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  1. The outcome of thirteen patients with nonmalignant hematologic diseases treated with HLA haploidentical stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶媛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of human leukocyte antigen(HLA)haploidentical stem cell transplantation in nonmalignant hematologic diseases.Methods To analyze the outcome of 13 patients with nonmalignant hematologic diseases who underwent HLA haploidentical stem cell transplantation from September

  2. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate cell metabolism in malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rück, Angelika; Hauser, Carmen; Mosch, Simone; Kalinina, Sviatlana

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnosis of tumor tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results interfere with the outcome. Improvement through observation of cell metabolism might offer the solution, but needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. With respect to this, spectrally resolved multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging was investigated to analyze cell metabolism in metabolic phenotypes of malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells. The time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of NADH were measured in cells of different origins. The fluorescence lifetime of bound and free NADH was calculated from biexponential fitting of the fluorescence intensity decay within different spectral regions. The mean lifetime was increased from nonmalignant oral mucosa cells to different squamous carcinoma cells, where the most aggressive cells showed the longest lifetime. In correlation with reports in the literature, the total amount of NADH seemed to be less for the carcinoma cells and the ratio of free/bound NADH was decreased from nonmalignant to squamous carcinoma cells. Moreover for squamous carcinoma cells a high concentration of bound NADH was found in cytoplasmic organelles (mainly mitochondria). This all together indicates that oxidative phosphorylation and a high redox potential play an important role in the energy metabolism of these cells.

  3. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate cell metabolism in malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rück, Angelika; Hauser, Carmen; Mosch, Simone; Kalinina, Sviatlana

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnosis of tumor tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results interfere with the outcome. Improvement through observation of cell metabolism might offer the solution, but needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. With respect to this, spectrally resolved multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging was investigated to analyze cell metabolism in metabolic phenotypes of malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells. The time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of NADH were measured in cells of different origins. The fluorescence lifetime of bound and free NADH was calculated from biexponential fitting of the fluorescence intensity decay within different spectral regions. The mean lifetime was increased from nonmalignant oral mucosa cells to different squamous carcinoma cells, where the most aggressive cells showed the longest lifetime. In correlation with reports in the literature, the total amount of NADH seemed to be less for the carcinoma cells and the ratio of free/bound NADH was decreased from nonmalignant to squamous carcinoma cells. Moreover for squamous carcinoma cells a high concentration of bound NADH was found in cytoplasmic organelles (mainly mitochondria). This all together indicates that oxidative phosphorylation and a high redox potential play an important role in the energy metabolism of these cells.

  4. Different Cytokine and Chemokine Expression Patterns in Malignant Compared to Those in Nonmalignant Renal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Gelbrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cytokines and chemokines are widely involved in cancer cell progression and thus represent promising candidate factors for new biomarkers. Methods. Four renal cell cancer (RCC cell lines (Caki-1, 786-O, RCC4, and A498 and a nonmalignant renal cell line (RC-124 were examined with respect to their proliferation. The cytokine and chemokine expression pattern was examined by a DNA array (Human Cytokines & Chemokines RT2 Profiler PCR Array; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany, and expression profiles were compared. Results. Caki-1 and 786-O cells exhibited significantly increased proliferation rates, whereas RCC4 and A498 cells demonstrated attenuated proliferation, compared to nonmalignant RC-124 cells. Expression analysis revealed 52 cytokines and chemokines primarily involved in proliferation and inflammation and differentially expressed not only in malignant and nonmalignant renal cells but also in the four RCC cell lines. Conclusion. This is the first study examining the expression of 84 cytokines and chemokines in four RCC cell lines compared to that in a nonmalignant renal cell line. VEGFA, NODAL, and BMP6 correlated with RCC cell line proliferation and, thus, may represent putative clinical biomarkers for RCC progression as well as for RCC diagnosis and prognosis.

  5. Advances in unrelated and alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for nonmalignant disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shenoy, Shalini; Boelens, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation in non-malignant disorders has increased exponentially with the recognition that multiple diseases can be controlled or cured if engrafted with donor-derived cells. This review provides an overview of advances made in alternative

  6. Advances in unrelated and alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for nonmalignant disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shenoy, Shalini; Boelens, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation in non-malignant disorders has increased exponentially with the recognition that multiple diseases can be controlled or cured if engrafted with donor-derived cells. This review provides an overview of advances made in alternative dono

  7. Nonmalignant T cells stimulate growth of T-cell lymphoma cells in the presence of bacterial toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woetmann, Anders; Lovato, Paola; Eriksen, Karsten W;

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs). Here, we investigate SE-mediated interactions between nonmalignant T cells and malignant T-cell lines established from skin and blood of CTCL patients...

  8. The Effects of Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Treatment and Hyperthermia on Malignant and Nonmalignant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Curley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of biological subjects to electromagnetic fields with a high frequency is associated with temperature elevation. In our recent studies, we reported that non-invasive radiofrequency (RF treatment at 13.56 MHz with the field ranging from 1 KeV to 20 KeV/m2 inhibits tumor progression in animals with abdominal tumor xenografts and enhances the anticancer effect of chemotherapy. The RF treatment was followed by temperature elevation in tumors to approximately 46 °C during 10 min of exposure. In contrast, the temperature of normal tissues remained within a normal range at approximately 37 °C. Whether all biological effects of RF treatment are limited to its hyperthermic property remains unclear. Here, we compared how RF and hyperthermia (HT treatments change the proliferation rate, oxygen consumption and autophagy in malignant and nonmalignant cells. Methods: In the current study, cancer and nonmalignant cells of pancreatic origin were exposed to the RF field or to conventional HT at 46 °C, which was chosen based on our previous in vivo studies of the tumor-specific RF-induced hyperthermia. Results: Only RF treatment caused declines in cancer cell viability and proliferation. RF treatment also affected mitochondrial function in cancer cells more than HT treatment did and, unlike HT treatment, was followed by the elevation of autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Importantly, the effects of RF treatment were negligible in nonmalignant cells. Conclusion: The obtained data indicate that the effects of RF treatment are specific to cancer cells and are not limited to its hyperthermic property.

  9. Different glycosylation of cadherins from human bladder non-malignant and cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lityńska Anna

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to determine whether stage of invasiveness of bladder cancer cell lines contributes to alterations in glycan pattern of their cadherins. Results Human non-malignant epithelial cell of ureter HCV29, v-raf transfected HCV29 line (BC3726 and transitional cell cancers of urine bladder Hu456 and T24 were grown in cell culture. Equal amounts of protein from each cell extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and were blotted on an Immobilon P membrane. Cadherins were immunodetected using anti-pan cadherin mAb and lectin blotting assays were performed, in parallel. N-oligosaccharides were analysed by specific reaction with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA, Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA, Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA, Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA, Aleuria aurantia agglutinin (AAA, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA-L and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA. The cadherin from HCV29 cell line possessed bi- and/or 2,4-branched triantennary complex type glycans, some of which were α2,6-sialylated. The cadherin from BC3726 cell line exhibited exclusively high mannose type glycans. Cadherins from Hu456 and T24 cell lines expressed high mannose type glycans as well as β1,6-branched oligosaccharides with poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures and α2,3-linked sialic acid residues. Additionally, the presence of fucose and α2,6-sialic acid residues on the cadherin from T24 cell line was detected. Conclusions These results indicate that N-glycosylation pattern of cadherin from bladder cancer cell line undergoes modification during carcinogenesis.

  10. Treosulfan-Based Conditioning and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Nonmalignant Diseases: A Prospective Multi-Center Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Lauri M.; Nemecek, Eneida R.; Torgerson, Troy R.; Storer, Barry E.; Talano, Julie-An; Domm, Jennifer; Giller, Roger H.; Shimamura, Akiko; Delaney, Colleen; Skoda-Smith, Suzanne; Thakar, Monica S.; Baker, K. Scott; Rawlings, David J.; Englund, Janet A.; Flowers, Mary E. D.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Storb, Rainer; Woolfrey, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is effective in the treatment of patients with nonmalignant diseases and for many is the only known cure. Conventional myeloablative regimens have been associated with unacceptably high early transplant-related mortality (TRM) particularly in patients with co-morbid conditions. This prospective multicenter trial was designed to determine the safety and engraftment efficacy of treosulfan-based conditioning in patients with nonmalignant diseases. Thirty-one patients received HLA-matched related (n=4) or unrelated (n=27) grafts following conditioning with treosulfan (total dose: 42 g/m2), fludarabine (total dose: 150 mg/m2), ± thymoglobulin (6 mg/kg; n=22). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus and methotrexate. All patients engrafted. Day-100 TRM was 0%. With a median follow-up of 2 years, the 2-year survival was 90%. Three patients died of GVHD, recurrent hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and a surgical complication, respectively. The cumulative incidences of grades II–IV and III–IV acute GVHD at day 100 and chronic GVHD at 2 years were 62%, 10% and 21%, respectively. Patients who received thymoglobulin had a significantly lower incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (0% versus 33%; P = 0.005). These results indicate that the combination of treosulfan, fludarabine, and thymoglobulin is effective at establishing donor engraftment with low toxicity and improved survival in patients with nonmalignant diseases, and support the need for future disease-specific clinical trials. PMID:25196857

  11. Fluoro-edenite induces fibulin-3 overexpression in non-malignant human mesothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Salemi, Rossella; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Graziano, Adriana C.; Cardile, Venera; Basile, Maria S.; Candido, Saverio; Falzone, Luca; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Fenga, Concettina; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos is associated with the development of mesothelioma. In addition to asbestos, other fibers have been identified as risk factors for malignant and non-malignant diseases of the lungs. Among these, fluoro-edenite (FE) was found in patients from Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) with pleural and lung disease, suggesting its role for tumor expansion. In this context, the identification of early biomarkers useful for the diagnosis of cancer is mandatory. Fibulin-3 represents an important marker for the diagnosis of mesothelioma. However, it remains to be determined whether it is directly associated with exposure to asbestos-like fibers. In the present study, peripheral blood levels of fibulin-3 from 40 asbestos-exposed workers were compared with those detected in 27 street cleaners from Biancavilla. Intriguingly, the results showed that fibulin-3 levels were higher in the group of street cleaners compared with those of the asbestos-exposed workers, suggesting that these workers used the personal protective equipment according to the current regulations. These data suggest that subjects exposed to FE should be monitored for the risk of mesothelioma. FE and volcanic particulates are probably contained within dust inhaled by street cleaners from Biancavilla during their work activities. Based on these criteria, in this study, such fibers were used to treat mesothelial cells (MeT5A) in order to verify whether fibulin-3 levels are affected by these treatments. The results showed that only treatment with FE was associated with fibulin-3 overexpression at both the transcript and protein levels. It was previously demonstrated that mesothelial cells exhibited low levels of p27 following treatment with FE. Notably, p27 downregulation is associated with stathmin upregulation in cancer, conferring an aggressive phenotype of tumor cells. This observation prompted us to perform a computational evaluation demonstrating the activation of stathmin in lung cancer in

  12. Treosulfan-based conditioning regimens for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with non-malignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatter, M A; Boztug, H; Pötschger, U; Sykora, K-W; Lankester, A; Yaniv, I; Sedlacek, P; Glogova, E; Veys, P; Gennery, A R; Peters, C

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of children with non-malignant diseases can be cured by allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Treosulfan (L-treitol-1,4-bis-methanesulfonate) is being used more frequently for conditioning, owing to its' lower toxicity profile compared with conventional myeloablative regimens. A retrospective analysis was performed of children registered in the EBMT database, who received treosulfan before HSCT between January 2005 and 2010, to identify possible dose-related toxicity and determine the incidence of engraftment, treatment-related mortality and overall survival (OS). Results from 316 transplants from 11 different countries are presented. Ninety-five (30%) were under 1 year of age at the time of transplant. OS was 83% and event-free survival was 76%; 3-year OS and event-free survival of infants below 1 year were 79% and 73%, respectively. No association was found with age at transplant, dose of treosulfan given, other agents used in combination with treosulfan, donor type, stem cell source, or second or subsequent transplant. In this report of the largest number of children to date receiving treosulfan for non-malignant diseases, treosulfan is shown to be a safe and effective agent even for those under 1 year of age at the time of transplant. Further prospective studies are needed using precisely defined protocols with pharmacokinetic monitoring and detailed chimerism analysis. In addition, long-term studies will be vital to determine long-term effects, for example, on fertility in comparison with other regimens.

  13. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  14. Heat shock protein 70 and glycoprotein 96 are differentially expressed on the surface of malignant and nonmalignant breast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Karla; Wallen, Erik S; Edwards, Bruce S; Mobarak, Charlotte D; Bear, David G; Moseley, Pope L

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are important for a number of different intracellular functions, are occasionally found on the surface of cells. The function of heat shock protein on the cell surface is not understood, although it has been shown to be greater in some tumor cells and some virally infected cells. Surface expression of both glycoprotein 96 (gp96) and Hsp70 occurs on tumor cells, and this expression correlates with natural killer cell killing of the cells. We examined the surface expression of gp96 and Hsp70 on human breast cell lines MCF7, MCF10A, AU565, and HS578, and in primary human mammary epithelial cells by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The nonmalignant cell lines HS578, MCF10A, and HMEC showed no surface expression of gp96, whereas malignant cell lines MCF7 and AU565 were positive for gp96 surface expression. All of the breast cell lines examined showed Hsp70 surface expression. These results also confirm previous studies, demonstrating that Hsp70 is on the plasma membrane of tumor cell lines. Given the involvement of heat shock proteins, gp96 and Hsp70, in innate and adaptive immunity, these observations may be important in the immune response to tumor cells.

  15. Borrelidin has limited anti-cancer effects in bcl-2 overexpressing breast cancer and leukemia cells and reveals toxicity in non-malignant breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafiuc, Diana; Weiß, Marlene; Mylonas, Ioannis; Brüning, Ansgar

    2014-10-01

    Clinically effective anti-cancer drugs have to tread a narrow line between selective cytotoxicity on tumor cells and tolerable adverse effects against healthy tissues. This causes the failure of many potential cancer drugs in advanced clinical trials, hence signifying the importance of a comprehensive initial estimate of the cytotoxicity of prospective anti-cancer drugs in preclinical studies. In this study, the cytotoxicity of borrelidin, a macrolide antibiotic with a high cytotoxic selectivity for proliferating endothelial cells and leukemia cells, was tested on malignant and non-malignant breast cells. Highly metastatic breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435) showed promising results and exhibited good sensitivity to borrelidin at low nanomolar concentrations, but borrelidin was cytotoxic to a non-malignant breast epithelial cell line (MCF10A) as well. Furthermore, although a high sensitivity of endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells; HUVEC) and individual leukemia cell lines (Jurkat and IM9) to borrelidin was confirmed in this study, another leukemia cell line (HL60) and an immortalized endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) displayed a significantly decreased sensitivity. Reduced sensitivity to borrelidin was associated with elevated bcl-2 expression in these cell lines. In conclusion, the results presented show that borrelidin displays high and selective cytotoxicity against subgroups of cancer cells and endothelial cells, but, owing to its non-specific toxicity to non-malignant cells, its clinical application might be restricted because of likely adverse effects and limited efficacy in bcl2-overexpressing cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The effects of erythropoietin signaling on telomerase regulation in non-erythroid malignant and non-malignant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uziel, Orit, E-mail: Oritu@clalit.org.il [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Kanfer, Gil [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Dep. of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Beery, Einat [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Yelin, Dana; Shepshelovich, Daniel [Medicine A, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Bakhanashvili, Mary [Unit of Infectious Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Nordenberg, Jardena [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Dep. of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Endocrinology Laboratory, Beilinson Medical Center, Petah-Tikva (Israel); Lahav, Meir [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Medicine A, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We assumed that some of erythropoietin adverse effects may be mediated by telomerase activity. • EPO administration increased telomerase activity, cells proliferation and migration. • The inhibition of telomerase modestly repressed the proliferative effect of erythropoietin. • Telomere shortening caused by long term inhibition of the enzyme totally abolished that effect. • This effect was mediated via the Lyn–AKT axis and not by the canonical JAK2–STAT pathway. - Abstract: Treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) in several cancers is associated with decreased survival due to cancer progression. Due to the major importance of telomerase in cancer biology we hypothesized that some of these effects may be mediated through EPO effect on telomerase. For this aim we explored the possible effects of EPO on telomerase regulation, cell migration and chemosensitivity in non-erythroid malignant and non-malignant cells. Cell proliferation, telomerase activity (TA) and cell migration increased in response to EPO. EPO had no effect on cancer cells sensitivity to cisplatinum and on the cell cycle status. The inhibition of telomerase modestly repressed the proliferative effect of EPO. Telomere shortening caused by long term inhibition of the enzyme abolished the effect of EPO, suggesting that EPO effects on cancer cells are related to telomere dynamics. TA was correlated with the levels of Epo-R. The increase in TA was mediated post-translationally through the Lyn-Src and not the canonical JAK2 pathway.

  17. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors l-deprenyl and clorgyline protect nonmalignant human cells from ionising radiation and chemotherapy toxicity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seymour, C B

    2003-11-17

    l-Deprenyl (R-(-)-deprenyl, selegiline) is an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) that is known to protect nerve cells from a variety of chemical and physical insults. As apoptosis is a common mechanism of radiation-induced cell death, the effect of l-deprenyl on the survival of cultured cells and tissue explants was studied following exposure to gamma radiation. The results obtained were compared with the effects of the less-selective MAO-B inhibitor pargyline and the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline. l-Deprenyl at a concentration of 10(-9) M protected the nontumorigenic cell line (HaCaT) and normal human urothelial explants from the effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation, but did not protect tumorigenic human cell lines HaCaT-ras, HPV-transfected human keratinocytes (HPV-G cells), or PC3. Human bladder carcinoma explants were not protected. Clorgyline showed a smaller protective effect of normal cells, whereas pargyline had no effect. Radiation-induced delayed effects (genomic instability measured as delayed cell death) were prevented in normal cells by l-deprenyl but, interestingly, deprenyl appeared to increase the amount of delayed death in the tumorigenic cell lines. Studies using l-deprenyl prior to the exposure of nonmalignant cells to cisplatin showed that cell death due to this agent was also reduced. Treatment of cultures of nontumorigenic cells with l-deprenyl or clorgyline significantly increased the levels of the protein Bcl-2 following irradiation, but there was no such effect on the already-elevated levels of this protein in the tumour samples. Since the Bcl-2 has been shown to be an inhibitor of apoptosis or programmed cell death, this would imply that the protective effects of l-deprenyl and clorgyline involve activation of antiapoptotic pathways within the normal cell. This hypothesis is supported by data showing reduced levels of apoptosis in HaCAT cells and in normal bladder explant cultures following treatment with l-deprenyl.

  18. Bryostatin-1 causes radiosensitization of BMG-1 malignant glioma cells through differential activation of protein kinase-Cδ not evident in the non-malignant AA8 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagur, Raghubendra Singh; Hambarde, Shashank; Chandna, Sudhir

    2015-03-01

    Bryostatin-1 (bryo-1), a non-phorbol ester, is known to sensitize mammalian cells against certain chemotherapeutic drugs. We assessed its ability to modify radiation response of mammalian cells using Chinese hamster fibroblasts AA8 cells and human malignant glioma BMG-1 cells. In the malignant glioma BMG-1 cell line, bryo-1 pre-treatment significantly enhanced radiation-induced growth inhibition and cytogenetic damage, and further reduced the clonogenic cell survival as compared to cells irradiated at the clinically relevant dose of 2 Gy. PKCδ expression increased significantly when bryo-1 pre-treated BMG-1 glioma cells were irradiated at 2 Gy and induced prolonged ERK-1/2 activation associated with p21 overexpression. Silencing PKCδ resulted in inhibition of bryo-1-induced radiosensitization. In contrast, bryo-1 failed to alter radiosensitivity (cell survival; growth inhibition; cytogenetic damage) or activate ERK1/2 pathway in the AA8 fibroblasts despite PKCδ phosphorylation at its regulatory (Y155) domain, indicating alternate mechanisms in these non-malignant cells as compared to the glioma cells. This study suggests that bryo-1 may effectively enhance the radiosensitivity of malignant cells and warrants further in-depth investigations to evaluate its radiosensitizing potential in various cell types.

  19. Non-malignant T-cells lacking multiple pan-T markers can be found in lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Gao, Li; Gong, Ming; Tang, Yin; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wen-Tao; Huang, Fan-Zhou; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Chen, Yan-Rong; Gao, Ya-Yue; Li, Zhen-Ling; Ma, Yi-Gai

    2018-01-01

    In order to observe and ascertain the properties of a sub-group of T cells in the lymph node (LN) from seven patients who did not suffer from T cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T-LPDs), the expression levels of several pan-T markers were evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry (FC) and the clonality of these T-cells was evaluated by both FC analysis and PCR assessment. It turned out that multiple pan-T-cell markers such as CD2, CD5 and CD7 were found to be lost in these T cells. The majority of them were positive for TCRαβ, only a minority of them being positive for TCRγδ. A subset of these T-cells were positive for CD4 or CD8 or dual-negative for CD4 and CD8. Oligoclonality was detected in one case by FC, while clonal TCR rearrangement was detected in three cases. Absence of multiple pan-T-cell markers could be found in benign T cells in LNs.

  20. Raising H2 and Fuel Cell Awareness in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Patrick R. [Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition, Elyria, OH (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition was tasked with raising the awareness and understanding of Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen economy. This was done by increasing the understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies among state and local governments using a target of more than 10% compared to 2004 baseline. We were also to target key populations by 20 percent compared to 2004 baseline. There are many barriers to an educated fuel cell population, including: a)Lack of Readily Available, Objective and Technical Accurate Information b)Mixed Messages c)Disconnect Between Hydrogen Information and Dissemination Networks d)Lack of Educated Trainers and Training Opportunities e)Regional Differences f)Difficulty of Measuring Success The approach we used for all the Community Leaders Forums were presentations by the Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition in conjunction with regional leaders. The presentations were followed by question and answers periods followed up by informal discussions on Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy. This project held a total of 53 events with the following breakdown: From Aug 2009 through June 2010, the Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition held 19 community leaders forums and educated over 845 individuals, both from the State of Ohio and across the country: From July 2010 to June 2011 the OFCC held 23 community forum events and educated 915 individuals; From August 2011 to June 2012 there were 11 community forums educating 670 individuals. This report details each of those events, their date, location, purpose, and pertinent details to this report. In summary, as you see the Community Leader Forums have been very successful over the period of the grant with over 2,000 people being drawn to the forums. As always, we followed up the forums with a survey and the survey results were very positive in that the participants had a significant increase in knowledge and awareness of Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy.

  1. Raised levels of circulating endothelial cells in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fracchiolla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Circulating endothelial cells (CECs have been described in different conditions with vascular injury. Vascular abnormalities play a key role in the pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. The aim of our study was to look for the presence of CECs in SSc patients and to evaluate their clinical significance. Methods: We studied 52 SSc patients and 40 healthy controls (HC. Five-parameter, 3-color flow cytometry was performed with a FACScan. CECs were defined as CD45 negative, CD31 and P1H12 positive, and activated CECs as CD45 negative and P1H12, CD62, or CD106 positive. Results: Total and activated CEC counts were significantly higher in SSc patients when compared with HC and positively correlated with disease activity score. We found a significant association between CECs and disease activity; as regard with organ involvement, CEC number correlate with the severity of pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions: Raised counts of CECs may represent direct evidence of active vascular disease in SSc as regard as visceral involvement, the association between CECs and pulmonary hypertension suggest a relevant role for CECs as a marker of prominent endothelial involvement.

  2. [Ethical problems raised by new reproductive biotechnologies and stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Douarin, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    Research about the hormonal mechanisms controlling reproduction in mammals has soared during the first half of the 20th century. It has produced a series of discoveries with important outcomes, not only scientific, but also impacting the ways of life. Besides the advent of the contraceptive pill, it has permitted to isolate and cultivate in vitro the female gamete, to fertilize it, thus obtaining a zygote that continues to develop until the blastocyst stage outside the maternal organism. The embryo, transferred into a foster-mother, develops normally until term: the first "test-tube baby" was born in this way in 1978. But the only fact of being able to cultivate the human egg in vitro was to open other possibilities and allow further biological advances: embryonic stem cells (ES cells) obtained from blastocysts and, more recently, from induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS), which can potentially be derived from all types of differentiated cell types obtained from adult individuals. From then on, the advent of a new medicine could be anticipated, regenerative because able to replace deficient or absent cells within the organism. As each of these steps was reached, scientists have encountered vigorous opposition from the people: the new potentials disturbed the conceptions that man had of his relationship to nature, in particular in two sensitive domains: sexuality and reproduction. The progress of science has however been accepted by most as soon as it was understood that humanity could anticipate advantages from these advances.

  3. BACTERIAL INFECTIONS FOLLOWING SPLENECTOMY FOR MALIGNANT AND NONMALIGNANT HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Leone

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Splenectomy, while often necessary in otherwise healthy patients after major trauma, find its primary indication for patients with an underlying malignant or nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Indications of splenectomy for hematologic diseases have been reducing in the last few years, due to improved diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In high-income countries, there is a clear decrease over calendar time in the incidence of all indication splenectomy except nonmalignant hematologic diseases. However, splenectomy, even if with different modalities including laparoscopic splenectomy and partial splenectomy, continue to be a current surgical practice both in nonmalignant hematologic diseases, such as Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP, Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA, Congenital Hemolytic Anemia such as Spherocytosis, Sickle Cell Anemia and Thalassemia and Malignant Hematological Disease, such as lymphoma. Today millions of people in the world are splenectomized. Splenectomy, independently of its cause, induces an early and late increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolism and infections. Infections remain the most dangerous complication of splenectomy. After splenectomy, the levels of antibody are preserved but there is a loss of memory B cells against pneumococcus and tetanus, and the loss of marginal zone monocytes deputed to immunological defense from capsulated bacteria. Commonly, the infections strictly correlated to the absence of the spleen or a decreased or absent splenic function are due to encapsulated bacteria that are the most virulent pathogens in this set of patients. Vaccination with polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines again Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis should be performed before the splenectomy. This practice reduces but does not eliminate the occurrence of overwhelming infections due to capsulated bacteria. At present, most of infection found in splenectomized patients

  4. Quantification of acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide in the headspace of malignant and non-malignant lung cells in vitro by SIFT-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulé-Suso, Josep; Pysanenko, Andriy; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, showed that CALU-1 lung cancer cell cultures emit acetaldehyde in proportion to the number of cells in the culture medium. However, studies in another laboratory led to conflicting results, so these SIFT-MS studies have been repeated and extended to include NL20 normal lung epithelial cells and 35FL121 Tel+ telomerase positive lung fibroblast cells. Thus, SIFT-MS has been used to quantify acetaldehyde and, additionally, carbon dioxide, acetone and ethanol in the headspace of the cell culture medium alone and the headspace of the appropriate medium containing 50 x 10(6) or 80 x 10(6) cells following incubation for 16 h at 37 degrees C. Three independent experiments were carried out for each cell type for both cell numbers and for each of the two culture media used. The results showed that acetone and ethanol were only released by the culture medium, specifically from the foetal calf serum contained in the medium, and not by the cells. Acetaldehyde was also released by the medium, but at relatively lower levels than the other three compounds, and was also generated by the CALU-1 and NL20 cell cultures in proportions to the number of cells in the medium. However, following incubation, the acetaldehyde levels in the headspace of the 35FL121 Tel+ cell cultures were much lower than those present in the headspace of the medium alone. Carbon dioxide was clearly generated by the CALU-1 and 35FL121 Tel+ cells indicating that they were respiring normally, but much less was produced by the NL20 cells, presumably indicating that normal metabolism was being inhibited.

  5. Mothers Raising Children with Sickle Cell Disease at the Intersection of Race, Gender, and Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P. R.; Antle, Beverley J.; Williams, Charmaine C.; Cook, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study used the long interview method with Canadian mothers of African and Caribbean descent to understand the underresearched experience of raising a child with sickle cell disease (SCD). Mothers' realities were explored through three levels of social organization: daily caregiver coping (micro level); community views of SCD, such…

  6. Mothers Raising Children with Sickle Cell Disease at the Intersection of Race, Gender, and Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P. R.; Antle, Beverley J.; Williams, Charmaine C.; Cook, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study used the long interview method with Canadian mothers of African and Caribbean descent to understand the underresearched experience of raising a child with sickle cell disease (SCD). Mothers' realities were explored through three levels of social organization: daily caregiver coping (micro level); community views of SCD, such…

  7. Surfactant apoprotein in nonmalignant pulmonary disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lungs exhibiting a variety of nonmalignant disorders were studied by immunoperoxidase staining using antibodies specific for surfactant apoprotein, IgG, IgM, IgA, albumin, fibrinogen, and lysozyme. Normal Type II pneumocytes showed staining for surfactant apoprotein in the perinuclear region only. The extent and intensity of staining for apoprotein was markedly increased in reactive Type II pneumocytes. This increase appeared to be a nonspecific reaction to l...

  8. A preliminary study of the effect of DBD plasma and osmolytes on T98G brain cancer and HEK non-malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Attri, Pankaj; Kaushik, Neha; Choi, Eun Ha

    2013-04-25

    Non-thermal plasmas are emerging as a novel tool for the treatment of living tissues for biological and medical purpose. In this study, we described the effect of 4 min dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on both T98G cancer and HEK normal cell lines in the presence of different concentrations of osmolytes. This treatment strategy shows a specific inhibitory effect of a 240 s plasma exposure in the presence of osmolytes against T98G brain cancer cells only, but not on HEK normal cells. Based on these interesting properties of osmolytes, a non-thermal plasma appears to be a potential anticancer treatment strategy for different kinds of cancers in the presence of osmolytes.

  9. Value of bioimpedance analysis and anthropometry for complication prediction in children with malignant and non-malignant diseases after hematopoietic stem cells transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Tseytlin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is widely used in the treatment of malignant and autoimmune diseases. Various complications often develop during the post-transplantation period that can significantly impair the clinical outcomes, so the ability to predict therisk of severe complications is of great practical importance. Predictive value of some anthropometric indices and bioimpedance analysis(BIA measured before conditioning to assess the risks of serious complications and graft hypofunction in the early post-transplant period(100 days were analyzed. Anthropometry and BIA used in a comprehensive assessment of nutritional status in order to optimize the nutritional support of these patients. 101 patients were examined before conditioning and at different times during the early post-transplant period: 50 children (5–17 years of age were examined using BIA and anthropometry, 61 children (6 months – 4 years of age – using only anthropometry without BIA due to age restrictions. The prognostic value of the phase angle (FA, ratio of the active cell mass to lean body mass (ACM/LBM and shoulder muscle circumference (SMC was shown. Thus, in patients with FA ≤ 4, ACM/LBM < 0.45 and SMC ≤ 10th percentile before conditioning risk of severe complications during early post-transplant period was significantly higher (p < 0.05. Also, in patients with FA ≤ 4 and ACM/LBM < 0.45 a significantly higher risk of graft hypofunction developing was observed (p < 0.05.

  10. Opioid Therapy for Chronic Nonmalignant Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell K Portenoy

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term administration of an opioid drug for chronic nonmalignant pain continues to be controversial, but is no longer uniformly rejected by pain specialists. This is true despite concerns that the regulatory agencies that oversee physician prescribing of opioid drugs continue to stigmatize the practice. The changing clinical perspective has been driven, in part, by widespread acknowledgement of the remarkably favourable outcomes achieved during opioid treatment of cancer pain. These outcomes contrast starkly with popular teaching about chronic opioid therapy and affirm the potential for prolonged efficacy, tolerable side effects, enhanced function associated with improved comfort and minimal risk of aberrant drug-related behaviours consistent with addiction. A large anecdotal experience in populations with nonmalignant pain suggests that these patients are more heterogeneous and that opioid therapy will greatly benefit some and will contribute to negative outcomes for others. The few controlled clinical trials that have been performed support the safety and efficacy of opioid therapy, but have been too limited to ensure generalization to the clinical setting. A critical review of the medical literature pertaining to chronic pain, opioid pharmacology and addiction medicine can clarify misconceptions about opioid therapy and provide a foundation for patient selection and drug administration. The available data support the view that opioids are no panacea for chronic pain, but should be considered in carefully selected patients using clinically derived guidelines that stress a structured approach and ongoing monitoring of efficacy, adverse effects, functional outcomes and the occurrence of aberrant drug-related behaviours.

  11. Clinician beliefs about opioid use and barriers in chronic nonmalignant pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahmann, Paula H; Jackson, Kenneth C; Lipman, Arthur G

    2004-01-01

    A survey of the medical directors of multidisciplinary pain clinics and multidisciplinary pain centers listed in the American Pain Society Pain Facilities Directory was conducted to define those pain specialists' beliefs about the role of opioid analgesia in 14 types of chronic nonmalignant pain. Respondents also reported their perceptions of barriers to their prescribing opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain and what they perceived as barriers to opioid prescribing for chronic nonmalignant pain by other, non-pain specialist clinicians in their communities. The respondents are characterized by demographics, disciplines, specialties, and time in practice. The percentage of time that a pharmacist was available in the pain programs also is reported. There is increasing acceptance of opioids for most of the listed types of chronic nonmalignant pain, but the acceptance varies by types of pain syndromes. Opioids were most consistently accepted for sickle cell disease pain and least commonly endorsed for headaches, myofascial pain, and fibromyalgia. Factors that may influence clinicians' perceptions about opioids are discussed.

  12. [The spleen in non-malignant haematological disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüfer, Axel; Wuillemin, Walter A

    2013-03-01

    The spleen functions as a filter of the circulating blood, removing aging or abnormal red blood cells, intraerythrocyte inclusions as well as foreign particals. As the spleen is composed of lymphocytic tissue, circulatory elements and mononuclear phagocytic cells it plays an important role in the nonspecific as well as the specific immune response. Additionally, the spleen serves as a reservoir for circulating blood cells, especially platelet sequestration by the spleen is well do cumented. The spleen produces blood cells during fetal development and in certain haematological disorders such as myelofibrosis. The destruction of red blood cells within the splenic cords releases iron in the circulation, which is recycled and used to manufacture new erythrocytes in the bone marrow. In several non-malignant haematological disorders antibody-coated cells are cleared from the circulation by phagocytic cells of the spleen. This involves erythrocytes in autoimmunhaemolytic anaemias, platelets in immunthrombocytopenia and neutrophils in Felty syndrome. In hereditary spherocytosis the spleen destroys the resulting defective, spherical red cells. In pyruvate kinase deficiency impaired production of adenosine triphosphate leads to destruction of red blood cells in the spleen or in the liver. In sickle cell anaemia the defective erythrocytes cause sludging and thrombosis in small vessels with infarcts for instance in the spleen, which over time can result in autosplenectomy. In thalassaemia major abnormal haemoglobin forms protein precipitates in the red cells with development of a severe hypochromic anaemia with haemolysis and intramedullary inef fective erythropoiesis. Therapeutic splenectomy can be an option in all of these mentioned non-malignant haematological disorders. The rationale and the pathophysiology of its role in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is probably at least well understood. The use of new and effective drugs such as the monoclonal antibody rituximab or

  13. Transdermal fentanyl in chronic nonmalignant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Iorno

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic non malignant pain is always a therapeutic challenge of great significance because a inappropriate and insufficient treatment is able to reduce the life’s quality of the patients. Many therapeutic strategies were used to solve these issues, no one exhaustive. In the treatment of cancer pain, opiates use is common, is not the same for the chronic non-malignant pain. The fear of possible side effects (addiction, tolerance, respiratory depression restrain the therapist to apply this remedy. The aim of our work is to demonstrate how a correct application of the opiates in patients with chronic benign pain is not only possible but also desirable to relieving the pain and improving the quality of life.

  14. Helicobacter pylori and non-malignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Takahisa; Delchier, Jean-Charles

    2009-09-01

    It is well known that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with many nonmalignant disorders such as gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastric polyp, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)/aspirin-induced gastric injury, and functional dyspepsia. In 2008, interesting articles on the association of H. pylori infection with these disorders were presented, some of which intended to reveal the mechanisms of inter-individual differences in response to H. pylori infection, and have demonstrated that genetic differences in host and bacterial factors as well as environmental factors account for these differences. A decline in the occurrence of peptic ulcer related to H. pylori was confirmed. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and GERD was also confirmed but the impact of gastric atrophy on the prevention of GERD remained debatable. For NSAID-induced gastric injury, eradication of H. pylori infection has been recommended. During this year, eradication of H. pylori infection was recommended for patients treated with antiplatelet therapy as well as aspirin and NSAID. It was also reported that for patients with functional dyspepsia, eradication of H. pylori offers a modest but significant benefit.

  15. Surfactant apoprotein in nonmalignant pulmonary disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lungs exhibiting a variety of nonmalignant disorders were studied by immunoperoxidase staining using antibodies specific for surfactant apoprotein, IgG, IgM, IgA, albumin, fibrinogen, and lysozyme. Normal Type II pneumocytes showed staining for surfactant apoprotein in the perinuclear region only. The extent and intensity of staining for apoprotein was markedly increased in reactive Type II pneumocytes. This increase appeared to be a nonspecific reaction to lung injury. The intra-alveolar material in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis stained intensely for surfactant apoprotein, indicating that the accumulated proteinaceous material contained pulmonary surfactant. Type II pneumocytes in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis exhibited hyperplasia as well as hypertrophy. The few macrophages in lung affected by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis stained intensely for lysozyme. The excessive intraalveolar accumulation of proteinaceous material in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may be the result of both an over-production as well as a deficient removal of pulmonary surfactant. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 p[57]-a PMID:7004201

  16. 5. Nonmalignant diseases after the Chernobyl catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    This section describes the spectrum and the scale of the nonmalignant diseases that have been found among exposed populations. Adverse effects as a result of Chernobyl irradiation have been found in every group that has been studied. Brain damage has been found in individuals directly exposed--liquidators and those living in the contaminated territories, as well as in their offspring. Premature cataracts; tooth and mouth abnormalities; and blood, lymphatic, heart, lung, gastrointestinal, urologic, bone, and skin diseases afflict and impair people, young and old alike. Endocrine dysfunction, particularly thyroid disease, is far more common than might be expected, with some 1,000 cases of thyroid dysfunction for every case of thyroid cancer, a marked increase after the catastrophe. There are genetic damage and birth defects especially in children of liquidators and in children born in areas with high levels of radioisotope contamination. Immunological abnormalities and increases in viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases are rife among individuals in the heavily contaminated areas. For more than 20 years, overall morbidity has remained high in those exposed to the irradiation released by Chernobyl. One cannot give credence to the explanation that these numbers are due solely to socioeconomic factors. The negative health consequences of the catastrophe are amply documented in this chapter and concern millions of people.

  17. Differential effect of methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben and 17β-estradiol on selected cell cycle and apoptosis gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Łucja

    2014-09-01

    Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid used widely as antimicrobial preservatives in consumer products, including pharmaceuticals, foods and cosmetics. We showed previously that methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben parabens, even at low doses, stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and non-transformed MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this represents a direct effect on cell cycle and apoptotic gene expression. MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells were exposed to methyl, butyl- and propylparaben (20 nm) or 17β-estradiol (10 nm). Cell cycle and apoptotic gene expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein expression by Western blot. 17β-estradiol upregulated G1 /S phase genes and downregulated cell cycle progression inhibitors in both MCF-7 and MCF-10A. Upregulation of Bcl-xL and downregulation of caspase 9 was observed in MCF-7, while upregulation of Bcl-xL, BCL2L2 and caspase 9 was noted in MCF-10A. Cyclins in MCF-7 cells were not affected by any of the parabens. Methyl- and butylparaben had no effect on the expression of selected apoptotic genes in MCF-7. In MCF-10A, all parabens tested increased the expression of G1 /S phase genes, and downregulated cell cycle inhibitors. Methylparaben increased pro-survival gene. Butylparaben increased BCL2L1 gene, as did 17β-estradiol, while propylparaben upregulated both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. There are differences in cell cycle and apoptosis gene expression between parabens and 17β-estradiol in MCF-7 cells. In MCF-10A cells, most of the genes activated by parabens were comparable to those activated by 17β-estradiol.

  18. Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer increase endothelial progenitor cells, enhance myocardial vascularity, and improve diastolic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Gordts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol contribute to coronary heart disease but little is known about their direct effects on myocardial function. Low HDL and raised non-HDL cholesterol levels carried increased risk for heart failure development in the Framingham study, independent of any association with myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased endothelial progenitor cell (EPC number and function after lipid lowering or HDL raising gene transfer in C57BL/6 low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr(-/- mice may be associated with an enhanced relative vascularity in the myocardium and an improved cardiac function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer were performed using the E1E3E4-deleted LDLr expressing adenoviral vector AdLDLr and the human apolipoprotein A-I expressing vector AdA-I, respectively. AdLDLr transfer in C57BL/6 LDLr(-/- mice resulted in a 2.0-fold (p<0.05 increase of the circulating number of EPCs and in an improvement of EPC function as assessed by ex vivo EPC migration and EPC adhesion. Capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium were 28% (p<0.01 and 22% (p<0.05 higher, respectively, in AdLDLr mice compared to control mice. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 12% (p<0.05 and the time constant of isovolumetric relaxation was decreased by 14% (p<0.05 after AdLDLr transfer. Similarly, HDL raising gene transfer increased EPC number and function and raised both capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium by 24% (p<0.05. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 16% (p<0.05 in AdA-I mice compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer have beneficial effects on EPC biology, relative myocardial vascularity, and diastolic function. These findings raise concerns over the

  19. Raised D-dimer levels in acute sickle cell crisis and their correlation with chest X-ray abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, Imad S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Setting: Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Adult patients (12 years and older admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. Results: 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9% of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. Conclusion: D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray.

  20. Sorghum phenolics demonstrate estrogenic action and induce apoptosis in nonmalignant colonocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyi; Allred, Kimberly F; Geera, Bhimalingeswarappa; Allred, Clinton D; Awika, Joseph M

    2012-04-01

    Evidence indicates sorghum may be protective against colon cancer; however, the mechanisms are unknown. Estrogen is believed to protect against colon cancer development by inducing apoptosis in damaged nonmalignant colonocytes. Three sorghum extracts (white, red, and black) were screened for estrogenic activity using cell models expressing estrogen receptor α (ER-α; MCF-7 breast cancer cells) and β [ER-β; nonmalignant young adult mouse colonocytes (YAMC)]. Black and white sorghum extracts had significant estrogenic activity mediated through both estrogen receptors at 1-5 and 5-10 μg/mL, respectively; but red sorghum did not. Activation of ER-β in YAMC reduced cell growth via induction of apoptosis. Only the black and red sorghums contained 3-deoxyanthocyanins; however, these compounds were non-estrogenic. Flavones with estrogenic properties, luteolin (0.41-2.12 mg/g) and apigenin (1.1-1.4 mg/g), and their O-methyl derivatives (0.70-0.95 mg/g) were detected in white and black sorghums, but not in the red sorghum. On the other hand, naringenin, a flavanone known to interfere with transcriptional activities of estrogen, was only detected in the red sorghum extract (as its 7-O-glycoside) at relatively high concentration (11.8 mg/g). Sorghum flavonoid composition has important implications on possible modes of chemoprotection by sorghum against colon carcinogenesis.

  1. Bone marrow transplantation for non-malignant diseases using treosulfan-based conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinur-Schejter, Yael; Krauss, Aviva C; Erlich, Odeya; Gorelik, Natan; Yahel, Anat; Porat, Iris; Weintraub, Michael; Stein, Jerry; Zaidman, Irina; Stepensky, Polina

    2015-02-01

    Treosulfan (treo) is an alkylating agent with a low acute toxicity profile that is increasingly used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, predominantly in non-malignant diseases. Treosulfan is usually combined with additional agents, but there is scant evidence to allow comparison between different conditioning protocols using treosulfan. We present the experience of three pediatric transplantation centers in Israel using different treosulfan-based conditioning regimens. Data were collected retrospectively on 44 children who underwent 45 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations using treosulfan in combination with either fludarabine (flu) and thiotepa (tt) (n = 20), cyclophosphamide (cy) (n = 6) or fludarabine alone (n = 19). Overall survival (OS) was 70.5%. Disease free survival (DFS) was 54.6%. There was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups in either OS or DFS. Overall survival in patients younger than one year was higher (88.2%). There were significantly more patients with 100% donor chimerism transplanted with flu/treo/tt compared with flu/treo or treo/cy (94.7% compared to 66.7% and 16.7%, respectively). Further prospective studies are required to determine the optimal treosulfan-based preparative regimen for children with non-malignant diseases. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:299-304. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Forced chromatin looping raises fetal hemoglobin in adult sickle cells to higher levels than pharmacologic inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Laura; Motta, Irene; Lourenco, Silvia; Gemmo, Chiara; Deng, Wulan; Rupon, Jeremy W; Abdulmalik, Osheiza Y; Manwani, Deepa; Blobel, Gerd A; Rivella, Stefano

    2016-08-25

    Overcoming the silencing of the fetal γ-globin gene has been a long-standing goal in the treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD). The major transcriptional enhancer of the β-globin locus, called the locus control region (LCR), dynamically interacts with the developmental stage-appropriate β-type globin genes via chromatin looping, a process requiring the protein Ldb1. In adult erythroid cells, the LCR can be redirected from the adult β- to the fetal γ-globin promoter by tethering Ldb1 to the human γ-globin promoter with custom-designed zinc finger (ZF) proteins (ZF-Ldb1), leading to reactivation of γ-globin gene expression. To compare this approach to pharmacologic reactivation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hematopoietic cells from patients with SCD were treated with a lentivirus expressing the ZF-Ldb1 or with chemical HbF inducers. The HbF increase in cells treated with ZF-Ldb1 was more than double that observed with decitabine and pomalidomide; butyrate had an intermediate effect whereas tranylcypromine and hydroxyurea showed relatively low HbF reactivation. ZF-Ldb1 showed comparatively little toxicity, and reduced sickle hemoglobin (HbS) synthesis as well as sickling of SCD erythroid cells under hypoxic conditions. The efficacy and low cytotoxicity of lentiviral-mediated ZF-Ldb1 gene transfer compared with the drug regimens support its therapeutic potential for the treatment of SCD.

  3. Neuropsychological assessment of chronic non-malignant pain patients treated in a multidisciplinary pain centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgren, Per; Christrup, Lona Louring; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of pain, sedation, pain medications and socio-demographics on cognitive functioning in chronic non-malignant pain patients. Chronic non-malignant pain patients (N=91) treated in a multidisciplinary pain centre were compared with age and sex ma...

  4. Photodynamic therapy for malignant and non-malignant diseases: clinical investigation and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Yong-gang; ZHANG Xiu-ping; LI Jian; HUANG Zheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new treatment modality. Clinical PDT procedure involves the administration of a photosensitizer followed by local illumination with visible light of a specific wavelength. In the presence of molecule oxygen, the light illumination of photosensitizer can lead to a series of photochemical reactions and consequently generate a variety of cytotoxic species.The nature, location and quantity of PDT-induced cytotoxic species and the sensitivity of the target cells determine the outcome of a PDT treatment.Since the first government approval of photosensitizer Photofrin was granted, for the treatment of bladder cancer in Canada in 1993,1 the utilization of PDT in the treatment of malignant and non-malignant diseases has increased significantly due to the improvement in photosensitizers and light applicators. Several similar photosensitizers have been developed and utilization in China since the 1980s.2

  5. Male Infertility and Risk of Nonmalignant Chronic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazer, Clara Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Eisenberg, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The association between male infertility and increased risk of certain cancers is well studied. Less is known about the long-term risk of nonmalignant diseases in men with decreased fertility. A systemic literature review was performed on the epidemiologic evidence of male infertility...... as a precursor for increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and all-cause mortality. PubMed and Embase were searched from January 1, 1980, to September 1, 2016, to identify epidemiological studies reporting associations between male infertility and the outcomes of interest. Animal studies, case...... reports, reviews, studies not providing an accurate reference group, and studies including infertility due to vasectomy or malignancy were excluded. The literature search resulted in 2,485 references among which we identified seven articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria. Of these, four articles were...

  6. Nonmalignant Respiratory Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water among Never-Smokers in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.; Bernard, Alfred; Dumont, Xavier; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; D’Armiento, Jeanine; Foronjy, Robert; Hasan, M. Rashidul; Eunus, HEM Mahbubul; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-01-01

    Background Arsenic from drinking water has been associated with malignant and nonmalignant respiratory illnesses. The association with nonmalignant respiratory illnesses has not been well established because the assessments of respiratory symptoms may be influenced by recall bias or interviewer bias because participants had visible skin lesions. Objectives We examined the relationship of the serum level of Clara cell protein CC16—a novel biomarker for respiratory illnesses—with well As, total urinary As, and urinary As methylation indices. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in nonsmoking individuals (n = 241) selected from a large cohort with a wide range of As exposure (0.1–761 μg/L) from drinking water in Bangladesh. Total urinary As, urinary As metabolites, and serum CC16 were measured in urine and serum samples collected at baseline of the parent cohort study. Results We observed an inverse association between urinary As and serum CC16 among persons with skin lesions (β = −0.13, p = 0.01). We also observed a positive association between secondary methylation index in urinary As and CC16 levels (β = 0.12, p = 0.05) in the overall study population; the association was stronger among people without skin lesions (β = 0.18, p = 0.04), indicating that increased methylation capability may be protective against As-induced respiratory damage. In a subsample of study participants undergoing spirometric measures (n = 31), we observed inverse associations between urinary As and predictive FEV1 (forced expiratory volume measured in 1 sec) (r = −0.37; FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio and primary methylation index (r = −0.42, p = 0.01). Conclusions The findings suggest that serum CC16 may be a useful biomarker of epithelial lung damage in individuals with arsenical skin lesions. Also, we observed the deleterious respiratory effects of As exposure at concentrations lower than reported in earlier studies. PMID:18288317

  7. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Catherine S.; Berends, Rebecca F. [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Flint, David J. [Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Martin, Patricia E.M., E-mail: Patricia.Martin@gcu.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ► Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ► Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ► IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ► Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential.

  8. An update on the role of opioids in the management of chronic pain of nonmalignant origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, Jette; Sjøgren, Per

    2007-01-01

    To summarize and reflect over primarily recent epidemiological and randomized controlled trials in opioid-treated chronic nonmalignant pain patients, focusing on effects, side effects, risks and long-term consequences of the treatment....

  9. Exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic field raises the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Anna; Zeppa, Rosario; Pasquino, Nicola; Arra, Claudio; Ammirante, Massimo; Festa, Michelina; Barbieri, Antonio; Giudice, Aldo; Pascale, Maria; Turco, Maria Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra

    2011-11-01

    The expression of the anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 is induced in several cell types by exposure to high temperature, oxidants, and other stressful agents. We investigated whether exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields raised BAG3 levels in the human melanoma cell line M14, in vitro and in orthotopic xenografts. Exposure of cultured cells or xenografts for 6 h or 4 weeks, respectively, produced a significant (P < 0.01) increase in BAG3 protein amounts. Interestingly, at the same times, we could not detect any significant variation in the levels of HSP70/72 protein or cell apoptosis. These results confirm the stressful effect of exposure to ELF in human cells, by identifying BAG3 protein as a marker of ELF-induced stress. Furthermore, they suggest that BAG3 induction by ELF may contribute to melanoma cell survival and/or resistance to therapy.

  10. Differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies with CT spectral imaging: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Lang, Ning; Yuan, Huishu [Peking University Third Hospital, No.49 North Garden Street, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Li, Jianying [GE Healthcare, CT imaging Research Center, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    To investigate the value of dual-energy spectral computed tomography (DESCT) for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies during venous phase. This study was institutional review board-approved, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-seven patients were examined by DESCT during venous phase. Twenty patients had malignant vertebral tumours, 17 had non-malignant vertebral tumours. The iodine/water densities for the lesion, the lesion-to-muscle ratio, and lesion-to-artery ratio for iodine density measurements were calculated and compared between the two groups with the two-tailed Student t test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sensitivity and specificity were compared between the qualitative and quantitative studies. The iodine density, lesion-to-muscle ratio, and lesion-to-artery ratio of the iodine density measurement for malignant vertebral tumours were significantly different from the respective values for non-malignancies (all p < 0.05). Using 0.52 as the threshold value for the lesion-to-artery iodine density ratio, one could obtain sensitivity of 85 % and specificity of 100 % for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies, significantly higher than the qualitative diagnosis. DESCT imaging enables analysis of a number of additional quantitative CT parameters to improve the accuracy for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies during venous phase. (orig.)

  11. Deal with price raise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The price raise in natural resources is inevitable. At present, building ceramic industry is facing the pressure brought by price raise in raw material. Marketing directors still hesitate whether the price of ceramic tiles should be raised. The crisis brought by social environment made the employees care-laden.

  12. A case-control study of malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease among employees of a fiberglass manufacturing facility. II. Exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiazze, L; Watkins, D K; Fryar, C; Kozono, J

    1993-08-01

    were, however, increased ORs for year of employment (first hired before 1945 v first hire after 1945: OR = 1.944, 95% CI 0.850-4.445), talc (cumulative exposure >1000 fibres/ml days v never exposed: OR = 1.355, 95% CI 0.407-5.515), and asphalt fumes (cumulative exposure >0.01 mg/m(3) days v never exposed: OR 1.131, 95% CI 0.468-2.730). For non-malignant respiratory disease, only the smoking variable was significant in the conditional logistic regression analysis (OR = 2.637, 95% CI 1.146-6.069). There were raised ORs for the higher cumulative exposure categories for respirable fibres, asbestos, silica, and asphalt fumes. For both silica and asphalt fumes, ORs were more than double the reference groups for all exposure categories. A limited number of subjects were exposed to fine fibres. The scarcity of cases and controls limits the extent to which analyses for fine fibre may be carried out. Within those limitations, among those who had worked with fine fibre, the unadjusted, unmatched OR for lung cancer was (1.0 (95% CI 0.229-4.373) and for non-malignant respiratory disease, the OR was 1.5 (95% CI 0.336-6.702). The unadjusted OR for lung cancer for exposure to fine fibre was consistent with that for all respirable fibre and does not suggest an association. For non-malignant respiratory disease, the unadjusted OR for fine fibre was opposite in direction from that for all respirable fibres. Within the limitations of the available data on fibre, there is o suggestion that exposure to fine fibre has resulted in an increase in risk of lung cancer. The increased OR for non-malignant respiratory disease is inconclusive. The results of this population, in this place and time, neither respirable fibres nor any of the substances investigated as part of the plant environment are statistically significant factors for lung cancer risk although there are increased ORs for exposure to talc and asphalt fumes. Smoking is the most important factors in risk for lung cancer in this

  13. Raised herd somatic cell count due to Staphylococcus aureus following the failure of an automatic teat spraying system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, P W

    2012-03-01

    This study describes the failure of a single jet exit race automatic teat spray (ATS) system resulting in the spread of Staphylococcus aureus infection in a 135-cow dairy herd, which showed an increased herd somatic cell count from 91,000/ml to 554,000/ml over a nine-month period. S aureus was isolated from 34 of 46 high cell count cows. The milking procedures were modified and manual teat spraying was restarted. Bacteriology was used to identify S aureus positive high cell count cows, and first and second lactation cows were treated during lactation. If their cell counts were not reduced, these were then culled. High cell count S aureus cows in lactation three or above were culled. The three-month geometric mean cell count fell to below 150,000/ml within five months. As all replacements were home-bred, S aureus infection must have spread from within the herd itself. All other causes have been eliminated, and this spread is attributed to the failure of the ATS to carry out effective postmilking teat disinfection. The advantages and disadvantages of ATS systems are discussed, especially in relation to robotic or voluntary milking systems.

  14. Increasing the open circuit voltage of bulk-heterojunction solar cells by raising the LUMO level of the acceptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Floris B.; Knol, Joop; Kastenberg, Fredrik; Popescu, Lacramioara M.; Verhees, Wiljan J. H.; Kroon, Jan M.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2007-01-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of ten new fullerene derivatives for usage in organic solar cells. The phenyl ring of PCBM was substituted with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents to study their influence on the LUMO level of the parent f

  15. Primary Care Management of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain in Veterans: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jorge G.; Qadri, S. Sobiya; Nader, Samir; Wang, Jia; Lawler, Timothy; Hagenlocker, Brian; Roos, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians managing older patients with chronic pain play an important role. This paper explores the attitudes of primary care clinicians (PCPs) toward chronic nonmalignant pain management and their experiences using a clinical decision support system. Our investigation followed a qualitative approach based on grounded theory. Twenty-one PCPs…

  16. Air Pollution and Nonmalignant Respiratory Mortality in 16 Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Samoli, Evangelia; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hoffmann, Barbara; Fischer, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vineis, Paolo; Xun, Wei; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Modig, Lars; Jousilahti, Pekka; Lanki, Timo; Turunen, Anu; Oftedal, Bente; Nafstad, Per; Schwarze, Per E.; Penell, Johanna; Fratiglioni, Laura; Andersson, Niklas; Pedersen, Nancy; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tjonneland, Anne; Becker, Thomas; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Eeftens, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Peeters, Petra H.; Meliefste, Kees; Marcon, Alessandro; Kramer, Ursula; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Key, Timothy; de Hoogh, Kees; Hampel, Regina; Peters, Annette; Heinrich, Joachim; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Ineichen, Alex; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Stempfelet, Morgane; Vilier, Alice; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Pedeli, Xanthi; Katsoulis, Michalis; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Prospective cohort studies have shown that chronic exposure to particulate matter and traffic-related air pollution is associated with reduced survival. However, the effects on nonmalignant respiratory mortality are less studied, and the data reported are less consistent. Objectives: We h

  17. Air Pollution and Nonmalignant Respiratory Mortality in 16 Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Samoli, Evangelia; Beelen, Rob; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hoffmann, Barbara; Fischer, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vineis, Paolo; Xun, Wei; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Modig, Lars; Jousilahti, Pekka; Lanki, Timo; Turunen, Anu; Oftedal, Bente; Nafstad, Per; Schwarze, Per E.; Penell, Johanna; Fratiglioni, Laura; Andersson, Niklas; Pedersen, Nancy; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tjonneland, Anne; Becker, Thomas; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Eeftens, Marloes; Peeters, Petra H.; Meliefste, Kees; Marcon, Alessandro; Kramer, Ursula; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Key, Timothy; de Hoogh, Kees; Hampel, Regina; Peters, Annette; Heinrich, Joachim; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Ineichen, Alex; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Stempfelet, Morgane; Vilier, Alice; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Pedeli, Xanthi; Katsoulis, Michalis; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Brunekreef, Bert; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Prospective cohort studies have shown that chronic exposure to particulate matter and traffic-related air pollution is associated with reduced survival. However, the effects on nonmalignant respiratory mortality are less studied, and the data reported are less consistent. Objectives: We h

  18. Long-term opioid treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain: unproven efficacy and neglected safety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissin I

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Igor Kissin Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: For the past 30 years, opioids have been used to treat chronic nonmalignant pain. This study tests the following hypotheses: (1 there is no strong evidence-based foundation for the conclusion that long-term opioid treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain is effective; and (2 the main problem associated with the safety of such treatment – assessment of the risk of addiction – has been neglected. Methods: Scientometric analysis of the articles representing clinical research in this area was performed to assess (1 the quality of presented evidence (type of study; and (2 the duration of the treatment phase. The sufficiency of representation of addiction was assessed by counting the number of articles that represent (1 editorials; (2 articles in the top specialty journals; and (3 articles with titles clearly indicating that the addiction-related safety is involved (topic-in-title articles. Results: Not a single randomized controlled trial with opioid treatment lasting >3 months was found. All studies with a duration of opioid treatment ≥6 months (n = 16 were conducted without a proper control group. Such studies cannot provide the consistent good-quality evidence necessary for a strong clinical recommendation. There were profound differences in the number of addiction articles related specifically to chronic nonmalignant pain patients and to opioid addiction in general. An inadequate number of chronic pain-related publications were observed with all three types of counted articles: editorials, articles in the top specialty journals, and topic-in-title articles. Conclusion: There is no strong evidence-based foundation for the conclusion that long-term opioid treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain is effective. The above identified signs indicating neglect of addiction associated with the

  19. Discrete nuclear structures in actively growing neuroblastoma cells are revealed by antibodies raised against phosphorylated neurofilament proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raabe Timothy D

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear objects that have in common the property of being recognized by monoclonal antibodies specific for phosphoprotein epitopes and cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (in particular, SMI-31 and RT-97 have been reported in glial and neuronal cells, in situ and in vitro. Since neurofilament and glial filaments are generally considered to be restricted to the cytoplasm, we were interested in exploring the identity of the structures labeled in the nucleus as well as the conditions under which they could be found there. Results Using confocal microscopy and western analysis techniques, we determined 1 the immunolabeled structures are truly within the nucleus; 2 the phosphoepitope labeled by SMI-31 and RT-97 is not specific to neurofilaments (NFs and it can be identified on other intermediate filament proteins (IFs in other cell types; and 3 there is a close relationship between DNA synthesis and the amount of nuclear staining by these antibodies thought to be specific for cytoplasmic proteins. Searches of protein data bases for putative phosphorylation motifs revealed that lamins, NF-H, and GFAP each contain a single tyrosine phosphorylation motif with nearly identical amino acid sequence. Conclusion We therefore suggest that this sequence may be the epitope recognized by SMI-31 and RT-97 mABs, and that the nuclear structures previously reported and shown here are likely phosphorylated lamin intermediate filaments, while the cytoplasmic labeling revealed by the same mABs indicates phosphorylated NFs in neurons or GFAP in glia.

  20. Microbial Populations in Naked Neck Chicken Ceca Raised on Pasture Flock Fed with Commercial Yeast Cell Wall Prebiotics via an Illumina MiSeq Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Hong Park

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrate dietary supplements that selectively stimulate the growth of one or more beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of the host. These bacteria can inhibit colonization of pathogenic bacteria by producing antimicrobial substances such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs and competing for niches with pathogens within the gut. Pasture flock chickens are generally raised outdoors with fresh grass, sunlight and air, which represents different environmental growth conditions compared to conventionally raised chickens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in microbial populations from naked neck chicken ceca fed with commercial prebiotics derived from brewer's yeast cell wall via an Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 147 day-of-hatch naked neck chickens were distributed into 3 groups consisted of 1 C: control (no prebiotic, 2 T1: Biolex® MB40 with 0.2%, and 3 T2: Leiber® ExCel with 0.2%, consistently supplemented prebiotics during the experimental period. At 8 weeks, a total of 15 birds from each group were randomly selected and ceca removed for DNA extraction. The Illumina Miseq platform based on V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was applied for microbiome analysis. Both treatments exhibited limited impact on the microbial populations at the phylum level, with no significant differences in the OTU number of Bacteroidetes among groups and an increase of Proteobacteria OTUs for the T1 (Biolex® MB40 group. In addition there was a significant increase of genus Faecalibacterium OTU, phylum Firmicutes. According to the development of next generation sequencing (NGS, microbiome analysis based on 16S rRNA gene proved to be informative on the prebiotic impact on poultry gut microbiota in pasture-raised naked neck birds.

  1. Smoking history, nicotine dependence and opioid use in patients with chronic non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, K; Jensen, H I; Højsted, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between smoking and addiction to opioids in patients with chronic non-malignant pain. This could be explained by a susceptibility in some patients to develop addiction. Another explanation could be that nicotine influences both...... pain and the opioid system. The objective of the study was to investigate whether smoking, former smoking ± nicotine use and nicotine dependence in patients with chronic non-malignant pain were associated with opioid use and addiction to opioids. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study carried...... as in the general population. The prevalence of patients using opioids was 54% and the prevalence of addiction to opioids was 6%. No significant differences in addiction were found between the different smoking groups, but smokers and former smokers using nicotine tended to use opioids more frequently and at higher...

  2. Air Pollution and Nonmalignant Respiratory Mortality in 16 Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Samoli, Evangelia; Beelen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    have investigated the relationship of long-term exposure to air pollution and non-malignant respiratory mortality in 16 cohorts with individual level data within the multi center European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Methods: Data from 16 ongoing cohort studies from Europe were......Rationale: Prospective cohort studies have shown that chronic exposure to particulate matter and traffic related air pollution is associated with reduced survival. However, the effects on non-malignant respiratory mortality are less studied and those reported are less consistent. Objectives: We...... used. The total number of subjects was 307,553. There were 1,559 respiratory deaths during follow-up. Measurements: Air pollution exposure was estimated by land use regression models at the baseline residential addresses of study participants and traffic-proximity variables were derived from...

  3. Health care costs, work productivity and activity impairment in non-malignant chronic pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Christian; Handberg, Gitte; Axelsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the costs of non-malignant chronic pain in patients awaiting treatment in a multidisciplinary pain clinic in a hospital setting. Health care costs due to chronic pain are particular high during the first year after pain onset, and remain high compared with health care costs...... before pain onset. The majority of chronic pain patients incur the costs of alternative treatments. Chronic pain causes production losses at work, as well as impairment of non-work activities....

  4. Effectiveness of Massage Therapy for Chronic, Non-Malignant Pain: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reviews of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain have focused on discrete pain conditions. This article aims to provide a broad overview of the literature on the effectiveness of massage for a variety of chronic, non-malignant pain complaints to identify gaps in the research and to inform future clinical trials. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain. Existing research provides fairly robust support for the analgesic effects of massage for non-specific low back pain, but only moderate support for such effects on shoulder pain and headache pain. There is only modest, preliminary support for massage in the treatment of fibromyalgia, mixed chronic pain conditions, neck pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Thus, research to date provides varying levels of evidence for the benefits of massage therapy for different chronic pain conditions. Future studies should employ rigorous study designs and include follow-up assessments for additional quantification of the longer-term effects of massage on chronic pain.

  5. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  6. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  7. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  8. Raising the bar (2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, P.; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this editorial we summarise and comment on the papers published in issue 11.2 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper analyses which regions in Europe were resilient to the great Recession and which ones were not. The second and the th

  9. The (non)malignancy of cancerous amino acidic substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, David; Taylor, Martin S; Thornton, Janet M

    2010-02-15

    The process of natural selection acts both on individual organisms within a population and on individual cells within an organism as they develop into cancer. In this work, we have taken a first step toward understanding the differences in selection pressures exerted on the human genome under these disparate circumstances. Focusing on single amino acid substitutions, we have found that cancer-related mutations (CRMs) are frequent in evolutionarily conserved sites, whereas single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs) tend to appear in sites having a more relaxed evolutionary pressure. Those CRMs classed as cancer driver mutations show greater enrichment for conserved sites than passenger mutations. Consistent with this, driver mutations are enriched for sites annotated as key functional residues and their neighbors, and are more likely to be located on the surface of proteins than expected by chance. Overall the pattern of CRM and polymorphism is remarkably similar, but we do see a clear signal indicative of diversifying selection for disruptive amino acid substitutions in the cancer driver mutations. The ultimate consequence of the appearance of those mutations must be advantageous for the tumor cell, leading to cell population-growth and migration events similar to those seen in natural ecosystems.

  10. Impact of Graft-Recipient ABO Compatibility on Outcomes after Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant for Nonmalignant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudek, Matthew R; Shanley, Ryan; Zantek, Nicole D; McKenna, David H; Smith, Angela R; Miller, Weston P

    2016-11-01

    Existing literature shows mixed conclusions regarding the impact of ABO incompatibility on outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Because the future for umbilical cord blood (UCB) expansion technologies is bright, we assessed whether this typically overlooked graft characteristic impacted various outcomes after UCB transplantation (UCBT) for nonmalignant disorders (NMDs). A prospectively maintained institutional blood and marrow transplant program database was queried for all patients undergoing first UCBT for NMDs. UCB and recipient ABO compatibility was considered as matched, major mismatched, minor mismatched, or bidirectional mismatched. The impact of ABO incompatibility was assessed on overall survival, graft failure, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), time to neutrophil and platelet recovery, day 0 to day 100 RBC transfusion burden, and donor hematopoietic chimerism. Through December 2014, 270 patients have undergone first UCBT for various NMDs. In both univariable and multivariable analyses, ABO compatibility status did not appear to impact any outcomes assessed, although a trend toward increased grades III to IV acute GVHD was seen in recipients of major mismatched units. When considering UCBT for treatment of NMDs, ABO compatibility between the donor unit and intended recipient does not appear to be an important consideration in the UCB unit choice.

  11. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. SETTING: General practice and other primary care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility......: Multiple site pain, high pain severity, older age, baseline disability and longer pain duration were identified as potential prognostic factors for disability across pain sites. There was limited evidence that anxiety and depression were associated with disability in patients with subacute pain, indicating...

  12. ATM suppresses SATB1-induced malignant progression in breast epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Ordinario

    Full Text Available SATB1 drives metastasis when expressed in breast tumor cells by radically reprogramming gene expression. Here, we show that SATB1 also has an oncogenic activity to transform certain non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines. We studied the non-malignant MCF10A cell line, which is used widely in the literature. We obtained aliquots from two different sources (here we refer to them as MCF10A-1 and MCF10A-2, but found them to be surprisingly dissimilar in their responses to oncogenic activity of SATB1. Ectopic expression of SATB1 in MCF10A-1 induced tumor-like morphology in three-dimensional cultures, led to tumor formation in immunocompromised mice, and when injected into tail veins, led to lung metastasis. The number of metastases correlated positively with the level of SATB1 expression. In contrast, SATB1 expression in MCF10A-2 did not lead to any of these outcomes. Yet DNA copy-number analysis revealed that MCF10A-1 is indistinguishable genetically from MCF10A-2. However, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that these cell lines have significantly divergent signatures for the expression of genes involved in oncogenesis, including cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Above all, the early DNA damage-response kinase, ATM, was greatly reduced in MCF10A-1 cells compared to MCF10A-2 cells. We found the reason for reduction to be phenotypic drift due to long-term cultivation of MCF10A. ATM knockdown in MCF10A-2 and two other non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines, 184A1 and 184B4, enabled SATB1 to induce malignant phenotypes similar to that observed for MCF10A-1. These data indicate a novel role for ATM as a suppressor of SATB1-induced malignancy in breast epithelial cells, but also raise a cautionary note that phenotypic drift could lead to dramatically different functional outcomes.

  13. Cultural cues: review of qualitative evidence of patient-centered care in patients with nonmalignant chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Diane B; Engebretson, Joan C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine published qualitative studies that explored the beliefs, values, and behaviors of patients with nonmalignant chronic pain during their interactions with the healthcare system. The findings were used as "cultural cues" to create patient-centered care. A literature review of primary qualitative studies that focused on beliefs, values, or behaviors of patients with chronic nonmalignant pain in the formal healthcare setting was conducted. CINAHL, Medline, Pubmed, PsychInfo, Sociology Abstracts, Cochrane Library Database, Proquest Dissertation and Thesis, and EmBase served as the database for the research. The findings from the studies fell into two categories: beliefs and expectations about appropriate treatment and the behaviors patients may exhibit if they perceive they are not receiving appropriate treatment. Qualitative findings showed that the beliefs, values, and behaviors of patients with nonmalignant chronic pain exhibited during their interactions with the healthcare system created a set of "cultural cues" for providers.

  14. Multicultural influences on pain medication attitudes and beliefs in patients with nonmalignant chronic pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Diane; McNeill, Jeanette

    2007-06-01

    The objective was to develop an integrated review of quantitative and qualitative research regarding the influence of patients' beliefs and attitudes toward pain medication prescribed for the treatment of nonmalignant chronic pain on use of the pain medication. Studies involving patients at least 18 years old with nonmalignant chronic pain were included. Studies of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, cancer, and acute pain were excluded. Medline, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Cochrane databases from 1985 to 2005 were searched. Reference lists were screened for relevant articles. Abstracts were screened for compliance with the study criteria, and the articles were obtained for those that met criteria. By using a systematic process, each article was subjected to repeated review and data abstracted to the collection sheets. Evidence tables were created to assist with data review. High levels of concern positively correlate with nonadherence, preconceived ideas about when the drug should start working can cause the patient to discontinue it before it begins to work, and patients may perceive that if medication is taken on a regular basis to control pain it may not be effective in the future if the pain increases. Research also showed that if patients perceived the benefits of taking the pain medication to be high, they were willing to risk the side effects.

  15. Nonnarcotic analgesics and tricyclic antidepressants for the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richlin, D M

    1991-05-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain is often characterized by multiple treatment failures, a pattern of maladaptive behavior, and depression. Often there is a history of inappropriate and excessive use of medications for pain. Prior and ongoing use of narcotics and sedatives acts to compound and aggravate the chronic pain syndrome. A first step in treatment is controlled withdrawal of these agents. Nonnarcotic analgesics, NSAIDs, and tricyclic antidepressants are commonly employed in patients with chronic pain. Effective use of these agents requires understanding of their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Use of a fixed-time schedule is necessary to achieve an effective, sustained therapeutic response. Careful patient education and monitoring for side effects and toxicity are necessary, particularly in the elderly and patients with coexisting medical disorders. Incidence of side effects and toxicity may be reduced by choice of drug and modification of dosing regimen. Nonnarcotic analgesics, TCAs, and NSAIDs are seldom effective by themselves in resolving the pain and distress of patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. This is particularly true when maladaptive behavior coexists. A comprehensive multimodal pain management program encompassing additional pain-relieving strategies and behavior-modifying techniques should be considered and utilized in conjunction with medication.

  16. Raised IL-6 Levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    explain why ART reduces the risk of developing ... the relationship of this cytokine to HIV, in vitro ... ART management at the Adult Infectious Diseases .... localization of the interferon-beta 2/B-cell ... factor alpha, interleukin 2, and soluble.

  17. Can non-malignant biopsy features identify men at increased risk of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer at re-screening after 4 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Tineke; Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; van der Kwast, Theodorus H.; Roemeling, Stijn; van der Cruijsen-Koeter, Ingrid W.; Bangma, Chris H.; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify pathological features in non-malignant sextant prostate needle biopsies and assess their predictive value for detecting prostate cancer on biopsy 4 years later. PATIENTS AND METHODS We selected and reviewed the biopsy specimens of 121 men that were diagnosed as non-malignant d

  18. Enhanced action of apigenin and naringenin combination on estrogen receptor activation in non-malignant colonocytes: implications on sorghum-derived phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyi; Allred, Kimberly F; Dykes, Linda; Allred, Clinton D; Awika, Joseph M

    2015-03-01

    Activation of estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) is an important mechanism for colon cancer prevention. Specific sorghum varieties that contain flavones were shown to activate ER in non-malignant colonocytes at low concentrations. This study aimed to determine positive interactions among estrogenic flavonoids most relevant in sorghum. Apigenin and naringenin were tested separately and in combination for their ability to influence ER-mediated cell growth in non-malignant young adult mouse colonocytes (YAMC). Sorghum extracts high in specific flavanones and flavones were also tested. Apigenin reduced ER-mediated YAMC cell growth comparable to physiological levels of estradiol (E₂, 1 nM) at 1 μM; naringenin had similar effect at 10 μM. However, when combined, 0.1 μM apigenin plus 0.05 μM naringenin produced similar effect as 1 nM E₂; these concentrations represented 1/10th and 1/200th, respectively, of the active concentrations of apigenin and naringenin, demonstrating a strong enhanced action. A sorghum extract higher in flavones (apigenin and luteolin) (4.8 mg g(-1)) was more effective (5 μg mL(-1)) at activating ER in YAMC than a higher flavanone (naringenin and eriodictyol) (28.1 mg g(-1)) sorghum extract (10 μg mL(-1)). Enhanced actions observed for apigenin and naringenin were adequate to explain the level of effects produced by the high flavone and flavanone sorghum extracts. Strong positive interactions among sorghum flavonoids may enhance their ability to contribute to colon cancer prevention beyond what can be modeled using target compounds in isolation.

  19. Raising the continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian H.; Davies, D. Rhodri

    2017-02-01

    that the removal of 40 km of the amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite root would have raised the average level of the continental crust by ∼3 km. The emergence of the continental crust was an essential precursor to the rise of oxygen, which started some 200 Myr later.

  20. Evolution of cooperation among tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Axelrod, David E; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2006-09-01

    The evolution of cooperation has a well established theoretical framework based on game theory. This approach has made valuable contributions to a wide variety of disciplines, including political science, economics, and evolutionary biology. Existing cancer theory suggests that individual clones of cancer cells evolve independently from one another, acquiring all of the genetic traits or hallmarks necessary to form a malignant tumor. It is also now recognized that tumors are heterotypic, with cancer cells interacting with normal stromal cells within the tissue microenvironment, including endothelial, stromal, and nerve cells. This tumor cell-stromal cell interaction in itself is a form of commensalism, because it has been demonstrated that these nonmalignant cells support and even enable tumor growth. Here, we add to this theory by regarding tumor cells as game players whose interactions help to determine their Darwinian fitness. We marshal evidence that tumor cells overcome certain host defenses by means of diffusible products. Our original contribution is to raise the possibility that two nearby cells can protect each other from a set of host defenses that neither could survive alone. Cooperation can evolve as by-product mutualism among genetically diverse tumor cells. Our hypothesis supplements, but does not supplant, the traditional view of carcinogenesis in which one clonal population of cells develops all of the necessary genetic traits independently to form a tumor. Cooperation through the sharing of diffusible products raises new questions about tumorigenesis and has implications for understanding observed phenomena, designing new experiments, and developing new therapeutic approaches.

  1. Predictors of long-term opioid use among chronic nonmalignant pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carrinna; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Aims: 1) To determine the distribution and determinants of opioid use among chronic nonmalignant pain(CNP) patients. 2) To identify the patient, treatment and socioeconomic characteristics as determinants for potential risk groups. We hypothesized that CNP patient who use opioids for more than 1...... year would differ in demographics and comorbidity from other patients who use opioids for less than 6 months. Methods: National registers were used to include patients beginning opioid therapy in the period 01/01/2000 to 31/12/2014(incl.). The cohort consists of adults aged 16 years or older who...... redeemed at least one prescription for an opioid product and residing in Denmark, analysing only patients who survived for at least two years. Follow-up minimum one year after the last redeemed opioid prescription or to 31/12/2015. Participants are included at first redeemed prescription for an opioid...

  2. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B

    2016-01-01

    : Multiple site pain, high pain severity, older age, baseline disability and longer pain duration were identified as potential prognostic factors for disability across pain sites. There was limited evidence that anxiety and depression were associated with disability in patients with subacute pain, indicating......OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. SETTING: General practice and other primary care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility...... criteria were cohort studies investigating the prediction of disability or long-term sick leave in adults with a subacute pain condition in a primary care setting. 19 studies were included, referring to a total of 6266 patients suffering from pain in the head, neck, back and shoulders. PRIMARY...

  3. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part II. Dry wood industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on associations between dry wood dust exposure and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between dry wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. Papers took into consideration smoking and when dealing with lung function age. A total of 37 papers forms the basis of this review. The results support an association between dry wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis is seen across the studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent has consistently been disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected to be a major cause of wood dust induced asthma.

  4. ELT and Consciousness-Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jardani, Khalid Salim Saif

    2012-01-01

    The paper highlights the concept of consciousness-raising. It relates it to different aspects of ELT such as explicit teaching, language awareness, language acquisition and practice. How these terms are related to the concept of consciousness-raising within the English Language teaching. Its main aim is to help learners to notice for themselves…

  5. Patterns of International Capital Raisings

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzi, Juan Carlos; Levine, Ross; Schmukler, Sergio L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents several new patterns associated with firms issuing securities in foreign markets that motivate the need for and help guide future research. Besides noting that these international capital raisings grew almost four-fold from 1991 to 2005, accounting for 35 percent of all capital raised through security issuances, the paper has three main findings. First, a large and gro...

  6. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  7. Breakthrough pain in opioid-treated chronic non-malignant pain patients referred to a multidisciplinary pain centre: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, J; Nielsen, P R; Eriksen, Jacob Gram;

    2006-01-01

    Breakthrough pain (BTP) has not formerly been discussed as such in chronic non-malignant pain patients referred to pain centres and clinics. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence, characteristics and mechanisms of BTP in opioid-treated chronic non-malignant pain patients refe...... referred to a pain centre and to assess the short-term effects of pain treatment.......Breakthrough pain (BTP) has not formerly been discussed as such in chronic non-malignant pain patients referred to pain centres and clinics. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence, characteristics and mechanisms of BTP in opioid-treated chronic non-malignant pain patients...

  8. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  9. Neuropsychological and neuroanatomical sequelae of chronic non-malignant pain and opioid analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Cady; Cianfrini, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    The pervasive disease of chronic pain is a common challenge for the clinical rehabilitation professional. Concurrent with physical and emotional symptoms, pain-related cognitive impairment has been reported. Although opioid analgesics are frequently prescribed, concern exists that opioids possess adverse cognitive effects of their own. To review the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical sequelae of chronic non-malignant pain and opioid therapy, to clarify roles and benefits of neuropsychological assessment in a chronic pain population, and to provide recommendations for clinical practice and future research. This non-systematic review sought to provide a comprehensive synthesis of relevant neurobiology, neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and rehabilitation research literatures. We included citations from seminal and current texts as well as relevant original and review articles from 1980-2012 in PubMed and PubMedCentral online research databases. To date, evidence from opioid studies suggests only mild deficits in specific cognitive domains (e.g., memory, attention/concentration) and only under specific conditions (e.g., dose escalations). Additionally, neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence suggests that pain itself results in cognitive sequelae. Methodological improvements in future research will allow for better delineation of the contributing effects of pain and opioids, with an overall goal of improving evidence-based clinical treatment recommendations.

  10. The influence of discordance in pain assessment on the functional status of patients with chronic nonmalignant pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Mukta; Staton, Lisa J; Chen, Ian; Kurz, James; O'Rorke, Jane; Pasanen, Mark; Menon, Madhusudan; Genao, Inginia; Wood, Joann; Mechaber, Alex; Rosenberg, Eric; Faselis, Charles; Carey, Tim; Calleson, Diane; Cykert, Sam

    2006-07-01

    Chronic pain is a frequent cause of suffering and disability that seriously affects patients' quality of life and imposes a staggering socioeconomic toll on society. Little is known about the impact of patient-physician disagreement (discordance) regarding the assessment of chronic pain on patients' quality of life in primary care settings. This study evaluates the role of discordance and other potentially modifiable factors that affect the quality of life and functional status of chronic pain patients. We evaluated 436 patient-physician encounters at 12 academic medical centers in the United States. We surveyed chronic nonmalignant pain patients to understand their pain perceptions. We concurrently surveyed their physicians about their perceptions of their patient's pain in primary care settings. More than 50% of physicians disagreed with their patient's pain. Thirty-nine percent of primary care physicians underestimated their patient's pain. In the multivariate analysis, this discordance was associated with poor physical functioning and worse bodily pain (P < 0.018 and P < 0.001 respectively). Patients with chronic, nonmalignant pain have reductions in physical function and bodily pain domains of the SF-36 compared to age-matched populations. Depression and obesity represented other associations. Patients with chronic nonmalignant pain have poor physical functioning and worse bodily pain. Discordance, obesity, and depression are other modifiable factors. Prospective studies are needed to design interventions. However, a multifaceted approach appears to represent the best opportunity to reduce the pain and suffering of this challenging population.

  11. Raising the One-Sun Conversion Efficiency of III-V/Si Solar Cells to 32.8% for Two Junctions and 35.9% for Three Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamboli, Adele C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geisz, John F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, David L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steiner, Myles A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schnabel, Manuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Essig, Stephanie [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL); Allebe, Christophe [CSEM PV-Center; Barroud, Lorris [CSEM PV-Center; Descoeudres, Antoine [CSEM PV-Center; Despeisse, Matthieu [CSEM PV-Center; Ballif, Christophe [CSEM PV-Center; Ward, J. Scott [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-25

    Today's dominant photovoltaic technologies rely on single-junction devices, which are approaching their practical efficiency limit of 25-27%. Therefore, researchers are increasingly turning to multi-junction devices, which consist of two or more stacked subcells, each absorbing a different part of the solar spectrum. Here, we show that dual-junction III-V//Sidevices with mechanically stacked, independently operated III-V and Si cells reach cumulative one-sun efficiencies up to 32.8%. Efficiencies up to 35.9% were achieved when combining a GaInP/GaAs dual-junction cell with a Si single-junction cell. These efficiencies exceed both the theoretical 29.4% efficiency limit of conventional Si technology and the efficiency of the record III-V dual-junction device (32.6%), highlighting the potential of Si-based multi-junction solar cells. However, techno-economic analysis reveals an order-of-magnitude disparity between the costs for III-V//Si tandem cells and conventional Si solar cells, which can be reduced if research advances in low-cost III-V growth techniques and new substrate materials are successful.

  12. High Lysyl Oxidase (LOX) in the Non-Malignant Prostate Epithelium Predicts a Poor Outcome in Prostate Cancer Patient Managed by Watchful Waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria; Hägglöf, Christina; Hammarsten, Peter; Thysell, Elin; Stattin, Pär; Egevad, Lars; Granfors, Torvald; Jernberg, Emma; Wikstrom, Pernilla; Halin Bergström, Sofia; Bergh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) has been shown to both promote and suppress tumor progression, but its role in prostate cancer is largely unknown. LOX immunoreactivity was scored in prostate tumor epithelium, tumor stroma and in the tumor-adjacent non-malignant prostate epithelium and stroma. LOX scores in tumor and non-malignant prostate tissues were then examined for possible associations with clinical characteristics and survival in a historical cohort of men that were diagnosed with prostate cancer at transurethral resection and followed by watchful waiting. Men with a low LOX score in the non-malignant prostate epithelium had significantly longer cancer specific survival than men with a high score. Furthermore, LOX score in non-malignant prostate epithelium remained prognostic in a multivariable analysis including Gleason score. LOX score in prostate tumor epithelium positively correlated to Gleason score and metastases but was not associated with cancer survival. LOX score in tumor and non-malignant prostate stroma appeared unrelated to these tumor characteristics. In radical prostatectomy specimens, LOX immune-staining corresponded to LOX in-situ hybridization and LOX mRNA levels were found to be similar between tumor and adjacent non-malignant areas, but significantly increased in bone metastases samples. LOX levels both in tumors and in the surrounding tumor-bearing organ are apparently related to prostate cancer aggressiveness.

  13. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  14. Analgesic use by ageing and elderly patients with chronic non-malignant pain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mary-Claire; Cousins, Grainne; Henman, Martin C

    2017-08-01

    Background Analgesics are used in the management of chronic non-malignant pain (CNMP), a condition which is highly prevalent among older adults. CNMP may not only be physically distressing but also complicated by psychosocial and economic factors. An individual's perception and use of analgesics may be influenced by a range of factors such as perceptions of risk or benefits, ability to purchase medication or access to non-pharmacological therapies or specialist care. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions and experiences of analgesics by ageing and elderly individuals with CNMP and identify factors that influence their use. Setting Telephone interviews with 28 members of Chronic Pain Ireland aged ≥50. Method In-depth semi-structured interviews; audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Main outcome measure Experiences and perceptions of ageing and elderly individuals with CNMP taking analgesics. Results A combination of factors specific to the patient and arising from outside influences informed perceptions and experiences of analgesics. Pain severity, perceived efficacy of analgesics, occurrence of adverse-effects and concerns about addiction/dependence were identified as internal factors influencing medication use. External factors included views of family members, access to specialised care and the individual's interaction with healthcare professionals (HCPs). Conclusion Individuals with CNMP regard analgesics as an important method for managing pain and are relied upon when other interventions are difficult to access. HCPs in primary care, who are the main point of contact for patients, need to take into account the various factors that may influence analgesic use when consulting with this patient group.

  15. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant for High Risk Hemoglobinopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Sickle Cell Disease; Transfusion Dependent Alpha- or Beta- Thalassemia; Diamond Blackfan Anemia; Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria; Glanzmann Thrombasthenia; Severe Congenital Neutropenia; Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome; Non-Malignant Hematologic Disorders

  16. Mildly raised tricuspid regurgitant velocity 2.5-3.0 m/s in pregnant women with sickle cell disease is not associated with poor obstetric outcome - An observational cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, May C; Sankaran, Srividhya; Chung, Natali Ya; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Howard, Jo; Robinson, Sue E; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with 36% mortality in pregnancy, and 6-10% of patients with sickle cell disease have pulmonary hypertension. Tricuspid regurgitant velocity ≥2.5 m/s on echocardiography is a well validated means of screening for pulmonary hypertension in the non-pregnant population. This is a pilot study to determine if this is a useful non-invasive screening test for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy, and whether raised tricuspid regurgitant velocity ≥2.5 m/s was associated with poor outcomes. This is a cross-sectional study over a five-year period in a tertiary referral centre with a specialised multidisciplinary clinic for pregnant women with sickle cell disease. Women with sickle cell disease, no prior pulmonary hypertension and singleton pregnancies who had echocardiography with a measurable tricuspid regurgitant velocity in pregnancy were included. There were 34 pregnancies, of which eight had tricuspid regurgitant velocity ≥2.5 m/s. There were no significant differences in their characteristics, sickle cell-related complications or medical co-morbidities. The women with tricuspid regurgitant velocity ≥2.5 m/s had similar obstetric and perinatal outcomes as those with a tricuspid regurgitant velocity <2.5 m/s.

  17. A mega-ethnography of eleven qualitative evidence syntheses exploring the experience of living with chronic non-malignant pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Fran; Seers, Kate; Hannink, Erin; Barker, Karen

    2017-08-01

    Each year over five million people develop chronic non-malignant pain and can experience healthcare as an adversarial struggle. The aims of this study were: (1) to bring together qualitative evidence syntheses that explore patients' experience of living with chronic non-malignant pain and develop conceptual understanding of what it is like to live with chronic non-malignant pain for improved healthcare; (2) to undertake the first mega-ethnography of qualitative evidence syntheses using the methods of meta-ethnography. We used the seven stages of meta-ethnography refined for large studies. The innovation of mega-ethnography is to use conceptual findings from qualitative evidence syntheses as primary data. We searched 7 bibliographic databases from inception until February 2016 to identify qualitative evidence syntheses that explored patients' experience of living with chronic non-malignant pain. We identified 82 potential studies from 556 titles, screened 34 full text articles and included 11 qualitative evidence syntheses synthesising a total of 187 qualitative studies reporting more than 5000 international participants living with chronic pain. We abstracted concepts into 7 conceptual categories: (1) my life is impoverished and confined; (2) struggling against my body to be me; (3) the quest for the diagnostic 'holy grail'; (4) lost personal credibility; (5) trying to keep up appearances; (6) need to be treated with dignity; and (7) deciding to end the quest for the grail is not easy. Each conceptual category was supported by at least 7 of the 11 qualitative evidence syntheses. This is the first mega-ethnography, or synthesis of qualitative evidence syntheses using the methods of meta-ethnography. Findings help us to understand that the decision to end the quest for a diagnosis can leave patients feeling vulnerable and this may contribute to the adversarial nature of the clinical encounter. This knowledge demonstrates that treating a patient with a sense that they

  18. Pharmacological consequences of long-term morphine treatment in patients with cancer and chronic non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gertrud; Sjøgren, Per; Hansen, Steen Honoré;

    2004-01-01

    In patients with pain of malignant origin morphine may be administered in high and often increasing doses during extended periods of time. In patients with chronic pain of non-malignant origin morphine may be an important remedy, and in these cases the goal is to keep the morphine dose stable. Th....... The pharmacokinetic as well as the pharmacodynamic consequences of long-term morphine treatment with special reference to the two most important metabolites of morphine morphine-6-glucuronide (M-6-G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M-3-G) remain to be settled....

  19. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  20. Stem cell transplantation in Europe: trends and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S S; Uyl-de Groot, C A; Huijgens, P C; Fibbe, W E

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify trends in numbers of European patients treated with autologous and allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as well as to provide anticipated transplant rates for the upcoming years. The following indications were considered: haematological malignancies (acute leukaemias, myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoproliferative disorders and multiple myeloma), solid tumours and non-malignant diseases. Numbers of patients treated from 1990 to 2004 were extracted from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database, extrapolated to 2012 using mathematic models and adjusted to the literature study and expert opinion. In Europe, a 13% raise in HSCT utilisation is to be expected from 2005 to 2010, mostly due to the growing application of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens followed by allogeneic HSCT. Growing transplant rates are likely to exert health expenditure budgets and put pressure on health care providers and health insurers in Europe. Therefore, the rapid expansion would ideally imply a simultaneous increase in HSCT budgets.

  1. Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steffen T; Higginson, Irene J; Booth, Sara; Harding, Richard; Weingärtner, Vera; Bausewein, Claudia

    2016-10-20

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The primary objective of this review was to determine the efficacy of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced disease. Secondary objectives were to determine the efficacy of different benzodiazepines, different doses of benzodiazepines, different routes of application, adverse effects of benzodiazepines, and the efficacy in different disease groups. This is an update of a review published in 2010. We searched 14 electronic databases up to September 2009 for the original review. We checked the reference lists of all relevant studies, key textbooks, reviews, and websites. For the update, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE and registers of clinical trials for further ongoing or unpublished studies, up to August 2016. We contacted study investigators and experts in the field of palliative care asking for further studies, unpublished data, or study details when necessary. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) assessing the effect of benzodiazepines compared with placebo or active control in relieving breathlessness in people with advanced stages of cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic heart failure (CHF), motor neurone disease (MND), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF

  2. Alternatives for Raising Living Standards

    OpenAIRE

    William Scarth

    1999-01-01

    Given the fundamental goal of raising living standards in the longer term, much attention is paid to policies that can be expected to increase national saving. With respect to private saving, the mechanism is tax reform - a lower tax on interest income. The basic problem with this approach is that, for a given size of government, some other tax or transfer must be adjusted to finance the interest-tax cut. This fact may make it difficult to ensure that those with only labour income will share ...

  3. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.

  4. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai; Yifeng; Liu; Jinliang

    2006-01-01

      The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.……

  5. Levodropropizine in the management of cough associated with cancer or nonmalignant chronic disease--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Eva Katharina; Rémi, Constanze; Bausewein, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Cough associated with cancer or nonmalignant chronic disease is common and distressing. Levodropropizine, a peripherally acting drug, has been used as an alternative antitussive to opioids. The authors aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of levodropropizine in relieving cough associated with cancer or nonmalignant chronic disease. The authors searched five databases and hand searched relevant journals to identify randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials assessing the antitussive effect of levodropropizine for cough associated with cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, or chronic heart failure. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination criteria. The search yielded 58 references. Six were checked in more detail, and four studies were included. Two were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing levodropropizine against dihydrocodeine and moguisteine, and two were nonrandomized placebo-controlled studies, all with important limitations and high risk of bias. Levodropropizine was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing cough frequency and severity, and equally effective as dihydrocodeine or moguisteine. It was generally well tolerated. The authors conclude that the evidence for the antitussive efficacy of levodropropizine in these patients is scarce, and is further limited by the methodological weaknesses of the primary studies. Further well-designed research is needed to support its use.

  6. Hypoxic conditions induce a cancer-like phenotype in human breast epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaapil, Marica; Helczynska, Karolina; Villadsen, René

    2012-01-01

    Solid tumors are less oxygenated than their tissue of origin. Low intra-tumor oxygen levels are associated with worse outcome, increased metastatic potential and immature phenotype in breast cancer. We have reported that tumor hypoxia correlates to low differentiation status in breast cancer. Less...... is known about effects of hypoxia on non-malignant cells. Here we address whether hypoxia influences the differentiation stage of non-malignant breast epithelial cells and potentially have bearing on early stages of tumorigenesis....

  7. Struggling for a normal life: work as an individual self-care management strategy among persons living with non-malignant chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Gudrun; Anderssen, Norman

    2014-01-01

    A significant part of the population suffers from non-malignant chronic pain that is not treated by pain specialists. No successful long-term treatment exists. The patients have to deal with their condition in collaboration with health personnel establishing treatment programmes under uncertain circumstances with few guidelines. Thus, there is a strong need for knowledge on how patients with chronic non-malignant pain manage their condition. The aim of the study was to explore how patients with chronic non-malignant pain deal with their condition. Twenty patients with chronic non-malignant pain (aged 26-63 in year 2006) told in an open-ended interview situation, how they lived with and dealt with their condition. The interviews were analysed within a phenomenological meaning condensation framework. For all patients the pain was as an integrated part of their life that required huge efforts to cope with. Typically, the patients experienced loneliness, fear of stigmatization and despair because of their unpredictable condition, and they wanted to come back to a normalized daily life, first and foremost by getting back to paid work. In general, the patients developed individual strategies that were influenced by their local contexts and life situation as well as the pain itself. This may be interpreted in line with Bourdieu's notions of habitus, strategies and social capital.

  8. Cost of pain medication to treat adult patients with nonmalignant chronic pain in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasu, Rafia S; Vouthy, Kiengkham; Crowl, Ashley N; Stegeman, Anne E; Fikru, Bithia; Bawa, Walter Agbor; Knell, Maureen E

    2014-09-01

    Nonmalignant chronic pain (NMCP) is a public health concern. Among primary care appointments, 22% focus on pain management. The American Academy of Pain Medicine guidelines for NMCP recommend combination medication therapy (including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants) as a key component to effective treatment for many chronic pain diagnoses. However, there has been little evidence outlining the costs of pain medications in adult patients with NMCP in the United States, an area that necessitates further consideration as the nation moves toward value-based benefit design. To estimate the cost of pain medication attributable to treating adult patients with NMCP in the United States and to analyze the trend of outpatient pain visits. This cross-sectional study used the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) data from 2000-2007. The Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted the survey. The study included patients aged ≥18 years with chronic pain diagnoses (identified by the ICD-9-CM codes: primary, secondary, and tertiary). Patients prescribed at least 1 pain medication were included in the cost analysis. Pain-related prescription medications prescribed during ambulatory care visits were retrieved by using NAMCS drug codes/National Drug Code numbers. National pain prescription frequencies (weighted) were obtained from NAMCS data, using the statistical software STATA. We created pain therapy categories (drug classes) for cost analysis based on national pain guidelines. Drug classes used in this analysis were opioids/opioid-like agents, analgesics/NSAIDs, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antirheumatics/immunologics, muscle relaxants, topical products, and corticosteroids. We calculated average prices based on the 3 lowest average wholesale prices reported in the

  9. Capture market share, raise prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  10. A novel multiplex assay combining autoantibodies plus PSA has potential implications for classification of prostate cancer from non-malignant cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantuck Allan J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of sufficient specificity and sensitivity among conventional cancer biomarkers, such as prostate specific antigen (PSA for prostate cancer has been widely recognized after several decades of clinical implications. Autoantibodies (autoAb among others are being extensively investigated as potential substitute markers, but remain elusive. One major obstacle is the lack of a sensitive and multiplex approach for quantifying autoAb against a large panel of clinically relevant tumor-associated antigens (TAA. Methods To circumvent preparation of phage lysates and purification of recombinant proteins, we identified B cell epitopes from a number of previously defined prostate cancer-associated antigens (PCAA. Peptide epitopes from cancer/testis antigen NY-ESO-1, XAGE-1b, SSX-2,4, as well as prostate cancer overexpressed antigen AMACR, p90 autoantigen, and LEDGF were then conjugated with seroMAP microspheres to allow multiplex measurement of autoAb present in serum samples. Moreover, simultaneous quantification of autoAb plus total PSA was achieved in one reaction, and termed the "A+PSA" assay. Results Peptide epitopes from the above 6 PCAA were identified and confirmed that autoAb against these peptide epitopes reacted specifically with the full-length protein. A pilot study was conducted with the A+PSA assay using pre-surgery sera from 131 biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer patients and 121 benign prostatic hyperplasia and/or prostatitis patients. A logistic regression-based A+PSA index was found to enhance sensitivities and specificities over PSA alone in distinguishing prostate cancer from nonmalignant cases. The A+PSA index also reduced false positive rate and improved the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusions The A+PSA assay represents a novel platform that integrates autoAb signatures with a conventional cancer biomarker, which may aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer and others.

  11. Over-expression of nm23-H1 in HeLa cells provides cells with higher resistance to oxidative stress possibly due to raising intracellular p53 and GPX1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run AN; Yong-lie CHU; Chan TIAN; Xiao-xia DAI; Jing-hong CHEN; Qi SHI; Jun HAN; Xiao-ping DONG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the antitumor factor nm23 is related with antioxi-dation. Methods: Full-length human nm23-Hl was cloned into a mammalian-expressing vector and transiently introduced into HeLa cells. Results: A remark-ably low level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in the cells over-expressing nm23-Hl. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trypan blue assays found that the cells transfected with a nm23-H1-expressing plasmid had higher viability and stronger resistance to oxidative stress. Immunoprecipitation tests revealed that endogenous nm23-H1 formed a protein complex with p53. Furthermore, the intracellular levels of p53 and p53-regulated gene GPXI were obviously increased in the cells overexpressing nm23-H1. The downregulation of p53 in the cells overexpressing nm23-H1 resulted in a higher cellular ROS level and lower cell viability. Conclusion: The findings suggest that nm23-H1 may act as a cellular protector against oxidative stress, possibly triggering the p53-related antioxidative pathway.

  12. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised...

  13. Raising purity of adipose tissue-derived stem cells by purifying adipose tissue in the laboratory%纯化取材脂肪提高实验中干细胞培养的纯度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小飞; 傅强

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the past, only vascular tissues on fat surface were removed during the primary culture of adiposetissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) reported in most literatures. However, blood vessels within the fat tissues, especially thelymph nodes around the blood vessels removed little.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of raising purity of cultured ADSCs in the laboratory through purifying adipose tissues.METHODS: Adipose tissues derived from rat inguinal groove were divided into two parts: one for purifying, rejecting superficialblood vessel, skins and muscular tissues, rejecting blood vessel inside and surrounding elliptic nodal tissues; the other one onlyfor rejecting superficial blood vessels and possible adherent skins and muscular tissues outside. Primary culture of ADSCs wasperformed.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Elliptic nodal tissues stained by hematoxylin-eosin were proved to be lymphatic tissues undermicroscope. The cells cultured from purified adipose tissues were uniformity. Cell photos, immunofluorescence and flowcytometry results can prove that the cell's purity from the purified adipose tissues was higher than that from the unpurifiedadipose tissues. The purity of primary cultured ADSCs can be improved by purifying adipose tissues in the laboratory.%背景:在以往脂肪干细胞原代培养的文献中大多只是剔除脂肪表面的血管组织,而对于脂肪内部的血管,尤其是血管周围淋巴结的剔除很少有文献报道.目的:探讨通过脂肪纯化来提高培养干细胞纯度的可行性.方法:将取材自同一大鼠腹股沟处的脂肪组织分成两份,一份给予纯化处理,剔除表面的血管、皮肤和肌肉组织的同时一并剔除组织内血管及其周围结节样组织.而另一份仅剔除表面血管及可能黏附的皮肤和肌肉组织,分别对两份脂肪行干细胞原代培养.结果与结论:经苏木精-伊红染色显微镜下观察,证实血管周围结节样组织为淋巴结.纯化脂

  14. Lymphoma associated bone marrow necrosis with raised anticardiolipin antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P T; Sivakumaran, M; Casey, M C; Liddicoat, A; Wood, J K

    1998-05-01

    A case of high grade B cell lymphoma presented with bone marrow necrosis, followed by development of extensive marrow fibrosis, the evolution of which was documented by serial magnetic resonance imaging and bone marrow trephine histology. A markedly raised anticardiolipin antibody titre at diagnosis suggests that lymphoma associated antiphospholipid syndrome may have contributed to the aetiology of the bone marrow necrosis.

  15. 28 CFR 902.2 - Raising disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising disputes. 902.2 Section 902.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.2 Raising disputes. (a) Cognizable disputes may be based upon: (1) A claim that the...

  16. Safety, efficacy, and response predictors of anticoagulation for the treatment of nonmalignant portal-vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis: a propensity score matching analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Wha Chung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsPortal-vein thrombosis (PVT develops in 10-25% of cirrhotic patients and may aggravate portal hypertension. There are few data regarding the effects of anticoagulation on nonmalignant PVT in liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the safety, efficacy, and predictors of response to anticoagulation therapy in cirrhotic patients.MethodsPatients with liver cirrhosis and nonmalignant PVT were identified by a hospital electronic medical record system (called BESTCARE. Patients with malignant PVT, Budd-Chiari syndrome, underlying primary hematologic disorders, or preexisting extrahepatic thrombosis were excluded from the analysis. Patients were divided into two groups (treatment and nontreatment, and propensity score matching analysis was performed to identify control patients. The sizes of the thrombus and spleen were evaluated using multidetector computed tomography.ResultsTwenty-eight patients were enrolled in this study between 2003 and 2014: 14 patients who received warfarin for nonmalignant PVT and 14 patients who received no anticoagulation. After 112 days of treatment, 11 patients exhibited significantly higher response rates (complete in 6 and partial in 5 compared to the control patients, with decreases in thrombus size of >30%. Compared to nonresponders, the 11 responders were older, and had a thinner spleen and fewer episodes of previous endoscopic variceal ligations, whereas pretreatment liver function and changes in prothrombin time after anticoagulation did not differ significantly between the two groups. Two patients died after warfarin therapy, but the causes of death were not related to anticoagulation.ConclusionsWarfarin can be safely administered to cirrhotic patients with nonmalignant PVT. The presence of preexisting portal hypertension is a predictor of nonresponse to anticoagulation.

  17. Utility of FDG-PETCT and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in differentiating between cerebral lymphoma and non-malignant CNS lesions in HIV-infected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwood, Thomas D., E-mail: tdwestwood@googlemail.com [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Hogan, Celia, E-mail: celiahogan@hotmail.com [Monsall Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, North Manchester General Hospital, Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Julyan, Peter J., E-mail: Peter.Julyan@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coutts, Glyn, E-mail: Glyn.Coutts@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bonington, Suzie, E-mail: suzi.bonington@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Carrington, Bernadette, E-mail: Bernadette.Carrington@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Taylor, Ben, E-mail: Ben.taylor@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Khoo, Saye, E-mail: S.H.Khoo@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Bonington, Alec, E-mail: Alec.Bonington@pat.nhs.uk [Monsall Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, North Manchester General Hospital, Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: In HIV infected patients, MRI cannot reliably differentiate between central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and non-malignant CNS lesions, particularly cerebral toxoplasmosis (CTOX). This study prospectively investigates the utility of FDG PET-CT and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in discriminating CNS lymphoma from non-malignant CNS lesions in HIV infected patients, and assesses the ability of FDG PET-CT to guide the use of early brain biopsy. Methods: 10 HIV patients with neurological symptoms and contrast enhancing lesions on MRI were commenced on anti-toxoplasmosis therapy before undergoing FDG PET-CT and MRS. Brain biopsies were sought in those with FDG PET-CT suggestive of CNS lymphoma, and in those with a negative FDG PET-CT scan who failed to respond to therapy. Final diagnosis was based on histology or treatment response. Results: Two patients were confirmed to have CNS lymphoma and FDG PET-CT was consistent with this diagnosis in both. Six patients had cerebral toxoplasmosis in all of whom FDG PET-CT was consistent with non-malignant disease. One patient had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), FDG PET-CT was equivocal. One patient had a haemorrhagic brain metastasis and FDG PET-CT wrongly suggested non-malignant disease. MRS was performed successfully in eight subjects: three results were suggestive of CNS lymphoma (one true positive, two false positive), four suggested CTOX (two false negative, two true negative), one scan was equivocal. Conclusion: FDG PET-CT correctly identified all cases of CNS lymphoma and CTOX, supporting its use in this situation. MRS was unhelpful in our cohort.

  18. A case-control study of malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease among employees of a fiberglass manufacturing facility. II. Exposure assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiazze, L.; Watkins, D. K.; Fryar, C.; Kozono, J

    1993-01-01

    A case-control study of malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease among employees of the Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation's Newark, Ohio plant was undertaken. The aim was to determine the extent to which exposures to substances in the Newark plant environment, to non-workplace factors, or to a combination may play a part in the risk of mortality from respiratory disease among workers in this plant. A historical environmental reconstruction of the plant was undertaken to characterise ...

  19. A systematic review into the use of superficial heat and cold applications in the management of non-malignant, non-procedural pain in older adults.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background Hot and cold treatments are an example of simple, inexpensive techniques that can be easily utilised to manage pain. Despite recommendations for the use of hot and cold modalities in the treatment of pain there is little and conflicting empirical evidence to support this. There is a need to summarise the available literature in this area. Aim To systematically review the use of superficially administered heat and cold therapy in the management of non-malignant, non-proced...

  20. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.

  1. Parenting Skills: Tips for Raising Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. By ... teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a ...

  2. Raise the Floor When Remodeling Science Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A new remodeling idea adopts the concept of raised floor covering gas, water, electrical, and drain lines. The accessible floor has removable panels set into an adjustable support frame 24 inches above a concrete subfloor. (Author)

  3. Could Parkinson's Disease Raise Stroke Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163751.html Could Parkinson's Disease Raise Stroke Risk? Or is the link the other way ... link between Parkinson's disease and the risk for stroke. However, the study can't prove that one ...

  4. 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_161206.html 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk Study also ties hormonal patches, IUDs to ... may have a slightly higher risk of developing depression -- and teenagers may be most vulnerable, a large ...

  5. Factors predicting the duration of adrenal insufficiency in patients successfully treated for Cushing disease and nonmalignant primary adrenal Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Alessandro; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Bottiglieri, Filomena; Rota, Carlo Antonio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Salvatori, Roberto; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2017-03-01

    Successful treatment of Cushing syndrome causes transient or permanent adrenal insufficiency deriving from endogenous hypercortisolism-induced hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis suppression. We analyzed pre-treatment factors potentially affecting the duration of adrenal insufficiency. We conducted a retrospective analysis on patients successfully treated for Cushing disease (15 patients) who underwent transsphenoidal surgery, and nonmalignant primary adrenal Cushing syndrome (31 patients) who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, divided into patients with overt primary adrenal Cushing syndrome (14 patients) and subclinical primary adrenal Cushing syndrome (17 patients). Epidemiological data, medical history, and hormonal parameters depending on the etiology of hypercortisolism were collected and compared to the duration of adrenal insufficiency. The median duration of follow-up after surgery for Cushing disease and primary adrenal Cushing syndrome was 70 and 48 months, respectively. In the Cushing disease group, the median duration of adrenal insufficiency after transsphenoidal surgery was 15 months: younger age at diagnosis and longer duration of signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism before diagnosis and surgery were associated with longer duration of adrenal insufficiency. The median duration of adrenal insufficiency was 6 months for subclinical primary adrenal Cushing syndrome and 18.5 months for overt primary adrenal Cushing syndrome. The biochemical severity of hypercortisolism, the grade of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis suppression, and treatment with ketoconazole before surgery accounted for longer duration of adrenal insufficiency. In patients with Cushing disease, younger age and delayed diagnosis and treatment predict longer need for glucocorticoid replacement therapy after successful transsphenoidal surgery. In patients with primary adrenal Cushing syndrome, the severity of hypercortisolism plays a primary role in influencing the duration of

  6. The Pathogenesis of Raised Intraocular Pressure in Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneke, Alexander Jan; Lim, K Sheng; Stanford, Miles

    2016-01-01

    To analyze current understanding of the factors that contribute to raised intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with uveitis. A pubmed literature review was carried out using words including "uveitic glaucoma", "IOP AND uveitis", "ocular hypertension AND uveitis", "inflammation AND glaucoma", "aqueous dynamics" AND "glaucoma/uveitis". Of the two studies looking at the aqueous dynamics in experimentally induced uveitis, both found aqueous flow decreased acutely, and one found that uveoscleral outflow increased. This is likely to reflect the types of uveitis that present acutely with hypotony. A study examining patients with Fuch's heterochromic cyclitis found no difference in aqueous flow or uveoscleral outflow. No studies have examined aqueous dynamics in types of uveitis that present with acutely raised IOP. Levels of prostaglandins rise in acute uveitis, which has been shown to increase uveoscleral and trabecular outflow, without affecting aqueous flow. Studies have demonstrated that raised levels of trabecular protein reduce trabecular outflow. Steroid treatment, inflammatory cells, free radicals and enzymes are also likely to contribute to the development of raised pressure. When considering the impact of the pathogenesis of raised pressure in uveitis on its treatment, prostaglandins may provide good intraocular pressure control, but there are concerns regarding their theoretical ability to worsen the inflammatory response in uveitis. Studies have not conclusively proven this to be the case. Surgical success rates vary, but trabeculectomy plus an antimetabolite, deep sclerectomy plus an antimetabolite, and Ahmed valve surgery have been used. Uveitic glaucoma is caused by a number of different diseases, some of which present with acute hypotony, others with acutely raised IOP, and others which demonstrate an increase in IOP over time. Further studies should be carried out to examine the differing pathogenesis in these types of diseases, and to establish the

  7. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  8. Raising a gender non-conforming child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnowski, Deborah L

    2011-10-01

    This article overviews the challenges parents face raising gender non-conforming children. The author is the mother of a fifteen year old gender non-conforming (GNC) child and co-founder of Stepping Stones Support Group which organizes support programs for families of GNC. The article discusses social challenges, educational challenges and internal conflicts the author has experienced while raising her child. The author also discusses the process of founding Stepping Stones and the importance having support has played in her and her child's life.

  9. Intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase receptor enhance discrimination of cancer from non-malignant conditions in patients presenting with symptoms related to colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, A F; Høyer-Hansen, G; Nielsen, H J;

    2009-01-01

    plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was proposed as a marker in CRC patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the individual molecular forms of suPAR as discriminators in a group of patients undergoing endoscopical examination following symptoms related to colorectal cancer. METHODS: In a case......-control study comprising 308 patients undergoing endoscopical examination following CRC-related symptoms, 77 CRC patients with adenocarcinoma were age and gender matched to: 77 patients with adenomas; 77 with other non-malignant findings, and 77 with no findings. The different uPAR forms were measured...

  10. Associations between demographics and health-related quality of life for chronic non-malignant pain patients treated at a multidisciplinary pain centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Plesner, Karin; Kvorning, Nina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the associations between demographics and health-related quality of life for chronic non-malignant pain patients. DESIGN: A cohort study. SETTING: A multidisciplinary Danish pain centre. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: All patients treated at the centre between 2007 and 2013. MAIN.......7 ± 14.4 (range 18-89), and 21% were able to work full or part time. On a Numeric Rating Scale from 0 to 10, median pain-intensity was 8 (interquartile range 7-8) and pain-discomfort 8 (interquartile range 7-9) at time of referral. More than half of the patients had symptoms of anxiety and depression...

  11. Silver front electrode grids for ITO-free all printed polymer solar cells with embedded and raised topographies, prepared by thermal imprint, flexographic and inkjet roll-to-roll processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jong-Su; Kim, Inyoung; Kim, Jung-Su

    2012-01-01

    to achieve using printed front grids, as surface topographies accumulate when processing subsequent layers, leading to shunts between the top and bottom printed metallic electrodes. Here we demonstrate how aqueous nanoparticle based silver inks can be employed as printed front electrodes using several...... different roll-to-roll techniques. We thus compare hexagonal silver grids prepared using either roll-to-roll inkjet or roll-to-roll flexographic printing. Both inkjet and flexo grids present a raised topography and were found to perform differently due to only the conductivity of the obtained silver grid......:phenyl-C61–butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) as the active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the top electrode, along with a flat bed screen printed silver grid. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) obtained for large area devices (6 cm2) was 1.84%, 0...

  12. Pragmatics, Awareness Raising, and the Cooperative Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, pedagogical pragmatics has sought to improve the effectiveness with which learners express and interpret meaning, through awareness-raising activities that draw on authentic materials and break away from simplistic explanations of form-function correspondences. By and large, these efforts have been informed by an inductive…

  13. PROCEDURE FOR LOCALLY RAISING THE GROUND ARTIFICIALLY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Abstract of corresponding document: WO 8909251 (A1) The present invention relates to a procedure for locally raising the ground artificially, wherein an equivalent quantity of the calcite (CaCO3) present in the porous underground limestone formations is converted into gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) by inje

  14. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  15. Raising Happy Kids on a Reasonable Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia C.

    This guide shows parents how to cut expenses and save on the cost of raising a family. Chapter 1 offers many ways to stretch food dollars and discusses buying in bulk, eating out, using coupons, buying wholesale, and gardening. Cost-cutting clothing ideas covered in chapter 2 include buying at secondhand stores and consignment shops, outlet…

  16. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  17. Flo: Raising Family Awareness about Electricity Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrubsole, P.A.; Lavrysen, T.; Janse, M.D.; Weda, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this case study, we designed a family game to explore whether this could be an effective and fun approach for raising the awareness of family members towards their energy use and, in the long run, to provide an effective tool for affecting their habits regarding sustainable behavior. The design o

  18. Raising Environmental Awareness among Miners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners. Miners' attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers' point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management…

  19. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  20. Consciousness-Raising, Error Correction and Proofreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of developing a consciousness-raising approach in error correction at the sentence level to improve students' proofreading ability. Learners of English in a foreign language environment often rely on translation as a composing tool and while this may act as a scaffold and provide some support, it frequently leads to…

  1. RAISING BRAND AWARENEES THROUGH INTERNET MARKETING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the opinions of different authors on brand awareness raising. It also describes and analyzes the concept of internet marketing, the implementation. The analysis of the most urgent and the most effective online marketing tools brand awareness. Article analysis website; internet advertising; social networks; search engine optimization.

  2. Fund-Raising as a Persuasive Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two successful fund-raising campaigns conducted by the new Dean of the College of Communication at the University of Texas, Austin. Describes strategies used as a novice fund-raiser with no help from a development officer. Suggests that the Aristotelian principles will serve anyone well if he or she is willing to give it the time and…

  3. Children Seem to Know Raising: Raising and Intervention in Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jinsun

    2012-01-01

    English-speaking children exhibit difficulty in their comprehension of raising patterns, such as (1), in which the NP the boy is semantically linked to the VP in the embedded clause, but is syntactically realized as the subject of the matrix clause. (1) Raising pattern: [s "The boy" seems to the girl [s _ to be happy

  4. Kidney dysfunction after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersting, S.

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a widely accepted approach for malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic diseases. Unfortunately complications can occur because of the treatment, leading to treatment-related mortality. We studied kidney dysfunction after allogeneic SCT in 2 cohorts of

  5. Study Raises Concerns about Mobile Phones%对手机多些关注

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平

    2003-01-01

    @@ Italian scientists have raised new health concerns about the safety of using mobile phones, with research showing radio waves from the handsets( 手机) makes cancerous cells grow more aggressively.

  6. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  7. Raising the one-sun conversion efficiency of III-V/Si solar cells to 32.8% for two junctions and 35.9% for three junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Stephanie; Allebé, Christophe; Remo, Timothy; Geisz, John F.; Steiner, Myles A.; Horowitz, Kelsey; Barraud, Loris; Ward, J. Scott; Schnabel, Manuel; Descoeudres, Antoine; Young, David L.; Woodhouse, Michael; Despeisse, Matthieu; Ballif, Christophe; Tamboli, Adele

    2017-09-01

    Today's dominant photovoltaic technologies rely on single-junction devices, which are approaching their practical efficiency limit of 25-27%. Therefore, researchers are increasingly turning to multi-junction devices, which consist of two or more stacked subcells, each absorbing a different part of the solar spectrum. Here, we show that dual-junction III-V//Sidevices with mechanically stacked, independently operated III-V and Si cells reach cumulative one-sun efficiencies up to 32.8%. Efficiencies up to 35.9% were achieved when combining a GaInP/GaAs dual-junction cell with a Si single-junction cell. These efficiencies exceed both the theoretical 29.4% efficiency limit of conventional Si technology and the efficiency of the record III-V dual-junction device (32.6%), highlighting the potential of Si-based multi-junction solar cells. However, techno-economic analysis reveals an order-of-magnitude disparity between the costs for III-V//Si tandem cells and conventional Si solar cells, which can be reduced if research advances in low-cost III-V growth techniques and new substrate materials are successful.

  8. Probing micro-environment of lipid droplets in a live breast cell: MCF7 and MCF10A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Catherine; Nandi, Somen; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2017-02-01

    Local environment of the lipid droplets inside the breast cancer cells, MCF7 and in non-malignant breast cells, MCF10A is monitored using time-resolved confocal microscopy. For this study, a coumarin-based dye C153 has been used. The local polarity and the solvation dynamics indicate that a cytoplasmic lipid droplet is less polar and displays slower solvation dynamics compared to the cytosol. Significant differences in terms of number of lipid droplets, polarity and solvation dynamics are observed between the cancer cell (MCF7) and its non-malignant cell (MCF10A).

  9. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Three Monoclonal Antibodies Raised against the Epidermal Growth Factor and Its Receptor in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Their Potential Use in the Selection of Patients for Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Rengifo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate methods to identify which lung cancer patients are most likely to benefit from the targeted drugs against both epidermal growth factor receptor/epidermal growth factor (EGFR/EGF are needed. For this reason, we evaluated both the tissue reactivity of ior egf/r3 monoclonal antibody (Mab in human lung carcinomas and its biological activity in NCI-H125 cells. Additionally, we assessed the tissue expression of EGF using two Mabs, CB-EGF1 and CB-EGF2. The overexpression of EGFR was detected in 33.33% and 62.71% of small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC, respectively. The ability of ior egf/r3 Mab to bind the extracellular domain of EGFR inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in NCI-H125 cells was also demonstrated. The EGF expression was observed in about 17% and 70% of SCLC and NSCLC, respectively. However, differences in the reactivity of CB-EGF1 and CB-EGF2 were evidenced. A dual expression of EGFR and EGF was observed in 16.67% and 57.63% of SCLC and NSCLC patients, respectively. But, a correlation between them was only obtained in NSCLC. Our results permit to recommend the development of diagnostic kits using ior egf/r3 and/or CB-EGF1 Mabs in order to achieve a better selection of patients to EGFR/EGF-targeting treatment.

  10. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Three Monoclonal Antibodies Raised against the Epidermal Growth Factor and Its Receptor in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Their Potential Use in the Selection of Patients for Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengifo, Charles E; Blanco, Rancés; Blanco, Damián; Cedeño, Mercedes; Frómeta, Milagros; Calzado, Enrique Rengifo

    2013-01-01

    Adequate methods to identify which lung cancer patients are most likely to benefit from the targeted drugs against both epidermal growth factor receptor/epidermal growth factor (EGFR/EGF) are needed. For this reason, we evaluated both the tissue reactivity of ior egf/r3 monoclonal antibody (Mab) in human lung carcinomas and its biological activity in NCI-H125 cells. Additionally, we assessed the tissue expression of EGF using two Mabs, CB-EGF1 and CB-EGF2. The overexpression of EGFR was detected in 33.33% and 62.71% of small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), respectively. The ability of ior egf/r3 Mab to bind the extracellular domain of EGFR inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in NCI-H125 cells was also demonstrated. The EGF expression was observed in about 17% and 70% of SCLC and NSCLC, respectively. However, differences in the reactivity of CB-EGF1 and CB-EGF2 were evidenced. A dual expression of EGFR and EGF was observed in 16.67% and 57.63% of SCLC and NSCLC patients, respectively. But, a correlation between them was only obtained in NSCLC. Our results permit to recommend the development of diagnostic kits using ior egf/r3 and/or CB-EGF1 Mabs in order to achieve a better selection of patients to EGFR/EGF-targeting treatment.

  11. Raising and lowering operators for quantum billiards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AYUSH KUMAR MANDWAL; SUDHIR R JAIN

    2017-09-01

    For planar integrable billiards, the eigenstates can be classified with respect to a quantity determined by the quantum numbers. Given the quantum numbers as $m$, $n$, the index which represents a class is $c = m$ mod $kn$ for a natural number, $k$. We show here that the entire tower of states can be generated from an initially given state by the application of the operators introduced here. Thus, these operators play the same role for billiards as raising and lowering operators in angular momentum algebra.

  12. Morphometrics of corneal growth in chicks raised in constant light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Choden, Tsering; Howland, Howard

    2009-03-01

    In this study we wish to augment our understanding of the effect of environment on corneal growth and morphology. To understand how corneal development of chicks raised in constant light differs from that of 'normal' eyes exposed to cyclic periods of light and dark, white Leghorn chicks were raised under either constant light (approximately 700 lux at cage top) or in 12 h light/12 h dark conditions for up to 12 weeks after hatching. To determine whether corneal expansion is uniform, some birds from each group received corneal tattoos for periodic photographic assessment. By 16 days of age, constant light corneas weighed less than light/dark regimen corneas [7.39 +/- 0.35 mg (SE) vs. 8.47 mg +/- 0.26 mg SE wet weight, P < or = 0.05], and corresponding differences were seen in corneal dry weights. Spatial expansion of the corneal surface was uniform in both groups, but the rate of expansion was slower in constant light chicks [0.0327 +/- 0.009 (SE) vs. 0.144 +/- 0.018 (SE) mm(2) day(-1) for normal chicks, P < or = 0.001]. At 1 day of age, there were 422 +/- 12.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm(-2) in the central cornea and 393 +/- 21.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm(-2 )peripherally. Although this difference is not statistically significant, the cell densities in the central cornea were always larger than those of the peripheral cornea in all eight measurements over a 10.5-week period, and this difference is significant (P < or = 0.008, binomial test). Light/dark regimen birds show no such consistent difference in cell densities between central and peripheral corneas. Thus, the density distribution of corneal stromal cells of chicks grown in constant light differs from that of normal chicks. Taken together, all these observations suggest that diurnal cycles of light and darkness are necessary for normal corneal growth.

  13. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride.

  14. Colorectal cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in asbestos cement and cement workers. Studies on mortality, cancer morbidity, and radiographical changes in lung parenchyma and pleura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Radiologically visible parenchymal changes (small opacities >= 1/0;ILO 1980 classification) were present in 20% of a sample of workers (N=174), employed for 20 years (median) in an asbestos cement plant. Exposure-response relationships were found, after controlling for age and smoking habits. In a sample of asbestos cement workers with symptoms and signs suggestive of pulmonary disease (N=33), increased lung density measured by x-ray computed tomography, and reduced static lung volumes and lung compliance was found. In a cohort of asbestos cement workers (N=1.929) with an estimated median exposure of 1.2 fibres/ml, the mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was increased in comparison to a regional reference cohort (N=1.233). A two-to three-fold increase of non-malignant respiratory mortality was noted among workers employed for more than a decade in the asbestos cement plant, compared to cement workers (N=1.526), who in their turn did not experience and increased risk compared to the general population. In the cohorts of asbestos cement and cement workers, there was a tow-to three-fold increased incidence of cancer in the right part of the colon, compared to the general population as well as to external reference cohorts of other industrial workers (N=3.965) and fishermen (N=8.092). A causal relation with the exposure to mineral dust and fibres was supported by the findings of higher risk estimated in subgroups with high cumulated asbestos doses or longer duration of cement work. The incidence of cancer in the left part of the colon was not increased. Morbidity data, but not mortality data, disclosed the subsite-specific risk pattern. Both asbestos cement workers and cement workers has an increased incidence of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, and with the fishermen. The risk was, however, of the same magnitude among the other industrial workers. 181 refs.

  15. Combined prolonged-release oxycodone and naloxone improves bowel function in patients receiving opioids for moderate-to-severe non-malignant chronic pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenstein, O; Leyendecker, P; Hopp, M; Schutter, U; Rogers, P D; Uhl, R; Bond, S; Kremers, W; Nichols, T; Krain, B; Reimer, K

    2009-03-01

    This randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group multicentre study assessed the impact of a total daily dose of 60-80 mg oral oxycodone prolonged-release (PR)/naloxone PR (OXN PR) as fixed-ratio combination for patients with opioid-induced constipation (OIC) having moderate-to-severe, non-malignant pain. During pre-randomisation patients receiving opioids for moderate-to-severe non-malignant pain were converted to oxycodone PR (OXY PR) and titrated to an effective analgesic dose. During randomisation 265 patients on a stable OXY PR dose (60-80 mg/day) and with OIC were included in the full analysis population to receive OXN PR or OXY PR alone. Primary outcome was improvement in symptoms of constipation as measured by the Bowel Function Index (BFI). Secondary/exploratory outcomes examined analgesic efficacy and other bowel function parameters. After 4 weeks of treatment, patients receiving OXN PR showed a significant improvement in bowel function compared with those in the OXY PR group (-14.9; 95% CI: -17.9, -11.9; pPR had a median number of 3.0 complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBM) per week compared with only 1.0 for OXY PR alone. Laxative intake was lower in the OXN PR than the OXY PR group. Furthermore, improvements in bowel function were achieved without loss of analgesic efficacy; pain intensity scores were comparable between the groups and consistent for duration of the study. Most frequently reported adverse events were consistent with those reported for opioid analgesics; no new or unexpected adverse reactions attributable to OXN PR used in higher doses were observed. This study shows that the fixed-ratio combination of OXN PR is superior to OXY PR alone in terms of bowel function, while providing effective equivalent analgesia.

  16. [Louis Braille (1809-1852)--inventor of raised dots system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewicz, Piotr; Kopacz, Dorota

    2005-01-01

    Louis Braille was born on January 4th 1809 in Coupvray, France. An injury to his eye at the age of three, resulted in total loss of vision. In 1819 he entered the Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. There he would live, study, and later teach. When he was fifteen, he developed system of reading and writing by means of raised dots, which is known today as Braille. The basis of the Braille system is known as a Braille cell. The cell is comprised of six dots numbered in a specific order. Each dot or combination of dots represents a letter of the alphabet. This Braille system has established itself internationally and formed the basic Braille for all languages.

  17. Raising Generation Tech Preparing Your Children for a Media-Fueled World

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Today's children are being raised as 'digital natives' in a world dominated by popular culture and technology. TV shows, computers, video games, social networking sites, advertisements, and cell phones too often have an unnecessarily strong-and negative? influence on children.  But pulling the plug just isn't an option in a world where being connected is essential for success. In Raising Generation Tech,  noted parenting and new-media expert Dr. Jim Taylor explores how popular culture and technology shape children's lives. The essential message from Raising Generation Tech is that excessive

  18. International Perspectives on Grandparents Raising Grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L; Yancura, Loriena A

    2017-01-01

    Globally, it is common for grandparents to serve as surrogate parents to their grandchildren, often in response to family crises and other challenges such as poverty, disease epidemics, and migration. Despite the global nature of this intergenerational caregiving arrangement, there have been few contextually focused examinations of how grandparents' surrogate parenting roles are enacted across countries and cultures. This analytic review addresses this issue by exploring demographic and cultural contexts, needs and experiences, and formal and informal supports for grandparents raising grandchildren in four diverse countries: China, New Zealand, Romania, and South Africa. We conclude our analysis by discussing key contextual factors, and their associated interrelationships, from which future research may elucidate how cultural, historical, and sociopolitical factors uniquely shape grandparents' experiences. We also make recommendations for contextually informed policies and practice.

  19. Isolation and characterization of human salivary gland cells for stem cell transplantation to reduce radiation-induced hyposalivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Jielin; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A.; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently, we showed that transplantation of 100-300 c-Kit(+) stem cells isolated from cultured salispheres ameliorates radiation-damage in murine salivary glands. The aim of this study is to optimize and translate these findings from mice to man. Methods: Mouse and human non-malignant pa

  20. Inhibiting Mitochondrial DNA Ligase IIIα Activates Caspase 1-Dependent Apoptosis in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmyr, Annahita; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Roginskaya, Vera; Van Houten, Bennett; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2016-09-15

    Elevated levels of DNA ligase IIIα (LigIIIα) have been identified as a biomarker of an alteration in DNA repair in cancer cells that confers hypersensitivity to a LigIIIα inhibitor, L67, in combination with a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Because LigIIIα functions in the nucleus and mitochondria, we examined the effect of L67 on these organelles. Here, we show that, although the DNA ligase inhibitor selectively targets mitochondria, cancer and nonmalignant cells respond differently to disruption of mitochondrial DNA metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial LigIIIα in cancer cells resulted in abnormal mitochondrial morphology, reduced levels of mitochondrial DNA, and increased levels of mitochondrially generated reactive oxygen species that caused nuclear DNA damage. In contrast, these effects did not occur in nonmalignant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial LigIIIα activated a caspase 1-dependent apoptotic pathway, which is known to be part of inflammatory responses induced by pathogenic microorganisms in cancer, but not nonmalignant cells. These results demonstrate that the disruption of mitochondrial DNA metabolism elicits different responses in nonmalignant and cancer cells and suggests that the abnormal response in cancer cells may be exploited in the development of novel therapeutic strategies that selectively target cancer cells. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5431-41. ©2016 AACR.

  1. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  2. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  3. High-density growth arrest in Ras-transformed cells: low Cdk kinase activities in spite of absence of p27Kip Cdk-complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Willumsen, Berthe Marie

    2005-01-01

    The ras oncogene transforms immortalized, contact-inhibited non-malignant murine fibroblasts into cells that are focus forming, exhibit increased saturation density, and are malignant in suitable hosts. Here, we examined changes in cell cycle control complexes as normal and Ras-transformed cells...

  4. Prevalence of raised body mass indices and the association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of raised body mass indices and the association with high blood ... an association between raised body mass index (BMI) and high blood pressure (BP) ... Subjects: The study sample comprised 382 participants, of whom 286 were ...

  5. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  6. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  7. Inhibition of glucose turnover by 3-bromopyruvate counteracts pancreatic cancer stem cell features and sensitizes cells to gemcitabine

    OpenAIRE

    Isayev, Orkhan; Rausch, Vanessa; Bauer, Nathalie; Liu, Li; Fan, Pei; Zhang, Yiyao; Gladkich, Jury; Nwaeburu, Clifford C.; Mattern, Jürgen; Mollenhauer, Martin; Rückert, Felix; Zach, Sebastian; Haberkorn, Uwe; Gross, Wolfgang; Schönsiegel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, the aggressive growth and early metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is due to the activity of CSCs, which are not targeted by current therapies. Otto Warburg suggested that the growth of cancer cells is driven by a high glucose metabolism. Here, we investigated whether glycolysis inhibition targets CSCs and thus may enhance therapeutic efficacy. Four established and 3 primary PDA cell lines, non-malignant cells, and 3 patien...

  8. Perfectionism in schools raising medical manpower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Abuhanoglu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to examine the perfectionist traits of the students studying at faculty of medicine, school of nursing and vocational school of health services within a university in Ankara which raises medical manpower. Method: To measure the students' perfectionist traits, and ldquo;Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and rdquo; was put account. In the scope of the research, perfectionist traits of 436 students (175 students from faculty of medicine, 122 students from school of nursing and 129 students from vocational school of health services were evaluated. This study was realized between from 25 st April to 31st May 2013. Results: Significant differences in statistical terms were found between variables regarded as dependent variables (self-perfectionism, perfectionism towards others and perfectionism determined by others and independent variables such as school type, gender, family income, educational background of father, number of siblings and residence of family. Additionally, in consequence of the covariation analysis, the results proved that school type affects the sub-dimensions of perfectionism which are self-perfectionism, perfectionism towards others and perfectionism determined by others in a substantive way, statistically (respectively; F=8,307 p <001; F=3,783 p=,024; F=5,713 p=,004 . Conclusion: All in all, the interpretation can be made that bringing about required changes in the curriculum may be useful in order to have an optimal teamwork eliminating the negative effects of perfectionism in health services [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 421-431

  9. Decreased expression of cytochrome P450 protein in non-malignant colonic tissue of patients with colonic adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Bode, C.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in epithelial cells lining the alimentary tract play an important role in both the elimination and activation of (pro-)carcinogens. To estimate the role of cytochrome P450 in carcinogenesis of the colon, expression patterns and protein levels of four...

  10. Positive Response to Thermobalancing Therapy Enabled by Therapeutic Device in Men with Non-Malignant Prostate Diseases: BPH and Chronic Prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gerasimovich Aghajanyan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common types of non-malignant prostate diseases are benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and chronic prostatitis (CP. The aim of this study was to find out whether thermobalancing therapy with a physiotherapeutic device is effective for BPH and CP. Methods: During a 2.5-year period, 124 men with BPH over the age of 55 were investigated. Clinical parameters were tested twice: via the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS and via ultrasound measurement of prostate volume (PV and uroflowmetry maximum flow rate (Qmax, before and after six months of therapy. In 45 men with CP under the age of 55, the dynamics of the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI were studied. Results: The results of the investigated index tests in men with BPH confirmed a decrease in IPSS (p < 0.001, a reduction in PV (p < 0.001, an increase in Qmax (p < 0.001, and an improvement of quality of life (QoL (p < 0.001. NIH-CPSI scores in men with CP indicated positive dynamics. Conclusions: The observed positive changes in IPSS, PV, and Qmax in men with BPH and the improvement in NIH-CPSI-QoL in patients with CP after using a physiotherapeutic device for six months as mono-therapy, support the view that thermobalancing therapy with the device can be recommended for these patients. Furthermore, the therapeutic device is free of side effects.

  11. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Franceschi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

  12. Raising Crop Productivity in Africa through Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tadele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach 2.5 billion by 2050. Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in 2013 alone, Africa imported 56.5 million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of 18.8 billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role in their contribution to Food Security, they produce inferior yields compared to those in other parts of the world. For instance, the average cereal yield in Africa is only 1.6 t·ha−1 compared to the global 3.9 t·ha−1. Low productivity in Africa is also related to poor soil fertility and scarce moisture, as well as a variety of insect pests, diseases, and weeds. While moisture scarcity is responsible for up to 60% of yield losses in some African staple cereals, insect pests inflict annually substantial crop losses. In order to devise a strategy towards boosting crop productivity on the continent where food insecurity is most prevalent, these production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. This review focuses on conventional (also known as genetic intensification in which crop productivity is raised through breeding for cultivars with high yield-potential and those that thrive well under diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Improved crop varieties alone do not boost crop productivity unless supplemented with optimum soil, water, and plant management practices as well as the promotion of policies pertaining to inputs, credit, extension, and marketing. Studies in Kenya and Uganda have shown that the yield of cassava can be increased by 140% in farmers’ fields using improved varieties and management practices. In addition to traditional organic and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and African Dark Earths have been found to improve soil properties and to enhance productivity, although their availability and affordability to

  13. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Haitham A.; Dina M. M. AlSadek; Mohit P. Mathew; Chen-Zhong Li; Djansugurova, Leyla B.; Yarema, Kevin J.; Hafiz Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, “Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show s...

  14. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqiang Liu(Institute of High Energy Physics); Yiping Meng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are describe...

  15. Screening for a raised rectal temperature in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R.J.; O'Dempsey, T J; Greenwood, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare rectal and axillary temperature measurements in African children. Altogether 573 sick children were seen in an outpatient setting in rural West Africa. Rectal and axillary temperatures were measured and the parent or guardian was asked if they thought that the child had a raised body temperature. Normal ranges were defined from an age matched population of 203 healthy children. A raised axillary temperature predicted a raised rectal temperature wi...

  16. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  17. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang Liu; Yiping Meng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows:(i) improve-ment of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii) development of an intelligent control tech-nique, and (iii) development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  18. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  19. Actual questions raised by nanoparticle radiosensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Emilie; Sicard-Roselli, Cécile

    2016-11-01

    Radiosensitization by metallic nanoparticles (NP) has been explored for more than a decade with promising results in vitro and in cellulo reported in a vast number of publications. Yet, few clinical trials are on-going. This could be related to the lack of selectivity of NP leading to massive quantities to be injected to observe an effect but also to the higher degree of complexity than first thought leading to an absence of consensus probably caused by the lack of standardization in pre-clinical studies. Given the wide panel of NP used, in terms of core nature, size, coating, not to mention of cell lines and irradiation modalities, cross-comparison of data is not a walk in the park. But only a thorough examination could help identifying the key parameters and the possible mechanisms involved. This step is crucial as it should provide guidance for designing the most efficient combination NP/radiation and rationally establishing clinical protocols. In this review, we will combine and confront cellular radiosensitization results with in vitro and numerical experiments in order to give the more recent vision of this complex phenomenon. We decided to address a few hot topics such as the influence of the incident radiation energy, the localization of NP or the so-called ;biological; effect. We will highlight that among the barriers to break down, some are not restricted to the ;nano; community: an incontestable support could be offered by the ;radiation; community in the broadest sense.

  20. Phonological Consciousness Raising Tasks for the ESP Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlacci, Peter

    A discussion of pronunciation instruction in English for business communication focuses on raising learners' awareness of how English is spoken by various language groups around the world. It is argued that phonological consciousness-raising is an effective approach for limiting breakdowns in communication. The approach assumes that developing…

  1. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Orbit raising maneuvers. 25.282 Section 25.282... Technical Operations § 25.282 Orbit raising maneuvers. A space station authorized to operate in the geostationary satellite orbit under this part is also authorized to transmit in connection with...

  2. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  3. Consciousness-raising Activities in Communicative Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xiaoxia

    2011-01-01

    This study is based mainly on the theories of grammatical instruction in communicative methodologies. In review of the related theories,this paper presents the methodologies,and designs three consciousness-raising tasks to verify the effectiveness of consciousness-raising instruction.

  4. Inpatient hospital admission rates for nonmalignant respiratory disease among workers exposed to metal removal fluids at a U.S. automobile manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Gordon R; Stout, Allen W; Hands, David; Curry, Emmanuel

    2003-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the impact of exposure to metal removal fluids (MRFs) on the respiratory health of exposed workers. The outcome measure selected was the rate of hospital admissions for nonmalignant respiratory disease episodes as determined from healthcare insurance claims data. A cohort of MRF-exposed employees was assembled from 11 manufacturing facilities where MRFs were extensively used in the manufacture of automotive engines, transmissions, and other machined parts. The MRF-exposed cohort included 20,434 employees of such facilities who worked at any time from 1993 through 1997. A non-MRF-exposed cohort was assembled from other employees of the same company during the same time period, but working in warehouse operations and other manufacturing facilities that did not use MRFs or any known respiratory sensitizing agents. The non-exposed cohort included 8681 employees. The crude hospital admission rate for the MRF-exposed cohort was 44 percent higher than that of the non-exposed cohort over the 5-year study period (6.67 vs. 4.62 per 1000 person years at risk, p risk of hospital admission increased with the level of MRF exposure in the population working in MRF plants. The industrial hygiene reconstruction found the levels of exposures of both cases and controls to be very low, with the vast majority of study subjects (more than 90%) having exposures of less than 0.5 mg/m(3). The case-control study did not find any association between increased levels of MRF exposure and risk of hospitalization. The study did document an elevated risk of hospitalization among a sizable population employed in manufacturing operations where MRFs are used.

  5. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain: a systematic review of cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B; Rosendal, Marianne; Ørtenblad, Lisbeth; Væggemose, Ulla; Christensen, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. Setting General practice and other primary care facilities. Participants Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility criteria were cohort studies investigating the prediction of disability or long-term sick leave in adults with a subacute pain condition in a primary care setting. 19 studies were included, referring to a total of 6266 patients suffering from pain in the head, neck, back and shoulders. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was long-term disability (>3 months) due to a pain condition. The secondary outcome was sick leave, defined as ‘absence from work’ or ‘return-to-work’. Results PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDro databases were searched from 16 January 2003 to 16 January 2014. The quality of evidence was presented according to the GRADE WG recommendations. Several factors were found to be associated with disability at follow-up for at least two different pain symptoms. However, owing to insufficient studies, no generic risk factors for sick leave were identified. Conclusions Multiple site pain, high pain severity, older age, baseline disability and longer pain duration were identified as potential prognostic factors for disability across pain sites. There was limited evidence that anxiety and depression were associated with disability in patients with subacute pain, indicating that these factors may not play as large a role as expected in developing disability due to a pain condition. Quality of evidence was moderate, low or very low, implying that confidence in the results is limited. Large prospective prognostic factor studies are needed with sufficient study populations and transparent reporting of all factors examined. Trial registration number CRD42014008914. PMID:26739716

  6. Characterization of variants in the promoter of BZLF1 gene of EBV in nonmalignant EBV-associated diseases in Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shuang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections, such as infectious mononucleosis (IM, EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV are not rare in Chinese children. The association of type 1 or type 2 EBV and variants of the EBV BZLF1 promoter zone (Zp with these diseases is unclear. Results The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between EBV genotypes (Zp variants and EBV type 1 and 2 and the clinical phenotypes of EBV-associated diseases in Chinese children. The Zp region was directly sequenced in 206 EBV-positive DNA samples from the blood of patients with IM, EBV-HLH, CAEBV, and healthy controls. Type 1 or type 2 EBV was examined by PCR for EBNA2 and EBNA3C subtypes. Four polymorphic Zp variants were identified: Zp-P, Zp-V3, Zp-P4 and Zp-V1, a new variant. The Zp-V3 variant was significantly associated with CAEBV (P ≤ 0.01. The frequency of co-infection with Zp variants was higher in patients with CAEBV and EBV-HLH, compared with IM and healthy controls, mostly as Zp-P+V3 co-infection. Type 1 EBV was predominant in all categories (81.3-95% and there was no significant difference in the frequency of the EBV types 1 and 2 in different categories (P > 0.05. Conclusions Type 1 EBV and BZLF1 Zp-P of EBV were the predominant genotypes in nonmalignant EBV associated diseases in Chinese children and Zp-V3 variant may correlates with the developing of severe EBV infection diseases, such as CAEBV and EBV-HLH.

  7. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain: a systematic review of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B; Rosendal, Marianne; Ørtenblad, Lisbeth; Væggemose, Ulla; Christensen, Robin

    2016-01-06

    This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. General practice and other primary care facilities. Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤ 3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility criteria were cohort studies investigating the prediction of disability or long-term sick leave in adults with a subacute pain condition in a primary care setting. 19 studies were included, referring to a total of 6266 patients suffering from pain in the head, neck, back and shoulders. The primary outcome was long-term disability (>3 months) due to a pain condition. The secondary outcome was sick leave, defined as 'absence from work' or 'return-to-work'. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDro databases were searched from 16 January 2003 to 16 January 2014. The quality of evidence was presented according to the GRADE WG recommendations. Several factors were found to be associated with disability at follow-up for at least two different pain symptoms. However, owing to insufficient studies, no generic risk factors for sick leave were identified. Multiple site pain, high pain severity, older age, baseline disability and longer pain duration were identified as potential prognostic factors for disability across pain sites. There was limited evidence that anxiety and depression were associated with disability in patients with subacute pain, indicating that these factors may not play as large a role as expected in developing disability due to a pain condition. Quality of evidence was moderate, low or very low, implying that confidence in the results is limited. Large prospective prognostic factor studies are needed with sufficient study populations and transparent reporting of all factors examined. CRD42014008914. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. A randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a single session of nurse administered massage for short term relief of chronic non-malignant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulson Katrina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massage is increasingly used to manage chronic pain but its benefit has not been clearly established. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of a single session of nurse-administered massage for the short term relief of chronic non-malignant pain and anxiety. Methods A randomised controlled trial design was used, in which the patients were assigned to a massage or control group. The massage group received a 15 minute manual massage and the control group a 15 minute visit to talk about their pain. Adult patients attending a pain relief unit with a diagnosis of chronic pain whose pain was described as moderate or severe were eligible for the study. An observer blind to the patients' treatment group carried out assessments immediately before (baseline, after treatment and 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours later. Pain was assessed using 100 mm visual analogue scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Pain Relief was assessed using a five point verbal rating scale. Anxiety was assessed with the Spielberger short form State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results 101 patients were randomised and evaluated, 50 in the massage and 51 in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups at baseline interview. Patients in the massage but not the control group had significantly less pain compared to baseline immediately after and one hour post treatment. 95% confidence interval for the difference in mean pain reduction at one hour post treatment between the massage and control groups is 5.47 mm to 24.70 mm. Patients in the massage but not the control group had a statistically significant reduction in anxiety compared to baseline immediately after and at 1 hour post treatment. Conclusion Massage is effective in the short term for chronic pain of moderate to severe intensity. Trial Registration [ISRCTN98406653

  9. Establishment of a normal-derived estrogen receptor-positive cell line comparable to the prevailing human breast cancer subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkinson, Branden Michael; Klitgaard, Marie Christine; Petersen, Ole William

    2017-01-01

    Understanding human cancer increasingly relies on insight gained from subtype specific comparisons between malignant and non-malignant cells. The most frequent subtype in breast cancer is the luminal. By far the most frequently used model for luminal breast cancer is the iconic estrogen receptor-...

  10. DEGRO practical guidelines for radiotherapy of non-malignant disorders. Part I: physical principles, radiobiological mechanisms, and radiogenic risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, Berthold [Hospital Weiden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Weiden (Germany); Block, Andreas [Hospital Dortmund, Institute for Medical Radiation Physics and Radiation Protection, Dortmund (Germany); Schaefer, Ulrich [Lippe Hospital, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Lemgo (Germany); Bert, Christoph; Mueller, Reinhold [University Hospitals Erlangen, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Jung, Horst [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Hamburg (Germany); Roedel, Franz [University Hospital Goethe-University, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Collaboration: the German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy for Benign Diseases (GCG-BD)

    2015-09-15

    Synopsis of the introductory paragraph of the DEGRO consensus S2e-guideline recommendations for the radiotherapy of benign disorders, including physical principles, radiobiological mechanisms, and radiogenic risk. This work is based on the S2e-guideline recommendations published November 14, 2013. The basic principles of radiation physics and treatment delivery, evaluation of putative underlying radiobiological mechanisms, and the assessment of genetic and cancer risk following low-dose irradiation will be presented. Radiation therapy of benign diseases is performed according to similar physical principles as those governing treatment of malignant diseases in radiation oncology, using the same techniques and workflows. These methods comprise usage of orthovoltage X-ray units, gamma irradiation facilities, linear accelerators (LINACs), and brachytherapy. Experimental in vitro and in vivo models recently confirmed the clinically observed anti-inflammatory effect of low-dose X-irradiation, and implicated a multitude of radiobiological mechanisms. These include modulation of different immunological pathways, as well as the activities of endothelial cells, mono- and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and macrophages. The use of effective dose for radiogenic risk assessment and the corresponding tumor incidence rate of 5.5 %/Sv are currently controversially discussed. Some authors argue that the risk of radiation-induced cancers should be estimated on the basis of epidemiological data. However, such data are rarely available at present and associated with high variability. Current radiobiological studies clearly demonstrate a therapeutic effectiveness of radiation therapy used to treat benign diseases and implicate various molecular mechanisms. Radiogenic risks should be taken into account when applying radiation treatment for benign diseases. (orig.) [German] Zusammenfassung des einfuehrenden Kapitels der DEGRO-S2e-Leitlinie zur Strahlentherapie gutartiger Erkrankungen

  11. The softening of human bladder cancer cells happens at an early stage of the malignancy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have demonstrated that alterations in the deformability of cancerous cells are strongly linked to the actin cytoskeleton. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM, it is possible to determine such changes in a quantitative way in order to distinguish cancerous from non-malignant cells. In the work presented here, the elastic properties of human bladder cells were determined by means of AFM. The measurements show that non-malignant bladder HCV29 cells are stiffer (higher Young’s modulus than cancerous cells (HTB-9, HT1376, and T24 cell lines. However, independently of the histological grade of the studied bladder cancer cells, all cancerous cells possess a similar level of the deformability of about a few kilopascals, significantly lower than non-malignant cells. This underlines the diagnostic character of stiffness that can be used as a biomarker of bladder cancer. Similar stiffness levels, observed for cancerous cells, cannot be fully explained by the organization of the actin cytoskeleton since it is different in all malignant cells. Our results underline that it is neither the spatial organization of the actin filaments nor the presence of stress fibers, but the overall density and their 3D-organization in a probing volume play the dominant role in controlling the elastic response of the cancerous cell to an external force.

  12. The cortical activation pattern during bilateral arm raising movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jung Pyo; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Seok

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin in five regions of interest: the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. During performance of bilateral arm raising movements, oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin values in the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex were similar, but higher in these regions than those in the prefrontal cortex. We observed activation of the arm somatotopic areas of the primary sensorimotor cortex and premotor cortex in both hemispheres during bilateral arm raising movements. According to this result, bilateral arm raising movements appeared to induce large-scale neuronal activation and therefore arm raising movements would be good exercise for recovery of brain functions. PMID:28400816

  13. Government grant control of development of stock-raising

    OpenAIRE

    SAMOYLIK YU.V.

    2012-01-01

    Directions of improvement of mechanism of government grant control of development of stock-raising are offered on the basis of the educed tendencies and conformities to law in the existent system of sponsorship of industry.

  14. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  15. Certain Jobs Linked to Raised Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain Jobs Linked to Raised Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk was doubled among men who did electrical ... 2017 THURSDAY, Aug. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Rheumatoid arthritis, a painful disease in which a person's immune ...

  16. Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160651.html Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids: Study Infants ... Topics Asthma in Children Genetic Testing Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  17. Raising Social Competencies in a Skill Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenski, Charlotte M.; Kaufman, Alan G.

    1976-01-01

    Horizon House, a psycho-social rehabilitation center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has developed a Clerical Preparatory Program which has simultaneously raised achievement levels in the areas of social competency and job skill proficiencies for its clients. (LH)

  18. Raising capital: the role of sovereign wealth funds

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This article describes what sovereign wealth funds do, where their funding comes from, and what drives their investment strategies. It also highlights some of the policy issues that their activities raise.

  19. Review Raises Questions about Herbal Meds for Heart Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163808.html Review Raises Questions About Herbal Meds for Heart Problems ... popular among people with heart disease, a new review suggests. "Physicians should improve their knowledge of herbal ...

  20. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to engage in the raising of livestock as a prerequisite for the exemption of an employee employed in the operations described in section 13(b) (13). Engagement by the farmer in one or more of the other...

  1. Heartburn Drugs May Raise Risk of Stomach Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jan. 5 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , aren't the first to raise such concerns. ... led by Dr. Thomas MacDonald, a professor of pharmacology at the University of Dundee in Scotland. They ...

  2. Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD? Study underscores importance of good prenatal nutrition To ... during pregnancy could influence a child's risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study warns. Researchers found that ...

  3. Obesity in Early Pregnancy May Raise Child's Risk of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164428.html Obesity in Early Pregnancy May Raise Child's Risk of ... researchers said. "This means more severe grades of obesity correspond to increasingly higher risk," said study co- ...

  4. Popular Heartburn Meds Don't Raise Alzheimer's Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166931.html Popular Heartburn Meds Don't Raise Alzheimer's Risk: Study New research debunks other studies suggesting ... drugs may increase the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in people aged 75 and older. PPIs ...

  5. Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163536.html Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Study ... Feb. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of air pollution may increase some Hispanic children's risk of type ...

  6. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  7. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  8. Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonant and any vowel, and the second verb root contains the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and a mid front vowel /e/, then, the voiced palatal nasal is elided. Second, after the elision, the mid vowel /e/ of the second verb is raised to a high front vowel /i/ or /ɪ/, agreeing with the vowel harmony rule. Third, Nkpor dialect goes beyond the raising of only vowels of the second verb. It further raises vowels of the first verb which are not high. The much more rapid loss of the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and the consequent raising of the vowels are plausibly attributed to rapid speech, especially in construction and some sociolinguistic factors.

  9. Helicobacter pylori and Nonmalignant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Georgios S; Axon, Anthony T R

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for most peptic ulcers, plays a role in functional dyspepsia and is thought by some to influence the course of gastroesophageal reflux disease. This article addresses recent studies that have been published in connection with these diseases. H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer is declining in prevalence but the incidence of perforation and bleeding remains high especially in the elderly. All H. pylori associated peptic ulcers should be treated by eradication of the infection. Dyspepsia is a common disorder that affects up to 25% of the population. About 8% of cases that are infected with H. pylori will respond to treatment of the infection. The association between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease continues to be debated, a number of studies have shown that there is a negative association between H. pylori infection and Gastroesophageal reflux disease but treatment of H. pylori has not been shown to induce reflux or to affect the response to medication. Gastric atrophy is known to extend when acid suppression is used in infected patients implying that H. pylori treatment should be used in infected patients who are to undergo long-term Proton Pump Inhibitor therapy.

  10. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alakkari, Alaa

    2012-02-01

    Research published over the past year has documented the continued decline of Helicobacter pylori-related peptic ulcer disease and increased recognition of non-H. pylori, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ulcer disease--idiopathic ulcers. Despite reduced prevalence of uncomplicated PUD, rates of ulcer complications and associated mortality remain stubbornly high. The role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia is unclear, with some authors considering H. pylori-associated nonulcer dyspepsia a distinct organic entity. There is increasing acceptance of an inverse relationship between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but little understanding of how GERD might be more common\\/severe in H. pylori-negative subjects. Research has focused on factors such as different H. pylori phenotypes, weight gain after H. pylori eradication, and effects on hormones such as ghrelin that control appetite.

  11. Changes in aromatase (CYP19) gene promoter usage in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Masashi; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo; Ishizaki, Takeshi; Sasaki, Masato; Miyamori, Isamu; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Bulun, Serdar E

    2011-09-01

    In humans, aromatase (CYP19) gene expression is regulated via alternative promoters. Activation of each promoter gives rise to a CYP19 mRNA species with a unique 5'-untranslated region. Inhibition of aromatase has been reported to downregulate lung tumor growth. The genetic basis for CYP19 gene expression and aromatase activity in lung cancer remains poorly understood. We analyzed tissues from 15 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to evaluate CYP19 promoter usage and promoter-specific aromatase mRNA levels in NSCLC tumor tissues and adjacent non-malignant tissues. CYP19 promoter usage was determined by multiplex RT-PCR and aromatase mRNA levels were measured with real-time RT-PCR. In non-malignant tissues, aromatase mRNA was primarily derived from activation of CYP19 promoter I.4. Although promoter I.4 usage was also dominant in tumor tissues, I.4 activation was significantly lower compared with adjacent non-malignant tissues. Activity of promoters I.3, I.1 and I.7 was significantly higher in tumor tissues compared with non-malignant tissues. In 4 of 15 cases of non-small cell lung cancer, switching from CYP19 promoter I.4 to the alternative promoters II, I.1 or I.7 was observed. In 9 cases, there were significantly higher levels of aromatase mRNA in lung tumor tissues compared with adjacent non-malignant tissues. These findings suggest aberrant activation of alternative CYP19 promoters that may lead to upregulation of local aromatase expression in some cases of NSCLC. Further studies are needed to examine the impact of alternative CYP19 promoter usage on local estrogen levels and lung tumor growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 54. The Study on the Mutagenicity of Organic Extracts from Fish Raised in Water Containing Effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    objective: To assess the cytogenetic toxicological safety of fish raised in water containing effluent. Methods: Three experimental groups of fish were raised in water that contained effluent. Both fish samples and water samples were collected and analyzed. One group of fish raised in YuQiao reservoir (The source of drinking-water for Tianjin) and a reservoir water sample were collected at the same time as the clean control group. The mutagenicity of organic extracts of the fish was detected using the mice bone marrow micronucleus test and the mutagenicity of the water samples was detected using the micronucleus test of vicia faba root tip cells. Results: The results of the mice bone marrow micronucleus test on organic extracts of the fish showed that the micronucleus rates of the three experimental groups were significantly higher than that of the negative control group (peanut oil) and the clean control group (P0.05) Conclusions: The results indicate that the water containing effluent and the fish raised in this kind of water contain some kinds of organic mutagenic compounds, which might have some potentially hazardous effects on human beings through the food chains.

  13. Sexual Health in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) plays a central role in patients with malignant and, increasingly, nonmalignant conditions. As the number of transplants increases and the survival rate improves, long-term complications are important to recognize and treat to maintain quality of life. Sexual dysfunction is a commonly described but relatively often underestimated complication after HSCT. Conditioning regimens, generalized or genital graft-versus-host disease, medications, and car...

  14. Cognate Awareness--Raising in Late Childhood: Teachable and Useful

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joanna L.; Horst, Marlise

    2012-01-01

    This study is part of a larger investigation of the usefulness of instruction designed to raise cross-linguistic awareness in young Francophone learners of English in Quebec. In the research reported here, the focus is on cognates. Since previous research shows that learners typically fail to recognise many helpful similarities between words in a…

  15. The Rhetoric of the Women's Liberation Movement: Consciousness-Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Linda Sternberg; Roberts, Anne

    Consciousness-raising as a prime rhetorical strategy of the women's liberation movement is examined. One goal of the women's liberation movement is to persuade women that they live in a state of oppression and, bringing them to this realization, to provide them with the means of breaking out of their psychological bondage. The…

  16. Raising the Standard: A 15-Year Retrospective, 1987-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Detroit, MI.

    This report describes the past 15 years of work by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) to raise the standards for teacher quality. The NBPTS identified five core propositions that describe the knowledge, skills, and dispositions characterizing accomplished teaching. It created professional standards for K-12 teachers,…

  17. RAISE: a Product Supporting Industrial Use of Formal Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Pedersen, J. Storbank; Prehn, Søren

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of RAISE, a product consisting of a method for developing software, an associated formal specification language and tools supporting the method and the language. The method is based on the notion of stepwise refinement and offers the possibility of formal verification...

  18. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section 780.126 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL...

  19. The Voices of Latino Families Raising Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Marie Tejero; Valle-Riestra, Diana Martinez; Arguelles, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the perceptions of 16 Latino families regarding their views and experiences raising a child with special needs and their involvement in their child's schooling. Families talked about treating their child like a "normal child" regardless of the child's unique needs, but they also stated that their level of involvement was…

  20. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren: An Exploration of Their Experiences and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jonathan; Softas-Nall, Basilia; Miller, Jill

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative study was designed to provide an in-depth understanding of the experiences and emotions of grandmothers raising their grandchildren. The grandmothers' stories revealed common themes of anger, frustration, loss, hurt, and depression. A key finding was that grandmothers who did not report depression had positive and helpful…

  1. Environmental Awareness Raising through Universities--City Authorities' Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelest, Ksenia D.; Ionov, Victor V.; Tikhomirov, Leonid Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to the environmental awareness raising as a key issue of education for sustainable development. Youth Environmental Volunteers Movement in the area of coastal oil response operations in St. Petersburg is presented in this paper as a successful initiative in the field of environmental awareness through universities and city…

  2. Educators' Degrees Earned on Internet Raise Fraud Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how the degrees earned by a dozen educators on the Internet have raised fraud issues. Small firms known as "credential evaluators" help states and school districts detect educators who present phony or flimsy academic credentials from overseas institutions--a safeguard that is becoming more important with the growth of…

  3. Raised dopamine metabolites in a case of malignant paraganglioma.

    OpenAIRE

    Florkowski, C M; Fairlamb, D. J.; Freeth, M G; Taylor, S.A.; A. Taylor; Weinkove, C.; Jacobs, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the case of a malignant retroperitoneal paraganglioma with extensive metastases. The patient presented with a supraclavicular mass and an absence of hypertension. Exclusively raised dopamine metabolites were detected which may be a marker of a malignant process and account for the lack of hypertension.

  4. haematological profiles of pigs raised under intensive management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EZE J I

    MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA. *EZE, J. I. ... SUMMARY. The haematological profile of pigs raised under intensive management system in South- ... Monogastric (both swine and poultry), has made a ... pig production has played a significant role in meat ... adversely affect the health or welfare of.

  5. Raised Parental Expectations towards Higher Education and the Double Bind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Remy Yi Siang

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the participation of students from low socio-economic status (SES) families and communities in Australian higher education. One means of achieving this, as purported by the Australian Government and various universities, is through the raising of family aspirations or expectations. In this paper, I explore the…

  6. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  7. Analysis of Market Performance of Farm-Raised Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the capital cities of the six States in South – Western Nigeria due to their level of catfish consumption by ... Farm – raised catfish (Clarias gariepinus) marketing was found to be efficient at both ...

  8. RAISE: a Product Supporting Industrial Use of Formal Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Pedersen, J. Storbank; Prehn, Søren

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of RAISE, a product consisting of a method for developing software, an associated formal specification language and tools supporting the method and the language. The method is based on the notion of stepwise refinement and offers the possibility of formal verification...

  9. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  10. Community Mobilization Model Applied to Support Grandparents Raising Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacque; Bruce, Ann; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly; Fruhauf, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the application of a community mobilization model through a case study of one community's response to address the needs of grandparents raising grandchildren. The community mobilization model presented is one that is replicable in addressing diverse community identified issues. Discussed is the building of the partnerships,…

  11. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear

  12. Babbitt's Brothers & Sisters: Raising Ethical Issues in Business Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeanne W.

    A college-level course in business literature is an ideal place to raise and discuss ethical issues. To be successful, a teacher of this course must engage student interest, help the students articulate and understand their own ethical attitudes, clarify the stance and artistry of the author, and refine student responses to ethical questions. When…

  13. Environmental Awareness Raising through Universities--City Authorities' Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelest, Ksenia D.; Ionov, Victor V.; Tikhomirov, Leonid Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to the environmental awareness raising as a key issue of education for sustainable development. Youth Environmental Volunteers Movement in the area of coastal oil response operations in St. Petersburg is presented in this paper as a successful initiative in the field of environmental awareness through universities and city…

  14. The anticancer agent PB-100, selectively active on malignant cells, inhibits multiplication of sixteen malignant cell lines, even multidrug resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljanski Mirko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant-derived anticancer agent PB-100 selectively destroys cancer cells, even when multidrug resistant; yet, it does not inhibit normal (non-malignant cell multiplication. Testing of PB-100 on sixteen malignant cell lines, several multidrug resistant, as well as on five normal cell lines, confirmed our previous results. Flavopereirine and dihydroflavopereirine, the active principles of PB-100, were chemically synthesized and displayed the same selectivity for tumor cells as the purified plant extract, being active at even lower concentrations.

  15. Immunobiology of natural killer cells. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotzova, E.; Herberman, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a review of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated immunity in humans and experimental animal system. Topics for the volume include: In vivo activities of NK cells against primary and metastatic tumors in experimental animals; involvement of NK cells in human malignant disease; impaired NK cell profile in leukemia patients; in vivo modulation of NK activity in cancer patients; implications of aberrant NK cell activity in nonmalignant, chronic diseases; NK cell role in regulation of the growth and functions of hemopoietic and lymphoid cells; NK cells active against viral, bacterial, protozoan, and fungal infections; cytokine secretion and noncytotoxic functions of human large granular lymphocytes; augmentation of NK activity; regulation of NK cell activity by suppressor cells; NK cell cloning technology and characteristics of NK cell clones; comparison of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and NK activity, and index.

  16. Raising and Lowering Operators for Askey-Wilson Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Sahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe two pairs of raising/lowering operators for Askey-Wilson polynomials, which result from constructions involving very different techniques. The first technique is quite elementary, and depends only on the ''classical'' properties of these polynomials, viz. the q-difference equation and the three term recurrence. The second technique is less elementary, and involves the one-variable version of the double affine Hecke algebra.

  17. Controllability of Large SEP for Earth Orbit Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) simulation was constructed and exercised for a large solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle operating in low Earth orbit Nominal power was 500 kWe, with the large array sizes implied. Controllability issues, including gravity gradient, roll maneuvering for Sun tracking, and flexible arrays, and flight control methods, were investigated. Initial findings are that a SEP vehicle of this size is controllable and could be used for orbit raising of heavy payloads.

  18. Fuel Tax in Sight to Raise Energy Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Policymakers have talked about introducing a fuel tax for more than a decade. Now, the country's urgent need to raise energy efficiency makes it the right time to bring the tax into reality. China recently announced its action plan on climate change and the Chinese Government circular urging local governments and companies around the country to implement the General Work Plan for Energy Conservation and Pollutant Discharge Reduction.

  19. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  20. Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-10-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

  1. Raising consciousness about the nuclear threat through music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerleider, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use of music, in particular topical collaborative group song writing, as a tool for raising consciousness about the threat of nuclear war. Consciousness raising is one way to overcome the phenomenon of denial and to increase discussion and social action in response to the nuclear threat. This dissertation measures the impact of a group song writing workshop on developing critical problem-solving in adult groups; it reviews how music is applied in psychological research and clinical work, has been used historically as a tool in social-change movements in America, and is used in the contemporary field of peace education. The perspectives of several theorists who discuss the potential of music to contribute to social change are presented. It is concluded that consciousness about the nuclear threat - in terms of naming and analyzing - can be raised by working with music's potential for developing affective, expressive, and collaborative capabilities in individuals and groups. Potential applications of the group song writing workshop are in schools, with peace organizations, music groups, and in relation to other social issues.

  2. Quantification by SIFT-MS of acetaldehyde released by lung cells in a 3D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Abigail V; Chippendale, Thomas W E; Yang, Ying; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, David; Sulé-Suso, Josep

    2013-01-07

    Our previous studies have shown that both lung cancer cells and non-malignant lung cells release acetaldehyde in vitro. However, data from other laboratories have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, all these studies have been carried out in 2D models which are less physiological cell growth systems when compared to 3D models. Therefore, we have carried out further work on the release of acetaldehyde by lung cells in 3D collagen hydrogels. Lung cancer cells CALU-1 and non-malignant lung cells NL20 were seeded in these hydrogels at different cell concentrations and the release of acetaldehyde was measured with the Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) technique. The data obtained showed that the amount of acetaldehyde released by both cell types grown in a 3D model is higher when compared to that of the same cells grown in 2D models. More importantly, acetaldehyde from the headspace of lung cancer cells could be measured even at a low cell concentration (10(5) cells per hydrogel). The differential of acetaldehyde release could be, depending on the cell concentration, more than 3 fold higher for cancer cells when compared to non-malignant lung cells. This pilot study is the first to study acetaldehyde emission from albeit only two cell types cultured in 3D scaffolds. Clearly, from such limited data the behaviour of other cell types and of tumour cells in vivo cannot be predicted with confidence. Nevertheless, this work represents another step in the search for volatile biomarkers of tumour cells, the ultimate goal of which is to exploit volatile compounds in exhaled breath and other biological fluids as biomarkers of tumours in vivo.

  3. PATHOGENESIS OF OPTIC DISC EDEMA IN RAISED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with

  4. The Warburg effect and mitochondrial stability in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogvadze, Vladimir; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Orrenius, Sten

    2010-02-01

    The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of Otto Warburg's fundamental hypothesis, which he put forward more than 80 years ago, that mitochondrial malfunction and subsequent stimulation of cellular glucose utilization lead to the development of cancer. Since most tumor cells demonstrate a remarkable resistance to drugs that kill non-malignant cells, the question has arisen whether such resistance might be a consequence of the abnormalities in tumor mitochondria predicted by Warburg. The present review discusses potential mechanisms underlying the upregulation of glycolysis and silencing of mitochondrial activity in cancer cells, and how pharmaceutical intervention in cellular energy metabolism might make tumor cells more susceptible to anti-cancer treatment.

  5. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  6. A PCNA-derived cell permeable peptide selectively inhibits neuroblastoma cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Gu

    Full Text Available Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, through its interaction with various proteins involved in DNA synthesis, cell cycle regulation, and DNA repair, plays a central role in maintaining genome stability. We previously reported a novel cancer associated PCNA isoform (dubbed caPCNA, which was significantly expressed in a broad range of cancer cells and tumor tissues, but not in non-malignant cells. We found that the caPCNA-specific antigenic site lies between L126 and Y133, a region within the interconnector domain of PCNA that is known to be a major binding site for many of PCNA's interacting proteins. We hypothesized that therapeutic agents targeting protein-protein interactions mediated through this region may confer differential toxicity to normal and malignant cells. To test this hypothesis, we designed a cell permeable peptide containing the PCNA L126-Y133 sequence. Here, we report that this peptide selectively kills human neuroblastoma cells, especially those with MYCN gene amplification, with much less toxicity to non-malignant human cells. Mechanistically, the peptide is able to block PCNA interactions in cancer cells. It interferes with DNA synthesis and homologous recombination-mediated double-stranded DNA break repair, resulting in S-phase arrest, accumulation of DNA damage, and enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin. These results demonstrate conceptually the utility of this peptide for treating neuroblastomas, particularly, the unfavorable MYCN-amplified tumors.

  7. Endothelial Cell Migration and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression Are the Result of Loss of Breast Tissue Polarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Amy; Cuevas, Ileana; Kenny, Paraic A; Miyake, Hiroshi; Mace, Kimberley; Ghajar, Cyrus; Boudreau, Aaron; Bissell, Mina; Boudreau, Nancy

    2009-05-26

    Recruiting a new blood supply is a rate-limiting step in tumor progression. In a three-dimensional model of breast carcinogenesis, disorganized, proliferative transformed breast epithelial cells express significantly higher expression of angiogenic genes compared with their polarized, growth-arrested nonmalignant counterparts. Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by malignant cells enhanced recruitment of endothelial cells (EC) in heterotypic cocultures. Significantly, phenotypic reversion of malignant cells via reexpression of HoxD10, which is lost in malignant progression, significantly attenuated VEGF expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha}-independent fashion and reduced EC migration. This was due primarily to restoring polarity: forced proliferation of polarized, nonmalignant cells did not induce VEGF expression and EC recruitment, whereas disrupting the architecture of growth-arrested, reverted cells did. These data show that disrupting cytostructure activates the angiogenic switch even in the absence of proliferation and/or hypoxia and restoring organization of malignant clusters reduces VEGF expression and EC activation to levels found in quiescent nonmalignant epithelium. These data confirm the importance of tissue architecture and polarity in malignant progression.

  8. ARTEMIS orbit raising inflight experience with ion propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, Rainer; Kukies, Ralf; Surauer, Michael; Tomasetto, Angeo; van Holtz, Leo

    2003-08-01

    To demonstrate and promote North/South station keeping (inclination control) using ion propulsion, ESA on July 12, 2001 onboard Ariane 510 launched its most advanced telecommunication satellite: ARTEMIS. Due to a launcher failure the satellite was injected into a useless too low elliptic orbit. The ARTEMIS mission was salvaged by an Alenia Spazio / Astrium / ESA team at Telespazio (Fucino) using in novel modes to operate the on-board chemical and ion propulsion systems provided by Astrium. Using the chemical propulsion_ system provided by Astrium GmbH - Lampoldshausen - the inital orbit, having an apogee of half the targeted altitude. was quickly upgraded to a safe circular parking orbit at 31000 km altitude. The Liquid Apogee Engine was fired in total 8 times to achieve apogee as well as perigee raising. The final orbit raising to geostationary altitude is being performed by means of the ion propulsion system (IPP) applied in a newly designed spacecraft attitude control mode. Alenia Spazio and Astrium, in close cooperation, quickly redesigned all control and data handling software modules affected since the original spacecraft configuration was designed for inclination control only and not to generate thrust with the ion engines in a direction tangential to the orbit. The flexibility of the IPP system consisting of 4 thruster assemblies, provided in its totality by Astrium including the 2 alignment mechanisms for precision thrust direction control, had proven invaluable. To demonstrate the technologies available in Europe and to enhanced reliability, Astrium implemented two different technologies: a Kaufmann type system (EITA) provided by Astrium Ltd. - Portsmouth; and a Radiofrequency Ion Thruster Assembly (RITA) provided by Astrium GmbH - Ottobrunn. Two ion engines of different technology were mounted side by side on one ITAM (Ion Thruster Alignment Mechanism) provided by Austrian Aerospace. Artemis, after EURECA launched on 31 July 1992 and retrieved on 1 July

  9. B cell lymphomas express CX3CR1 a non-B cell lineage adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, U.; Ek, S.; Merz, H.

    2008-01-01

    To study the differential expression of cell membrane-bound receptors and their potential role in growth and/or survival of the tumor cells, highly purified follicular lymphoma cells were analyzed, using gene expression analysis, and compared to non-malignant B cell populations. Filtering...... the genome for overexpressed genes coding for cell membrane-bound proteins/receptors resulted in a hit list of 27 identified genes. Among these, we have focused on the aberrant over expression of CX3CR1, in different types of B cell lymphoma, as compared to non-malignant B cells. We show that CX3CR1, which...... normally is not expressed on B cells, is expressed both at the mRNA and protein level in several subtypes of lymphoma. CX3CR1 has also shown to be involved in the homing to specific tissues that express the ligand, CX3CL1, in breast and prostate cancer and may thus be involved in dissemination of lymphoma...

  10. Differential expression of filamin B splice variants in giant cell tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui, Joseph Chi-Ching; Lau, Carol Po-Ying; Cheung, Alex Chun; Wong, Kwok-chuen; Huang, Lin; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; KUMTA, SHEKHAR MADHUKAR

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is the most commonly reported non-malignant bone tumor in Hong Kong. This kind of tumor usually affects people aged 20–40 years. Also, it is well known for recurrence locally, especially when the tumor cannot be removed completely. Filamins are actin-binding proteins which contain three family members, filamin A, B and C. They are the products of three different genes, FLNA, FLNB and FLNC, which can generate various transcript variants in different cell types. I...

  11. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Luby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n = 34, observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n = 18 and drawing seasonal diagrams (n = 6 with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  12. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Sarkar, Rouha Anamika; Gurley, Emily S; Uddin Khan, M Salah; Hossain, M Jahangir; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n=34), observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n=18) and drawing seasonal diagrams (n=6) with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  13. Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

  14. Raised Relief Mars Globe Brings the Red Planet Closer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Globe 20x is the first digitally produced raised relief globe to be sold at retail establishments. The rises and dips of the Martian landscape have been multiplied by 20 to make the shapes more noticeable to human touch and sight. They make this globe, with its over 1 million elevation points, a visually stunning introduction to the planet. Spectrum 3D used the NASA digital land elevation data to aim lasers that then shaped and defined the master globe s surface. Subsequent copies were then made by creating a master globe mold. The molded copies are hand finished by workers who remove errant edges or lines that may appear on the raw globes and then paint the surfaces. The result is a globe that measures in at 18 inches in diameter, roughly 1:15,729,473 scale of the actual planet. The exaggerated raised relief is like having a 3-D digital microscope for planetary shapes. This makes the landmarks easier to learn and understand, as it provides easy visuals for orientation. People have a natural propensity for understanding 3-D shapes more easily than numbers or words. The 3-D globes appeal to both the kinetic and visual learning aspects of the brain, making it easy for people to readily memorize the landmarks and to make a mental model that they will remember for a long time.

  15. First Successful Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tănase, Alina; Tomuleasa, C; Mărculescu, Alexandra; Bardaş, A; Coliţă, Anca; Ciurea, Ş O

    2016-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an established treatment for many malignant and non-malignant haematological disorders. In the current case report, we describe the first haploidentical stem cell transplantation, used for the first time in Romania, the case of a 33 year-old young woman diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma that has underwent a haploSCT after she relapsed from several chemotherapy regimens, as well as after an autologous stem cell transplantation. This success represents a prèmiere in Romanian clinical hematology, being the first case of a haploSCT in Romania, as well as in South-Eastern Europe.

  16. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended

  17. Losartan sensitizes selectively prostate cancer cell to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdannejat, H; Hosseinimehr, S J; Ghasemi, A; Pourfallah, T A; Rafiei, A

    2016-01-11

    Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor (AT-II-R) blocker that is widely used by human for blood pressure regulation. Also, it has antitumor property. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of losartan on cellular toxicity induced by ionizing radiation on prostate cancer and non-malignant fibroblast cells. Human prostate cancer (DU-145) and human non-malignant fibroblast cells (HFFF2) were treated with losartan at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 10, 50 and 100 µM) and then these cells were exposed to ionizing radiation. The cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay. Our results showed that losartan exhibited antitumor effect on prostate cancer cells; it was reduced cell survival to 66% at concentration 1 µM. Losartan showed an additive killing effect in combination with ionizing radiation on prostate cancer cell. The cell proliferation was reduced to 54% in the prostate cancer cells treated with losartan at concentration 1 µM in combination with ionizing radiation. Losartan did not exhibit any toxicity on HFFF2 cell. This result shows a promising effect of losartan on enhancement of therapeutic effect of ionizing radiation in patients during therapy.

  18. TCR gamma delta cytotoxic T lymphocytes expressing the killer cell-inhibitory receptor p58.2 (CD158b) selectively lyse acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolstra, H; Fredrix, H; van der Meer, A; de Witte, T; Figdor, C; van de Wiel-van Kemenade, E

    2001-05-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are thought to play an important role in the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) response. Unfortunately, GVL reactivity is often associated with life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Characterization of CTL that selectively attack leukemic cells but not normal cells may lead to the development of adjuvant immunotherapy that separates GVL from GVHD. Here, we describe TCR gamma delta (V gamma 9/V delta 1) CTL, isolated from the peripheral blood of an AML patient after stem cell transplantation (SCT), that very efficiently lysed freshly isolated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and AML cell lines. Interestingly, HLA-matched non-malignant hematopoietic cells were not killed. We revealed that the killer cell-inhibitory receptor (KIR) p58.2 (CD158b) specific for group 2 HLA-C molecules negatively regulates the cytotoxic effector function displayed by these TCR gamma delta CTL. First, an antibody against HLA-C enhances lysis of non-malignant cells. Secondly, stable transfection of HLA-Cw*0304 into the class I-negative cell line 721.221 inhibited lysis. Finally, engagement of p58.2 by antibodies immobilized on Fc gamma R-expressing murine P815 cells inhibits CD3- and TCR gamma delta-directed lysis. Compared to non-malignant hematopoietic cells, AML cells express much lower levels of MHC class I molecules making them susceptible to lysis by p58.2(+) TCR gamma delta CTL. Such KIR-regulated CTL reactivity may have a role in the GVL response without affecting normal tissues of the host and leading to GVHD.

  19. RAISING STUDENT’S AWARENESS ABOUT WRITING IN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, although college students have acquired ahigh level of proficiency in English reading, they have made verylittle advancement in English writing. This is due to the factthat inadequate importance is attached to writing in the teachingof English, and that students have rather vague ideas about therole of writing in foreign language learning and about the differ-ent discourse patterns existing between English and Chinese.Thus, this paper suggests that, in order to improve students’writing ability, two ways be adopted to raise students’ awarenessof learning to write: 1) integrating the product-oriented ap-proach with the process-oriented approach; 2) using students’reading as a writing source.

  20. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  1. Technological characteristics of rabbit meat with raised n-3 PUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cavani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary use of linseed in animal feeding has been proposed by many authors as a vegetable way (in alternative to fish oil or fish meal to raise meat PUFA and mainly α- linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 (Bernardini et al., 1999; Mattews et al., 2000; Riley et al., 2000; Rey et al., 2001. However, increasing amounts of PUFA could impair the technological characteristics of the meat for further processing (Enser, 1999. Main problems are concerned with lipid stability and meat colour changes over time which are related with both the out coming of rancid flavour and detrimental effects on the appearance of packaged further processed meat products...

  2. Lexical consciousness-raising in the vicinity of target vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi, Farjami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effectiveness of three techniques for teaching English vocabulary to Persian native speakers: a traditional procedure, the classical cloze procedure, and an innovative procedure, which is dubbed here as vicinity technique, based on incidental learning, noticing and consciousness-raising. To do the comparison, 51 students, registered at a private language institute, were randomly assigned to three groups and were taught 40 vocabulary items in five sessions in the three procedures. To evaluate the vocabulary gain in the three conditions, immediate and delayed post-tests were administered and the obtained data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results revealed that the vicinity technique was more effective than the traditional procedure; both in immediate and delayed evaluations. It was also revealed that, although there was no significant difference between the vicinity technique and the classical cloze technique in short-term, the vicinity technique was more effective than the classical cloze one for long-term retention.

  3. Intensional Verbs Without Type-Raising or Lexical Ambiguity

    CERN Document Server

    Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of the semantic interpretation of intensional verbs such as seek that allows them to take direct objects of either individual or quantifier type, producing both de dicto and de re readings in the quantifier case, all without needing to stipulate type-raising or quantifying-in rules. This simple account follows directly from our use of logical deduction in linear logic to express the relationship between syntactic structures and meanings. While our analysis resembles current categorial approaches in important ways, it differs from them in allowing the greater type flexibility of categorial semantics while maintaining a precise connection to syntax. As a result, we are able to provide derivations for certain readings of sentences with intensional verbs and complex direct objects that are not derivable in current purely categorial accounts of the syntax-semantics interface. The analysis forms a part of our ongoing work on semantic interpretation within the framework of Lexical-Functional G...

  4. Raising Relational Critical Consciousness to Enhance Empathy in Clinical Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, H Luis

    2016-01-01

    Empathic involvement theory suggests that a trance-like experience occurs when a cross-relational empathic connection is achieved. The empathically-laden relational phenomenon is thought to enhance hypnosis. Empathic involvement theory suggests hypnotizables are highly empathic. By the same token, the relational empathic connection necessitates a highly empathic practitioner of hypnosis. In the United States, where values of individualism are thought to be socially embedded and internalized, practitioners of hypnosis and clients alike may be impeded by an individually oriented worldview to empathically connect with others. Raising a relational critical consciousness is promoted as a way to increase sensitivity to the marginalization of relationships, limit empathic-effort burn-out, and promote cross-relational empathic connection.

  5. Air flow management in raised floor data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Arghode, Vaibhav K

    2016-01-01

    The Brief discuss primarily two aspects of air flow management in raised floor data centers. Firstly, cooling air delivery through perforated tiles will be examined and influence of the tile geometry on flow field development and hot air entrainment above perforated tiles will be discussed. Secondly, the use of cold aisle containment to physically separate hot and cold regions, and minimize hot and cold air mixing will be presented. Both experimental investigations and computational efforts are discussed and development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based models for simulating air flow in data centers is included. In addition, metrology tools for facility scale air velocity and temperature measurement, and air flow rate measurement through perforated floor tiles and server racks are examined and the authors present thermodynamics-based models to gauge the effectiveness and importance of air flow management schemes in data centers.

  6. Raising students’ awareness with respect to choice of literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène; Hørdam, Britta

    2011-01-01

    in the education. A study of bachelor projects in University College Sealand regime showed that students use proportionately few scientific and researched based resources. A pilot project aiming at raising students’ awareness with respect to choice of literature has thus been introduced. The ‘VIFOLA’ model......Modern day nurses solve multifaceted problems, work in complex organizations and must meet patient demands in an ever changing society. Practice must be based upon well-documented knowledge from national and international development and research activities. Moreover, high professional standard s...... can only be assured if the academic and clinical areas collaborate closely. As nurse educators it is our experience that it is a challenge for students to categorize and evaluate their resources. Frequently they rely upon introductory textbooks as a major source of information until relatively late...

  7. Pre-diabetes and capturing opportunities to raise awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anne

    This article explores the high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adults over 18 years of age and recognises, through the literature, the potential role for nurses in engagement with diabetes prevention strategies in their everyday practice. It considers the latest international projections for diabetes, a critical review of evidence of how diabetes can be prevented and how effective methods of detection of pre-diabetes can be employed with every clinical encounter with adults who perhaps previously were not considered to be 'at risk' of developing type 2 diabetes. Effective consultation approaches to raise diabetes awareness within populations and to enable tailored approaches to public health lifestyle advice are explored, to encourage each practitioner to 'think diabetes' in every clinical encounter.

  8. Earth Orbit Raise Design for the Artemis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Gregory J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

    2011-01-01

    The Artemis mission is an extension of the Themis mission. The Themis mission1 consisted of five identical spacecraft in varying sized Earth orbits designed to make simultaneous measurements of the Earth's electric and magnetic environment. Themis was designed to observe geomagnetic storms resulting from solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. Themis was meant to answer the age old question of why the Earth's aurora can change rapidly on a global scale. The Themis spacecraft are spin stabilized with 20 meter long electric field booms as well as several shorter magnetometer booms. The goal of the Artemis2 mission extension is to deliver the field and particle measuring capabilities of two of the Themis spacecraft to the vicinity of the Moon. The Artemis mission required transferring two Earth orbiting Themis spacecraft on to two different low energy trans-lunar trajectories ultimately ending in lunar orbit. This paper describes the processes that resulted in successful orbit raise designs for both spacecraft.

  9. Intasc Standard Cores: Raising Students’ English Modality Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliani Muliani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at raising the students’ modality competence with the implementation of a teaching model which was called as Interstate New Teachers Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC model that covering ten standards. It was expected that this research could give numerous contribution in teaching English, particularly in teaching English Modality where the problem found was that the students got difficulty in using modal verbs regarding both tense and aspect in which consequently would affect the communicative competence of the students. In the form of Research and Development, this research was carried by means of implementing validated instrument and 10 modules in the small and large scale assessments that involving 50 students in the small scale assessment and 80 students in the large-scale assessment. Standard 1-2 dealt with the students’ need and diversity of learning while standard 3-7 dealt with various instructions teaching the content knowledge regarding the use of English modality. Furthermore, standard 8-10 dealt with summative assessment, reflection, and professional development. Eventually, it is found that the level of learning of the students raise supported by the data that 94% of the level of learning can be achieved by the students while it was only 6% of the modality expressions cannot be used properly. It can be noted that this teaching model can assist the students in achieving the modality competence by having a very well-sequenced procedures of teaching in which this teaching model starts from considering the prior knowledge, the need, and the students’ diversity before creating further instructions regarding the content knowledge where the modality competence is the main goal to achieve.

  10. Opiáceo intratecal na dor crônica não neoplásica: alívio e qualidade de vida Intrathecal opioids for treatment of intractable non-malignant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIBELE ANDRUCIOLI DE MATTOS PIMENTA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso de agentes morfínicos para o controle da dor crônica não relacionada a câncer é controverso. Este estudo aferiu o alívio da dor e as mudanças nas atividades de 11 doentes com dor crônica não associada ao câncer, tratados pela infusão intratecal de fármacos morfínicos através de bombas implantáveis. A dor era neuropática em 5 doentes e miofascial em 6. A duração média da queixa álgica foi 5,3 anos. A média da intensidade da dor antes da infusão foi 8,6. Sete doentes apresentavam dor durante 6 ou mais horas por dia. Após o tratamento, a média de intensidade da dor reduziu-se para 3,9. Somente 1 doente manteve dor com duração superior a 6 horas. O tratamento melhorou o desempenho de 36,36% dos aspectos funcionais avaliados. O tempo médio de tratamento foi 19,6 meses. A infusão crônica de agentes morfínicos por via intratecal proporcionou alívio da dor, mas não melhorou a funcionalidade com a mesma magnitude.The use of opioids for treatment of non-malignant pain is controversial. The evaluation of pain relief and of the quality of life of 11 severely incapacitated chronic non-cancer pain patients treated with long term intrathecal infusion of opioids trought implantable pumps was performed. The mean duration of pain complaints was 5.3 years. The mean pain intensity was 8.6. In 7 patients, pain episodes lasted at least 6 hours daily. The mean duration of the therapy was 19.6 months. After the treatment the mean pain score became 3.9. In only 1 patient, the duration of pain episodes was still longer than 6 hours. Quality of life improved in 36.36% of the cases. The long term spinal opioids through implantable pumps for non-malignant pains results in pain relief but not necessarily improves the quality of life.

  11. Imaging in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.; Steward, C.G.; Lyburn, I.D.; Grier, D.J

    2003-03-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is used to treat a wide range of malignant and non-malignant haematological conditions, solid malignancies, and metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Although imaging has a limited role before SCT, it is important after transplantation when it may support the clinical diagnosis of a variety of complications. It may also be used to monitor the effect of therapy and to detect recurrence of the underlying disease if the transplant is unsuccessful. We present a pictorial review of the imaging of patients who have undergone SCT, based upon 15 years experience in a large unit performing both adult and paediatric transplants.

  12. The bite-raised condition in aged SAMP8 mice reduces the expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Yukiko; Saito, Naonori; Arakawa, Yoko; Kurata, Chika; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Iwaku, Fumihiko; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we examined whether the effects induced by the bite-raised condition on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression differ between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in SAMP8 mice. In the bite-raised condition, the number of GR-immunoreactive cells was significantly decreased in both the dorsal and ventral CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) subfields of the hippocampus compared to control mice, as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis. The decrease in the number of GR-immunoreactive cells tended to be greater in the dorsal hippocampus than in the ventral hippocampus. Only in the DG subfield was there a significant difference in the number of GR-immunoreactive cells between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. These findings suggest that in aged SAMP8 mice, the bite-raised condition decreases the number of GR-immunoreactive cells in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus.

  13. Effects of ADMA upon gene expression: an insight into the pathophysiological significance of raised plasma ADMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Smith

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a naturally occurring inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis that accumulates in a wide range of diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and enhanced atherosclerosis. Clinical studies implicate plasma ADMA as a major novel cardiovascular risk factor, but the mechanisms by which low concentrations of ADMA produce adverse effects on the cardiovascular system are unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We treated human coronary artery endothelial cells with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA and assessed the effects on gene expression using U133A GeneChips (Affymetrix. Changes in several genes, including bone morphogenetic protein 2 inducible kinase (BMP2K, SMA-related protein 5 (Smad5, bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A, and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3; also known as HRMT1L3, were confirmed by Northern blotting, quantitative PCR, and in some instances Western blotting analysis to detect changes in protein expression. To determine whether these changes also occurred in vivo, tissue from gene deletion mice with raised ADMA levels was examined. More than 50 genes were significantly altered in endothelial cells after treatment with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA (2 microM. We detected specific patterns of changes that identify pathways involved in processes relevant to cardiovascular risk and pulmonary hypertension. Changes in BMP2K and PRMT3 were confirmed at mRNA and protein levels, in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: Pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA are sufficient to elicit significant changes in coronary artery endothelial cell gene expression. Changes in bone morphogenetic protein signalling, and in enzymes involved in arginine methylation, may be particularly relevant to understanding the pathophysiological significance of raised ADMA levels. This study identifies the mechanisms by which increased ADMA may contribute to common cardiovascular diseases and

  14. Effects of ADMA upon gene expression: an insight into the pathophysiological significance of raised plasma ADMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Smith

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a naturally occurring inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis that accumulates in a wide range of diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and enhanced atherosclerosis. Clinical studies implicate plasma ADMA as a major novel cardiovascular risk factor, but the mechanisms by which low concentrations of ADMA produce adverse effects on the cardiovascular system are unclear.We treated human coronary artery endothelial cells with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA and assessed the effects on gene expression using U133A GeneChips (Affymetrix. Changes in several genes, including bone morphogenetic protein 2 inducible kinase (BMP2K, SMA-related protein 5 (Smad5, bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A, and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3; also known as HRMT1L3, were confirmed by Northern blotting, quantitative PCR, and in some instances Western blotting analysis to detect changes in protein expression. To determine whether these changes also occurred in vivo, tissue from gene deletion mice with raised ADMA levels was examined. More than 50 genes were significantly altered in endothelial cells after treatment with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA (2 microM. We detected specific patterns of changes that identify pathways involved in processes relevant to cardiovascular risk and pulmonary hypertension. Changes in BMP2K and PRMT3 were confirmed at mRNA and protein levels, in vitro and in vivo.Pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA are sufficient to elicit significant changes in coronary artery endothelial cell gene expression. Changes in bone morphogenetic protein signalling, and in enzymes involved in arginine methylation, may be particularly relevant to understanding the pathophysiological significance of raised ADMA levels. This study identifies the mechanisms by which increased ADMA may contribute to common cardiovascular diseases and thereby indicates possible targets for therapies.

  15. Addressing the ethical issues raised by synthetic human entities with embryo-like features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aach, John; Lunshof, Jeantine; Iyer, Eswar; Church, George M

    2017-01-01

    The "14-day rule" for embryo research stipulates that experiments with intact human embryos must not allow them to develop beyond 14 days or the appearance of the primitive streak. However, recent experiments showing that suitably cultured human pluripotent stem cells can self-organize and recapitulate embryonic features have highlighted difficulties with the 14-day rule and led to calls for its reassessment. Here we argue that these and related experiments raise more foundational issues that cannot be fixed by adjusting the 14-day rule, because the framework underlying the rule cannot adequately describe the ways by which synthetic human entities with embryo-like features (SHEEFs) might develop morally concerning features through altered forms of development. We propose that limits on research with SHEEFs be based as directly as possible on the generation of such features, and recommend that the research and bioethics communities lead a wide-ranging inquiry aimed at mapping out solutions to the ethical problems raised by them. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20674.001

  16. Shaping of the tumor microenvironment: Stromal cells and vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonska, Marzenna; Agarwal, Nitin K; Vega, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Lymphomas develop and progress in a specialized tissue microenvironment such as bone marrow as well as secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph node and spleen. The lymphoma microenvironment is characterized by a heterogeneous population of stromal cells, including fibroblastic reticular cells, nurse-like cells, mesenchymal stem cells, follicular dendritic cells, and inflammatory cells such as macrophages, T- and B-cells. These cell populations interact with the lymphoma cells to promote lymphoma growth, survival and drug resistance through multiple mechanisms. Angiogenesis is also recognized as an important factor associated with lymphoma progression. In recent years, we have learned that the interaction between the malignant and non-malignant cells is bidirectional and resembles, at least in part, the pattern seen between non-neoplastic lymphoid cells and the normal microenvironment of lymphoid organs. A summary of the current knowledge of lymphoma microenvironment focusing on the cellular components will be reviewed here. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Upregulation of ATG3 contributes to autophagy induced by the detachment of intestinal epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix, but promotes autophagy-independent apoptosis of the attached cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byong Hoon; Zagryazhskaya, Anna; Li, Yongling; Koomson, Ananda; Khan, Iman Aftab; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Rosen, Kirill V

    2015-01-01

    Detachment of nonmalignant intestinal epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix (ECM) triggers their growth arrest and, ultimately, apoptosis. In contrast, colorectal cancer cells can grow without attachment to the ECM. This ability is critical for their malignant potential. We found previously that detachment-induced growth arrest of nonmalignant intestinal epithelial cells is driven by their detachment-triggered autophagy, and that RAS, a major oncogene, promotes growth of detached cells by blocking such autophagy. In an effort to identify the mechanisms of detachment-induced autophagy and growth arrest of nonmalignant cells we found here that detachment of these cells causes upregulation of ATG3 and that ATG3 upregulation contributes to autophagy and growth arrest of detached cells. We also observed that when ATG3 expression is artificially increased in the attached cells, ATG3 promotes neither autophagy nor growth arrest but triggers their apoptosis. ATG3 upregulation likely promotes autophagy of the detached but not that of the attached cells because detachment-dependent autophagy requires other detachment-induced events, such as the upregulation of ATG7. We further observed that those few adherent cells that do not die by apoptosis induced by ATG3 become resistant to apoptosis caused by cell detachment, a property that is critical for the ability of normal epithelial cells to become malignant. We conclude that cell-ECM adhesion can switch ATG3 functions: when upregulated in detached cells in the context of other autophagy-promoting events, ATG3 contributes to autophagy. However, when overexpressed in the adherent cells, in the circumstances not favoring autophagy, ATG3 triggers apoptosis.

  18. Is the carbohydrate sialosyl-Tn a marker for altered, non-malignant activity in squamous epithelium in the head and neck region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryne, M; Gravdahl, C; Koppang, H S

    1995-01-01

    with basal cells in other locations. The most highly differentiated lesions, such as focal epithelial hyperplasia and verrucous hyperplasia, revealed a high percentage (86 per cent in both cases) of STn reactivity. The least-differentiated verrucous carcinomas (VCs) and keratoacanthomas (KAs) did not express...... and for highly differentiated verrucous carcinomas....

  19. The cytotoxic effect of Bowman-Birk isoinhibitors, IBB1 and IBBD2, from soybean (Glycine max) on HT29 human colorectal cancer cells is related to their intrinsic ability to inhibit serine proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Alfonso; Moreno, F. Javier; Marín-Manzano, M. Carmen; E. Jiménez; Domoney, C.

    2010-01-01

    Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) from soybean and related proteins are naturally occurring protease inhibitors with potential health-promoting properties within the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, we have investigated the effects of soybean BBI proteins on HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, compared with non-malignant colonic fibroblast CCD-18Co cells. Two major soybean isoinhibitors, IBB1 and IBBD2, showing considerable amino acid sequence divergence within their inhibitory domains, were pur...

  20. Raising environmental awareness through applied biochemistry laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Ashraf, S

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that guides students to learn about the applicability of peroxidase enzymes to degrade organic dyes (as model pollutants) in simulated waste water. In addition to showing how enzymes can potentially be used for waste water remediation, various factors than can affect enzyme-based reactions such as pH, temperature, concentration of substrates/enzymes, and denaturants can also be tested. This "applied biotechnology" experiment was successfully implemented in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course to enhance students' learning of environmental issues as well important biochemistry concepts. Student survey confirmed that this laboratory experiment was successful in achieving the objectives of raising environmental awareness in students and illustrating the usefulness of chemistry in solving real-life problems. This experiment can be easily adopted in an introductory biochemistry laboratory course and taught as an inquiry-guided exercise.

  1. Has aid for AIDS raised all health funding boats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Berlan, David; Hafner, Tamara

    2009-11-01

    Global health analysts have debated whether donor prioritization of HIV/AIDS control has lifted all boats, raising attention and funding levels for health issues aside from HIV/AIDS. We investigate this question, considering donor funding for 4 historically prominent health agendas-HIV/AIDS, health systems strengthening, population and reproductive health, and infectious disease control-over the decade 1998-2007. We employ funding data from the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which tracks donor aid. The data indicate that HIV/AIDS may have helped to increase funding for the control of other infectious diseases; however, there is no firm evidence that other health issues beyond the control of infectious diseases have benefited. Between 1998 and 2007, funding for HIV/AIDS control rose from just 5.5% to nearly half of all aid for health. Over the same period, funding for health systems strengthening declined from 62.3% to 23.9% of total health aid and that for population and reproductive health declined from 26.4% to 12.3%. Also, even as total aid for health tripled during this decade, aid for health systems strengthening largely stagnated. Overall, the data indicate little support for the contention that donor funding for HIV/AIDS has lifted all boats.

  2. Reproductive behaviour in bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galina, C S; Horn, M M; Molina, R

    2007-06-01

    The present review describes the behavioral characteristics of bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions and emphasizes the difficulties associated with adequately monitoring their performance in the field to predict reproductive potential. Most of the information generated for improving our understanding of bull behavior under range conditions has been generated in Bos taurus bulls. The limited information available in Bos indicus indicates that males searching for cows in estrus display different sexual patterns when compared to B. taurus bulls and a poor selection of a sire utilized in range conditions can have an important impact in cattle production. Screening and selecting [cg1] bulls for desirable reproductive traits and high libido is known to improve the reproductive performance of the herd. The reproductive and genetic potential of a bull is influenced by factors such as management, age, nutrition and problems related to the female such as embryonic death and anestrus. However, behavioral characteristics of bulls when detecting and serving cows in estrus is poorly understood.

  3. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAISING RABBIT YOUNG BY ALTERNATIVE NURSING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Gyarmati

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment 360 Pannon White kits from 45 litters were divided into 3 groups. The kits in group SS were suckled once a day during the first 35 days of life (traditional method of nursing. Group DD was raised by 2 does and the kits were suckled both in the morning and in the evening until 35 days of age. The kits of the 3 rd group (D0 were suckled twice a day for 23 days, after which they were weaned. Rabbits which were suckled twice a day consumed 89 % more milk until 23 days of age than those of the SS kits. In the second experiment authors used different management systems, to investigate the possibilities of “double-suckling”. Both nulliparous as multiparous does were treated to induce pseudopregnancy (by means of GnRH. They were used as second doe and suckled the kits in the afternoon. Pseudopregnant does produced milk (nulliparous does less than does which had previously produced litters, but in conditions of controlled suckling they were not willing to suckle the young. In a third experiment, does (n=44 were inseminated 11 days after kindling. Weaning was performed at the age of 21 days and does could systematically serve as second mother for the litters born at the same day. The “additional” does that nursed the young in the afternoon produced 65 % of the milk quantity produced by the natural mother between days 0 and 21.

  4. Parental Stress in Raising a Child with Disabilities in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Mehrotra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  Purpose: To determine the parenting stress and its determinants among parents of children with disabling conditions in India.Methods: The Parenting Stress Index – short form and a few open ended questions were administered to a convenience sample of sixty-six patient families in July, 2009 in the cities of New Delhi and Faridabad regions of Northern India through six non- governmental organizations (NGOs that serve children with disabling conditions. Results: Female sex of the child was associated with higher stress related to failure of the child to meet parent’s expectations and to satisfy the parents in their parenting role. Parents engaged in more lucrative and prestigious occupations had more stress than parents engaged in less prestigious and lucrative occupations irrespective of their income. Many parents reported receiving little support from their extended families in taking care of their child. Religion was found to be a common coping resource used by the parents.Conclusion and Implications: Higher parenting stress in parents of girls raises the possibility of abuse and neglect. Little support from informal family resources underscores the need for developing formal resources for supporting the parents. The specific resources of parenting stress among parents of different socioeconomic status should be explored in future studies so that appropriate interventions can be planned.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.119

  5. Motor neurone disease presenting with raised serum Troponin T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Jonathan P

    2015-05-01

    Myocardial damage indicated by a rise in cardiac Troponin may not necessarily be due to a cardiac event. Many diseases such as sepsis, pulmonary embolism, heart and renal failure can also be associated with an elevated cardiac Troponin level. This brief report discusses the rare event of a patient with motor neurone disease, where the possible diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction arose due to an elevated cardiac Troponin. A 69-year-old gentleman presented with a history of a central chest ache of mild intensity, lasting a total of 2 h prior to complete resolution. Multiple cardiac Troponin assays were elevated, and echocardiography did not show any acute changes of myocardial damage. His electrocardiogram was also normal. This patient's raised cardiac Troponin was therefore explained on the basis of his active motor neurone disease. This rare case outlines the importance of considering motor neurone disease as a cause of elevated cardiac Troponin in the absence of clinical evidence of an acute coronary event.

  6. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  7. The Potential of Book Floods for Raising Literacy Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elley, Warwick B.

    2000-07-01

    The problem of raising literacy levels in developing countries is particularly challenging when pupils have their schooling in a non-native language. One promising strategy which has been tried and evaluated in the schools of several developing countries is the Book Flood approach. This article summarises the findings of Book Flood studies in Niue, Fiji, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Solomon Islands, and several other countries. The evidence is now strong that it is possible to double the rate of reading acquisition of Third World primary school pupils with a "Book Flood" of about 100 high-interest books, per class, and short teacher training sessions. The benefits for reading skill and enthusiasm are consistent across diverse cultures, mother tongues and age levels, and they appear to generate corresponding improvements in children's writing, listening comprehension, and related language skills. Such skills are typically found to develop very slowly under traditional textbook styles of teaching. The problems of cost per school and cultural suitability of imported books are addressed. Several countries have adopted Book Flood programmes on a national scale, and others are currently planning to do so.

  8. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  9. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bruintjes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that: (i male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  10. 7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.204 Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish. (a) To be considered eligible livestock for livestock feed losses and grazing...

  11. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  12. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  13. Plasma-cell-predominant B-cell pseudolymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nervi, Stephen J; Schwartz, R A

    2008-10-15

    A 46-year-old woman with no history of foreign travel presented to the New Jersey Medical School Dermatology Clinic in July, 2007, with pruritic ulcerating facial masses that had been present since October, 2006. Clinical and histopathologic findings were most consistent with a diagnosis of cutaneous plasma cell predominant B cell pseudolymphoma. An extensive search using special stains for an etiologic organism was negative. The term cutaneous pseudolymphoma has been coined to describe the accumulation of either T or B cell lymphocytes in the skin that is caused by a nonmalignant stimulus and encompasses several different terms depending on etiology. In cases of cutaneous pseudolymphoma where a cause is identified, treatment entails removing the underlying causative agent. Idiopathic cases tend to be recalcitrant to treatment.

  14. Raised intraocular pressure as a potential risk factor for visual loss in Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anais Thouin

    Full Text Available Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers.

  15. Raised intraocular pressure as a potential risk factor for visual loss in Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouin, Anais; Griffiths, Philip G; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers.

  16. Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohua; El-Sayed, Ivan H; Qian, Wei; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2006-02-15

    Due to strong electric fields at the surface, the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by noble metal nanoparticles are strongly enhanced. These unique properties provide the potential of designing novel optically active reagents for simultaneous molecular imaging and photothermal cancer therapy. It is desirable to use agents that are active in the near-infrared (NIR) region of the radiation spectrum to minimize the light extinction by intrinsic chromophores in native tissue. Gold nanorods with suitable aspect ratios (length divided by width) can absorb and scatter strongly in the NIR region (650-900 nm). In the present work, we provide an in vitro demonstration of gold nanorods as novel contrast agents for both molecular imaging and photothermal cancer therapy. Nanorods are synthesized and conjugated to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) monoclonal antibodies and incubated in cell cultures with a nonmalignant epithelial cell line (HaCat) and two malignant oral epithelial cell lines (HOC 313 clone 8 and HSC 3). The anti-EGFR antibody-conjugated nanorods bind specifically to the surface of the malignant-type cells with a much higher affinity due to the overexpressed EGFR on the cytoplasmic membrane of the malignant cells. As a result of the strongly scattered red light from gold nanorods in dark field, observed using a laboratory microscope, the malignant cells are clearly visualized and diagnosed from the nonmalignant cells. It is found that, after exposure to continuous red laser at 800 nm, malignant cells require about half the laser energy to be photothermally destroyed than the nonmalignant cells. Thus, both efficient cancer cell diagnostics and selective photothermal therapy are realized at the same time.

  17. Raised tryptase without anaphylaxis or mastocytosis: heterophilic antibody interference in the serum tryptase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargur, R; Cowley, D; Murng, S; Wild, G; Green, K; Shrimpton, A; Egner, W

    2011-03-01

    Mast cell tryptase (MCT) is a key diagnostic test for mastocytosis and anaphylaxis. High serum tryptase levels are also one of the risk factors for adverse reaction in venom immunotherapy, yet occasional patients are seen with raised levels in the absence of either diagnosis. False positive results can be due to assay interference by heterophilic antibodies such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA). We therefore investigated heterophilic antibody interference by rheumatoid factor activity and HAMA as a cause of raised MCT results in the Phadia tryptase assay. Serum samples from 83 patients were assayed for MCT and rheumatoid factor before and after the use of heterophilic antibody blocking tubes (HBT). Samples with more than 17% reduction in MCT with detectable RF were then assayed for HAMA. Fourteen (17%) of the 83 samples with positive RF showed a >17% decrease in mast cell tryptase after HBT blocking. Post-HBT, eight of 14 (57%) reverted from elevated to normal range values with falls of up to 98%. RF levels were also decreased significantly (up to 75%). Only one of the 83 tested was apparently affected by HAMA in the absence of detectable IgM RF. In conclusion, any suspicious MCT result should be checked for heterophilic antibodies to evaluate possible interference. False positive MCT levels can be caused by rheumatoid factor. We suggest a strategy for identifying assay interference, and show that it is essential to incorporate this caveat into guidance for interpretation of MCT results. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  19. Raised soluble P-selectin moderately accelerates atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, Kevin J; Lumsden, Natalie G; Andrews, Karen L; Aprico, Andrea; Harris, Emma; Irvine, Jennifer C; Jefferis, Ann-maree; Fang, Lu; Kanellakis, Peter; Bobik, Alex; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P F

    2014-01-01

    Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe-/- mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD) were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day) for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe-/- or SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe-/- HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype.

  20. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: a new era for stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dah-Ching; Chang, Yu-Hsun; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2015-01-01

    The human umbilical cord is a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs). Unlike bone marrow stem cells, HUCMSCs have a painless collection procedure and faster self-renewal properties. Different derivation protocols may provide different amounts and populations of stem cells. Stem cell populations have also been reported in other compartments of the umbilical cord, such as the cord lining, perivascular tissue, and Wharton's jelly. HUCMSCs are noncontroversial sources compared to embryonic stem cells. They can differentiate into the three germ layers that promote tissue repair and modulate immune responses and anticancer properties. Thus, they are attractive autologous or allogenic agents for the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant solid and soft cancers. HUCMCs also can be the feeder layer for embryonic stem cells or other pluripotent stem cells. Regarding their therapeutic value, storage banking system and protocols should be established immediately. This review critically evaluates their therapeutic value, challenges, and future directions for their clinical applications.

  1. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. Methods One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Results Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Conclusion Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. Trial

  2. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  3. Is There a Role for HTLV-1-Specific CTL in Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen G. Rowan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ATLL is an aggressive malignancy of T cells that affects about 5% of individuals infected with HTLV-1. The precise mechanism of oncogenesis is not known, but there is evidence that two regulatory viral proteins, Tax and HBZ, are involved. A high set point proviral load is associated with development of ATLL or a chronic inflammatory condition, HAM/TSP. Several lines of evidence, including HLA class 1 association studies and in vitro killing assays, indicate that cytotoxic T lymphocytes are instrumental in determining this proviral load set point. Prior studies have focused chiefly on the CTL response to the immunodominant Tax protein: efficient lysis of Tax-expressing cells inversely correlates with proviral load in nonmalignant infection. However, a recent study showed that strong binding of peptides from HBZ, but not Tax, to HLA class 1 molecules was associated with a low proviral load and a reduced risk of developing HAM/TSP, indicating an important role for HBZ-specific CTL in determining infection outcome. In comparison with nonmalignant infection, HTLV-1-specific CTLs in ATLL patients are reduced in frequency and functionally deficient. Here we discuss the nature of protective CTL responses in nonmalignant HTLV-1 infection and explore the potential of CTLs to protect against ATLL.

  4. Resveratrol Sensitizes Selectively Thyroid Cancer Cell to 131-Iodine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study, the radiosensitizing effect of resveratrol as a natural product was investigated on cell toxicity induced by 131I in thyroid cancer cell. Methods. Human thyroid cancer cell and human nonmalignant fibroblast cell (HFFF2 were treated with 131I and/or resveratrol at different concentrations for 48 h. The cell proliferation was measured by determination of the percent of the survival cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results. Findings of this study show that resveratrol enhanced the cell death induced by 131I on thyroid cancer cell. Also, resveratrol exhibited a protective effect on normal cells against 131I toxicity. Conclusion. This result indicates a promising effect of resveratrol on improvement of cellular toxicity during iodine therapy.

  5. The nanotechnological inventions raise competitive ability of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the nanotechnological inventions is given. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to obtain high strength and durability of surfaces of the details, to provide different materials with hydrophil properties, to increase efficiency of transformation of light energy into electrical one etc., and in general – to raise competitive ability of the products. For example, the method of production of solar element and a unit of solar elements (RU 2532137 comprises following stages: formation of pn-transfer in semiconductor base plate, formation of passivating layer on the light-receptive surface and/or non light-receptive surface of semiconductor base plate and formation of power robbing electrodes on the light-receptive surface and non light-receptive. A film of aluminium oxide is formed as passivating layer, its thickness is up to 40 nm, and lectrode is formed by baking conductive paste under the temperature 500–900ͦͦ°C for 1 second – 30 inutes with formation of sintered product. The sintered product penetrates through passivating layer setting electric contact between electrode and base plate. The formation of aluminium ide with specified thickness on the surface of base plate makes it possible to achieve good passivating characteristics and good electric contact between silica and electrode only by eans of baking conductive paste, that is standard technology. Moreover the baking stage which was necessary to get the effect of film passivation for aluminium oxide in the past now can be cancelled to decrease costs. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193; fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures

  6. Interventions for raising breast cancer awareness in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Máirín; Comber, Harry; Fitzgerald, Tony; Corrigan, Mark A; Fitzgerald, Eileen; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Flynn, Maura G; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-10

    Breast cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women globally. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer are key to better outcomes. Since many women will discover a breast cancer symptom themselves, it is important that they are breast cancer aware i.e. have the knowledge, skills and confidence to detect breast changes and present promptly to a healthcare professional. To assess the effectiveness of interventions for raising breast cancer awareness in women. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's Specialised Register (searched 25 January 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 12) in the Cochrane Library (searched 27 January 2016), MEDLINE OvidSP (2008 to 27 January 2016), Embase (Embase.com, 2008 to 27 January 2016), the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal and ClinicalTrials.gov (searched 27 Feburary 2016). We also searched the reference lists of identified articles and reviews and the grey literature for conference proceedings and published abstracts. No language restriction was applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on interventions for raising women's breast cancer awareness i.e. knowledge of potential breast cancer symptoms/changes and the confidence to look at and feel their breasts, using any means of delivery, i.e. one-to-one/group/mass media campaign(s). Two authors selected studies, independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We reported the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) and standard deviation (SD) for continuous outcomes. Since it was not possible to combine data from included studies due to their heterogeneity, we present a narrative synthesis. We assessed the quality of evidence using GRADE methods. We included two RCTs involving 997 women: one RCT (867 women) randomised women to receive either a written booklet

  7. Chandra's Find of Lonely Halo Raises Questions About Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Dark matter continues to confound astronomers, as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory demonstrated with the detection of an extensive envelope of dark matter around an isolated elliptical galaxy. This discovery conflicts with optical data that suggest a dearth of dark matter around similar galaxies, and raises questions about how galaxies acquire and keep such dark matter halos. The observed galaxy, known as NGC 4555, is unusual in that it is a fairly large, elliptical galaxy that is not part of a group or cluster of galaxies. In a paper to be published in the November 1, 2004 issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Ewan O'Sullivan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA and Trevor Ponman of the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, use the Chandra data to show that the galaxy is embedded in a cloud of 10-million-degree-Celsius gas. X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 This hot gas cloud has a diameter of about 400,000 light years, about twice that of the visible galaxy. An enormous envelope, or halo, of dark matter is needed to confine the hot cloud to the galaxy. The total mass of the dark matter halo is about ten times the combined mass of the stars in the galaxy, and 300 times the mass of the hot gas cloud. A growing body of evidence indicates that dark matter - which interacts with itself and "normal" matter only through gravity - is the dominant form of matter in the universe. According to the popular "cold dark matter" theory, dark matter consists of mysterious particles left over from the dense early universe that were moving slowly when galaxies and galaxy clusters began to form. "The observed properties of NGC 4555 confirm that elliptical galaxies can posses dark matter halos of their own, regardless of their environment," said O'Sullivan. "This raises an important question: what determines whether elliptical galaxies have dark matter halos?" DSS Optical Image of NGC

  8. Bacterial toxins fuel disease progression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Lindahl, Lise M; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Wasik, Mariusz A; Koralov, Sergei B; Geisler, Carsten; Kilian, Mogens; Iversen, Lars; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels

    2013-08-14

    In patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) bacterial infections constitute a major clinical problem caused by compromised skin barrier and a progressive immunodeficiency. Indeed, the majority of patients with advanced disease die from infections with bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial toxins such as staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) have long been suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis in CTCL. Here, we review links between bacterial infections and CTCL with focus on earlier studies addressing a direct role of SE on malignant T cells and recent data indicating novel indirect mechanisms involving SE- and cytokine-driven cross-talk between malignant- and non-malignant T cells.

  9. Bacterial Toxins Fuel Disease Progression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Woetmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL bacterial infections constitute a major clinical problem caused by compromised skin barrier and a progressive immunodeficiency. Indeed, the majority of patients with advanced disease die from infections with bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial toxins such as staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE have long been suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis in CTCL. Here, we review links between bacterial infections and CTCL with focus on earlier studies addressing a direct role of SE on malignant T cells and recent data indicating novel indirect mechanisms involving SE- and cytokine-driven cross-talk between malignant- and non-malignant T cells.

  10. The "Geoparks" as a way to raise geoconservation in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Ilya; Kazakova, Julia; Abdov, Nurlan

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is one of the nine largest countries of the world and not only has significant mineral resources but rich geological heritage. However, to date geology is considered only as a way to search for minerals due to the established traditions. Faced with a geologist, we usually ask: "What are you looking for?". But the man with the hammer must answer the more important question - about the future of the Planet and Humanity. But it is necessary to save and to study the stone chronicle page for this. Only history of the Earth, recorded in the annals of rock sheets, gives a scientific answer on the fate of Planet and Mankind, and allows realistically assess the risk of disasters, floods, global warming, etc. During 20 years we are trying to give a push to protection and use of geological heritage of Kazakhstan. In our country this new direction gets accustomed with large labor. The spread of the world experience on geoconservation, the databases created of the geological heritage of Kazakhstan, numerous performances in the scientific press and the media has not lead to real steps to preserve and use geodiversity in our country. Today we are trying to raise the idea of geoconservation in Kazakhstan based on Geoparks. A project "Geological study of the geoparks development in Kazakhstan" is developed. 12 representative areas were selected on a background of the database that includes 500 sites of geological heritage, embracing a large variety of geological processes in all regions of Kazakhstan. On October 31st, 2012 in Astana the "Kazakh Geographical Society" held an international conference including "Geoparks" section. At the conference reports of all the regions of Kazakhstan representatives were presented, as well as European countries with extensive experience in geoconservation and geoparks creation (Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey). The conference was supported by UNESCO. Album "Millions of years before the Silk Road", which represents the future Kazakhstan

  11. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  12. Purification of Immune Cell Populations from Freshly Isolated Murine Tumors and Organs by Consecutive Magnetic Cell Sorting and Multi-parameter Flow Cytometry-Based Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagno, Camilla; de Visser, Karin E

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that tumors evolve together with nonmalignant cells, such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. These cells constantly entangle and interact with each other creating the tumor microenvironment. Immune cells can exert both tumor-promoting and tumor-protective functions. Detailed phenotypic and functional characterization of intra-tumoral immune cell subsets has become increasingly important in the field of cancer biology and cancer immunology. In this chapter, we describe a method for isolation of viable and pure immune cell subsets from freshly isolated murine solid tumors and organs. First, we describe a protocol for the generation of single-cell suspensions from tumors and organs using mechanical and enzymatic strategies. In addition, we describe how immune cell subsets can be purified by consecutive magnetic cell sorting and multi-parameter flow cytometry-based cell sorting.

  13. Raising the Stakes – Impacts of privatisation, certification and partnerships in South African forestry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mayers, J

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available forestry Raising the stakes M ayers, Evans and Foy Raising the stakes Impacts of privatisation, certification and partnerships in South African forestry James Mayers Jeremy Evans Tim Foy Raising the stakes Forestry is a good, if risky, business.... Government is privatising its plantations and is pursuing policies aimed at empowering formerly marginalised people. This means that forestry is changing fast. Forest certification is one response to change, and is helping some companies who were already...

  14. RAISING LEARNER AWARENESS OF LOCAL WISDOM IN TOUR-RELATED PROJECT TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Sa-ngiamwibool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study investigated how CLT (Communicative Language Teaching and awareness-raising enhanced Thai learners’ awareness of their local wisdom in a tour-related project work with three specific purposes, which were to explore how the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom to create their project, what extent CLT and awareness-raising tasks developed their communicative competence of the target language, and what object of awareness that the tasks could help the learners realize while working on their projects. This study was triangulated. The elicitation instruments were project instructions, CLT and awareness-raising tasks, pretests and posttests based on TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication, learner logs, interviews, and observation notes. The study revealed that, first, on the awareness of local wisdom in a tour-related project work, the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom through theme-centered learning process. Second, on the enhancement of CLT and awareness-raising, CLT allowed the learners to deal with interactive, spontaneous, and more meaningful communication actively while awareness-raising helped the learners consciously focus on semantic, linguistic, and pragmatic aspects of the target language. Lastly, on object of awareness, CLT and awareness-raising tasks could lead the learners to realize these objects of awareness: nature of experiential learning, subject content, and skill content. For pedagogical implications, project-based teaching with the support of CLT and awareness-raising tasks can raise learner awareness of local wisdom in tour-related topics effectively. Pedagogical implications illustrated some practical applications of CLT and awareness-raising tasks for enhancing learner awareness in ESP project work in a Thai classroom. Future inquiry should replicate this study or apply to business or other ESP project instructions

  15. [Being raised by lesbian parents or in a single-parent family is no risk factor for problem behavior, however being raised as an adopted child is].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C

    1997-03-01

    Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings.

  16. ORIGIN OF RAISED MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN LEVELS IN 2ND-TRIMESTER OLIGOHYDRAMNIOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOS, FJ; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; MARRINK, J; HAGENAARS, AM; REUSS, A; SACHS, ES; JAHODA, MGJ; WLADIMIROFF, JW

    1992-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) subtyping of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) revealed higher concentrations of AFP non-reactive with Con A in sera of 12 pregnant women with second-trimester oligohydramnios and raised total serum AFP levels than in sera of 42 pregnant women with raised total serum AFP levels and a no

  17. Does Teacher Testing Raise Teacher Quality? Evidence from State Certification Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrist, Joshua D.; Guryan, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The education reform movement includes efforts to raise teacher quality through stricter certification and licensing provisions. Most US states now require public school teachers to pass a standardized test such as the Praxis. Although any barrier to entry is likely to raise wages in the affected occupation, the theoretical effects of such…

  18. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  19. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  20. Deep drip fumigation in totally impermeable film tarped raised-beds production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarping raised-beds with totally impermeable film (TIF) and applying fumigant to deeper depths may help strawberry growers to achieve pest control and emission reduction targets, but no field data are available to optimize these methods in the raised-bed production system. Under the support of Natio...

  1. Impact of raised without antibiotics beef cattle production practices on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (U.S.), it is estimated that food-animal production agriculture accounts for >70% of all antimicrobial (AM) use, which has raised concerns that these uses substantially contribute to the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant human infections. "Raised without antibiotics" (RWA) m...

  2. A RAISE Specification Framework and Justification assistant for the Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Xia, Yong

    1998-01-01

    RAISE is a product consisting of a development method, an associated formal specification language (RSL) and a collection of computer-based tools. RAISE has turned out to be useful in the development of many kinds of software systems.However, RSL has no ``real-time'' features, and hence, it is di...

  3. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  4. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  5. Raising the Reliability of Forming Rolls by Alloying Their Core with Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhizhkina, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanical properties and the structure of forming rolls from cast irons of different compositions are studied. A novel iron including a copper additive that lowers its chilling and raises the homogeneity of the structure is suggested for the roll cores. The use of such iron should raise the reliability of the rolls in operation.

  6. Empirical Investigation of the Psychosocial Functioning of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies describing the functioning of children raised by their grandparents are noticeably limited, yet custodial grandparenting has become a prominent alternate family structure. Grandparents may function better as surrogate parents than abusive parents, nonrelatives, or foster caregivers. Although many children raised by their…

  7. Imaging of nonmalignant occupational lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S.; Lynch, D.A. [University of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States). Health Science Center, Dept. of Radiology

    2002-10-01

    The radiologist plays an important partnership role in detecting presymptomatic disease in those at risk for occupational lung disease, contributing to the specificity of the diagnosis and recognizing sentinel events. Medicolegal roles for imaging include confirming the presence of a morphologic abnormality compatible with occupational lung disease, identifying other potential causes for disability, and determining the morphologic extent of disease. This article describes and illustrates the imaging appearance of a wide range of occupational lung diseases.

  8. A matrix method for degree-raising of B-spline curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀

    1997-01-01

    A new identity is proved that represents the kth order B-splines as linear combinations of the (k + 1) th order B-splines A new method for degree-raising of B-spline curves is presented based on the identity. The new method can be used for all kinds of B-spline curves, that is, both uniform and arbitrarily nonuniform B-spline curves. When used for degree-raising of a segment of a uniform B-spline curve of degree k - 1, it can help obtain a segment of curve of degree k that is still a uniform B-spline curve without raising the multiplicity of any knot. The method for degree-raising of Bezier curves can be regarded as the special case of the new method presented. Moreover, the conventional theory for degree-raising, whose shortcoming has been found, is discussed.

  9. Cell membrane softening in human breast and cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Chris; Schmidt, B. U. Sebastian; Schiller, Jürgen; Dietrich, Undine; Möhn, Till; Kießling, Tobias R.; Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Horn, Lars-Christian; Briest, Susanne; Höckel, Michael; Zink, Mareike; Käs, Josef A.

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical properties are key to many cellular functions such as cell division and cell motility and thus are crucial in the development and understanding of several diseases, for instance cancer. The mechanics of the cellular cytoskeleton have been extensively characterized in cells and artificial systems. The rigidity of the plasma membrane, with the exception of red blood cells, is unknown and membrane rigidity measurements only exist for vesicles composed of a few synthetic lipids. In this study, thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells, as well as breast cell lines, are analyzed. Cell blebs or GPMVs were studied via thermal membrane fluctuations and mass spectrometry. It will be shown that cancer cell membranes are significantly softer than their non-malignant counterparts. This can be attributed to a loss of fluid raft forming lipids in malignant cells. These results indicate that the reduction of membrane rigidity promotes aggressive blebbing motion in invasive cancer cells.

  10. Generation of mature hematopoietic cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togarrati, Padma Priya; Suknuntha, Kran

    2012-06-01

    A number of malignant and non-malignant hematological disorders are associated with the abnormal production of mature blood cells or primitive hematopoietic precursors. Their capacity for continuous self-renewal without loss of pluripotency and the ability to differentiate into adult cell types from all three primitive germ layers make human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) attractive complementary cell sources for large-scale production of transfusable mature blood cell components in cell replacement therapies. The generation of patient-specific hematopoietic stem/precursor cells from iPSCs by the regulated manipulation of various factors involved in reprograming to ensure complete pluripotency, and developing innovative differentiation strategies for generating unlimited supply of clinically safe, transplantable, HLA-matched cells from hiPSCs to outnumber the inadequate source of hematopoietic stem cells obtained from cord blood, bone marrow and peripheral blood, would have a major impact on the field of regenerative and personalized medicine leading to translation of these results from bench to bedside.

  11. Immuno-oncology combinations:raising the tail of the survival curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel J Harris; Jessica Brown; Juanita Lopez; Timothy A Yap

    2016-01-01

    There have been exponential gains in immuno-oncology in recent times through the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for advanced melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, immune checkpoint inhibitors also appears to have significant antitumor activity in multiple other tumor types. An exciting component of immunotherapy is the durability of antitumor responses observed, with some patients achieving disease control for many years. Nevertheless, not all patients benefit, and efforts should thus now focus on improving the efficacy of immunotherapy through the use of combination approaches and predictive biomarkers of response and resistance. There are multiple potential rational combinations using an immunotherapy backbone, including existing treatments such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy or molecularly targeted agents, as well as other immunotherapeutics. The aim of such antitumor strategies will be to raise the tail on the survival curve by increasing the number of long term survivors, while managing any additive or synergistic toxicities that may arise with immunotherapy combinations. Rational trial designs based on a clear understanding of tumor biology and drug pharmacology remain paramount. This article reviews the biology underpinning immuno-oncology, discusses existing and novel immunotherapeutic combinations currently in development, the challenges of predictive biomarkers of response and resistance and the impact of immuno-oncology on early phase clinical trial design.

  12. Breast Cancer Cells in Three-dimensional Culture Display an Enhanced Radioresponse after Coordinate Targeting of Integrin ?5?1 and Fibronectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jin-Min; Onodera, Yasuhito; Bissell, Mina J; Park, Catherine C

    2010-04-07

    Tactics to selectively enhance cancer radioresponse are of great interest. Cancer cells actively elaborate and remodel their extracellular matrix (ECM) to aid in survival and progression. Previous work has shown that {beta}1-integrin inhibitory antibodies can enhance the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic responses of human breast cancer cell lines to ionizing radiation, either when cells are cultured in three-dimensional laminin-rich ECM (3D lrECM) or grown as xenografts in mice. Here, we show that a specific {alpha} heterodimer of {beta}1-integrin preferentially mediates a prosurvival signal in human breast cancer cells that can be specifically targeted for therapy. 3D lrECM culture conditions were used to compare {alpha}-integrin heterodimer expression in malignant and nonmalignant cell lines. Under these conditions, we found that expression of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin was upregulated in malignant cells compared with nonmalignant breast cells. Similarly, we found that normal and oncofetal splice variants of fibronectin, the primary ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin, were also strikingly upregulated in malignant cell lines compared with nonmalignant acini. Cell treatment with a peptide that disrupts the interactions of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin with fibronectin promoted apoptosis in malignant cells and further heightened the apoptotic effects of radiation. In support of these results, an analysis of gene expression array data from breast cancer patients revealed an association of high levels of {alpha}5-integrin expression with decreased survival. Our findings offer preclinical validation of fibronectin and {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin as targets for breast cancer therapy.

  13. Raised plasma Robo4 and cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Burke-Gaffney

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Endothelial dysfunction associated with systemic inflammation can contribute to organ injury/failure following cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Roundabout protein 4 (Robo4, an endothelial-expressed transmembrane receptor and regulator of cell activation, is an important inhibitor of endothelial hyper-permeability. We investigated the hypothesis that plasma levels of Robo4 are indicative of organ injury, in particular acute kidney injury (AKI, after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients (n = 32 undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB were enrolled, prospectively. Plasma Robo4 concentrations were measured pre-, 2 and 24 h post-operatively, using a commercially available ELISA. Plasma and endothelial markers of inflammation [interleukin (IL -6, -8, -10: von Willibrand factor (vWF and angiopoeitin-2 (Ang-2] and the AKI marker, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, were also measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Plasma Robo4 increased significantly (p<0.001 from pre-operative levels of 2515 ± 904 pg/ml to 4473 ± 1915 pg/ml, 2 h after surgery; and returned to basal levels (2682 ± 979 pg/ml by 24 h. Plasma cytokines, vWF and NGAL also increased 2 h post-operatively and remained elevated at 24 h. Ang-2 increased 24 h post-operatively, only. There was a positive, significant correlation (r = 0.385, p = 0.0298 between Robo-4 and IL-10, but not other cytokines, 2 h post-operatively. Whilst raised Robo4 did not correlate with indices of lung dysfunction or other biomarkers of endothelial activation; there was a positive, significant correlation between raised (2 h plasma NGAL and Robo4 (r = 0.4322, p = 0.0135. When patients were classed as AKI or non-AKI either using NGAL cut-off of 150 ng/ml, or the AKI Network (AKIN clinical classification; plasma Robo4 was significantly higher (p = 0.0073 and 0.003, respectively in AKI vs. non-AKI patients (NGAL cut-off: 5350 ± 2191 ng/ml, n = 16 vs. 3595 ± 1068 pg/ml, n = 16

  14. Raised white cell count in renal colic: Is there a role for antibiotics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Alleemudder

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Over three-quarters of the patients (80.9% in this study who presented with renal colic were unjustifiably commenced on antibiotics based solely on an elevated WCC. Antibiotic use in renal colic should be reserved for when there are features of sepsis or the urinalysis is positive. Further work is required to determine the significance of the observed results and the threshold for starting antibiotics.

  15. An insight into pre-Columbian raised fields: the case of San Borja, Bolivian lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Trauerstein, Mareike; Huber, Perrine; Mohr, Sandra; Veit, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Pre-Columbian raised field agriculture in the tropical lowlands of South America has received increasing attention and been the focus of heated debates regarding its function, productivity, and role in the development of pre-Columbian societies. Even though raised fields are all associated to permanent or semi-permanent high water levels, they occur in different environmental contexts. Very few field-based studies on raised fields have been carried out in the tropical lowlands and little is known about their use and past management. Based on topographic surveying and mapping, soil physical and chemical analysis and OSL and radiocarbon dating, this paper provides insight into the morphology, functioning and time frame of the use of raised fields in the south-western Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. We have studied raised fields of different sizes that were built in an area near the town of San Borja, with a complex fluvial history. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of metres. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100-200 years at the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

  16. RAISING LEARNER AWARENESS OF LOCAL WISDOM IN TOUR-RELATED PROJECT TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Sa-ngiamwibool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how CLT (Communicative Language Teaching and awareness-raising enhanced Thai learners’ awareness of their local wisdom in a tour-related project work with three specific purposes, which were to explore how the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom to create their project, what extent CLT and awareness-raising tasks developed their communicative competence of the target language, and what object of awareness that the tasks could help the learners realize while working on their projects. This study was triangulated. The elicitation instruments were project instructions, CLT and awareness-raising tasks, pretests and posttests based on TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication, learner logs, interviews, and observation notes. The study revealed that, first, on the awareness of local wisdom in a tour-related project work, the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom through theme-centered learning process. Second, on the enhancement of CLT and awareness-raising, CLT allowed the learners to deal with interactive, spontaneous, and more meaningful communication actively while awareness-raising helped the learners consciously focus on semantic, linguistic, and pragmatic aspects of the target language. Lastly, on object of awareness, CLT and awareness-raising tasks could lead the learners to realize these objects of awareness: nature of experiential learning, subject content, and skill content. For pedagogical implications, project-based teaching with the support of CLT and awareness-raising tasks can raise learner awareness of local wisdom in tour-related topics effectively. Pedagogical implications illustrated some practical applications of CLT and awareness-raising tasks for enhancing learner awareness in ESP project work in a Thai classroom. Future inquiry should replicate this study or apply to business or other ESP project instructions.

  17. Joseph eleve des poissons au Gabon. Guide pour l'elevage des poissons (Joseph Raises Fish in Gabon. Guide for Raising Fish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Scott

    A guide, in French, to raising fish for food and profit is designed to instruct and encourage Gabonese natives to establish family fisheries. It describes and illustrates in story form the process used to plan the fishery, clear the land, seek help from an agricultural agent, create a dam, make compost, plan and build the pond, feed the fish,…

  18. Raising a highway and a railroad track during intensive mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, W.

    1986-02-01

    In a mine subsidence area, a highway and a railroad track had to be raised by 7,50 m. In order to not exceed a maximum slope in both tracks, the raising operations were carried out in several steps, in accordance with the onset of ground subsidence. At the same time, the operations were not to interfere with the traffic on the four-track autobahn and the two-track railroad line. Simultaneously with the raising operations, the autobahn was enlarged from 4 tracks to 6 + 2 tracks. A local road was destroyed and replaced by a pedestrian and cyclist lane.

  19. Characterization of the estrogen receptor transfected MCF10A breast cell line 139B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilat, M J; Christman, J K; Brooks, S C

    1996-01-01

    There has been increasing evidence which suggests that abnormal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) protein in nonmalignant breast tissue may be important in the carcinogenic process. To examine the effects of ER expression in immortalized nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells, an expression vector containing human ER cDNA was transfected into the ER negative human breast cells, MCF10A. Characterization of a clone stably expressing ER, 139B6, provided evidence for the regulated synthesis of a functional ER capable of binding estradiol-17 beta (E2) and undergoing processing. Expression of the ER gene did not enable E2 to stimulate endogenous genes [progesterone receptor (PgR), pS2, cathepsin D and TGF alpha] which normally respond to estrogens in breast cancer cells. The ER in 139B6 cells was, however, capable of inducing expression of an ERE-regulated reporter gene, indicating its ability to interact with transcriptional machinery. Furthermore, cultures in log growth displayed a slight increase in doubling time in the presence of E2. These results indicate that ER expression alone is not sufficient to induce a transformed phenotype. Thus, the 139B6 cell line should provide a new model for determining what additional changes lead to increased growth potential in response to E2 and for exploring how E2 itself may help bring about changes leading to progression of preneoplastic breast epithelial cells.

  20. Schwann cells: a new player in the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunimovich, Yuri L; Keskinov, Anton A; Shurin, Galina V; Shurin, Michael R

    2017-08-01

    Cancerous cells must cooperate with the surrounding stroma and non-malignant cells within the microenvironment to support the growth and invasion of the tumor. The nervous system is a component of every organ system of the body, and therefore, is invariably at the front line of the tumor invasion. Due to the complexity of the nervous system physiology, this review separately discusses the contributions of the central and peripheral nervous systems to the tumorigenesis and tumor progression. We further focus the discussion on the evidence that Schwann cells aid in tumor growth and invasion. Schwann cells, a largely unexplored element of the tumor microenvironment, may participate in the creation of tumor-favorable conditions through both bi-directional interaction with cancer cells and the facilitation of the immune-suppressive microenvironment through the mechanism of neural repair and immunomodulation.

  1. Raising Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Autism is China’s most common mental handicap,but the country lags behind in efforts to help the children who suffer from it or their parents University English teacher Tian Huiping,a career woman with a child,was living an ideal life in the eyes of many women,when in 1989 her family was shaken by the news that her son had autism.

  2. Polyhouse cultivation of invitro raised elite Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: An assessment of biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyhouse cultivated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants, initially raised from synthetic seeds, were assessed for biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics and compared with their mother plant. Synthetic seeds were produced using nodal segments containing single axillary buds excised from in vitr...

  3. Captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) arm-raise to solicit allo-grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Edwards, Dori

    2012-03-01

    Old World monkeys solicit allo-grooming from conspecifics. However, there are relatively few studies of allo-grooming among spider monkeys, and descriptions of allo-grooming solicitation among spider monkeys are anecdotal. In this study, eighty-one hours of video, shot over eight weeks, captured 271 allo-grooming bouts among small groups of captive spider monkeys. Six of eight monkeys made heretofore unreported arm-raises that solicited higher than normal rates of allo-grooming. Allo-grooming bout durations following arm-raises also tended to be longer than bouts not preceded by arm-raises. The efficacy of the arm-raise at soliciting allo-grooming suggests spider monkeys are capable of intentional communication.

  4. Palliative Care Raises Quality of Life, but Doesn't Extend It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162160.html Palliative Care Raises Quality of Life, But Doesn't Extend ... 22, 2016 TUESDAY, Nov. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Palliative care can ease the burden that a serious illness ...

  5. Study Ties Some Migraines to Artery Tears in Neck, Raising Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some Migraines to Artery Tears in Neck, Raising Stroke Risk Problem also more likely in men and ... arteries, which can increase the chances of a stroke, a new study suggests. Exactly what triggers these ...

  6. Raised intracranial pressure: What it is and how to recognise it

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are common symptoms of raised ICP. Diplopia may occur due to ... Venous pulsation is lost when ICP exceeds ... objectives of the initial treating physician. The goals in the .... may be worth trying. ... or a neurosurgeon, depending on the nature.

  7. Having Baby Too Soon After Weight-Loss Surgery May Raise Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161572.html Having Baby Too Soon After Weight-Loss Surgery May Raise Risks A suitable interval, plus ... News) -- Infants born to mothers who've had weight-loss surgery have a higher risk for complications, and ...

  8. C-Section Raises Risk of Blood Clots After Childbirth: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161301.html C-Section Raises Risk of Blood Clots After Childbirth: ... international studies found that women who had a C-section were four times more likely to develop ...

  9. Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk But, study found overall odds remain quite ... slight increased risk of having a baby with cerebral palsy, a new study suggests. After reviewing data from ...

  10. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative pla

  11. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration : evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, P.M. van; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.; Middleton, B.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative pla

  12. Considerations of Consciousness-raising Tasks in English Language Teaching (ELT) for Chinese College Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江璇

    2009-01-01

    @@ Celce-Murcia (2002) states that raising the students' consciousness of how to use grammar accurately and appropriately is important for language acquisition and in particular for tertiary literacy skills development of adult learners.

  13. RAISING LEARNER AWARENESS OF LOCAL WISDOM IN TOUR-RELATED PROJECT TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This study investigated how CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) and awareness-raising enhanced Thai learners’ awareness of their local wisdom in a tour-related project work with three specific purposes, which were to explore how the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom to create their project, what extent CLT and awareness-raising tasks developed their communicative competence of the target language, and what object of awareness that the tasks cou...

  14. New fathers: construction of the paternal role in men that participate actively in raising their children

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo E., Lorena; Universidad Del Bío Bío. Fundación Hogar De Cristo.; Zicavo M., Nelson; Universidad Del Bío Bío. Fundación Hogar De Cristo.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper focuses on changes experienced in contemporary society, linked to an increasing conveyance of paternal role in raising children, leading to the birth of a “new father”, characterized by his active and increased participation in raising children. This dynamic has allowed the birth of relations that make paternal role and socially assumed norms more flexible and turn father into a figure that is able to create, maintain and strengthen emotional bonds with his children. The soc...

  15. The processing of raising and nominal control: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturt, Patrick; Kwon, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment, Dillon et al. (2013) found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g., "John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself…"), or nominal control (e.g., "John's agreement with Tom to be kind to himself…"). We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a) be processed more quickly, and (b) be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control.

  16. The processing of raising and nominal control: An eye-tracking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSturt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment Dillon et al (2013 found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g. ``John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself...'', or nominal control (e.g. ``John’s agreement with Tom to be kind to himself...''. We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a be processed more quickly, and (b be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control.

  17. The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensionalassays correlate with their profiles of gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Lee, Genee Y.; Myers, Connie A.; Neve, RichardM.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Spellman, Paul T.; Lorenz, Katrin; Lee, Eva H.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, MinaJ.

    2007-01-31

    3D cell cultures are rapidly becoming the method of choice for the physiologically relevant modeling of many aspects of non-malignant and malignant cell behavior ex vivo. Nevertheless, only a limited number of distinct cell types have been evaluated in this assay to date. Here we report the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles and 3D cell culture phenotypes of a substantial panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Each cell line adopts a colony morphology of one of four main classes in 3D culture. These morphologies reflect, at least in part, the underlying gene expression profile and protein expression patterns of the cell lines, and distinct morphologies were also associated with tumor cell invasiveness and with cell lines originating from metastases. We further demonstrate that consistent differences in genes encoding signal transduction proteins emerge when even tumor cells are cultured in 3D microenvironments.

  18. Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome: Answering Questions Raised by a Case Report Published in 1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1962, J.J. Collins from the United States Naval Medical Research Laboratory published an unusual case of air embolism precipitated by decompression in TheNew England Journal of Medicine [1962;266:595–598]. The case was unusual because it was the first where multiple pulmonary cysts were discovered after a successful recompression treatment. Although various hypotheses were put forward by the author, it was thought that the diver might have had ‘subclinical cysts’ already present because of some disease phenomenon, which then became overinflated during decompression. Nearly 50 years have passed since these questions were raised. Interestingly, now the disease process is trying to unveil itself through various other clues. We present the case of the same diver who later developed a series of other medical problems, along with more than 5 admissions for spontaneous pneumothoraces, all falling into the constellation represented by the Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition clinically characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal cancer. It was first described in 1977 by Birt, Hogg and Dubé in a family with ‘hereditary multiple fibrofolliculomas with trichodiscomas and acrochordons’. Spontaneous pneumothorax can be the first manifestation of this hereditary condition, and prevention in patients diagnosed with the syndrome is aimed at early diagnosis and treatment of the renal cell carcinoma. Physicians need to have a high index of suspicion when they see patients with the constellation of findings of this underdiagnosed syndrome, especially in patients with unexplained spontaneous pneumothoraces.

  19. A novel function of RNAs arising from the long terminal repeat of human endogenous retrovirus 9 in cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lai; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Candotti, Fabio; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Beaucage, Serge L; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Calvert, Valerie; Juhl, Hartmut; Mills, Frederick; Mason, Karen; Shastri, Neal; Chik, Josh; Xu, Cynthia; Rosenberg, Amy S

    2013-01-01

    The human genome contains approximately 50 copies of the replication-defective human endogenous retrovirus 9 (ERV-9) and thousands of copies of its solitary long term repeat (sLTR) element. While some sLTRs are located upstream of critical genes and have enhancer activity, other sLTRs are located within introns and may be transcribed as RNAs. We found that intronic RNAs arising from U3 sLTRs of ERV-9 were expressed as both sense (S) and antisense (AS) transcripts in all human cells tested but that expression levels differed in malignant versus nonmalignant cells. In nonmalignant cells, AS was expressed at higher levels than S and at higher levels than in malignant cells; in malignant cells, AS was expressed at amounts equivalent to those of S RNA. Critically, U3 AS RNA was found to physically bind to key transcription factors for cellular proliferation, including NF-Y, p53, and sp1, indicating that such RNA transcripts may function as decoy targets or traps for NF-Y and thus inhibit the growth of human cancer cells. Indeed, short U3 oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) based on these RNA sequences ably inhibited proliferation of cancer cell lines driven by cyclins B1/B2, the gene targets of NF-Y.

  20. Comparison of Performance Metrics for QPSK and OQPSK Transmission Using Root Raised Cosine and Raised Cosine Pulse shaping Filters for Applications in Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Sudipta

    2009-01-01

    Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OQPSK) are two well accepted modulation techniques used in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. The Pulse Shaping Filters play an important role in digital transmission. The type of Pulse Shaping Filter used, and its behavior would influence the performance of the communication system. This in turn, would have an effect on the performance of the Mobile Communication system, in which the digital communication technique has been employed. In this paper we have presented comparative study of some performance parameters or performance metrics of a digital communication system like, Error Vector Magnitude (EVM), Magnitude Error, Phase Error and Bandwidth Efficiency for a QPSK transmission system. Root Raised Cosine (RRC) and Raised Cosine (RC) Pulse shaping filters have been used for comparison. The measurement results serve as a guideline to the system designer to select the proper pulse shaping filter with the appropriate valu...

  1. Quality of harvest and role of cell dose in unrelated bone marrow transplantation: an Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry-Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Franca; Quarello, Paola; Pollichieni, Simona; Lamparelli, Teresa; Berger, Massimo; Benedetti, Fabio; Barat, Veronica; Marciano, Renato; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the factors affecting cell dose harvest and the role of cell dose on outcome. We analysed data from a cohort of 703 patients who underwent unrelated bone marrow transplantation facilitated by IBMDR in GITMO centers between 2002 and 2008. The median-infused cell doses is 3.7 × 10(8)/kg, the correlation between the nucleated cells requested from transplant centers and those harvested by collection centers was adequate. A harvested/requested cells ratio lower than 0.5 was observed only in 3% of harvests. A volume of harvested marrow higher than the median value of 1270 ml was related to a significant lower infused cell dose (χ(2): 44.4; P < 0.001). No patient- or donor-related variables significantly influenced the cell dose except for the recipient younger age (χ(2): 95.7; P < 0.001) and non-malignant diseases (χ(2): 33.8; P < 0.001). The cell dose resulted an independent predictor factor for a better outcome in patients affected by non-malignant disease (P = 0.05) while early disease malignant patients receiving a lower cell dose showed a higher risk of relapse (P = 0.05).

  2. Inhibition of glucose turnover by 3-bromopyruvate counteracts pancreatic cancer stem cell features and sensitizes cells to gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayev, Orkhan; Rausch, Vanessa; Bauer, Nathalie; Liu, Li; Fan, Pei; Zhang, Yiyao; Gladkich, Jury; Nwaeburu, Clifford C; Mattern, Jürgen; Mollenhauer, Martin; Rückert, Felix; Zach, Sebastian; Haberkorn, Uwe; Gross, Wolfgang; Schönsiegel, Frank; Bazhin, Alexandr V; Herr, Ingrid

    2014-07-15

    According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, the aggressive growth and early metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is due to the activity of CSCs, which are not targeted by current therapies. Otto Warburg suggested that the growth of cancer cells is driven by a high glucose metabolism. Here, we investigated whether glycolysis inhibition targets CSCs and thus may enhance therapeutic efficacy. Four established and 3 primary PDA cell lines, non-malignant cells, and 3 patient-tumor-derived CSC-enriched spheroidal cultures were analyzed by glucose turnover measurements, MTT and ATP assays, flow cytometry of ALDH1 activity and annexin positivity, colony and spheroid formation, western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, xenotransplantation, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of siRNA-mediated inhibition of LDH-A and LDH-B was also investigated. The PDA cells exhibited a high glucose metabolism, and glucose withdrawal or LDH inhibition by siRNA prevented growth and colony formation. Treatment with the anti-glycolytic agent 3-bromopyruvate almost completely blocked cell viability, self-renewal potential, NF-κB binding activity, and stem cell-related signaling and reverted gemcitabine resistance. 3-bromopyruvate was less effective in weakly malignant PDA cells and did not affect non-malignant cells, predicting minimal side effects. 3-bromopyruvate inhibited in vivo tumor engraftment and growth on chicken eggs and mice and enhanced the efficacy of gemcitabine by influencing the expression of markers of proliferation, apoptosis, self-renewal, and metastasis. Most importantly, primary CSC-enriched spheroidal cultures were eliminated by 3-bromopyruvate. These findings propose that CSCs may be specifically dependent on a high glucose turnover and suggest 3-bromopyruvate for therapeutic intervention.

  3. A role for ADAM12 in breast tumor progression and stromal cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Frohlich, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar;

    2005-01-01

    of stromal fibroblasts in tumor initiation and progression has been elucidated. Here, we show that stromal cell apoptosis occurs in human breast carcinoma but is only rarely seen in nonmalignant breast lesions. Furthermore, we show that ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease up-regulated in human breast...... cancer, accelerates tumor progression in a mouse breast cancer model. ADAM12 does not influence tumor cell proliferation but rather confers both decreased tumor cell apoptosis and increased stromal cell apoptosis. This dual role of ADAM12 in governing cell survival is underscored by the finding that ADAM......12 increases the apoptotic sensitivity of nonneoplastic cells in vitro while rendering tumor cells more resistant to apoptosis. Together, these results show that the ability of ADAM12 to influence apoptosis may contribute to tumor progression....

  4. Inhibitors of Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling revert the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells in 3D context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Masahiro; Bissell, Mina J

    2016-05-31

    Loss of polarity and quiescence along with increased cellular invasiveness are associated with breast tumor progression. ROCK plays a central role in actin-cytoskeletal rearrangement. We used physiologically relevant 3D cultures of nonmalignant and cancer cells in gels made of laminin-rich extracellular matrix, to investigate ROCK function. Whereas expression levels of ROCK1 and ROCK2 were elevated in cancer cells compared to nonmalignant cells, this was not observed in 2D cultures. Malignant cells showed increased phosphorylation of MLC, corresponding to disorganized F-actin. Inhibition of ROCK signaling restored polarity, decreased disorganization of F-actin, and led to reduction of proliferation. Inhibition of ROCK also decreased EGFR and Integrinβ1 levels, and consequently suppressed activation of Akt, MAPK and FAK as well as GLUT3 and LDHA levels. Again, ROCK inhibition did not inhibit these molecules in 2D. A triple negative breast cancer cell line, which lacks E-cadherin, had high levels of ROCK but was less sensitive to ROCK inhibitors. Exogenous overexpression of E-cadherin, however, rendered these cells strikingly sensitive to ROCK inhibition. Our results add to the growing literature that demonstrate the importance of context and tissue architecture in determining not only regulation of normal and malignant phenotypes but also drug response.

  5. Self-Styled ZnO Nanostructures Promotes the Cancer Cell Damage and Supresses the Epithelial Phenotype of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Kaushik, Neha; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive researches have been done on the applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for the biological purposes. However, the role and toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSts) such as nanoplates (NPls), nanorods (NRs), nanosheets (NSs), nanoflowers (NFs) on cancer cells are not largely known. Present study was focused to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by self-designed ZnO-NSts, prepared at fix pH via solution process and exposed against human T98G gliomas including various cancers and non-malignant embryonic kidney HEK293, MRC5 fibroblast cells. NSts were used for the induction of cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas including various cancers and compared with the non-malignant cells. Notably, NRs were found to induce higher cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on cancer and normal cells in a dose dependent manner. We also showed that NRs induced cancer cell death through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analysis of ZnO-NSts have also been confirmed by statistical analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and limit of quantitation. These self-styled NSts could provide new perception in the research of targeted cancer nanotechnology and have potentiality to improve new therapeutic outcomes with poor diagnosis.

  6. Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon

  7. LGBTQ adolescents and young adults raised within a Christian religious context: positive and negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Angie L; Galliher, Renee V

    2012-12-01

    Religious contexts have traditionally been understood as protective for a variety of psychosocial health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ) is questioned due to denominational teachings on same-sex attractions and sexual behavior. Eight adolescents (15-17 years) and 11 young adults (19-24 years) who identify as LGBTQ raised in Christian religious affiliations (16 participants raised in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 2 participants raised Catholic and 1 participant raised Presbyterian) participated in individual in-depth interviews, journal writings, and focus groups to provide greater insight into the lived experiences of LGBTQ individuals raised within a Christian religious environment. Findings suggest the religious context is related to both positive and negative outcomes. Eight themes are explored using participant's own words and experiences. Directions for future research and implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thrombocytosis and Raised CRP Levels Predicts Advanced Stage in Esophageal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, G R; Thiagarajan, S; Gupta, Rahul; Kaman, Lileshwar; Das, Reena; Kochhar, Rakesh; Sinha, S K

    2015-12-01

    The significance of thrombocytosis and raised C-reactive protein (CRP) as prognostic markers in esophageal cancer is unclear. We prospectively studied 50 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer and analyzed the relation of preoperative platelet count and CRP levels with the clinico-pathological characteristics and stage of the disease. The platelet count of 319 × 10(9)/L for thrombocytosis and CRP level >6 mg/dl were taken as cut-off values. The incidence of thrombocytosis as well as raised CRP level was 50 %. Eighty percent of patients with thrombocytosis had raised CRP levels. None of patients with early disease (stage I) had thrombocytosis while patients with advanced stage were associated with thrombocytosis, 81.81 % in stage III and 100 % in stage IV (p thrombocytosis and patients with raised CRP were associated with pathological nodal metastases in 84.61 % cases (p 0.005) and 61.53 % (p 0.030), respectively. Thrombocytosis alone or in combination with raised CRP had progressive linear relation with the stage of esophageal carcinoma.

  9. Raising more domestic money for health: prospects for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Riku; Evans, David B

    2017-04-01

    Since the 2007/2008 financial crisis, the rhetoric in the development assistance dialogue has shifted away from raising more international funding for health, to requesting countries to move toward self-sufficiency. This paper examines the potential of 46 countries identified by an international panel in 2009 as being of high need to raise additional funding for health from domestic sources. Economic growth alone would allow 12 of them to reach a level of health spending where their populations could have access to a very basic set of health services. All of them have the potential to raise additional domestic funds through a range of measures that have been tried successfully in other low- and middle-income countries, but they would all remain well below the eventual objective of universal health coverage without increased and predictable external financial support.

  10. Raising medium function of environmental engineering by usinglife rubbish to produce carpet turf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Abundant material with low cost was utilized to raise medium function of producing carpet tutfby life rubbish. The results showed that the material used could strikingly raise water retentiveness and ventilating of medium. Through the determination of the effect of each growth index of several turfgrass, emergence density, plant height, root growth and individual plant's net primary production were all positively related to the materials amount mixed, showing that the mixture of material could promote turfgrass growth, further proving that the material used raised medium function of producing carpet turf by life rubbish and made most use of life rubbish resources. It provided a scientific base is for application of environmental engineering by using life rubbish to producecarpet turf. So the study had both important theoretic meaning and applied value.

  11. Results of the Apogee-Raising Campaign of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric J.; Hollister, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the apogee-raising campaign of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, where the spacecraft increased their apogee radii from 12 to 25 Earth radii in a total of 98 maneuvers. These maneuvers included an initial formation resize set to spread the spacecraft apart for safety, 32 apogee-raise delta-v maneuvers, their associated slews, four perigee-raise maneuvers and the associated slews, and finally a set of maneuvers to get back into formation. These activities were all accomplished successfully and on schedule with no anomalies, and at a fuel consumption somewhat less than predicted. As a result, MMS was set up ready to carry out in situ studies of magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail, with sufficient fuel remaining for a significant extended mission.

  12. Parents׳ experiences of raising pre-school aged children in an outer-Melbourne growth corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Fiona Jane; Rich, Stephanie; Stockdale, Rebecca; Shelley, Julia

    2014-05-01

    There is growing concern about the outer-suburbs in Australia as healthy places to raise children. This paper aimed to explore this from the perspectives of parents raising preschool-age children in an outer-Melbourne municipality. Findings showed that parents were positive about the natural environment as well as the provision of recreation areas and generally felt their neighbourhoods were a safe place for raising children. However, car-dependency, housing estate design and limited local job opportunities all appeared to contribute to social isolation amongst families. Using the Environments for Health Framework, this paper makes suggestions to improve liveability for families in this municipality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Haptic identification of raised-line drawings: high visuospatial imagers outperform low visuospatial imagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaz, Samuel; Jouffrais, Christophe; Picard, Delphine

    2012-09-01

    It has been assumed (Lederman et al. 1990, Perception & psychophysics) that a visual imagery process is involved in the haptic identification of raised-line drawings of common objects. The finding of significant correlations between visual imagery ability and performance on picture-naming tasks was taken as experimental evidence in support of this assumption. However, visual imagery measures came from self-report procedures, which can be unreliable. The present study therefore used an objective measure of visuospatial imagery abilities in sighted participants and compared three groups of high, medium and low visuospatial imagers on their accuracy and response times in identifying raised-line drawings by touch. Results revealed between-group differences on accuracy, with high visuospatial imagers outperforming low visuospatial imagers, but not on response times. These findings lend support to the view that visuospatial imagery plays a role in the identification of raised-line drawings by sighted adults.

  14. The effect of emotional intelligence awareness-raising activities on L2 motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Barzegar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a study investigating the effect of emotional intelligence (EI awareness-raising on Iranian university students’ overall as well as variable-specific L2 motivation. The 136 participants (107 males, 29 females were divided into a control group and an experimental group, both of which completed the same motivation questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study, with the latter receiving EI awareness-raising in seven sessions over a seven-week period. The results of paired and independent sample t tests showed that EI awareness-raising did not have any statistically significant positive effect on Iranian university students’ overall L2 motivation, but they had a statistically significant positive effect on the Instrumentality- prevention aspect of L2 motivation. The study highlights the importance of becoming familiar with and applying three motivational strategies which may be considered as universal motivational strategies.

  15. The relationship between explicit learning and consciousness-raising tasks within a communicative language context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roscioli, Deise Carldart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating whether consciousness-raising tasks, used in a communicative learning environment of EFL, can be considered a valid instrument for eliciting explicit learning in that context. Five participants enrolled in the second level of a language course answered a cycle of tasks that intended to teach the use of comparatives. The materials used in this study consisted of a pre-task, consciousness-raising tasks, an untimed grammaticality judgment test, and a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that the instruments used in this research were of a valid nature for eliciting explicit learning. The findings also provide empirical support regarding the importance of consciousness-raising tasks to assist students’ second language learning in a communicative classroom environment. Despite being a small scale research, this study may contribute to a greater understanding of the SLA processes within a communicative context and highlight the importance of explicit knowledge learning within a meaning focused approach

  16. THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF KENTISH RAISING: ISSUES IN OLD ENGLISH SOCIOLINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Trousdale

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988. It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the social, political and cultural situation in ninth-century Kent is provided, which examines Mercian influence in the period, and suggests that a Mercian-driven change from above (Second Fronting cannot be the source of Kentish Raising. Finally, it is proposed that recent work in genetic anthropology, which seeks to discover more about the nature and extent of the continental migrations, may be useful in understanding the social context in which the varieties of Old English existed and developed.

  17. The Contribution of Io-Raised Tides to Europa's Diurnally-Varying Surface Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A,; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Europa's icy surface records a rich history of geologic activity, Several features appear to be tectonic in origin and may have formed in response to Europa's daily-varying tidal stress [I]. Strike-slip faults and arcuate features called cycloids have both been linked to the patterns of stress change caused by eccentricity and obliquity [2J[3]. In fact, as Europa's obliquity has not been directly measured, observed tectonic patterns arc currently the best indicators of a theoretically supported [4] non-negligible obliquity. The diurnal tidal stress due to eccentricity is calculated by subtracting the average (or static) tidal shape of Europa generated by Jupiter's gravitational field from the instantaneous shape, which varies as Europa moves through its eccentric orbit [5]. In other words, it is the change of shape away from average that generates tidal stress. One might expect tidal contributions from the other large moons of Jupiter to be negligible given their size and the height of the tides they raise on Europa versus Jupiter's mass and the height of the tide it raises on Europa, However, what matters for tidally-induced stress is not how large the lo-raised bulge is compared to the Jupiter-raised bulge but rather the differences bet\\Veen the instantaneous and static bulges in each case. For example, when Europa is at apocenter, Jupiter raises a tide 30m lower than its static tide. At the same time, 10 raises a tide about 0.5m higher than its static tide. Hence, the change in Io's tidal distortion is about 2% of the change in the Jovian distortion when Europa is at apocenter

  18. Influence of knee flexion angle and age on triceps surae muscle fatigue during heel raises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Schneiders, Anthony G; García, José A; Sullivan, S John; Simoneau, Guy G

    2012-11-01

    The triceps surae (TS) muscle-tendon unit is 1 of the most commonly injured in elite and recreational athletes, with a high prevalence in middle-aged adults. The performance of maximal numbers of unilateral heel raises is used to assess, train, and rehabilitate TS endurance and conventionally prescribed in 0° knee flexion (KF) for the gastrocnemius and 45° for the soleus (SOL). However, the extent of muscle selectivity conferred through the change in the knee angle is lacking for heel raises performed to volitional fatigue. This study investigated the influence of knee angle on TS muscle fatigue during heel raises and determined whether fatigue differed between middle-aged and younger-aged adults. Forty-eight healthy individuals aged 18-25 and 35-45 years performed maximal numbers of unilateral heel raises in 0° and 45° KF. Median frequencies and linear regression slopes were calculated from the SOL, gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) surface electromyographic signals. Stepwise mixed-effect regressions were used for analysis. The subjects completed an average of 45 and 48 heel raises in 0° and 45° KF, respectively. The results indicated that the 3 muscles fatigued during testing as all median frequencies decreased, and regression slopes were negative. Consistent with muscle physiology and fiber typing, fatigue was greater in the GM and GL than in the SOL (p < 0.001). However, knee angle did not influence TS muscle fatigue parameters (p = 0.814), with similar SOL, GM, and GL fatigue in 0° and 45° KF. These findings are in contrast with the traditionally described clinical use of heel raises in select knee angles for the gastrocnemius and the SOL. Furthermore, no difference in TS fatigue between the 2 age groups was able to be determined, despite the reported higher prevalence of injury in middle-aged individuals.

  19. Effects of bite raising and occlusal awareness on tongue thrust in untreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, José S; Lelong, Odette

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of conscious bite (occlusal awareness), with or without immediate bite raising, on tongue thrust during swallowing and speech. A total of 110 untreated children (age range, 7-12 years; mean, 9 years 8 months) were examined with various extraoral and intraoral observation tests. Subjects were divided according to sex and score on the labiolingual dysfunction index (LLDI) into high (LLDI-H) and weak (LLDI-W) dysfunction groups. A special, previously tested chocolate paste was used to map tongue and tooth contacts during task performance, including conscious bite (occlusal awareness) with and without bite raising. The bite was raised with an overlay or provisional occlusal plane placed unilaterally on the maxillary right molar. The results did not show any difference between boys and girls, but other findings were related to the LLDI score. Habitual mouth closure and swallowing without the provisional occlusal plane produced less pronounced bite contact in the LLDI-H group. Swallowing with conscious bite increased the bite contact in both groups but predominantly in the LLDI-H group. Tongue thrust reacted inversely to bite contacts: it was reduced when occlusion was perceived with and without bite raise but somewhat more with the provisional occlusal plane. The LLDI-W group was less affected. Tongue thrust was inhibited in both groups during speaking with bite raising and occlusal awareness. These results indicate that conscious bite helps to control the tongue. Slight raising of the bite increases occlusal awareness and its inhibiting effect on tongue thrust. A provisional occlusal plane or a similar overlay might be a useful adjunct in training the tongue to retrude in subjects with oral dysfunction.

  20. GRAMMATICAL SYLLABUS AND EFL TEXTBOOKS: THE NEED FOR CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Baleghizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the role of the grammatical syllabus in EFL settings is examined. To this end, the grammatical syllabus and its shortcomings are first explored. It is then argued that the grammatical syllabus is perhaps the best channel through which grammar instruction can take shape, and hence the importance of grammar instruction is discussed. Finally, the concept of consciousness-raising activities is introduced and it is suggested that the explicit presentation of grammar in traditional EFL textbooks still used in certain settings be replaced by consciousness-raising activities.

  1. Dermatomyositis presenting with symptomatic dermographism and raised troponin T: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Kartini F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermatomyositis is an important inflammation of skin and muscles. Generalised itch is frequent in the condition; however, symptomatic dermographism has not previously been reported as a presenting feature. Case presentation A 32-year-old Caucasian Scottish woman was diagnosed with dermatomyositis after initial presentation with symptomatic dermographism. No underlying neoplasm was found and her condition was successfully treated with systemic corticosteroids and high-dose human immunoglobulin infusions. At presentation, her troponin T and creatine phosphokinase enzymes were highly raised. Conclusion Symptomatic dermographism may be a presenting feature of dermatomyositis. Dermatomyositis is one of many conditions that can result in a raised troponin T.

  2. A RAISE Specification Framework and Justification assistant for the Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Xia, Yong

    1998-01-01

    . The goal of our work is two-fold:(1) to extend RSL with real-time features, and (2) to provide a specification language and tools support (e.g. a syntax and type checker, a justification assistant, etc.) for DC. A first step towards this goal, could be to combine DC and RSL achieving the power of both.......So far, we have encoded DC in RSL and set up a proof assistant tool to verify (encoded) DC formulas using the RAISE Justification tools. This paper first introduces a RAISE specification framework for DC, and then explains how the justification assistant is set up....

  3. Accounting for a not-for-profit organization's fund-raising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S J; Jordan, C E

    2001-02-01

    The AICPA's Statement of Position (SOP) 98-2 provides guidance on how a not-for-profit entity should account for costs associated with activities that involve a fund-raising component in combination with one or more mission-related components. Costs may be allocated among the various components of such an activity as long as the activity meets certain criteria specified by SOP 98-2. These criteria are related to the activity's purpose, audience, and content. If the activity does not meet the criteria, then all costs of the activity must be shown as fund-raising costs.

  4. CT changes in children with drained hydrocephalus and intermittently raised intracranial pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.; Korinthenberg, R.; Erlemann, R.; Lengerke, H.J. von

    1987-10-01

    Seven children with drained hydrocephalus are described who showed increasingly severe and frequent episodes of intermittently raised intracranial pressure. CT examinations during symptom-free intervals, or after conservative treatment, showed collapsed slit-like ventricles. Examination during attacks of raised pressure showed relative dilatation of the ventricles as compared with earlier examinations. Children with ventricular shunts of long duration may develop a shunt-dependent syndrome; CT may show normal or narrow ventricles and this does not exclude the possibility of a rise of intracranial pressure. These findings may help in making the diagnosis by means of CT without any further invasive procedure.

  5. Obtaining raised density connections by thermosonic microwelding in 3D integrated microcircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanin V. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the processes of obtaining raised density microwelded connections in 3D-integrated microcircuits by the thermosonic microwelding. The processes include the use of the raised frequencies of ultrasound, application of the microinstrument with a thinning of the working end and precision devices for ball formation, which provide reproducibility of connections quality. At a small step of contact pads, the use of a wire of small diameter (not more than 25 µm is necessary for devices with a multilevel arrangement of leads and chess arrangement of contact pads on the chip, providing the maximum length of the formed crosspieces does not exceed 4—5 mm.

  6. Hypoxic conditions induce a cancer-like phenotype in human breast epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Vaapil

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Solid tumors are less oxygenated than their tissue of origin. Low intra-tumor oxygen levels are associated with worse outcome, increased metastatic potential and immature phenotype in breast cancer. We have reported that tumor hypoxia correlates to low differentiation status in breast cancer. Less is known about effects of hypoxia on non-malignant cells. Here we address whether hypoxia influences the differentiation stage of non-malignant breast epithelial cells and potentially have bearing on early stages of tumorigenesis. METHODS: Normal human primary breast epithelial cells and immortalized non-malignant mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells were grown in a three-dimensional overlay culture on laminin-rich extracellular matrix for up to 21 days at normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Acinar morphogenesis and expression of markers of epithelial differentiation and cell polarization were analyzed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, qPCR and immunoblot. RESULTS: In large ductal carcinoma in situ patient-specimens, we find that epithelial cells with high HIF-1α levels and multiple cell layers away from the vasculature are immature compared to well-oxygenated cells. We show that hypoxic conditions impaired acinar morphogenesis of primary and immortalized breast epithelial cells grown ex vivo on laminin-rich matrix. Normoxic cultures formed polarized acini-like spheres with the anticipated distribution of marker proteins associated with mammary epithelial polarization e.g. α6-integrin, laminin 5 and Human Milk Fat Globule/MUC1. At hypoxia, cells were not polarized and the sub-cellular distribution pattern of the marker proteins rather resembled that reported in vivo in breast cancer. The hypoxic cells remained in a mitotic state, whereas proliferation ceased with acinar morphogenesis at normoxia. We found induced expression of the differentiation repressor ID1 in the undifferentiated hypoxic MCF-10A cell structures. Acinar

  7. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  8. STAT3-mediated constitutive expression of SOCS-3 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brender, C; Nielsen, M; Kaltoft, K;

    2001-01-01

    A characteristic feature of neoplastic transformation is the loss of external control by cytokines and extracellular matrix of cellular differentiation, migration, and mitogenesis. Because suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are negative regulators of cytokine-induced signaling......, it has been hypothesized that an aberrant SOCS expression plays a role in neoplastic transformation. This study reports on a constitutive SOCS-3 expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) cell lines. SOCS-3 protein is constitutively expressed in tumor cell lines (but not in nonmalignant T cells......) obtained from affected skin from a patient with mycosis fungoides (MF) and from peripheral blood from a patient with Sezary syndrome (SS). In contrast, constitutive SOCS-3 expression is not found in the leukemic Jurkat T-cell line, the MOLT-4 acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, and the monocytic...

  9. Constitutive SOCS-3 expression protects T-cell lymphoma against growth inhibition by IFNalpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brender, C; Lovato, P; Sommer, V H;

    2005-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 is constitutively activated in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), where it protects tumour cells against apoptosis. The constitutive activation of Stat3 leads to a constitutive expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3....... In healthy cells, SOCS-3 is transiently expressed following cytokine stimulation and functions as a negative feedback inhibitor of the Stat3-activating kinases. Here, we attempt to resolve the apparent paradox of a simultaneous SOCS-3 expression and Stat3 activation in the same cells. We show that (i) SOCS-3...... expression in tumour cells is equal to or higher than in cytokine-stimulated nonmalignant T cells, (ii) SOCS-3 is not mutated in CTCL, (iii) overexpression of SOCS-3 blocks IFNalpha-mediated growth inhibition without affecting Stat3 activation, growth, and apoptosis, and (iv) inhibition of SOCS-3...

  10. Inactivation of ATM/ATR DNA damage checkpoint promotes androgen induced chromosomal instability in prostate epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tuen Chiu

    Full Text Available The ATM/ATR DNA damage checkpoint functions in the maintenance of genetic stability and some missense variants of the ATM gene have been shown to confer a moderate increased risk of prostate cancer. However, whether inactivation of this checkpoint contributes directly to prostate specific cancer predisposition is still unknown. Here, we show that exposure of non-malignant prostate epithelial cells (HPr-1AR to androgen led to activation of the ATM/ATR DNA damage response and induction of cellular senescence. Notably, knockdown of the ATM gene expression in HPr-1AR cells can promote androgen-induced TMPRSS2: ERG rearrangement, a prostate-specific chromosome translocation frequently found in prostate cancer cells. Intriguingly, unlike the non-malignant prostate epithelial cells, the ATM/ATR DNA damage checkpoint appears to be defective in prostate cancer cells, since androgen treatment only induced a partial activation of the DNA damage response. This mechanism appears to preserve androgen induced autophosphorylation of ATM and phosphorylation of H2AX, lesion processing and repair pathway yet restrain ATM/CHK1/CHK2 and p53 signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrate that ATM/ATR inactivation is a crucial step in promoting androgen-induced genomic instability and prostate carcinogenesis.

  11. A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blinded, Head-to-Head Long-Term Outcome Study, Comparing Intrathecal (IT) Boluses With Continuous Infusion Trialing Techniques Prior to Implantation of Drug Delivery Systems (DDS) for the Treatment of Severe Intractable Chronic Nonmalignant Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Maged; Doleys, Daniel M; Saleh, Islam A; Medvedovsky, Andrew; Verdolin, Michael H; Hamza, Monalyce

    2015-10-01

    The study aims to compare intrathecal (IT) boluses to continuous infusion trialing techniques prior to implantation of drug delivery systems (DDS) for the treatment of severe intractable chronic nonmalignant pain. This is a prospective, randomized, head-to-head long-term outcome study. Forty patients with comparable patient demographics were randomly assigned to two cohorts. Cohort A trialed with intermittent boluses; Cohort B trialed with continuous infusion. One patient failed trial in each group. Nineteen patients were implanted in each group. Follow-up was for 36 months with intervals at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 months. The Brief Pain Inventory was used was used for assessment. We used the Brief Pain Inventory to measure pain (worst and average), physical function (walking, normal work, and general activity), behavioral function (mood, sleep, and relations with others), IT dose, and oral opioid use. We observed statistically significant reduction in pain and improvement of function in both cohorts following DDS implantation throughout the observation period. The IT dose remained virtually unchanged throughout as well, with overall limited dose escalation. Oral opioid use was significantly reduced. There was no statistically significant difference in prediction of trial success or long-term outcomes between the two cohorts. Low-dose IT opioids via DDS can provide significant and long-lasting reduction in pain, and improvement in function (physical and behavioral) for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. The two trialing techniques tested, intermittent boluses, and continuous infusion delivered intrathecally showed no clinical significance difference in terms of predicting trial success or long-term outcomes. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  12. WHAT UNRELATED HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION IN THALASSEMIA TAUGHT US ABOUT TRANSPLANT IMMUNOGENETICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio La Nasa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the past few decades have shown an improvement in the survival and complication-free survival rates in patients with beta-thalassemia major and gene therapy is already at an advanced stage of experimentation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT continues to be the only effective and realistic approach to the cure of this chronic non-malignant disease. Historically, human leukocyte antigen (HLA-matched siblings have been the preferred source of donor cells owing to superior outcomes compared with HSCT from other sources. Nowadays, the availability of an international network of voluntary stem cell donor registries and cordon blood banks has significantly increased the odds of finding a suitable HLA matched donor. Stringent immunogenetic criteria for donor selection have made it possible to achieve overall survival (OS and thalassemia-free survival (TFS rates comparable to those of sibling transplants. However, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD remains the most important complication in unrelated HSCT in thalassemia, leading to considerable rates of morbidity and mortality for a chronic non-malignant disease. A careful immunogenetic assessment of donors and recipients makes it possible to individuate appropriate strategies for its prevention and management. This review provides an overview on recent insights about immunogenetic factors involved in GVHD, which seem to have a potential role in the outcome of transplantation for thalassemia.

  13. Spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cells exhibit a distinct gene expression pattern from the breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qianqian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous immortalisation of cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs is an extremely rare event, and the molecular mechanism behind spontaneous immortalisation of MECs is unclear. Here, we report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME65Cs and the changes in gene expression associated with BME65Cs cells. Results BME65Cs cells maintain the general characteristics of normal mammary epithelial cells in morphology, karyotype and immunohistochemistry, and are accompanied by the activation of endogenous bTERT (bovine Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase and stabilisation of the telomere. Currently, BME65Cs cells have been passed for more than 220 generations, and these cells exhibit non-malignant transformation. The expression of multiple genes was investigated in BME65Cs cells, senescent BMECs (bovine MECs cells, early passage BMECs cells and MCF-7 cells (a human breast cancer cell line. In comparison with early passage BMECs cells, the expression of senescence-relevant apoptosis-related gene were significantly changed in BME65Cs cells. P16INK4a was downregulated, p53 was low expressed and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was reversed. Moreover, a slight upregulation of the oncogene c-Myc, along with an undetectable level of breast tumor-related gene Bag-1 and TRPS-1, was observed in BME65Cs cells while these genes are all highly expressed in MCF-7. In addition, DNMT1 is upregulated in BME65Cs. These results suggest that the inhibition of both senescence and mitochondrial apoptosis signalling pathways contribute to the immortality of BME65Cs cells. The expression of p53 and p16INK4a in BME65Cs was altered in the pattern of down-regulation but not "loss", suggesting that this spontaneous immortalization is possibly initiated by other mechanism rather than gene mutation of p53 or p16INK4a. Conclusions Spontaneously immortalised BME65Cs cells maintain many characteristics of normal BMEC cells and

  14. Using the Implicit Association Test as an Unconsciousness Raising Tool in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Flores, Abdiel J.; Didway, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01

    People are reluctant to admit they harbor implicit biases. Students (N = 68) from four social psychology courses completed an assignment designed to raise awareness about implicit biases. After completing an Implicit Association Test (IAT), students answered six essay questions, read two articles on the IAT, and answered five additional essay…

  15. Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

  16. Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index

  17. Raising Standards 1988 to the Present: A New Performance Policy Era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the context of the period following the Education Reform Act 1988 in terms of the efforts by successive governments to raise academic standards. These attempts are illustrated by discussion of the impact of the introduction of market forces and parental choice, a centralised National Curriculum and associated assessment…

  18. Effects of an Awareness Raising Campaign on Intention and Behavioural Determinants for Handwashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, E.; Kumar, S.; Mosler, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were…

  19. Structure and binding properties of a cameloid nanobody raised against KDM5B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuf, Anders; Kristensen, Line Hyltoft; Kristensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The histone demethylase KDM5B is considered to be a promising target for anticancer therapy. Single-chain antibodies from llama (nanobodies) have been raised to aid in crystallization and structure determination of this enzyme. The antigen-binding properties of 15 of these nanobodies have been...

  20. Raising the order of multivariate approximation schemes using supplementary derivative data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijpoel, D.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a generic procedure to raise the approximation order of multivariate approximation schemes using supplementary derivative data. The procedure applies to all schemes that reproduce polynomials to a certain degree, including most common types of (quasi-) interpolation and moving least-squar

  1. "The Silence Itself Is Enough of a Statement": The Day of Silence and LGBTQ Awareness Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Susan W.

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study of a high school gay-straight alliance club examines unintended consequences of silence during the Day of Silence, a day of action aimed at addressing anti-LGBTQ bias in schools. While this strategy calls for students to engage in intentional silences to raise awareness of anti-LGBTQ bias, it does not necessarily lead…

  2. Medical Groups Raise Blood Pressure Rx Threshold for Healthy Adults Over 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163063.html Medical Groups Raise Blood Pressure Rx Threshold for Healthy Adults Over 60 Guidelines ... benefit from more aggressive treatment is small, the groups say. Doctors ... control of blood pressure in healthy older adults may produce more harm ...

  3. Improving Attainment through Action Research: An Introduction to Hillingdon's Raising Achievement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Khalid; Imrie, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Raising Achievement Project designed to address the need for more information on the performance of ethnic minorities for whom English is an additional language, and the need for support for children who have passed the initial stages of learning English. It also describes the action research model used to answer questions about…

  4. Elucidating the mechanism behind the lipid-raising effect of cafestol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekschoten, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to identify genes that control the response of serum lipid levels to diet. To this end we used cafestol as model substance for a food component that affects serum lipids and therefore health. Cafestol is a cholesterol‑raising diterpene present in coffee beans and

  5. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee

  6. Factors influencing happiness of the grandmothers raising grandchildren in rural areas of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Powwattana, Arpaporn

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 400 grandmothers, aged 50-79 years, who raised their grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected through a structured interview from April to July 2009 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and Multiple regression analysis. Nearly half (46.8%) of grandmothers raising grandchildren had high level of happiness, followed by moderate level (40.4%) and low level (12.8%). The factors, which significantly influenced the happiness of the grandmothers, were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p-value happiness of the grandmothers by 48.1%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of happiness among grandmothers. The factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote happiness of grandmothers, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the grandmother's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  7. "The Silence Itself Is Enough of a Statement": The Day of Silence and LGBTQ Awareness Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Susan W.

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study of a high school gay-straight alliance club examines unintended consequences of silence during the Day of Silence, a day of action aimed at addressing anti-LGBTQ bias in schools. While this strategy calls for students to engage in intentional silences to raise awareness of anti-LGBTQ bias, it does not necessarily lead…

  8. Effects of an Awareness Raising Campaign on Intention and Behavioural Determinants for Handwashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, E.; Kumar, S.; Mosler, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were…

  9. Teacher to Teacher: What Texts Effectively Raise Issues Related to 9/11 for Secondary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with texts that effectively raise issues related to 9/11 for secondary students, as discussed by several teachers. Kevin J. Collins from St. Thomas Aquinas High School says, "Elephant," Gus Van Sant's exploration of a Columbine-like tragedy, underscores the current generation's attempt to define the meaning of events in…

  10. Understanding a Spiritual Youth Camp as a Consciousness Raising Group: The Effects of a Subculture's Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Jim

    This paper defines a spiritual youth camp as a consciousness raising group. The camp, founded in 1956 as a community church camp, has been independent of any religious denomination since disassociating from the founding community church in 1986. Communication processes are described as they relate to primary aspects of the camp experience. Primary…

  11. Family Quality of Life of South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebusch, Liezl; Dada, Shakila; Samuels, Alecia E.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the family quality of life among families who are raising a young child with autism spectrum disorder. Survey research was conducted with 180 families of children with autism spectrum disorder who were receiving disability-related services in the Gauteng province of South Africa. The principle measure used was the Beach…

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing numbers of grandparents are becoming full-time surrogate parents to their grandchildren. Grandparents who raise their grandchildren reportedly endure high levels of stress, and grandchildren purportedly experience childhood trauma that can lead to poor psychological adjustment. While anecdotal reports have suggested that grandchildren…

  13. Educational Fund Raising: Principles and Practice. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Michael J., Ed.

    This volume offers 36 papers on higher education fundraising. Major topics treated are the development function, foundations of fund raising, annual giving, major gifts, campaigns, corporate and foundation support, special constituencies, managing development programs, special considerations for institutions, and special considerations for the…

  14. Recurrent Attacks of Raised Intracranial Pressure in Case of Tuberculous Arachnoiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Ameli

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available A ase of recurre'nt raised interacranial pressure is described. At operation posterio-rcfossa arachnoiditis was found. Histological examination suggested a Tuberculous etiology. Four months after the operation she died from an apparently acute tuberculoua meningiti

  15. The Role of Online Communication in Raising Awareness of Bilingual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Children of binational couples are often raised in the community of one of the parents and, thus, have limited exposure to the language of the other parent. This study focuses on a British/Moroccan family in the UK, where English is the dominant home language and Moroccan Arabic is the "other" language. Analysis of "live"…

  16. Preparing FCS Professionals: Using Simulations to Raise Awareness and Change Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Kathleen; Harpel, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Many universities offer courses in multiculturalism to broaden students' perspectives, but are the courses effective? This article explores the effects of using simulations to raise awareness and challenge students' perspectives of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. The results of three simulation activities are presented. Three…

  17. A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Elias, Ed.; Puddefoot, Ginny, Ed.; Gandara, Patricia, Ed.

    This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12…

  18. Restoration of a Terrestrialized Soak Lake of an Irish Raised Bog: Results of Field Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crushell, P.H.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Schouten, M.G.C.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Wirdum, G. van; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Soaks (areas of mesotrophic/minerotrophic vegetation within acid bog) add to the overall heterogeneity and biodiversity of raised bog landscapes due to the presence of flora and fauna communities not typically associated with acid bog systems. A field experiment was set up to investigate the

  19. ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The Educating Neighborhood: How Villages Raise Their Children. Kettering Foundation Working Paper [2015:01]??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, John

    2015-01-01

    Almost everyone is familiar with the African saying, "It takes a village to raise a child." However, there are very few "villages" that actually engage in this practice. The educational assets of the village include the knowledge of neighborhood residents, the clubs, groups, and associations that are citizen-based learning…

  20. Impact of raised without antibiotics practices on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The increasing occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant human infections has been attributed to the use of antimicrobials in a variety of applications including food-animal production. "Raised without antibiotics" (RWA) meat production has been offered as a practice to reduce antimicrobial-...

  1. A single well pumping and recovery test to measure in situ acrotelm transmissivity in raised bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der S.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state single pit pumping and recovery test to measure in situ the transmissivity of the highly permeable upper layer of raised bogs, the acrotelm, is described and discussed. The basic concept is the expanding depression cone during both pumping and recovery. It is shown that applying

  2. An Evaluation of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portwood, Sharon G.; Lambert, Richard G.; Abrams, Lyndon P.; Nelson, Ellissa Brooks

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program, developed by the American Psychological Association in collaboration with the National Association for the Education of Young Children, as an economical primary prevention intervention for child maltreatment. Using…

  3. Diurnal and seasonal variation of carbon dioxide exchange from a former true raised bog.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange was measured, using the eddy covariance technique, during a one and a half year period in 1994 and 1995. The measurements took place over a former true raised bog, characterized by a shallow peat layer and a vegetation dominated by Molinia caerulea. The growing season extende

  4. Educational Fund Raising: Principles and Practice. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Michael J., Ed.

    This volume offers 36 papers on higher education fundraising. Major topics treated are the development function, foundations of fund raising, annual giving, major gifts, campaigns, corporate and foundation support, special constituencies, managing development programs, special considerations for institutions, and special considerations for the…

  5. The Impact of Development Office Structure on Fund-Raising Efficiency for Research and Doctoral Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Stephen D.

    1995-01-01

    Based on survey data from 70 universities, this study concludes that differences in the organizational structure of development offices have no significant effect on fund-raising efficiency. However, because decentralized offices may be able to expand their activities more rapidly than centralized programs, decentralization may facilitate overall…

  6. How School Volunteers Can Help To Raise Standards and Enthusiasm for Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary; Thorogood, Lynne; Jones, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Discusses findings from evaluation of national "School Friends" project set up by British Telecom (BT) in the United Kingdom, in which BT employees volunteered to assist with literacy learning in primary schools. Notes evaluation findings that industry role models raised students' confidence and enthusiasm for reading, especially among boys.…

  7. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  8. From Diapers to Dating. A Parent's Guide to Raising Sexually Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, Debra W.

    This step-by-step program for raising sexually healthy children helps parents provide accurate information and communicate their own values to their children. Chapter 1, "The Basics"; includes "Sexually Healthy Families"; "The Key: Finding Teachable Moments"; and "Guidelines for Communication." Chapter 2,…

  9. Raising Citizens: Parenting Education Classes and Somali Mothers' Experiences of Childrearing in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellin, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Mothers are viewed as the people who are raising future citizens of Canada; therefore, their parenting practices are being targeted for intervention by civic organizations funded by the state. In this article, I argue that modernity narratives and neoliberalism approaches to mothering inform parenting education classes for Somali refugee women to…

  10. Raising Bilingual Children: A Qualitative Study of Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Intended Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Barina, Alexis; Tillitski, John; Flores, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We examined parental preferences in raising Spanish/English bilingual children. We identified factors influencing their decisions, and the strategies used to promote bilingualism. Focus groups were conducted with Spanish-primary-language parents of children 3 to 7 years old. These groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Three reviewers…

  11. Lumbar drainage for control of raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure in cryptococcal meningitis: case report and review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macsween, K.F.; Bicanic, T.; Brouwer, A.E.; Marsh, H.; Macallan, D.C.; Harrison, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    Raised intracranial pressure in the absence of ventricular dilatation is common in cryptococcal meningitis and associated with increased mortality. We report the case of a patient with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis, who developed increasing CSF pressure and visual impairment on therapy desp

  12. Restoration of a Terrestrialized Soak Lake of an Irish Raised Bog: Results of Field Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crushell, P.H.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Schouten, M.G.C.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Wirdum, van G.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Soaks (areas of mesotrophic/minerotrophic vegetation within acid bog) add to the overall heterogeneity and biodiversity of raised bog landscapes due to the presence of flora and fauna communities not typically associated with acid bog systems. A field experiment was set up to investigate the potenti

  13. Empirical Questionnaire Methods for Fund-Raising Campaign Preparedness in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comley Adams, Catherine; Butler, Douglass A.

    2017-01-01

    Amid waning public financial support for Extension program offerings, highly strategic and professional fund-raising practices are necessary for gaining momentum among private philanthropists and closing the fiscal gap. University of Missouri Extension conducted a precampaign survey that invited feedback from stakeholders to inform Extension…

  14. Raising Awareness of Assistive Technology in Older Adults through a Community-Based, Cooperative Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Debra M.; Markham, Melinda Stafford

    2012-01-01

    The Fashion an Easier Lifestyle with Assistive Technology (FELAT) curriculum was developed as a needs-based, community educational program provided through a state Cooperative Extension Service. The overall goal for participants was to raise awareness of assistive technology. Program evaluation included a postassessment and subsequent interview to…

  15. Raising Students' Intercultural Awareness and Preparing Them for Intercultural Business (Communication) by E-Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Marinel; Verckens, Jan Pieter

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on an assignment which tries to raise students' intercultural awareness. The assignment, an intercultural e-mail project, was developed during the past 2 academic years for the course Introduction to Intercultural Communication for 1st-year students of Business Communication of the Radboud University (Nijmegen,…

  16. Ruled by Hetero-Norms? Raising Some Moral Questions for Teachers in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-eight countries in Africa regard homosexuality as punishable by law with South Africa remaining a standout country advancing constitutional equality on the basis of sexual orientation. In the context of homophobic violence, however, concerns have been raised about schools' potential to improve the educational, moral and social outcomes for…

  17. Swimming kinematics and respiratory behaviour of Xenopus laevis larvae raised in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejtek, M.; Souza, K.; Neff, A.; Wassersug, R.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the respiratory behaviours and swimming kinematics of Xenopus laevis tadpoles hatched in microgravity (Space Shuttle), simulated microgravity (clinostat) and hypergravity (3 g centrifuge). All observations were made in the normal 1 g environment. Previous research has shown that X. laevis raised in microgravity exhibit abnormalities in their lungs and vestibular system upon return to 1 g. The tadpoles raised in true microgravity exhibited a significantly lower tailbeat frequency than onboard 1 g centrifuge controls on the day of landing (day0), but this behaviour normalized within 9 days. The two groups did not differ significantly in buccal pumping rates. Altered buoyancy in the space-flight microgravity tadpoles was indicated by an increased swimming angle on the day after landing (day1). Tadpoles raised in simulated microgravity differed to a greater extent in swimming behaviours from their 1 g controls. The tadpoles raised in hypergravity showed no substantive effects on the development of swimming or respiratory behaviours, except swimming angle. Together, these results show that microgravity has a transient effect on the development of locomotion in X. laevis tadpoles, most notably on swimming angle, indicative of stunted lung development. On the basis of the behaviours we studied, there is no indication of neuromuscular retardation in amphibians associated with embryogenesis in microgravity.

  18. Can Increasing Faculty Professionalism Raise Instructional Quality at a Chinese University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if increasing faculty professionalism is a viable strategy for raising the quality of instruction at a Chinese university. In this study, increasing faculty professionalism refers to increases in regards to six areas of faculty work: academic freedom, work balance, governance, reward systems, salary, and…

  19. Direct Investment in the Countryside and the Problem of Raising Farmers' Incomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiChangying

    2005-01-01

    In combination with other policies, encouraging direct investment in the countryside and in agriculture would be one of the most effective measures to increase farmers' employment rates, raise their household income, realize the transfer of the surplus rural labor force, upgrade the quality of farming yield and advance sustainable development in the national economy.

  20. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  1. H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161034.html H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect ... Swedish researchers report that the vaccine against the H1N1 "swine flu" strain of influenza doesn't seem ...

  2. Dog-Raising Lecture Held at Lake View Place,Shunyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Pampers,a modern pet shop,is located at Lake View Place in Housayu central villa cluster,Shunyi District, Beijing. Simon,who owns the shop and is well known in Beijing pet circles,is an experienced specialist in dog-raising.

  3. "More Bang for the Buck": Examining Influencers of Fundraising Efficiency and Total Dollars Raised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Eve; Caboni, Timothy C.; Hartley, Harold V., III; Willmer, Wesley K.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines institution-specific factors that are within the control of the advancement office and that predict fundraising efficiency and total dollars raised. Using data from the Council of Independent Colleges and IPEDS, fundraising outcomes are examined at private colleges in the United States. Most of the variables of interest are not…

  4. With the Benefit of Hindsight: A Mother's Reflections on Raising a Child with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Virginia; Barr, Owen

    2003-01-01

    In this article an Irish mother reflects on her experience of raising a child with Down syndrome, how his presence affected the family, and how she as a person changed as a result. Professionals are urged to recognize the importance of effective listening, ongoing coordinated support, and learning to work in partnership with families. (Contains…

  5. Shifting the Bell Curve: The Benefits and Costs of Raising Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    Benefit-cost analysis was conducted to estimate the increase in earnings, increased tax revenues, value of less crime, and reductions in welfare costs attributable to nationwide implementation of rapid assessment, a promising intervention for raising student achievement in math and reading. Results suggest that social benefits would exceed total…

  6. Noise, What Noise? Raising Awareness of Auditory Health among Future Primary-School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Tejada, M. -P.; Hodar, J. A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.

    2012-01-01

    We study the perception of acoustic contamination and its deleterious effects on students preparing to become school teachers and analyse their acoustic habits, with the aim of raising their awareness concerning this problem. We designed a number of activities, applied during a practical lesson, in which students evaluated some of their…

  7. [Raising awareness among freelance nurses of infection prevention in home health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Fabienne; Touati, Samia

    2013-02-01

    An alternative to conventional hospitalisation, home health care involves technical procedures which can carry a high risk of infection. In the home, infection prevention is a central element of safety of care. A home health care structure in the Lille region is working to raise awareness among freelance nursing partners and encourage them to follow a quality improvement approach.

  8. Authentic L2 Interactions as Material for a Pragmatic Awareness-Raising Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsui-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study draws on conversation analysis to explore the pedagogical possibility of using audiovisual depictions of authentic disagreement sequences from L2 interactions as sources for an awareness-raising activity in an English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom. Video excerpts of disagreement sequences collected from two ESL classes were used…

  9. Huaxi Group Planning to Integrate Guangxi Non-Ferrous Industry Through Fund Raising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Huaxi Group is planning to integrate the Guangxi non-ferrous metal industry after the completion of restructuring.Experts from the industry expressed the concern that Huaxi is likely to prepare for holistic listing for its main business upon the completion of restructuring so as to raise fund for the integration of non- ferrous resources in the Guangxi Autonomous

  10. A biological mechanism for Bayesian feature selection: Weight decay and raising the LASSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Patrick; Hollensen, Paul; Krigolson, Olav; Trappenberg, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Biological systems are capable of learning that certain stimuli are valuable while ignoring the many that are not, and thus perform feature selection. In machine learning, one effective feature selection approach is the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) form of regularization, which is equivalent to assuming a Laplacian prior distribution on the parameters. We review how such Bayesian priors can be implemented in gradient descent as a form of weight decay, which is a biologically plausible mechanism for Bayesian feature selection. In particular, we describe a new prior that offsets or "raises" the Laplacian prior distribution. We evaluate this alongside the Gaussian and Cauchy priors in gradient descent using a generic regression task where there are few relevant and many irrelevant features. We find that raising the Laplacian leads to less prediction error because it is a better model of the underlying distribution. We also consider two biologically relevant online learning tasks, one synthetic and one modeled after the perceptual expertise task of Krigolson et al. (2009). Here, raising the Laplacian prior avoids the fast erosion of relevant parameters over the period following training because it only allows small weights to decay. This better matches the limited loss of association seen between days in the human data of the perceptual expertise task. Raising the Laplacian prior thus results in a biologically plausible form of Bayesian feature selection that is effective in biologically relevant contexts.

  11. Raising the standard of care in the treatment of schizophrenia: Yes we can!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Stanley Victor; O'Toole, Brian

    2017-05-01

    In response to evidence of deteriorating outcomes of people with schizophrenia we recently published a critical review in the journal concerning why outcomes for schizophrenia are not improving. A published commentary on our review raised criticisms that we aim to address herein. Published data related to four issues raised in the commentary were reviewed. There is a body of evidence that supports the possibility of dramatic improvements in treatment effectiveness, presented in our critical review, and these can be achieved within existing financial resources and present day understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the commentary leads us to highlight four current obstacles to improving treatment effectiveness: (1) the belief of many psychiatrists that long-term antipsychotic medication raises the cardiovascular mortality rate in schizophrenia when the opposite is almost certainly the case; (2) the need to improve psychiatrist training in diagnostic and communication skills, especially with first episode presentations; (3) the requirement for comprehensive and structured assessment of the highly prevalent deficits in insight and decision making capacity associated with schizophrenia; and (4) the need for improved intervention design to minimise the impact of these deficits on treatment choice and refusal. With a sense of professional urgency, a genuinely respectful and caring partnership between clinicians, affected individuals and their families, and researchers, with relative little innovation, we conclude that the standard of care can definitely be raised now in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  12. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  13. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee fi

  14. Let's Party! How To Plan Special Events and Raise Money in Early Childhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Judith Anne

    This guide for early childhood program administrators provides guidelines and makes suggestions for planning special events to facilitate opportunities for parents, children, teachers, and organizations to connect in ways that strengthen individuals and communities and raise money for the organization. Part 1, "Planning," focuses on…

  15. Preparing FCS Professionals: Using Simulations to Raise Awareness and Change Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Kathleen; Harpel, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Many universities offer courses in multiculturalism to broaden students' perspectives, but are the courses effective? This article explores the effects of using simulations to raise awareness and challenge students' perspectives of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. The results of three simulation activities are presented. Three…

  16. Results of a Test and Win Contest to Raise Radon Awareness in Urban and Rural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E.; Robertson, Heather; Adkins, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radon is a leading cause of lung cancer, but few test their homes to determine radon levels. Purpose: The study assessed feasibility and success of a Test and Win Contest to promote radon testing in rural and urban communities. Methods: The prospective, quasi-experimental study tested a novel contest to raise radon awareness. Paid and…

  17. A Hands-On Activity to Raise Awareness about Healthy Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Fonseca, Maria; Costa, Patrício; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes sunburn and has been consistently associated with increased susceptibility to melanoma and skin ageing. Acknowledging the need to promote healthy sun exposure habits, numerous educational initiatives have been developed to raise public awareness towards this issue. However, studies…

  18. Court-Appointed Special Advocate Strong Beginnings: Raising Awareness across Early Childhood and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Catherine; Danner, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Abuse or neglect and disability often go hand in hand. Unfortunately, most professionals who work with maltreated young children are not aware of early childhood and disability-related resources and services available. In order to raise awareness across early childhood and child welfare systems, a five-week advanced training for volunteer child…

  19. Material Development to Raise Awareness of Using Smart Boards: An Example Design and Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydin, Serpil; Karamete, Aysen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop training material that will help raise awareness in prospective teachers regarding the benefits of using smart boards in the classroom. In this study, a Type 2 design and development research method (DDR) was used. The material was developed by applying phases of ADDIE--an instructional systems design model. The…

  20. An Attempt to Raise Japanese EFL Learners' Pragmatic Awareness Using Online Discourse Completion Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroya; Oki, Nanaho

    2015-01-01

    This practical paper discusses the effect of explicit instruction to raise Japanese EFL learners' pragmatic awareness using online discourse completion tasks. The five-part tasks developed by the authors use American TV drama scenes depicting particular speech acts and include explicit instruction in these speech acts. 46 Japanese EFL college…

  1. Failure to thrive and death in early infancy associated with raised urinary homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberger, M; Kleinberg, G

    1976-12-01

    A case of failure to thrive in an infant with persistently raised urinary levels of homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids is descirbed. No neural crest tumour was discovered at surgical exploration or at necropsy. The relation of this biochemical abnormality and failure to thrive is unclear.

  2. Talking about Family: Disclosure Practices of Adults Raised by Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.

    2007-01-01

    Although a growing literature exists on children of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) parents, little is known about these children's experiences as adults. Of interest is how these individuals negotiate disclosure of their parents' sexual orientation. This qualitative study of 42 adults raised by LGB parents explores this issue. Participants grew…

  3. mRAISE: an alternative algorithmic approach to ligand-based virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Behren, Mathias M.; Bietz, Stefan; Nittinger, Eva; Rarey, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Ligand-based virtual screening is a well established method to find new lead molecules in todays drug discovery process. In order to be applicable in day to day practice, such methods have to face multiple challenges. The most important part is the reliability of the results, which can be shown and compared in retrospective studies. Furthermore, in the case of 3D methods, they need to provide biologically relevant molecular alignments of the ligands, that can be further investigated by a medicinal chemist. Last but not least, they have to be able to screen large databases in reasonable time. Many algorithms for ligand-based virtual screening have been proposed in the past, most of them based on pairwise comparisons. Here, a new method is introduced called mRAISE. Based on structural alignments, it uses a descriptor-based bitmap search engine (RAISE) to achieve efficiency. Alignments created on the fly by the search engine get evaluated with an independent shape-based scoring function also used for ranking of compounds. The correct ranking as well as the alignment quality of the method are evaluated and compared to other state of the art methods. On the commonly used Directory of Useful Decoys dataset mRAISE achieves an average area under the ROC curve of 0.76, an average enrichment factor at 1 % of 20.2 and an average hit rate at 1 % of 55.5. With these results, mRAISE is always among the top performing methods with available data for comparison. To access the quality of the alignments calculated by ligand-based virtual screening methods, we introduce a new dataset containing 180 prealigned ligands for 11 diverse targets. Within the top ten ranked conformations, the alignment closest to X-ray structure calculated with mRAISE has a root-mean-square deviation of less than 2.0 Å for 80.8 % of alignment pairs and achieves a median of less than 2.0 Å for eight of the 11 cases. The dataset used to rate the quality of the calculated alignments is freely available at

  4. Computational simulation of passive leg-raising effects on hemodynamics during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ah; Park, Jiheum; Lee, Jung Chan; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-03-01

    The passive leg-raising (PLR) maneuver has been used for patients with circulatory failure to improve hemodynamic responsiveness by increasing cardiac output, which should also be beneficial and may exert synergetic effects during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the impact of the PLR maneuver on CPR remains unclear due to difficulties in monitoring cardiac output in real-time during CPR and a lack of clinical evidence. We developed a computational model that couples hemodynamic behavior during standard CPR and the PLR maneuver, and simulated the model by applying different angles of leg raising from 0° to 90° and compression rates from 80/min to 160/min. The simulation results showed that the PLR maneuver during CPR significantly improves cardiac output (CO), systemic perfusion pressure (SPP) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) by ∼40-65% particularly under the recommended range of compression rates between 100/min and 120/min with 45° of leg raise, compared to standard CPR. However, such effects start to wane with further leg lifts, indicating the existence of an optimal angle of leg raise for each person to achieve the best hemodynamic responses. We developed a CPR-PLR model and demonstrated the effects of PLR on hemodynamics by investigating changes in CO, SPP, and CPP under different compression rates and angles of leg raising. Our computational model will facilitate study of PLR effects during CPR and the development of an advanced model combined with circulatory disorders, which will be a valuable asset for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. RAISING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS OF STUDENTS THROUG RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AT THE UNVIERSITY MUSEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasilevna Khrabrova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at raising environmental awareness of students in the course of research performed at the university museum. The author assumes that environmental museum of a university can become the space for innovation and exploration that could raise environmental awareness of students. In order to ensure proper pedagogical conditions there was elaborated a concept of raising environmental awareness of students with the help of a university museum. The article follows the main stages of creation of the exposition by the students, which was devoted to the 5th year of environmental disaster, which was the result of a series of shipwrecks on the ‘black Sunday’ of 11 November, 2007 in the Kerch Strait.The author assumes that the exposition is essential to shed light on real events, present them more vividly, follow the history of certain exhibits and emphasize the unbearable living conditions for the birds dying in the oil slick. The exposition unveils core problems of oil contamination of the world ocean. The exhibits prove the actual fact and foster deeper understanding of the situation. They help to picture the tragic events of the black Sunday more vividly and evoke feelings and emotions, which make the students their witnesses and participants.The author follows the process of raising environmental awareness of students and looks at the results before and after their involvement in research at the environmental museum with the help of the method by E.V. Asafova and concludes that engaging students in research through creating ecological exposition can considerably raise their environmental awareness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-24

  6. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Haitham A; AlSadek, Dina M M; Mathew, Mohit P; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B; Yarema, Kevin J; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2015-12-01

    This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, "Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  7. Epidemiología, prevalencia y calidad de vida del dolor crónico no oncológico: Estudio ITACA Epidemiology, prevalence and quality of life of non-malignant chronic pain: ITACA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casals

    2004-07-01

    lumbar degenerativo o inflamatorio, con una evolución media del mismo de 5,32 ± 6,31 años, viven en familia, tienen sobrepeso y habitan en zonas urbanas. Existe una relación directa entre la intensidad del dolor y el grado de afectación de la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Se aprecia una mayor repercusión sobre el índice físico que el mental en la calidad de vida de la población estudiada. Los indicadores negativos de salud física son padecer artrosis y la intensidad de dolor, los positivos el dolor visceral y la escasa limitación de la actividad física. Las variables que influyen negativamente en la esfera mental de la calidad de vida están representadas por el sexo femenino, no tener estudios y tener una invalidez de la actividad.Objective: To describe and analyze the epidemiological, clinical and quality of life features of patients with non-neuropathic non-malignant chronic pain recruited for the ITACA study (Impact of Analgesic Treatment on Quality of Life in Algias in which 100 Pain Units of our country participated. Material and methods: The ITACA study was a prospective, observational, multicentric pharmacoepidemiological study performed during the first half of 2001. Data from the study population were obtained during the first recruitment visit. Results: The study included 907 patients, 66.03% women and 33.97% men, with an average age of 57.43 ± 11.34 years. Forty-eight per cent of patients had an age ranging from 55 to 70 years; 92.56% lived with their family and 74.44% lived in an urban setting; 42.37% had overweight and 28,99%, obesity. The cause of chronic pain was, in order of frequency: lumbalgia (52.92%, followed by osteroarthritis (33.96% and arthrosis (30.65%. The nociceptive process had lasted for 5.32 ± 6.31 years. Seventy-nine per cent of the study population had some kind of restriction of their physical activity. Concomitant drugs were administered to 78.84% of the patients for the management of pain and 69.6% followed other drug

  8. Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Is a Feed-Forward Translational Coactivator of Transforming Growth Factor β Early Protransforming Events in Breast Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarlo, Lindsey; Mestel, Celine; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen; Schneider, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is overexpressed early in breast cancers in association with disease progression and reduced survival. Much remains to be understood regarding the role of eIF4E in human cancer. We determined, using immortalized human breast epithelial cells, that elevated expression of eIF4E translationally activates the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway, promoting cell invasion, a loss of cell polarity, increased cell survival, and other hallmarks of early neoplasia. Overexpression of eIF4E is shown to facilitate the selective translation of integrin β1 mRNA, which drives the translationally controlled assembly of a TGF-β receptor signaling complex containing α3β1 integrins, β-catenin, TGF-β receptor I, E-cadherin, and phosphorylated Smad2/3. This receptor complex acutely sensitizes nonmalignant breast epithelial cells to activation by typically substimulatory levels of activated TGF-β. TGF-β can promote cellular differentiation or invasion and transformation. As a translational coactivator of TGF-β, eIF4E confers selective mRNA translation, reprogramming nonmalignant cells to an invasive phenotype by reducing the set point for stimulation by activated TGF-β. Overexpression of eIF4E may be a proinvasive facilitator of TGF-β activity.

  9. RNA-binding protein CELF1 promotes tumor growth and alters gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Reniqua P; Talwar, Sudha; Hazard, E Starr; Hill, Elizabeth G; Palanisamy, Viswanathan

    2015-12-22

    The RNA binding protein CELF1 (also known as CUGBP1) is emerging as a critical regulator of cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, to provide a global prospective of CELF1 regulation of oral squamous cell carcinoma, we performed RNA-sequencing in oral cancer cells and CELF1 overexpression analysis in non-malignant human oral keratinocytes. Our approaches identified 1283 mRNAs differentially regulated as a function of CELF1 expression and more importantly CELF1 promoted alternative splicing of several target pre-mRNAs, which are known to be involved in various cancer biological processes. Overexpression of CELF1 in non-malignant human oral keratinocytes protected cells against oxidative damage and altered gene expression patterns. Finally, we provide evidence that reduction of CELF1 protein using a xenograft tumorigenesis mouse model decreased tumor growth. Altogether, these data provided a comprehensive view of the CELF1 mRNA regulatory network in oral cancer and suggests that CELF1 and/or its target mRNAs are viable candidates for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Urea derivates of ursolic, oleanolic and maslinic acid induce apoptosis and are selective cytotoxic for several human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerwerk, Sven; Heller, Lucie; Kuhfs, Julia; Csuk, René

    2016-08-25

    2,3-Di-O-acetyl-maslinic acid benzylamide (5) has previously been shown to possess high cytotoxicity for a variety of human tumor cell lines while being of low cytotoxicity to non-malignant cells. Structural modifications performed on 5 revealed that the presence of these acetyl groups in 5 and the presence of (2β,3β)-configurated centers seems necessary for obtaining high cytotoxicity combined with best selectivity between malignant cells and non-malignant mouse fibroblasts. Compounds carrying an ursane skeleton showed weaker cytotoxicity than their oleanane derived analogs. In addition, the benzylamide function in compound 5 should be replaced by a phenylurea moiety to gain better cytotoxicity while retaining and improving the selectivity. Thus, maslinic acid derived N-[2β,3β-di-O-acetyl-17β-amino-28-norolean-12-en-17-yl]phenylurea (45) gave best results showing EC50 = 0.9 μM (for A2780 ovarian cancer cells) with EC50 > 120 μM for fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and triggered apoptosis while caspase-3 was not activated by this compound.

  11. Monoclonal antibody raised against human mitotic cyclin B1, identifies cyclin B-like mitotic proteins in synchronized onion (Allium cepa L.) root meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S K; Ghosh, S

    1997-03-01

    Cyclin B-like mitotic proteins have been detected in synchronized Allium cepa L. root tip cells by using mouse monoclonal anti-cyclin B1 antibody raised against human cyclin B1. Immunoblot shows two closely placed isoforms of cyclin B-like proteins having an apparent molecular weight around 54 kDa. In vivo [35S]-methionine labelling followed by immunoprecipitation and autoradiography indicates that cyclin B-like proteins are mainly synthesized in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and destroyed in late mitosis. Immunoblotting data depict that the level of cyclin B-like proteins reaches the maximum at the late G2 to early M phase; and it becomes degraded in the late hours of mitosis. Moreover, the cyclin B isoforms are stabilized in colchicine-arrested metaphase cells as already reported in animal cells.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms by Which a Fucus vesiculosus Extract Mediates Cell Cycle Inhibition and Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Geisen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive cancer entities, with an extremely poor 5-year survival rate. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents with specific modes of action are urgently needed. Marine organisms represent a promising source to identify new pharmacologically active substances. Secondary metabolites derived from marine algae are of particular interest. The present work describes cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by an HPLC-fractionated, hydrophilic extract derived from the Baltic brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Fv1. Treatment with Fv1 resulted in a strong inhibition of viability in various pancreatic cancer cell lines. This extract inhibited the cell cycle of proliferating cells due to the up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, shown on the mRNA (microarray data and protein level. As a result, cells were dying in a caspase-independent manner. Experiments with non-dividing cells showed that proliferation is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of Fv1. Importantly, Fv1 showed low cytotoxic activity against non-malignant resting T cells and terminally differentiated cells like erythrocytes. Interestingly, accelerated killing effects were observed in combination with inhibitors of autophagy. Our in vitro data suggest that Fv1 may represent a promising new agent that deserves further development towards clinical application.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms by Which a Fucus vesiculosus Extract Mediates Cell Cycle Inhibition and Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, Ulf; Zenthoefer, Marion; Peipp, Matthias; Kerber, Jannik; Plenge, Johannes; Managò, Antonella; Fuhrmann, Markus; Geyer, Roland; Hennig, Steffen; Adam, Dieter; Piker, Levent; Rimbach, Gerald; Kalthoff, Holger

    2015-07-20

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive cancer entities, with an extremely poor 5-year survival rate. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents with specific modes of action are urgently needed. Marine organisms represent a promising source to identify new pharmacologically active substances. Secondary metabolites derived from marine algae are of particular interest. The present work describes cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by an HPLC-fractionated, hydrophilic extract derived from the Baltic brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Fv1). Treatment with Fv1 resulted in a strong inhibition of viability in various pancreatic cancer cell lines. This extract inhibited the cell cycle of proliferating cells due to the up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, shown on the mRNA (microarray data) and protein level. As a result, cells were dying in a caspase-independent manner. Experiments with non-dividing cells showed that proliferation is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of Fv1. Importantly, Fv1 showed low cytotoxic activity against non-malignant resting T cells and terminally differentiated cells like erythrocytes. Interestingly, accelerated killing effects were observed in combination with inhibitors of autophagy. Our in vitro data suggest that Fv1 may represent a promising new agent that deserves further development towards clinical application.

  14. Influence of knee flexion angle and age on triceps surae muscle activity during heel raises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Schneiders, Anthony G; García, José A; Sullivan, S John; Simoneau, Guy G

    2012-11-01

    Triceps surae and Achilles tendon injuries are frequent in sports medicine, particularly in middle-aged adults. Muscle imbalances and weakness are suggested to be involved in the etiology of these conditions, with heel-raise testing often used to assess and treat triceps surae (TS) injuries. Although heel raises are recommended with the knee straight for gastrocnemius and bent for soleus (SOL), the extent of muscle selectivity in these positions is not clear. This study aimed to determine the influence of knee angle and age on TS muscle activity during heel raises. Forty-eight healthy men and women were recruited from a younger-aged (18-25 years) and middle-aged (35-45 years) population. All the subjects performed unilateral heel raises in 0° and 45° knee flexion (KF). Soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) surface electromyography signals were processed to compute root-mean-square amplitudes, and data were analyzed using mixed-effects models and stepwise regression. The mean TS activity during heel raises was 23% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction when performed in 0° KF and 21% when in 45°. Amplitudes were significantly different between TS muscles (p < 0.001) and KF angles (p < 0.001), with a significant interaction (p < 0.001). However, the age of the population did not influence the results (p = 0.193). The findings demonstrate that SOL activity was 4% greater when tested in 45° compared with 0° KF and 5% lower in the GM and GL. The results are consistent with the recommended use of heel raises in select knee positions for assessing, training, and rehabilitating the SOL and gastrocnemius muscles; however, the 4-5% documented change in activity might not be enough to significantly influence clinical outcome measures or muscle-specific benefits. Contrary to expectations, TS activity did not distinguish between middle-aged and younger-aged adults, despite the higher injury prevalence in middle age.

  15. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  16. Orchestration of angiogenesis by immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino eBruno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the tumor microenvironment plays a major role in cancer and is indispensable for tumor progression. The tumor microenvironment involves many players going well beyond the malignant-transformed cells, including stromal, immune and endothelial cells. The non-malignant cells can acquire tumor-promoting functions during carcinogenesis. In particular, these cells can orchestrate the symphony of the angiogenic switch, permitting the creation of new blood vessels that allows rapid expansion and progression toward malignancy.Considerable attention within the context of tumor angiogenesis should focus not only on the endothelial cells, representing a fundamental unit, but also on immune cells and on the inflammatory tumor infiltrate. Immune cells infiltrating tumors typically show a tumor-induced polarization associated with attenuation of anti-tumor functions and generation of pro-tumor activities, among these angiogenesis. Here we propose a scenario suggesting that the angiogenic switch is an immune switch arising from the pro-angiogenic polarization of immune cells. This view links immunity, inflammation and angiogenesis to tumor progression. Here we review the data in the literature and seek to identify the conductors of this orchestra. We also suggest that interrupting the immune -> inflammation -> angiogenesis -> tumor progression process can delay or prevent tumor insurgence and malignant disease.

  17. Sensitivity of gastric adenocarcinoma and normal cell lines against combined or conjugated antimetabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Jürgen; Struller, Florian; Küper, Markus; Hack, Anita; Königsrainer, Alfred; Schott, Timm C

    2013-04-01

    The in-vitro growth inhibition of cancer and normal cell lines caused by mixed or covalently linked antimetabolites should clarify whether the conjugation of antimetabolites influences cell sensitivity and growth inhibition in a manner that differs from an equimolar mixture of the same antimetabolites or not. Growth inhibition of the human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines 23132/87 and MKN-45 in comparison with normal gastric intestinal CCL-241 and the dermal fibroblast cell line NHDF was evaluated using CASY technology. The cell lines were incubated with an equimolar mixture of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (5FdU)+3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd) or the covalently linked duplex drug 5FdU(5'→5')ECyd. The drug and metabolites of the assays and medium were determined semiquantitatively using high-performance liquid chromatography. The sensitivity of cancer and nonmalignant cell lines was clearly different against the duplex drug. A measure of 0.65 µmol/l 5FdU(5'→5')ECyd, for example, reduced the growth of MKN-45 or 23132/87 gastric cancer cells from 100% on day 0 to about 50 or 20% on day 10, respectively. However, under the same conditions, the growth of the nonmalignant NHDF and CCL-241 cell lines was not markedly inhibited. The cytostatic activity of the duplex drug is based on the active metabolites in and outside the cell formed by the degradation of 5FdU(5'→5')ECyd. The sensitivity of cell lines against the duplex drug depended on its ability to metabolize the duplex drug. 5FdU(5'→5')ECyd should be more advantageous for specific and efficient polychemotherapy of gastric cancer than the corresponding equimolar mixture of 5FdU+ECyd or a standard combination regime of single drugs.

  18. Effect of blood transfusion, dopamine, or normal saline on neurogenic shock secondary to acutely raised intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimifar, M; Tator, C H; Shanlin, R J; Sole, M J

    1989-06-01

    An experimental model to simulate acutely raised intracranial pressure due to a rapidly expanding intracranial space-occupying lesion was used to produce neurogenic shock. Forty-one rats in neurogenic shock (defined as a mean systemic arterial pressure (SAP) of less than 60 mm Hg) were subjected to various treatments to increase the mean SAP to a level of more than 80 mm Hg. The control group with neurogenic shock received no treatment, and the six treatment groups received infusions of: whole blood, packed cells, plasma, normal saline, dopamine, or a combination of dopamine and saline. Detrimental effects were observed after transfusion of packed cells or whole blood, which caused further deterioration of mean SAP. Although dopamine or the combination of dopamine and saline were both effective (p = 0.0001) for reversing hypotension, the combination was the most effective. If this rat paradigm correlates with human disease, these results indicate that, in the absence of hypovolemia, neurogenic shock due to acute intracranial hypertension should be treated with a combined transfusion of dopamine and normal saline, but not blood since the latter could have a detrimental effect.

  19. The revenue raising capabilities of a VAT system in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NT Azaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to elaborate on the revenue-raising capabilities (economic efficiency and viability of a value-added tax (VAT system, particularly in developing countries.  The analysis concentrates on the effect of a VAT on tax revenues raised, and the main objective is to determine whether a VAT system generates greater benefits than previously utilised sales taxes, i.e. pre-existing sales taxes (PEST. Using a panel data regression analysis, our results indicate that while all countries gain revenue from the presence of VAT, it is significantly more in developed countries, although the dummy VAT variable interacted with trace openness enters positively for the lower- and upper middle-income groups.  This proves the importance of trade for VAT revenues, but also that VAT combined with interaction variables is conducive to higher tax revenues.

  20. Could Zinc Whiskers Be Impacting Your Electronic Systems? Raise Your Awareness. Revision D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael; Brusse, Jay

    2003-01-01

    During the past several decades electrical short circuits induced by "Zinc Whiskers" have been cited as the root cause of failure for various electronic systems (e.g., apnea monitors, telecom switches). These tiny filaments of zinc that may grow from some zinc-coated items (especially those coated by electroplating processes) have the potential to induce electrical shorts in exposed circuitry. Through this article, the authors describe a particular failure scenario attributed to zinc whiskers that has affected many facilities (including some NASA facilities) that utilized zinc-coated raised "access" floor tiles and support structures. Zinc whiskers that may be growing beneath your raised floor have the potential to wreak havoc on electronic systems operating above the floor.

  1. Proof support for RAISE - by a Reuse Approach Based on Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter

    2004-01-01

    specification language RSL and a proof system. Computer-based proof tools are available for RAISE, but a higher degree of automation is desired. Isabelle/HOL is a proof assistant for higher-order logic (HOL). It is an instantiation of the generic proof assistant Isabelle which offers a suitable degree...... of automation and flexibility. In order to use the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant for the RAISE method, translation from RSL to HOL is considered. The translation is based on institutions which formalize the informal notion of "a logical system". Institutions and morphisms between institutions are presented......RSL", is defined. Then, a well-known institution for HOL is presented, and Isabelle/HOL is briefly described. An institution comorphism from the mRSL institution to the HOL institution is defined, providing a translation from mRSL to Isabelle/HOL, and it is proved that the light institution comorphism has...

  2. Raised intracranial pressure as a result of pansynostosis in a child with Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamoei, Sepehr; Cortnum, Søren

    2017-01-01

    CASE: The authors describe the case of an 8-year-old boy with pansynostosis in the context of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). This condition had lead to raised intracranial pressure (ICP). The elevated ICP was a consequence of the rigid skull impeding brain growth. Therefore, a decomp......CASE: The authors describe the case of an 8-year-old boy with pansynostosis in the context of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). This condition had lead to raised intracranial pressure (ICP). The elevated ICP was a consequence of the rigid skull impeding brain growth. Therefore......, a decompressive cranioplasty was performed successfully, leaving further space for the growing brain. Affection of the central nervous system has been documented in AHO. However, affection of the skull bones has rarely been described in literature. CONCLUSION: We suggest that craniosynostosis may develop...

  3. Living with students: Lessons learned while pursuing tenure, administration, and raising a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Michael; Callahan, Janet; Harrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    An emerging promising practice in many universities has been the development of faculty-in-residence programs, in which university faculty members and their family moved into university student residences, sharing common living spaces with students. This case study is centered on two faculty-in-residence living in university residence halls. One was an assistant professor pursuing tenure while raising a young child, while the second was a tenured full professor and associate dean raising two teens. This case study offers the post-experience conclusions of these two faculty-in-residence individuals, noting the benefits and challenges each experienced while living -and working closely with these students outside of the university classroom, all while striving for an optimal balance in managing professional and familial obligations.

  4. Raising medium-sized livestock and hepatitis risk: A national study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Holly Herawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Sanitasi lingkungan, termasuk kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang, berpengaruh terhadap penyebaran penyakit hepatitis A dan E. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai lokasi kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang berkaitan dengan risiko gejala hepatitis di beberapa propinsi dengan prevalensi hepatitis tinggi di Indonesia. Metode: Data berasal dari sebagian hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2007 di Indonesia. Untuk penilaian ini, data yang dipakai berasal dari 12 propinsi dengan prevalensi tinggi (0,6% hepatitis di Indonesia, dan dipilih hanya subjek yang tidak memelihara ternak serta hanya yang memelihara ternak sedang. Subjek hepatitis adalah responden yang pada saat wawancara mengatakan pernah mempunyai gejala hepatitis atau pernah di diagnosis menderita hepatitis oleh dokter atau paramedik dalam kurun waktu 12 bulan terakhir. Hasil: Dari 141.291 subjek, 1.257 (0,8% menderita hepatitis. Pada umumnya yang memelihara ternak sedang berisiko 86% lebih banyak terkena hepatitis dibandingkan dengan yang tidak memelihara  ternak [rasio odds suaian (ORa=1,86; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,61-2,09]. Risiko tertinggi (2 kali lipat terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara subjek yang mengandangkan ternak sedang di dalam rumah (ORa=1,98; 95% CI=1,47-2,66, sedangkan risiko terkecil (38% lebih besar terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara yang mengandangkan ternak sedangnya di luar luar rumah dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak sedang (ORa=1,38; 95% CI=1,14-1,67 dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak. Kesimpulan: Kandang di luar rumah untuk meliharaan ternak sedang yang paling kecil menyebabkan risiko hepatitis. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20   Abstract Background: Environmental sanitation, among others raising medium-sized livestock, affect the spread of hepatitis A and E. This paper presents an assessment of relation between place of raising medium-sized livestock and risk of hepatitis in high prevalence endemic hepatitis provinces

  5. Improved method to raise polyclonal antibody using enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianke Ren; Long Wang; Guoxiang Liu; Wen Zhang; Zhejin Sheng; Zhugang Wang; Jian Fei

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant fusion protein is widely used as an antigen to raise antibodies against the epitope of a target protein. However, the concomitant anticarrier antibody in resulting antiserum reduces the production of the desired antibody and brings about unwanted non-specific immune reactions. It is proposed that the carrier protein transgenic animal could be used to solve this problem. To validate this hypothesis, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice were produced. By immunizing the mice with fusion protein His6HAtag-EGFP, we showed that the antiserum from the transgenic mice had higher titer antibody against His6HA tag and lower titer antibody against EGFP compared with that from wild-type mice. Therefore, this report describes an improved method to raise high titer antipeptide polyclonal antibody using EGFP transgenic mice that could have application potential in antibodypreparation.

  6. Experimentally transmitted marble spleen disease in pen-raised wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, J P; Jakowski, R M; Wyand, D S

    1975-10-01

    Pen-raised North American wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo L.) were experimentally infected with marble spleen disease (MSD) to determine their susceptibility to this disease. Gross and microscopic lesions were consistent with experimental MSD in pheasants and domestic turkeys: an enlarged mottled spleen, intranuclear inclusion bodies, and absence of pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Detectable levels of viral antigen were not demonstrable in sera of turkeys using the agar gell precipitin test.

  7. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

  8. The cost-effectiveness of raising the legal smoking age in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    2005-01-01

    Given evidence that most smokers start smoking before the age of 18 and that smokers who start earlier in life are less likely to quit, policies that reduce or delay initiation could have a large impact on public health. Raising the legal minimum purchase age of cigarettes to 21 may be an effective way for states to reduce youth smoking by making it harder for teens to buy cigarettes from stores and by reducing the number of legal buyers they encounter in their normal social circles. To inform the ongoing debate over this policy option in California, this study provides an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of raising the state's legal smoking age to 21. Costs and benefits were estimated from a societal perspective using a dynamic computer simulation model that simulates changes to the California population in age, composition, and smoking behavior over time. Secondary data for model parameters were obtained from publicly available sources. Population health impacts were estimated in terms of smoking prevalence and the change in cumulative quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to the California population over a 50-year period. Economic impacts were measured in monetary terms for medical cost savings, cost of law enforcement, and cost of checking identification. Compared to a status quo simulation, raising the smoking age to 21 would result in a drop in teen (ages 14-17) smoking prevalence from 13.3% to 2.4% (82% reduction). The policy would generate no net costs, in fact saving the state and its inhabitants a total of $24 billion over the next 50 years with a gain of 1.47 million QALYs compared to status quo. This research should prove useful to California's policy makers as they contemplate legislation to raise the state's legal smoking age.

  9. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanta, I S; Hasnat, Md A; Zeidner, N; Gurley, E S; Azziz-Baumgartner, E; Sharker, M A Y; Hossain, K; Khan, S U; Haider, N; Bhuyan, A A; Hossain, Md A; Luby, S P

    2017-10-01

    Poultry is commonly raised by households in rural Bangladesh. In 2007, the Government of Bangladesh began a mass media campaign to disseminate 10 recommended precautions to prevent transmission of H5N1 from poultry to humans. This longitudinal study explored the contribution of backyard poultry on household economy and nutrition and compared poultry-raising practices to government recommendations. From 2009 to 2012, we enrolled a nationally representative sample of 2489 primary backyard poultry raisers from 115 rural villages selected by probability proportional to population size. Researchers interviewed the raisers to collect data on poultry-raising practices. They followed the raisers for 2-12 months to collect data on household income and nutrition from poultry. Income from backyard poultry flocks accounted for 2.8% of monthly household income. Return on annual investment (ROI) per flock was 480%. Yearly, median family consumption of eggs was one-fifth of the total produced eggs and three poultry from their own flock. Respondents' reported practices conflicted with government recommendations. Sixty per cent of raisers had never heard of avian influenza or 'bird flu'. Among the respondents, 85% handled sick poultry or poultry that died due to illness, and 49% slaughtered or defeathered sick poultry. In 37% of households, children touched poultry. Fifty-eight per cent never washed their hands with soap after handling poultry, while <1% covered their nose and mouth with a cloth when handling poultry. Only 3% reported poultry illness and deaths to local authorities. These reported practices did not improve during the study period. Raising backyard poultry in rural Bangladesh provides important income and nutrition with an excellent ROI. Government recommendations to reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission did not impact the behaviour of poultry producers. Further research should prioritize developing interventions that simultaneously reduce the risk of

  10. Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cameron L; Aparicio, Lorena C; Kerridge, Ian H

    2013-08-19

    • Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. • Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. • Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. • Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking.

  11. NINETEENTH-CENTURY MANUSCRIPTS OF THE CASTRO-PR: THE CASE OF RAISING

    OpenAIRE

    Dayme Rosane BENÇAL; Altino,Fabiane Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the alternations of mid vowels /e/ and /o/ in the pretonic context, respectively, present in the XIX century manuscripts belonging to Castro - Paraná. As this kind of oscillation, called raising, is not a recent process in the Portuguese language, we seek for evidences of Labov uniformitarianism when describing the cases found in XIX century formal documents in comparison to the data of orality, made available by Bisol (1981) Viegas (1987, 2001) Bortoni et. al (199...

  12. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  13. UoGAS - A Get Away Special Satellite with Orbit-Raising Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    The low cost of satellite deployment from Shuttle GAS canister makes it an attractive launch option. However, the low deployment altitude severely constrains lifetime so the UoGAS (University of Surrey Get Away Special) spacecraft will incorporate a propulsion system. Lifetime extension methods are considered and a start-of-mission orbit-raising manoeuvre is selected. An orbit dynamics simulation method (taking into account the atmospheric drag) is discussed and results presented. Mission pro...

  14. PetroChina and Sinopec Raises Oil Ex-refinery Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sinopec and PetroChina have raised ex-refinery prices for gasoline and diesel to boost sagging margins as it faces soaring crude prices. The Chinese refiners increased 90-octane gasoline price by 100 yuan (US$12) a ton to about 3,580 yuan (US$432) a ton, and that of diesel by 40 yuan (US$4.80) a ton to 3,602 yuan (US$435),effective September 17.

  15. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mother and Soldier: Raising a Child with a Disability in a Low-Income Military Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nancy E.; Wall, Shavaun M.; Liebow, Harriet; Sabatino, Christine A.; Timberlake, Elizabeth M.; Farber, Michaela Z.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of six low-income women, each of whom is raising a child with a suspected or diagnosed disability while also serving as an active member of the armed forces. Their experiences as they attempt to strike a balance between the highly demanding work role of the military and their role as a mother of a child…

  17. Idiopathic obstructive eosinophilic enteritis with raised IgE: response to oral disodium cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilinsky, N. H.; Kottler, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with a 20-year history of recurrent abdominal pain and vomiting was found to have eosinophilic enteritis affecting the muscularis layer of the distal ileum. Tests for malabsorption were negative. The IgE was raised but there was no evidence of an allergic predisposition. The symptoms, eosinophilia, and radiological abnormality responded to oral disodium cromoglycate. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:6810329

  18. Camp Raising Spirits: An Oncology Nursing Society Chapter Leadership Success Story
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennimore, Laura; Burgunder, Mary; Lee Schafer, Sandra; Jameson, Gayle S

    2017-08-01

    Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) members share a unique passion for the people they serve and frequently commit to projects that make a difference. Camp Raising Spirits, a weekend retreat for adults with cancer, has made a difference in southwestern Pennsylvania for hundreds of people with cancer and their caregivers for 24 consecutive years. This article will describe how an ONS chapter capitalized on the leadership attributes of partnership, creativity, and commitment to sustain an important community service program. 
.

  19. EFFECT OF SHOE RAISE ALONG WITH MOTOR RELEARNING PROGRAMME (MRP ON AMBULATION IN CHRONIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan Bhalerao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke subjects face reduced tolerance to activity and sedentary lifestyle due to various impairments, such as muscle weakness, pain, spasticity, and poor balance. Thus, loss of independent ambulation especially outdoors is generally observed in them. Methods: Chronic stroke patients (> 6 months with Functional Ambulation Category score > 2 and able to walk at least 10 meters of distance with and without assistance from a tertiary healthcare centre were selected and treated. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups control group (n=14 and experimental group (n=13. Each group received Motor Relearning Programme for 60 minutes, 6 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group received an additional shoe-raise of 1 cm on the unaffected side along with while ambulating during therapy as well as at home. Pre and post treatment the patients were assessed for spatio-temporal parameters using foot print analysis method and Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment (RVGA Score using RVGA scale. Results: There was significant improvement seen in almost all the spatio-temporal gait parameters and RVGA score in within group analysis. Whereas on between group the results from between group comparison suggests that subjects in MRP with shoe-raise group showed better results in spatio-temporal parameters of gait than subjects receiving MRPalone. But there was no additional benefit of shoe-raise seen on RGVA score and angle of toe-out parameter. Conclusion: Additional use of shoe-raise helps to improve spatio-temporal gait parameters. However, there was no additional change seen in RVGA score.

  20. Mitigation of greenhouse gas fluxes from cultivated organic soils by raised water table

    OpenAIRE

    Regina, Kristiina

    2010-01-01

    Cultivated organic soils are a remarkable source of greenhouse gases (GHG) in some countries and raised ground water table has been suggested as a mitigation measure on these soils. Drainage of the peat increases mineralization of the organic matter and causes high emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) while emissions of methane (CH4) are lowered compared to pristine peatlands. In countries with a large area of organic soils these GHG emissions can be remarkable. In ...