurement of three post-Keplerian orbital parameters we find the pulsar mass to be 1.291(11) M_sol, and the companion mass 1.322(11) M_sol respectively. These masses fit well in the observed collection of double neutron stars, but are also compatible with other white dwarfs around young pulsars such as J1906+0746. Neither radio pulsations nor dispersion-inducing outflows that could have further established the companion nature were detected. We derive an HI-absorption distance, which indicates that an optical confirmation of a white dwarf companion is very challenging. The pulsar is fading fast due to geodetic precession, limiting future timing improvements. We conclude that young pulsar J1906+0746 is likely...

  14. THE BINARY COMPANION OF YOUNG, RELATIVISTIC PULSAR J1906+0746

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leeuwen, J.; Janssen, G. H. [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Kasian, L.; Stairs, I. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Lorimer, D. R. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Camilo, F. [Arecibo Observatory, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States); Chatterjee, S. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement et de l' Espace LPC2E CNRS-Université d' Orléans, F-45071 Orléans (France); Desvignes, G.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kramer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Nice, D. J. [Department of Physics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory), Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Weisberg, J. M., E-mail: leeuwen@astron.nl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    PSR J1906+0746 is a young pulsar in the relativistic binary with the second-shortest known orbital period, of 3.98 hr. We here present a timing study based on five years of observations, conducted with the five largest radio telescopes in the world, aimed at determining the companion nature. Through the measurement of three post-Keplerian orbital parameters, we find the pulsar mass to be 1.291(11) M {sub ☉}, and the companion mass 1.322(11) M {sub ☉}, respectively. These masses fit well in the observed collection of double neutron stars (DNSs), but are also compatible with other systems where a young pulsar such as J1906+0746 is orbited by a white dwarf (WD). Neither radio pulsations nor dispersion-inducing outflows that could have further established the companion nature were detected. We derive an H I-absorption distance, which indicates that an optical confirmation of a WD companion is very challenging. The pulsar is fading fast due to geodetic precession, limiting future timing improvements. We conclude that the young pulsar J1906+0746 is likely part of a DNS, or is otherwise orbited by an older WD, in an exotic system formed through two stages of mass transfer.

  15. Deep infrared imaging of close companions to austral A- and F-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, David; Montagnier, Guillaume; Chauvin, Gaël; Galland, Franck; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Rameau, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The search for substellar companions around stars with different masses along the main sequence is critical to understand the different processes leading to the formation of low-mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planets. In particular, the existence of a large population of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs physically bound to early-type main-sequence stars could imply that the massive planets recently imaged at wide separations (10-100 AU) around A-type stars are disc-born objects in the low-mass tail of the binary distribution. Our aim is to characterize the environment of early-type main-sequence stars by detecting brown dwarf or low-mass star companions between 10 and 500 AU. High contrast and high angular resolution near-infrared images of a sample of 38 southern A- and F-type stars have been obtained between 2005 and 2009 with the instruments VLT/NaCo and CFHT/PUEO. Multi-epoch observations were performed to discriminate comoving companions from background contaminants. About 41 companion candidates were imag...

  16. Low-mass stellar and substellar companions to sdB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, S; Bruenner, P; Nagel, K; Schaffenroth, V; Heuser, C; Heber, U; Drechsel, H; Edelmann, H; Koen, C; O'Toole, S J; Morales-Rueda, L

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that besides stellar companions, substellar objects in close orbits may be able to trigger mass loss in a common envelope phase and form hot subdwarfs. In an ongoing project we search for close substellar companions combining time resolved high resolution spectroscopy with photometry. We determine the fraction of as yet undetected radial velocity variable systems from a sample of 27 apparently single sdB stars to be 16%. We discovered low-mass stellar companions to the He-sdB CPD-20 1123 and the pulsator KPD 0629-0016. The brown dwarf reported to orbit the eclipsing binary SDSS J0820+0008 could be confirmed by an analysis of high resolution spectra taken with UVES. Reflection effects have been detected in the light curves of the known sdB binaries CPD-64 481 and BPS CS 22169-0001. The inclinations of these systems must be much higher than expected and the most likely companion masses are in the substellar regime. Finally, we determined the orbit of the sdB binary PHL 457, which has a ver...

  17. Hot subdwarf binaries - Masses and nature of their heavy compact companions

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, Stephan; Edelmann, Heinz; Kupfer, Thomas; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes are the remnants of massive stars, which ended their lives in supernova explosions. These exotic objects can only be studied in relatively rare cases. If they are interacting with close companions they become bright X-ray sources. If they are neutron stars, they may be detected as pulsars. Only a few hundred such systems are presently known in the Galaxy. However, there should be many more binaries with basically invisible compact objects in non-interacting binaries. Here we report the discovery of unseen compact companions to hot subdwarfs in close binary systems. Hot subdwarfs are evolved helium-core-burning stars that have lost most of their hydrogen envelopes, often due to binary interactions. Using high-resolution spectra and assuming tidal synchronisation of the subdwarfs, we were able to constrain the companion masses of 32 binaries. While most hot subdwarf binaries have white-dwarf or late-type main sequence companions, as predicted by binary evolution models...

  18. How I Learned to Swim: The Visual Journal as a Companion to Creative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Shields, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss my engagement with a visual journal as a companion to creative research practice during my dissertation research. Grounded in arts based research methodologies; I explore visual journals in relationship to research, reflection and analytic processes. I begin with a discussion of the visual journal as an artifact of…

  19. Discovery of a Low-Mass Companion to the Solar-Type Star TYC 2534-698-1

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R; Cochran, William D; Street, Rachel A; Thirupathi, Sivarani; Henry, Gregory W; Williamson, Michael H

    2008-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and low-mass stellar companions are interesting objects to study since they occupy the mass region between deuterium and hydrogen burning. We report here the serendipitous discovery of a low-mass companion in an eccentric orbit around a solar-type main sequence star. The stellar primary, TYC 2534-698-1, is a G2V star that was monitored both spectroscopically and photometrically over the course of several months. Radial velocity observations indicate a minimum mass of 0.037 M_solar and an orbital period of ~103 days for the companion. Photometry outside of the transit window shows the star to be stable to within ~6 millimags. The semi-major axis of the orbit places the companion in the 'brown dwarf desert' and we discuss potential follow-up observations that could constrain the mass of the companion.

  20. Spectroscopic Analysis of Subluminous B Stars in Binaries - Four Candidate Systems with Neutron Star/Black Hole Companions Discovered

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, S; Edelmann, H; Heber, U; Napiwotzki, R

    2006-01-01

    The masses of compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes are fundamental to astrophysics, but very difficult to measure. We present the results of an analysis of subluminous B (sdB) stars in close binary systems with unseen compact companions to derive their masses and clarify their nature. Radial velocity curves were obtained from time resolved spectroscopy. The atmospheric parameters were determined in a quantitative spectral analysis. With high resolution spectra we were able to measure the projected rotational velocity of the stars with high accuracy. The assumption of orbital synchronization made it possible to constrain inclination angle and companion mass of the binaries. Five invisible companions have masses that are compatible with white dwarfs or late type main sequence stars. But four sdBs have very massive companions like heavy white dwarfs, neutron stars or even black holes. Such a high fraction of massive compact companions can not be explained with current models of binary...

  1. A close hidden stellar companion to the SX Phe-type variable star DW Psc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Wang, S.-M.; He, J.-J.; Zhou, X.; Jiang, L.-Q., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)

    2015-01-01

    DW Psc is a high-amplitude SX Phe-type variable with a period of pulsation of 0.05875 days. Using a few newly determined times of maximum light together with those collected from the literature, the changes in the observed-calculated (O-C) diagram are analyzed. It is discovered that the O-C curve of DW Psc shows a cyclic variation with a period of 6.08 years and a semi-amplitude of 0.0066 days. The periodic variation is analyzed for the light travel time effect, which is due to the presence of a stellar companion (M{sub 2}sini∼0.45(±0.03) M{sub ⊙}). The two-component stars in the binary system are orbiting each other in an eccentric orbit (e ∼ 0.4) at an orbital separation of about 2.7(±0.3) AU. The detection of a close stellar companion to an SX Phe-type star supports the idea that SX Phe-type pulsating stars are blue stragglers that were formed from the merging of close binaries. The stellar companion has played an important role in the merging of the original binary by removing angular momentum from the central binary during early dynamical interaction or/and late dynamical evolution. After the more massive component in DW Psc evolves into a red giant, the cool close companion should help to remove the giant envelope via possible critical Roche-lobe overflow, and the system may be a progenitor of a cataclysmic variable. The detection of a close stellar companion to DW Psc makes it a very interesting system to study in the future.

  2. A Search for Faint Companions to Nearby Stars Using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Daniel J.; Golimowski, David A.; Brukardt, Ryan A.; Burrows, Christopher J.; Caldwell, John J.; Fastie, William G.; Ford, Holland C.; Hesman, Brigette; Kletskin, Ilona; Krist, John E.; Royle, Patricia; Zubrowski, Richard. A.

    2000-02-01

    We have completed a direct-imaging search for faint companions (FCs) to 23 stars within 13 pc of the Sun using the Hubble Space Telescope Planetary Camera. The strategy of this search changed considerably from that reported in 1996. To maximize the image contrast between potential FCs and a target star's point-spread function, we adopted the F1042M filter (λc~1.02 μm, Δλ~0.04 μm) as the primary bandpass of our search. Although our sensitivity to FCs varied with the brightness of and separation from our target stars, an ultimate 10 σ detection limit of m1042~18 within 17" of the fainter targets was achieved. As the end of the main sequence occurs at M1042~12, this detection limit makes our search for FCs to nearby stars the most sensitive yet published. Despite this great sensitivity, no previously undetected FCs were found. Our survey would have detected all stellar companions within 17" of our target stars, except for any lowest mass companions lying within 0.5"-1" of the brightest (Vmass (less than 10 MJ) brown dwarf companions to the fainter targets within 5 pc. A brown dwarf with mass 40 MJ and age 5 Gyr would have been detected at separations greater than 5" from Gl 559A (α Centauri A). Our search was not sensitive to 1 Gyr-old brown dwarfs with masses masses luminosity and that derived from the theoretical mass-luminosity relation. F1042M images of the astrometric binary Gl 105A do not reveal the presence of a fourth component, as has been proposed to reconcile the differences between the observed location of the M7 V companion Gl 105C and the predicted separations of the perturbing body from two independent astrometric studies.

  3. Hot subdwarf binaries - Masses and nature of their heavy compact companions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, Stephan; Heber, Uli; Edelmann, Heinz; Kupfer, Thomas [Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte, Institute for Astronomy, University Erlangen-Nuernberg, Sternwartstr. 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany); Napiwotzki, Ralf [Centre of Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Podsiadlowski, Philipp, E-mail: geier@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.d [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-01

    Neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes are the remnants of massive stars, which ended their lives in supernova explosions. These exotic objects can only be studied in relatively rare cases. If they are interacting with close companions they become bright X-ray sources. If they are neutron stars, they may be detected as pulsars. Only a few hundred such systems are presently known in the Galaxy. However, there should be many more binaries with basically invisible compact objects in non-interacting binaries. Here we report the discovery of unseen compact companions to hot subdwarfs in close binary systems. Hot subdwarfs are evolved helium-core-burning stars that have lost most of their hydrogen envelopes, often due to binary interactions. Using high-resolution spectra and assuming tidal synchronisation of the subdwarfs, we were able to constrain the companion masses of 31 binaries. While most hot subdwarf binaries have white-dwarf or late-type main sequence companions, as predicted by binary evolution models, at least 5% of the observed subdwarfs must have very massive companions: unusually heavy white dwarfs, neutron stars and, in some cases, even black holes. We present evolutionary models which show that such binaries can indeed form if the system has evolved through two common-envelope phases. This new connection between hot subdwarfs, which are numerous in the Galaxy, and massive compact objects may lead to a tremendous increase in the number of known neutron stars and black holes and shed some light on this dark population and its evolutionary link to the X-ray binary population.

  4. Description of the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus): 100 cases (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Keel, M Kevin; Goldsmith, Dayna; Kass, Philip H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2016-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes for various types of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 100 client-owned rats. PROCEDURES Medical records of companion rats that had an SC mass and were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed. Information regarding the signalment, age at mass detection, reproductive sterilization status, histologic diagnosis of the SC mass, location of the initial and all subsequent SC masses, treatments administered, and clinical outcomes was extracted from each record and summarized. RESULTS 105 SC masses were initially detected in 100 rats. The most prevalent SC mass identified was mammary gland fibroadenoma (56/105 [53%]), followed by mammary gland carcinoma (13/105 [12%]). Overall, 26 of 105 (25%) masses were malignant. Sexually intact males were more likely to have nonmammary SC tumors than sexually intact females. In rats receiving no adjunctive treatment after excision of a mammary gland fibroadenoma (n = 16), a second fibroadenoma was detected 1 to 8 months after initial excision, at a median of 4.5 months after surgery. A concomitant pituitary gland tumor was identified in most rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma (21/28 [75%]) and other types of mammary gland tumors (10/17 [59%]). Fourteen of 35 (40%) rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma had concomitant reproductive tract abnormalities. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, like other species, companion rats with SC masses should undergo a thorough diagnostic workup that includes histologic examination of the excised mass.

  5. A systematic review of clinical audit in companion animal veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nicole; Toews, Lorraine; Pang, Daniel S J

    2016-02-26

    Clinical audit is a quality improvement process with the goal of continuously improving quality of patient care as assessed by explicit criteria. In human medicine clinical audit has become an integral and required component of the standard of care. In contrast, in veterinary medicine there appear to have been a limited number of clinical audits published, indicating that while clinical audit is recognised, its adoption in veterinary medicine is still in its infancy. A systematic review was designed to report and evaluate the veterinary literature on clinical audit in companion animal species (dog, cat, horse). A systematic search of English and French articles using Proquest Dissertations and Theses database (February 6, 2014), CAB Abstracts (March 21, 2014 and April 4, 2014), Scopus (March 21, 2014), Web of Science Citation index (March 21, 2014) and OVID Medline (March 21, 2014) was performed. Included articles were those either discussing clinical audit (such as review articles and editorials) or reporting parts of, or complete, audit cycles. The majority of articles describing clinical audit were reviews. From 89 articles identified, twenty-one articles were included and available for review. Twelve articles were reviews of clinical audit in veterinary medicine, five articles included at least one veterinary clinical audit, one thesis was identified, one report was of a veterinary clinical audit website and two articles reported incomplete clinical audits. There was no indication of an increase in the number of published clinical audits since the first report in 1998. However, there was evidence of article misclassification, with studies fulfilling the criteria of clinical audit not appropriately recognised. Quality of study design and reporting of findings varied considerably, with information missing on key components, including duration of study, changes in practice implemented between audits, development of explicit criteria and appropriate statistical

  6. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. IV. A CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF OR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO HIP 67526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Peng; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Ma Bo; Wang, Ji [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Ferreira, Leticia D. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Agol, Eric, E-mail: jpaty@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2013-09-15

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695{sup +0.0188}{sub -0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 {+-} 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14{sup +16.65}{sub -16.55} m s{sup -1}. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6004 {+-} 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 {+-} 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 {+-} 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Sun} and 0.92 {+-} 0.19 R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 {+-} 2.9M{sub Jup}, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 {+-} 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M{sub Sun} at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  7. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS. IV. A Candidate Brown Dwarf or Low-mass Stellar Companion to HIP 67526

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Ge, Jian; Cargile, Phillip; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ferreira, Letícia D.; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Hebb, Leslie; Lee, Brian L.; Ma, Bo; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Chang, Liang; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Eastman, Jason D.; Ebelke, Garrett; Gary, Bruce; Kane, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden Bradley, Alaina C.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; van Eyken, J. C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Bo

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695^{+0.0188}_{-0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 ± 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14^{+16.65}_{-16.55} m s-1. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T eff = 6004 ± 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 ± 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 ± 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 ± 0.09 M ⊙ and 0.92 ± 0.19 R ⊙. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 ± 2.9M Jup, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 ± 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M ⊙ at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  8. Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Marié, Jean-Lou

    2009-08-26

    Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). The frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in Europe, i.e. canine babesiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, thrombocytic anaplasmosis, and leishmaniosis. Except for the last, these diseases are transmitted by ticks. Both the distribution and abundance of the three main tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus are changing. The conditions for such changes involve primarily human factors, such as travel with pets, changes in human habitats, social and leisure activities, but climate changes also have a direct impact on arthropod vectors (abundance, geographical distribution, and vectorial capacity). Besides the most known diseases, attention should be kept on tick-borne encephalitis, which seems to be increasing in western Europe, as well as flea-borne diseases like the flea-transmitted rickettsiosis. Here, after consideration of the main reasons for changes in tick vector ecology, an overview of each "emerging" vector-borne diseases of pets is presented.

  9. The rotation of surviving companion stars after type Ia supernova explosions in the WD+MS scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Roepke, Friedrich K; Edelmann, Philipp; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang E; Wang, Bo; Han, Zhan-Wen

    2013-01-01

    In the SD scenario of SNe Ia the companion survives the SN explosion and thus should be visible near the center of the SN remnant and may show some unusual features. A promising approach to test progenitor models of SNe Ia is to search for the companion in SNRs. Here we present the results of 3D hydrodynamics simulations of the interaction between the SN Ia blast wave and a MS companion taking into consideration its orbital motion and spin. The primary goal of this work is to investigate the rotation of surviving companions after SN Ia explosions in the WD+MS scenario. We use Eggleton's code including the optically thick accretion wind model to obtain realistic models of companions. The impact of the SN blast wave on these companions is followed in 3D hydrodynamic simulations employing the SPH code GADGET3. We find that the rotation of the companion does not significantly affect the amount of stripped mass and the kick velocity caused by the SN impact. However, in our simulations, the rotational velocity of t...

  10. The impact of Type Ia supernova explosions on helium companions in the Chandrasekhar-mass explosion scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Seitenzahl, Ivo; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang; Kromer, Markus; Roepke, Friedrich; Edelmann, Philipp; Taubenberger, Stefan; Maeda, Keiichi; Wang, Bo; Han, Zhanwen

    2013-01-01

    In the version of the SD scenario of SNe Ia studied here, a CO WD explodes close to the Chandrasekhar limit after accreting material from a non-degenerate He companion. In the present study, we employ the Stellar GADGET code to perform 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the interaction of the SN Ia ejecta with the He companion taking into account its orbital motion and spin. It is found that only 2%--5% of the initial companion mass are stripped off from the outer layers of He companions due to the SN impact. The dependence of the unbound mass (or the kick velocity) on the orbital separation can be fitted in good approximation by a power law for a given companion model. After the SN impact, the outer layers of a He donor star are significantly enriched with heavy elements from the low-expansion-velocity tail of SN Ia ejecta. The total mass of accumulated SN-ejecta material on the companion surface reaches about > 10e-3 M_sun for different companion models. This enrichment with heavy elements provides a potentia...

  11. Searching for Wide, Planetary-Mass Companions in Archival Spitzer/IRAC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, a growing population of planetary-mass companions ( 100 AU) from their host stars, challenging existing models of both star and planet formation. It is unclear whether these systems represent the low-mass extreme of stellar binary formation or the high-mass and wide-orbit extreme of planet formation theories, as various proposed formation pathways inadequately explain the physical and orbital aspects of these systems. Even so, determining which scenario best reproduces their observed characteristics will come once a statistically robust sample of directly-imaged PMCs are found and studied.We are searching for wide-orbit PMCs to young stars in Spitzer/IRAC images with an automated pipeline. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is the backbone of our novel point spread function (PSF) subtraction routine that efficiently creates and subtracts a χ2-minimizing instrumental PSF, producing a residuals image that is also assessed to ascertain the presence of a potential companion. In this work, we present the preliminary results of a Spitzer/IRAC archival imaging study of 11 young, low-mass (0.044-0.88 M⊙ K3.5-M7.5) stars known to have faint, low-mass companions in 3 nearby star-forming regions (Chameleon, Taurus, and Upper Scorpius). Initial runs of the pipeline have recovered 7 of the companions from the 11 systems. An additional binary companion PSF-fitting pipeline is being developed to simultaneously measure astrometry and infrared photometry of these systems across the four IRAC channels (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm, 5.8 μm, and 8 μm). We also find 3 of these systems to have low-mass companions with non-zero [I1] - [I4] colors, potentially signifying the presence of a circum(sub?)stellar disk. Plans for future pipeline improvements and paths forward will also be detailed. Once this computational foundation is optimized, the stage is set to quickly scour the nearby star-forming regions already imaged by Spitzer, identify potential candidates for

  12. The κ Andromedae system: new constraints on the companion mass, system age, and further multiplicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkley, Sasha; David, Trevor; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Chile Cerro Calan, Las Condes (Chile); Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Veicht, Aaron; Nilsson, Ricky [Astrophysics Department, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Kraus, Adam L. [Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Vasisht, Gautam; Cady, Eric; Roberts, Jennifer E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zimmerman, Neil [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dekany, Richard [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-12-20

    κ Andromedae is a B9IVn star at 52 pc for which a faint substellar companion separated by 55 ± 2 AU was recently announced. In this work, we present the first spectrum of the companion, 'κ And B,' using the Project 1640 high-contrast imaging platform. Comparison of our low-resolution YJH-band spectra to empirical brown dwarf spectra suggests an early-L spectral type. Fitting synthetic spectra from PHOENIX model atmospheres to our observed spectrum allows us to constrain the effective temperature to ∼2000 K as well as place constraints on the companion surface gravity. Further, we use previously reported log(g) and T {sub eff} measurements of the host star to argue that the κ And system has an isochronal age of 220 ± 100 Myr, older than the 30 Myr age reported previously. This interpretation of an older age is corroborated by the photometric properties of κ And B, which appear to be marginally inconsistent with other 10-100 Myr low-gravity L-dwarfs for the spectral type range we derive. In addition, we use Keck aperture masking interferometry combined with published radial velocity measurements to rule out the existence of any tight stellar companions to κ And A that might be responsible for the system's overluminosity. Further, we show that luminosity enhancements due to a nearly 'pole-on' viewing angle coupled with extremely rapid rotation is unlikely. κ And A is thus consistent with its slightly evolved luminosity class (IV), and we propose here that κ And, with a revised age of 220 ± 100 Myr, is an interloper to the 30 Myr Columba association with which it was previously associated. The photometric and spectroscopic evidence for κ And B combined with our reassessment of the system age implies a substellar companion mass of 50{sub −13}{sup +16} M {sub Jup}, consistent with a brown dwarf rather than a planetary-mass companion.

  13. THE IMPACT OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS ON HELIUM COMPANIONS IN THE CHANDRASEKHAR-MASS EXPLOSION SCENARIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhengwei; Wang, B.; Han, Z. W. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Pakmor, R. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Seitenzahl, I. R.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.; Edelmann, P.; Taubenberger, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Roepke, F. K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Maeda, K., E-mail: zwliu@ynao.ac.cn [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli-IPMU), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study (TODIAS), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    In the version of the single-degenerate scenario of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) studied here, a carbon-oxygen white dwarf explodes close to the Chandrasekhar limit after accreting material from a non-degenerate helium (He) companion star. In the present study, we employ the STELLAR GADGET code to perform three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the interaction of the SN Ia ejecta with the He companion star taking into account its orbital motion and spin. It is found that only 2%-5% of the initial companion mass is stripped off from the outer layers of He companion stars due to the supernova (SN) impact. The dependence of the unbound mass (or the kick velocity) on the orbital separation can be fitted to a good approximation by a power law for a given companion model. After the SN impact, the outer layers of a He donor star are significantly enriched with heavy elements from the low-expansion-velocity tail of SN Ia ejecta. The total mass of accumulated SN-ejecta material on the companion surface reaches about {approx}> 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} for different companion models. This enrichment with heavy elements provides a potential way to observationally identify the surviving companion star in SN remnants. Finally, by artificially adjusting the explosion energy of the W7 explosion model, we find that the total accumulation of SN ejecta on the companion surface is also dependent on the explosion energy with a power-law relation to a good approximation.

  14. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars From MARVELS IV: A Candidate Brown Dwarf or Low-Mass Stellar Companion to HIP 67526

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Peng; Cargile, Phillip; Crepp, Justin R; De Lee, Nathan; de Mello, Gustavo F Porto; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ferreira, Letícia D; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W; Gaudi, B Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hernández, Jonay I González; Hebb, Leslie; Lee, Brian L; Ma, Bo; Stassun, Keivan G; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Chang, Liang; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Eastman, Jason D; Ebelke, Garrett; Gary, Bruce; Kane, Stephen R; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A G; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L C; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X; Schneider, Donald P; Bradley, Alaina C Shelden; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; van Eyken, J C; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A; Zhao, Bo

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 years. Our Keplerian fit using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of $90.2695^{+0.0188}_{-0.0187}$ days, an eccentricity of $0.4375 \\pm 0.0040$ and a semi-amplitude of $2948.14^{+16.65}_{-16.55}$ m s$^{-1}$. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature $T_{\\rm{eff}}=6004 \\pm 34$ K, a surface gravity $\\log g$ [cgs] $=4.55 \\pm 0.17$ and a metallicity [Fe/H] $=+0.04 \\pm 0.06$. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. (2010), yields 1.10$\\pm$0.09 $M_{\\sun}$ and 0.92$\\pm$0.19 $R_{\\sun}$. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is $65.0 \\pm 2.9 M_{Jup}$, indicating that it is likely to be either a...

  15. Prevalence of blastocystis in shelter-resident and client-owned companion animals in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaux, Craig G; Stang, Bernadette V

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats are commonly infected with a variety of protozoan enteric parasites, including Blastocystis spp. In addition, there is growing interest in Blastocystis as a potential enteric pathogen, and the possible role of domestic and in-contact animals as reservoirs for human infection. Domestic animals in shelter environments are commonly recognized to be at higher risk for carriage of enteropathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of infection of shelter-resident and client-owned domestic dogs and cats with Blastocystis spp in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. Fecal samples were collected from 103 shelter-resident dogs, 105 shelter-resident cats, 51 client-owned dogs and 52 client-owned cats. Blastocystis were detected and subtypes assigned using a nested PCR based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Shelter-resident animals were significantly more likely to test positive for Blastocystis (PBlastocystis subtypes. No relationship was seen between Blastocystis carriage and the presence of gastrointestinal disease signs in either dogs or cats. These data suggest that, as previously reported for other enteric pathogens, shelter-resident companion animals are a higher risk for carriage of Blastocystis spp. The lack of relationship between Blastocystis carriage and intestinal disease in shelter-resident animals suggests that this organism is unlikely to be a major enteric pathogen in these species.

  16. WRN conditioned media is sufficient for in vitro propagation of intestinal organoids from large farm and small companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin H. Powell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen significant developments in the ability to continuously propagate organoids derived from intestinal crypts. These advancements have been applied to mouse and human samples providing models for gastrointestinal tissue development and disease. We adapt these methods for the propagation of intestinal organoids (enteroids from various large farm and small companion (LF/SC animals, including cat, dog, cow, horse, pig, sheep and chicken. We show that LF/SC enteroids propagate and expand in L-WRN conditioned media containing signaling factors Wnt3a, R-spondin-3, and Noggin (WRN. Multiple successful isolations were achieved for each species, and the growth of LF/SC enteroids was maintained to high passage number. LF/SC enteroids expressed crypt stem cell marker LGR5 and low levels of mesenchymal marker VIM. Labeling with EdU also showed distinct regions of cell proliferation within the enteroids marking crypt-like regions. The ability to grow and maintain LF/SC enteroid cell lines provides additional models for the study of gastrointestinal developmental biology as well as platforms for the study of host-pathogen interactions between intestinal cells and zoonotic enteric pathogens of medical importance.

  17. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    : To investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Hypothesis: Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion......Reasons for performing study: The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. Objectives......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...

  18. Lyme disease: the promise of Big Data, companion diagnostics and precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Raphael B; Johnson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. Recent studies based on Big Data registries show that >300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the USA, and up to two-thirds of individuals infected with B. burgdorferi will fail conventional 30-year-old antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease. In addition, animal and human evidence suggests that sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete may occur. Improved companion diagnostic tests for Lyme disease need to be implemented, and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed to combat the epidemic. In particular, therapies based on the principles of precision medicine could be modeled on successful "designer drug" treatment for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C virus infection featuring targeted protease inhibitors. The use of Big Data registries, companion diagnostics and precision medicine will revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease.

  19. Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Companion Animals in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Massilia; Touati, Abdelaziz; Mairi, Assia; Brasme, Lucien; Gharout-Sait, Alima; Guillard, Thomas; De Champs, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli in companion animals in Algeria. Two hundred fecal samples were obtained from healthy and diseased dogs and cats in one veterinary office and private owners in Bejaia city, Algeria, during November 2014 to March 2015. Isolates were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of carbapenemase, acquired plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes. Five carbapenemase-producing E. coli isolates were detected including four OXA-48-producing isolates and one isolate producing NDM-5. Coexpression of ESBL and pAmpC genes was observed in these isolates. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that these isolates belonged to A and D phylogroups. The results of this study show that carbapenemase-producing E. coli spread to the companion animals in Algeria.

  20. Current and future trends in biomarker discovery and development of companion diagnostics for arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David S; Bustard, Michael J; McGeough, Cathy M; Murray, Helena A; Crockard, Martin A; McDowell, Andrew; Blayney, Jayne K; Gardiner, Philip V; Bjourson, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are complex multifactorial disorders that are chronic in nature and debilitating for patients. A number of drug families are available to clinicians to manage these disorders but few tests exist to target these to the most responsive patients. As a consequence, drug failure and switching to drugs with alternate modes of action is common. In parallel, a limited number of laboratory tests are available which measure biological indicators or 'biomarkers' of disease activity, autoimmune status, or joint damage. There is a growing awareness that assimilating the fields of drug selection and diagnostic tests into 'companion diagnostics' could greatly advance disease management and improve outcomes for patients. This review aims to highlight: the current applications of biomarkers in rheumatology with particular focus on companion diagnostics; developments in the fields of proteomics, genomics, microbiomics, imaging and bioinformatics and how integration of these technologies into clinical practice could support therapeutic decisions.

  1. Planets in Spin-Orbit Misalignment and the Search for Stellar Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, Brett C; Wright, Duncan J; Salter, Graeme; Bayliss, Daniel; Zhou, George

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars was one of the most unexpected results of early exoplanetary science. Astronomers have since found that a significant fraction of these 'Hot Jupiters' move on orbits substantially misaligned with the rotation axis of their host star. We recently reported the measurement of the spin-orbit misalignment for WASP-79b by using data from the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope. Contemporary models of planetary formation produce planets on nearly coplanar orbits with respect to their host star's equator. We discuss the mechanisms which could drive planets into spin-orbit misalignment. The most commonly proposed being the Kozai mechanism, which requires the presence of a distant, massive companion to the star-planet system. We therefore describe a volume-limited direct-imaging survey of Hot Jupiter systems with measured spin-orbit angles, to search for the presence of stellar companions and test the Kozai hypothesis.

  2. The Pan-Pacific Planet Search III: Five companions orbiting giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenmyer, R A; Wang, L; Bergmann, C; Salter, G S; Tinney, C G; Johnson, John Asher

    2015-01-01

    We report a new giant planet orbiting the K giant HD 155233, as well as four stellar-mass companions from the Pan-Pacific Planet Search, a southern hemisphere radial velocity survey for planets orbiting nearby giants and subgiants. We also present updated velocities and a refined orbit for HD 47205b (7 CMa b), the first planet discovered by this survey. HD 155233b has a period of 885$\\pm$63 days, eccentricity e=0.03$\\pm$0.20, and m sin i=2.0$\\pm$0.5 M_jup. The stellar-mass companions range in m sin i from 0.066 M_sun to 0.33 M_sun. Whilst HD 104358B falls slightly below the traditional 0.08 M_sun hydrogen-burning mass limit, and is hence a brown dwarf candidate, we estimate only a 50% a priori probability of a truly substellar mass.

  3. Optical Identifications of Companion Soft X-ray Sources of Mrk 231

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We present optical identification results for four ROSAT PSPC soft X-ray companions of Mrk 231 based on the deep BATC 6660 A-band image and the optical spectra obtained by the 60/90cm Schmidt telescope and the 2.16mtelescope at the Xinglong Station, NAOC. Three optical counterparts are quasarswith redshifts z > 1 and the remaining X-ray source is probably a background galaxycluster. Therefore, none of these soft X-ray companions are physically connectedwith the central X-ray source Mrk 231. Incorporating the previous results of Arp 220and Mrk 273 (Xia et al. 1998, 1999), we suggest that the apparent soft X-rayassociations with ULIRGs are chance coincidence in most cases.

  4. Magazine "Companion Websites" and the Demand for Newsstand Sales and Subscriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyzed the relationship of visits to a magazine's online companion website and total circulation, subscription, and kiosk sales using bivariate vector autoregressions estimated on 67 German magazines that were observed monthly in the period May 1998 to November 2009. Their econometric...... analysis finds some support for the widespread belief that the Internet cannibalizes print media. On average, a 1% increase in companion website traffic is associated with a weakly significant decrease in total print circulation by 0.15%. This association is mainly driven by a statistically significant...... and negative mapping between website visits and kiosk sales, although they do not find any statistically significant relationship between website visits and subscriptions. The latter finding is reassuring for publishers because advertisers value a large subscriber base. Moreover, the authors show...

  5. Disruption of planetary orbits through evection resonance with an external companion: circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenrui; Lai, Dong

    2016-07-01

    Planets around binary stars and those in multiplanet systems may experience resonant eccentricity excitation and disruption due to perturbations from a distant stellar companion. This `evection resonance' occurs when the apsidal precession frequency of the planet, driven by the quadrupole associated with the inner binary or the other planets, matches the orbital frequency of the external companion. We develop an analytic theory to study the effects of evection resonance on circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems. We derive the general conditions for effective eccentricity excitation or resonance capture of the planet as the system undergoes long-term evolution. Applying to circumbinary planets, we show that inward planet migration may lead to eccentricity growth due to evection resonance with an external perturber, and planets around shrinking binaries may not survive the resonant eccentricity growth. On the other hand, significant eccentricity excitation in multiplanet systems occurs in limited parameter space of planet and binary semimajor axes, and requires the planetary migration to be sufficiently slow.

  6. Hiding Planets Behind a Big Friend: Mutual Inclinations of Multi-Planet Systems with External Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The {\\it Kepler} mission has detected thousands of planetary systems with 1-7 transiting planets packed within 0.7~au from their host stars. There is an apparent excess of single-transit planet systems that cannot be explained by transit geometries alone, when a single planetary mutual inclination dispersion is assumed. This suggests that the observed compact planetary systems have at least two different architectures. We present a scenario where the "Kepler dichotomy" can be explained by the action of an external giant planet (or stellar) companion misaligned with the inner multi-planet system. The external companion excites mutual inclinations of the inner planets, causing such systems to appear as "Kepler singles" in transit surveys. We derive approximate analytic expressions (in various limiting regimes), calibrated with numerical calculations, for the mutual inclination excitations for various planetary systems and perturber properties (mass $m_p$, semi-major axis $a_p$ and inclination $\\theta_p$). In ge...

  7. Quality of Life in Prodromal HD: Qualitative Analyses of Discourse from Participants and Companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Ready

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons who are at risk for Huntington's Disease (HD can be tested for the HD gene expansion before symptom onset. People with the gene expansion, but no clinical diagnosis, are in the prodromal phase of HD. This study explored quality of life (QOL in prodromal HD. Interviews about QOL, conducted with 9 prodromal HD participants and 6 companions, were transcribed. Discourse was coded for emotional valence, content (e.g., coping, spirituality, interpersonal relationships, HD in others, and employment, and time frame (e.g., current, past, and future. Respondents were more positive than negative about the present, which was their major focus. The most common statements were about positive attitudes. Positive statements were made about spirituality, and negative statements were made about HD in other people. Relationships, employment, and coping with HD reflected both positivity and negativity. Participants and companions spoke of the future with different concerns. Applicability of findings to the clinical management of HD are discussed.

  8. Search for substellar-mass companions and asymmetries in their parent discs

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, M; Kluska, J; Monnier, J D; Ireland, M; Aarnio, A; Sitko, M L; Calvet, N; Espaillat, C; Wilner, D J

    2016-01-01

    Transitional discs are a class of circumstellar discs around young stars with extensive clearing of dusty material within their inner regions on 10s of au scales. One of the primary candidates for this kind of clearing is the formation of planet(s) within the disc that then accrete or clear their immediate area as they migrate through the disc. Our sample included eight transitional discs. Using the Keck/NIRC2 instrument we utilised the Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) interferometry technique to search for asymmetries indicative of ongoing planet formation. We searched for close-in companions using both model fitting and interferometric image reconstruction techniques. Using simulated data, we derived diagnostics that helped us to distinguish between point sources and extended asymmetric disc emission. In addition, we investigated the degeneracy between the contrast and separation that appear for marginally resolved companions. We found FP Tau to contain a previously unseen disc wall, and DM Tau, LkHa 330, and ...

  9. A possible substellar companion to the intermediate-mass giant HD 175679

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Wang; Hiroki Harakawa; Fan Liu; Xiao-Shu Wu; Yoichi Takeda; Michitoshi Yoshida; Eiichiro Kokubo; Bun'ei Sato; Gang Zhao; Yu-Juan Liu; Kunio Noguchi; Hiroyasu Ando; Hideyuki Izumiura; Eiji Kambe; Masashi Omiya

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a substellar companion around the intermediatemass giant HD 175679.Precise radial velocity data of the star from the Xinglong Station and the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory revealed a Keplerian velocity variation with an orbital period of 1366.8 ± 5.7 d,a semiamplitude of 380.2 ± 3.2 m s - 1and an eccentricity of 0.378 ± 0.008.Adopting a stellar mass of 2.7 ± 0.3 M☉,we obtain that the minimum mass of the HD 175679 b is 37.3±2.8 MJ and the semimajor axis is 3.36±0.12 AU.This discovery is the second brown dwarf companion candidate from a joint planet-search program between China and Japan.

  10. Disruption of Planetary Orbits Through Evection Resonance with an External Companion: Circumbinary Planets and Multiplanet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wenrui

    2016-01-01

    Planets around binary stars and those in multiplanet systems may experience resonant eccentricity excitation and disruption due to perturbations from a distant stellar companion. This "evection resonance" occurs when the apsidal precession frequency of the planet, driven by the quadrupole associated with the inner binary or the other planets, matches the orbital frequency of the external companion. We develop an analytic theory to study the effects of evection resonance on circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems. We derive the general conditions for effective eccentricity excitation or resonance capture of the planet as the system undergoes long-term evolution. Applying to circumbinary planets, we show that inward planet migration may lead to eccentricity growth due to evection resonance with an external perturber, and planets around shrinking binaries may not survive the resonant eccentricity growth. On the other hand, significant eccentricity excitation in multiplanet systems occurs in limited paramete...

  11. Proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of cancer in companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan; Fais, Stefano; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Harguindey, Salvador; Abu Izneid, Tareq; Scacco, Licia; Williams, Paula; Allegrucci, Cinzia; Rauch, Cyril; Omran, Ziad

    2015-09-04

    The treatment of cancer presents a clinical challenge both in human and veterinary medicine. Chemotherapy protocols require the use of toxic drugs that are not always specific, do not selectively target cancerous cells thus resulting in many side effects. A recent therapeutic approach takes advantage of the altered acidity of the tumour microenvironment by using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to block the hydrogen transport out of the cell. The alteration of the extracellular pH kills tumour cells, reverses drug resistance, and reduces cancer metastasis. Human clinical trials have prompted to consider this as a viable and safe option for the treatment of cancer in companion animals. Preliminary animal studies suggest that the same positive outcome could be achievable. The purpose of this review is to support investigations into the use of PPIs for cancer treatment cancer in companion animals by considering the evidence available in both human and veterinary medicine.

  12. A Planetary Companion to the Intermediate-Mass Giant HD 100655

    CERN Document Server

    Omiya, Masashi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Sato, Bun'ei; Kim, Kang-Min; Yoon, Tae Seog; Kambe, Eiji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Masuda, Seiji; Toyota, Eri; Urakawa, Seitaro; Takada-Hidai, Masahide

    2011-01-01

    A precise radial velocity survey conducted by a Korean-Japanese planet search program revealed a planetary companion around the intermediate-mass clump giant HD 100655. The radial velocity of the star exhibits a periodic Keplerian variation with a period, semi-amplitude and eccentricity of 157.57 d, 35.2 m s^-1 and 0.085, respectively. Adopting an estimated stellar mass of 2.4 M_Sun, we confirmed the presence of a planetary companion with a semi-major axis of 0.76 AU and a minimum mass of 1.7 M_Jup. The planet is the lowest-mass planet yet discovered around clump giants with masses greater than 1.9 M_Sun.

  13. The Geneva Reduction and Analysis Pipeline for High-contrast Imaging of planetary Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelberg, J.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present GRAPHIC, a new angular differential imaging reduction pipeline where all geometric image operations are based on Fourier transforms. To achieve this goal the entire pipeline is parallelized making it possible to reduce large amounts of observation data without the need to bin the data. The specific rotation and shift algorithms based on Fourier transforms are described and performance comparison with conventional interpolation algorithm is given. Tests using fake companions injected in real science frames demonstrate the significant gain obtained by using geometric operations based on Fourier transforms compared to conventional interpolation. This also translates in a better point spread function and speckle subtraction with respect to conventional reduction pipelines, achieving detection limits comparable to current best performing pipelines. Flux conservation of the companions is also demonstrated. This pipeline is currently able to reduce science data produced by Very Large Telescope (VLT)/NACO, Gemini/NICI, VLT/SPHERE, and Subaru/SCExAO.

  14. Quantifying the Recoverable Resources of Companion Metals: A Preliminary Study of Australian Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin M. Mudd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term availability of mineral resources is crucial in underpinning human society, technology, and economic activity, and in managing anthropogenic environmental impacts. This is increasingly true for metals that do not generally form the primary product of mines (“host” metals, such as copper or iron, but are recovered as by-products (or sometimes co-products during the processing of primary ores. For these “companion” metals, it is therefore useful to develop methodologies to estimate the recoverable resource, i.e., the amount that could, if desired, be extracted and put into use over the next several decades. We describe here a methodological approach to estimating the recoverable resources of companion metals in metal ores, using preliminary data for some particular host/companion pairs in Australia as examples.

  15. The Geneva Reduction and Analysis Pipeline for High-contrast Imaging of planetary Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Hagelberg, J; Udry, S; Wildi, F

    2015-01-01

    We present GRAPHIC, an new angular differential imaging (ADI) reduction pipeline where all geometric image operations are based on Fourier transforms. To achieve this goal the entire pipeline is parallelised making it possible to reduce large amounts of observation data without the need to bin the data. The specific rotation and shift algorithms based on Fourier transforms are described and performance comparison with conventional interpolation algorithm are given. Tests using fake companions injected in real science frames demonstrate the significant gain obtained by using geometric operations based on Fourier transforms compared to conventional interpolation. This also translates in a better point spread function and speckle subtraction with respect to conventional reduction pipelines, achieving detection limits comparable to current best performing pipelines. Flux conservation of the companions is also demonstrated. This pipeline is currently able to reduce science data produced by VLT/NACO, Gemini/NICI, V...

  16. Lyme disease: the promise of Big Data, companion diagnostics and precision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Raphael B; Johnson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. Recent studies based on Big Data registries show that >300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the USA, and up to two-thirds of individuals infected with B. burgdorferi will fail conventional 30-year-old antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease. In addition, animal and human evidence suggests that sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete may occur. Improved companion diagnostic tests for Lyme disease need to be implemented, and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed to combat the epidemic. In particular, therapies based on the principles of precision medicine could be modeled on successful “designer drug” treatment for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C virus infection featuring targeted protease inhibitors. The use of Big Data registries, companion diagnostics and precision medicine will revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. PMID:27672336

  17. Close Companions to Nearby Young Stars from Adaptive Optics Imaging on VLT and Keck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Karl E.; Jayawardhana, Ray; Brandeker, Alexis; Mardones, Diego

    We report the results of VLT and Keck adaptive optics surveys of known members of the η Chamaeleontis, MBM 12, and TW Hydrae (TWA) associations to search for close companions. The multiplicity statistics of η Cha, MBM 12, and TWA are quite high compared with other clusters and associations, although our errors are large due to small number statistics. We have resolved S18 in MBM 12 and RECX 9 in η Cha into triples for the first time. The tight binary TWA 5Aab in the TWA offers the prospect of measuring the dynamical masses of both components as well as an independent distance to the system within a few years. The AO detection of the close companion to the nearby young star χ1 Orionis, previously inferred from radial velocity and astrometric observations, has already made it possible to derive the dynamical masses of that system without any astrophysical assumption.

  18. Close Companions to Nearby Young Stars from Adaptive Optics Imaging on VLT and Keck

    CERN Document Server

    Haisch, K E; Brandeker, A; Mardones, D; Jr., Karl E. Haisch; Jayawardhana, Ray; Brandeker, Alexis; Mardones, Diego

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of VLT and Keck adaptive optics surveys of known members of the Eta Chamaeleontis, MBM 12, and TW Hydrae (TWA) associations to search for close companions. The multiplicity statistics of Eta Cha, MBM 12, and TWA are quite high compared with other clusters and associations, although our errors are large due to small number statistics. We have resolved S18 in MBM 12 and RECX 9 in Eta Cha into triples for the first time. The tight binary TWA 5Aab in the TWA offers the prospect of measuring the dynamical masses of both components as well as an independent distance to the system within a few years. The AO detection of the close companion to the nearby young star Chi^1 Orionis, previously inferred from radial velocity and astrometric observations, has already made it possible to derive the dynamical masses of that system without any astrophysical assumption.

  19. A Be-type star with a black-hole companion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, J; Negueruela, I; Ribó, M; Ribas, I; Paredes, J M; Herrero, A; Simón-Díaz, S

    2014-01-16

    Stellar-mass black holes have all been discovered through X-ray emission, which arises from the accretion of gas from their binary companions (this gas is either stripped from low-mass stars or supplied as winds from massive ones). Binary evolution models also predict the existence of black holes accreting from the equatorial envelope of rapidly spinning Be-type stars (stars of the Be type are hot blue irregular variables showing characteristic spectral emission lines of hydrogen). Of the approximately 80 Be X-ray binaries known in the Galaxy, however, only pulsating neutron stars have been found as companions. A black hole was formally allowed as a solution for the companion to the Be star MWC 656 (ref. 5; also known as HD 215227), although that conclusion was based on a single radial velocity curve of the Be star, a mistaken spectral classification and rough estimates of the inclination angle. Here we report observations of an accretion disk line mirroring the orbit of MWC 656. This, together with an improved radial velocity curve of the Be star through fitting sharp Fe II profiles from the equatorial disk, and a refined Be classification (to that of a B1.5-B2 III star), indicates that a black hole of 3.8 to 6.9 solar masses orbits MWC 656, the candidate counterpart of the γ-ray source AGL J2241+4454 (refs 5, 6). The black hole is X-ray quiescent and fed by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow giving a luminosity less than 1.6 × 10(-7) times the Eddington luminosity. This implies that Be binaries with black-hole companions are difficult to detect in conventional X-ray surveys.

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  1. Compact planetary systems perturbed by an inclined companion. II. Stellar spin-orbit evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C., E-mail: boue@imcce.fr [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    The stellar spin orientation relative to the orbital planes of multiplanet systems is becoming accessible to observations. Here, we analyze and classify different types of spin-orbit evolution in compact multiplanet systems perturbed by an inclined outer companion. Our study is based on classical secular theory, using a vectorial approach developed in a separate paper. When planet-planet perturbations are truncated at the second order in eccentricity and mutual inclination, and the planet-companion perturbations are developed at the quadrupole order, the problem becomes integrable. The motion is composed of a uniform precession of the whole system around the total angular momentum, and in the rotating frame, the evolution is periodic. Here, we focus on the relative motion associated with the oscillations of the inclination between the planet system and the outer orbit and of the obliquities of the star with respect to the two orbital planes. The solution is obtained using a powerful geometric method. With this technique, we identify four different regimes characterized by the nutation amplitude of the stellar spin axis relative to the orbital plane of the planets. In particular, the obliquity of the star reaches its maximum when the system is in the Cassini regime where planets have more angular momentum than the star and where the precession rate of the star is similar to that of the planets induced by the companion. In that case, spin-orbit oscillations exceed twice the inclination between the planets and the companion. Even if the mutual inclination is only ≅ 20°, this resonant case can cause the spin-orbit angle to oscillate between perfectly aligned and retrograde values.

  2. A sharp companion of Ostrowski's inequality for the Riemann-Stieltjes integral and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Alomari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A sharp companion of Ostrowski's inequality for the Riemann-Stieltjes integral ∫ab f(tdu(t, where f is assumed to be of r-H-Hölder type on [a,b] and u is of bounded variation on [a,b], is proved. Applications to the approximation problem of the Riemann-Stieltjesintegral in terms of Riemann-Stieltjes sums are also pointed out.

  3. An ALMA and MagAO Study of the Substellar Companion GQ Lup B*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Sheehan, Patrick D.; Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Teske, Johanna K.; Haug-Baltzell, Asher; Merchant, Nirav; Lyons, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Multi-wavelength observations provide a complementary view of the formation of young, directly imaged planet-mass companions. We report the ALMA 1.3 mm and Magellan adaptive optics Hα, i\\prime , z\\prime , and Y S observations of the GQ Lup system, a classical T Tauri star with a 10{--}40 {M}{Jup} substellar companion at ∼110 au projected separation. We estimate the accretion rates for both components from the observed Hα fluxes. In our ∼0.″05 resolution ALMA map, we resolve GQ Lup A’s disk in the dust continuum, but no signal is found from the companion. The disk is compact, with a radius of ∼22 au, a dust mass of ∼6 M ⊕, an inclination angle of ∼56°, and a very flat surface density profile indicative of a radial variation in dust grain sizes. No gaps or inner cavity are found in the disk, so there is unlikely a massive inner companion to scatter GQ Lup B outward. Thus, GQ Lup B might have formed in situ via disk fragmentation or prestellar core collapse. We also show that GQ Lup A’s disk is misaligned with its spin axis, and possibly with GQ Lup B’s orbit. Our analysis on the tidal truncation radius of GQ Lup A’s disk suggests that GQ Lup B’s orbit might have a low eccentricity. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  4. Discovery of Hα Emission from the Close Companion inside the Gap of Transitional Disk HD 142527

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, L. M.; Follette, K. B.; Males, J. R.; Puglisi, A.; Xompero, M.; Apai, D.; Najita, J.; Weinberger, A. J.; Morzinski, K.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P.; Bailey, V.; Briguglio, R.

    2014-02-01

    We utilized the new high-order 585 actuator Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high-resolution visible light images of HD 142527 with MagAO's VisAO science camera. In the median seeing conditions of the 6.5 m Magellan telescope (0.''5-0.''7), we find MagAO delivers 24%-19% Strehl at Hα (0.656 μm). We detect a faint companion (HD 142527B) embedded in this young transitional disk system at just 86.3 ± 1.9 mas (~12 AU) from the star. The companion is detected in both Hα and a continuum filter (Δmag = 6.33 ± 0.20 mag at Hα and 7.50 ± 0.25 mag in the continuum filter). This provides confirmation of the tentative companion discovered by Biller and co-workers with sparse aperture masking at the 8 m Very Large Telescope. The Hα emission from the ~0.25 solar mass companion (EW = 180 Å) implies a mass accretion rate of ~5.9 × 10-10 M sun yr-1 and a total accretion luminosity of 1.2% L sun. Assuming a similar accretion rate, we estimate that a 1 Jupiter mass gas giant could have considerably better (50-1000×) planet/star contrasts at Hα than at the H band (COND models) for a range of optical extinctions (3.4-0 mag). We suggest that ~0.5-5 M jup extrasolar planets in their gas accretion phase could be much more luminous at Hα than in the NIR. This is the motivation for our new MagAO GAPplanetS survey for extrasolar planets. This Letter includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), Chile.

  5. DISCOVERY OF Hα EMISSION FROM THE CLOSE COMPANION INSIDE THE GAP OF TRANSITIONAL DISK HD 142527

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, L. M.; Follette, K. B.; Males, J. R.; Apai, D.; Morzinski, K.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P.; Bailey, V. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Puglisi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Najita, J. [NOAO, 950 N Cherry Ave. Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Weinberger, A. J., E-mail: lclose@as.arizona.edu [Carnegie Institution DTM, 5241 Broad Branch Rd, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We utilized the new high-order 585 actuator Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high-resolution visible light images of HD 142527 with MagAO's VisAO science camera. In the median seeing conditions of the 6.5 m Magellan telescope (0.''5–0.''7), we find MagAO delivers 24%-19% Strehl at Hα (0.656 μm). We detect a faint companion (HD 142527B) embedded in this young transitional disk system at just 86.3 ± 1.9 mas (∼12 AU) from the star. The companion is detected in both Hα and a continuum filter (Δmag = 6.33 ± 0.20 mag at Hα and 7.50 ± 0.25 mag in the continuum filter). This provides confirmation of the tentative companion discovered by Biller and co-workers with sparse aperture masking at the 8 m Very Large Telescope. The Hα emission from the ∼0.25 solar mass companion (EW = 180 Å) implies a mass accretion rate of ∼5.9 × 10{sup –10} M {sub sun} yr{sup –1} and a total accretion luminosity of 1.2% L {sub sun}. Assuming a similar accretion rate, we estimate that a 1 Jupiter mass gas giant could have considerably better (50-1000×) planet/star contrasts at Hα than at the H band (COND models) for a range of optical extinctions (3.4-0 mag). We suggest that ∼0.5-5 M {sub jup} extrasolar planets in their gas accretion phase could be much more luminous at Hα than in the NIR. This is the motivation for our new MagAO GAPplanetS survey for extrasolar planets.

  6. COSMIC-LAB: Hunting for optical companions to binary MSPs in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    As part of a project {Cosmic-Lab} aimed at using Globular Clusters {GCs} as natural laboratory to study dynamics and stellar evolution, here we present a proposal focussed on binary Millisecond Pulsars {MSPs}.We propose to search for the companion stars to binary MSPs in 4 GCs {namely NGC6440, M5, NGC6838 and NGC6544}, where recent radio observations have found particularly interesting objects. To achieve this challenging goal, we intend to exploit the imaging capabilities of the WFC3 and a suitable observing strategy, thus to secure deep, multi-band, time-resolved datasets where even the faintest companions can be identified.This program is the result of a large collaboration among the major groups {lead by Freire, Ransom, Stairs and Possenti} which are performing extensive MSP search in the radio bands, and our group which has a large experience in high-precision stellar photometry and astrometry in crowded stellar fields. This collaboration already produced a number of outstanding results: 4 of the 7 optical counterparts to binary MSP companions known to date in GCs have been discovered by our group.The observations here proposed will {1} easily double the existing sample of known MSP companions, allowing the first meaningful approach to the study of the formation, evolution and recycling process of pulsars in GCs; {2} constrain the incidence of collisionally induced MSPs; {3} constrain the mass of the neutron star, thus opening the possibility {in the case of NGC6440 and M5} to identify the most massive NS ever measured, with a huge impact on the equation of state of the matter at nuclear equilibrium density.

  7. ALMA HINTS AT THE PRESENCE OF TWO COMPANIONS IN THE DISK AROUND HD 100546

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Catherine; Juhász, Attila; Pinilla, Paola; Harsono, Daniel; Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Dent, William R. F. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Birnstiel, T. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Meeus, Gwendolyn [Dep. de Física Teórica, Fac. de Ciencias, UAM Campus Cantoplanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Nomura, Hideko [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, 152-8551 Tokyo (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, 657-8501 Kobe (Japan); Millar, T. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Sandell, Göran [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Building N232, Rm. 146, P.O. Box 1, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    HD 100546 is a well-studied Herbig Be star-disk system that likely hosts a close-in companion with compelling observational evidence for an embedded protoplanet at 68 AU. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the HD 100546 disk which resolve the gas and dust structure at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. The CO emission (at 345.795 GHz) originates from an extensive molecular disk (390 ± 20 AU in radius) whereas the continuum emission is more compact (230 ± 20 AU in radius), suggesting radial drift of the millimeter-sized grains. The CO emission is similar in extent to scattered light images indicating well-mixed gas and micrometer-sized grains in the disk atmosphere. Assuming azimuthal symmetry, a single-component power-law model cannot reproduce the continuum visibilities. The visibilities and images are better reproduced by a double-component model: a compact ring with a width of 21 AU centered at 26 AU and an outer ring with a width of 75 ± 3 AU centered at 190 ± 3 AU. The influence of a companion and protoplanet on the dust evolution is investigated. The companion at 10 AU facilitates the accumulation of millimeter-sized grains within a compact ring, ≈20-30 AU, by ≈10 Myr. The injection of a protoplanet at 1 Myr hastens the ring formation (≈1.2 Myr) and also triggers the development of an outer ring (≈100-200 AU). These observations provide additional evidence for the presence of a close-in companion and hint at dynamical clearing by a protoplanet in the outer disk.

  8. Southern Massive Stars at High Angular Resolution: Observational Campaign and Companion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Sana, H; Lacour, S; Berger, J -P; Duvert, G; Gauchet, L; Norris, B; Olofsson, J; Pickel, D; Zins, G; Absil, O; de Koter, A; Kratter, K; Schnurr, O; Zinnecker, H

    2014-01-01

    Multiplicity is one of the most fundamental observable properties of massive O-type stars and offers a promising way to discriminate between massive star formation theories. Nevertheless, companions at separations between 1 and 100 mas remain mostly unknown due to intrinsic observational limitations. [...] The Southern MAssive Stars at High angular resolution survey (SMASH+) was designed to fill this gap by providing the first systematic interferometric survey of Galactic massive stars. We observed 117 O-type stars with VLTI/PIONIER and 162 O-type stars with NACO/SAM, respectively probing the separation ranges 1-45 and 30-250mas and brightness contrasts of Delta H < 4 and Delta H < 5. Taking advantage of NACO's field-of-view, we further uniformly searched for visual companions in an 8''-radius down to Delta H = 8. This paper describes the observations and data analysis, reports the discovery of almost 200 new companions in the separation range from 1mas to 8'' and presents the catalog of detections, inc...

  9. Living with companion animals after stroke: experiences of older people in community and primary care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Ahlström, Gerd; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2014-12-01

    Older people often have companion animals, and the significance of animals in human lives should be considered by nurses-particularly in relation to older people's health, which can be affected by diseases. The incidence of stroke increases with age and disabilities as a result of stroke are common. This study aimed to explore older people's experiences of living with companion animals after stroke, and their life situation with the animals in relation to the physical, psychological and social aspects of recovery after stroke. The study was performed using individual interviews approximately 2 years after stroke with 17 participants (10 women and 7 men) aged 62-88 years. An overarching theme arising from the content analysis was contribution to a meaningful life. This theme was generated from four categories: motivation for physical and psychosocial recovery after stroke; someone to care for who cares for you; animals as family members; and providers of safety and protection. The main conclusion was that companion animals are experienced as physical and psychosocial contributors to recovery and a meaningful life after stroke.

  10. The Evolutionary Status of the Enigmatic Field Star RZ Piscium: A Search for Comoving Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Lydia; Knapp, Tori; Punzi, Kristina; Kastner, Joel H.; Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, Ben M.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary status of the variable field star RZ Psc is currently indeterminate. While its space motion appears to favor young-star status, various aspects of the star's spectral and temporal behavior support both young- and evolved-star models. In particular, RZ Psc exhibits a large infrared excess, abrupt optical dropouts (which are indicative of non-periodic occultations by a dusty disk), a large ratio of X-ray to bolometric luminosity (see abstract by Punzi et al., this meeting), emission-line variability, and (potentially) radial velocity variability. To break this degeneracy, we have conducted a search for infrared- and X-ray-bright stars in the field that are comoving with RZ Psc. Data spanning mid-infrared to X-ray wavelengths (2MASS, WISE, WIYN 0.9m, and XMM-Newton images) were used to identify stars within ~15' of RZ Psc that lie at a comparable distance from Earth. Proper motions of these candidate stars were then cross-correlated with those of RZ Psc. This search has yielded a potential comoving companion at a separation of ~2.3' (~33 kAU, assuming a distance of 240 pc to RZ Psc). The spectral characteristics of the potential companion are indicative of a flaring, main-sequence, late-M star. If confirmed by follow-up observations and analysis, the existence of this main-sequence, low-mass companion would favor post-main sequence status for RZ Psc.

  11. CellMiner Companion: an interactive web application to explore CellMiner NCI-60 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Gribskov, Michael; Hazbun, Tony R; Pascuzzi, Pete E

    2016-08-01

    The NCI-60 human tumor cell line panel is an invaluable resource for cancer researchers, providing drug sensitivity, molecular and phenotypic data for a range of cancer types. CellMiner is a web resource that provides tools for the acquisition and analysis of quality-controlled NCI-60 data. CellMiner supports queries of up to 150 drugs or genes, but the output is an Excel file for each drug or gene. This output format makes it difficult for researchers to explore the data from large queries. CellMiner Companion is a web application that facilitates the exploration and visualization of output from CellMiner, further increasing the accessibility of NCI-60 data. The web application is freely accessible at https://pul-bioinformatics.shinyapps.io/CellMinerCompanion The R source code can be downloaded at https://github.com/pepascuzzi/CellMinerCompanion.git ppascuzz@purdue.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. HST/COS Detection of the Spectrum of the Subdwarf Companion of KOI-81

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Rachel A; Guo, Zhao; Quinn, Samuel N; Buchhave, Lars A; Latham, David W; Howell, Steve B; Rowe, Jason F

    2015-01-01

    KOI-81 is a totally eclipsing binary discovered by the Kepler mission that consists of a rapidly rotating B-type star and a small, hot companion. The system was forged through large scale mass transfer that stripped the mass donor of its envelope and spun up the mass gainer star. We present an analysis of UV spectra of KOI-81 that were obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope that reveal for the first time the spectral features of the faint, hot companion. We present a double-lined spectroscopic orbit for the system that yields mass estimates of 2.92 M_sun and 0.19 M_sun for the B-star and hot subdwarf, respectively. We used a Doppler tomography algorithm to reconstruct the UV spectra of the components, and a comparison of the reconstructed and model spectra yields effective temperatures of 12 kK and 19 - 27 kK for the B-star and hot companion, respectively. The B-star is pulsating, and we identified a number of peaks in the Fourier transform of the light curve, including on...

  13. Uncovering the Putative B-Star Binary Companion of the SN 1993J Progenitor

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Ori D; Van Dyk, Schuyler D; Filippenko, Alexei V; Fransson, Claes; Matheson, Thomas; Cenko, S Bradley; Chandra, Poonam; Dwarkadas, Vikram; Li, Weidong; Parker, Alex H; Smith, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The Type IIb supernova (SN) 1993J is one of only a few stripped-envelope supernovae with a progenitor star identified in pre-explosion images. SN IIb models typically invoke H envelope stripping by mass transfer in a binary system. For the case of SN 1993J, the models suggest that the companion grew to 22 M_solar and became a source of ultraviolet (UV) excess. Located in M81, at a distance of only 3.6 Mpc, SN 1993J offers one of the best opportunities to detect the putative companion and test the progenitor model. Previously published near-UV spectra in 2004 showed evidence for absorption lines consistent with a hot (B2 Ia) star, but the field was crowded and dominated by flux from the SN. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3) observations of SN 1993J from 2012, at which point the flux from the SN had faded sufficiently to potentially measure the UV continuum properties from the putative companion. The resulting UV spectrum is consistent ...

  14. Current companion diagnostics in advanced colorectal cancer; getting a bigger and better piece of the pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loree, Jonathan M; Kopetz, Scott; Raghav, Kanwal P S

    2017-02-01

    While the treatment of colorectal cancer continues to rely heavily on conventional cytotoxic therapy, an increasing number of targeted agents are under development. Many of these treatments require companion diagnostic tests in order to define an appropriate population that will derive benefit. In addition, a growing number of biomarkers provide prognostic information about a patient's malignancy. As we learn more about these biomarkers and their assays, selecting the appropriate companion diagnostic becomes increasingly important. In the case of many biomarkers, there are numerous assays which could provide the same information to a treating physician, however each assay has strengths and weaknesses. Institutions must balance cost, assay sensitivity, turn-around time, and labor resources when selecting which assay to offer. In this review we will discuss the current state of companion diagnostics available in metastatic colorectal cancer and explore emerging biomarkers and their assays. We will focus on KRAS, BRAF, HER2, and PIK3CA testing, as well as microsatellite stability assessment and multigene panels.

  15. FUV Emission from AGB Stars: Modeling Accretion Activity Associated with a Binary Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alyx Catherine; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that the late stages of evolution for Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are influenced by the presence of binary companions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of direct observational evidence of binarity. However, more recently, strong indirect evidence comes from the discovery of UV emission in a subsample of these objects (fuvAGB stars). AGB stars are comparatively cool objects (< or =3000 K), thus their fluxes falls off drastically for wavelengths 3000 Angstroms and shorter. Therefore, ultraviolet observations offer an important, new technique for detecting the binary companions and/or associated accretion activity. We develop new models of UV emission from fuvAGB stars constrained by GALEX photometry and spectroscopy of these objects. We compare the GALEX UV grism spectra of the AGB M7 star EY Hya to predictions using the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, specifically investigating the ultraviolet wavelength range (1344-2831 Angstroms). We investigate models composed of contributions from a photoionized "hot spot" due to accretion activity around the companion, and "chromospheric" emission from collisionally ionized plasma, to fit the UV observations.

  16. Evidence for a companion to BM Gem, a silicate carbon star

    CERN Document Server

    Izumiura, Hideyuki; Aoki, Wako; Honda, Satoshi; Ando, Hiroyasu; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Kambe, Eiji; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Sadakane, Kozo; Sato, Bun'ei; Tajitsu, Akito; Tanaka, Wataru; Okita, Ki'ichi; Watanabe, Etsuji; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Balmer and Paschen continuum emission as well as Balmer series lines of P Cygni-type profile from H_gamma through H_23 are revealed in the violet spectra of BM Gem, a carbon star associated with an oxygen-rich circumstellar shell (`silicate carbon star') observed with the high dispersion spectrograph (HDS) on the Subaru telescope. The blue-shifted absorption in the Balmer lines indicates the presence of an outflow, the line of sight velocity of which is at least 400 km s^-1, which is the highest outflow velocity observed to date in a carbon star. We argue that the observed unusual features in BM Gem are strong evidence for the presence of a companion, which should form an accretion disk that gives rise to both an ionized gas region and a high velocity, variable outflow. The estimated luminosity of ~0.2 (0.03-0.6) L_sun for the ionized gas can be maintained by a mass accretion rate to a dwarf companion of ~10^-8 M_sun yr^-1, while ~10^-10 M_sun yr^-1 is sufficient for accretion to a white dwarf companion. Thes...

  17. The Unseen Population of F to K-type Companions to Hot Subdwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Girven, J; Heber, U; Gänsicke, B T; Marsh, T R; Breedt, E; Copperwheat, C M; Pyrzas, S; Peña, P Longa

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to select hot subdwarf stars with A to M-type companions using photometric selection criteria. We cover a wide range in wavelength by combining GALEX ultraviolet data, optical photometry from the SDSS and the Carlsberg Meridian telescope, near-infrared data from 2MASS and UKIDSS. We construct two complimentary samples, one by matching GALEX, CMC and 2MASS, as well as a smaller, but deeper, sample using GALEX, SDSS and UKIDSS. In both cases, a large number of composite subdwarf plus main-sequence star candidates were found. We fit their spectral energy distributions with a composite model in order to estimate the subdwarf and companion star effective temperatures along with the distance to each system. The distribution of subdwarf effective temperature was found to primarily lie in the 20,000 - 30,000 K regime, but we also find cooler subdwarf candidates, making up ~5-10 per cent. The most prevalent companion spectral types were seen to be main-sequence stars between F0 and K0, while subdwa...

  18. The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Over the past two decades ongoing radial velocity and transit surveys have been astoundingly successful in detecting thousands of new planetary systems around nearby stars. These systems include apparently single gas giant planets on short period orbits, closely packed systems of up to 5-6 “super-Earths”, and relatively empty systems with either one or no small planets interior to 0.5 AU. Despite our success in cataloguing the diverse properties of these systems, we are still struggling to develop narratives that can explain their apparently divergent formation and migration histories. This is in large part due to our lack of knowledge about the potential presence of massive outer companions in these systems, which can play a pivotal role in the shaping the final properties of the inner planets. In my talk I will discuss current efforts to complete the census for known planetary systems by searching for outer gas giant planets with long term radial velocity monitoring and wide separation stellar companions with high contrast imaging and spectroscopy. I will then demonstrate how statistical constraints on this population of outer companions can be used to test current theories for planet formation and migration.

  19. The implications of a companion enhanced wind on millisecond pulsar production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Sarah L.; Tout, Christopher A.; Ferrario, Lilia; Wickramasinghe, Dayal T.

    2016-09-01

    The most frequently seen binary companions to millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are helium white dwarfs (He WDs). The standard rejuvenation mechanism, in which a low- to intermediate-mass companion to a neutron star fills its Roche lobe between central hydrogen exhaustion and core helium ignition, is the most plausible formation mechanism. We have investigated whether the observed population can realistically be formed via this mechanism. We used the Cambridge STARS code to make models of Case B RLOF with Reimers' mass loss from the donor. We find that the range of initial orbital periods required to produce the currently observed range of orbital periods of MSPs is extremely narrow. To reduce this fine tuning, we introduce a companion enhanced wind (CEW) that strips the donor of its envelope more quickly so that systems can detach at shorter periods. Our models indicate that the fine tuning can be significantly reduced if a CEW is active. Because significant mass is lost owing to a CEW we expect some binary pulsars to accrete less than the 0.1 M_{⊙} needed to spin them up to millisecond periods. This can account for mildly recycled pulsars present along the entire Mc-Porb relation. Systems with P_spin > 30 ms are consistent with this but too few of these mildly recycled pulsars have yet been observed to make a significant comparison.

  20. Effects of the Core-collapse Supernova Ejecta Impact on a Rapidly Rotating Massive Companion Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunhua; Lü, Guoliang; Wang, Zhaojun

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the effects of the core-collapse supernova (CCSN) ejecta on a rapidly rotating and massive companion star. We show that the stripped mass is twice as high as that of a massive but nonrotating companion star. In close binaries with orbital periods of about 1 day, the stripped masses reach up to ∼ 1 {M}ȯ . By simulating the evolutions of the rotational velocities of the massive companion stars based on different stripped masses, we find that the rotational velocity decreases greatly for a stripped mass higher than about 1 {M}ȯ . Of all the known high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), Cygnus X-3 and 1WGA J0648.024418 have the shortest orbital periods, 0.2 and 1.55 days, respectively. The optical counterpart of the former is a Wolf-Rayet star, whereas it is a hot subdwarf for the latter. Applying our model to the two HMXBs, we suggest that the hydrogen-rich envelopes of their optical counterparts may have been stripped by CCSN ejecta.

  1. Early ComeOn+ Adaptive Optics Observation of GQ Lup and its Substellar Companion

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, M; Henning, T; Zinnecker, H; Janson, Markus; Brandner, Wolfgang; Henning, Thomas; Zinnecker, Hans

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of adaptive optics K-band imaging data of GQ Lup acquired in 1994 by the first generation adaptive optics system ComeOn+ at the ESO 3.6m optical telescope in La Silla is presented. The data reveal a likely candidate for the low-mass companion recently reported in the literature. An a posteriori detection in the 11 year old data would provide a useful astrometric data point for the very long period (~1000 yr) orbit of the GQ Lup system. However, the data is severely contaminated by speckle noise at the given projected separation, which decreases the confidence of the detection. Still, from the data we can conclude that GQ Lup B is not an unrelated background source, but instead a physical companion to GQ Lup A. We present here the reduction and analysis of the ComeOn+ images, as well as the results. We also discuss the nature of the companion based on data and models available in the scientific literature and examine claims made regarding the classification of the object as a planet.

  2. A Substellar Companion to the Intermediate-Mass Giant 11 Com

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y J; Zhao, G; Noguchi, Kunio; Wang, H; Kambe, Eiji; Ando, Hiroyasu; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Chen, Y Q; Okada, Norio; Toyota, Eri; Omiya, Masashi; Masuda, Seiji; Takeda, Yoichi; Murata, Daisuke; Itoh, Yoichi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Ida, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    We report the detection of a substellar companion orbiting the intermediate-mass giant star 11 Com (G8 III). Precise Doppler measurements of the star from Xinglong station and Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO) revealed Keplerian velocity variations with an orbital period of 326.03 +/- 0.32 days, a semiamplitude of 302.8 +/- 2.6 m/s, and an eccentricity of 0.231 +/- 0.005. Adopting a stellar mass of 2.7 +/- 0.3 M_solar, the minimum mass of the companion is 19.4 +/- 1.5 M_Jup, well above the deuterium burning limit, and the semimajor axis is 1.29 +/- 0.05 AU. This is the first result from the joint planet search program between China and Japan aiming at revealing statistics of substellar companions around intermediate-mass giants. 11 Com b emerged from 300 targets of the planet search program at OAO. The current detection rate of a brown dwarf candidate seems to be comparable to that around solar-type stars within orbital separations of $\\sim$3 AU.

  3. New spectroscopic binary companions of giant stars and updated metallicity distribution for binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, P; Vanzi, L; Soto, M G; Vos, J; Wittenmyer, R A; Olivares, F; Drass, H; Mennickent, R E; Vuckovic, M; Rojo, P; Melo, C H F

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of 24 spectroscopic binary companions to giant stars. We fully constrain the orbital solution for 6 of these systems. We cannot unambiguously derive the orbital elements for the remaining stars because the phase coverage is incomplete. Of these stars, 6 present radial velocity trends that are compatible with long-period brown dwarf companions.The orbital solutions of the 24 binary systems indicate that these giant binary systems have a wide range in orbital periods, eccentricities, and companion masses. For the binaries with restricted orbital solutions, we find a range of orbital periods of between $\\sim$ 97-1600 days and eccentricities of between $\\sim$ 0.1-0.4. In addition, we studied the metallicity distribution of single and binary giant stars. We computed the metallicity of a total of 395 evolved stars, 59 of wich are in binary systems. We find a flat distribution for these binary stars and therefore conclude that stellar binary systems, and potentially brown dwarfs, have a diffe...

  4. Multiplicity of the Galactic Senior Citizens: A High-resolution Search for Cool Subdwarf Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed L.; Fuchs, Joshua T.

    2015-05-01

    Cool subdwarfs are the oldest members of the low-mass stellar population. Mostly present in the galactic halo, subdwarfs are characterized by their low-metallicity. Measuring their binary fraction and comparing it to solar-metallicity stars could give key insights into the star formation process early in the Milky Way’s history. However, because of their low luminosity and relative rarity in the solar neighborhood, binarity surveys of cool subdwarfs have suffered from small sample sizes and incompleteness. Previous surveys have suggested that the binary fraction of red subdwarfs is much lower than for their main-sequence cousins. Using the highly efficient Robo-AO system, we present the largest high-resolution survey of subdwarfs, sensitive to angular separations (ρ ≥slant 0.″ 15) and contrast ratios ({Δ }{{m}i} ≤slant 6) invisible in past surveys. Of 344 target cool subdwarfs, 43 are in multiple systems, 19 of which are newly discovered, for a binary fraction of 12.5 ± 1.9%. We also discovered seven triple star systems for a triplet fraction of 2.0 ± 0.8%. Comparisons to similar surveys of solar-metallicity dwarf stars gives a ∼3σ disparity in luminosity between companion stars, with subdwarfs displaying a shortage of low-contrast companions. We also observe a lack of close subdwarf companions in comparison to similar-mass dwarf multiple systems.

  5. Language diversity in the mathematics classroom: does a learner companion make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Botes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Language and education are interrelated because all teaching is given through the medium of language. Language is considered to be both a precondition for thought and a bearer of thought and therefore influences the extent to which a child's intelligence is actualised. In the South African context linguistic diversity is a complex issue. It has increasingly become the task and responsibility of educators to develop strategies in an attempt to facilitate quality education for their learners. In this study, the researchers developed an 'aid' that would assist learners to relate mathematics terms and concepts in English with terms in their own languages. The study determined whether a visual multilingual learner companion brought change in learners' performance in mathematics. Also what the educators' views were about this. A combination of a quasiexperimental study and an interview schedule was conducted. The quasiexperimental study was conducted among learners while the interview schedule was with their educators. The sample comprised 2,348 learners in Grade 4, Grade 5 and Grade 6 from 20 schools as well as 20 educators from the treatment schools. The results indicated that the mathematics marks of the treatment group improved. Also, the educators were complimentary about the learner companion and indicated that they would utilise this going forward in their teaching. It is recommended that the multilingual visual explanatory mathematics learner companion be used and investigated on a larger scale to corroborate the efficacy reported here.

  6. Tides, planetary companions, and habitability: Habitability in the habitable zone of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity and rendering the planet sterile to life. However, for planets orbiting low-mass stars, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is probably substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf ($T_{eff}=2670 K$) and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for ...

  7. The Gemini NICI planet-finding campaign: The companion detection pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahhaj, Zahed [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Biller, Beth A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Close, Laird M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Toomey, Douglas W. [Mauna Kea Infrared, LLC, 21 Pookela St., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    We present high-contrast image processing techniques used by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign to detect faint companions to bright stars. The Near-Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) is an adaptive optics instrument installed on the 8 m Gemini South telescope, capable of angular and spectral difference imaging and specifically designed to image exoplanets. The Campaign data pipeline achieves median contrasts of 12.6 mag at 0.''5 and 14.4 mag at 1'' separation, for a sample of 45 stars (V = 4.3-13.9 mag) from the early phase of the campaign. We also present a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the recovery of artificial companions injected into the raw data, while accounting for the false-positive rate. We use this technique to select the image processing algorithms that are more successful at recovering faint simulated point sources. We compare our pipeline to the performance of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm for NICI data and do not find significant improvement with LOCI.

  8. Characterization of the gaseous companion {\\kappa} Andromedae b: New Keck and LBTI high-contrast observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnefoy, M; Marleau, G -D; Schlieder, J E; Wisniewski, J; Carson, J; Covey, K R; Henning, T; Biller, B; Hinz, P; Klahr, H; Boyer, A N Marsh; Zimmerman, N; Janson, M; McElwain, M; Mordasini, C; Skemer, A; Bailey, V; Defrère, D; Thalmann, C; Skrutskie, M; Allard, F; Homeier, D; Tamura, M; Feldt, M; Cumming, A; Grady, C; Brandner, W; Kandori, R; Kuzuhara, M; Fukagawa, M; Kwon, J; Kudo, T; Hashimoto, J; Kusakabe, N; Abe, L; Brandt, T; Egner, S; Guyon, O; Hayano, Y; Hayashi, M; Hayashi, S; Hodapp, K; Ishii, M; Iye, M; Knapp, G; Matsuo, T; Mede, K; Miyama, M; Morino, J -I; Moro-Martin, A; Nishimura, T; Pyo, T; Serabyn, E; Suenaga, T; Suto, H; Suzuki, R; Takahashi,; Takami, M; Takato, N; Terada, H; Tomono, D; Turner, E; Watanabe, M; Yamada, T; Takami, H; Usuda, T

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported the direct detection of a low mass companion at a projected separation of 55+-2 AU around the B9 type star {\\kappa} Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio, separation) make it a benchmark for the understanding of the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide-orbits. We present new angular differential imaging (ADI) images of the Kappa Andromedae system at 2.146 (Ks), 3.776 (L'), 4.052 (NB 4.05) and 4.78 {\\mu}m (M') obtained with Keck/NIRC2 and LBTI/LMIRCam, as well as more accurate near-infrared photometry of the star with the MIMIR instrument. We derive a more accurate J = 15.86 +- 0.21, H = 14.95 +- 0.13, Ks = 14.32 +- 0.09 mag for {\\kappa} And b. We redetect the companion in all our high contrast observations. We confirm previous contrasts obtained at Ks and L' band. We derive NB 4.05 = 13.0 +- 0.2 and M' = 13.3 +- 0.3 mag and estimate Log10(L/Lsun) = -3.76 +- 0.06. We build the 1-5 microns spectral energy distribution of the companion and co...

  9. Two candidate brown dwarf companions around core helium-burning stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffenroth, V; Nagel, K; Geier, S; Koen, C; Heber, U; Edelmann, H

    2014-01-01

    Hot subdwarf stars of spectral type B (sdBs) are evolved, core helium-burning objects. The formation of those objects is puzzling, because the progenitor star has to lose almost its entire hydrogen envelope in the red-giant phase. Binary interactions have been invoked, but single sdBs exist as well. We report the discovery of two close hot subdwarf binaries with small radial velocity amplitudes. Follow-up photometry revealed reflection effects originating from cool irradiated companions, but no eclipses. The lower mass limits for the companions of CPD-64$^{\\circ}$481 ($0.048\\,M_{\\rm \\odot}$) and PHL\\,457 ($0.027\\,M_{\\rm \\odot}$) are significantly below the stellar mass limit. Hence they could be brown dwarfs unless the inclination is unfavourable. Two very similar systems have already been reported. The probability that none of them is a brown dwarf is very small, 0.02%. Hence we provide further evidence that substellar companions with masses that low are able to eject a common envelope and form an sdB star. ...

  10. The Impact of Stellar Multiplicity on Planetary Systems, I.: The Ruinous Influence of Close Binary Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Adam L; Huber, Daniel; Mann, Andrew W; Dupuy, Trent J

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical influence of binary companions is expected to profoundly influence planetary systems. However, the difficulty of identifying planets in binary systems has left the magnitude of this effect uncertain; despite numerous theoretical hurdles to their formation and survival, at least some binary systems clearly host planets. We present high-resolution imaging of 382 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) obtained using adaptive-optics imaging and nonredundant aperture-mask interferometry (NRM) on the Keck-II telescope. Among the full sample of 506 candidate binary companions to KOIs, we super-resolve some binary systems to projected separations of 0.4; we instead only found 23 companions (a 4.6 sigma deficit), many of which must be wider pairs that are only close in projection. When the binary population is parametrized with a semimajor axis cutoff a_cut and a suppression factor inside that cutoff S_bin, we find with correlated uncertainties that inside a_cut = 47 +59/-23 AU, the planet occurrence rate in...

  11. NACO-SDI imaging of known companion host stars from the AAPS and Keck planet search surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J S; Biller, B; O'Toole, S J; Pinfield, D J; Close, L; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; Wittenmyer, R; Carter, B; Day-Jones, A C

    2010-01-01

    Direct imaging of brown dwarfs as companions to solar-type stars can provide a wealth of well-constrained data to "benchmark" the physics of such objects, since quantities like metallicity and age can be determined from their well-studied primaries. We present results from an adaptive optics imaging program on stars drawn from the Anglo-Australian and Keck Planet Search projects, with the aim of directly imaging known cool companions. Simulations have modeled the expected contrast ratios and separations of known companions using estimates of orbital parameters available from current radial-velocity data and then a selection of the best case objects were followed-up with high contrast imaging to attempt to directly image these companions. These simulations suggest that only a very small number of radial-velocity detected exoplanets with consistent velocity fits and age estimates could potentially be directly imaged using the VLT's Simultaneous Differential Imaging system and only under favorable conditions. We...

  12. [Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier: A Companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Michael Amundsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amundsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham : Ashgate, 2011

  13. [Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier: A Companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Michael Amundsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amundsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham : Ashgate, 2011

  14. Lithium Production in Companions of Accreting X-Ray Binaries by Neutron Spallation of C, N, O Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Guessoum, N; Guessoum, Nidhal; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    1999-01-01

    We examine the processes which could lead to the observed enhancement of Li and possibly other light elements (Be, B) in the companions of a number of X-ray novae. We conclude that one of the most promising mechanisms is the spallation of CNO elements on the surface of the companion induced by the neutron flux produced in the hot accretion flow onto the compact object. Direct production of the observed Li and its deposition onto the dwarf companion seem less likely, mainly because of the possibility of its destruction in the production region itself and difficulties in its deposition associated with the configuration of the companion's magnetic field. We discuss other potential observables of the above scenario.

  15. The pet factor--companion animals as a conduit for getting to know people, friendship formation and social support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wood, Lisa; Martin, Karen; Christian, Hayley; Nathan, Andrea; Lauritsen, Claire; Houghton, Steve; Kawachi, Ichiro; McCune, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    While companion animals have been previously identified as a direct source of companionship and support to their owners, their role as a catalyst for friendship formation or social support networks...

  16. The Pet Factor - Companion Animals as a Conduit for Getting to Know People, Friendship Formation and Social Support: e0122085

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisa Wood; Karen Martin; Hayley Christian; Andrea Nathan; Claire Lauritsen; Steve Houghton; Ichiro Kawachi; Sandra McCune

    2015-01-01

      Background While companion animals have been previously identified as a direct source of companionship and support to their owners, their role as a catalyst for friendship formation or social support...

  17. Characterization of the Gaseous Companion k Andromedae B* New Keck and LBTI High-contrast Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, M.; Currie, T.; Marleau, G.-D.; Schlieder, J. E.; Wisniewski, J.; Carson, J.; Covey, K. R.; Henning, T.; Biller, B.; Hinz, P.; Klahr, H.; Boyer, A. N. Marsh; Zimmerman, N.; Janson, M.; McElwain, M.; Mordasini, C.; Skemer, A.; Bailey, V.; Defrere, D.; Thalmann, C.; Skrutskie, M.; Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Tamura, M.; Grady, C.

    2013-01-01

    Context. We previously reported the direct detection of a low mass companion at a projected separation of 55+/-2 astronomical units around the B9 type star kappa Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio, separation) make it a benchmark for the understanding of the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide-orbits. Aims. We present new angular differential imaging (ADI) images of the system at 2.146 (K(sub s)), 3.776 (L'), 4.052 (NB 4.05) and 4.78 micrometers (M') obtained with Keck/NIRC2 and LBTI/LMIRCam, as well as more accurate near-infrared photometry of the star with the MIMIR instrument. We aim to determine the near-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of the companion and use it to characterize the object. Methods. We used analysis methods adapted to ADI to extract the companion flux. We compared the photometry of the object to reference young/old objects and to a set of seven PHOENIX-based atmospheric models of cool objects accounting for the formation of dust. We used evolutionary models to derive mass estimates considering a wide range of plausible initial conditions. Finally, we used dedicated formation models to discuss the possible origin of the companion. Results. We derive a more accurate J = 15.86 +/- 0.21, H = 14.95 +/- 0.13, K(sub s) = 14.32 +/- 0.09 mag for kappa And b. We redetect the companion in all our high contrast observations. We confirm previous contrasts obtained at K(sub s) and L' band. We derive NB 4.05 = 13.0 +/- 0.2 and M' = 13.3 +/- 0.3 mag and estimate Log(base 10)(L/solar luminosity) = -3.76 +/- 0.06. Atmospheric models yield T(sub eff) = 1900(+100/-200) K. They do not set constrains on the surface gravity. "Hot-start" evolutionary models predict masses of 14(+25/-2) Jupiter mass based on the luminosity and temperature estimates, and considering a conservative age range for the system (30(+120/-10) million years). "warm-start" evolutionary tracks constrain the mass to M greater than or

  18. Deriving the true mass of an unresolved Brown Dwarf companion to an M-Dwarf with AO aided astrometry*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürster M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available From radial velocity (RV detections alone one does not get all orbital parameters needed to derive the true mass of a non-transiting, unresolved substellar companion to a star. Additional astrometric measurements are needed to calculate the inclination and the longitude of the ascending node. Until today only few true substellar companion masses have been determined by this method with the HST fine guidance sensor [1, 2]. We aim to derive the true mass of a brown dwarf candidate companion to an early M 2.5V dwarf with groundbased high-resolution astrometry aided by adaptive optics. We found this unique brown dwarf desert object, whose distance to the host star is only 0.42 AU, in our UVES precision RV survey of M dwarfs, inferring a minimum companion mass of 27 Jupiter masses [3]. Combining the data with HIPPARCOS astrometry, we found a probability of only 2.9% that the companion is stellar. We therefore observed the host star together with a reference star within a monitoring program with VLT/NACO to derive the true mass of the companion and establish its nature (brown dwarf vs. star. Simultaneous observations of a reference field in a globular cluster are performed to determine the stability of the adaptive optics (AO plus detector system and check its suitability for such high-precision astrometric measurements over several epochs which are needed to find and analyse extrasolar planet systems.

  19. Ram-Pressure Stripping of Gas from Companions and Accretion onto a Spiral Galaxy A Gaseous Merger

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Y

    1993-01-01

    We simulated the behavior of interstellar gas clouds in a companion galaxy during a gas-dynamical interaction with the halo and disk of a spiral galaxy. By ram pressure, the gas clouds are stripped from the companion, and accreted to ward the disk of the spiral galaxy. If the companion's orbit is retrograde with respect to the rotation of the spiral galaxy, infalling clouds hit the nuclear region. Angular momentum transfer causes disruption of the inner gaseous disk, and makes a void of interstellar gas in the bulge. If the companion's orbit is either prograde or polar, infalling clouds are accreted by the outer disk, and form a rotating gas ring. We show that the ram-pressure stripping-and-accretion is one way from the companion to a gas-rich larger galaxy, which causes disposal of interstellar gas from the companion and effectively changes its galaxy type into earlier (redder). The ram-pressure process is significant durig merger of galaxies, in which interstellar gas is stripped and accreted prior to the s...

  20. Detecting the Companions and Ellipsoidal Variations of RS CVn Primaries. II. o Draconis, a Candidate for Recent Low-mass Companion Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Monnier, John D.; Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Korhonen, Heidi; Latham, David W.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Williamson, Michael H.; Baron, Fabien; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Che, Xiao; Harmon, Robert O.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Scott, Nicholas J.; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Turner, Nils H.

    2015-08-01

    To measure the stellar and orbital properties of the metal-poor RS CVn binary o Draconis (o Dra), we directly detect the companion using interferometric observations obtained with the Michigan InfraRed Combiner at Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array. The H-band flux ratio between the primary and secondary stars is the highest confirmed flux ratio (370 ± 40) observed with long-baseline optical interferometry. These detections are combined with radial velocity data of both the primary and secondary stars, including new data obtained with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph on the Tillinghast Reflector at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory and the 2 m Tennessee State University Automated Spectroscopic Telescope at Fairborn Observatory. We determine an orbit from which we find model-independent masses and ages of the components ({M}A=1.35+/- 0.05 {M}⊙ , {M}B=0.99+/- 0.02 {M}⊙ , system age = 3.0\\mp 0.5 Gyr). An average of a 23-year light curve of o Dra from the Tennessee State University Automated Photometric Telescope folded over the orbital period newly reveals eclipses and the quasi-sinusoidal signature of ellipsoidal variations. The modeled light curve for our system's stellar and orbital parameters confirm these ellipsoidal variations due to the primary star partially filling its Roche lobe potential, suggesting most of the photometric variations are not due to stellar activity (starspots). Measuring gravity darkening from the average light curve gives a best-fit of β =0.07+/- 0.03, a value consistent with conventional theory for convective envelope stars. The primary star also exhibits an anomalously short rotation period, which, when taken with other system parameters, suggests the star likely engulfed a low-mass companion that had recently spun-up the star.

  1. Xoom Companion

    CERN Document Server

    Ballew, Joli

    2011-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide that helps you get the most out of your Xoom device Motorola Xoom is one of the hottest new tablets but the owner's manual only goes so far to cover features and functions. This full-color guide is packed with useful tips, invaluable advice, and easy-to-follow shortcuts that help you quickly get acquainted with the Motorola Xoom OS. You'll explore tasks such as working with e-mail, messaging, browsing, utilizing the calendar, making appointments, enjoying and sharing photos and music, using maps, referencing contacts, adjusting the settings, working with security, check

  2. Stata companion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Jennifer Sousa

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is an introductory reference guide highlighting some of the most common statistical topics, broken down into both command-line syntax and graphical interface point-and-click commands. This chapter serves to supplement more formal statistics lessons and expedite using Stata to compute basic analyses.

  3. Facebook companion

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Experience everything you can do on Facebook Facebook has taken the world by storm and just breached the 500 million-user mark as its popularity continues to increase every day the world over. Yet, despite its popularity, many people are not aware of all that Facebook has to offer. This handy, approachable guide shares indispensible tips and shortcuts on everything from sharing videos to playing popular games like FarmVille and CityVille. The compact trim size is perfect for taking it with you wherever you go, just like you'll learn how to take Facebook everywhere on a smartphone. Encourage

  4. Social support during delivery in rural central Ghana: a mixed methods study of women's preferences for and against inclusion of a lay companion in the delivery room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amir; Mustafa, Aesha; Emil, Sarah A V; Amekah, Ebenezer; Engmann, Cyril; Adanu, Richard; Moyer, Cheryl A

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to explore pregnant women's attitudes towards the inclusion of a lay companion as a source of social support during labour and delivery in rural central Ghana. Quantitative demographic and pregnancy-related data were collected from 50 pregnant women presenting for antenatal care at a rural district hospital and analysed using STATA/IC 11.1. Qualitative attitudinal questions were collected from the same women through semi-structured interviews; data were analysed using NVivo 9.0. Twenty-nine out of 50 women (58%) preferred to have a lay companion during facility-based labour and delivery, whereas 21 (42%) preferred to deliver alone with the nurses in a facility. Women desiring a companion were younger, had more antenatal care visits, had greater educational attainment and were likely to be experiencing their first delivery. Women varied in the type of companion they prefer (male partner vs female relative). What was expected in terms of social support differed based upon the type of companion. Male companions were expected to provide emotional support and to 'witness her pain'. Female companions were expected to provide emotional support as well as instrumental, informational and appraisal support. Three qualitative themes were identified that run counter to the inclusion of a lay helper: fear of an evil-spirited companion, a companion not being necessary or helpful, and being 'too shy' of a companion. This research challenges the assumption of a unilateral desire for social support during labour and delivery, and suggests that women differ in the type of companion and type of support they prefer during facility deliveries. Future research is needed to determine the direction of the relationship--whether women desire certain types of support and thus choose companions they believe can meet those needs, or whether women desire a certain companion and adjust their expectations accordingly.

  5. DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH COMPANION TO THE EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXY DDO 68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; Alfvin, Erik D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Johnson, Megan; Koribalski, Baerbel [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, NSW 1710, Epping (Australia); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, P.O. Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Ford, H. Alyson [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Girardi, Léo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Hirschauer, Alec S.; Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J.; Van Sistine, Angela [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Elson, E. C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Marigo, Paola; Rosenfield, Philip [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Rosenberg, Jessica L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Venkatesan, Aparna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton Street, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Warren, Steven R., E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, CSS Bldg., Rm. 1024, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present H I spectral-line imaging of the extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68. This system has a nebular oxygen abundance of only ∼3% Z {sub ☉}, making it one of the most metal-deficient galaxies known in the local volume. Surprisingly, DDO 68 is a relatively massive and luminous galaxy for its metal content, making it a significant outlier in the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relationships. The origin of such a low oxygen abundance in DDO 68 presents a challenge for models of the chemical evolution of galaxies. One possible solution to this problem is the infall of pristine neutral gas, potentially initiated during a gravitational interaction. Using archival H I spectral-line imaging obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we have discovered a previously unknown companion of DDO 68. This low-mass (M{sub H} {sub I} = 2.8 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}), recently star-forming (SFR{sub FUV} = 1.4 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, SFR{sub Hα} < 7 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) companion has the same systemic velocity as DDO 68 (V {sub sys} = 506 km s{sup –1}; D = 12.74 ± 0.27 Mpc) and is located at a projected distance of ∼42 kpc. New H I maps obtained with the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope provide evidence that DDO 68 and this companion are gravitationally interacting at the present time. Low surface brightness H I gas forms a bridge between these objects.

  6. Live imaging of companion cells and sieve elements in Arabidopsis leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Cayla

    Full Text Available The phloem is a complex tissue composed of highly specialized cells with unique subcellular structures and a compact organization that is challenging to study in vivo at cellular resolution. We used confocal scanning laser microscopy and subcellular fluorescent markers in companion cells and sieve elements, for live imaging of the phloem in Arabidopsis leaves. This approach provided a simple framework for identifying phloem cell types unambiguously. It highlighted the compactness of the meshed network of organelles within companion cells. By contrast, within the sieve elements, unknown bodies were observed in association with the PP2-A1:GFP, GFP:RTM1 and RTM2:GFP markers at the cell periphery. The phloem lectin PP2-A1:GFP marker was found in the parietal ground matrix. Its location differed from that of the P-protein filaments, which were visualized with SEOR1:GFP and SEOR2:GFP. PP2-A1:GFP surrounded two types of bodies, one of which was identified as mitochondria. This location suggested that it was embedded within the sieve element clamps, specific structures that may fix the organelles to each another or to the plasma membrane in the sieve tubes. GFP:RTM1 was associated with a class of larger bodies, potentially corresponding to plastids. PP2-A1:GFP was soluble in the cytosol of immature sieve elements. The changes in its subcellular localization during differentiation provide an in vivo blueprint for monitoring this process. The subcellular features obtained with these companion cell and sieve element markers can be used as landmarks for exploring the organization and dynamics of phloem cells in vivo.

  7. Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human–Companion Animal Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg K. Takashima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available “One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB as it relates to healthcare in these areas.

  8. Veterinarian-client-patient communication patterns used during clinical appointments in companion animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jane R; Bonnett, Brenda N; Adams, Cindy L; Roter, Debra L

    2006-03-01

    To identify communication patterns used by veterinarians during clinical appointments in companion animal practice. Cross-sectional descriptive study. A random sample of 50 companion animal practitioners in southern Ontario and a convenience sample of 300 clients and their pets. For each practitioner, 6 clinical appointments (3 wellness appointments and 3 appointments related to a health problem) were videotaped. The Roter interaction analysis system was used to analyze the resulting 300 videotapes, and cluster analysis was used to identify veterinarian communication patterns. 175 (58%) appointments were classified as having a biomedical communication pattern, and 125 (42%) were classified as having a biolifestyle-social communication pattern. None were classified as having a consumerist communication pattern. Twentythree (46%) veterinarians were classified as using a predominantly biomedical communication pattern, 19 (38%) were classified as using a mixed communication pattern, and 8 (16%) were classified as using a predominantly biolifestyle-social communication pattern. Pattern use was related to the type of appointment. Overall, 103 (69%) wellness appointments were classified as biolifestyle-social and 127 (85%) problem appointments were classified as biomedical. Appointments with a biomedical communication pattern (mean, 11.98 minutes) were significantly longer than appointments with a biolifestyle-social communication pattern (10.43 minutes). Median relationship-centered care score (ie, the ratio of client-centered talk to veterinarian-centered talk) was significantly higher during appointments with a biolifestyle-social communication pattern (1.10) than during appointments with a biomedical communication pattern (0.40). Results suggest that veterinarians in companion animal practice use 2 distinct patterns of communication. Communication pattern was associated with duration of visit, type of appointment, and relationship-centeredness. Recognition of these

  9. Search for light curve modulations among Kepler candidates. Three very low-mass transiting companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Ribas, A.; Barrado, D.; Merín, B.; Bouy, H.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Light curve modulations in the sample of Kepler planet candidates allows the disentangling of the nature of the transiting object by photometrically measuring its mass. This is possible by detecting the effects of the gravitational pull of the companion (ellipsoidal modulations) and in some cases, the photometric imprints of the Doppler effect when observing in a broad band (Doppler beaming). Aims: We aim to photometrically unveil the nature of some transiting objects showing clear light curve modulations in the phase-folded Kepler light curve. Methods: We selected a subsample among the large crop of Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) based on their chances to show detectable light curve modulations, i.e., close (a< 12 R⋆) and large (in terms of radius, according to their transit signal) candidates. We modeled their phase-folded light curves with consistent equations for the three effects, namely, reflection, ellipsoidal and beaming (known as REB modulations). Results: We provide detailed general equations for the fit of the REB modulations for the case of eccentric orbits. These equations are accurate to the photometric precisions achievable by current and forthcoming instruments and space missions. By using this mathematical apparatus, we find three close-in very low-mass companions (two of them in the brown dwarf mass domain) orbiting main-sequence stars (KOI-554, KOI-1074, and KOI-3728), and reject the planetary nature of the transiting objects (thus classifying them as false positives). In contrast, the detection of the REB modulations and transit/eclipse signal allows the measurement of their mass and radius that can provide important constraints for modeling their interiors since just a few cases of low-mass eclipsing binaries are known. Additionally, these new systems can help to constrain the similarities in the formation process of the more massive and close-in planets (hot Jupiters), brown dwarfs, and very low-mass companions.

  10. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. II. A SHORT-PERIOD COMPANION ORBITING AN F STAR WITH EVIDENCE OF A STELLAR TERTIARY AND SIGNIFICANT MUTUAL INCLINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Jiang Peng; Lee, Brian; Nelson, Ben [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 2611-2055 (United States); Barnes, Rory [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Shappee, Benjamin J. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ferreira, Leticia; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gary, Bruce; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan, E-mail: scfleming@psu.edu [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia, LIneA, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-20921-400 (Brazil); and others

    2012-09-15

    We report the discovery via radial velocity (RV) measurements of a short-period (P = 2.430420 {+-} 0.000006 days) companion to the F-type main-sequence star TYC 2930-00872-1. A long-term trend in the RV data also suggests the presence of a tertiary stellar companion with P > 2000 days. High-resolution spectroscopy of the host star yields T{sub eff} = 6427 {+-} 33 K, log g = 4.52 {+-} 0.14, and [Fe/H] = -0.04 {+-} 0.05. These parameters, combined with the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and a parallax, allow us to infer a mass and radius of the host star of M{sub 1} = 1.21 {+-} 0.08 M{sub Sun} and R{sub 1} = 1.09{sup +0.15}{sub -0.13} R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of the inner companion is below the hydrogen-burning limit; however, the true mass is likely to be substantially higher. We are able to exclude transits of the inner companion with high confidence. Further, the host star spectrum exhibits a clear signature of Ca H and K core emission, indicating stellar activity, but a lack of photometric variability and small vsin I suggest that the primary's spin axis is oriented in a pole-on configuration. The rotational period of the primary estimated through an activity-rotation relation matches the orbital period of the inner companion to within 1.5 {sigma}, suggesting that the primary and inner companion are tidally locked. If the inner companion's orbital angular momentum vector is aligned with the stellar spin axis as expected through tidal evolution, then it has a stellar mass of {approx}0.3-0.4 M{sub Sun }. Direct imaging limits the existence of stellar companions to projected separations <30 AU. No set of spectral lines and no significant flux contribution to the SED from either companion are detected, which places individual upper mass limits of M{sub {l_brace}2,3{r_brace}} {approx}< 1.0 M{sub Sun }, provided they are not stellar remnants. If the tertiary is not a stellar remnant, then it likely has a mass of {approx}0.5-0.6 M{sub Sun

  11. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS. II. A Short-period Companion Orbiting an F Star with Evidence of a Stellar Tertiary and Significant Mutual Inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Ge, Jian; Barnes, Rory; Beatty, Thomas G.; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Ferreira, Leticia; Gary, Bruce; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Hebb, Leslie; Jiang, Peng; Lee, Brian; Nelson, Ben; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Stassun, Keivan; Thompson, Todd A.; Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Agol, Eric; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Cargile, Phillip A.; Coban, Louis; Costello, Korena S.; da Costa, Luis N.; Good, Melanie L.; Hua, Nelson; Kane, Stephen R.; Lander, Gary R.; Liu, Jian; Ma, Bo; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Oravetz, Daniel; Paegert, Martin; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Rebolo, Rafael; Roebuck, Eric J.; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; Vincent, Chelsea L. M.; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weaver, Gwendolyn M.; Zhao, Bo

    2012-09-01

    We report the discovery via radial velocity (RV) measurements of a short-period (P = 2.430420 ± 0.000006 days) companion to the F-type main-sequence star TYC 2930-00872-1. A long-term trend in the RV data also suggests the presence of a tertiary stellar companion with P > 2000 days. High-resolution spectroscopy of the host star yields T eff = 6427 ± 33 K, log g = 4.52 ± 0.14, and [Fe/H] = -0.04 ± 0.05. These parameters, combined with the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and a parallax, allow us to infer a mass and radius of the host star of M 1 = 1.21 ± 0.08 M ⊙ and R 1 = 1.09+0.15 - 0.13 R ⊙. The minimum mass of the inner companion is below the hydrogen-burning limit; however, the true mass is likely to be substantially higher. We are able to exclude transits of the inner companion with high confidence. Further, the host star spectrum exhibits a clear signature of Ca H and K core emission, indicating stellar activity, but a lack of photometric variability and small vsin I suggest that the primary's spin axis is oriented in a pole-on configuration. The rotational period of the primary estimated through an activity-rotation relation matches the orbital period of the inner companion to within 1.5 σ, suggesting that the primary and inner companion are tidally locked. If the inner companion's orbital angular momentum vector is aligned with the stellar spin axis as expected through tidal evolution, then it has a stellar mass of ~0.3-0.4 M ⊙. Direct imaging limits the existence of stellar companions to projected separations <30 AU. No set of spectral lines and no significant flux contribution to the SED from either companion are detected, which places individual upper mass limits of M {2, 3} <~ 1.0 M ⊙, provided they are not stellar remnants. If the tertiary is not a stellar remnant, then it likely has a mass of ~0.5-0.6 M ⊙, and its orbit is likely significantly inclined from that of the secondary, suggesting that the Kozai-Lidov mechanism

  12. Introducing the ESAT-6 free IGRA, a companion diagnostic for TB vaccines based on ESAT-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; de Thurah, Lena; Kuchaka, Davis

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for an improved vaccine for tuberculosis. ESAT-6 is a cardinal vaccine antigen with unique properties and is included in several vaccine candidates in development. ESAT-6 is also the core antigen in the IFN-γ release assays (IGRA) used to diagnose latent infection, rendering IGRA...... tests unspecific after vaccination. This challenge has prompted the development of a companion diagnostic for ESAT-6 based vaccines, an ESAT-6 free IGRA. We screened a panel of seven potential new diagnostic antigens not recognized in BCG vaccinated individuals. Three highly recognized antigens Esp...... containing vaccines and as adjunct test for latent infection....

  13. Telecare and Social Link Solution for Ambient Assisted Living Using a Robot Companion with Visiophony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varène, Thibaut; Hillereau, Paul; Simonnet, Thierry

    An increasing number of people are in need of help at home (elderly, isolated and/or disabled persons; people with mild cognitive impairment). Several solutions can be considered to maintain a social link while providing tele-care to these people. Many proposals suggest the use of a robot acting as a companion. In this paper we will look at an environment constrained solution, its drawbacks (such as latency) and its advantages (flexibility, integration…). A key design choice is to control the robot using a unified Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) solution, while addressing bandwidth limitations, providing good communication quality and reducing transmission latency

  14. A quasar companion to the puzzling quasar SDSS J0927+2943

    OpenAIRE

    Decarli, R.; Falomo, R.; Treves, A.; Barattini, M

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a quasar close to SDSS J0927+2943 (z = 0.713), which is a massive binary / recoiling black hole candidate. The companion quasar is at a projected distance of 125 h_70^{-1} kpc and exhibits a radial velocity difference of ~1400 km/s with respect to the known quasar. We discuss the nature of this peculiar quasar pair and the properties of its environment. We propose that the overall system is caught in the process of ongoing structure formation.

  15. [Family companions. New facets in accompanying relatives caring for people with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricheldorff, Cornelia; Brijoux, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Support and relief options in the context of homecare settings where people with dementia are cared for by friends or relatives have become highly differentiated; however, there are significant shortcomings in networking between the various types of offers within the context of mixed care (Pflegemix). Family caregivers often feel overwhelmed and find it difficult to identify and utilize the appropriate forms and services for their individual situation. Against this background companion models seem to be an appropriate solution to provide psychosocial support for caring families and to function in the role of bridge building in the assistance system. Within the framework of the Future Workshop Dementia (Zukunftswerkstatt Demenz) program funded by the German Federal Ministry of Health during the time period 2012-2015, the new intervention was developed in the family companion for dementia in rural areas (FABEL) project carried out by volunteers. These volunteers take up the needs of caring families for a low-threshold support structure and promote networking among the various groups of participants in individual homecare settings. The preparatory training for the volunteers, which is the focus of this article, provides special knowledge about dementia and the basic principles of systemic understanding of the typical dynamics in caring families. In the model phase the newly developed training program was aimed at qualified volunteers trained in the logistics of the model project Care Companion (Pflegebegleitung), which was successfully established from 2003 to 2008 in more than 100 pilot locations throughout Germany and is now integrated into the healthcare system. This proven model is linked to the new qualification and consists of 68 units involving thematic modules of knowledge about dementia and systemic solution-oriented thinking, for networking and the development of an understanding of the personal role. During the 3-year project period 27 volunteers became

  16. Spectroscopic confirmation of young planetary-mass companions on wide orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Liu, Michael C.; Mann, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kraus, Adam L., E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present moderate-resolution (R ∼ 4000-5000) near-infrared integral field spectroscopy of the young (1-5 Myr) 6-14 M {sub Jup} companions ROXs 42B b and FW Tau b obtained with Keck/OSIRIS and Gemini-North/NIFS. The spectrum of ROXs 42B b exhibits clear signs of low surface gravity common to young L dwarfs, confirming its extreme youth, cool temperature, and low mass. Overall, it closely resembles the free-floating 4-7 M {sub Jup} L-type Taurus member 2MASS J04373705+2331080. The companion to FW Tau AB is more enigmatic. Our optical and near-infrared spectra show strong evidence of outflow activity and disk accretion in the form of line emission from [S II], [O I], Hα, Ca II, [Fe II], Paβ, and H{sub 2}. The molecular hydrogen emission is spatially resolved as a single lobe that stretches ≈0.''1 (15 AU). Although the extended emission is not kinematically resolved in our data, its morphology resembles shock-excited H{sub 2} jets primarily seen in young Class 0 and Class I sources. The near-infrared continuum of FW Tau b is mostly flat and lacks the deep absorption features expected for a cool, late-type object. This may be a result of accretion-induced veiling, especially in light of its strong and sustained Hα emission (EW(Hα) ≳ 290 Å). Alternatively, FW Tau b may be a slightly warmer (M5-M8) accreting low-mass star or brown dwarf (0.03-0.15 M {sub ☉}) with an edge-on disk. Regardless, its young evolutionary stage is in stark contrast to its Class III host FW Tau AB, indicating a more rapid disk clearing timescale for the host binary system than for its wide companion. Finally, we present near-infrared spectra of the young (∼2-10 Myr) low-mass (12-15 M {sub Jup}) companions GSC 6214-210 B and SR 12 C and find they best resemble low-gravity M9.5 and M9 substellar templates.

  17. Speckle Imaging Excludes Low-mass Companions Orbiting the Exoplanet Host Star TRAPPIST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Horch, Elliott P.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Hirsch, Lea; Nusdeo, Dan; Scott, Nicholas J.

    2016-09-01

    We have obtained the highest-resolution images available of TRAPPIST-1 using the Gemini-South telescope and our speckle imaging camera. Observing at 692 and 883 nm, we reached the diffraction limit of the telescope providing a best resolution of 27 mas or, at the distance of TRAPPIST-1, a spatial resolution of 0.32 au. Our imaging of the star extends from 0.32 to 14.5 au. We show that to a high confidence level, we can exclude all possible stellar and brown dwarf companions, indicating that TRAPPIST-1 is a single star.

  18. Speckle Imaging Excludes Low-Mass Companions Orbiting the Exoplanet Host Star TRAPPIST-1

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Elliott P. Horch; Winters, Jennifer G.; Hirsch, Lea; Nusdeo, Dan; Scott, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained the highest resolution images available of TRAPPIST-1 using the Gemini-South telescope and our speckle imaging camera. Observing at 692 and 883 nm, we reached the diffraction limit of the telescope providing a best resolution of 27 mas or, at the distance of TRAPPIST-1, a spatial resolution of 0.32 AU. Our imaging of the star extends from 0.32 to 14.5 AU. We show that to a high confidence level, we can exclude all possible stellar and brown dwarf companions, indicating that T...

  19. Search for Planetary-mass Companions of the LHB Star eta Corvi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Massimo; Lisse, Carey; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Hulsebus, Alan; Sitko, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The nearby sun-like star eta Corvi (F2V, d = 18 pc, age = 1.2 Gyr) has long been known to possess a bright, dusty Kuiper belt that has been recently resolved with Herschel/PACS. In addition to this structure, eta Corvi is one of the rare mature planetary systems to possess also an inner warm belt (~ 3 AU radius), located within the Terrestrial Habitable Zone (TLZ) of this star. Our characterization of this structure, based on Spitzer/IRS and NASA/IRTF SpeX spectral observations, reveals the signature of ice, organics and silicate dust in this warm belt. This supports the hypothesis that eta Corvi is undergoing a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), delivering life-bearing water- and organic-rich material from the Kuiper belt to the TLZ, at roughly the same age as the Solar System?s LHB. For the past four years we have monitored the brightness of eta Corvi?s warm belt with Spitzer/IRAC, finding that its infrared emission has been stable over a multi-year timescale. In 2012 we have also conducted a search for widely separated substellar-mass companions of this star, whose presence as been suggested as a possible trigger for the LHB currently undergoing in the system. This search has led to the identification of three sources with colors and magnitudes consistent with being late-T and Y dwarf companions of this star. We here propose to acquire a new deep roll-subtracted image of the system, 5 years after our first visit, to test for common proper motion of these candidate companions, and determine if any of this sources is physically associated with eta Corvi. A positive identification of a substellar-mass companions (one of which could be a 3-5 MJ planet at ~360 AU from the star) would be a significant step in understanding the processes leading to LHB-like events in a system analogous to the Solar System.

  20. Evaluation of rucaparib and companion diagnostics in the PARP inhibitor landscape for recurrent ovarian cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jenner, Zachary B; Sood, Anil K.; Coleman, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Rucaparib camsylate (CO-338; 8-fluoro-2-{4-[(methylamino)methyl]phenyl}-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-6H-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one ((1S,4R)-7,7-dimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[2.2.1]hept-1-yl)methanesulfonic acid salt) is a PARP1, 2 and 3 inhibitor. Phase I studies identified a recommended Phase II dose of 600 mg orally twice daily. ARIEL2 Part 1 established a tumor genomic profiling test for homologous recombination loss of heterozygosity quantification using a next-generation sequencing companion diagnostic ...

  1. Speckle Imaging Excludes Low-Mass Companions Orbiting the Exoplanet Host Star TRAPPIST-1

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Steve B; Horch, Elliott P; Winters, Jennifer G; Hirsch, Lea; Nusdeo, Dan; Scott, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained the highest resolution images available of TRAPPIST-1 using the Gemini-South telescope and our speckle imaging camera. Observing at 692 and 883 nm, we reached the diffraction limit of the telescope providing a best resolution of 27 mas or, at the distance of TRAPPIST-1, a spatial resolution of 0.32 AU. Our imaging of the star extends from 0.32 to 14.5 AU. We show that to a high confidence level, we can exclude all possible stellar and brown dwarf companions, indicating that TRAPPIST-1 is a single star.

  2. Prevalence of blastocystis in shelter-resident and client-owned companion animals in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig G Ruaux

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs and cats are commonly infected with a variety of protozoan enteric parasites, including Blastocystis spp. In addition, there is growing interest in Blastocystis as a potential enteric pathogen, and the possible role of domestic and in-contact animals as reservoirs for human infection. Domestic animals in shelter environments are commonly recognized to be at higher risk for carriage of enteropathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of infection of shelter-resident and client-owned domestic dogs and cats with Blastocystis spp in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. Fecal samples were collected from 103 shelter-resident dogs, 105 shelter-resident cats, 51 client-owned dogs and 52 client-owned cats. Blastocystis were detected and subtypes assigned using a nested PCR based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Shelter-resident animals were significantly more likely to test positive for Blastocystis (P<0.05 for dogs, P = 0.009 for cats. Sequence analysis indicated that shelter-resident animals were carrying a variety of Blastocystis subtypes. No relationship was seen between Blastocystis carriage and the presence of gastrointestinal disease signs in either dogs or cats. These data suggest that, as previously reported for other enteric pathogens, shelter-resident companion animals are a higher risk for carriage of Blastocystis spp. The lack of relationship between Blastocystis carriage and intestinal disease in shelter-resident animals suggests that this organism is unlikely to be a major enteric pathogen in these species.

  3. Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Interaction between an AGB Star and a Main Sequence Companion in Eccentric Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Staff, Jan E; Macdonald, Daniel; Galaviz, Pablo; Passy, Jean-Claude; Iaconi, Roberto; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Rotten Egg Nebula has at its core a binary composed of a Mira star and an A-type companion at a separation >10 au. It has been hypothesized to have formed by strong binary interactions between the Mira and a companion in an eccentric orbit during periastron passage ~800 years ago. We have performed hydrodynamic simulations of an asymptotic giant branch star interacting with companions with a range of masses in orbits with a range of initial eccentricities and periastron separations. For reasonable values of the eccentricity, we find that Roche lobe overflow can take place only if the periods are <<100 years. Moreover, mass transfer causes the system to enter a common envelope phase within several orbits. Since the central star of the Rotten Egg nebula is an AGB star, we conclude that such a common envelope phase must have lead to a merger, so the observed companion must have been a tertiary companion of a binary that merged at the time of nebula ejection. Based on the mass and timescale of the simul...

  4. KNOW THE STAR, KNOW THE PLANET. V. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STELLAR COMPANION TO THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR HD 177830

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Beichman, Charles; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Lockhart, Thomas G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States); Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Brenner, Douglas; Luszcz-Cook, Statia; Nilsson, Ricky [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Dekany, Richard; Hillenbrand, Lynne [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); King, David; Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road., Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Pueyo, Laurent [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Rice, Emily L., E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); and others

    2015-10-15

    HD 177830 is an evolved K0IV star with two known exoplanets. In addition to the planetary companions it has a late-type stellar companion discovered with adaptive optics imagery. We observed the binary star system with the PHARO near-IR camera and the Project 1640 coronagraph. Using the Project 1640 coronagraph and integral field spectrograph we extracted a spectrum of the stellar companion. This allowed us to determine that the spectral type of the stellar companion is a M4 ± 1 V. We used both instruments to measure the astrometry of the binary system. Combining these data with published data, we determined that the binary star has a likely period of approximately 800 years with a semimajor axis of 100–200 AU. This implies that the stellar companion has had little or no impact on the dynamics of the exoplanets. The astrometry of the system should continue to be monitored, but due to the slow nature of the system, observations can be made once every 5–10 years.

  5. Discovery of a Low-mass Companion to a Metal-rich F Star with the MARVELS Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Ge, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Lee, Brian; Eastman, Jason D.; Siverd, Robert J.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Niedzielski, Andrzej; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wolszczan, Alex; Barnes, Rory; Gary, Bruce; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Morehead, Robert C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Jian; Guo, Pengcheng; Kane, Stephen R.; van Eyken, Julian C.; De Lee, Nathan M.; Crepp, Justin R.; Shelden, Alaina C.; Laws, Chris; Wisniewski, John P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Pepper, Joshua; Snedden, Stephanie A.; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Olena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Watters, Shannon

    2010-08-01

    We report the discovery of a low-mass companion orbiting the metal-rich, main sequence F star TYC 2949-00557-1 during the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) pilot project. The host star has an effective temperature T eff = 6135 ± 40 K, logg = 4.4 ± 0.1, and [Fe/H] = 0.32 ± 0.01, indicating a mass of M = 1.25 ± 0.09 M sun and R = 1.15 ± 0.15 R sun. The companion has an orbital period of 5.69449 ± 0.00023 days and straddles the hydrogen burning limit with a minimum mass of 64 MJ , and thus may be an example of the rare class of brown dwarfs orbiting at distances comparable to those of "Hot Jupiters." We present relative photometry that demonstrates that the host star is photometrically stable at the few millimagnitude level on time scales of hours to years, and rules out transits for a companion of radius gsim0.8 RJ at the 95% confidence level. Tidal analysis of the system suggests that the star and companion are likely in a double synchronous state where both rotational and orbital synchronization have been achieved. This is the first low-mass companion detected with a multi-object, dispersed, fixed-delay interferometer.

  6. Imaging search for the unseen companion to Eps Ind A -- Improving the detection limits with 4 micron observations

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, M; Zechmeister, M; Brandner, W; Kürster, M; Kasper, M; Reffert, S; Endl, M; Lafrenière, D; Geissler, K; Hippler, S; Henning, T

    2009-01-01

    Eps Ind A is one of the nearest sun-like stars, located only 3.6 pc away. It is known to host a binary brown dwarf companion, Eps Ind Ba/Bb, at a large projected separation of 6.7", but radial velocity measurements imply that an additional, yet unseen component is present in the system, much closer to Eps Ind A. Previous direct imaging has excluded the presence of any stellar or high-mass brown dwarf companion at small separations, indicating that the unseen companion may be a low-mass brown dwarf or high-mass planet. We present the results of a deep high-contrast imaging search for the companion, using active angular differential imaging (aADI) at 4 micron, a particularly powerful technique for planet searches around nearby and relatively old stars. We also develop an additional PSF reference subtraction scheme based on locally optimized combination of images (LOCI) to further enhance the detection limits. No companion is seen in the images, although we are sensitive to significantly lower masses than previo...

  7. Know the Star, Know the Planet. III. Discovery of Late-Type Companions to Two Exoplanet Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts,, Lewis C; Mason, Brian D; Riddle, Reed L; Hartkopf, William I; Law, Nicholas M; Baranec, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We discuss two multiple star systems that host known exoplanets: HD 2638 and 30 Ari B. Adaptive optics imagery revealed an additional stellar companion to both stars. We collected multi-epoch images of the systems with Robo-AO and the PALM-3000 adaptive optics systems at Palomar Observatory and provide relative photometry and astrometry. The astrometry indicates that the companions share common proper motion with their respective primaries. Both of the new companions have projected separations less than 30 AU from the exoplanet host star. Using the projected separations to compute orbital periods of the new stellar companions, HD 2638 has a period of 130 yrs and 30 Ari B has a period of 80 years. Previous studies have shown that the true period is most likely within a factor of three of these estimated values. The additional component to the 30 Ari makes it the second confirmed quadruple system known to host an exoplanet. HD 2638 hosts a hot Jupiter and the discovery of a new companion strengthens the connect...

  8. Orbital solutions of eight close sdB binaries and constraints on the nature of the unseen companions

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, S; Heber, U; Kupfer, T; Maxted, P F L; Barlow, B N; Vuckovic, M; Tillich, A; Mueller, S; Edelmann, H; Classen, L; McLeod, A F

    2014-01-01

    The project Massive Unseen Companions to Hot Faint Underluminous Stars from SDSS (MUCHFUSS) aims at finding hot subdwarf stars (sdBs) with massive compact companions such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, or stellar-mass black holes. In a supplementary programme we obtained time-resolved spectroscopy of known hot subdwarf binary candidates. Here we present orbital solutions of eight close sdB binaries with orbital periods ranging from 0.1 to 10 days, which allow us to derive lower limits on the masses of their companions. Additionally, a dedicated photometric follow-up campaign was conducted to obtain light curves of the reflection-effect binary HS 2043+0615. We are able to constrain the most likely nature of the companions in all cases but one, making use of information derived from photometry and spectroscopy. Four sdBs have white dwarf companions, while another three are orbited by low-mass main sequence stars of spectral type M.

  9. Is beryllium ultra-depletion in solar-type stars linked to the presence of a white dwarf companion?

    CERN Document Server

    Desidera, S; Lugaro, M

    2015-01-01

    Abundance studies of solar-type stars revealed a small fraction of objects with extreme depletion of beryllium. We investigate the possible link between the beryllium depletion and the presence of companions. The classical methods (radial velocity, astrometry, imaging) used to search for binary companions were exploited. We also performed a chemical analysis to identify binaries by the alteration in abundances that is produced by the accretion of material lost by a former evolved companion. We found that all the four previously investigated stars that were found to be ultra--depleted in Be are binaries. In two cases the companion is a white dwarf, and in the other two cases the companion might be a white dwarf or a main-sequence star. One new barium star was identified. We speculate that the interaction with the white dwarf progenitor caused an alteration in the abundance pattern of the star, which resulted in severe beryllium depletion. Possible mechanisms such as thermohaline mixing, episodic accretion, and...

  10. Very Low-Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-Like Stars from MARVELS I: A Low Mass Ratio Stellar Companion to TYC 4110-01037-1 in a 79-day Orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Wisniewski, John P; Crepp, Justin R; De Lee, Nathan; Eastman, Jason; Esposito, Massimiliano; Fleming, Scott W; Gaudi, B Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hernandez, Jonay I Gonzalez; Lee, Brian L; Stassun, Keivan G; Agol, Eric; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Barnes, Rory; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cargile, Phillip; Chang, Liang; Da Costa, Luiz N; De Mello, G F Porto; Femenia, Bruno; Ferreira, Leticia D; Gary, Bruce; Hebb, Leslie; Holtzman, Jon; Liu, Jian; Ma, Bo; Mack, Claude E; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A G; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L C; Oravetz, Daniel J; Paegert, Martin; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio; Schneider, Donald P; Shelden, Alaina C; Simmons, Audrey; Tofflemire, Benjamin M; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Zhao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    TYC 4110-01037-1 has a low-mass stellar companion, whose small mass ratio and short orbital period are atypical amongst solar-like (Teff ~0.087 +/- 0.003, places it at the lowest end of observed values for short period stellar companions to solar-like (Teff ~< 6000 K) stars. One possible way to create such a system would be if a triple-component stellar multiple broke up into a short period, low q binary during the cluster dispersal phase of its lifetime. A candidate tertiary body has been identified in the system via single-epoch, high contrast imagery. If this object is confirmed to be co-moving, we estimate it would be a dM4 star. We present these results in the context of our larger-scale effort to constrain the statistics of low mass stellar and brown dwarf companions to FGK-type stars via the MARVELS survey.

  11. Balance of microtubule stiffness and cortical tension determines the size of blood cells with marginal band across species

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Mathur, Aastha; Nédélec, François

    2016-01-01

    The fast blood stream of animals is associated with large shear stresses. Consequently, blood cells have evolved a special morphology and a specific internal architecture allowing them to maintain their integrity over several weeks. For instance, non-mammalian red blood cells, mammalian erythroblasts and platelets have a peripheral ring of microtubules, called the marginal band, that flattens the overall cell morphology by pushing on the cell cortex. In this article, we model how the shape of these cells stems from the balance between marginal band elasticity and cortical tension. We predict that the diameter of the cell scales with the total microtubule polymer, and verify the predicted law across a wide range of species. Our analysis also shows that the combination of the marginal band rigidity and cortical tension increases the ability of the cell to withstand forces without deformation. Finally, we model the marginal band coiling that occurs during the disc-to-sphere transition observed for instance at th...

  12. Evolutionary Constraints on the Planet-Hosting Subgiant Epsilon Reticulum from its White Dwarf Companion

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J; Holberg, J B; Casewell, S L; Barstow, M A

    2011-01-01

    The planet-hosting and Sirius-type binary system epsilon Reticulum (HD 27442) is examined from the perspective of its more evolved white dwarf secondary. The stellar parameters are determined from a combination of Balmer line spectroscopy, gravitational redshift, and solid angle. These three methods conspire to yield the most accurate physical description of the companion to date: Teff=15,310 \\pm 350 K and M=0.60 \\pm 0.02 Msol. Post-main sequence mass loss indicates the current binary separation has increased by a factor of 1.6 from its primordial state when the current primary was forming its planet(s), implying a0 > 150 AU and constraining stable planets to within 15-20 AU for a binary eccentricity of e=0.5. Almost 80 years have passed since the first detection of the stellar companion, and marginal orbital motion may be apparent in the binary, suggesting a near edge-on configuration with i > 70 deg, albeit with substantial uncertainty. If correct, the mass of the planet HD 27442b is bound between 1.66 and ...

  13. Improved parameters of seven Kepler giant companions characterized with SOPHIE and HARPS-N

    CERN Document Server

    Bonomo, A S; Santerne, A; Deleuil, M; Almenara, J -M; Bruno, G; Díaz, R F; Hébrard, G; Moutou, C

    2015-01-01

    Radial-velocity observations of Kepler candidates obtained with the SOPHIE and HARPS-N spectrographs have permitted unveiling the nature of the five giant planets Kepler-41b, Kepler-43b, Kepler-44b, Kepler-74b, and Kepler-75b, the massive companion Kepler-39b, and the brown dwarf KOI-205b. These companions were previously characterized with long-cadence (LC) Kepler data. Here we aim at refining the parameters of these transiting systems by i) modelling the published radial velocities (RV) and Kepler short-cadence (SC) data that provide a much better sampling of the transits, ii) performing new spectral analyses of the SOPHIE and ESPaDOnS spectra, and iii) improving stellar rotation periods hence stellar age estimates through gyrochronology, when possible. Posterior distributions of the system parameters were derived with a differential evolution Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Our main results are as follows: a) Kepler-41b is significantly larger and less dense than previously found because a lower orbital...

  14. On the Origin of the Supergiant HI Shell and Putative Companion in NGC 6822

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, John M; Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Dolphin, Andrew E; Bigiel, Frank; Cole, Andrew A; de Blok, W J G; Walter, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging of six positions spanning 5.8 kpc of the HI major axis of the Local Group dIrr NGC 6822, including both the putative companion galaxy and the large HI hole. The resulting deep color magnitude diagrams show that NGC 6822 has formed >50% of its stars in the last ~5 Gyr. The star formation histories of all six positions are similar over the most recent 500 Myr, including low-level star formation throughout this interval and a weak increase in star formation rate during the most recent 50 Myr. Stellar feedback can create the giant HI hole, assuming that the lifetime of the structure is longer than 500 Myr; such long-lived structures have now been observed in multiple systems and may be the norm in galaxies with solid-body rotation. The old stellar populations (red giants and red clump stars) of the putative companion are consistent with those of the extended halo of NGC 6822; this argues against the interpretation of this structure as a bon...

  15. THE ORBIT AND COMPANION OF PROBABLE {gamma}-RAY PULSAR J2339-0533

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romani, Roger W. [Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (United States); Shaw, Michael S. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We have measured dramatic flux and spectral variations through the 0.193 day orbit of the optical counterpart of the unidentified {gamma}-ray source 0FGL J2339.8-0530. This compact object companion is strongly heated, with T{sub eff} varying from {approx}6900 K (superior conjunction) to <3000 K at minimum. A combined fit to the light curve and radial velocity amplitudes imply M{sub 1} Almost-Equal-To 0.075 M{sub Sun }, M{sub 2} Almost-Equal-To 1.4M{sub Sun }, and inclination i Almost-Equal-To 57 Degree-Sign . Thus, this is a likely 'black widow' system with a E-dot {approx}10{sup 34-34.5} erg s{sup -1} pulsar driving companion mass loss. This wind, also suggested by the X-ray light curve, may prevent radio pulse detection. Our measurements constrain the pulsar's reflex motion, increasing the possibility of a pulse detection in the {gamma}-ray signal.

  16. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers MB

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meagan B Myers Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer. Keywords: HER2, precision medicine, in vitro diagnostics, estrogen receptor, multigene assay

  17. TRIDENT: an Infrared Differential Imaging Camera Optimized for the Detection of Methanated Substellar Companions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marois, C; Doyon, R; Nadeau, D; Racine, R; Riopel, M; Vallee, P; Lafreniere, D

    2005-04-08

    A near-infrared camera in use at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and at the 1.6-m telescope of the Observatoire du Mont-Megantic is described. The camera is based on a Hawaii-1 1024 x 1024 HgCdTe array detector. Its main feature is to acquire three simultaneous images at three wavelengths across the methane absorption bandhead at 1.6 {micro}m, enabling, in theory, an accurate subtraction of the stellar point spread function (PSF) and the detection of faint close methanated companions. The instrument has no coronoagraph and features fast data acquisition, yielding high observing efficiency on bright stars. The performance of the instrument is described, and it is illustrated by laboratory tests and CFHT observations of the nearby stars GL526, {nu}-And and {chi}-And. TRIDENT can detect (6{sigma}) a methanated companion with {Delta}H = 9.5 at 0.5'' separation from the star in one hour of observing time. Non-common path aberrations and amplitude modulation differences between the three optical paths are likely to be the limiting factors preventing further PSF attenuation. Instrument rotation and reference star subtraction improve the detection limit by a factor of 2 and 4 respectively. A PSF noise attenuation model is presented to estimate the non-common path wavefront difference effect on PSF subtraction performance.

  18. Precise radial velocities of Proxima Centauri. Strong constraints on a substellar companion

    CERN Document Server

    Kürster, M; Cochran, W D; Döbereiner, S; Dennerl, K; Endl, M

    1999-01-01

    We present differential radial velocity measurements of Proxima Centauri collected over 4 years with the ESO CES with a mean precision of $54 ms^{-1}$. We find no evidence of a periodic signal that could corroborate the existence of a sub-stellar companion. We put upper limits (97% confidence) to the companion mass ranging from 1.1 to 22 M_{Jup} at orbital periods of 0.75 to 3000 d, i.e. separations 0.008-2 AU from Prox Cen. Our mass limits concur with limits found by precise astrometry (Benedict et al. 1998a and priv. comm.) which strongly constrain the period range 50-600 d to 1.1-0.22 M_{Jup}. Combining both results we exclude a brown dwarf or supermassive planet at separations 0.008-0.69 AU from Prox Cen. We also find that, at the level of our precision, the RV data are not affected by stellar activity.

  19. The TRENDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey. III. A Faint White Dwarf Companion Orbiting HD 114174

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R; Howard, Andrew W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin; Wright, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    The nearby Sun-like star HD 114174 exhibits a strong and persistent Doppler acceleration indicating the presence of an unseen distant companion. We have acquired high-contrast imaging observations of this star using NIRC2 at Keck and report the direct detection of the body responsible for causing the "trend". HD 114174 B has a projected separation of 692+/-9 mas (18.1 AU) and is 10.75+/-0.12 magnitudes (contrast of 5x10{-5}) fainter than its host in the K-band, requiring aggressive point-spread function subtraction to identify. Our astrometric time baseline of 1.4 years demonstrates physical association through common proper motion. We find that the companion has absolute magnitude, M_J=13.97+/-0.11, and colors, J-K= 0.12+/-0.16 mag. These characteristics are consistent with an ~T3 dwarf, initially leading us to believe that HD 114174 B was a substellar object. However, a dynamical analysis that combines radial velocity measurements with available imaging data indicates a minimum mass of m=0.260+/-0.010Msun. ...

  20. Discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the A3V star β Circini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.; Lucas, P. W.; Contreras Peña, C.; Kurtev, R.; Marocco, F.; Jones, H. R. A.; Beamin, J. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Borissova, J.; Burningham, B.; Faherty, J.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gromadzki, M.; Ivanov, V. D.; Minniti, D.; Stimson, W.; Villanueva, V.

    2015-12-01

    We report the discovery of an L dwarf companion to the A3V star β Circini. VVV J151721.49-585131.5, or β Cir B, was identified in a proper motion and parallax catalogue of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea survey as having near-infrared luminosity and colour indicative of an early L dwarf, and a proper motion and parallax consistent with that of β Cir. The projected separation of ˜3.6 arcmin corresponds to 6656 au, which is unusually wide. The most recent published estimate of the age of the primary combined with our own estimate based on newer isochrones yields an age of 370-500 Myr. The system therefore serves as a useful benchmark at an age greater than that of the Pleiades brown dwarfs and most other young L dwarf benchmarks. We have obtained a medium resolution echelle spectrum of the companion which indicates a spectral type of L1.0 ± 0.5 and lacks the typical signatures of low-surface gravity seen in younger brown dwarfs. This suggests that signs of low-surface gravity disappear from the spectra of early L dwarfs by an age of ˜370-500 Myr, as expected from theoretical isochrones. The mass of β Cir B is estimated from the BHAC15 isochrones as 0.056 ± 0.007 M⊙.

  1. On the nature of the tertiary companion to FW Tau: ALMA CO observations and SED modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Caceres, Claudio; Schreiber, Matthias R; Canovas, Hector; Cieza, Lucas A; Williams, Jonathan P; Hales, Antonio; Pinte, Christophe; Menard, Francois; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that planetary mass companions may form through gravitational disk instabilities or core accretion. Identifying such objects in the process of formation would provide the most direct test for the competing formation theories. One of the most promising candidates for a planetary mass object still in formation is the third object in the FWTau system. We here present ALMA cycle 1 observations confirming the recently published 1.3 mm detection of a dust disk around this third object and present for the first time a clear detection of a single peak 12CO(2-1) line, providing direct evidence for the simultaneous existence of a gas disk. We perform radiative transfer modeling of the third object in FW Tau and find that current observations are consistent with a planetary mass object embedded in a disk which is externally irradiated by the binary companion and seen at an inclination of i<15 deg. However, we also find that a near edge-on disk around a more massive substellar object can explain the obse...

  2. Multi-Wavelength Implications of the Companion Star in eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Thomas I.; Gull, Theodore R.; Groh, Jose H.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Okazaki, Atsuo; Hillier, D. John; Russell, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Eta-Carinae is considered to be a massive colliding wind binary system with a highly eccentric (e approximately 0.9), 5.54-yr orbit. However, the companion star continues to evade direct detection as the primary dwarfs its emission at most wavelengths. Using three-dimensional (3-D) SPH simulations of eta-Car's colliding winds and radiative transfer codes, we are able to compute synthetic observables across multiple wavebands for comparison to the observations. The models show that the presence of a companion star has a profound influence on the observed HST/STIS UV spectrum and H-alpha line profiles, as well as the ground-based photometric monitoring. Here, we focus on the Bore Hole effect, wherein the fast wind from the hot secondary star carves a cavity in the dense primary wind, allowing increased escape of radiation from the hotter/deeper layers of the primary's extended wind photosphere. The results have important implications for interpretations of eta-Car's observables at multiple wavelengths.

  3. Spectroscopic Confirmation of Young Planetary-Mass Companions on Wide Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, Brendan P; Kraus, Adam L; Mann, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    We present moderate-resolution ($R$$\\sim$4000-5000) near-infrared integral field spectroscopy of the young (1-5 Myr) 6-14 $M_\\mathrm{Jup}$ companions ROXs 42B b and FW Tau b obtained with Keck/OSIRIS and Gemini-North/NIFS. The spectrum of ROXs 42B b exhibits clear signs of low surface gravity common to young L dwarfs, confirming its extreme youth, cool temperature, and low mass. Overall, it closely resembles the free-floating 4-7 $M_\\mathrm{Jup}$ L-type Taurus member 2MASS J04373705+2331080. The companion to FW Tau AB is more enigmatic. Our optical and near-infrared spectra show strong evidence of outflow activity and disk accretion in the form of line emission from [S II], [O I], H$\\alpha$, Ca II, [Fe II], Pa$\\beta$, and H$_2$. The molecular hydrogen emission is spatially resolved as a single lobe that stretches $\\approx$0.1" (15 AU). Although the extended emission is not kinematically resolved in our data, its morphology resembles shock-excited H$_2$ jets primarily seen in young Class 0 and Class I sources....

  4. Massive Stars and their Siblings: the Extreme End of the Companion Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mink, Selma

    2014-10-01

    The gold-rush for detecting exoplanets has lead to an exponential improvement of optimization algorithms for high-contrast imaging optimized for HST. We propose to exploit these to probe the virtually unexplored population of low mass stars in the very close vicinity of young massive stars in order to I. progress our understanding of how low-mass stars form and survive under the influence of the ionizing radiation of their massive host and II. provide urgently needed constraints on competing theories of massive star formation by measuring their multiplicity. The high spatial and temporal stability of HST's point spread function is essential for the detection of very faint companions down to sub-arcsecond separations even in crowded regions at contrast up to delta-mag ~ 10, i.e. flux ratios up to 10,000. Furthermore the characterization of the low mass companions calls for wavelength bands largely affected by absorption by H2O in the earth's atmosphere. To achieve this goal we propose to use WFC3/IR to observe two adjacent fields in the center of the very young, nearby star cluster Trumpler 14, which harbors a rich population of massive stars.

  5. The Astrometric-Spectroscopic Binary System HIP 50796: An Overmassive Companion

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, G

    2005-01-01

    We report spectroscopic observations of the star HIP 50796, previously considered (but later rejected) as a candidate member of the TW Hya association. Our measurements reveal it to be a single-lined binary with an orbital period of 570 days and an eccentricity of e = 0.61. The astrometric signature of this orbit was previously detected by the HIPPARCOS satellite in the form of curvature in the proper motion components, although the period was unknown at the time. By combining our radial velocity measurements with the HIPPARCOS intermediate data (abscissae residuals) we are able to derive the full three-dimensional orbit, and determine the dynamical mass of the unseen companion as well as a revised trigonometric parallax that accounts for the orbital motion. Given our primary mass estimate of 0.73 solar masses (mid-K dwarf), the companion mass is determined to be 0.89 solar masses, or about 20% larger than the primary. The likely explanation for the larger mass without any apparent contribution to the light i...

  6. Prose Fiction as a Narrative Companion for a Vegetable Parenting Videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Leah; Beltran, Alicia; Buday, Richard; O'Connor, Teresia; Hughes, Sheryl; Baranowski, Janice; Diep, Cassandra; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the capacity of story to connect to a health-related videogame, as well as the qualities that may increase efficacy by making the story compelling. Parents of 3-5-year-old children often report difficulty getting their children to eat vegetables, which are protective against chronic illnesses. Videogames may be vehicles for training parenting practices for successful vegetable consumption outcomes but often rely on stories to provide context and details. Unfortunately, storytelling may interrupt immersion and player agency. Delivering stories outside of gameplay may provide an understanding of game situations while maintaining immersion. Two companion storylines (one a romantic adventure and the other a suspenseful fantasy) were generated for a vegetable parenting game, "Mommio," targeting mothers of preschool children. Mothers of 3-5-year-old children (n=18) read both storylines and completed semistructured interviews. Mothers preferred the romantic adventure, which featured strong characters, relatable issues, and an engaging plot. Most mothers were interested in playing the "Mommio" videogame after reading the stories. Results suggest that it is possible for prose literature to both motivate gameplay and be an immersive narrative companion to, but separate from, games for health. This literature should include engaging, realistic stories and relatable strong characters.

  7. Children's experiences of companion animal maltreatment in households characterized by intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2015-12-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives.

  8. Benchmark cool companions: New ages and abundances for the PZ Tel system

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, James S; Ivanyuk, Oleksiy; Gallardo, Jose; Jones, Matias I; Day-Jones, Avril C; Jones, Hugh R A; Ruiz, Maria-Teresa; Pinfield, David J; Yakovina, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    We present new ages and abundance measurements for the pre-main sequence star PZ Tel. PZ Tel was recently found to host a young and low-mass companion. Using FEROS spectra we have measured atomic abundances (e.g. Fe and Li) and chromospheric activity for PZ Tel and used these to obtain metallicity and age estimates for the companion. We find PZ Tel to be a rapidly rotating (vsini=73\\pm5km/s), ~solar metallicity star (logN(Fe)=-4.37\\pm0.06dex or [Fe/H]=0.05\\pm0.20dex) with a measured mean logR'HK of -4.12. We measure a NLTE lithium abundance of logN(Li)=3.1\\pm0.1dex, which from depletion models gives rise to an age of 7+4-2 Myrs for the system. The measured chromospheric activity returns an age of 26\\pm2Myrs, as does fitting pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks (Tau_evol=22\\pm3Myrs), both of which are in disagreement with the lithium age. We speculate on reasons for this difference and introduce new models for lithium depletion that incorporates both rotation and magnetic field affects. We also synthesize sol...

  9. Evaluation of the effect of signalment and body conformation on activity monitoring in companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Michel, Kathryn E; Love, Molly; Dow, Caitlin

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of signalment and body conformation on activity monitoring in companion dogs. 104 companion dogs. While wearing an activity monitor, each dog was led through a series of standard activities: lying down, walking laps, trotting laps, and trotting up and down stairs. Linear regression analysis was used to determine which signalment and body conformation factors were associated with activity counts. There was no significant effect of signalment or body conformation on activity counts when dogs were lying down, walking laps, and trotting laps. However, when dogs were trotting up and down stairs, there was a significant effect of age and body weight such that, for every 1-kg increase in body weight, there was a 1.7% (95% confidence interval, 1.1% to 2.4%) decrease in activity counts and for every 1-year increase in age, there was a 4.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.4% to 6.9%) decrease in activity counts. When activity was well controlled, there was no significant effect of signalment or body conformation on activity counts recorded by the activity monitor. However, when activity was less controlled, older dogs and larger dogs had lower activity counts than younger and smaller dogs. The wide range in body conformation (eg, limb or body length) among dogs did not appear to significantly impact the activity counts recorded by the monitor, but age and body weight did and must be considered in analysis of data collected from the monitors.

  10. Evaluation of a companion robot based on field tests with single older adults in their homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsiga, Katalin; Tóth, András; Pilissy, Tamás; Péter, Orsolya; Dénes, Zoltán; Fazekas, Gábor

    2017-06-19

    The growing number of older adults places insurmountable load on family members and professional caregivers. Assistive technology with the aid of robots can present a possible solution. The goal of this article was to test a companion robot supporting older adults in their home environments. Eight senior volunteers were involved in the field test. They all lived alone and were self-supporting. The robot was capable of providing cognitive assistance to manage the user's daily routine. Each participant used the robot for 94.9 ± 19.6 days. The primary communication modality was voice communication in their natural language, while the touch screen display was also available for interaction with the robot. The assistance given in daily living was evaluated by subjective (the user's opinion) and objective (logged data) criteria. The most useful and the least reliable robot functions according to the users were the navigation and the verbal communication. Entertainment, locomotion, and weather forecast were the most frequently used functions, while the shopping list was the least popular. The companion robot used in the test was accepted enthusiastically by the senior subjects. Specific robot functions (mainly navigation in the apartment and the speech recognition) require improvement to better accommodate real circumstances.

  11. ALMA hints at the presence of two companions in the disk around HD 100546

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine; Pinilla, Paola; Harsono, Daniel; Mathews, Geoffrey S; Dent, William R F; Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Birnstiel, T; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Nomura, Hideko; Aikawa, Yuri; Millar, T J; Sandell, Goran

    2014-01-01

    HD 100546 is a well-studied Herbig Be star-disk system that likely hosts a close-in companion with compelling observational evidence for an embedded protoplanet at 68 AU. We present ALMA observations of the HD 100546 disk which resolve the gas and dust structure at (sub)mm wavelengths. The CO emission (at 345.795 GHz) originates from an extensive molecular disk (390+/-20 AU in radius) whereas the continuum emission is more compact (230+/-20 AU in radius) suggesting radial drift of the mm-sized grains. The CO emission is similar in extent to scattered light images indicating well-mixed gas and um-sized grains in the disk atmosphere. Assuming azimuthal symmetry, a single-component power-law model cannot reproduce the continuum visibilities. The visibilities and images are better reproduced by a double-component model: a compact ring with a width of 21 AU centered at 26 AU and an outer ring with a width of 75+/-3 AU centered at 190+/-3 AU. The influence of a companion and protoplanet on the dust evolution is inv...

  12. TRIDENT: an Infrared Differential Imaging Camera Optimized for the Detection of Methanated Substellar Companions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marois, C; Doyon, R; Nadeau, D; Racine, R; Riopel, M; Vallee, P; Lafreniere, D

    2005-04-08

    A near-infrared camera in use at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and at the 1.6-m telescope of the Observatoire du Mont-Megantic is described. The camera is based on a Hawaii-1 1024 x 1024 HgCdTe array detector. Its main feature is to acquire three simultaneous images at three wavelengths across the methane absorption bandhead at 1.6 {micro}m, enabling, in theory, an accurate subtraction of the stellar point spread function (PSF) and the detection of faint close methanated companions. The instrument has no coronoagraph and features fast data acquisition, yielding high observing efficiency on bright stars. The performance of the instrument is described, and it is illustrated by laboratory tests and CFHT observations of the nearby stars GL526, {nu}-And and {chi}-And. TRIDENT can detect (6{sigma}) a methanated companion with {Delta}H = 9.5 at 0.5'' separation from the star in one hour of observing time. Non-common path aberrations and amplitude modulation differences between the three optical paths are likely to be the limiting factors preventing further PSF attenuation. Instrument rotation and reference star subtraction improve the detection limit by a factor of 2 and 4 respectively. A PSF noise attenuation model is presented to estimate the non-common path wavefront difference effect on PSF subtraction performance.

  13. Multi-Wavelength Implications of the Companion Star in Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Madura, Thomas I; Groh, Jose H; Owocki, Stanley P; Okazaki, Atsuo; Hillier, D John; Russell, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Eta Carinae is considered to be a massive colliding wind binary system with a highly eccentric (e \\sim 0.9), 5.54-yr orbit. However, the companion star continues to evade direct detection as the primary dwarfs its emission at most wavelengths. Using three-dimensional (3-D) SPH simulations of Eta Car's colliding winds and radiative transfer codes, we are able to compute synthetic observables across multiple wavebands for comparison to the observations. The models show that the presence of a companion star has a profound influence on the observed HST/STIS UV spectrum and H-alpha line profiles, as well as the ground-based photometric monitoring. Here, we focus on the Bore Hole effect, wherein the fast wind from the hot secondary star carves a cavity in the dense primary wind, allowing increased escape of radiation from the hotter/deeper layers of the primary's extended wind photosphere. The results have important implications for interpretations of Eta Car's observables at multiple wavelengths.

  14. ON THE NATURE OF THE TERTIARY COMPANION TO FW TAU: ALMA CO OBSERVATIONS AND SED MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Claudio; Hardy, Adam; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Cánovas, Héctor [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, 2360102 Valparaíso (Chile); Cieza, Lucas A. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hales, Antonio [Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, 763-0355 Santiago (Chile); Pinte, Christophe [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ménard, Francois [UMI-FCA, CNRS/INSU, UMI 3386 (France); Wahhaj, Zahed [European Southern Observatory, Av. Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, 19001 Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-20

    It is thought that planetary mass companions may form through gravitational disk instabilities or core accretion. Identifying such objects in the process of formation would provide the most direct test for the competing formation theories. One of the most promising candidates for a planetary mass object still in formation is the third object in the FW Tau system. We present here ALMA cycle 1 observations confirming the recently published 1.3 mm detection of a dust disk around this third object and present for the first time a clear detection of a single peak {sup 12}CO (2–1) line, providing direct evidence for the simultaneous existence of a gas disk. We perform radiative transfer modeling of the third object in FW Tau and find that current observations are consistent with either a brown dwarf embedded in an edge-on disk or a planet embedded in a low inclination disk, which is externally irradiated by the binary companion. Further observations with ALMA, aiming for high SNR detections of non-contaminated gas lines, are required to conclusively unveil the nature of the third object in FW Tau.

  15. Strong Evidence Against A Non-Degenerate Companion in SN 2012cg

    CERN Document Server

    Shappee, B J; Stanek, K Z; Patel, S G; Margutti, R A; Lipunov, V M; Pogge, R W

    2016-01-01

    Even though SN 2012cg is one of the best-studied Type Ia Supernovae to date, the nature of its progenitor system has been debated in numerous studies. Specifically, it is difficult to reconcile the claims of the detection of a $\\sim 6 \\rm{M}_\\odot$ main-sequence companion by Marion et al. 2016 with the deep, late-time H$\\alpha{}$ flux limits from \\citet{maguire16}. In this study we add three new constraints: 1) We analyze a high-signal-to-noise, nebular-phase, LBT/MODS spectrum of SN 2012cg and place an upper limit on the amount of low-velocity, solar-abundance material removed from a possible companion of $ < 7.8 \\times 10^{-3} \\rm{M}_\\odot$. 2) We use Swift X-ray observations to constrain the preexplosion mass-loss rate to be $\\dot M<10^{-6}$ $\\rm{M}_\\odot \\rm{yr}^{-1}$ for $v_\\textrm{w}=100\\,\\rm{km\\,s^{-1}}$. 3) We carefully reanalyze a prediscovery MASTER image and, with published light curves of SN 2012cg, we estimate the time of first light and conservatively constrain the radius of a Roche-lobe o...

  16. Hiding Planets behind a Big Friend: Mutual Inclinations of Multi-planet Systems with External Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dong; Pu, Bonan

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler mission has detected thousands of planetary systems with one to seven transiting planets packed within 0.7 au from their host stars. There is an apparent excess of single-transit planet systems that cannot be explained by transit geometries alone, when a single planetary mutual inclination dispersion is assumed. This suggests that the observed compact planetary systems have at least two different architectures. We present a scenario where the “Kepler dichotomy” may be explained by the action of an external giant planet or stellar companion misaligned with the inner multi-planet system. The external companion excites mutual inclinations of the inner planets, causing such systems to appear as “Kepler singles” in transit surveys. We derive approximate analytic expressions (in various limiting regimes), calibrated with numerical calculations, for the mutual inclination excitations for various planetary systems and perturber properties (mass mp, semimajor axis ap, and inclination {θ }p). In general, the excited mutual inclination increases with {m}p/{a}p3 and {θ }p, though secular resonances may lead to large mutual inclinations even for small {θ }p. We discuss the implications of our results for understanding the dynamical history of transiting planet systems with known external perturbers.

  17. Planetary companions in K giants beta Cancri, mu Leonis, and beta Ursae Minoris

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B -C; Park, M -G; Mkrtichian, D E; Hatzes, A P; Kim, K -M

    2014-01-01

    Auns. The aim of our paper is to investigate the low-amplitude and long-period variations in evolved stars with a precise radial velocity (RV) survey. Methods. The high-resolution, the fiber-fed Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) was used from 2003 to 2013 for a radial velocity survey of giant stars as part of the exoplanet search program at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO). Results. We report the detection of three new planetary companions orbiting the K giants beta Cnc, mu Leo, and beta UMi. The planetary nature of the radial velocity variations is supported by analyzes of ancillary data. The HIPPARCOS photometry shows no variations with periods close to those in RV variations and there is no strong correlation between the bisector velocity span (BVS) and the radial velocities for each star. Furthermore, the stars show weak or no core reversal in Ca II H lines indicating that they are inactive stars. The companion to beta Cnc has a minimum mass of 7.8 M_Jup in a 605-day orbit wi...

  18. Impact of type ia supernova ejecta on binary companions in the single-degenerate scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Taam, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to be caused by thermonuclear explosions of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf in close binary systems. In the single-degenerate scenario (SDS), the companion star is non-degenerate and can be significantly affected by the explosion. We explore this interaction by means of multi-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations using the FLASH code. We consider several different companion types, including main-sequence-like stars (MS), red giants (RG), and helium stars (He). In addition, we include the symmetry-breaking effects of orbital motion, rotation of the non-degenerate star, and Roche-lobe overflow. A detailed study of a sub-grid model for Type Ia supernovae is also presented. We find that the dependence of the unbound stellar mass and kick velocity on the initial binary separation can be fitted by power-law relations. By using the tracer particles in FLASH, the process leading to the unbinding of matter is dominated by ablation, which has usually been neglected in past analytic...

  19. A mid-infrared search for substellar companions of nearby planet-host stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulsebus, A.; Marengo, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 12 Physics Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010 (United States); Carson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Stapelfeldt, K. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    Determining the presence of widely separated substellar-mass companion is crucial to understand the dynamics of inner planets in extrasolar planetary systems (e.g., to explain their high mean eccentricity as inner planets are perturbed by the Kozai mechanism). We report the results of our Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) imaging search for widely separated (10''-25'') substellar-mass companions for 14 planet-host stars within 15 pc of the Sun. Using deep 3.6 and 4.5 μm observations in subarray mode, we found one object in the field of 47 UMa with [3.6]–[4.5] color similar to a T5 dwarf, which is, however, unlikely to share common proper motion with 47 UMa. We also found three objects with brown-dwarf-like [3.6]–[4.5] color limits in the fields of GJ 86, HD 160691, and GJ 581, as well as another in the field of HD 69830 for which we have excluded common proper motion. We provide model-based upper mass limits for unseen objects around all stars in our sample, with typical sensitivity to 10 M {sub J} objects from a projected separation of 50-300 AU from the parent star. We also discuss our data analysis methods for point-spread-function subtraction, image co-alignment, and artifact subtraction of IRAC subarray images.

  20. Discovery of New Companions to High Proper Motion Stars from the VVV Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Valentin D; Hempel, Maren; Kurtev, Radostin; Toledo, Ignacio; Saito, Roberto K; Alonso-Garcia, Javier; Beamin, Juan Carlos; Borissova, Jura; Catelan, Marcio; Chene, Andre-Nicolas; Emerson, Jim; Gonzalez, Oscar A; Lucas, Phillip W; Martin, Eduardo L; Rejkuba, Marina; Gromadzki, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    [abridged] The severe crowding in the direction of the inner Milky Way suggests that the census of stars within a few tens of parsecs in that direction may not be complete. We search for new nearby objects companions of known high proper motion (HPM) stars located towards the densest regions of the Southern Milky Way where the background contamination presented a major problem to previous works. The common proper motion (PM) method was used--we inspected the area around 167 known HPM (>=200 mas/yr) stars: 67 in the disk and 100 in the bulge. Multi-epoch images were provided by 2MASS and the VISTA Variables in Via Lactea (VVV). The VVV is a new on-going ZYJHKs plus multi-epoch Ks survey of ~562 deg^2 of Milky Way's bulge and inner Southern disk. Seven new co-moving companions were discovered around known HPM stars; six known co-moving pairs were recovered; a pair of stars that was thought to be co-moving was found to have different proper motions; published HPMs of eight stars were not confirmed; last but not ...