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Sample records for nonmagnetite observe crystal

  1. Observation of a Discrete Time Crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Kyprianidis, A; Becker, P; Lee, A; Smith, J; Pagano, G; Potirniche, I -D; Potter, A C; Vishwanath, A; Yao, N Y; Monroe, C

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a fundamental concept in many areas of physics, ranging from cosmology and particle physics to condensed matter. A prime example is the breaking of spatial translation symmetry, which underlies the formation of crystals and the phase transition from liquid to solid. Analogous to crystals in space, the breaking of translation symmetry in time and the emergence of a "time crystal" was recently proposed, but later shown to be forbidden in thermal equilibrium. However, non-equilibrium Floquet systems subject to a periodic drive can exhibit persistent time-correlations at an emergent sub-harmonic frequency. This new phase of matter has been dubbed a "discrete time crystal" (DTC). Here, we present the first experimental observation of a discrete time crystal, in an interacting spin chain of trapped atomic ions. We apply a periodic Hamiltonian to the system under many-body localization (MBL) conditions, and observe a sub-harmonic temporal response that is robust to external perturbat...

  2. BRIEF REPORT OF ACTIVE CONTROLLED AND OBSERVABLE PROTEIN CRYSTALLIZATION FACILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ There are two tendency of development on space protein crystal growth facility.Increase the number of samples, for commercial purpose, or observe and control the crystallization process, for study of crystallization process.

  3. Observation of an Anisotropic Wigner Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Hasdemir, S.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Shayegan, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report a new correlated phase of two-dimensional charged carriers in high magnetic fields, manifested by an anisotropic insulating behavior at low temperatures. It appears in a large range of low Landau level fillings 1 /3 ≲ν ≲2 /3 in hole systems confined to wide GaAs quantum wells when the sample is tilted in magnetic field to an intermediate angle. The parallel field component (B∥) leads to a crossing of the lowest two Landau levels, and an elongated hole wave function in the direction of B∥. Under these conditions, the in-plane resistance exhibits an insulating behavior, with the resistance along B∥ about 10 times smaller than the resistance perpendicular to B∥. We interpret this anisotropic insulating phase as a two-component, striped Wigner crystal.

  4. Geometric dynamical observables in rare gas crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casetti, L. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Macchi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (INFM), Unita di Firenze, Largo Enrico Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    We present a detailed description of how a differential geometric approach to Hamiltonian dynamics can be used for determining the existence of a crossover between different dynamical regimes in a realistic system, a model of a rare gas solid. Such a geometric approach allows us to locate the energy threshold between weakly and strongly chaotic regimes, and to estimate the largest Lyapunov exponent. We show how standard methods of classical statistical mechanics, i.e., Monte Carlo simulations, can be used for our computational purposes. Finally we consider a Lennard-Jones crystal modeling solid xenon. The value of the energy threshold turns out to be in excellent agreement with the numerical estimate based on the crossover between slow and fast relaxation to equilibrium obtained in a previous work by molecular dynamics simulations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Geometric dynamical observables in rare gas crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Casetti, L; Casetti, Lapo; Macchi, Alessandro

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed description of how a differential geometric approach to Hamiltonian dynamics can be used for determining the existence of a crossover between different dynamical regimes in a realistic system, a model of a rare gas solid. Such a geometric approach allows to locate the energy threshold between weakly and strongly chaotic regimes, and to estimate the largest Lyapunov exponent. We show how standard mehods of classical statistical mechanics, i.e. Monte Carlo simulations, can be used for our computational purposes. Finally we consider a Lennard Jones crystal modeling solid Xenon. The value of the energy threshold turns out to be in excellent agreement with the numerical estimate based on the crossover between slow and fast relaxation to equilibrium obtained in a previous work by molecular dynamics simulations.

  6. Real-time molecular scale observation of crystal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Roy E; Houben, Lothar; Wolf, Sharon G; Leitus, Gregory; Lang, Zhong-Ling; Carbó, Jorge J; Poblet, Josep M; Neumann, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    How molecules in solution form crystal nuclei, which then grow into large crystals, is a poorly understood phenomenon. The classical mechanism of homogeneous crystal nucleation proceeds via the spontaneous random aggregation of species from liquid or solution. However, a non-classical mechanism suggests the formation of an amorphous dense phase that reorders to form stable crystal nuclei. So far it has remained an experimental challenge to observe the formation of crystal nuclei from five to thirty molecules. Here, using polyoxometallates, we show that the formation of small crystal nuclei is observable by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. We observe both classical and non-classical nucleation processes, depending on the identity of the cation present. The experiments verify theoretical studies that suggest non-classical nucleation is the lower of the two energy pathways. The arrangement in just a seven-molecule proto-crystal matches the order found by X-ray diffraction of a single bulk crystal, which demonstrates that the same structure was formed in each case.

  7. New states as observed by the Crystal Barrel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustin, I.; Amsler, C.; Baker, C.A.; Barnett, B.M.; Batty, C.J.; Beuchert, K.; Birien, P.; Bistirlich, J.; Bluem, P.; Bossingham, R.; Bossy, H.; Braune, K.; Brose, J.; Bugg, D.V.; Burchell, M.; Case, T.; Chung, S.U.; Cooper, A.; Crowe, K.M.; Dietz, H.P.; Dombrowski, S. v.; Doser, M.; Duennweber, W.; Engelhardt, D.; Englert, M.; Faessler, M.A.; Felix, C.; Folger, G.; Hackmann, R.; Haddock, R.P.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hessey, N.P.; Hidas, P.; Illinger, P.; Jamnik, D.; Javorfi, Z.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kaemmle, B.; Kiel, T.; Kisiel, J.; Klempt, E.; Kobel, M.; Koch, H.; Kolo, C.; Koenigsmann, K.; Kunze, M.; Landua, R.; Luedemann, J.; Matthaey, H.; Merkel, M.; Merlo, J.P.; Meyer, C.A.; Meyer-Berkhout, U.; Montanet, L.; Noble, A.; Peters, K.; Pinter, G.; Ravndal, S.; Sanjari, A.H.; Schaefer, E.; Schmid, B.; Schmidt, P.; Spanier, S.; Strassburger, C.; Strohbusch, U.; Suffert, M.; Urner, D.; Voelcker, C.; Walter, F.; Walther, D.; Wiedner, U.; Winter, N.; Zoll, J.; Zupancic, C. (Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany; Crystal Barrel Collaboration

    1993-06-07

    The Crystal Barrel Detector has been in operation since October 1989. Results on the analysis of the annihilation of protonium at rest into three pseudoscalars is presented. The [pi][sup 0][pi][sup 0][pi][sup 0] final state confirms the existence of f[sub 2](1520)[yields][pi][sup 0][pi][sup 0]. In the [eta][eta] system of the [pi][sup 0][eta][eta] final state an isoscalar J[sup PC]=0[sup ++] resonance with a mass of 1560 MeV/c[sup 2] and a width of 245 MeV/c[sup 2] is observed. The identification with f[sub 0](1590) is doubtful since the [eta][eta]' decay is not observed with the corresponding strength. Our analysis yields an upper limit for the relative branching ratio BR(f[sub 0](1560)[yields][eta][eta]')/(f[sub 0](1560)[yields][eta][eta])<0.24. (orig.)

  8. Crystallization and Characterization of Galdieria sulphuraria RUBISCO in Two Crystal Forms: Structural Phase Transition Observed in P21 Crystal Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguslaw Stec

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCOfrom the red algae Galdieria Sulphuraria. The protein crystallized in two different crystalforms, the I422 crystal form being obtained from high salt and the P21 crystal form beingobtained from lower concentration of salt and PEG. We report here the crystallization,preliminary stages of structure determination and the detection of the structural phasetransition in the P21 crystal form of G. sulphuraria RUBISCO. This red algae enzymebelongs to the hexadecameric class (L8S8 with an approximate molecular weight 0.6MDa.The phase transition in G. sulphuraria RUBISCO leads from two hexadecamers to a singlehexadecamer per asymmetric unit. The preservation of diffraction power in a phasetransition for such a large macromolecule is rare.

  9. Observation of soliton pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Colman, P; Combrié, S; Sagnes, I; Wong, C W; De Rossi, A

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate soliton-effect pulse compression in mm-long photonic crystal waveguides resulting from strong anomalous dispersion and self-phase modulation. Compression from 3ps to 580fs, at low pulse energies(~10pJ), is measured via autocorrelation.

  10. Observations on the crystallization of spodumene from aqueous solutions in a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianking; Chou, I-Ming; Yuan, Shunda; Burruss, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Crystallization experiments were conducted in a new type of hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC; type V) using LiAlSi2O6 (S) gel and H2O (W) as starting materials. A total of 21 experiments were performed at temperatures up to 950°C and pressures up to 788 MPa. In the samples with relatively low W/S ratios, many small crystals formed in the melt phase during cooling. In those with high W/S ratios, only a few crystals with smooth surfaces crystallized from the aqueous fluid in the presence of melt droplets, which were gradually consumed during crystal growth, indicating rapid transfer of material from the melt to the crystals through the aqueous fluid. The nucleation of crystals started at 710 (±70)°C and 520 (±80) MPa, and crystal growth ended at 570 (±40)°C and 320 (±90) MPa, with the cooling P-T path within the stability field of spodumene + quartz in the S-W system. The observed linear crystal growth rates in the aqueous phase, calculated by dividing the maximum length of a single crystal by the duration of the entire growth step, were 4.7 × 10−6 and 5.7 × 10−6 cm s−1 for the cooling rates of 0.5 and 1°C min−1, respectively. However, a rapid crystal growth rate of 3.6 × 10−5 cm s−1 in the aqueous fluid was observed when the components were supplied by nearby melt droplets. Our results show that when crystals nucleate in the aqueous fluid instead of the melt phase, there are fewer nuclei formed, and they grow much faster due to the low viscosity of the aqueous fluid, which accelerates diffusion of components for the growth of crystals. Therefore, the large crystals in granitic pegmatite can crystallize directly from aqueous fluids rather than hydrosilicate melt.

  11. Special phase transformation and crystal growth pathways observed in nanoparticles†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnegan Michael P

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Phase transformation and crystal growth in nanoparticles may happen via mechanisms distinct from those in bulk materials. We combine experimental studies of as-synthesized and hydrothermally coarsened titania (TiO2 and zinc sulfide (ZnS with thermodynamic analysis, kinetic modeling and molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, synchrotron X-ray absorption and scattering, and UV-vis spectroscopy. At low temperatures, phase transformation in titania nanoparticles occurs predominantly via interface nucleation at particle–particle contacts. Coarsening and crystal growth of titania nanoparticles can be described using the Smoluchowski equation. Oriented attachment-based crystal growth was common in both hydrothermal solutions and under dry conditions. MD simulations predict large structural perturbations within very fine particles, and are consistent with experimental results showing that ligand binding and change in aggregation state can cause phase transformation without particle coarsening. Such phenomena affect surface reactivity, thus may have important roles in geochemical cycling.

  12. Observation of liquid crystals in heavy petroleum fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza Bagheri, S.; Gray, Murray R.; McCaffrey, William C.; Shaw, John M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: bagheri@ualberta.ca

    2010-07-01

    The presence of liquid crystalline particles in heavy oils was reported in this work. Cross-polarized lights were used to investigate the presence of these particles as a number of bitumen and heavy oil samples were tested. The samples were obtained from different origins and locations mainly Canada, Mexico, and Saudi Arabia. They were subjected to different temperatures and liquid crystalline behavior was monitored throughout the process. It was noticed that liquid crystals started to appear when the samples were heated to a temperature of 330K, and they remained present for days even when the samples were cooled down. However, when the samples were heated beyond 430k, the liquid crystal domain disappeared completely. Moreover, liquid crystalline behavior appeared in the samples when they were subjected to toluene vapor at room temperature. In general it was stated that bitumen and heavy oils exhibit a minimum of three phase changes when they are subjected to temperatures ranging from 150K to 520K.

  13. Observation of soliton compression in silicon photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Redondo, A.; Husko, C.; Eades, D.; Zhang, Y.; Li, J.; Krauss, T.F.; Eggleton, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Solitons are nonlinear waves present in diverse physical systems including plasmas, water surfaces and optics. In silicon, the presence of two photon absorption and accompanying free carriers strongly perturb the canonical dynamics of optical solitons. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of soliton-effect pulse compression of picosecond pulses in silicon, despite two photon absorption and free carriers. Here we achieve compression of 3.7 ps pulses to 1.6 ps with crystal waveguide and an ultra-sensitive frequency-resolved electrical gating technique to detect the ultralow energies in the nanostructured device. Strong agreement with a nonlinear Schrödinger model confirms the measurements. These results further our understanding of nonlinear waves in silicon and open the way to soliton-based functionalities in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible platforms. PMID:24423977

  14. Observation of wavelength-dependent Brewster angle shift in 3D photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Priya,

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of polarized light with photonic crystals exhibit unique features due to its sub-wavelength nature on the surface and the periodic variation of refractive index in the depth of the crystals. Here, we present a detailed study of polarization anisotropy in light scattering associated with three-dimensional photonic crystals with face centered cubic symmetry over a broad wavelength and angular range. The polarization anisotropy leads to a shift in the conventional Brewster angle defined for a planar interface with certain refractive index. The observed shift in Brewster angle strongly depends on the index contrast and lattice constant. Polarization-dependent stop gap measurements are performed on photonic crystals with different index contrast and lattice constants. These measurements indicate unique stop gap branching at high-symmetry points in the Brillouin zone of the photonic crystals. The inherited stop gap branching is observed for TE polarization whereas that is suppressed for TM polarizat...

  15. Real-time observation of the isothermal crystallization kinetics in a deeply supercooled liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, M.; Cormier, L.; Hennet, L.; Petrillo, C.; Sacchetti, F.

    2017-01-01

    Below the melting temperature Tm, crystals are the stable phase of typical elemental or molecular systems. However, cooling down a liquid below Tm, crystallization is anything but inevitable. The liquid can be supercooled, eventually forming a glass below the glass transition temperature Tg. Despite their long lifetimes and the presence of strong barriers that produces an apparent stability, supercooled liquids and glasses remain intrinsically a metastable state and thermodynamically unstable towards the crystal. Here we investigated the isothermal crystallization kinetics of the prototypical strong glassformer GeO2 in the deep supercooled liquid at 1100 K, about half-way between Tm and Tg. The crystallization process has been observed through time-resolved neutron diffraction for about three days. Data show a continuous reorganization of the amorphous structure towards the alpha-quartz phase with the final material composed by crystalline domains plunged into a low-density, residual amorphous matrix. A quantitative analysis of the diffraction patterns allows determining the time evolution of the relative fractions of crystal and amorphous, that was interpreted through an empirical model for the crystallization kinetics. This approach provides a very good description of the experimental data and identifies a predator-prey-like mechanism between crystal and amorphous, where the density variation acts as a blocking barrier. PMID:28255173

  16. In situ observation of the role of alumina particles on the crystallization behavior of slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrling, C.

    2000-09-01

    The confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) allows crystallization behavior in liquid slags to he observed in situ at high temperatures. Slags in the lime-silica-alumina-magnesia system are easily tinder cooled and it is possible to construct time temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams for this system. The presence of solid alumina particles its these liquid slags was studied to determine if these particles act as heterogeneous nucleation sites that cause she precipitation of solid material within slags. The introduction of alumina particles reduced the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and increased the temperature at which crystallization was observed in the slags to close to the liquidus temperature for the slag. Crystal growth rates are in a good agreement with Ivantsov's solution of the problem of diffusion controlled dendritic growth. Alumina appears to be a potent nucleating agent in the slag systems that were studied. (author)

  17. Experimental observation of robust surface states on photonic crystals possessing single and double Weyl points

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wen-Jie; Chan, C T

    2015-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a time-reversal invariant Weyl photonic crystal that possesses single Weyl nodes with topological charge of 1 and double Weyl nodes with a higher topological charge of 2. Using numerical simulations and microwave experiment, nontrivial band gaps with nonzero Chern numbers for a fixed kz was demonstrated. The robustness of the surface state between the Weyl photonic crystal and PEC against kz-conserving scattering was experimentally observed.

  18. Observation of nuclear dechanneling length reduction for high energy protons in a short bent crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Scandale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Deflection of 400 GeV/c protons by a short bent silicon crystal was studied at the CERN SPS. It was shown that the dechanneling probability increases while the dechanneling length decreases with an increase of incident angles of particles relative to the crystal planes. The observation of the dechanneling length reduction provides evidence of the particle population increase at the top levels of transverse energies in the potential well of the planar channels.

  19. Manufacturing of advanced bent crystals for Laue Optics for Gamma ObservationS (LOGOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzolari, Andrea, E-mail: mazzolari@fe.infn.it [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1/c, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Section of Ferrara (Italy); Camattari, Riccardo; Bellucci, Valerio; Paternò, Gianfranco [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1/c, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Section of Ferrara (Italy); Scian, Carlo; Mattei, Giovanni [University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei (Italy); Guidi, Vincenzo [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1/c, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Section of Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    X- and γ-ray detection is currently a hot topic for a wide scientific community, spanning from astrophysics to nuclear medicine. However, lack of optics capable of focusing photons of energies in the energy range 0.1–1 MeV leaves the photon detection to a direct-view approach, resulting in a limited efficiency and resolution. The main scope of the INFN-LOGOS project is the development of technologies that enable manufacturing highly performing optical elements to be employed in the realization of hard X-ray lenses. Such lenses, typically named Laue lenses, consist of an ensemble of crystals disposed in concentric rings in order to diffract the incident radiation towards the focus of the lens, where a detector is placed. In particular, the INFN-LOGOS project aims at the realization of intrinsically bent silicon and germanium crystals exploiting the quasi-mosaic effect for focusing hard X-rays. Crystal manufacturing relies on a proper revisitation of techniques typically employed in silicon micromachining, such as thin film deposition and patterning or ion implantation.

  20. Observation of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, James F; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wong, Chee Wei

    2010-07-19

    Four-wave mixing is observed in a silicon W1 photonic crystal waveguide. The dispersion dependence of the idler conversion efficiency is measured and shown to be enhanced at wavelengths exhibiting slow group velocities. A 12-dB increase in the conversion efficiency is observed. Concurrently, a decrease in the conversion bandwidth is observed due to the increase in group velocity dispersion in the slow-light regime. The experimentally observed conversion efficiencies agree with the numerically modeled results.

  1. Observations of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, James F; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wong, Chee Wei

    2010-01-01

    Four-wave mixing is observed in a silicon W1 photonic crystal waveguide. The dispersion dependence of the idler conversion efficiency is measured and shown to be enhanced at wavelengths exhibiting slow group velocities. A 12-dB increase in the conversion efficiency is observed. Concurrently, a decrease in the conversion bandwidth is observed due to the increase in group velocity dispersion in the slow-light regime. The experimentally observed conversion efficiencies agree with the numerically modeled results.

  2. Observations of defect propagation in [100]-oriented opal-type photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Chong-Jun; Richard M. De La Rue; Nigel P. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Charged colloidal suspensions have been used as experimental models for the study of crystal nucleation. Here we propose that the technique of template-assisted colloidal self-assembly can be used to visualize the effects of defect propagation in atomic crystal films produced using epitaxial growth. Templates with periodic line defects were used to grow [100]-oriented three-dimeusional photonic crystals by means of the template-assisted colloidal self-assembly method,aided by capillary and gravitational forces. The defect propagation in the [100J-oriented photonie crystal was observed using scanning electron microscopy, both at the surface of the crystal and on cleaved facets. This method is useful in the understanding of defect propagation in the growth of colloidal films on templates - and the same approach may also prove useful for the understanding of atomic crystal growth on substrates with defects. Additionally, the deliberate incorporation of line defects may prove valuable as a way of introducing waveguide channels into three-dimensional photonic crystals.

  3. Photonic crystals possessing multiple Weyl points and the experimental observation of robust surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Meng; Chan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Weyl points, as monopoles of Berry curvature in momentum space, have captured much attention recently in various branches of physics. Realizing topological materials that exhibit such nodal points is challenging and indeed, Weyl points have been found experimentally in transition metal arsenide and phosphide and gyroid photonic crystal whose structure is complex. If realizing even the simplest type of single Weyl nodes with a topological charge of 1 is difficult, then making a real crystal carrying higher topological charges may seem more challenging. Here we design, and fabricate using planar fabrication technology, a photonic crystal possessing single Weyl points (including type-II nodes) and multiple Weyl points with topological charges of 2 and 3. We characterize this photonic crystal and find nontrivial 2D bulk band gaps for a fixed kz and the associated surface modes. The robustness of these surface states against kz-preserving scattering is experimentally observed for the first time. PMID:27703140

  4. Photonic crystals possessing multiple Weyl points and the experimental observation of robust surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Meng; Chan, C. T.

    2016-10-01

    Weyl points, as monopoles of Berry curvature in momentum space, have captured much attention recently in various branches of physics. Realizing topological materials that exhibit such nodal points is challenging and indeed, Weyl points have been found experimentally in transition metal arsenide and phosphide and gyroid photonic crystal whose structure is complex. If realizing even the simplest type of single Weyl nodes with a topological charge of 1 is difficult, then making a real crystal carrying higher topological charges may seem more challenging. Here we design, and fabricate using planar fabrication technology, a photonic crystal possessing single Weyl points (including type-II nodes) and multiple Weyl points with topological charges of 2 and 3. We characterize this photonic crystal and find nontrivial 2D bulk band gaps for a fixed kz and the associated surface modes. The robustness of these surface states against kz-preserving scattering is experimentally observed for the first time.

  5. Whole Earth Telescope observations of BPM 37093: a seismological test of crystallization theory in white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kanaan, A; Metcalfe, T S; Montgomery, M H; Nitta, A; Winget, D E

    2005-01-01

    BPM 37093 is the only hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf currently known which has sufficient mass (~ 1.1 M_sun) to theoretically crystallize while still inside the ZZ Ceti instability strip (T_eff ~ 12,000 K). As a consequence, this star represents our first opportunity to test crystallization theory directly. If the core is substantially crystallized, then the inner boundary for each pulsation mode will be located at the top of the solid core rather than at the center of the star, affecting mainly the average period spacing. This is distinct from the "mode trapping" caused by the stratified surface layers, which modifies the pulsation periods more selectively. In this paper we report on Whole Earth Telescope observations of BPM 37093 obtained in 1998 and 1999. Based on a simple analysis of the average period spacing we conclude that a large fraction of the total stellar mass is likely to be crystallized.

  6. Observation of Optical Solitons and Abnormal Modulation Instability in Liquid Crystals with Negative Dielectric Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Junzhu; Liu, Jinlong; Wang, Zhuo; Li, Yiheng; Guo, Qi; Hu, Wei; Xuan, Li

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the optical beam propagation in the nematic liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy, which is aligned homeotropically in a $80\\mu m$-thickness planar cell in the presence of an externally voltage. It is predicted that the nonlocal nonlinearity of liquid crystal undergo an oscillatory response function with a negative nonlinear refractive index coefficient. We found that the oscillatory nonlocal nonlinearity can support stable bright solitons, which are observed in experiment. We also found that abnormal modulation instability occurs with infinity gain coefficient at a fixed spatial frequency, which is no depend on the beam intensity. We observed the modulation instability in the liquid crystal at a very low intensity ($0.26W/cm^2$), and the maximum gain frequency were found kept unchange when beam power changes over 2-3 orders of magnitude.

  7. In-situ observation of nucleated polymer crystallization in polyoxymethylene sandwich composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav eSlouf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a dynamic sandwich method, which can be used for in-situ observation and quantification of polymer crystallization nucleated by micro/nanoparticles. The method was applied on polyoxymethylene (POM composites with three nucleating agents: talc micropowder (POM/mTalc, chalk nanopowder (POM/nChalk and titanate nanotubes (POM/TiNT. The nucleating agents were deposited between polymer films, the resulting sandwich samples were consolidated by thermal treatment, and their microtomed cross-sections were observed during isothermal crystallization by polarized light microscopy. As the intensity of polarized light was shown to be proportional to the relative crystallinity, the PLM results could be fitted to Avrami equation and the nucleating activity of all investigated particles could be quantified by means of Avrami parameters (n, k. The crystallization half-times increased reproducibly in the following order: POM/nChalk < POM/mTalc < POM/TiNT ~ POM. For strong nucleating agents (mTalc, nChalk, the crystallization kinetics corresponded to spontaneous crystallization starting from central nucleating layer, which was verified by computer simulations. The results were also confirmed by DSC. We concluded that the sandwich method is an efficient microscopic technique for detailed evaluation of nucleating activity of arbitrary micro/nanoparticles in polymer systems.

  8. High-voltage electron-microscopical observation of crack-tip dislocations in silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masaki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Higashi-ku Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)]. E-mail: masaki@dera.zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Higashida, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Higashi-ku Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2005-07-25

    Crack-tip dislocations in silicon single crystals were observed by high-voltage electron microscopy. Cracks were introduced into silicon wafers at room temperature by a Vickers indenter. The indented specimens were annealed at 823 K in order to activate dislocation emission from the crack tip under the residual stress due to the indentation. In the specimen without annealing, no dislocations were observed around the crack. On the other hand, in the specimen after the annealing, the aspect of the early stage of dislocation emission was observed, where dislocations were emitted not as a perfect dislocation but as a partial dislocation in the hinge-type plastic zone. Prominent dislocation arrays that were emitted from a crack tip were also observed, and they were found to be of shielding type, which increases the fracture toughness of those crystals.

  9. Observation of inhomogeneity in congruent LiTaO3 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.B.Hu; H.D.Jiang; H.Liu; S.S.Jiang; Q.Li; J.Y.Wang; C.Q.Zhang; B.Ten

    2001-01-01

    The inhomogeneity in a congrunet LiTaO3 crystal has been observed by transmission synchrotron topography.Many extraordinary regions exist in congruent LiTaO3 crystal and they often show diffraction intensity different from that of ordinary regions in synchrotron topographs.Differential thermal analysis indiates that the Curie temperature of the extraordinary region is lower than that of ordinary region,and the extraordinary region is really a high defect density region.The diffraction contrast of the extraordinary region in synchrotron topographs is explained qualitatively by a calculation at the selected wavelength.2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Observation of a structural transition for coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, N.; Drewsen, M.

    2003-01-01

    A structural transition for laser cooled ion Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap just above the stability limit of parametrically resonant excitation of bulk plasma modes has been observed. In contrast to the usual spheroidal shell structures present below the stability limit, the ions arrange...... in a "string-of-disks" configuration. The spheroidal envelopes of the string-of-disks structures are in agreement with results from cold fluid theory usually valid for ion Coulomb crystals if the ion systems are assumed to be rotating collectively....

  11. Direct observation of defect structure in protein crystals by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaud, G. (Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)); Furcinitti, P.S. (Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)); Fleming, J.C.; Lyon, M.K.; Douglas, K. (Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States))

    1992-09-01

    We have examined the structure of S-layers isolated from {ital Sulfolobus} {ital acidocaldarius} using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the AFM images, we were able to directly observe individual dimers of the crystal, defects in the crystal structure, and twin boundaries. We have identified two types of boundaries, one defined by a mirror plane and the other by a glide plane. This work shows that twin boundaries are highly structured regions that are directly related to the organization of units within each crystal domain. Projection maps from TEM images have shown that there are significant differences in the final average maps, depending on which side of the sample is adsorbed to the carbon support film. Comparison of AFM images to TEM projection maps has allowed us to relate high magnification views obtained by AFM to the relatively high resolution information obtained by electron microscopy and image processing.

  12. In-Situ Observation of SiC Bulk Single Crystal Growth by XRD System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In-situ analysis for SiC bulk single crystal growth was reported using vertical X-ray diffractometer system. A furnace for SiC sublimation growth combined with the XRD system which possessed three kinds of functions including topography, rocking curve measurement and crystal growth rate monitoring was developed. These functions could contribute as a powerful tool finding the optimum growth condition by dynamic observation in the crucible. In this study, the in-situ X-ray topographs succeeded to capture dynamic elongation of defects and dislocation generated in the SiC growing crystals. The in-situ rocking curve measurement reviled appearance of mosaic structure in the SiC crystal grown with high growth rate. The in-situ growth rate monitoring also succeeded very precisely using the direct X-ray beam absorption. On the base of findings and facts obtained by the in-situ observations, the importance for the SiC growth was discussed.

  13. Direct observation of coupling between orientation and flow fluctuations in a nematic liquid crystal at equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihara, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Nobutaka; Sasaki, Yuji; Nagaya, Tomoyuki

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate coupling between orientation and flow fluctuations in a nematic liquid crystal at equilibrium, we simultaneously observe the intensity change due to director fluctuations under a polarizing microscope and the Brownian motion of a fluorescent particle trapped weakly by optical tweezers. The calculated cross-correlation function of the particle position and the spatial gradient of the intensity is nonzero, clearly indicating the existence of coupling.

  14. In Situ Observation of Crystal Rain and Its Effect on Columnar to Equiaxed Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honggang Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of a columnar to equiaxed transition (CET and grain refinement is of high commercial importance for the improvement of the solidification structure of metal castings. The crystal rain from the free surface is frequently generated to produce grain refinement and promote a CET in alloys under the application of electromagnetic fields. However, the mechanism underlying the CET influenced by the generated crystal rain is not clear because the employed metallic alloys are opaque. In the present paper, the crystal rain in a transparent NH4Cl–H2O solution is produced by blowing a cooled nitrogen gas on the free surface to observe in situ its impact on the occurrence of a CET. The results show that the crystal rain can significantly promote a CET even in a high temperature gradient and that a CET only can occur when the temperature gradient is almost close to zero in the reference experiment. Finally, the most likely mechanism is discussed and clarified.

  15. Observation of Proton Reflection on Bent Silicon Crystals at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2007-01-01

    We report the observation of the so-called volume reflection effect with 400 GeV/c protons interacting with bent silicon crystals in the H8 beam line performed by the H8RDD22 Collaboration at the CERN SPS. The volume reflection is an effect of the same nature of the particle channeling among the crystalline planes of a bent crystal. The reflection occurs at the tangency point of a particle trajectory with the bent crystalline planes where the transverse component of the particle momentum is reversed. The measurements were realized with a high spatial resolution detector mainly based on silicon microstrips showing the effect on particle trajectories of bent silicon crystals in several configurations. The proton beam was deviated in a direction opposite to that of channeling by 12-14 mrad, which is 1.3 times the critical angle, with an efficiency greater than 97% in a range of the proton-to-crystal incident angle as wide as the bending angle of crystallographic planes. This evidence opens new perspectives for m...

  16. Experimental observation of long-wavelength dispersive wave generation induced by self-defocusing nonlinearity in BBO crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally observe long-wavelength dispersive waves generation in a BBO crystal. A soliton was formed in normal GVD regime of the crystal by a self-defocusing and negative nonlinearity through phase-mismatched quatradic interaction. Strong temporal pulse compression confirmed the formation of soliton during the pulse propagation inside the crystal. Significant dispersive wave radiation was measured in the anomalous GVD regime of the BBO crystal. With the pump wavelengths from 1.24 to 1.4 $\\mu$m, tunable dispersive waves are generated around 1.9 to 2.2 $\\mu$m. The observed dispersive wave generation is well understood by simulations.

  17. Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Matthew S; Lepeshkin, Nick N; Boyd, Robert W

    2003-03-21

    We have observed slow light propagation with a group velocity as low as 57.5+/-0.5 m/s at room temperature in a ruby crystal. A quantum coherence effect, coherent population oscillations, produces a very narrow spectral "hole" in the homogeneously broadened absorption profile of ruby. The resulting rapid spectral variation of the refractive index leads to a large value of the group index. We observe slow light propagation both for Gaussian-shaped light pulses and for amplitude modulated optical beams in a system that is much simpler than those previously used for generating slow light.

  18. In Situ Observations of Crystallization in Water-Undersaturated Pegmatite Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbescu, M. L. C.; Wilke, M.; Gehrmann, S.; Schmidt, C.

    2014-12-01

    Crystallization behavior of water-undersaturated haplogranite-Li-B-H2O melts was observed and recorded in diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments. We have generated salient pegmatitic features such as coarse and zoned crystals; comb and radiating textures; and graphic intergrowths from moderately-fluxed granitic melts in the absence of a hydrous phase. The experimental conditions placed the hydrous melt under variable degrees of undercooling between their liquidus and glass transition. Undercooling of ~100-150°C below the liquidus produced crystals that reached 0.4 of cell diameter in less than one day. The starting material was a homogeneous glass with 2% Li2O, 4.6% B2O3, and 3.0 or 6.5% H2O synthesized in an internally heated pressure vessel at 1200°C and 400 MPa. The composition was selected to approximate bulk cores of Li-rich pegmatites. The crystallization temperature was dropped in 50°C intervals from 600°C to 400°C to simulate pegmatite cooling. Run duration was laser drilling) included in the cell. The shift in the wavenumber of the ν3-SiO4Raman band of a chemically inert zircon crystal was used to determine pressure as a function of temperature. Reproducible phase assemblages were documented using Raman spectroscopy and EPMA. Virgilite (solid solution between SiO2 and LiAlSi2O6) nucleated at T≤600°C. Alkali-feldspar and muscovite nucleated at T≤550°C. Virgilite and alkali-feldspar nucleated heterogeneously on surfaces of zircon, gasket, and diamond windows (see attached figure), whereas muscovite nucleated homogeneously. Development of pegmatite texture was facilitated by the relatively low nucleation density at P of ~300 to 400 MPa. Radically higher nucleation density at an estimated P of Time-lapse photography allowed for accurate growth-rate measurements and demonstrated constant volumetric growth rate of unobstructed crystals at low to moderate fraction of crystallization. The DAC experiments complement prior kinetic studies conducted in 3 to

  19. Effect of internal radiation on the diameter instability observed during the Czochralski growth of Cr4+, Nd3+: YAG crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiez, Reza; Rezaei, Yazdan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the growth process and the absorption spectra properties of the Cr4+, Nd3+:YAG crystal are reported. The crystal diameter instability, which occurred just beneath the shoulder, is associated with a nearly sharp change in the crystal color. The effect is described in terms of the internal radiative heat transport through the semitransparent garnet crystal which is highly sensitive to the optical properties of the dopant ions. The color gradient along the crystal is assigned to the charge compensation mechanism almost failed at around the shoulder stage of the process, and the instability is mainly attributed to a significant decrease in the radiative heat transfer within the crystal. The effect of radiative heat transfer, within the crystal and the melt, on the crystallization front shape is numerically investigated to simulate the observed instability. Due to the large segregation coefficient of chromium ions, increasing in the optical thickness of the crystal corresponds to a decrease in that of the melt. It is shown that, both of these variations of optical properties result in a significant decrease in the convexity of the crystal-melt interface. The effect of impurity deposition on the crystal surface was found to lower the critical Reynolds number at which the interface inversion occurs.

  20. Observation of the effective linear polarization induced by the asymmetrical Raman gain of YVO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Fengjiang; Lin, Zhiyang; Zhu, Siqi

    2016-10-01

    We originally present a linearly polarized Raman radiation emitted from an actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/YVO4 laser. An 1175.25 nm Raman output was achieved using a uniaxial a-cut YVO4 crystal in a Z-shape laser cavity. The stable Raman power of 1.8 W was obtained, corresponding conversion efficiency of 8.8% from 1064 nm to 1175 nm. The Raman radiation with a polarization extinction ratio of 10.4-dB was observed for the first time. Our experimental results demonstrate that the asymmetrical Raman crystal gain can result in a uniform linear polarization and permit emitting orthogonal polarization radiation in a cascaded Raman laser.

  1. Floating Silicon Method single crystal ribbon - observations and proposed limit cycle theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, Peter; Kernan, Brian; Helenbrook, Brian T.; Sun, Dawei; Sinclair, Frank; Carlson, Frederick

    2016-10-01

    In the Floating Silicon Method (FSM), a single-crystal Si ribbon is grown while floating on the surface of a Si melt. In this paper, we describe the phenomenology of FSM, including the observation of approximately regularly spaced "facet lines" on the ribbon surface whose orientation aligns with (111) crystal planes. Sb demarcation experiments sectioned through the thickness of the ribbon reveal that the solid/melt interface consists of dual (111) planes and that the leading edge facet growth is saccadic in nature, rather than steady-state. To explain this behavior, we propose a heuristic solidification limit cycle theory, using a continuum level of description with anisotropic kinetics as developed by others, and generalizing the interface kinetics to include a roughening transition as well as a re-faceting mechanism that involves curvature and the Gibbs-Thomson effect.

  2. Observation of strong leakage reduction in crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandale, W. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire (LAL), Universite Paris Sud Orsay, Orsay (France); INFN Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Arduini, G.; Butcher, M.; Cerutti, F.; Garattini, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Metral, E. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mirarchi, D. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Montesano, S.; Redaelli, S. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rossi, R. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Baricordi, S. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); and others

    2015-09-02

    In ideal two-stage collimation systems, the secondary collimator–absorber should have its length sufficient to exclude practically the exit of halo particles with large impact parameters. In the UA9 experiments on the crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam a 60 cm long tungsten bar is used as a secondary collimator–absorber which is insufficient for the full absorption of the halo protons. Multi-turn simulation studies of the collimation allowed to select the position for the beam loss monitor downstream the collimation area where the contribution of particles deflected by the crystal in channeling regime but emerging from the secondary collimator–absorber is considerably reduced. This allowed observation of a strong leakage reduction of halo protons from the SPS beam collimation area, thereby approaching the case with an ideal absorber.

  3. Observation of strong leakage reduction in crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Scandale

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In ideal two-stage collimation systems, the secondary collimator–absorber should have its length sufficient to exclude practically the exit of halo particles with large impact parameters. In the UA9 experiments on the crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam a 60 cm long tungsten bar is used as a secondary collimator–absorber which is insufficient for the full absorption of the halo protons. Multi-turn simulation studies of the collimation allowed to select the position for the beam loss monitor downstream the collimation area where the contribution of particles deflected by the crystal in channeling regime but emerging from the secondary collimator–absorber is considerably reduced. This allowed observation of a strong leakage reduction of halo protons from the SPS beam collimation area, thereby approaching the case with an ideal absorber.

  4. Observation of strong leakage reduction in crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandale, W.; Arduini, G.; Butcher, M.; Cerutti, F.; Garattini, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Metral, E.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, R.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Claps, G.; Dabagov, S.; Hampai, D.; Murtas, F.; Cavoto, G.; Iacoangeli, F.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A. G.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Durum, A. A.; Maisheev, V. A.; Sandomirskiy, Yu. E.; Yanovich, A. A.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, Yu. M.; Lapina, L. P.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.

    2015-09-01

    In ideal two-stage collimation systems, the secondary collimator-absorber should have its length sufficient to exclude practically the exit of halo particles with large impact parameters. In the UA9 experiments on the crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam a 60 cm long tungsten bar is used as a secondary collimator-absorber which is insufficient for the full absorption of the halo protons. Multi-turn simulation studies of the collimation allowed to select the position for the beam loss monitor downstream the collimation area where the contribution of particles deflected by the crystal in channeling regime but emerging from the secondary collimator-absorber is considerably reduced. This allowed observation of a strong leakage reduction of halo protons from the SPS beam collimation area, thereby approaching the case with an ideal absorber.

  5. Observation of focusing of 400 GeV/c proton beam with the help of bent crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W; Butcher, M; Cerutti, F; Gilardoni, S; Lechner, A; Losito, R; Masi, A; Metral, E; Mirarchi, D; Montesano, S; Redaelli, S; Smirnov, G; Bandiera, L; Baricordi, S; Dalpiaz, P; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Vincenzi, D; Claps, G; Dabagov, S; Hampai, D; Murtas, F; Cavoto, G; Garattini, M; Iacoangeli, F; Ludovici, L; Santacesaria, R; Valente, P; Galluccio, F; Afonin, A G; Chesnokov, Yu A; Chirkov, P N; Maisheev, V A; Sandomirskiy, Yu E; Yazynin, I A; Kovalenko, A D; Taratin, A M; Gavrikov, Yu A; Ivanov, Yu M; Lapina, L P; Ferguson, W; Fulcher, J; Hall, G; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, M

    2014-01-01

    The results of observation and studies of focusing of 400 GeV/c proton beam with the help of bent single crystals are presented. Two silicon crystals have been used in the measurements. The focal length of the first and second crystals is found to be 1.48 m and 0.68 m, respectively. The mean square size of the horizontal profile in the focus was 3.1 and 4.3 times as small as at the exit of the crystals.

  6. Observation of particle pairing in a two-dimensional plasma crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Zhdanov, S K; Nosenko, V; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E

    2013-01-01

    The observation is presented of naturally occurring pairing of particles and their cooperative drift in a two-dimensional plasma crystal. A single layer of plastic microspheres was suspended in the plasma sheath of a capacitively coupled rf discharge in argon at a low pressure of 1 Pa. The particle dynamics were studied by combining the top-view and side-view imaging of the suspension. Cross analysis of the particle trajectories allowed us to identify naturally occurring metastable pairs of particles. The lifetime of pairs was long enough for their reliable identification.

  7. Observation on the modifying activity of the protein from Elytrzgia repens rhizome for ice crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In winter, spring and summer, the rhizome of wild Elytrzgia repens of Heilongjiang Province was selected to extract the soluble which whole protein and the apoplastic protein, and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The result indicated that there were two specific polypeptides in two types protein from winter; their relative molecular weight were identified as 52 ku and 26 ku by analyzing software; the apoplastic protein from winter had the ability of modifing the growth of ice crystal which appeared hexagonal in shape observed with the phase-contrast photomicroscope. So the apoplastic protein from winter has the antifreeze characters and the 52 ku protein is more likely the antifreeze protein.

  8. Observation of Algebraic Decay of Positional Order in a Smectic Liquid Crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Litster, J. D.; Birgeneau, R. J.;

    1980-01-01

    A smectic-A liquid crystal in three dimensions has been predicted to exhibit algebraic decay of the layer correlations rather than true long-range order. As a consequence, the smectic Bragg peaks are expected to be power-law singularities of the form q∥-2+η and q⊥-4+2η, where ∥(⊥) is along...... (perpendicular to) the smectic density wave vector direction, rather than δ function peaks. Observation of these phenomena requires very high instrumental resolution together with a resolution function with wings which drop off much more rapidly than q∥-2(q⊥-4). We show that these requirements may be met...

  9. Observation of blue phase in chiral nematic liquid crystal and its stabilization by silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arshdeep; Malik, Praveen; Jayoti, Divya

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we report the blue phase (BP) in a binary mixture of cholesteryl nonanoate (CN) and N-(4-ethoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline (EBBA). The mixture exhibits BP over a temperature range of 2.3 K at optimum composition (50:50) of liquid crystals (LCs). The effect of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) doping on thermal stability of BPs has also been demonstrated and nearly 6 K wide BP temperature range was achieved at 0.5 wt.% of SNPs. A porous type texture was also observed during the BP formation process in the doped samples.

  10. Electron Beam Etching of CaO Crystals Observed Atom by Atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuting; Xu, Tao; Tan, Xiaodong; Sun, Jun; He, Longbing; Yin, Kuibo; Zhou, Yilong; Banhart, Florian; Sun, Litao

    2017-08-09

    With the rapid development of nanoscale structuring technology, the precision in the etching reaches the sub-10 nm scale today. However, with the ongoing development of nanofabrication the etching mechanisms with atomic precision still have to be understood in detail and improved. Here we observe, atom by atom, how preferential facets form in CaO crystals that are etched by an electron beam in an in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). An etching mechanism under electron beam irradiation is observed that is surprisingly similar to chemical etching and results in the formation of nanofacets. The observations also explain the dynamics of surface roughening. Our findings show how electron beam etching technology can be developed to ultimately realize tailoring of the facets of various crystalline materials with atomic precision.

  11. Crack tip dislocations observed by TEM-tomography in silicon single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadamatsu, Sunao; Tanaka, Masaki; Honda, Masaki; Higashida, Kenji

    2010-07-01

    3D observations of dislocations at a crack tip were attempted by transmission electron microscopy and computed tomography in order to reveal the 3D structure of dislocations emitted around a crack tip. {011} cracks were introduced into a (001) silicon single crystal wafer by using an indentation method at room temperature. The specimens indented were heated and kept at high temperatures to introduce dislocations from the crack tip. The specimen holder was tilted ±31° by 2° step and dislocation images were taken at every step. The diffraction vector was kept nearly 220 during the tilting operation. The Burgers vectors of the dislocation segments were determined, which included the signs of Burgers vectors. The dislocations observed here were those which accommodate mode II stress intensity around the crack tip. 3D observations using electron tomography reveal these complex crucial processes around the crack tip, which should contribute to understanding the dislocation process improving fracture toughness of crystalline materials.

  12. Growth of AgGaS2 single crystal by descending crucible with rotation method and observation of properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This note reports a new procedure of polycrystalline synthesis and a new technique of single crystal growth on AgGaS2, i.e. two-zone temperature oscillation vapor transporting and descending crucible with rotation. A single phase dense AgGaS2 polycrystalline ingot was synthesized, and a crack-free AgGaS2 single crystal with 15 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length was grown by the techniques mentioned above. Structure integrity of the crystal was studied by the X-ray diffraction technique. Six order X-ray spectra from the {011} face of the crystal were obtained, and an anomalous phenomenon was observed for the first time that intensity of the higher order diffraction peak is much stronger than that of the lower order diffraction peak. Etch-pits of the crystal were observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  13. In Situ Observation of NaCI Crystal Growth by the Vapor Diffusion Method with a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; MIAO Hong; DUAN Li; KANG Qi; HE Ling-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Vapor diffusion experiments with different thicknesses of oil barriers are observed by a real-time optical diagnostic system consisting of a Mach Zehnder interferometer, a microscope and an image processor. Spatiotemporal analysis is first employed to extract the absolute concentration evolution and supersaturation during the entire crystallization process. The nucleation and crystal growth processes are then analyzed. It is found that the crystallization process can be easily classified into four stages in our experiments, according to the analysis of interferograms and the absolute concentration curve. This can help us understand the details of crystal growth. The rule of quality change of crystals with increasing thickness of oil barriers is also analyzed, and could be interpreted by the absolute concentration variation and crystallization phase diagram.%Vapor diffusion experiments with different thicknesses of oil barriers are observed by a real-time optical diagnostic system consisting of a Mach Zehnder interferometer,a microscope and an image processor.Spatiotemporal analysis is first employed to extract the absolute concentration evolution and supersaturation during the entire crystallization process.The nucleation and crystal growth processes are then analyzed.It is found that the crystallization process can be easily classified into four stages in our experiments,according to the analysis of interferograms and the absolute concentration curve.This can help us understand the details of crystal growth.The rule of quality change of crystals with increasing thickness of oil barriers is also analyzed,and could be interpreted by the absolute concentration variation and crystallization phase diagram.The growth of large crystals with a high degree of perfection is essential in the chemical industry and the protein field.Vapor diffusion[1] is the most widely used technique in protein crystallization,the principle of which is that the solution gradually reaches

  14. Observation of adsorption behavior of biomolecules on ferroelectric crystal surfaces with polarization domain patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomoaki; Isobe, Akiko; Ogino, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) is one of the ferroelectric crystals that exhibit spontaneous polarization domain patterns on its surface. We observed the polarization-dependent adsorption of avidin molecules, which are positively charged in a buffer solution at pH 7.0, on LiTaO3 surfaces caused by electrostatic interaction at an electrostatic double layer using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Avidin adsorption in the buffer solution was confirmed by scratching the substrate surfaces using the AFM cantilever, and the adsorption patterns were found to depend on the avidin concentration. When KCl was added to the buffer solution to weaken the electrostatic double layer interaction between avidin molecules and LiTaO3 surfaces, adsorption domain patterns disappeared. From the comparison between the adsorption and chemically etched domain patterns, it was found that avidin molecule adsorption is enhanced on negatively polarized domains, indicating that surface polarization should be taken into account in observing biomolecule behaviors on ferroelectric crystals.

  15. Nanosecond pump and probe observation of bimolecular exciton effects in rubrene single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Kebra A.; Richman, Brittany R.; Biaggio, Ivan [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Transient grating pump and probe experiments are used to investigate excitonic processes on the nanosecond time scale in rubrene single crystals. We find that bimolecular interactions cause a photoinduced excited state density on the order of 0.5 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}—corresponding to an average distance of ∼3 nm between individual states—to decrease by a factor of 2 after 2 ns, following a typical power-law decay. We assign the observed power-law decays to high-density interactions between excited states. Because of the high efficiency singlet exciton fission observed in rubrene, these bimolecular interactions are likely those between triplet excitons or between coherent quantum superpositions of a singlet and a pair of triplet-excitons.

  16. In situ observation of ultrasonic cavitation-induced fragmentation of the primary crystals formed in Al alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tzanakis, Iakovos; Eskin, Dmitry; Mi, Jiawei; Connolley, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The cavitation-induced fragmentation of primary crystals formed in Al alloys were investigated for the first time by high-speed imaging using a novel experimental approach. Three representative primary crystal types, Al3Ti, Si and Al3V with different morphologies and mechanical properties were first extracted by deep etching of the corresponding Al alloys and then subjected to ultrasonic cavitation processing in distilled water. The dynamic interaction between the cavitation bubbles and primary crystals was imaged in situ and in real time. Based on the recorded image sequences, the fragmentation mechanisms of primary crystals were studied. It was found that there are three major mechanisms by which the primary crystals were fragmented by cavitation bubbles. The first one was a slow process via fatigue-type failure. A cyclic pressure exerted by stationary pulsating bubbles caused the propagation of a crack pre-existing in the primary crystal to a critical length which led to fragmentation. The second mechanism was a sudden process due to the collapse of bubbles in a passing cavitation cloud. The pressure produced upon the collapse of the cloud promoted rapid monotonic crack growth and fast fracture in the primary crystals. The third observed mechanism was normal bending fracture as a result of the high pressure arising from the collapse of a bubble cloud and the crack formation at the branch connection points of dendritic primary crystals. The fragmentation of dendrite branches due to the interaction between two freely moving dendritic primary crystals was also observed. A simplified fracture analysis of the observed phenomena was performed. The specific fragmentation mechanism for the primary crystals depended on their morphology and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decisive Interactions between the Heterocyclic Moiety and the Cluster Observed in Polyoxometalate-Surfactant Hybrid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Otobe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic-organic hybrid crystals were successfully obtained as single crystals by using polyoxotungstate anion and cationic dodecylpyridazinium (C12pda and dodecylpyridinium (C12py surfactants. The decatungstate (W10 anion was used as the inorganic component, and the crystal structures were compared. In the crystal comprising C12pda (C12pda-W10, the heterocyclic moiety directly interacted with W10, which contributed to a build-up of the crystal structure. On the other hand, the crystal consisting of C12py (C12py-W10 had similar crystal packing and molecular arrangement to those in the W10 crystal hybridized with other pyridinium surfactants. These results indicate the significance of the heterocyclic moiety of the surfactant to construct hybrid crystals with polyoxometalate anions.

  18. Decisive interactions between the heterocyclic moiety and the cluster observed in polyoxometalate-surfactant hybrid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otobe, Saki; Fujioka, Natsumi; Hirano, Takuro; Ishikawa, Eri; Naruke, Haruo; Fujio, Katsuhiko; Ito, Takeru

    2015-04-16

    Inorganic-organic hybrid crystals were successfully obtained as single crystals by using polyoxotungstate anion and cationic dodecylpyridazinium (C12pda) and dodecylpyridinium (C12py) surfactants. The decatungstate (W10) anion was used as the inorganic component, and the crystal structures were compared. In the crystal comprising C12pda (C12pda-W10), the heterocyclic moiety directly interacted with W10, which contributed to a build-up of the crystal structure. On the other hand, the crystal consisting of C12py (C12py-W10) had similar crystal packing and molecular arrangement to those in the W10 crystal hybridized with other pyridinium surfactants. These results indicate the significance of the heterocyclic moiety of the surfactant to construct hybrid crystals with polyoxometalate anions.

  19. Polarized light scanning cryomacroscopy, part I: Experimental apparatus and observations of vitrification, crystallization, and photoelasticity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Justin S G; Eisenberg, David P; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    Cryomacroscopy is an effective means to observe physical events affecting cryopreservation success in large-size specimens. The current study aims at integrating polarized-light in the study of large-size cryopreservation, using the scanning cryomacroscope as a development platform. Results of this study demonstrate polarized light as a visualization enhancement means, including the following effects: contaminants in the CPA solution, crystallization, fracture formation, thermal contraction, and solute precipitation. In addition, photoelasticity effects are used to demonstrate the development of residual stresses and the potential for stress relaxation above the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, this study suggests that the ability to periodically switch between non-polarized light and polarized light is an essential feature of investigation. When using polarized light for example, a dark region may represent a free-of-stress and free-of-crystals material, or fully crystallized material, which may potentially experience mechanical stress; switching to a non-polarized light would help to distinguish between the different cases. The analysis of thermo-mechanical stress in cryopreservation is essentially based on four key elements: identification of physical events, knowledge of physical properties, thermal analysis of the specimen, and description of the mechanical behavior of the cryopreserved material (also known as the constitutive law). With the above knowledge, one can investigate the conditions to preserve structural integrity. While the current study aims at identification of physical events, critical knowledge on physical properties and mechanical behavior has already been developed in previous studies. The companion manuscript (Part II) aims at providing means for thermal analysis in the specimen, which will serve as the basis for a multi-scale analysis of thermo-mechanical stress in large-size specimens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Comparison of viewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Shiro; Morishita, Junji; Hiwasa, Takeshi; Dogomori, Kiyoshi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2009-07-01

    It is known that the performance of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, such as the luminance and contrast ratio, is dependent on the viewing angle. Our purpose in this study was to compare the angular performance and the effect on observer performance of different types of LCD monitors. The luminance performance and contrast ratio as a function of viewing angle (-60 degrees to 60 degrees) in each direction for two types of LCD monitors, namely, a general-purpose LCD monitor and one especially designed for medical use, were measured in this study. Furthermore, the observer performance at various viewing angles in the horizontal direction for a medical-grade LCD monitor was investigated by eight observers based on a contrast-detail diagram. The two types of LCD monitors showed notable variations in luminance and contrast ratio as a function of the viewing angle. Acceptable viewing angles in terms of the contrast ratio were much smaller in each direction than those for nominal viewing angles in the specifications provided by the manufacturers, and those for the medical-grade LCD monitor in the horizontal and vertical directions were broader than those of the general-purpose LCD monitor. There was no significant difference in observer performance between 0 degrees and 40 degrees. On the other hand, our results showed a statistically significant difference in observer performance between 0 degrees and 60 degrees.

  1. In-Situ Observation of Surface Phenomena During Sr(NO3)2 Crystal Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈万春; 李宝霞; 李超荣

    2003-01-01

    The reflected differential interference phase contrast microscope is used to study a growing crystal surface. The surface phenomena on the {111} and {100} faces of Sr(NO3)2, such as the propagation of steps, the bunches of surface steps, the impurity stopper and the growth hillocks, have been observed during the crystal growth. It was found that: (1) The macrosteps velocity is from 0.86μm/s to 9.8 × 10-2 μm/s on the {111} face at σ = 5.33 × 10-3 to 2.13 × 10-3. (2) If the propagating directions of the steps are in opposition, the velocity of the macrosteps will be increased after they bunched. These phenomena first provide the evidence for the existence of the mutual acceleration effect of macroscopic steps. (3) The growth hillocks include a concentric step which evidently results from successive acts of a two-dimension nucleation on surface.

  2. First Observation of the Deflection of a 33 TeV Pb Ion Beam in a Bent Silicon Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsener, K.; Biino, C.; Clement, M.; Doble, N.; Gatignon, L.; Grafstrom, P.; Mikkelsen, U.; Taratin, A.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.

    1997-05-01

    The deflection of an ultra-relativistic, fully stripped Pb(82+) ion beam in a bent silicon crystal has been observed for the first time. The ions were provided by the CERN-SPS in the H4 beam at a momentum of 400 GeV/c/Z. A 60 mm long silicon crystal, bent over 50 mm to give a 4 mrad deflection angle, was used in this experiment. The measured Pb ion deflection efficiencies are comparable to the ones obtained with protons at an equivalent ratio p/Z, and are found to be about 15% for a beam with a divergence of 50 microradians (FWHM). The interaction rate observed in a background counter is reduced by about the same 15% when the crystal is well aligned with the beam. This corroborates further the channeling model, which predicts that channeled ions are steered away from regions of high electron densities as well as from the nuclei in the crystal.

  3. Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Hohenleutner, M; Schubert, O; Knorr, M; Huttner, U; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R

    2016-01-01

    Accelerating and colliding particles has been a key strategy to explore the texture of matter. Strong lightwaves can control and recollide electronic wavepackets, generating high-harmonic (HH) radiation which encodes the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and lays the foundations of attosecond science. The recent discovery of HH generation in bulk solids combines the idea of ultrafast acceleration with complex condensed matter systems and sparks hope for compact solid-state attosecond sources and electronics at optical frequencies. Yet the underlying quantum motion has not been observable in real time. Here, we study HH generation in a bulk solid directly in the time-domain, revealing a new quality of strong-field excitations in the crystal. Unlike established atomic sources, our solid emits HH radiation as a sequence of subcycle bursts which coincide temporally with the field crests of one polarity of the driving terahertz waveform. We show that these features hallmark a novel non-perturbative qua...

  4. Crack tip dislocations observed by TEM-tomography in silicon single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamatsu, Sunao; Tanaka, Masaki; Honda, Masaki; Higashida, Kenji, E-mail: sxdxmx@kyudai-mse.or [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    3D observations of dislocations at a crack tip were attempted by transmission electron microscopy and computed tomography in order to reveal the 3D structure of dislocations emitted around a crack tip. {l_brace}011{r_brace} cracks were introduced into a (001) silicon single crystal wafer by using an indentation method at room temperature. The specimens indented were heated and kept at high temperatures to introduce dislocations from the crack tip. The specimen holder was tilted {+-}31{sup 0} by 2{sup 0} step and dislocation images were taken at every step. The diffraction vector was kept nearly 220 during the tilting operation. The Burgers vectors of the dislocation segments were determined, which included the signs of Burgers vectors. The dislocations observed here were those which accommodate mode II stress intensity around the crack tip. 3D observations using electron tomography reveal these complex crucial processes around the crack tip, which should contribute to understanding the dislocation process improving fracture toughness of crystalline materials.

  5. Using channelized Hotelling observers to quantify temporal effects of medical liquid crystal displays on detection performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platiša, Ljiljana; Goossens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Badano, Aldo; Philips, Wilfried

    2010-02-01

    Clinical practice is rapidly moving in the direction of volumetric imaging. Often, radiologists interpret these images in liquid crystal displays at browsing rates of 30 frames per second or higher. However, recent studies suggest that the slow response of the display can compromise image quality. In order to quantify the temporal effect of medical displays on detection performance, we investigate two designs of a multi-slice channelized Hotelling observer (msCHO) model in the task of detecting a single-slice signal in multi-slice simulated images. The design of msCHO models is inspired by simplifying assumptions about how humans observe while viewing in the stack-browsing mode. For comparison, we consider a standard CHO applied only on the slice where the signal is located, recently used in a similar study. We refer to it as a single-slice CHO (ssCHO). Overall, our results confirm previous findings that the slow response of displays degrades the detection performance of the observers. More specifically, the observed performance range of msCHO designs is higher compared to the ssCHO suggesting that the extent and rate of degradation, though significant, may be less drastic than previously estimated by the ssCHO. Especially, the difference between msCHO and ssCHO is more significant for higher browsing speeds than for slow image sequences or static images. This, together with their design criteria driven by the assumptions about humans, makes the msCHO models promising candidates for further studies aimed at building anthropomorphic observer models for the stack-mode image presentation.

  6. Observation of channeling for 6500 GeV/c protons in the crystal assisted collimation setup for LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandale, W.; Arduini, G.; Butcher, M.; Cerutti, F.; Garattini, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, R.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Valentino, G.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Chaumat, V.; Dubos, S.; Maalmi, J.; Puill, V.; Stocchi, A.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Dabagov, S.; Murtas, F.; Addesa, F.; Cavoto, G.; Iacoangeli, F.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A. G.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Durum, A. A.; Maisheev, V. A.; Sandomirskiy, Yu. E.; Yanovich, A. A.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.; Denisov, A. S.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, Yu. M.; Lapina, L. P.; Malyarenko, L. G.; Skorobogatov, V. V.; James, T.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.

    2016-07-01

    Two high-accuracy goniometers equipped with two bent silicon crystals were installed in the betatron cleaning insertion of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during its long shutdown. First beam tests were recently performed at the LHC with 450 GeV/c and 6500 GeV/c stored proton beams to investigate the feasibility of beam halo collimation assisted by bent crystals. For the first time channeling of 6500 GeV/c protons was observed in a particle accelerator. A strong reduction of beam losses due to nuclear inelastic interactions in the aligned crystal in comparison with its amorphous orientation was detected. The loss reduction value was about 24. Thus, the results show that deflection of particles by a bent crystal due to channeling is effective for this record particle energy.

  7. Growth Defects in Langasite Crystals Observed with White Beam Synchrotron Radiation Topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Langasite single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method and its perfection was assessed by white beam synchrotron radiation topography. It is found that the growth core and the growth striations are the primary growth defects and they show strong X-ray kinematical contrast in the topographs. Another typical defect in LGS crystal is dislocation. The formation mechanisms of these growth defects in LGS crystals were discussed.

  8. Direct observation of exceptional points in coupled photonic-crystal lasers with asymmetric optical gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Min-Soo; Kim, Ha-Reem; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; No, You-Shin; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2016-12-01

    Although counter-intuitive features have been observed in non-Hermitian optical systems based on micrometre-sized cavities, the achievement of a simplified but unambiguous approach to enable the efficient access of exceptional points (EPs) and the phase transition to desired lasing modes remains a challenge, particularly in wavelength-scale coupled cavities. Here, we demonstrate coupled photonic-crystal (PhC) nanolasers with asymmetric optical gains, and observe the phase transition of lasing modes at EPs through tuning of the area of graphene cover on one PhC cavity and systematic scanning photoluminescence measurements. As the gain contrast between the two identical PhC cavities exceeds the intercavity coupling, the phase transition occurs from the bonding/anti-bonding lasing modes to the single-amplifying lasing mode, which is confirmed by the experimental measurement of the mode images and the theoretical modelling of coupled cavities with asymmetric gains. In addition, we demonstrate active tuning of EPs by controlling the optical loss of graphene through electrical gating.

  9. In situ observation of shear-driven amorphization in silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang; Zhong, Li; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Chongmin; Zhu, Ting; Mao, Scott X.

    2016-09-19

    Amorphous materials have attracted great interest in the scientific and technological fields. An amorphous solid usually forms under the externally driven conditions of melt-quenching, irradiation and severe mechanical deformation. However, its dynamic formation process remains elusive. Here we report the in situ atomic-scale observation of dynamic amorphization processes during mechanical straining of nanoscale silicon crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We observe the shear-driven amorphization (SDA) occurring in a dominant shear band. The SDA involves a sequence of processes starting with the shear-induced diamond-cubic to diamond-hexagonal phase transition that is followed by dislocation nucleation and accumulation in the newly formed phase, leading to the formation of amorphous silicon. The SDA formation through diamond-hexagonal phase is rationalized by its structural conformity with the order in the paracrystalline amorphous silicon, which maybe widely applied to diamond-cubic materials. Besides, the activation of SDA is orientation-dependent through the competition between full dislocation nucleation and partial gliding.

  10. Transient from crystallization to fractal growth observed in both boar bile and SnI sub 2 vapour

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Ji Zhong; Xie An Jian

    2003-01-01

    A visual transient of the growth mechanism from crystallization to fractal growth was observed clearly in a drop of boar bile. The growing crystals were replaced by treelike fractal structures during solidification of the sample. It is fascinating to compare the transient with the result observed in SnI sub 2 vapour. They were completely identical, and revealed that under certain conditions a linear growth could be transferred spontaneously into nonlinear growth. It may be possible to consider the transient as a 'bridge' between linear and nonlinear growth, and to develop a quantitative expression of transient dynamics.

  11. Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenleutner, M; Langer, F; Schubert, O; Knorr, M; Huttner, U; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R

    2015-07-30

    Acceleration and collision of particles has been a key strategy for exploring the texture of matter. Strong light waves can control and recollide electronic wavepackets, generating high-harmonic radiation that encodes the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and lays the foundations of attosecond science. The recent discovery of high-harmonic generation in bulk solids combines the idea of ultrafast acceleration with complex condensed matter systems, and provides hope for compact solid-state attosecond sources and electronics at optical frequencies. Yet the underlying quantum motion has not so far been observable in real time. Here we study high-harmonic generation in a bulk solid directly in the time domain, and reveal a new kind of strong-field excitation in the crystal. Unlike established atomic sources, our solid emits high-harmonic radiation as a sequence of subcycle bursts that coincide temporally with the field crests of one polarity of the driving terahertz waveform. We show that these features are characteristic of a non-perturbative quantum interference process that involves electrons from multiple valence bands. These results identify key mechanisms for future solid-state attosecond sources and next-generation light-wave electronics. The new quantum interference process justifies the hope for all-optical band-structure reconstruction and lays the foundation for possible quantum logic operations at optical clock rates.

  12. Synchrotron radiation topographic observation of KTiOPO4 crystals under an electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In situ white-beam synchrotron radiation topographic observations under an electric field have been made on the KTiOPO4(KTP) family of crystals.The investigation shows a strong enhancement of diffracted intensity for hkl reflections(l≠0) and topographic contrast in the form of fine striations when the external electric field is parallel to the polar axis.Severalk kinds of doped and undoped samples with various grown-in defects,such as domain boundaries.growth striations,growth-sector boundaries.dislocations.etc.,have been studied in detail.The results suggest that these defects have very little effect on the field-induced striations,It is believed that the movement of K+ ions driven by the electric field leads to a local accumulation of charges and a lattice distortion.The stronly anisotropic conductivity is a governing factor in the explanation of the field-related phenomena in this kind of quasi-one-dimensional conductor.

  13. Signature of a three-dimensional photonic band gap observed on silicon inverse woodpile photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Huisman, Simon R; Woldering, Léon A; Leistikow, Merel D; Mosk, Allard P; Vos, Willem L

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the reflectivity of CMOS-compatible three-dimensional silicon inverse woodpile photonic crystals at near-infrared frequencies. Polarization-resolved reflectivity spectra were obtained from two orthogonal crystal surfaces corresponding to 1.88 pi sr solid angle. The spectra reveal broad peaks with high reflectivity up to 67 % that are independent of the spatial position on the crystals. The spectrally overlapping reflectivity peaks for all directions and polarizations form the signature of a broad photonic band gap with a relative bandwidth up to 16 %. This signature is supported with stopgaps in plane wave bandstructure calculations and with the frequency region of the expected band gap.

  14. Observations on dual-ended readout of 100 mm long LYSO crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ur-Rehman, Fazal, E-mail: Fazal@physics.umanitoba.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); McIntosh, Bryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); Goertzen, Andrew L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2011-10-01

    We are investigating using dual-ended readout of axially oriented long thin scintillator crystals in detectors for a compact geometry, small ring diameter animal PET system. The axial position of interaction is determined from the light sharing between two photodetectors at opposite ends of the crystal. We examine the light output, energy resolution and axial spatial resolution of 1.5-5x2x100 mm{sup 3} polished LYSO crystals by irradiating with an electronically collimated beam of 511 keV photons oriented perpendicular to the long axis and read out at either end by position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). Three reflector materials, namely Teflon, 3 M enhanced specular reflector (ESR) and black paint are examined for the 2x2x100 mm{sup 3} crystal size. The light output increases and energy resolution improves with the crystal cross-section. Generally, the spatial resolution worsens with increase in crystal cross-section. For the 2x2x100 mm{sup 3} crystal size, the mean energy resolutions of the photopeak over the nine irradiation positions were 14.4{+-}0.4%, 16.0{+-}1.2% and 28.3{+-}2.1% with mean spatial resolutions of 7.0{+-}1.0, 9.4{+-}3.3 and 26.0{+-}5.0 mm using ESR, Teflon and black paint, respectively. ESR reflector gave the best light output, energy and axial spatial resolutions. These characterization results of PSPMT-based dual-ended long LYSO crystals will be useful in the design of detector modules for a highly compact geometry preclinical PET system using this detector technology.

  15. Crystallization kinetics of glassy Se90In10-xAgx alloys: Observation of Mayer-Neldel rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glassy alloys of Se90In10-xAgx were prepared using melt quenching technique. Non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetric (DSC studies were done on Se90In10-xAgx (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 at.% glassy alloys at four different heating rates (β = 5, 10, 15, 20 °C/min. Well defined endothermic and exothermic peaks were obtained at glass transition (Tg and crystallization temperature (Tc, respectively. Augis and Bennett’s method was used to obtain the composition dependent crystallization activation energy (Ec and the pre-exponential factor (η0 of the Arrhenius expression. A linear dependence between ln η0 and Ec was observed showing the existence of compensation effects of the Meyer-Neldel type. These compensation effects confirm the applicability of MeyerNeldel (MN rule for the non-isothermal crystallization in the present case.

  16. In-situ observation of zinc electrodeposition on iron single crystal using synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosaki, M; Kawasaki, K

    2002-01-01

    Continuous in-situ observations of changes in crystal orientation during zinc electrodeposition were performed using novel electrolysis cell that secure uniform current distribution through thin electrolyte layer. It has been clarified that electrodeposition can be separated into the two regions. First one is epitaxial deposition region in which orientations of deposited zinc and substrate keep following relations; Fe(100)//Zn(10 centre dot 1) Fe(110)//Zn(00 centre dot 2), Fe(111)//Zn(00 centre dot 2). This region continued until the thickness of the deposit became about 0.5 mu m. Second one is bulk deposition region, in which the overpotential settled by electrolysis conditions determines the crystal orientation. Low overpotential leads to promoting Zn(00 centre dot 2) deposition, and higher overpotential Zn(10 centre dot 1) and Zn(11 centre dot 0). Influences of the current density changes on the crystal orientation were also clarified. The use of an adsorbing organic additive influences both on the epitaxi...

  17. Direct observation of phase transitions: in situ diffraction measurements at the crystal scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, J. V.; Barton, N. R.; Farber, D.; Wenk, H.; Kunz, M.; Lienert, U.

    2012-12-01

    Phase transitions often display determinate crystallographic orientation relationships between parent and symmetrically degenerate daughter domains. Preferred variant selection and orientation memory under the influence of deviatoric stress are the 'fingerprints' of the transformation mechanism, driving force, and microstructure. For the α-ɛ transition in iron - significant to the structure and anisotropy of the Earth's inner core - these have been studied primarily by texture analysis of polycrystalline powders; the convoluted nature of these data, however, render it essentially impossible to examine variant selection, and even precise orientation relationships themselves. Recently developed X-ray diffraction techniques have made it possible to answer these questions. Results from two measurements are presented. First, heterogeneous variant selection was observed and the specific α/ɛ orientation relationship was determined under quasi-static loading using High Energy Diffraction Microscopy at beamline 1-ID of APS-ANL. Second, the spatial heterogeneity and mutual exclusivity among ɛ variants was observed at the incipient transition using the Laue μ-diffraction technique at beamline 12.3.2. of ALS-LBNL. In both cases, a 60x25μm single crystal of iron was pressurized in a DAC and measured before and after the α-ɛ transition at 13GPa. In the HEDM experiment, spatial resolution is sacrificed for domain-averaged orientation and strain resoltuion, making it possible to quantify the magnitude of the applied deviatoric stress in situ. In the Laue μ-Diffraction technique, the local lattice orientations are mapped with 1μm resolution, displaying marked spatial variation. These pilot experiments open new possibilities for investigating high pressure/high temperature transformations in situ. By mapping both orientations and lattice strains, the nature of the mechanisms and driving forces can be illuminated. This work was performed under the auspices of the U

  18. OBSERVATION OF PHOTOREFRACTIVE EFFECT OF KNbO3 CRYSTAL ATμW ILLUMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI QI; XIA ZONG-HUANG; LU XI-TING; WANG FENG; GONG QI-HUANG; SHEN DE-ZHONG

    2000-01-01

    The photorefractive effects of the as-grown and proton-implanted KNbO3 crystals were studied by two-wave mixing at 62.2 μW/cm2 illumination.At this pump power level,the as-grown crystal showed little photorefractive effect,while the proton-implanted crystal showed an obvious effect.Furthermore,there seemed to exist two photorefractive gratings with response times of 22.54 and 1596.30s,at 62.2μW/cm2 pump power level,in the proton-implanted sample.This phenomenon has been attributed to the influence of proton-implantation.

  19. Growth-induced incommensurability observed in the organic co-crystal hexamethylenetetramine resorcinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Soraya Maria Belluga; Palatinus, Lukás; Petrícek, Václav; Chapuis, Gervais

    2006-12-01

    Co-crystals of hexamethylenetetramine and resorcinol were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The structure was refined in the superspace group Xmcm(0beta0)s0s, X=(1/2 1/2 0 1/2). In the average structure the resorcinol molecules are disordered between two orientations. The main effect of the modulation in the structure is a harmonic modulation of the occupation probabilities of the two orientations of the resorcinol molecule. However, the modulated order is not perfect and the resorcinol molecules remain partially disordered. Below 270 K the crystal undergoes a phase transition to a commensurately modulated structure with modulation vector q=(0 1/2 1/4) and superspace group X2/m(0betagamma)0s. The structure of the low-temperature phase could not be determined owing to the poor quality of the crystals affected by the reconstructive phase transition.

  20. Direct observation of microstructures on superconducting single crystals of K x Fe2- y Se2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2017-02-01

    Potassium-intercalated FeSe has been reported as a superconductor with a superconducting transition temperature (T c) of 30-48 K. However, the relationship among the surface morphology, compositional ratio, and crystal structure has not yet been clarified. This report directly reveals the correspondence among these three characteristics in single crystals with a T c onset of around 44 K by using a microsampling technique. Island-like parts on the surface of the crystals clearly exhibit the K x Fe2Se2 structure with perfect FeSe layers, which is formed in conjunction with the K2Fe4Se5 phase. This results in the appearance of the T c onset at 44 K.

  1. Spatially resolved observation of crystal-face-dependent catalysis by single turnover counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.; Sels, Bert F.; Uji-I, Hiroshi; de Schryver, Frans C.; Jacobs, Pierre A.; de Vos, Dirk E.; Hofkens, Johan

    2006-02-01

    Catalytic processes on surfaces have long been studied by probing model reactions on single-crystal metal surfaces under high vacuum conditions. Yet the vast majority of industrial heterogeneous catalysis occurs at ambient or elevated pressures using complex materials with crystal faces, edges and defects differing in their catalytic activity. Clearly, if new or improved catalysts are to be rationally designed, we require quantitative correlations between surface features and catalytic activity-ideally obtained under realistic reaction conditions. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy have allowed in situ characterization of catalyst surfaces with atomic resolution, but are limited by the need for low-pressure conditions and conductive surfaces, respectively. Sum frequency generation spectroscopy can identify vibrations of adsorbed reactants and products in both gaseous and condensed phases, but so far lacks sensitivity down to the single molecule level. Here we adapt real-time monitoring of the chemical transformation of individual organic molecules by fluorescence microscopy to monitor reactions catalysed by crystals of a layered double hydroxide immersed in reagent solution. By using a wide field microscope, we are able to map the spatial distribution of catalytic activity over the entire crystal by counting single turnover events. We find that ester hydrolysis proceeds on the lateral {1010} crystal faces, while transesterification occurs on the entire outer crystal surface. Because the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure and in a condensed phase, it can be applied to the growing number of liquid-phase industrial organic transformations to localize catalytic activity on and in inorganic solids. An exciting opportunity is the use of probe molecules with different size and functionality, which should provide insight into shape-selective or structure-sensitive catalysis and thus help with the rational design of new or

  2. Observation of Multiple Volume Reflection of Ultrarelativistic Protons by a Sequence of Several Bent Silicon Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Baricordi, S; Dalpiaz, P; Fiorini, M; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Della Mea, G; Milan, R; Ambrosi, G; Zuccon, P; Bertucci, B; Bürger, W; Duranti, M; Cavoto, G; Santacesaria, R; Valente, P; Luci, C; Iacoangeli, F; Vallazza, E; Afonin, A G; Chesnokov, Yu A; Kotov, V I; Maisheev, V A; Yazynin, I A; Kovalenko, A D; Taratin, A M; Denisov, A S; Gavrikov, Y A; Ivanov, Yu M; Lapina, L P; Malyarenko, L G; Skorogobogatov, V V; Suvorov, V M; Vavilov, S A; Bolognini, D; Hasan, S; Mozzanica, A; Prest, M

    2009-01-01

    The interactions of 400 GeV protons with different sequences of bent silicon crystals have been investigated at the H8 beam line of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The multiple volume reflection of the proton beam has been studied in detail on a five-crystal reflector measuring an angular beam deflection =52.96±0.14 µrad. The efficiency was found larger than 80% for an angular acceptance at the reflector entrance of 70 µrad, with a maximal efficiency value of =0.90±0.01±0.03.

  3. Pressure-induced quenching of the photoluminescence in sexithiophene single crystals observed by femtosecond spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, M. A.; Mura, A; Bongiovanni, G; Cai, Q; Martin, C; Chandrasekhar, HR; Chandrasekhar, M; Graupner, W; Garnier, F

    2001-01-01

    The influence of interchain interactions on the photoluminescence processes in a sexithiophene single crystal is studied by applying hydrostatic pressure up to 60 kbar, Steady state and femtosecond-time resolved optical spectroscopies indicate that an ultrafast (100 fs) formation of intermolecular

  4. Demand for Substance Abuse Treatment Related to Use of Crystal Methamphetamine in Ontario: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Bruna; Corea, Larry; Strike, Carol; Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Behrooz, Renee C.; Rush, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about methamphetamine/crystal methamphetamine (MA) have featured prominently in the Canadian media and on addiction treatment agency agendas. We examined MA admissions at addiction treatment agencies to determine if a service gap existed. In 2006, all addiction treatment agencies (n = 124) in Ontario, Canada were invited to complete an…

  5. Antiferroelectric surface layers in a liquid crystal as observed by synchrotron x-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, E. F.; de Jeu, W. H.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1986-01-01

    The X-ray reflectivity form the surface of a liquid crystal with terminally polar (cyano substituted) molecules has been studied using a high-resolution triple-axis X-ray spectrometer in combination with a synchrotron source. It is demonstrated that at the surface of the smectic Al phase a few...

  6. Observed and predicted hydrogen bond motifs in crystal structures of hydantoins, dihydrouracils and uracils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Cabeza, A.J.; Schwalbe, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of crystal structures containing hydantoin, dihydrouracil and uracil derivatives in the Cambridge Structural Database revealed four main types of hydrogen bond motifs when derivatives with extra substituents able to interfere with the main motif are excluded. All these molecules contain two

  7. Direct observation of two-step crystallization in nanoparticle superlattice formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jungwon; Zheng, Haimei; Lee, Won Chul; Geissler, Phillip L.; Rabani, Eran; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-10-06

    Direct imaging of nanoparticle solutions by liquid phase transmission electron microscopy has enabled unique in-situ studies of nanoparticle motion and growth. In the present work, we report on real-time formation of two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays in the very low diffusive limit, where nanoparticles are mainly driven by capillary forces and solvent fluctuations. We find that superlattice formation appears to be segregated into multiple regimes. Initially, the solvent front drags the nanoparticles, condensing them into an amorphous agglomerate. Subsequently, the nanoparticle crystallization into an array is driven by local fluctuations. Following the crystallization event, superlattice growth can also occur via the addition of individual nanoparticles drawn from outlying regions by different solvent fronts. The dragging mechanism is consistent with simulations based on a coarse-grained lattice gas model at the same limit.

  8. Shifting a Quantum Wire through a Disordered Crystal: Observation of Conductance Fluctuations in Real Space

    OpenAIRE

    Heinzel, T.; Salis, G.; Held, R; Luescher, S.; Ensslin, K; Wegscheider, W.; Bichler, M.

    1999-01-01

    A quantum wire is spatially displaced by suitable electric fields with respect to the scatterers inside a semiconductor crystal. As a function of the wire position, the low-temperature resistance shows reproducible fluctuations. Their characteristic temperature scale is a few hundred millikelvin, indicating a phase-coherent effect. Each fluctuation corresponds to a single scatterer entering or leaving the wire. This way, scattering centers can be counted one by one.

  9. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE ALPHA-EPSILON TRANSITION IN SHOCKED SINGLE CRYSTAL IRON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantar, D H; Collins, G W; Colvin, J D; Davies, H M; Eggert, J H; Hawreliak, J; Lorenzana, H E; Meyers, M A; Rosolankova, K; Schneider, M S; Sheppard, J; Stolken, J S; Wark, J S

    2005-08-23

    In-situ x-ray diffraction was used to study the response of single crystal iron under shock conditions. Measurements of the response of [001] iron showed a uniaxial compression of the initially bcc lattice along the shock direction by up to 6% at 13 GPa. Above this pressure, the lattice responded with a further collapse of the lattice by 15-18% and a transformation to a hcp structure. The in-situ measurements are discussed and results summarized.

  10. First observation of multiple volume reflection by different planes in one bent silicon crystal for high-energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, E; Bagli, E; Baricordi, S; Dalpiaz, P; Fiorini, M; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Vincenzi, D; Milan, R; Della Mea, Gianantonio; Vallazza, E; Afonin, A G; Chesnokov, Yu A; Maisheev, V A; Yazynin, I A; Golovatyuk, V M; Kovalenko, A D; Taratin, A M; Denisov, A S; Gavrikov, Yu A; Ivanov, Yu M; Lapina, L P; Malyarenko, L G; Skorobogatov, V V; Suvorov, V M; Vavilov, S A; Bolognini, D; Hasan, S; Mattera, A; Prest, M; Tikhomirovl, V V

    2009-01-01

    Multiple volume reflection by different planes in a bent silicon crystal with its 111 axis orientation close to the beam direction was observed for the first time for 400 GeV/c protons at the CERN SPS. The proton beam was deflected to the side opposite to the crystal bend by an angle of about 67 μrad, which is five times larger than in a single volume reflection by the (110) bent planes. The registered efficiency of one side deflection was about 84%. It was shown that multiple volume reflection transforms to a single volume reflection when the orientation angle of the 111 axis relative to the beam direction is increased

  11. Observation of Transparency of Erbium-doped Silicon nitride in photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Yiyang; Yerci, Selcuk; Li, Rui; Stevens, Martin J; Baek, Burm; Nam, Sae Woo; Negro, Luca Dal; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    One-dimensional nanobeam photonic crystal cavities are fabricated in an Er-doped amorphous silicon nitride layer. Photoluminescence from the cavities around 1.54 um is studied at cryogenic and room temperatures at different optical pump powers. The resonators demonstrate Purcell enhanced absorption and emission rates, also confirmed by time-resolved measurements. Resonances exhibit linewidth narrowing with pump power, signifying absorption bleaching and the onset of stimulated emission in the material at both 5.5 K and room temperature. We estimate from the cavity linewidths that Er has been pumped to transparency at the cavity resonance wavelength.

  12. Direct observation of surface mode excitation and slow light coupling in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V.S.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    2007-01-01

    are obtained for light at telecom wavelengths propagating in the PhCW, demonstrating directly, for the first time to our knowledge, drastic widening of the PhCW guided mode in the slow-light regime and excitation of surface waves at the PhCW interface along with their feeding into the guided mode......A scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to systematically study the properties of guided modes in linear and slow-light regimes of silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) with different terminations of the photonic lattice. High quality SNOM images...

  13. Observation of a different birefringence order at optical and THz frequencies in LBO crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Yu. M.; Kokh, A. E.; Kokh, K. A.; Lanskii, G. V.; Litvinenko, K.; Mamrashev, A. A.; Molloy, J. F.; Murdin, B.; Naftaly, M.; Nikolaev, N. A.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.

    2017-04-01

    THz optical properties of lithium borate (LBO) crystals were measured using time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). The LBO crystal samples were of high optical quality and were cut and polished along the , and axes. Two independent measurements were performed in order to confirm the reproducibility and consistency of results. The contradictions in the previously published data on the THz optical properties of LBO were clarified. It was shown that the birefringence order at THz frequencies is nz nx nx

  14. Direct Observation of Charge Separation on Anatase TiO2 Crystals with Selectively Etched {001} Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Dong, Guojun; Li, Shaopeng; Lu, Gongxuan; Bi, Yingpu

    2016-03-09

    Synchronous illumination X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SIXPS) was employed for the first time to directly identify the photogenerated charge separation and transfer on anatase TiO2 single-crystals with selectively etched {001} facets. More specifically, for the TiO2 crystals with intact {001} and {101} facets, most of photogenerated charge carriers rapidly recombined, and no evident electron-hole separation was detected. With selectively etching on {001} facets, high efficient charge separation via hole transfer to titanium and electron to oxygen was clearly observed. However, when the {001} facets were completely etched into a hollow structure, the recombination for photogenerated electron-hole pairs would dominate again. These demonstrations clearly reveal that the appropriate corrosion on {001} facets could facilitate more efficient electron-hole separation and transfer. As expected, the optimized TiO2 microcrystals with etched {001} facets could achieve a hydrogen generation rate of 74.3 μmol/h/g, which is nearly 7 times higher than the intact-TiO2 crystals.

  15. Hoar crystal development and disappearance at Dome C, Antarctica: observation by near-infrared photography and passive microwave satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Champollion

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hoar crystals episodically cover the snow surface in Antarctica and affect the roughness and reflective properties of the air–snow interface. However, little is known about their evolution and the processes responsible for their development and disappearance despite a probable influence on the surface mass balance and energy budget. To investigate hoar evolution, we use continuous observations of the surface by in situ near-infrared photography and by passive microwave remote sensing at Dome C in Antarctica. From the photography data, we retrieved a daily indicator of the presence/absence of hoar crystals using a texture analysis algorithm. The analysis of this 2 yr long time series shows that Dome C surface is covered almost half of the time by hoar. The development of hoar crystals takes a few days and seems to occur whatever the meteorological conditions. In contrast, the disappearance of hoar is rapid (a few hours and coincident with either strong winds or with moderate winds associated with a change in wind direction from southwest (the prevailing direction to southeast. From the microwave satellite data, we computed the polarisation ratio (i.e. horizontal over vertical polarised brightness temperatures, an indicator known to be sensitive to hoar in Greenland. Photography data and microwave polarisation ratio are correlated, i.e. high values of polarisation ratio which theoretically correspond to low snow density values near the surface are associated with the presence of hoar crystals in the photography data. Satellite data over nearly ten years (2002–2011 confirm that a strong decrease of the polarisation ratio (i.e. signature of hoar disappearance is associated with an increase of wind speed or a change in wind direction from the prevailing direction. The photography data provides, in addition, evidence of interactions between hoar and snowfall. Further adding the combined influence of wind speed and wind direction results in a

  16. Germanium crystal dimensions and their influences on the observed peak-to-background distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, W. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, AG-Personendosimetrie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Koenig, K. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene

    1997-03-01

    This description applies to the parameters of in vivo and in vitro detection systems as they relate to the type of the detector (or arrangements of detectors) and the performance of the choice. In detail, measurements of a set of pulse-height distributions were done to determine the influence from the detector-crystal dimensions on the peak-to-background variation for point and volume sources as well as ambient radiation. The current capability in suppression of Compton scattered {gamma}-rays using coincidence/anti-coincidence arrangements both for in vivo and in vitro system are presented. Criteria and relations as well as advantages and disadvantages of the applicability are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Thermally stimulated current observation of trapping centers in undoped GaSe layered single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasanly, N.M.; Salihoglu, Oe. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Aydinli, A. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2001-07-01

    Undoped p-GaSe layered single crystals were grown using Bridgman technique. Thermally stimulated current measurements in the temperature range of 10-300 K were performed at a heating rate of 0.18 K/s. The analysis of the data revealed three trap levels at 0.02, 0.10 and 0.26 eV. The calculation for these traps yielded 8.8 x 10{sup -27}, 1.9 x 10{sup -25}, and 3.2 x 10{sup -21} cm{sup 2} for capture cross sections and 3.2 x 10{sup 14}, 1.1 x 10{sup 16}, and 1.2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for the concentrations, respectively. (orig.)

  18. Observation of nanostructured cluster formation of Tm ions in CaF{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazic, G.; Kobe, S. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cefalas, A.C. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, TPCI, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece)], E-mail: ccefalas@eie.gr; Sarantopoulou, E.; Kollia, Z. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, TPCI, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece)

    2008-08-25

    Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high-resolution scanning-transmission electron microscopy, with electron beam sizes ranging from 2 to 50 nm, were used to investigate the spatial distribution and homogeneity of doped Tm{sup 3+} ions in CaF{sub 2} host matrices with atomic resolution, in solid crystals grown from melts using the Bridgman-Stockbarger method. With the smallest size electron beam available of 2 nm, it was found that the Tm{sup 3+} ions were distributed inhomogeneously at the host sites. They took the form of sub-nm agglomerations of 3-5 atoms, rather than individual ions and the phase transition layer was 0.1 nm thick. The spatial extend of inhomogeneous Tm{sup 3+} concentration was 2.6-6 nm and originates from ionic density fluctuations in the liquid phase at the interface layer due to the local electrostatic field at the ionic sites.

  19. Ultrafast infrared observation of exciton equilibration from oriented single crystals of photosystem II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaucikas, Marius; Maghlaoui, Karim; Barber, Jim; Renger, Thomas; van Thor, Jasper J.

    2016-12-01

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, two photosystems work in series. Each of them contains a reaction centre that is surrounded by light-harvesting antennae, which absorb the light and transfer the excitation energy to the reaction centre where electron transfer reactions are driven. Here we report a critical test for two contrasting models of light harvesting by photosystem II cores, known as the trap-limited and the transfer-to-the trap-limited model. Oriented single crystals of photosystem II core complexes of Synechococcus elongatus are excited by polarized visible light and the transient absorption is probed with polarized light in the infrared. The dichroic amplitudes resulting from photoselection are maintained on the 60 ps timescale that corresponds to the dominant energy transfer process providing compelling evidence for the transfer-to-the-trap limitation of the overall light-harvesting process. This finding has functional implications for the quenching of excited states allowing plants to survive under high light intensities.

  20. Experimental observation of optical bandgaps for surface electromagnetic waves in a periodically corrugated one-dimensional silicon nitride photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Michelotti, Francesco

    2008-02-01

    Dispersion curves of surface electromagnetic waves (SEWs) in 1D silicon nitride photonic crystals having periodic surface corrugations are considered. We experimentally demonstrate that a bandgap for SEWs can be obtained by fabricating a polymeric grating on the multilayered structure. Close to the boundary of the first Brillouin zone connected to the grating, we observe the splitting of the SEW dispersion curve into two separate branches and identify two regions of very low group velocity. The proper design of the structure allows the two folded branches to lie beyond the light line in a wide spectral range, thus doubling the density of modes available for SEWs and avoiding light scattering.

  1. Observation of band gaps in the gigahertz range and deaf bands in a hypersonic aluminum nitride phononic crystal slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorisse, M.; Benchabane, S.; Teissier, G.; Billard, C.; Reinhardt, A.; Laude, V.; Defaÿ, E.; Aïd, M.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the observation of elastic waves propagating in a two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of air holes drilled in an aluminum nitride membrane. The theoretical band structure indicates the existence of an acoustic band gap centered around 800 MHz with a relative bandwidth of 6.5% that is confirmed by gigahertz optical images of the surface displacement. Further electrical measurements and computation of the transmission reveal a much wider attenuation band that is explained by the deaf character of certain bands resulting from the orthogonality of their polarization with that of the source.

  2. Direct observation of plasticity and quantitative hardness measurements in single crystal cyclotrimethylene trinitramine by nanoindention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Kyle J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hooks, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bahr, David F [WSU

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of deformation beginning with elasticity and continuing through the elastic-plastic transition to incipient cracking has been conducted for (210), (021), and (001) oriented single crystals of the explosive cyclotrimethylene trinitramine, commonly known as 'RDX' Instrumented indentation was performed with a conical tip over a range of loads. The resulting load-depth data exhibited distinct, reproducible, orientation dependent load excursions demonstrating elastic-plastic transitions. Indent impressions were imaged by scanning probe microscopy. Impressions on the (210) and (001) planes showed deformation pileup features associated with zone axes of slip planes. Clearly discernable slip traces were evident on the (210) plane. The (021) indentations produced significant material pile-up surrounding the impression, but did not contain discrete features associable with specific zone axes. All of the orientations exhibited cracking thresholds at very low loads. The reduced moduli were anisotropic and the hardness's were isotropic indicating limited plasticity. Maximum shear stresses estimated from a Hertzian model, at load excursions, were within a factor of 10 of published shear moduli indicating deformation initiated near the theoretical yield strength presumably by homogeneous nucleation of dislocations. The material strength parameters and apparent deformation pathways inferred from this work are compared to historical microhardness testing and interpretation of anisotropic hardness in which ambiguity of results can be attributed to the effects of cracking and simultaneous slip on multiple systems.

  3. Partial Dissolution of Charge Order Phase Observed in β-(BEDT-TTF)2PF6 Single Crystal Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masatoshi; Moritoshi, Norifumi; Kuniyoshi, Shigekazu; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro; Masu, Hyuma

    2016-04-01

    The effect of an applied gate electric field on the charge-order phase in β-(BEDT-TTF)2PF6 single-crystal field-effect transistor structure was observed at around room temperature by technical improvement with respect to sample preparation and electrical measurements. A relatively slight but systematic increase of the electrical conductance induced by the applied gate electric field and its temperature dependence was observed at around the metal-insulator transition temperature (TMI). The temperature dependence of the modulated electrical conductance demonstrated that TMI was shifted toward the lower side by application of a gate electric field, which corresponds to partial dissolution of the charge-order phase. The thickness of the partially dissolved charge order region was estimated to be several score times larger than the charge accumulation region.

  4. Observation of nonlinear bands in near-field scanning optical microscopy of a photonic-crystal waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Amandev; Huisman, Simon R; Korterik, Jeroen P; Mosk, Allard P; Herek, Jennifer L; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the photonic bandstructure of GaAs photonic-crystal waveguides with high energy and momentum resolution using near-field scanning optical microscopy. Intriguingly, we observe additional bands that are not predicted by eigenmode solvers, as was recently demonstrated by Huisman et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 155154 (2012)]. We study the presence of these additional bands by performing measurements of these bands while varying the incident light power, revealing a non-linear power dependence. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the observed additional bands are caused by a waveguide-specific near- field tip effect not previously reported, which can significantly phase-modulate the detected field.

  5. Observation of trapped light induced by Dwarf Dirac-cone in out-of-plane condition for photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Subir; Biswas, Tushar; Bhadra, Shaymal K.

    2016-10-01

    Existence of out-of-plane conical dispersion for a triangular photonic crystal lattice is reported. It is observed that conical dispersion is maintained for a number of out-of-plane wave vectors (k z ). We study a case where Dirac like linear dispersion exists but the photonic density of states is not vanishing, called Dwarf Dirac cone (DDC) which does not support localized modes. We demonstrate the trapping of such modes by introducing defects in the crystal. Interestingly, we find by k-point sampling as well as by tuning trapped frequency that such a conical dispersion has an inherent light confining property and it is governed by neither of the known wave confining mechanisms like total internal reflection, band gap guidance. Our study reveals that such a conical dispersion in a non-vanishing photonic density of states induces unexpected intense trapping of light compared with those at other points in the continuum. Such studies provoke fabrication of new devices with exciting properties and new functionalities. Project supported by Director, CSIR-CGCRI, the DST, Government of India, and the CSIR 12th Plan Project (GLASSFIB), India.

  6. Direct Observation of Halide Migration and its Effect on the Photoluminescence of Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanqi; Khoram, Parisa; Brittman, Sarah; Zhu, Zhuoying; Lai, Barry; Ong, Shyue Ping; Garnett, Erik C; Fenning, David P

    2017-09-29

    Optoelectronic devices based on hybrid perovskites have demonstrated outstanding performance within a few years of intense study. However, commercialization of these devices requires barriers to their development to be overcome, such as their chemical instability under operating conditions. To investigate this instability and its consequences, the electric field applied to single crystals of methylammonium lead bromide (CH3 NH3 PbBr3 ) is varied, and changes are mapped in both their elemental composition and photoluminescence. Synchrotron-based nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence (nano-XRF) with 250 nm resolution reveals quasi-reversible field-assisted halide migration, with corresponding changes in photoluminescence. It is observed that higher local bromide concentration is correlated to superior optoelectronic performance in CH3 NH3 PbBr3 . A lower limit on the electromigration rate is calculated from these experiments and the motion is interpreted as vacancy-mediated migration based on nudged elastic band density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The XRF mapping data provide direct evidence of field-assisted ionic migration in a model hybrid-perovskite thin single crystal, while the link with photoluminescence proves that the halide stoichiometry plays a key role in the optoelectronic properties of the perovskite. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. XPS Observations of Crystal Field Splitting in TiO2 Thin Films in Quantum Confinement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkova, Natalya

    2015-03-01

    Transition metal oxides attract increased interest due to amazing electrical and magnetic properties and their outstanding applications designated by relative d-band redistributions that are shifted in such a way that narrow bands arranged by localized electrons are situated in the vicinity of EF. Different kinds of lattice distortions caused by doping and/or quantum size confinement of TM oxides are assigned to remarkable phenomenon Mott metal-insulator transitions, when mutual metal-oxide orbital arrangement changes dramatically. There is a widespread consensus that strong electron correlations are responsible for that change and magnetic excitation is one of manifestations of these correlations. Here we are presenting XPS study of titanium dioxide nanocrystal formations on silicon substrate with native oxide. The dynamic changes in XPS spectra were used for analysis of TiO2 thin films with mass thicknesses up to 2 monolayers formed by redox reactions of sputtered Ti on Si(100) substrate with native oxide implemented in situ under UHV conditions. XPS spectra evolution, as a traditional source of information on phase composition, was complemented by the possibility to estimate the morphology and crystal field splitting of formed precipitates. Intensity fluctuations observed for O1s, Si 2p, Ti2p spectra were accompanied by crystal field splitting in Ti2p and on second derivatives of O1s. These fluctuations were followed by noticeable changes in the vicinity of band gap indicating possible Mott metal-insulator transitions.

  8. Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Ge, Shijun; Chen, Zhaoxian; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yanqing

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterial-based absorbers play a significant role in applications ranging from energy harvesting and thermal emitters to sensors and imaging devices. The middle dielectric layer of conventional metamaterial absorbers has always been solid. Researchers could not detect the near field distribution in this layer or utilize it effectively. Here, we use anisotropic liquid crystal as the dielectric layer to realize electrically fast tunable terahertz metamaterial absorbers. We demonstrate strong, position-dependent terahertz near-field enhancement with sub-wavelength resolution inside the metamaterial absorber. We measure the terahertz far-field absorption as the driving voltage increases. By combining experimental results with liquid crystal simulations, we verify the near-field distribution in the middle layer indirectly and bridge the near-field and far-field observations. Our work opens new opportunities for creating high-performance, fast, tunable, terahertz metamaterial devices that can be applied in biological imaging and sensing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61225026, 61490714, 11304151, and 61435008), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20150845 and 15KJB140004), the Open Foundation Project of National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, China (Grant No. M28003), and the Research Center of Optical Communications Engineering & Technology, Jiangsu Province, China.

  9. In-situ and real-time growth observation of high-quality protein crystals under quasi-microgravity on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akira; Ohtsuka, Jun; Kashiwagi, Tatsuki; Numoto, Nobutaka; Hirota, Noriyuki; Ode, Takahiro; Okada, Hidehiko; Nagata, Koji; Kiyohara, Motosuke; Suzuki, Ei-Ichiro; Kita, Akiko; Wada, Hitoshi; Tanokura, Masaru

    2016-02-26

    Precise protein structure determination provides significant information on life science research, although high-quality crystals are not easily obtained. We developed a system for producing high-quality protein crystals with high throughput. Using this system, gravity-controlled crystallization are made possible by a magnetic microgravity environment. In addition, in-situ and real-time observation and time-lapse imaging of crystal growth are feasible for over 200 solution samples independently. In this paper, we also report results of crystallization experiments for two protein samples. Crystals grown in the system exhibited magnetic orientation and showed higher and more homogeneous quality compared with the control crystals. The structural analysis reveals that making use of the magnetic microgravity during the crystallization process helps us to build a well-refined protein structure model, which has no significant structural differences with a control structure. Therefore, the system contributes to improvement in efficiency of structural analysis for "difficult" proteins, such as membrane proteins and supermolecular complexes.

  10. Micro-CT observations of the 3D distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in cotyledons during maturation and germination in Lotus miyakojimae seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Hayami, Masato; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Karahara, Ichirou; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Terada, Yasuko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takano, Hidekazu; Kagoshima, Yasushi; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2013-06-01

    The cotyledon of legume seeds is a storage organ that provides nutrients for seed germination and seedling growth. The spatial and temporal control of the degradation processes within cotyledons has not been elucidated. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, a common calcium deposit in plants, have often been reported to be present in legume seeds. In this study, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was employed at the SPring-8 facility to examine the three-dimensional distribution of crystals inside cotyledons during seed maturation and germination of Lotus miyakojimae (previously Lotus japonicus accession Miyakojima MG-20). Using this technique, we could detect the outline of the embryo, void spaces in seeds and the cotyledon venation pattern. We found several sites that strongly inhibited X-ray transmission within the cotyledons. Light and polarizing microscopy confirmed that these areas corresponded to CaOx crystals. Three-dimensional observations of dry seeds indicated that the CaOx crystals in the L. miyakojimae cotyledons were distributed along lateral veins; however, their distribution was limited to the abaxial side of the procambium. The CaOx crystals appeared at stage II (seed-filling stage) of seed development, and their number increased in dry seeds. The number of crystals in cotyledons was high during germination, suggesting that CaOx crystals are not degraded for their calcium supply. Evidence for the conservation of CaOx crystals in cotyledons during the L. miyakojimae germination process was also supported by the biochemical measurement of oxalic acid levels.

  11. Structural disorder and transformation in crystal growth: direct observation of ring-opening isomerization in a metal-organic solid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ji-Jun; He, Jian-Rong; Lü, Xing-Qiang; Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Guo-Bi; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2014-09-01

    A rare example is reported in which discrete Ag2 L 2 ring and (AgL)∞ chain motifs [L = N,N'-bis(3-imidazol-1-yl-propyl)-pyromellitic diimide] co-crystallize in the same crystal lattice with varying ratios and degrees of disorder. Crystal structures obtained from representative crystals reveal compatible packing arrangements of the cyclic and polymeric isomers within the crystal lattice, which enables them to co-exist within a crystalline solid solution. A feasible pathway for transformation between the isomers is suggested via facile rotation of the coordinating imidazolyl groups. This chemical system could provide a chance for direct observation of ring-opening isomerization at the crystal surface. Mass spectrometry and (1)H NMR titration show a dynamic equilibrium between cyclic and oligomeric species in solution, and a potential crystallization process is suggested involving alignment of precursors directed by aromatic stacking interactions between pyromellitic diimide units, followed by ring-opening isomerization at the interface between the solid and the solution. Both cyclic and oligomeric species can act as precursors, with interconversion between them being facile due to a low energy barrier for rotation of the imidazole rings. Thermogravimetric analysis and variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction indicate a transition to a different crystalline phase around 120°C, which is associated with loss of solvent from the crystal lattice.

  12. Real time in situ x-ray topographic observation of deformation of single crystals and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.B.; Hershberger, J.; Chiaramonti, A.; Bilello, J.C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Rek, Z.U. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.

    1998-12-31

    An experimental apparatus, which is capable of performing real time in situ X-ray topographic observation of deformation process via synchrotron white beam topography, has been developed. This device enables both tensile data (load-displacement) and topographic images to be recorded simultaneously. It has been utilized to study the deformation behaviors of crystals of Mo and W. These specimens have been subject to mechanical cycling with increasing load, and their deformation processes have been observed in real time and in situ via x-ray topography. This leads to the observation of several phenomena, which would have been difficult to reveal by other experimental techniques. They include stress concentration, microyielding, reversible variation of contrasts and stress relaxation. In addition, the deformation behaviors of small angle grain boundaries have also been examined. Furthermore, the specimens can be heated through a heating device attached to the tensile stage, which allows high temperature topography to be performed in real time. The technique has been applied to the Ta films on Si (100) substrates. With increasing temperature, the topographic observations have revealed that the Ta films yields, fracture and then proceed to delaminate from their substrates.

  13. Observation of Ising spin-nematic order and its close relationship to the superconductivity in FeSe single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongna; Yuan, Jie; Huang, Yulong; Ni, Shunli; Feng, Zhongpei; Zhou, Huaxue; Mao, Yiyuan; Jin, Kui; Zhang, Guangming; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhou, Fang; Zhao, Zhongxian

    2016-08-01

    Superconducting FeSe single crystals of (001) orientation are synthesized via a hydrothermal ion-release route. An Ising spin-nematic order is identified by our systematic measurements of in-plane angular-dependent magnetoresistance (AMR) and static magnetization. The turn-on temperature of anisotropic AMR signifies the Ising spin-nematic ordering temperature Tsn, below which a twofold rotational symmetry is observed in the iron plane. A downward curvature appears below Tsn in the temperature dependence of static magnetization for the weak in-plane magnetic field as reported previously. Remarkably, we find a universal linear relationship between Tc and Tsn among various superconducting samples, indicating that the spin nematicity and the superconductivity in FeSe have a common microscopic origin.

  14. A Sensitive Scheme to Observe Weak Photo-Refraction Effects in Some Nonlinear Optical Crystals Pumped by Ultrashort Optical Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-Xiang; GAO Yan-Xia; CAI Hua; LI Jing-Zhen

    2009-01-01

    We present a sensitive scheme, for the first time to our knowledge, to observe photo-refraction (PR) effects in some nonlinear optical crystals, e.g.β-BBO, LBO and BIBO, pumped by an intense ultrashort laser pulse chain. These quite weak effects are "amplified" by sensitive cw intracavity loss modulation. Our results show that they are repeatable and are dependent on pumping power and wavelength, and their response time ranges from tens of seconds to several minutes. The recorded dynamical transitions between the self-focusing to the self-defocusing (or vice versa) induced by the PR effect may be critically important for us to give more insight into the stability of some cascade nonlinear frequency conversions, e.g. multi-stage optical parametric amplifiers.

  15. Single-crystal sapphire resonator at millikelvin temperatures: Observation of thermal bistability in high- Q factor whispering gallery modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Tobar, Michael E.; Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Duty, Timothy

    2010-09-01

    Resonance modes in single crystal sapphire (α-Al2O3) exhibit extremely high electrical and mechanical Q factors ( ≈109 at 4 K), which are important characteristics for electromechanical experiments at the quantum limit. We report the cool down of a bulk sapphire sample below superfluid liquid-helium temperature (1.6 K) to as low as 25 mK. The electromagnetic properties were characterized at microwave frequencies, and we report the observation of electromagnetically induced thermal bistability in whispering gallery modes due to the material T3 dependence on thermal conductivity and the ultralow dielectric loss tangent. We identify “magic temperatures” between 80 and 2100 mK, the lowest ever measured, at which the onset of bistability is suppressed and the frequency-temperature dependence is annulled. These phenomena at low temperatures make sapphire suitable for quantum metrology and ultrastable clock applications, including the possible realization of the quantum-limited sapphire clock.

  16. Observation of applied voltage response of dye-doped liquid crystal by optical measurement of real and imaginary parts of complex refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Bannai, Kenta; Noda, Kohei; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Ono, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    The behavior of liquid crystal (LC) molecules and dye molecules in a dye-doped liquid crystal (DDLC) under a voltage application condition was quantitatively investigated. To observe the reorientation of these molecules, the real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index were simultaneously and individually measured using an optical interferometer. The obtained results indicate that the alignment of dye molecules doped in DDLC occurs following the electrically responding LC molecules, near the Freedericksz transition region of LC.

  17. Experimenting with a Visible Copper-Aluminum Displacement Reaction in Agar Gel and Observing Copper Crystal Growth Patterns to Engage Student Interest and Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Wang, Xiaogang; Yang, Yangyiwei; Shi, Xiang; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    The reaction process of copper-aluminum displacement in agar gel was observed at the microscopic level with a stereomicroscope; pine-like branches of copper crystals growing from aluminum surface into gel at a constant rate were observed. Students were asked to make hypotheses on the pattern formation and design new research approaches to prove…

  18. Two-dimensional folded chain crystals composed of a single isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) chain observed by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaki, Jiro; Anzai, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    We successfully visualized crystallization behavior of a single isolated polymer chain at a molecular level by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Previously, we found that isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (it-PMMA) formed two-dimensional folded chain crystals upon compression of its Langmuir monolayer on a water surface, and the molecular images of the crystals deposited on mica were clearly visualized by AFM (Kumaki, et al. JACS 2005, 127, 5788; J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 5594). In the present study, a high-molecular-weight it-PMMA was diluted in a monolayer of an it-PMMA oligomer which cannot crystallize due to the low molecular weight. At a low surface pressure, isolated amorphous chains of the high-molecular-weight it-PMMA solubilized in the oligomer monolayer were observed. On compression, the isolated chains converted to crystals composed of a single chain. Detailed AFM observations of the crystals indicated that the crystalline nuclei preferably formed at the ends of the chains, and the size of the nuclei was almost independent on the molecular weight of the it-PMMA in a wide range.

  19. Observation and comparative analysis of proton beam extraction or collimation by different planar channels of a bent crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Afonin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment the efficiency of the 50 GeV proton beam extraction from accelerator by means of a bent crystal as a function of crystal orientation was measured. This allowed one to make a comparative analysis of efficiencies of high-energy protons deflection by different crystal atomic planes with different values of the electrostatic field. The results of simulation of high-energy protons deflection by means of crystal atomic planes and crystal atomic strings are also presented in the article. In the case of planar channeling the simulation shows a good agreement with experimental data. In the case of proton motion in the regime of stochastic scattering by bent atomic strings the simulation shows that angles of particle deflection are much greater than the critical channeling angle.

  20. In situ direct observation of photocorrosion in ZnO crystals in ionic liquid using a laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ishioka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ZnO photocatalysts in water react with environmental water molecules and corrode under illumination. ZnO nanorods in water can also grow because of water splitting induced by UV irradiation. To investigate their morphological behavior caused by crystal growth and corrosion, here we developed a new laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope and observed crystal ZnO nanorods immersed in ionic liquid. Exposing the specimen holder to a laser with a wavelength of 325 nm, we observed the photocorrosion in situ at the atomic scale for the first time. This experiment revealed that Zn and O atoms near the interface between the ZnO nanorods and the ionic liquid tended to dissolve into the liquid. The polarity and facet of the nanorods were strongly related to photocorrosion and crystal growth.

  1. In-Situ Partial Pressure Measurements and Visual Observation during Crystal Growth of ZnSe by Seeded Physical Vapor Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, Shari; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1999-01-01

    An in-situ monitoring furnace was constructed with side windows to perform partial pressure measurements by optical absorption and visual observation of the growing crystal. A fused silica -rowth ampoule with a 4.5 cm long square tube between the source and the seed was prepared for the optical absorption measurements. A ZnSe crystal was grown by the seeded physical vapor transport (PVT) technique in the horizontal configuration. The growth temperature was 1120 C and the furnace translation rate was 3nmVday. Partial pressures of Se2, P(sub Se2), at three locations along the length of the growth ampoule were measured at 90 min intervals during the growth process. The measured P (sub Se2) were in the range of 2.0 to 6.5 x 10(exp -3) atm. The P(sub Se2) results indicated that the partial pressure profile was inconsistent with the results of the one-dimensional diffusion mass transport model and that the source composition shifted toward Se-rich during the run, i.e. the grown crystal was more Zn-rich than the source. The visual observation showed that the seed crystal first etched back, with greater thermal etching occurring along the edges of the seed crystal. Once the growth started, the crystal crew in a predominately contactless mode and facets were evident during growth. The crystal did not grow symmetrically which is believed to be due to the unintentional asymmetry of the radial thermal profile in the furnace.

  2. In Situ Observation of Skeletal Shape Transition during BaB2O4 Crystal Growth in High-Temperature Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xiu-Hong; JIN Wei-Qing; HONG Yong; AI Fei

    2006-01-01

    @@ The transition from a flat solid-liquid interface to a skeletal shape during BaB2O4(BBO) single crystal growth in Li2B4O7 flux is observed in real time by an optical high-temperature in-situ observation system. The movement of crystal step is also investigated. The obserwation results demonstrate that the steps propagate along and parallel to the flat interface when the crystal size is small.Nevertheless, they will ‘bend’ close to the face centre if the crystal size becomes greater. Atomic force microscopy reveals that more deposition places near the face centre give rise to the bending of advancing steps and thus the formation of a vicinal interface structure. Measurements of step velocity show that the velocity keeps nearly constant at different moments for one specific step, whereas the step on a newly formed layer advanced faster than that on a previously formed one when the crystal size is larger than 210μm or so. Thus interfacial morphological instability occurs and a skeletal interface is obtained.

  3. Lidar observations of ice-nucleating particle (INPC) and ice crystal number (ICNC) concentrations: height-resolved INPC-ICNC closure studies in mixed-phase altocumulus layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Albert; Bühl, Johannes; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Engelmann, Ronny; Seifert, Patric; Nisantzi, Argyro; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    During the six-week Cyprus-2015 field campaign in March and April 2015, conducted in the framework of the BACCHUS project (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding, collaborative project of the seventh EU framework programme, ENV.2013.6.1-2), we observed the evolution of extended liquid-water altocumulus fields with subsequent heterogeneous ice formation. The altocumulus layers developed in aged Saharan dust layers between 3.5 km (-20°C) and 7.5 km height (-35°C cloud top temperature). We observed such altocumulus developments on 12 days. By applying our recently developed polarization-lidar method we estimated the ice-nucleating particle concentration (INPC, immersion freezing) at cloud level (before the clouds developed and after their dissolution). Simultaneously performed Doppler lidar observations of the terminal velocities of falling ice crystals in virga below the shallow altocumulus layers allowed us to estimate the ice crystal number concentration (ICNC) of the falling ice crystals. In this retrieval, a realistic ice crystal size distribution has to be assumed. In addition, the volume extinction coefficient of the ice crystals has to be known (to obtain the total ice crystal concentration), and is obtained from the polarization lidar observations by using classical backscatter or Raman lidar retrieval methods. We assume that all ice crystals, which nucleated in the 300-500 m thick altocumulus layers, grow fast (according to the literature to about 100 µm size within 1 minute) and immediately fall out of the main shallow cloud layer so that the derived ICNC values provide us with the number of nucleated ice crystals as a function of cloud top temperature and given INP conditions. Based on this unique observational approach we investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, the consistency between the INPC and ICNC in mixed-phase clouds. We found reasonable agreement between INPC

  4. Observation of glycine zipper and unanticipated occurrence of ambidextrous helices in the crystal structure of a chiral undecapeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramagopal Udupi A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The de novo design of peptides and proteins has recently surfaced as an approach for investigating protein structure and function. This approach vitally tests our knowledge of protein folding and function, while also laying the groundwork for the fabrication of proteins with properties not precedented in nature. The success of these studies relies heavily on the ability to design relatively short peptides that can espouse stable secondary structures. To this end, substitution with α, β-dehydroamino acids, especially α, β-dehydrophenylalanine (ΔPhe comes in use for spawning well-defined structural motifs. Introduction of ΔPhe induces β-bends in small and 310-helices in longer peptide sequences. Results The present report is an investigation of the effect of incorporating two glycines in the middle of a ΔPhe containing undecapeptide. A de novo designed undecapeptide, Ac-Gly1-Ala2-ΔPhe3-Leu4-Gly5-ΔPhe6-Leu7-Gly8-ΔPhe9-Ala10-Gly11-NH2, was synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction and Circular Dichroism spectroscopic methods. Crystallographic studies suggest that, despite the presence of L-amino acid (L-Ala and L-Leu residues in the middle of the sequence, the peptide adopts a 310-helical conformation of ambidextrous screw sense, one of them a left-handed (A and the other a right-handed (B 310-helix with A and B being antiparallel to each other. However, CD studies reveal that the undecapeptide exclusively adopts a right-handed 310-helical conformation. In the crystal packing, three different interhelical interfaces, Leu-Leu, Gly-Gly and ΔPhe-ΔPhe are observed between the helices A and B. A network of C-H...O hydrogen bonds are observed at ΔPhe-ΔPhe and Gly-Gly interhelical interfaces. An important feature observed is the occurrence of glycine zipper motif at Gly-Gly interface. At this interface, the geometric pattern of interhelical interactions seems to resemble those observed between helices in

  5. Observation of strong virtual scattering under three-beam (220, 371) X-ray diffraction in TeO{sub 2} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagov, A. E.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Kohn, V. G. [Kurchatov Institute, Russian Research Centre (Russian Federation); Pisarevskii, Yu. V.; Prosekov, P. A., E-mail: aopt@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    A strong effect of virtual scattering has been experimentally observed when studying the nearly coplanar three-beam (220, 371) X-ray diffraction in a paratellurite single crystal under high-resolution double-crystal X-ray diffraction using MoK{sub {alpha}1} radiation. One characteristic feature of this effect is that the angular dependence of the first (strong) reflection intensity and its shape barely change in the three-beam range of parameters, whereas very strong changes are observed for the second (weak) reflection not only in the three-beam range but also far beyond it, which is related to the variation in the two-beam diffraction parameter due to virtual scattering. The changes observed are asymmetric and make it possible to determine the triplet combination of structure-factor phases.

  6. Determination and observation of electronic defect levels in CuInSe sub 2 crystals and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elfotouh, F.A.; Kazmerski, L.L.; Moutinho, H.R.; Wissel, J.M.; Dhere, R.G.; Nelson, A.J.; Bakry, A.M. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado 80401 (US))

    1991-05-01

    The effects of heat and surface treatments used in the fabrication of CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) single-crystal and thin-film solar cells are investigated, and the associated dominant defect states are identified using high-resolution photoluminescence (PL) and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. The results are correlated with junction electrical characteristics, and comparisons between thin films and single crystals are established. For the first time, direct evidence for several major defect types (Cu vacancies, Cu at In sites, and In at Cu sites) responsible for the majority-carrier type of the CIS is presented based upon spectroscopic atomic imaging of the {ital n}- and {ital p}-type semiconductor surfaces. Radiative recombination levels of extrinsic origin resulting from the surface processing (including polishing, etching, and annealing) were detected in the near surface region of the CIS single crystals, but not in the thin-film material having the same composition. The energy locations and depth of these states are responsible for the formation of an interfacial layer that is confirmed from frequency-dependent capacitance--voltage ({ital C}--{ital V}) data. The DLTS measurements on single-crystal and thin-film heterostructure {l brace}i.e., (Cd,Zn)S/CIS{r brace} devices (of nearly identical chemical compositions) have also confirmed the presence of a dominant trap level in the 270-meV region above the valance band. However, the trap density is some two orders of magnitude lower in the thin-film device, giving evidence that this processing-related defect level is responsible for the inferior performance of the single-crystal solar cells.

  7. Crystal Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Armstrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal dislocations were invisible until the mid-20th century although their presence had been inferred; the atomic and molecular scale dimensions had prevented earlier discovery. Now they are normally known to be just about everywhere, for example, in the softest molecularly-bonded crystals as well as within the hardest covalently-bonded diamonds. The advent of advanced techniques of atomic-scale probing has facilitated modern observations of dislocations in every crystal structure-type, particularly by X-ray diffraction topography and transmission electron microscopy. The present Special Issue provides a flavor of their ubiquitous presences, their characterizations and, especially, their influence on mechanical and electrical properties.

  8. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patell, Hilla

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the goal of observation, preparation of the adult, the observer, is necessary. This preparation, says Hilla Patell, requires us to "have an appreciation of the significance of the child's spontaneous activities and a more thorough understanding of the child's needs." She discusses the growth of both the desire to…

  9. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  10. New application of terahertz time-domain spectrometry (THz-TDS) to the phonon-polariton observation on ferroelectric crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Seizi; Tsumura, Naoki; Kitahara, Hideaki; Wada Takeda, Mitsuo; Kojima, Seiji

    2002-11-01

    A new instrument for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has been developed. It consists of a composite THz-TDS system and a high throughput (Martin-Puplett) interferometer. The instrument is for use in the qualitative study of optoelectronic constants of materials. The spectral transmission intensity and phase shift related to phonon-polariton dispersion have been measured between 100 cm-1 and 3 cm-1 on ferroelectric crystals of industrial interest. These include bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (a key material for FeRAM), lithium niobate LiNbO3 (a typical nonlinear crystal for parametric oscillator applications) and lithium heptagermanate Li2Ge7O15 for surface elastic wave filter applications. The complex dielectric constants are well reproduced by the phonon-polariton dispersion relation based on the Kurosawa formula. The instrument details and phonon-polariton dispersion results are described.

  11. Observation of parametric gain due to four-wave mixing in dispersion engineered GaInP photonic crystal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Pierre; Cestier, Isabelle; Willinger, Amnon; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Eisenstein, Gadi; De Rossi, Alfredo

    2011-07-15

    We investigate four-wave mixing (FWM) in GaInP 1.5 mm long dispersion engineered photonic crystal waveguides. We demonstrate an 11 nm FWM bandwidth in the CW mode and a conversion efficiency of -24 dB in the quasi-CW mode. For picosecond pump and probe pulses, we report a 3 dB parametric gain and nearly a -5 dB conversion efficiency at watt-level peak pump powers.

  12. Direct observation of Sn crystal growth during the lithiation and delithiation processes of SnO(2) nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li Qiang; Liu, Xiao Hua; Perng, Ya-Chuan; Cho, Jea; Chang, Jane P; Mao, Scott X; Ye, Zhi Zhen; Huang, Jian Yu

    2012-11-01

    Tin (Sn) crystal growth on Sn-based anodes in lithium ion batteries is hazardous for reasons such as possible short-circuit failure by Sn whiskers and Sn-catalyzed electrolyte decomposition, but the growth mechanism of Sn crystals during battery cycling is not clear. Here we report different growth mechanisms of Sn crystal during the lithiation and delithiation processes of SnO(2) nanowires revealed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Large spherical Sn nanoparticles with sizes of 20-200nm grew instantaneously upon lithiation of a single-crystalline SnO(2) nanowire at large current density (j>20A/cm(2)), which suppressed formation of the Li(x)Sn alloy but promoted agglomeration of Sn atoms. Control experiments of Joule-heating (j≈2400A/cm(2)) the pristine SnO(2) nanowires resulted in melting of the SnO(2) nanowires but not Sn particle growth, indicating that the abnormal Sn particle growth was induced by both chemical reduction (i.e., breaking the SnO(2) lattice to produce Sn atoms) and agglomeration of the Sn atoms assisted by Joule heating. Intriguingly, Sn crystals grew out of the nanowire surface via a different "squeeze-out" mechanism during delithiation of the lithiated SnO(2) nanowires coated with an ultra-thin solid electrolyte LiAlSiO(x) layer. It is attributed to the negative stress gradient generated by the fast Li extraction in the surface region through the Li(+)-conducting LiAlSiO(x) layer. Our previous studies showed that Sn precipitation does not occur in the carbon-coated SnO(2) nanowires, highlighting the effect of nanoengineering on tailoring the electrochemical reaction kinetics to suppress the hazardous Sn whiskers or nanoparticles formation in a lithium ion battery.

  13. Cloud Resolving Simulations of Mixed-Phase Arctic Stratus Observed during BASE: Sensitivity to Concentration of Ice Crystals and Large-Scale Heat and Moisture Advection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongli; Cotton, William R.; Pinto, James O.; Curry, Judy A.; Weissbluth, Michael J.

    2000-07-01

    The authors' previous idealized, two-dimensional cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations of Arctic stratus revealed a surprising sensitivity to the concentrations of ice crystals. In this paper, simulations of an actual case study observed during the Beaufort and Arctic Seas Experiment are performed and the results are compared to the observed data.It is again found in the CRM simulations that the simulated stratus cloud is very sensitive to the concentration of ice crystals. Using midlatitude estimates of the availability of ice forming nuclei (IFN) in the model, the authors find that the concentrations of ice crystals are large enough to result in the almost complete dissipation of otherwise solid, optically thick stratus layers. A tenuous stratus can be maintained in the simulation when the continuous input of moisture through the imposed large-scale advection is strong enough to balance the ice production. However, in association with the large-scale moisture and warm advection, only by reducing the concentration of IFN to 0.3 of the midlatitude estimate values can a persistent, optically thick stratus layer be maintained. The results obtained from the reduced IFN simulation compare reasonably well with observations.The longwave radiative fluxes at the surface are significantly different between the solid stratus and liquid-water-depleted higher ice crystal concentration experiments.This work suggests that transition-season Arctic stratus can be very vulnerable to anthropogenic sources of IFN, which can alter cloud structure sufficiently to affect the rates of melting and freezing of the Arctic Ocean.The authors find that the Hallett-Mossop riming splintering mechanism is not activated in the simulations because the cloud droplets are very small and cloud temperatures are outside the range supporting efficient rime splintering. Thus, the conclusions drawn from the results presented in this paper may be applicable to only a limited class of Arctic stratus.

  14. Observation of two-dimensional nucleation on the {0 1 0} face of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystals using ex situ atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, G. R.; Halfpenny, P. J.

    1998-04-01

    The surface topology of microcrystals of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) grown at a relative supersaturation of approximately 26% has been investigated using ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two distinctly different plate-like habits were observed. The thicker of the two habits resulted from growth by a spiral mechanism on the {0 1 0} faces while a thinner, less common, plate-like morphology occurred due to growth by two-dimensional nucleation on this face. The nuclei, being both asymmetric and partially polygonised, are essentially identical in shape to that of the spirals observed on the thicker crystals. They range in size from about 1200 to 400 nm with the smallest of the nuclei being substantially larger than the estimated radius of the critical two-dimensional nucleus at this supersaturation. This is attributed to continued growth of the nuclei, during separation from the growth solution. The nuclei are distributed non uniformly across the surface of the crystals, being greatest in number at the edges and corners of the {0 1 0} face. This distribution reflects the expected variation in surface supersaturation across the crystal face.

  15. A model for the [C+-GxC]n triple helix derived from observation of the C+-GxC base triplet in a crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, C M; Trent, J O; Neidle, S

    1997-10-13

    A molecular modelling study on the [C+-GxC]n triple helix is reported. We have observed the C+-GxC base triplet in the crystal structure of an oligonucleotide-drug complex, between the minor-groove drug netropsin and the decanucleotide d(CGCAATTGCG)2. The complex was crystallised at pH 7.0, but the crystal structure, at a resolution of 2.4 A, shows that a terminal cytosine has become protonated and participates in a parallel C+-GxC base triplet. The structure of this triplet and its associated sugar-phosphate backbones have been energy-refined and then used to generate a triple helix. This has characteristics of the B-type family of DNA structures for two strands, with the third, the C+ strand, having backbone conformations closer to the A family.

  16. Observation of genuine wave vector (k or β) gap in a dynamic transmission line and temporal photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Ayona, J. R.; Halevi, P., E-mail: halevi@inaoep.mx [Electronics Department, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72840 (Mexico)

    2015-08-17

    By definition, a temporal photonic crystal (TPC) has a permittivity ε(t) that varies periodically with time. We prove that, in the long wavelength limit, a TPC is accurately mimicked by a dynamic transmission line (DTL) having a capacitance (inductance) per unit length equal to ε(t) (μ). Employing a DTL in the microwave region, we measured the photonic band structure, which results to display a genuine wave vector (k or β) gap, in very good agreement with our theoretical model and the equivalent TPC.

  17. Observation of genuine wave vector (k or β) gap in a dynamic transmission line and temporal photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ayona, J. R.; Halevi, P.

    2015-08-01

    By definition, a temporal photonic crystal (TPC) has a permittivity ɛ(t) that varies periodically with time. We prove that, in the long wavelength limit, a TPC is accurately mimicked by a dynamic transmission line (DTL) having a capacitance (inductance) per unit length equal to ɛ(t) (μ). Employing a DTL in the microwave region, we measured the photonic band structure, which results to display a genuine wave vector (k or β) gap, in very good agreement with our theoretical model and the equivalent TPC.

  18. Crystal structures of bis(phenoxysilicon phthalocyanines: increasing π–π interactions, solubility and disorder and no halogen bonding observed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît H. Lessard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the syntheses and characterization of three solution-processable phenoxy silicon phthalocyanines (SiPcs, namely bis(3-methylphenoxy(phthalocyaninesilicon [(3MP2-SiPc], C46H30N8O2Si, bis(2-sec-butylphenoxy(phthalocyaninesilicon [(2secBP2-SiPc], C44H24I2N8O2Si, and bis(3-iodophenoxy(phthalocyaninesilicon [(3IP2-SiPc], C52H42N8O2Si. Crystals grown of these compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the π–π interactions between the aromatic SiPc cores were studied. It was determined that (3MP2-SiPc has similar interactions to previously reported bis(3,4,5-trifluorophenoxysilicon phthalocyanines [(345 F2-SiPc] with significant π–π interactions between the SiPc groups. (3IP2-SiPc and (2secBP2-SiPc both experienced a parallel stacking of two of the peripheral aromatic groups. In all three cases, the solubility of these molecules was increased by the addition of phenoxy groups while maintaining π–π interactions between the aromatic SiPc groups. The solubility of (2secBP2-SiPc was significantly higher than other bis-phenoxy-SiPcs and this was exemplified by the higher observed disorder within the crystal structure.

  19. Local observation of modes from three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystals with near-field microspectroscopy under supercontinuum illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Baohua; Norton, Andrew H; Li, Jiafang; Rahmani, Adel; Asatryan, Ara A; Botten, Lindsay C; Gu, Min

    2008-05-15

    A near-field microscope coupled with a near-infrared (NIR) supercontinuum source is developed and applied to characterize optical modes in a three-dimensional (3D) woodpile photonic crystal (PC) possessing a NIR partial bandgap. Spatially resolved near-field intensity distributions under different illumination wavelengths demonstrate that the electric fields preferentially dwell in the polymer rods or in the gaps between rods, respectively, for frequencies below or above the stop gap, as predicted by the 3D finite-difference time-domain modeling. Near-field microspectroscopy further reveals that the position-dependent band-edge effect plays an important role in PC-based all-optical integrated devices.

  20. Closure between ice-nucleating particle and ice crystal number concentrations in ice clouds embedded in Saharan dust: Lidar observation during the BACCHUS Cyprus 2015 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Ansmann, Albert; Bühl, Johannes; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Nisantzi, Argyro; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Atkinson, James; Kanji, Zamin; Vrekoussis, Michalis; Sciare, Jean; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, we compare ice-nucleating particle number concentration (INPC) derived from polarization lidar (Mamouri and Ansmann, 2015) with ice crystal number concentrations (ICNC) in ice cloud layers embedded in the observed Saharan dust layers (at heights above 6 km and corresponding temperatures from -20 to -40°C). ICNC is estimated from the respective cirrus extinction profiles obtained with the same polarization lidar in combination with Doppler lidar measurements of the ice crystal sedimentation speed from which the mean size of the crystals can be estimated. Good agreement between INPC and ICNC was obtained for two case studies of the BACCHUS Cyprus 2015 field campaign with focus on INPC profiling. The campaign was organized by the Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, where a lidar was deployed. Additionaly, observations of AERONET and EALINET Lidar stations during the BACCHUS Cyprus 2015 field campaign, performed by Cyprus University of Technology in Limassol. Both, INPC and ICNC were found in the range from 10-50 1/L. Lidar-derived INPC values were also compared with in-situ INPC measurements (Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber, HINC, ETH Zurich, deployed at Agia Marina, at 500 m a.s.l., 30 km west of the lidar site). Reasonable and partly good agreement (during dust events) was found between the two retrievals. The findings of these closure studies corroborate the applicability of available INPC parameterization schemes (DeMott et al., 2010, 2015) implemented in the lidar retrieval scheme, and more generally INPC profiling by using active remote sensing (at ground and in space with CALIPSO and EarthCARE lidars).

  1. Experimental observations on the crystalline structures of YAlO{sub 3} single crystal at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Takahiro; Morimoto, Takaaki [Waseda University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Tokyo (Japan); Ohki, Yoshimichi [Waseda University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Tokyo (Japan); Waseda University, Research Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    To understand the effects of thermal annealing on a high-permittivity gate insulating material YAlO{sub 3}, its single crystal was annealed at various high temperatures ranging from 900 to 1300 C and was examined by various instrumental analyses such as X-ray diffraction, infrared absorption spectroscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. As a result, it was clarified that the crystalline YAlO{sub 3} takes at least three structures in a temperature range up to 1300 C. Namely, it is perovskite below 1160 C, at which the garnet structure starts to appear, while an unknown structure appears at 1250 C. On the other hand, the sample surface also shows drastic changes if the temperature exceeds 1160 C. Furthermore, many elliptical spots are induced after the annealing at 1200 or 1250 C. Moreover, hydroxyl groups are generated at 1300 C. It is desirable to take these structural changes into account in determining the annealing temperature of YAlO{sub 3} for various industrial purposes such as the manufacture of semiconductor devices. (orig.)

  2. Observation of Superfluorescence from a Spontaneous Coherence of Excitons in ZnTe Crystal: Evidence for Bose-Einstein Condensation of Excitons?

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, D C

    2011-01-01

    Superfluorescence (SF) is the emission from a dense coherent system in population inversion, formed from an initially incoherent ensemble. This is characterised by an induction time (t_D) for the spontaneous development of the macroscopic quantum coherence. Here we report detailed observation of SF on ultrafast timescale from a quantum ensemble of coherent excitons in highly excited intrinsic bulk ZnTe single crystal at 5 K, showing a characteristic t_D from 40 ps to 10 ps, quantum noise and fluctuations, and quantum beating and ringing. From this clear observation of SF from a spontaneous coherence of excitons we infer that this is indicative of the formation of BEC of excitons on an ultrafast timescale.

  3. Artistic Crystal Creations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In this inquiry-based, integrative art and science activity, Grade 5-8 students use multicolored Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) crystallizing solutions to reveal beautiful, cylindrical, 3-dimensional, needle-shaped structures. Through observations of the crystal art, students analyze factors that contribute to crystal size and formation, compare…

  4. Crystal structures of bis-(phen-oxy)silicon phthalocyanines: increasing π-π inter-actions, solubility and disorder and no halogen bonding observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Benoît H; Lough, Alan J; Bender, Timothy P

    2016-07-01

    We report the syntheses and characterization of three solution-processable phen-oxy silicon phthalocyanines (SiPcs), namely bis-(3-methyl-phen-oxy)(phthalocyanine)silicon [(3MP)2-SiPc], C46H30N8O2Si, bis-(2-sec-butyl-phen-oxy)(phthalocyanine)silicon [(2secBP)2-SiPc], C44H24I2N8O2Si, and bis-(3-iodo-phen-oxy)(phthalocyanine)silicon [(3IP)2-SiPc], C52H42N8O2Si. Crystals grown of these compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the π-π inter-actions between the aromatic SiPc cores were studied. It was determined that (3MP)2-SiPc has similar inter-actions to previously reported bis-(3,4,5-tri-fluoro-phen-oxy)silicon phthalocyanines [(345 F)2-SiPc] with significant π-π inter-actions between the SiPc groups. (3IP)2-SiPc and (2secBP)2-SiPc both experienced a parallel stacking of two of the peripheral aromatic groups. In all three cases, the solubility of these mol-ecules was increased by the addition of phen-oxy groups while maintaining π-π inter-actions between the aromatic SiPc groups. The solubility of (2secBP)2-SiPc was significantly higher than other bis-phen-oxy-SiPcs and this was exemplified by the higher observed disorder within the crystal structure.

  5. Direct observation of lattice strain in Si1-xGex/Si crystals using planar channeling patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breese, MBH; deKerckhove, DG; King, PJC; Smulders, PJM

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the direct observation of lattice strain in channeling patterns produced by 3 MeV protons transmitted through strained Si1-xGex/Si bilayers close to planar channeling directions. Blocking lines arising from each layer can be separately resolved at certain alignments, whereas onl

  6. Observation of pressure-induced phase transition of δ-AlOOH by using single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Takahiro; Sano-Furukawa, Asami; Nagase, Toshiro

    2014-04-01

    Pressure-induced phase transition of δ-AlOOH was confirmed between 6.1 and 8.2 GPa by using a single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction method. The phase transition is reversible and unquenchable. Results from analysis of the distribution of X-ray diffraction intensities at 8.2 GPa reveal an additional systematic, absence of k + l odd for 0 kl in comparison with h + l odd for h0 l observed prior to the phase transition (space group, P21 nm). The space group of the post-transition phase should be Pnnm or Pnn2 to satisfy the systematic absence rule. Crystal structure refinements of the post-transition phase conducted for the three models ( Pnnm, Pnn2, and P21 nm) indicate that the space group of the post-transition phase is Pnnm. The O-O distance of hydrogen bond in the post-transition phase at 8.2 GPa is 2.439(6) Å and is significantly longer than the predicted distance (2.366 Å) of the hydrogen bond symmetrization in δ-AlOOH. The H distribution in the post-transition phase would display a fully disordered hydrogen bond pattern.

  7. CO Signatures in Subtropical Convective Clouds and Anvils During CRYSTAL-FACE: An Analysis of Convective Transport and Entertainment Using Observations and a Cloud-Resolving Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jimena P.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Jost, Hans-Jurg; Loewenstein, Max; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Campos, Teresa L.; Weinstock, Elliot M.; Sayres, David S.; Smith, Jessica B.; Pittman, Jasna V.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Convective systems are an important mechanism in the transport of boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) campaign, in July 2002, was developed as a comprehensive atmospheric mission to improve knowledge of subtropical cirrus systems and their roles in regional and global climate. In situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), water vapor (H20v), and total water (H20t) aboard NASA's . WB-57F aircraft and CO aboard the U.S. Navy's Twin Otter aircraft were obtained to study the role of convective transport. Three flights sampled convective outflow on 11, 16 and 29 July found varying degrees of CO enhancement relative to the fiee troposphere. A cloud-resolving model used the in situ observations and meteorological fields to study these three systems. Several methods of filtering the observations were devised here using ice water content, relative humidity with respect to ice, and particle number concentration as a means to statistically sample the model results to represent the flight tracks. A weighted histogram based on ice water content observations was then used to sample the simulations for the three flights. In addition, because the observations occurred in the convective outflow cirrus and not in the storm cores, the model was used to estimate the maximum CO within the convective systems. In general, anvil-level air parcels contained an estimated 20-40% boundary layer air in the analyzed storms.

  8. CO Signatures in Subtropical Convective Clouds and Anvils during CRYSTAL-FACE: An Analysis of Convective Transport and Entrainment using Observations and a Cloud-Resolving Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jimena P.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Campos, Teresa L.; Weinstock, Elliot M.; Sayres, David S.; Smith, Jessica B.; Pittman, Jasna V.

    2006-01-01

    Convective systems are an important mechanism in the transport of boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) campaign, in July 2002, was developed as a comprehensive atmospheric mission to improve knowledge of subtropical cirrus systems and their roles in regional and global climate. In situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), water vapor (H2Ov), and total water (H2Ot) aboard NASA's WB-57F aircraft and CO aboard the U.S. Navy's Twin Otter aircraft were obtained to study the role of convective transport. Three flights sampled convective outflow on 11, 16 and 29 July found varying degrees of CO enhancement relative to the free troposphere. A cloud-resolving model used the in situ observations and meteorological fields to study these three systems. Several methods of filtering the observations were devised here using ice water content, relative humidity with respect to ice, and particle number concentration as a means to statistically sample the model results to represent the flight tracks. A weighted histogram based on ice water content observations was then used to sample the simulations for the three flights. In addition, because the observations occurred in the convective outflow cirrus and not in the storm cores, the model was used to estimate the maximum CO within the convective systems. In general, anvil-level air parcels contained an estimated 20-40% boundary layer air in the analyzed storms.

  9. Direct observation of electronic-liquid-crystal phase transitions and their microscopic origin in La1/3Ca2/3MnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Sun, K.; Yin, W.-G.; Wu, L.; Xin, H.; Wen, J. G.; Luo, W.; Pennycook, S. J.; Tranquada, J. M.; Zhu, Y.

    2016-11-01

    The ground-state electronic order in doped manganites is frequently associated with a lattice modulation, contributing to their many interesting properties. However, measuring the thermal evolution of the lattice superstructure with reciprocal-space probes alone can lead to ambiguous results with competing interpretations. Here we provide direct observations of the evolution of the superstructure in La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 in real space, as well as reciprocal space, using transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. We show that the transitions are the consequence of a proliferation of dislocations plus electronic phase separation. The resulting states are well described by the symmetries associated with electronic-liquid-crystal (ELC) phases. Moreover, our results resolve the long-standing controversy over the origin of the incommensurate superstructure and suggest a new structural model that is consistent with recent theoretical calculations.

  10. Classification of Particle Shapes from Lidar Depolarization Ratios in Convective Ice Clouds Compared to in situ Observations During CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Vincent; Winker, David; McGill, Matthew; Lawson, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This manuscript describes a method to class@ cirrus cloud ice particle shape using lidar depolarization measurements as a basis for segregating different particle shape regimes. Measurements from the ER-2 Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) system during CRYSTAL-FACE provide the basis for this work. While the CPL onboard the ER-2 aircraft was providing remote sensing measurements of cirrus clouds, the Cloud Particle Imager (CPI) onboard the WB-57 aircraft was flying inside those same clouds to sample particle sizes. The results of classifying particle shapes using the CPL data are compared to the in situ measurements made using the CPI , and there is found to be good agreement between the particle shape inferred from the CPL data and that actually measured by the CPI. If proven practical, application of this technique to spaceborne observations could lead to large-scale classification of cirrus cloud particle shapes.

  11. First observation of angle-dependent Stark cyclotron resonance in bulk crystals: High-electric-field interlayer magnetotransport in a layered organic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, A.; Konoike, T.; Uchida, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Osada, T., E-mail: osada@issp.u-tokyo.ac.j [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    We report a novel angle-dependent magnetotransport phenomenon in layered conductors under strong interlayer electric fields. Interlayer conduction shows the Stark cyclotron resonance (SCR) when electron orbital motion becomes periodic in k-space. The SCR amplitude oscillates depending on magnetic field orientations. The conventional angle-dependent magnetoresistance oscillation (AMRO) switches to the angle-dependent SCR in high electric fields. We predict angle-dependent SCR due to electron orbital motion in layered conductors with coherent interlayer coupling. In addition, we demonstrate the expected switching from conventional AMRO to angle-dependent SCR in high electric fields using an organic conductor {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}NH{sub 4}Hg(SCN){sub 4}. This is the first observation of the SCR with orbital origin in bulk crystals.

  12. An observation of nanotwin lamellae in Cd 0.6Mn 0.4Te crystal by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; Silberman, E.

    1993-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to examine the structure of freshly cleaved Cd 0.6Mn 0.4Te surfaces. The present report complements previous results obtained with X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy which showed the existence of microtwins. The AFM analysis was performed under ambient conditions and yielded nanometer scale resolution images of single twin lamellae that ranged between 20 and 100 nm in width. This is a first observation using AFM of such a substructure, which we interpret as evidence for the presence of nonotwins.

  13. Anomalous transition of major charge carriers from holes to electrons observed in single-crystal films of tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y. C.; Liu, G. Z.; Gao, J.; Wang, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten (W) films were grown on SrTi O3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that these as-grown films are highly epitaxial and single crystalline with the [00 l ] orientation. A special lattice stacking for the W/STO interface is observed to significantly reduce the lattice mismatching, which can be explained by the coincidence lattice model. The Hall effect has been investigated over the temperature range of 4-330 K. An anomalous transition of the major charge carriers from holes to electrons was observed in these W films upon cooling. The threshold temperature, in which the sign of the Hall coefficient RH was reversed, was found to increase with the film thinning. With the sample's thickness reduced to several unit cells, its major carriers remained electrons even at room temperature. Calculations using the density functional perturbation theory revealed that such a transition from p type to n type could be attributed to the appearance of an electron pocket along the M-Γ direction induced by the lattice mismatching between the W film and SrTi O3 substrate.

  14. A linear relationship between crystal size and fragment binding time observed crystallographically: implications for fragment library screening using acoustic droplet ejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Cole

    Full Text Available High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above, the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above, the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size.

  15. A linear relationship between crystal size and fragment binding time observed crystallographically: implications for fragment library screening using acoustic droplet ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Krystal; Roessler, Christian G; Mulé, Elizabeth A; Benson-Xu, Emma J; Mullen, Jeffrey D; Le, Benjamin A; Tieman, Alanna M; Birone, Claire; Brown, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Neff, Sherry; Williams, Daniel; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M; Sweet, Robert M; Soares, Alexei S

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above), the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above), the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size.

  16. In-Situ Observation of Crystallization and Growth in High-Temperature Melts Using the Confocal Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Il; Dippenaar, Rian

    2016-08-01

    This review discusses the innovative efforts initiated by Emi and co-workers for in-situ observation of phase transformations at high temperatures for materials. By using the high-temperature confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM), a robust database of the phase transformation behavior during heating and cooling of slags, fluxes, and steel can be developed. The rate of solidification and the progression of solid-state phase transformations can be readily investigated under a variety of atmospheric conditions and be correlated with theoretical predictions. The various research efforts following the work of Emi and co-workers have allowed a deeper fundamental understanding of the elusive solidification and phase transformation mechanisms in materials beyond the ambit of steels. This technique continues to evolve in terms of its methodology, application to other materials, and its contribution to technology.

  17. Spin-glass behavior of warwickite MgFeBO{sub 4} and CoFeBO{sub 4} crystals observed by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubutin, I.S.; Korotkov, N. Yu.; Frolov, K.V. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, RAS, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazak, N.V.; Platunov, M.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB of RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Knyazev, Yu. V. [Siberian Federal University, 660074 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bezmaternykh, L.N. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB of RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, S.G. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB of RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 660074 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Siberian State Aerospace University, 660014 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Arauzo, A. [Servicio de Medidas Físicas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartolomé, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Spin-glass behavior of MgFeBO{sub 4} and CoFeBO{sub 4} observed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. • Transition temperature T{sub SG} increases strongly with Co substitution. • Dynamical scaling theory near T{sub SG} is fulfilled. • Spin-glass behavior is explained as due to short range correlations. • Inclusion of Co increases exchange interaction and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. - Abstract: Single crystals of MgFeBO{sub 4} and CoFeBO{sub 4} warwickites were obtained. The effects of charge ordering and magnetic properties were investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Cation distribution over M1 and M2 nonequivalent sites and the average charge at the metal positions were established. Low temperature Mössbauer spectra reveal spin-glass behavior, with spin-freezing temperatures T{sub SG} of 15.2 and 33.2 K for Mg- and Co-warwickites, respectively, higher than that observed from the d.c. and a.c. magnetic susceptibility measurements. The difference is explained in terms of dynamical scaling theory. The specific shape of the Mössbauer spectra in the vicinity of the magnetic transition at T{sub SG} shows the difference between spin-glass and superparamagnetic behavior and demonstrates an overwhelming role of the exchange anisotropy in the properties of Mg-warwickite. In Co-warwickite the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy provokes an increase in magnetic viscosity.

  18. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.;

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  19. The influence of liquid crystal display monitors on observer performance for the detection of interstitial lung markings on both storage phosphor and flat-panel-detector chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yon Mi [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, 1198, Guwol-dong, Namdong-gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Jin [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mj1.chung@samsung.com; Lee, Kyung Soo [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To compare observer performance with a flat-panel liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor and with a high-resolution gray-scale cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor in the detection of interstitial lung markings using a silicon flat-panel-detector direct radiography (DR) and storage phosphor computed radiography (CR) in a clinical setting. Materials and methods: We displayed 39 sets of posteroanterior chest radiographs from the patients who were suspected of interstitial lung disease. Each sets consisted of DR, CR and thin-section CT as the reference standard. Image identities were masked, randomly sorted, and displayed on both five mega pixel (2048 x 2560 x 8 bits) LCD and CRT monitors. Ten radiologists independently rated their confidence in detection for the presence of linear opacities in the four fields of the lungs; right upper, left upper, right lower, and left lower quadrant. Performance of a total 6240 (39 sets x 2 detector systems x 2 monitor system x 4 fields x 10 observers) observations was analyzed by multi-reader multi-case receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Differences between monitor systems in combinations of detector systems were compared using ANOVA and paired-samples t-test. Results: Area under curves (AUC) for the presence of linear opacities measured by ROC analysis was higher on the LCDs than CRTs without statistical significance (p = 0.082). AUC was significantly higher on the DR systems than CR systems (p = 0.006). AUC was significantly higher on the LCDs than CRTs for DR systems (p = 0.039) but not different for CR systems (p = 0.301). Conclusion: In clinical conditions, performance of the LCD monitor appears to be better for detecting interstitial lung markings when interfaced with DR systems.

  20. Crystal science fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, V.; Halfpenny, PJ; Roberts, KJ

    2017-01-01

    The fundamentals of crystal science notably crystallography, crystal chemistry, crystal defects, crystal morphology and the surface chemistry of crystals are introduced with particular emphasis on organic crystals.

  1. Crystal structure of HutZ, a heme storage protein from Vibrio cholerae: A structural mismatch observed in the region of high sequence conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiuhua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HutZ is the sole heme storage protein identified in the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae and is required for optimal heme utilization. However, no heme oxygenase activity has been observed with this protein. Thus far, HutZ’s structure and heme-binding mechanism are unknown. Results We report the first crystal structure of HutZ in a homodimer determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The HutZ structure adopted a typical split-barrel fold. Through a docking study and site-directed mutagenesis, a heme-binding model for the HutZ dimer is proposed. Very interestingly, structural superimposition of HutZ and its homologous protein HugZ, a heme oxygenase from Helicobacter pylori, exhibited a structural mismatch of one amino acid residue in β6 of HutZ, although residues involved in this region are highly conserved in both proteins. Derived homologous models of different single point variants with model evaluations suggested that Pro140 of HutZ, corresponding to Phe215 of HugZ, might have been the main contributor to the structural mismatch. This mismatch initiates more divergent structural characteristics towards their C-terminal regions, which are essential features for the heme-binding of HugZ as a heme oxygenase. Conclusions HutZ’s deficiency in heme oxygenase activity might derive from its residue shift relative to the heme oxygenase HugZ. This residue shift also emphasized a limitation of the traditional template selection criterion for homology modeling.

  2. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  3. Observation of high deflection efficiency and narrow energy loss distributions for 450 GeV protons channeled in a bent silicon crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, S. P.; Worm, T.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.

    1994-03-01

    A 450 GeV proton beam has been deflected by various angles from 1 to 11 mrad using planar channeling in a (111) silicon crystal which was mechanically bent to achieve the desired beam deflection. High deflection efficiencies of up to 50% have been measured, in good agreement with present theoretical estimates. It is shown that bent crystals are also a unique tool for measurements of energy loss and straggling of channeled particles, without any influence from random particles: Selecting protons which are deflected by increasing angles corresponds to decreasing the transverse energy at the crystal entrance. With this technique energy loss and straggling was measured for protons channeled in the wide and narrow (111) planes in silicon for the first time.

  4. Tunable Photonic Band Gaps In Photonic Crystal Fibers Filled With a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas; Tanggaard; Larsen; David; Sparre; Hermann; Anders; Bjarklev

    2003-01-01

    A photonic crystal fiber has been filled with a cholesteric liquid crystal. A temperature sensitive photonic band gap effect was observed, which was especially pronounced around the liquid crystal phase transition temperature.

  5. Inclusions in DKDP crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The shape and the size of inclusions in DKDP crystal have been observed and measured microscopically.Three kinds of inclusions were found and the components of the inclusions were measured. The formation mechanisms were proposed and discussed.``

  6. Crystal growth of β’—Gd2(Mo4)3 and in situ observation of its domain structure by the microscope and the synchrotron X—ray topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QingxiYuan; ChunhuaZhao; WieipingLuo; XiaofengYin; JunXu; ShoukiuiP

    2001-01-01

    We report that β’-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals have been grown by the Czochralski(CZ) method.We studied the growth conditions fo β’-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal.A compatison between the resistance-heated method and radio frequency induction-heated method is described.Also,the in situ observation of the domain structure by the microscope and by synchrotron radiation X-ray topography under the conditions of DC polarization voltage and tempertature change were carried out.Experiments showed that multidomain structure including ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains occurred in β’-Gd2(MoO4)3 cystal.Usually ferroeletiric domains appeared in the as-grown crystal and ferroelastic domains appeared in the polished thinner piece.Both ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains disappeared when the temperature of the crystal piece was higher than the Curie tempperature Tc and they could be reproduced when the temperature of the crystal piece was lowered below TC.When a DC polarization voltage ranging from 150 to 500V was applied on a c-axis β’-Gd2(MoO4)3 piece having a thickness of 0.5mm ,the multidomain would gradually transform to a single domain.This resual means that it is possible to make a periodically poled β’-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  7. First-order melting transition observed from resistivity measurements in ultra-pure YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals with high twin boundary density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Eltsev, Y.; Andersson, M.

    1999-01-01

    R(T) measurements have been performed on optimally and overdoped heavily twinned high-purity YBa2Cu3O7-delta single crystals, under a magnetic field B oriented parallel to the twin boundary planes (B parallel to c). The characteristic feature attributed to the flux line lattice melting transition...

  8. Withdrawal of Chinese Physics Letters 26 (2009) 114209 "A Sensitive Scheme to Observe Weak Photo-Refraction Effects in Some Nonlinear Optical Crystals Pumped by Ultrashort Optical Pulses"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    @@ This paper has been retracted because Fig.2 is copied from an earlier paper, "Interband photorefrac- tive effect in β-BBO crystal due to multiphoton exci- tation by intense ultrashort optical pulses" by Shix- iang Xu et al., which appeared in Optics Express 15 (2007) 10576, and its Figs.3 and 4 also present simi- lar data as in Figs.3 and 4 of the same Optics Express paper though they are measured at a different pump- ing power.This paper includes the first meaningful measurements of the photorefractive effect in BIBO and LBO crystals by intense ultrashort optical pulses, the first explanation of the phase-matching effect on the measurement of the photorefractive effect in BBO crystal and the reduction of pumping beam intensity of the second harmonic generator in the experimental setup to mitigate the effect of the nonlinear instability on our measurements.However, I admit, the Chinese Physics Letter paper contains serious replication with- out proper citation.%This paper has been retracted because Fig. 2 is copied from an earlier paper, "Interband photorefrac-tive effect in /3-BBO crystal due to multiphoton excitation by intense ultrashort optical pulses" by Shix-iang Xu et al, which appeared in Optics Express 15 (2007) 10576, and its Figs. 3 and 4 also present similar data as in Figs. 3 and 4 of the same Optics Express paper though they are measured at a different pumping power. This paper includes the first meaningful measurements of the photorefractive effect in BIBO and LBO crystals by intense ultrashort optical pulses, the first explanation of the phase-matching effect on the measurement of the photorefractive effect in BBO crystal and the reduction of pumping beam intensityof the second harmonic generator in the experimental setup to mitigate the effect of the nonlinear instability on our measurements. However, I admit, the Chinese Physics Letter paper contains serious replication without proper citation.I am so sorry for my faults and nescience. I alone

  9. Ribbon crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Bohr

    Full Text Available A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons using a ruled procedure where ribbons are uniquely described by two generating functions. This construction defines a differentiable frame, the ribbon frame, which does not have singular points, whereby we avoid the shortcomings of the Frenet-Serret frame. The observed spontaneous pattern is modeled using planar triangles and cylindrical arcs, and the ribbon structure is shown to arise from a maximization of the end-to-end length of the ribbon, i.e. from an optimal use of ribbon length. The phenomenon is discussed in the perspectives of incompatible intrinsic geometries and of the emergence of long-range order.

  10. Are All Obsidians Super-Heated? Insights from Observations of Crystallization Kinetics in Experiments on Glass Mountain Obsidians (Long Valley, CA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, L.; Andrews, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Glass Mountain obsidians (Long Valley, CA) are crystal-poor (obsidians, if the mineral assemblage is phenocrystic. Results of high-resolution SEM mapping and electron microprobe analysis of a Glass Mountain sample reveal that the obsidian is saturated in nine phases (sanidine + quartz + plagioclase + ilmenite + titanomagnetite + zircon + apatite + allanite + biotite). Sanidine (Or78-Or35) and quartz occur in the largest abundances, and plagioclase (obsidians, requires that the mechanism that produced these obsidians have an associated kinetic effect that strongly hinders nucleation. Decompression and cooling experiments, conducted in this study and from the literature, demonstrate that the simplest way to hinder nucleation is to initiate degassing or cooling from super-liquidus conditions. Therefore, the Glass Mountain obsidians were super-heated prior to crystallization, achieved either by fluid under-saturated decompression from a crystalline mush or H2O-saturated partial melting.

  11. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction of crystals formed in water-plasticized amorphous lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouppila, K; Kansikas, J; Roos, Y H

    1998-01-01

    Effects of storage time and relative humidity on crystallization and crystal forms produced from amorphous lactose were investigated. Crystallization was observed from time-dependent loss of sorbed water and increasing intensities of peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns. The rate of crystallization increased with increasing storage relative humidity. Lactose crystallized mainly as alpha-lactose monohydrate and anhydrous crystals with alpha- and beta-lactose in a molar ratio of 5:3. The results suggested that the crystal form was defined by the early nucleation process. The crystallization data are important in modeling of crystallization phenomena and prediction of stability of lactose-containing food and pharmaceutical materials.

  12. Axion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\\epsilon$, permeability $\\mu$, and theta angle $\\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\\theta$ (modulo $2\\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent photonic band gaps and the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems as well as high-energy physics.

  13. Time Crystals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2017-09-08

    Time crystals are time-periodic self-organized structures postulated by Frank Wilczek in 2012. While the original concept was strongly criticized, it stimulated at the same time an intensive research leading to propositions and experimental verifications of discrete (or Floquet) time crystals -- the structures that appear in the time domain due to spontaneous breaking of discrete time translation symmetry. The struggle to observe discrete time crystals is reviewed here together with propositions that generalize this concept introducing condensed matter like physics in the time domain. We shall also revisit the original Wilczek's idea and review strategies aimed at spontaneous breaking of continuous time translation symmetry. . © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Hypersonic phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorishnyy, T; Ullal, C K; Maldovan, M; Fytas, G; Thomas, E L

    2005-03-25

    In this Letter we propose the use of hypersonic phononic crystals to control the emission and propagation of high frequency phonons. We report the fabrication of high quality, single crystalline hypersonic crystals using interference lithography and show that direct measurement of their phononic band structure is possible with Brillouin light scattering. Numerical calculations are employed to explain the nature of the observed propagation modes. This work lays the foundation for experimental studies of hypersonic crystals and, more generally, phonon-dependent processes in nanostructures.

  15. Real-time observation of bismuth silicon oxide crystal growth in silicon oxide-bismuth oxide system%氧化硅-氧化铋系统中硅酸铋晶体生长实时观测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀峰; 徐驰; 江红涛; 韩元亨

    2015-01-01

    高温熔体的实时观测与分析对于晶体生长及其影响因素分析具有十分重要的意义 .利用高温热台及偏光显微镜 ,对铋硅系统熔融及冷却过程进行实时观测 .观察到高温下与石英砂接触的氧化铋粉体先熔融 ,说明异质颗粒接触点处是反应开始的地方 .之后熔体与石英(二氧化硅)晶体反应 ,冷却过程中在石英晶体表面周围及坩埚壁附近生长出硅酸铋晶体 ,这说明晶体易在颗粒接触处析出 .实验中氧化铋与二氧化硅摩尔比为4:3,此时石英晶体并没有全部熔融 .对比分析系统熔体在降温时晶体析出长大的过程 ,计算出硅酸铋晶体的生长平均速率为15 .38 μm/min .通过线能谱扫描分析 ,认为熔体温度和硅元素的富集程度对晶体生长速度有重要影响.%Real time observation and analysis of high temperature melt is great of significance for crystal growth and the analysis of its influencing factors .The paper using high tempera-ture thermal units and polarizing optical microscope observed the melt and cooling process of bismuth silicon systems in real time .In high temperature the bismuth oxide powder which in contact with quartz sand is first melting ,it shows that the heterogeneity particles at the con-tact point is the place to reaction start .Then bismuth oxide melt reacted with the quartz (sil-icon dioxide) crystal .In cooling process the surface of quartz crystal and the crucible wall grown bismuth silicate crystals .This means at the contact point of particle is easy to crystal grow .The molar ratio of bismuth oxide and silicon dioxide was 4:3 in the experiment ,not all of the quartz crystal melted at this moment .Comparative analysis of the system melt crystallization process of growing up in cooling process ,the average grow th rate of crystals of bismuth silicate is calculated 15 .38 μm/min .According to the energy spectrum analysis of scanning ,melt temperature and the enrichment of

  16. EPR spectrum of a manganese center observed in. gamma. -irradiated (CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SnMn(CO)/sub 5/ single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, J.R.; Preston, K.F.; Thibodeau, D.L. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Div. of Chemistry)

    1982-06-01

    An EPR spectrum detected in ..gamma..-irradiated single crystals of trimethyltin-manganese pentacarbonyl was analyzed in terms of anisotropic interactions between a single unpaired electron, a manganese nucleus, and the magnetic field. At 100 K, the principal components of the g and /sup 55/Mn-hyperfine tensors are 2.0399, 2.0279, 2.0018 and 84.1 MHz, 106.3 MHz, 162.3 MHz, respectively. The free radical is believed to be (CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SnMn(CO)/sub 4//sup -/, formed from the parent carbonyl by electron addition and loss of an equatorial ligand.

  17. Observation of Ortho-III correlations by neutron and hard x-ray scattering in an untwinned YBa2Cu3O6.77 single crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleger, P.; Casalta, H.; Hadfield, R.;

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of Ortho-III phase correlations in an untwinned single crystal of YBa2Cu3O6.77 by neutron scattering and the novel method of hard (95 keV) X-ray scattering. The Ortho-III ordering is essentially two-dimensional, exhibiting Lorentzian peak shapes in the a-b plane. At room...... temperature, the correlation lengths deduced from the Lorentzian peak widths are about 5 unit cells (congruent-to 20 angstrom) along h and 19 unit cells (congruent-to 74 angstrom) along k, and are comparable to some correlation lengths measured for the Ortho-II phase. Upon heating, the superstructure...

  18. Direct in situ observation of the electron-driven synthesis of Ag filaments on α-Ag2WO4 crystals

    OpenAIRE

    E. Longo; Cavalcante, L. S.; Volanti, D. P.; Gouveia, A. F.; LONGO, V.M.; Varela,J. A.; Orlandi,M. O.; J. de Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we report, for the first time, the real-time in situ nucleation and growth of Ag filaments on α-Ag2 WO4 crystals driven by an accelerated electron beam from an electronic microscope under high vacuum. We employed several techniques to characterise the material in depth. By using these techniques combined with first-principles modelling based on density functional theory, a mechanism for the Ag filament formation followed by a subsequent growth process from the nano-to micro-sc...

  19. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  20. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  1. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed.

  2. DDA Computations of Porous Aggregates with Forsterite Crystals: Effects of Crystal Shape and Crystal Mass Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Harker, David; Woodward, Charles; Kelley, Michael S.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2015-01-01

    Porous aggregate grains are commonly found in cometary dust samples and are needed to model cometary IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Models for thermal emissions from comets require two forms of silicates: amorphous and crystalline. The dominant crystal resonances observed in comet SEDs are from Forsterite (Mg2SiO4). The mass fractions that are crystalline span a large range from 0.0 25 AU at 1E6 yr) by inner disk materials (crystals) are challenged to yield the highend-range of cometary crystal mass fractions. However, in current thermal models, Forsterite crystals are not incorporated into larger aggregate grains but instead only are considered as discrete crystals. A complicating factor is that Forsterite crystals with rectangular shapes better fit the observed spectral resonances in wavelength (11.0-11.15 microns, 16, 19, 23.5, 27, and 33 microns), feature asymmetry and relative height (Lindley et al. 2013) than spherically or elliptically shaped crystals. We present DDA-DDSCAT computations of IR absorptivities (Qabs) of 3 micron-radii porous aggregates with 0.13 crystals. We can produce crystal resonances with similar appearance to the observed resonances of comet Hale- Bopp. Also, a lower mass fraction of crystals in aggregates can produce the same spectral contrast as a higher mass fraction of discrete crystals; the 11micron and 23 micron crystalline resonances appear amplified when crystals are incorporated into aggregates composed otherwise of spherically shaped amorphous Fe-Mg olivines and pyroxenes. We show that the optical properties of a porous aggregate is not linear combination of its monomers, so aggregates need to be computed. We discuss the consequence of lowering comet crystal mass fractions by modeling IR SEDs with aggregates with crystals, and the implications for radial transport models of our protoplanetary disk.

  3. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  4. On the observation of unusual high concentration of small chain-like aggregate ice crystals and large ice water contents near the top of a deep convective cloud during the CIRCLE-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Gayet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the CIRCLE-2 experiment carried out over Western Europe in May 2007, combined in situ and remote sensing observations allowed to describe microphysical and optical properties near-top of an overshooting convective cloud (11 080 m/−58 °C. The airborne measurements were performed with the DLR Falcon aircraft specially equipped with a unique set of instruments for the extensive in situ cloud measurements of microphysical and optical properties (Polar Nephelometer, FSSP-300, Cloud Particle Imager and PMS 2-D-C and nadir looking remote sensing observations (DLR WALES Lidar. Quasi-simultaneous space observations from MSG/SEVIRI, CALIPSO/CALIOP-WFC-IIR and CloudSat/CPR combined with airborne RASTA radar reflectivity from the French Falcon aircraft flying above the DLR Falcon depict very well convective cells which overshoot by up to 600 m the tropopause level. Unusual high values of the concentration of small ice particles, extinction, ice water content (up to 70 cm−3, 30 km−1 and 0.5 g m−3, respectively are experienced. The mean effective diameter and the maximum particle size are 43 μm and about 300 μm, respectively. This very dense cloud causes a strong attenuation of the WALES and CALIOP lidar returns. The SEVIRI retrieved parameters confirm the occurrence of small ice crystals at the top of the convective cell. Smooth and featureless phase functions with asymmetry factors of 0.776 indicate fairly uniform optical properties. Due to small ice crystals the power-law relationship between ice water content (IWC and radar reflectivity appears to be very different from those usually found in cirrus and anvil clouds. For a given equivalent reflectivity factor, IWCs are significantly larger for the overshooting cell than for the cirrus. Assuming the same prevalent microphysical properties over the depth of the overshooting cell, RASTA reflectivity profiles scaled into ice water content show that retrieved

  5. Crystal Electrostatic Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanchin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that to calculate the parameters of the electrostatic field of the ion crystal lattice it sufficient to take into account ions located at a distance of 1-2 lattice spacings. More distant ions make insignificant contribution. As a result, the electrostatic energy of the ion lattice in the alkaline halide crystal produced by both positive and negative ions is in good agreement with experiment when the melting temperature and the shear modulus are calculated. For fcc and bcc metals the ion lattice electrostatic energy is not sufficient to obtain the observed values of these parameters. It is possible to resolve the contradiction if one assumes that the electron density is strongly localized and has a crystal structure described by the lattice delta - function. As a result, positive charges alternate with negative ones as in the alkaline halide crystal. Such delta-like localization of the electron density is known as a model of nearly free electrons.

  6. On the observation of unusual high concentration of small chain-like aggregate ice crystals and large ice water contents near the top of a deep convective cloud during the CIRCLE-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Gayet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During the CIRCLE-2 experiment carried out over Western Europe in May 2007, combined in situ and remote sensing observations allowed to describe microphysical and optical properties near-top of an overshooting convective cloud (11 080 m/−58 °C. The airborne measurements were performed with the DLR Falcon aircraft specially equipped with a unique set of instruments for the extensive in situ cloud measurements of microphysical and optical properties (Polar Nephelometer, FSSP-300, Cloud Particle Imager and PMS 2D-C and nadir looking remote sensing observations (DLR WALES Lidar. Quasi-simultaneous space observations from MSG/SEVIRI, CALIPSO/CALIOP-WFC-IIR and CloudSat/CPR combined with airborne RASTA radar reflectivity from the French Falcon aircraft flying above the DLR Falcon depict very well convective cells which overshoot by up to 600 m the tropopause level. Unusual high values of the concentration of small ice particles, extinction, ice water content (up to 70 cm−3, 30 km−1 and 0.5 g m−3, respectively are experienced. This very dense cloud causes a strong attenuation of the WALES and CALIOP lidar returns. The mean effective diameter is of 43 μm and the maximum particle size is about 300 μm. The SEVIRI retrieved parameters confirm the occurrence of small ice crystals at the top of the convective cell. Smooth and featureless phase functions with asymmetry factors of 0.776 indicate fairly uniform optical properties. Due to small ice crystals the power-law relationship between ice water content (IWC and radar reflectivity appears to be very different from those usually found in cirrus and anvil clouds. For a given equivalent reflectivity factor, IWCs are significantly larger for the overshooting cell than for the cirrus. Assuming the same prevalent microphysical properties over the depth of the overshooting cell, RASTA reflectivity profiles scaled into ice water content show that retrieved IWC up to 1 g

  7. Macromolecular crystallization and crystal perfection

    CERN Document Server

    Chayen, Naomi E; Snell, Edward H

    2010-01-01

    Structural biology is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of biological processes. This text describes current methods and future frontiers in crystal growth and use of X-ray and neutron crystallography, in the context of automation of crystallization and generation of synchrotron X-ray and neutron beams.

  8. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  9. Observation of the de Vries behavior in SmA* phase of a liquid crystal using polarised Raman scattering and infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocot, A.; Vij, J. K.; Perova, T. S.; Merkel, K.; Swaminathan, V.; Sreenilayam, S. P.; Yadav, N.; Panov, V. P.; Stevenson, P. J.; Panov, A.; Rodriguez-Lojo, D.

    2017-09-01

    Two approaches exist in the literature for describing the orientational distribution function (ODF) of the molecular directors in SmA* phase of liquid crystals, though several models are recently proposed in the literature for explaining the de Vries behaviour. These ODFs correspond to either the conventional unimodal arrangements of molecular directors arising from the mean field theory that leads to the broad or sugar-loaf like distribution or to the "diffuse-cone-shaped" type distribution proposed by de Vries. The hypothesis by de Vries provides for a realistic explanation as to how at a molecular level, a first-order SmA* to SmC* transition can occur where the uniform molecular director azimuthal distributions condense to values lying within a narrow range of angles; finally these condense to a single value while at the same time ensuring a little or no concomitant shrinkage in the layer spacing. The azimuthal distribution of the in-layer directors is probed using IR and polarized Raman spectroscopic techniques. The latter allows us to obtain the ODF and the various order parameters for the uniaxial and the biaxial phases. Based on the results of these measurements, we conclude that the "cone-shaped" (or volcano-shaped) de Vries type of distribution can most preferably describe SmA* where "a first-order phase transition from SmA* to SmC*" and a low layer shrinkage can both be easily explained.

  10. Observation of the de Vries behavior in SmA(*) phase of a liquid crystal using polarised Raman scattering and infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocot, A; Vij, J K; Perova, T S; Merkel, K; Swaminathan, V; Sreenilayam, S P; Yadav, N; Panov, V P; Stevenson, P J; Panov, A; Rodriguez-Lojo, D

    2017-09-07

    Two approaches exist in the literature for describing the orientational distribution function (ODF) of the molecular directors in SmA* phase of liquid crystals, though several models are recently proposed in the literature for explaining the de Vries behaviour. These ODFs correspond to either the conventional unimodal arrangements of molecular directors arising from the mean field theory that leads to the broad or sugar-loaf like distribution or to the "diffuse-cone-shaped" type distribution proposed by de Vries. The hypothesis by de Vries provides for a realistic explanation as to how at a molecular level, a first-order SmA* to SmC* transition can occur where the uniform molecular director azimuthal distributions condense to values lying within a narrow range of angles; finally these condense to a single value while at the same time ensuring a little or no concomitant shrinkage in the layer spacing. The azimuthal distribution of the in-layer directors is probed using IR and polarized Raman spectroscopic techniques. The latter allows us to obtain the ODF and the various order parameters for the uniaxial and the biaxial phases. Based on the results of these measurements, we conclude that the "cone-shaped" (or volcano-shaped) de Vries type of distribution can most preferably describe SmA* where "a first-order phase transition from SmA* to SmC*" and a low layer shrinkage can both be easily explained.

  11. In-situ observation of isothermal CaSiO3 crystallization in CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melts: A study of the effects of temperature and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Chen, Gong; Yan, Peng-Cheng; Planpain, Bart; Moelans, Nele; Guo, Muxing

    2014-09-01

    The crystallization behavior of CaSiO3 in different CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melts was comprehensively investigated in-situ with a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) over a wide range of temperatures. The observations clearly indicate a transition from a faceted to dendritic crystal morphology with decreasing temperature. The undercooling required for dendritic growth increases with decreasing Al2O3 (under same basicity) and increasing basicity. The dendrite structure becomes finer at higher growth rates with a lower Al2O3 and higher basicity. The growth rates of different dendrites are time-independent. With increasing temperature, the growth rate first increases and then decreases. The observed dendrite tip radii are compared with those obtained from Ivantsov theory in 2D and 3D. With decreasing temperature, the growth conditions in the CSLM experiments appeared to shift from 3D (with the dendrite tip below the surface melt) close to 2D (with the dendrite tip on top of the surface melt).

  12. The fluid phenomena in the crystallization of the protein crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Li; Kang Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that an optical diagnostic system consisting of Maeh-Zehnder interferometer with a phase shift device and image processor has been used for study of the kinetics of protein crystal growing process. The crystallization process of protein crystal by vapour diffusion is investigated. The interference fringes are observed in real time. The present experiment demonstrates that the diffusion and the sedimentation influence the crystallization of protein crystal which grows in solution, and the concentration capillary convection associated with surface tension occurs at the vicinity of free surface of the protein mother liquor, and directly affects on the outcome of protein crystallization. So far the detailed analysis and the important role of the fluid phenomena in protein crystallization have been discussed a little in both space- and ground-based crystal growth experiments. It is also found that these fluid phenomena affect theoutcome of protein crystallization, regular growth, and crystal quality. This may explain the fact that many results of space-based investigation do not show overall improvement.

  13. Photoelastic sphenoscopic analysis of crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalto, L. [DIISM, Dip. Di Ingegneria Industriale e Scienze Matematiche—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); SIMAU, Dip. Di Scienze e Ingegneria della Materia, dell’ambiente ed Urbanistica—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Rinaldi, D. [SIMAU, Dip. Di Scienze e Ingegneria della Materia, dell’ambiente ed Urbanistica—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Scalise, L.; Paone, N. [DIISM, Dip. Di Ingegneria Industriale e Scienze Matematiche—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Davì, F. [DICEA, Dip. Di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Architettura—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Birefringent crystals are at the basis of various devices used in many fields, from high energy physics to biomedical imaging for cancer detection. Since crystals are the main elements of those devices, a great attention is paid on their quality and properties. Here, we present a methodology for the photoelastic analysis of birefringent crystals, based on a modified polariscope. Polariscopes using conoscopic observation are used to evaluate crystals residual stresses in a precise but time consuming way; in our methodology, the light beam shape, which impinges on the crystal surface, has been changed from a solid cone (conoscopy) to a wedge (sphenoscopy). Since the polarized and coherent light is focused on a line rather than on a spot, this allows a faster analysis which leads to the observation, at a glance, of a spatial distribution of stress along a line. Three samples of lead tungstate crystals have been observed using this technique, and the obtained results are compared with the conoscopic observation. The samples have been tested both in unloaded condition and in a loaded configuration induced by means of a four points bending device, which allows to induce a known stress distribution in the crystal. The obtained results confirm, in a reliable manner, the sensitivity of the methodology to the crystal structure and stress.

  14. Photonic crystal fibers in biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Skibina, Julia S.; Malinin, Anton V.

    2011-12-01

    We observed recent experimental results in area of photonic crystal fibers appliance. Possibility of creation of fiberbased broadband light sources for high resolution optical coherence tomography is discussed. Using of femtosecond pulse laser allows for generation of optical radiation with large spectral width in highly nonlinear solid core photonic crystal fibers. Concept of exploitation of hollow core photonic crystal fibers in optical sensing is demonstrated. The use of photonic crystal fibers as "smart cuvette" gives rise to efficiency of modern optical biomedical analysis methods.

  15. Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in polar tetragonal crystals of barium antimony tartrate trihydrate, Ba[Sb{sub 2}((+)C{sub 4}H{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminskii, Alexander A. [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rhee, Hanjo; Eichler, Hans J.; Lux, Oliver [Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, Technical University of Berlin (Germany); Nemec, Ivan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Yoneda, Hitoki; Shirakawa, Akira [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan); Becker, Petra; Bohaty, Ladislav [Section Crystallography, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    The non-centrosymmetric polar tetragonal (P4{sub 1}) barium antimony tartrate trihydrate, Ba[Sb{sub 2}((+)C{sub 4}H{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O, was found to be an attractive novel semi-organic crystal manifesting numerous χ{sup (2)}- and χ{sup (3)}-nonlinear optical interactions. In particular, with picosecond single- and dual-wavelength pumping SHG and THG via cascaded parametric four-wave processes were observed. High-order Stokes and anti-Stokes lasing related to two SRS-promoting vibration modes of the crystal, with ω{sub SRS1} ∼ 575 cm{sup -1} and ω{sub SRS2} ∼ 2940 cm{sup -1}, takes place. Basing on a spontaneous Raman investigation an assignment of the two SRS-active vibration modes is discussed. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  17. Research on colored lyotropic liquid crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xilian; YIN Baolin; SUN Dezhi; LIU Jie; WANG Zhongni; LI Ganzuo

    2005-01-01

    Splendidly colored lyotropic liquid crystals formed in the ternary system of a novel cationic surfactant, 3-p-nonylphenoxy-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (NPTAB)-n-butanol-water system, had been observed under polarized light microscope. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), 2H (deuterium) quadrupolar splitting (2H NMR) were employed to confirm the structures of these liquid crystals. The structural transformation of these special lyotropic liquid crystals had been confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The influences of liquid crystal film thickness, temperature and conserving time on the color of liquid crystals have been investigated. It is also theoretically discussed for forming and changing of liquid crystal color.

  18. Adhesion of single crystals on modified surfaces in crystallization fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Moriz; Augustin, Wolfgang; Scholl, Stephan

    2012-12-01

    In crystallization fouling it has been observed that during a certain initial phase the fouling is formed by a non-uniform layer consisting of a population of single crystals. These single crystals are frequently formed by inverse soluble salts such as CaCO3. During heterogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous growth an interfacial area between the crystal and the heat transfer surface occurs. The development of this interfacial area is the reason for the adhesion of each single crystal and of all individual crystals, once a uniform layer has been built up. The emerging interfacial area is intrinsic to the heterogeneous nucleation of crystals and can be explained by the thermodynamic principle of the minimum of the Gibbs free energy. In this study CaCO3 crystals were grown heterogeneously on untreated and on modified surfaces inside a flow channel. An untreated stainless steel (AISI 304) surface was used as a reference. Following surface modifications were investigated: enameled and electropolished stainless steel as well as diamond-like-carbon based coatings on stainless steel substrate. The adhesion was measured through a novel measurement technique using a micromanipulator to shear off single crystals from the substrate which was fixed to a spring table inside a SEM.

  19. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  20. Exfoliation in ecstasy: liquid crystal formation and concentration-dependent debundling observed for single-wall nanotubes dispersed in the liquid drug γ-butyrolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Shane D.; Nicolosi, Valeria; Giordani, Silvia; de Gromard, Antoine; Carpenter, Leslie; Blau, Werner J.; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2007-11-01

    Large-scale debundling of single-walled nanotubes has been demonstrated by dilution of nanotube dispersions in the solvent γ-butyrolactone. This liquid, sometimes referred to as 'liquid ecstasy', is well known for its narcotic properties. At high concentrations the dispersions form an anisotropic, liquid crystalline phase which can be removed by mild centrifugation. At lower concentrations an isotropic phase is observed with a biphasic region at intermediate concentrations. By measuring the absorbance before and after centrifugation, as a function of concentration, the relative anisotropic and isotropic nanotube concentrations can be monitored. The upper limit of the pure isotropic phase was CNT~0.004 mg ml-1, suggesting that this can be considered the nanotube dispersion limit in γ-butyrolactone. After centrifugation, the dispersions are stable against sedimentation and further aggregation for a period of 8 weeks at least. Atomic-force-microscopy studies on films deposited from the isotropic phase reveal that the bundle diameter distribution decreases dramatically as concentration is decreased. Detailed data analysis suggests the presence of an equilibrium bundle number density. A population of individual nanotubes is always observed which increases with decreasing concentration until almost 40% of all dispersed objects are individual nanotubes at a concentration of 6 × 10-4 mg ml-1. The number density of individual nanotubes peaks at a concentration of ~6 × 10-3 mg ml-1 where almost 10% of the nanotubes by mass are individualized.

  1. Decomposition Processes of CMTD Crystals in situ Observation by AFM%CMTD晶体的分解过程原子力显微镜实时观测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珊茸; 孙大亮; 郭世义; 王继扬; 许效红

    2005-01-01

    用原子力显微镜实时观测了有机晶体CMTD(CdHg(SCN)4(H6C2OS)2)的表面分解过程,这一分解过程是以表面形貌变化来表征的,并且能反映分解过程中的一些固态反应的物理一化学变化机制.X射线能谱分析(EDAX)表明,相对于新鲜的CMTD晶体,在分解物中Hg低而S高;X射线衍射(XRD)表明分解物为非晶态;红外吸收光谱(IR)表明在CMTD晶体结构中的(H6C2OS)结构基元被分解为H2O和酸;量热分析(DSC)表明CMTD晶体在室温空气中确实有化学反应发生.本文用原子力显微镜实时记录了这一分解过程的形貌变化,发现这种非晶态的分解物的产生过程为:成核一核生长一核分散等.这是首次用原子力显微镜实时观测到这种分解过程.%The decomposition processes of CMTD ( CdHg(SCN)4(H6C2OS)2 ) crystal surface were investigated by AFM ( atomic force microscopy). These processes are characterized by the morphological changes of the surface and reflect some physic-chemical mechanism of the solid-state reaction. EDAX ( energy dispersion analyzer of X-ray) shows that Hg is poorer but S is richer in the decomposition products than in fresh CMTD crystals. XRD (X-ray diffraction)data reflect that the decomposition products are non-crystalline. IR ( infrared ray absorbed spectra) analysis shows that during the decomposition processes (H6C2OS)units were decomposed into H2O and acid. DSC (differential scanning calorimeter)analysis shows that CMTD crystals have chemical reactions in air at room temperature. AFM observations show that the formation processes of the non-crystalline decomposition products include nucleation, nuclei growth, nuclei dispersion, etc. It is the first time to directly observe this kind of decomposition processes by AFM.

  2. Observation of UV-induced Auger features in catechol adsorbed on anatase TiO{sub 2} (101) single crystal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Andrew G. [School of Physics and Astronomy and Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Syres, Karen L. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-23

    We have investigated the electronic structure of catechol adsorbed on the anatase TiO{sub 2} (101) surface under illumination with ultraviolet (UV) light (4.75 eV) using resonant photoemission spectroscopy. UV illumination results in the appearance of a strong Ti MVV (M refers to photoionization of 3p level and VV the Auger decay process via the valence levels) feature at a kinetic energy of 26.2 eV. This is attributed to the creation of localised states following catechol to Ti-3d excitation by the UV source. A sharp resonance attributed to excitation from Ti 3p states into these localised states is observed in constant final state spectra.

  3. Exfoliation in ecstasy: liquid crystal formation and concentration-dependent debundling observed for single-wall nanotubes dispersed in the liquid drug {gamma}-butyrolactone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergin, Shane D [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Nicolosi, Valeria [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Giordani, Silvia [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Gromard, Antoine de [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Carpenter, Leslie [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Blau, Werner J [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Coleman, Jonathan N [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2007-11-14

    Large-scale debundling of single-walled nanotubes has been demonstrated by dilution of nanotube dispersions in the solvent {gamma}-butyrolactone. This liquid, sometimes referred to as 'liquid ecstasy', is well known for its narcotic properties. At high concentrations the dispersions form an anisotropic, liquid crystalline phase which can be removed by mild centrifugation. At lower concentrations an isotropic phase is observed with a biphasic region at intermediate concentrations. By measuring the absorbance before and after centrifugation, as a function of concentration, the relative anisotropic and isotropic nanotube concentrations can be monitored. The upper limit of the pure isotropic phase was C{sub NT}{approx}0.004 mg ml{sup -1}, suggesting that this can be considered the nanotube dispersion limit in {gamma}-butyrolactone. After centrifugation, the dispersions are stable against sedimentation and further aggregation for a period of 8 weeks at least. Atomic-force-microscopy studies on films deposited from the isotropic phase reveal that the bundle diameter distribution decreases dramatically as concentration is decreased. Detailed data analysis suggests the presence of an equilibrium bundle number density. A population of individual nanotubes is always observed which increases with decreasing concentration until almost 40% of all dispersed objects are individual nanotubes at a concentration of 6 x 10{sup -4} mg ml{sup -1}. The number density of individual nanotubes peaks at a concentration of {approx}6 x 10{sup -3} mg ml{sup -1} where almost 10% of the nanotubes by mass are individualized.

  4. Biological control of crystal texture: A widespread strategy for adapting crystal properties to function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, A.; Leiserowitz, L.; Weiner, S.; Addadi, L. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)); Hanson, J.; Koetzle, T.F. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1993-02-05

    Textures of calcite crystals from a variety of mineralized tissues belong to organisms from four phyla were examined with high-resolution synchrotron x-ray radiation. Significant differences in coherence length and angular spread were observed between taxonomic groups. Crystals from polycrystalline skeletal ensembles were more perfect than those that function as single-crystal elements. Different anistropic effects on crystal texture were observed for sea urchin and mollusk calcite crystals, whereas none was found for the foraminifer, Patellina, and the control calcite crystals. These results show that the manipulation of crystal texture in different organisms is under biological control and that crystal textures in some tissues are adapted to function. A better understanding of this apparently widespread biological phenomenon may provide new insights for improving synthetic crystal-containing materials. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Ribbon Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons...

  6. Therapeutic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Some readers might not fully know what the difference is between crystallography, and the "new age" practice of dangling crystals around the body to capitalise on their healing energy. The latter is often considered to be superstition, while ironically, the former has actually resulted in real rationally-based healing of human diseases…

  7. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  8. Modeling liquid crystal polymeric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez Pinto, Vianney Karina

    The main focus of this work is the theoretical and numerical study of materials that combine liquid crystal and polymer. Liquid crystal elastomers are polymeric materials that exhibit both the ordered properties of the liquid crystals and the elastic properties of rubbers. Changing the order of the liquid crystal molecules within the polymer network can induce shape change. These materials are very valuable for applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, haptic displays, etc. In this work we apply finite element elastodynamics simulations to study the temperature induced shape deformation in nematic elastomers with complex director microstructure. In another topic, we propose a novel numerical method to model the director dynamics and microstructural evolution of three dimensional nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals. Numerical studies presented in this work are in agreement with experimental observations and provide insight into the design of application devices.

  9. Growth habit of polar crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using coordination polyhedron rule, growth habit of polar crystals such as ZnO, ZnS and SiO2 is investigated. It shows that the growth rates in the positive and negative polar axis directions are different. The theoretical growth habit of ZnO crystal is hexagonal prism and the growth rates of its various faces are:V{0001}>V{0111}-->V{0110}->V{0111}->V{0001}-. The growth habit of ZnS crystal is tetrahedron and its growth rates of different crystal faces are: V{111}>V{001}>V{001} =V{100} =. The growth rate relationship between positive and negative polar axis directions of SiO2 crystal V[1120]-->V[1120]-.is These results are in agreement with the growth habits observed under hydrothermal conditions. The different growth rates between positive and negative polar axis directions cannot be explained by PBC theory.

  10. Space-time crystals of trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongcang; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Quan, H T; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Peng; Duan, L-M; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-10-19

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking can lead to the formation of time crystals, as well as spatial crystals. Here we propose a space-time crystal of trapped ions and a method to realize it experimentally by confining ions in a ring-shaped trapping potential with a static magnetic field. The ions spontaneously form a spatial ring crystal due to Coulomb repulsion. This ion crystal can rotate persistently at the lowest quantum energy state in magnetic fields with fractional fluxes. The persistent rotation of trapped ions produces the temporal order, leading to the formation of a space-time crystal. We show that these space-time crystals are robust for direct experimental observation. We also study the effects of finite temperatures on the persistent rotation. The proposed space-time crystals of trapped ions provide a new dimension for exploring many-body physics and emerging properties of matter.

  11. Protein Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕汝昌; 桂璐璐; 师珂; 王耀萍; 陈世芝; 韩青; 胡永林; 沈福苓; 牛秀田; 华子谦; 卢光莹; 张健; 李松林; 龚为民; 牛立文; 黄其辰

    1994-01-01

    Protein crystal growth is quite important for the determination of protein structureswhich are essential to the understanding of life at molecular level as well as to the development of molecu-lar biotechnology.The microgravity environment of space is an ideal place to study the complicated pro-tein crystallization and to grow good-quality protein crystals.A number of crystal-growth experiments of10 different proteins were carried out in August,1992 on the Chinese re-entry satellite FSW-2 in spaceusing a tube crystallization equipment made in China.A total of 25 samples from 6 proteins producedcrystals,and the effects of microgravity on protein crystal growth were observed,especially for an acidicphospholipase A2 and henegg-white lysozyme which gave better crystals in space than earth-grown crys-tals in ground control experiments.The results have shown that the microgravity in space favors the im-provement of the size,perfection,morphology and internal order of the grown protein crytals.

  12. Liquid crystal colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Muševič, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which de...

  13. Influence of crystallizing and non-crystallizing cosolutes on trehalose crystallization during freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2010-11-01

    To study the influence of crystallizing and non-crystallizing cosolutes on the crystallization behavior of trehalose in frozen solutions and to monitor the phase behavior of trehalose dihydrate and mannitol hemihydrate during drying. Trehalose (a lyoprotectant) and mannitol (a bulking agent) are widely used as excipients in freeze-dried formulations. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), the crystallization behavior of trehalose in the presence of (i) a crystallizing (mannitol), (ii) a non-crystallizing (sucrose) solute and (iii) a combination of mannitol and a model protein (lactose dehydrogenase, catalase, or lysozyme) was evaluated. By performing the entire freeze-drying cycle in the sample chamber of the XRD, the phase behavior of trehalose and mannitol were simultaneously monitored. When an aqueous solution containing trehalose (4% w/v) and mannitol (2% w/v) was cooled to -40°C at 0.5°C/min, hexagonal ice was the only crystalline phase. However, upon warming the sample to the annealing temperature (-18°C), crystallization of mannitol hemihydrate was readily evident. After 3 h of annealing, the characteristic XRD peaks of trehalose dihydrate were also observed. The DSC heating curve of frozen and annealed solution showed two overlapping endotherms, attributed by XRD to the sequential melting of trehalose dihydrate-ice and mannitol hemihydrate-ice eutectics, followed by ice melting. While mannitol facilitated trehalose dihydrate crystallization, sucrose completely inhibited it. In the presence of protein (2 mg/ml), trehalose crystallization required a longer annealing time. When the freeze-drying was performed in the sample chamber of the diffractometer, drying induced the dehydration of trehalose dihydrate to amorphous anhydrate. However, the final lyophiles prepared in the laboratory lyophilizer contained trehalose dihydrate and mannitol hemihydrate. Using XRD and DSC, the sequential crystallization of ice, mannitol

  14. Crystal Collimation with protons at injection energy

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Roberto; Masi, Alessandro; Mirarchi, Daniele; Montesano, Simone; Redaelli, Stefano; Valentino, Gianluca; Scandale, Walter; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    During this MD, performed on August 30th, 2015, bent silicon crystals were tested with protons beams for a possible usage of crystal-assisted collimation. Tests were performed at injection energy, using both horizontal and vertical crystals, providing a crucial test of the hardware for precise crystal angle adjustments (goniometers). Proton channeling was observed for the first time with LHC beams and the channeled beams were probed with scans performed with secondary collimators. Measurements of cleaning efficiency of a crystal-based collimation system were also performed.

  15. Raman Tensor Formalism for Optically Anisotropic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranert, Christian; Sturm, Chris; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-03-25

    We present a formalism for calculating the Raman scattering intensity dependent on the polarization configuration for optically anisotropic crystals. It can be applied to crystals of arbitrary orientation and crystal symmetry measured in normal incidence backscattering geometry. The classical Raman tensor formalism cannot be used for optically anisotropic materials due to birefringence causing the polarization within the crystal to be depth dependent. We show that in the limit of averaging over a sufficiently large scattering depth, the observed Raman intensities converge and can be described by an effective Raman tensor given here. Full agreement with experimental results for uniaxial and biaxial crystals is demonstrated.

  16. Detection of masses and microcalcifications of breast cancer on digital mammograms: comparison among hard-copy film, 3-megapixel liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors and 5-megapixel LCD monitors: an observer performance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Matsuo, Yoshio; Okafuji, Takashi; Sakai, Shuji; Furuya, Akio; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Ishii, Nobuhide; Honda, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare observer performance in the detection of masses and microcalcifications of breast cancer among hard-copy reading and soft-copy readings using 3-megapixel (3M) and 5-megapixel (5M) liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors. For the microcalcification detection test, we prepared 100 mammograms: 40 surgically verified cancer cases and 60 normal cases. For the mass detection test, we prepared 100 mammograms: 50 cancer cases and 50 normal cases. After six readers assessed both microcalcifications and masses set for each modality, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The average A(z)s for mass detection using a hard copy and 3M and 5M LCD monitors were 0.923, 0.927 and 0.920, respectively; there were no significant differences. The average A(z) for microcalcification detection using hard copy, 3M and 5M LCD monitors was 0.977, 0.954 and 0.972, respectively. There were no significant differences, but the P-values between the hard copy and 3M LCD monitor and that between the 3M and 5M LCD monitor were 0.08 and 0.09, respectively. In conclusion, the observer performances for detecting masses of breast cancers were comparable among the hard copy and two LCD monitors; however, soft-copy reading with a 3M LCD monitor showed slightly lower observer performance for detecting microcalcifications of breast cancers than hard-copy or 5M LCD monitor reading.

  17. Measuring phonons in protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Katherine A.; Snell, Edward; Markelz, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    Using Terahertz near field microscopy we find orientation dependent narrow band absorption features for lysozyme crystals. Here we discuss identification of protein collective modes associated with the observed features. Using normal mode calculations we find good agreement with several of the measured features, suggesting that the modes arise from internal molecular motions and not crystal phonons. Such internal modes have been associated with protein function.

  18. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  19. Progress on the optoelectronic functional organic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Organic crystals constructed by pi-conjugated molecules have been paid great attention to in the field of organic optoelectronic materials. The superiorities of these organic crystal materials, such as high thermal stability, highly ordered structure, and high carrier mobility over the amorphous thin film ma-terials, make them attractive candidates for optoelectronic devices. Single crystal with definite struc-ture provides a model to investigate the basic interactions between the molecules (supramolecular interaction), and the relationship between molecular stacking modes and optoelectronic performance (luminescence and carrier mobility). Through modulating molecular arrangement in organic crystal, the luminescence efficiency of organic crystal has exceeded 80% and carrier mobility has been up to the level of 10 cm2·V?1·s?1. Amplified stimulated emission phenomena have been observed in many crys-tals. In this paper, we will emphatically introduce the progress in optoelectronic functional organic crystals and some correlative principle.

  20. The MORPHEUS II protein crystallization screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrec, Fabrice

    2015-07-01

    High-quality macromolecular crystals are a prerequisite for the process of protein structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Unfortunately, the relative yield of diffraction-quality crystals from crystallization experiments is often very low. In this context, innovative crystallization screen formulations are continuously being developed. In the past, MORPHEUS, a screen in which each condition integrates a mix of additives selected from the Protein Data Bank, a cryoprotectant and a buffer system, was developed. Here, MORPHEUS II, a follow-up to the original 96-condition initial screen, is described. Reagents were selected to yield crystals when none might be observed in traditional initial screens. Besides, the screen includes heavy atoms for experimental phasing and small polyols to ensure the cryoprotection of crystals. The suitability of the resulting novel conditions is shown by the crystallization of a broad variety of protein samples and their efficiency is compared with commercially available conditions.

  1. Progress on the optoelectronic functional organic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huan; XIE ZengQi; Ma YuGuang; Shen JiaCong

    2007-01-01

    Organic crystals constructed by pi-conjugated molecules have been paid great attention to in the field of organic optoelectronic materials. The superiorities of these organic crystal materials, such as high thermal stability, highly ordered structure, and high carrier mobility over the amorphous thin film materials, make them attractive candidates for optoelectronic devices. Single crystal with definite structure provides a model to investigate the basic interactions between the molecules (supramolecular interaction), and the relationship between molecular stacking modes and optoelectronic performance (luminescence and carrier mobility). Through modulating molecular arrangement in organic crystal, the luminescence efficiency of organic crystal has exceeded 80% and carrier mobility has been up to the level of 10 cm2·V-1·s-1. Amplified stimulated emission phenomena have been observed in many crystals. In this paper, we will emphatically introduce the progress in optoelectronic functional organic crystals and some correlative principle.

  2. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  3. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2015-07-06

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  4. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-07-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br- or I-) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  5. Radiation driven collapse of protein crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Sébastien; Robinson, Ian K

    2006-01-01

    During coherent X-ray diffraction measurements on crystals of ferritin at room temperature using monochromatic undulator radiation from the Advanced Photon Source, a sudden lattice contraction was observed following a characteristic latent period and ultimately leading to the collapse of the crystal. The progression of this collapse is analysed using a two-state Hendricks-Teller model. It reveals that 55% of the layers collapse by 1.6% before the crystal completely stops diffracting.

  6. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  7. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Falco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  8. Nanoparticle-mediated nonclassical crystal growth of sodium fluorosilicate nanowires and nanoplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed nonclassical crystal growth of the sodium fluorosilicate nanowires, nanoplates, and hierarchical structures through self-assembly and aggregation of primary intermediate nanoparticles. Unlike traditional ion-by-ion crystallization, the primary nanoparticles formed first and their subsequent self-assembly, fusion, and crystallization generated various final crystals. These findings offer direct evidences for the aggregation-based crystallization mechanism.

  9. Slotted photonic crystal biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark Gerard

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them result in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This thesis presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which engender higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the peak of optical mode within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. High sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than most competing devices in the literature. Initial tests with cellular material for real applications was also performed, and shown to be of promise. In addition, groundwork to make an integrated device that includes the spectrometer function was also carried out showing that slotted photonic crystals themselves can be used for on-chip wavelength specific filtering and spectroscopy, whilst gas-free microvalves for automation were also developed. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  10. Binary colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal st

  11. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  12. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  13. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  14. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  15. Dendrite crystal morphology evolution mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE ChongJun; ZHONG WeiZhuo; LIU YouWen

    2009-01-01

    Existence of [B3-O6]3- hexagonal ring growth unit in melt solution of β-BaB2O4 crystal was proved by the results of high temperature Raman measurements. A morphology evolution process of β-BaB2O4 crys-tal was observed by a high temperature in-situ observation device. The crystal morphology varied with the supersaturation of growth melt solution. The mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal morphology evolution was analyzed through the growth unit model.

  16. Dendrite crystal morphology evolution mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Existence of [B3-O6]3- hexagonal ring growth unit in melt solution of β-BaB2O4 crystal was proved by the results of high temperature Raman measurements.A morphology evolution process of β-BaB2O4 crys-tal was observed by a high temperature in-situ observation device.The crystal morphology varied with the supersaturation of growth melt solution.The mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal morphology evolution was analyzed through the growth unit model.

  17. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... a participant and, as such, co-producer of the observed phenomenon. There is no such thing as a neutral or objective description. As observation deals with differences and process meaning, all descriptions are reconstructions and interpretations of the observed. Hence, the idea of neutral descriptions as well...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  18. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... a participant and, as such, co-producer of the observed phenomenon. There is no such thing as a neutral or objective description. As observation deals with differences and process meaning, all descriptions are re-constructions and interpretations of the observed. Hence, the idea of neutral descriptions as well...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  19. MULTIPLE MELTING AND CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR OF NYLON 1212

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-bin Song; Qing-yong Chen; Min-qiao Ren; Xiao-hong Sun; Hui-liang Zhang; Hong-fang Zhang; Shu-yun Wang; Zhi-shen Mo

    2006-01-01

    The wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) patterns of isothermally crystallized Nylon 1212 show that γ-form crystals form below 90℃ and the α-form crystals can exist above 140℃. In the temperature range of 90-140℃, the α-form and γ-form crystals coexist. Variable-temperature WAXD exhibits that the nylon 1212 γ-form does not show crystal transition on heating, while α-form isothermally crystallized at 160℃ exhibits Brill transition at a little higher than 180℃ on heating. The multiple melting behaviors of Nylon 1212 isothermally crystallized from melt come from a complex mechanism of different crystal structures, dual lamellar population and melting-recrystallization. In polarized optical microscope (POM) observations, Nylon 1212 isothermally crystallized at 175℃ shows the ringed banded spherulites. However, at temperatures below 160℃ the ringed banded image disappears, and cross-extinct spherulites are formed.

  20. Fractional decay of quantum dots in real photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Koenderink, A. Femius; Lodahl, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    We show that fractional decay may be observable in experiments using quantum dots and photonic crystals with parameters that are currently achievable. We focus on the case of inverse opal photonic crystals and locate the position in the crystal where the effect is most pronounced. Furthermore, we...

  1. Crystal Collimation with protons at flat top energy

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Roberto; Galluccio, Francesca; Masi, Alessandro; Mirarchi, Daniele; Montesano, Simone; Valentino, Gianluca; Scandale, Walter; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    During this MD, performed on November 6th, 2015, bent silicon crystals were tested with proton beams for a possible usage of crystal-assisted collimation. Tests were performed at both injection and at top energy using horizontal crystal. Proton channeling was observed for the first time at 6.5 TeV.

  2. Prediction of molecular crystal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Theresa

    2001-07-01

    The ab initio prediction of molecular crystal structures is a scientific challenge. Reliability of first-principle prediction calculations would show a fundamental understanding of crystallisation. Crystal structure prediction is also of considerable practical importance as different crystalline arrangements of the same molecule in the solid state (polymorphs)are likely to have different physical properties. A method of crystal structure prediction based on lattice energy minimisation has been developed in this work. The choice of the intermolecular potential and of the molecular model is crucial for the results of such studies and both of these criteria have been investigated. An empirical atom-atom repulsion-dispersion potential for carboxylic acids has been derived and applied in a crystal structure prediction study of formic, benzoic and the polymorphic system of tetrolic acid. As many experimental crystal structure determinations at different temperatures are available for the polymorphic system of paracetamol (acetaminophen), the influence of the variations of the molecular model on the crystal structure lattice energy minima, has also been studied. The general problem of prediction methods based on the assumption that the experimental thermodynamically stable polymorph corresponds to the global lattice energy minimum, is that more hypothetical low lattice energy structures are found within a few kJ mol{sup -1} of the global minimum than are likely to be experimentally observed polymorphs. This is illustrated by the results for molecule I, 3-oxabicyclo(3.2.0)hepta-1,4-diene, studied for the first international blindtest for small organic crystal structures organised by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) in May 1999. To reduce the number of predicted polymorphs, additional factors to thermodynamic criteria have to be considered. Therefore the elastic constants and vapour growth morphologies have been calculated for the lowest lattice energy

  3. In-situ observation of domain wall motion in Pb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dabin; Cai, Changlong [Laboratory of Thin Film Techniques and Optical Test, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Li, Zhenrong, E-mail: zhrli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Li, Fei; Xu, Zhuo [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Education Ministry and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shujun, E-mail: soz1@psu.edu [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Cheng, Yaojin [Science and Technology on Low-Light-Level Night Vision Laboratory, Xi' an 710065 (China)

    2014-07-21

    Various domain structures, including wave-like domains, mixed needle-like and laminar domains, typical embedded 90° and 180° domains, have been observed in unpoled rhombohedral, monoclinic, and tetragonal Pb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals by polarizing light microscope; while in poled tetragonal crystals, the parallel 180° domains were reversed and only vertical 90° domain walls were observed. For 0.24PIN-0.42PMN-0.34PT crystals with morphotropic phase boundary composition, the domain wall motion was in-situ observed as a function of applied electric field along crystallographic [100] direction. With increasing the electric field from 0 to 12 kV/cm, the rhombohedral (R) domains were found to change to monoclinic (M) domains and then to tetragonal (T) domains. The electric field-induced phase transition was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction and the temperature-dependent dielectric behavior.

  4. Controllable light diffraction in woodpile photonic crystals filled with liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Chih-Hua; Zeng, Hao; Wiersma, Diederik S. [European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Maigyte, Lina; Trull, Jose; Cojocaru, Crina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Reserca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), passeig Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-01-12

    An approach to switching between different patterns of light beams transmitted through the woodpile photonic crystals filled with liquid crystals is proposed. The phase transition between the nematic and isotropic liquid crystal states leads to an observable variation of the spatial pattern transmitted through the photonic structure. The transmission profiles in the nematic phase also show polarization sensibility due to refractive index dependence on the field polarization. The experimental results are consistent with a numerical calculation by Finite Difference Time Domain method.

  5. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  6. Tuning of optical resonances of a microsphere with liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Tamer, Mehmet Selman; Gürlü, Oguzhan; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2011-05-01

    Optical resonances are observed in the elastic light scattering form high refractive index glass microspheres placed on a single mode optical fiber coupler and in a liquid crystal. Placing the liquid crystal on the optical fiber coupler increases the non-resonant scattering, whereas placing the liquid crystal away from the optical coupler increases the resonant scattering. Optical resonances blue and red shift due to the placement and removal of the liquid crystal.

  7. Tuning of optical resonances of a microsphere with liquid crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Serpengüzel, Ali; Yılmaz, Huzeyfe; Tamer, Mehmet Selman; Gürlü, Oğuzhan

    2011-01-01

    Optical resonances are observed in the elastic light scattering form high refractive index glass microspheres placed on a single mode optical fiber coupler and in a liquid crystal. Placing the liquid crystal on the optical fiber coupler increases the non-resonant scattering, whereas placing the liquid crystal away from the optical coupler increases the resonant scattering. Optical resonances blue and red shift due to the placement and removal of the liquid crystal.

  8. Observation of the 2p{sub 3/2}-2s{sub 1/2} radiative transition in Li-like uranium using the resonant coherent excitation in Si-crystal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananyeva, Alena [Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Azuma, Toshiyuki; Nakano, Yuji [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); RIKEN, Tokyo (Japan); Braeuning, Harald; Braeuning-Demian, Angela; Dimopoulou, Christina; Kleffner, Carl; Steck, Markus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Dauvergne, Denis [IPNL - Institut de Physique Nucleaire de' Lyon (France); Kanai, Yasuyuki [RIKEN, Tokyo (Japan); Pivovarov, Yuri [National ResearchTomsk Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Suda, Shintaro [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Yamazaki, Yasunori [RIKEN, Tokyo (Japan); University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Taking advantage of the cooled, relativistic ion beams delivered by the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI, Darmstadt the energy of the 1s{sup 2}2p{sub 3/2}- 1s{sup 2}2s{sub 1/2} transition in Li-like U ions was measured by using the resonant excitation of ions in a Si-crystal in channelling conditions. The excitation of the projectile traversing a solid target with an ordered structure is induced with great probability by the periodic potential defined by the atoms of the crystal lattice when the oscillation frequency of the crystal field fits the energy difference between two levels of the ion. The resonant character of the process enables the determination of transition energy with high precision. The present scheme is quite universal being applicable for various ions and for a wide range of transition energies in the field of atomic as well as nuclear physics.

  9. Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2016-05-27

    Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.

  10. Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Benjamin K; Bachar, Stephanie; Knouf, Emily; Bendoraite, Ausra; Tewari, Muneesh; Pun, Suzie H; Lin, Lih Y

    2009-01-01

    Non-invasive optical manipulation of particles has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool for biological study and nanotechnology. In particular, trapping and rotation of cells, cell nuclei and sub-micron particles enables unique functionality for various applications such as tissue engineering, cancer research and nanofabrication. We propose and demonstrate a purely optical approach to rotate and align particles using the interaction of polarized light with photonic crystal nanostructures to generate enhanced trapping force. With a weakly focused laser beam we observed efficient trapping and transportation of polystyrene beads with sizes ranging from 10 um down to 190 nm as well as cancer cell nuclei. In addition, we demonstrated alignment of non-spherical particles using a 1-D photonic crystal structure. Bacterial cells were trapped, rotated and aligned with optical intensity as low as 17 uW/um^2. Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the optical near-field and far-field above the photonic c...

  11. Crystal structure and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Tejender S; Dubey, Ritesh; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-04-01

    The notion of structure is central to the subject of chemistry. This review traces the development of the idea of crystal structure since the time when a crystal structure could be determined from a three-dimensional diffraction pattern and assesses the feasibility of computationally predicting an unknown crystal structure of a given molecule. Crystal structure prediction is of considerable fundamental and applied importance, and its successful execution is by no means a solved problem. The ease of crystal structure determination today has resulted in the availability of large numbers of crystal structures of higher-energy polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs. These structural libraries lead to the concept of a crystal structure landscape. A crystal structure of a compound may accordingly be taken as a data point in such a landscape.

  12. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  13. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  14. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  15. Crystallization from Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  16. CRYSTAL FILTER TEST SET

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRYSTAL FILTERS, *HIGH FREQUENCY, *RADIOFREQUENCY FILTERS, AMPLIFIERS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , INSTRUMENTATION, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, TEST EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS

  17. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  18. Crystal growth of pure and impurity-doped lead chloride single crystals from the melt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, B.

    An account is given of the purification and the crystal growing of lead chloride. Difficulties observed are blackening of the material and the formation of oxides. It is evident that oxygen should be avoided. The influence of water vapour is studied with mass spectroscopy, crystal microbalance

  19. Crystal growth of pure and impurity-doped lead chloride single crystals from the melt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, B.

    1971-01-01

    An account is given of the purification and the crystal growing of lead chloride. Difficulties observed are blackening of the material and the formation of oxides. It is evident that oxygen should be avoided. The influence of water vapour is studied with mass spectroscopy, crystal microbalance measu

  20. Analysis of liquid crystal properties for photonic crystal fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the bandgap structure of Liquid Crystal infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers depending on the parameters of the Liquid Crystals by means of finite element simulations. For a biased Liquid Crystal Photonic Crystal Fiber, we show how the tunability of the bandgap position depends...... on the Liquid Crystal parameters....

  1. Enhancement of crystal homogeneity of protein crystals under application of an external alternating current electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, H.; Uda, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Nozawa, J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Tachibana, M. [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0027 (Japan); Kojima, K. [Department of Education, Yokohama Soei University, 1 Miho-tyou, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-0015 (Japan)

    2014-10-06

    X-ray diffraction rocking-curve measurements were performed on tetragonal hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme crystals grown with and without the application of an external alternating current (AC) electric field. The crystal quality was assessed by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for each rocking curve. For two-dimensional maps of the FWHMs measured on the 440 and the 12 12 0 reflection, the crystal homogeneity was improved under application of an external electric field at 1 MHz, compared with that without. In particular, the significant improvement of the crystal homogeneity was observed for the 12 12 0 reflection.

  2. Do protein crystals nucleate within dense liquid clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Dominique; Vorontsova, Maria A; Potenza, Marco A C; Sanvito, Tiziano; Sleutel, Mike; Giglio, Marzio; Vekilov, Peter G

    2015-07-01

    Protein-dense liquid clusters are regions of high protein concentration that have been observed in solutions of several proteins. The typical cluster size varies from several tens to several hundreds of nanometres and their volume fraction remains below 10(-3) of the solution. According to the two-step mechanism of nucleation, the protein-rich clusters serve as locations for and precursors to the nucleation of protein crystals. While the two-step mechanism explained several unusual features of protein crystal nucleation kinetics, a direct observation of its validity for protein crystals has been lacking. Here, two independent observations of crystal nucleation with the proteins lysozyme and glucose isomerase are discussed. Firstly, the evolutions of the protein-rich clusters and nucleating crystals were characterized simultaneously by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confocal depolarized dynamic light scattering (cDDLS), respectively. It is demonstrated that protein crystals appear following a significant delay after cluster formation. The cDDLS correlation functions follow a Gaussian decay, indicative of nondiffusive motion. A possible explanation is that the crystals are contained inside large clusters and are driven by the elasticity of the cluster surface. Secondly, depolarized oblique illumination dark-field microscopy reveals the evolution from liquid clusters without crystals to newly nucleated crystals contained in the clusters to grown crystals freely diffusing in the solution. Collectively, the observations indicate that the protein-rich clusters in lysozyme and glucose isomerase solutions are locations for crystal nucleation.

  3. Crystal growth and characterization of new semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shobha; Shrivastava, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    An organic material of a L-histidine monohydrochloride single crystal was grown in a distilled water solution using the slow evaporation method at 40-45°C. The grown crystal was transparent and colourless, with a size of about 20 × 9 × 5 mm3, obtained within a period of 21 days. The solubility of grown crystals have found out at various temperatures. The UV-visible transmittance studies show that the grown crystals have wide optical transparency in the entire visible region It is observed that the crystal has transparency window from 255nm to 700nm and its energy gap (Eg) found to be is 3.1eV. The grown crystal was subjected to powder X-ray diffraction analysis, confirming that the orthorhombic crystalline nature of the crystal. To identify the surface morphology, the as grown crystal was subjected to FE-SEM technique. The chemical composition of the grown crystal was estimated by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The optical behaviour of the grown crystal was analyzed by PL study.

  4. Modified photoreactivity due to mixed crystal formation. I. Three mixed crystals between isostructural cobaloxime complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithana, Champika; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Sekine, Akiko; Ohashi, Yuji

    2002-04-01

    Three crystals of 2-cyanoethyl cobaloxime complexes with 3-chloropyridine, 3-bromopyridine and 3-methylpyridine as axial base ligands are isostructural to one another. Three mixed crystals were formed between the pairs: (3-bromopyridine)(2-cyanoethyl)cobaloxime-(2-cyanoethyl)(3-methylpyridine)cobaloxime(0.45/0.55);(3-chloropyridine)(2-cyanoethyl)cobaloxime-(2-cyanoethyl)(3bromopyridine)cobaloxime (0.61/0.39); (3-chloropyridine)(2-cyanoethyl)cobaloxime-(2-cyanoethyl)(3-methylpyridine)cobaloxime (0.44/0.56). The X-ray crystal structure analysis revealed that the mixed compounds are also isostructural to the component crystals. It was found from the change in IR spectra that the 2-cyanoethyl groups in the three mixed crystals isomerized to 1-cyanoethyl groups on exposure to a xenon lamp, as observed for the 2-cyanoethyl groups in the component crystals. Rate constants for the three mixed and three component crystals, measured under the same conditions, are approximately the same, as the reaction cavities for the 2-cyanoethyl groups in the six crystals have almost the same size. For the mixed crystal between 3-chloropyridine and 3-methylpyridine complexes, the isomerization proceeded with retention of the single-crystal form. The conformation and configuration of the 1-cyanoethyl group that was produced were well explained by the shape of the reaction cavity before irradiation.

  5. Crystal fields of porphyrins and phthalocyanines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. S.; Boukahil, I.; Himpsel, F. J.; Kennedy, C.; Jersett, N.; Cook, P. L.; Garcia-Lastra, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the N 1s and metal 2p edges is combined with density functional and atomic multiplet calculations to determine the crystal field parameters 10Dq, Ds, and Dt of transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) phthalocyanines and octaethylporphyrins. Octaethyl porphyrins are observed to lie flat on Si with native oxide, while phthalocyanines lie on edge. Strong polarization dependence is found at all edges, which facilitates a unique determination of the crystal field parameters. Crystal field values from PBE density functional calculations provide helpful starting values, which are refined by fitting atomic multiplet calculations to the data. Since the crystal field affects electron-hole separation in solar cells, the systematic set of crystal field parameters obtained here can be useful for optimizing dyes for solar cells.

  6. Predicting crystal structures of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah L

    2014-04-07

    Currently, organic crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods are based on searching for the most thermodynamically stable crystal structure, making various approximations in evaluating the crystal energy. The most stable (global minimum) structure provides a prediction of an experimental crystal structure. However, depending on the specific molecule, there may be other structures which are very close in energy. In this case, the other structures on the crystal energy landscape may be polymorphs, components of static or dynamic disorder in observed structures, or there may be no route to nucleating and growing these structures. A major reason for performing CSP studies is as a complement to solid form screening to see which alternative packings to the known polymorphs are thermodynamically feasible.

  7. Insights into the nucleation role of cellulose crystals during crystallization of poly(β-hydroxybutyrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxiang; Xu, Chunjiang; Wu, Defeng; Pan, Keren; Qian, Aiwen; Sha, Yulu; Wang, Li; Tong, Wei

    2015-12-10

    Cellulose crystals, including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), were used as the fillers to prepare green composites with poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by melt mixing for crystallization study. The results reveal that the spherulite morphology of PHB and its composites depends highly on the crystallization temperature, evolving from bundle shaped to ring-banded and finally to irregular or zigzag textures with increase of temperature. However, the ring-banded structure is strongly affected by the presence of cellulose crystals, and the average band space decreases evidently with the addition of MCC or NCC. Compared with PHB/MCC composite, PHB/NCC composite shows degraded spherulite structure with smaller band space and higher flocculation level of peak-to-valley height because of stronger unbalanced stresses in this system. Besides, cellulose crystals can act as good heterogeneous nucleating agent to accelerate the crystallization of PHB, which is further confirmed by the polarized optical microscopy observations and the kinetic analyses.

  8. Observer's observables. Residual diffeomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Duch, Paweł; Świeżewski, Jedrzej

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the fate of diffeomorphisms when the radial gauge is imposed in canonical general relativity. As shown elsewhere, the radial gauge is closely related to the observer's observables. These observables are invariant under a large subgroup of diffeomorphisms which results in their usefulness for canonical general relativity. There are, however, some diffeomorphisms, called residual diffeomorphisms, which might be "observed" by the observer as they do not preserve her observables. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of these diffeomorphisms in the case of the spatial and spacetime radial gauges. Although the residual diffeomorphisms do not form a subgroup of all diffeomorphisms, we show that their induced action in the phase space does form a group. We find the generators of the induced transformations and compute the structure functions of the algebras they form. The obtained algebras are deformations of the algebra of the Euclidean group and the algebra of the Poincar\\'e group in the spat...

  9. Protein crystallization with paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Miki; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Adachi, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Sano, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Masashi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Takano, Kazufumi

    2016-05-01

    We developed a new protein crystallization method that incorporates paper. A small piece of paper, such as facial tissue or KimWipes, was added to a drop of protein solution in the traditional sitting drop vapor diffusion technique, and protein crystals grew by incorporating paper. By this method, we achieved the growth of protein crystals with reducing osmotic shock. Because the technique is very simple and the materials are easy to obtain, this method will come into wide use for protein crystallization. In the future, it could be applied to nanoliter-scale crystallization screening on a paper sheet such as in inkjet printing.

  10. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Edward H.; Helliwell, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The key concepts that attracted crystal growers, macromolecular or solid state, to microgravity research is that density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of the growing crystals are greatly reduced. Thus, defects and flaws in the crystals can be reduced, even eliminated, and crystal volume can be increased. Macromolecular crystallography differs from the field of crystalline semiconductors. For the latter, crystals are harnessed for their electrical behaviors. A crystal of a biological macromolecule is used instead for diffraction experiments (X-ray or neutron) to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal of a biological macromolecule then the more molecular structure detail that can be extracted. This structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry, and mathematics meet to enable insight to the basic fundamentals of life. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment, and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyze the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural

  11. Weak crystallization theory of metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ivar; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Demler, Eugene A.

    2016-06-01

    Crystallization is one of the most familiar, but hardest to analyze, phase transitions. The principal reason is that crystallization typically occurs via a strongly first-order phase transition, and thus rigorous treatment would require comparing energies of an infinite number of possible crystalline states with the energy of liquid. A great simplification occurs when crystallization transition happens to be weakly first order. In this case, weak crystallization theory, based on unbiased Ginzburg-Landau expansion, can be applied. Even beyond its strict range of validity, it has been a useful qualitative tool for understanding crystallization. In its standard form, however, weak crystallization theory cannot explain the existence of a majority of observed crystalline and quasicrystalline states. Here we extend the weak crystallization theory to the case of metallic alloys. We identify a singular effect of itinerant electrons on the form of weak crystallization free energy. It is geometric in nature, generating strong dependence of free energy on the angles between ordering wave vectors of ionic density. That leads to stabilization of fcc, rhombohedral, and icosahedral quasicrystalline (iQC) phases, which are absent in the generic theory with only local interactions. As an application, we find the condition for stability of iQC that is consistent with the Hume-Rothery rules known empirically for the majority of stable iQC; namely, the length of the primary Bragg-peak wave vector is approximately equal to the diameter of the Fermi sphere.

  12. Model predictive control of MSMPR crystallizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldoványi, Nóra; Lakatos, Béla G.; Szeifert, Ferenc

    2005-02-01

    A multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control problem of isothermal continuous crystallizers is addressed in order to create an adequate model-based control system. The moment equation model of mixed suspension, mixed product removal (MSMPR) crystallizers that forms a dynamical system is used, the state of which is represented by the vector of six variables: the first four leading moments of the crystal size, solute concentration and solvent concentration. Hence, the time evolution of the system occurs in a bounded region of the six-dimensional phase space. The controlled variables are the mean size of the grain; the crystal size-distribution and the manipulated variables are the input concentration of the solute and the flow rate. The controllability and observability as well as the coupling between the inputs and the outputs was analyzed by simulation using the linearized model. It is shown that the crystallizer is a nonlinear MIMO system with strong coupling between the state variables. Considering the possibilities of the model reduction, a third-order model was found quite adequate for the model estimation in model predictive control (MPC). The mean crystal size and the variance of the size distribution can be nearly separately controlled by the residence time and the inlet solute concentration, respectively. By seeding, the controllability of the crystallizer increases significantly, and the overshoots and the oscillations become smaller. The results of the controlling study have shown that the linear MPC is an adaptable and feasible controller of continuous crystallizers.

  13. Double phase conjugation in tungsten bronze crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, E J; Clark Iii, W W; Miller, M J; Wood, G L; Monson, B; Salamo, G J; Neurgaonkar, R R

    1990-02-20

    In this paper we report a new method for double phase conjugation particularly suited to the tungsten bronze crystal strontium barium niobate. It has also been observed to produce conjugate waves in BaTiO(3) and BSKNN. This new arrangement is called the bridge conjugator because the two beams enter opposing [100] crystal faces and fan together to form a bridge without reflection off a crystal face. Our measurements indicate that the bridge conjugator is competitive with previously reported double phase conjugate mirrors in reflectivity, response time, ease of alignment, and fidelity.

  14. Ultrashort pulse laser slicing of semiconductor crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunho; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Sakakura, Masaaki; Miura, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Meanwhile, by the convention wire-saw technique, it is difficult to slice off a thin wafer from bulk SiC crystal without the reserving space for cutting. In this study, we have achieved exfoliation of 4H-SiC single crystal by femtosecond laser induced slicing method. By using this, the exfoliated surface with the root-mean-square roughness of 3 μm and the cutting-loss thickness smaller than 30 μm was successfully demonstrated. We have also observed the nanostructure on the exfoliated surface in SiC crystal.

  15. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann;

    2012-01-01

    study of a 1 QW photonic crystal amplifier. Net gain is achieved which enables laser oscillation in photonic crystal micro cavities. The ability to freely tailor the dispersion in a semiconductor optical amplifier makes it possible to raise the optical gain considerably over a certain bandwidth......We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission...

  16. Modelling heating effects in cryocooled protein crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, J; Fayz, K; Fell, B; Garman, E

    2001-01-01

    With the application of intense X-ray beams from third generation synchrotron sources, damage to cryocooled macromolecular crystals is being observed more commonly . In order to fully utilize synchrotron facilities now available for studying biological crystals, it is essential to understand the processes involved in radiation damage and beam heating so that, if possible, action can be taken to slow the rate of damage. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been applied to model the heating effects of X-rays on cryocooled protein crystals, and to compare the relative cooling efficiencies of nitrogen and helium.

  17. Iron-sulfide crystals in probe deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming

    1998-01-01

    Iron-sulfides were observed in deposits collected on a probe inserted at the top of the furnace of a coal-fired power station in Denmark. The chemical composition of the iron-sulfides is equivalent to pyrrhotite (FeS). The pyrrhotites are present as crystals and, based on the shape of the crystals......, it was deduced that they were not deposited but instead grew within the deposit. The presence of unburned char particles within the deposits supports the concept that a reducing environment existed in the deposits. Two processes are proposed for explaining the existence of pyrrhotite crystals within a deposit...

  18. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Christoph; Androsch, R; Schmelzer, Juern W P

    2017-07-14

    The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 106 K s-1, allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Apatite crystal in hard tissue of conodont fossils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at examining the nature of apatite crystal in the tooth apparatus of a conodont fossil using transmission electron microscopy (TEM),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),laser Raman microprobe spectrometry and electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA).The hard tissue of the condont consisted of 2 layers and the organization varied with the size of the crystal.Higher magnification showed that the crystals were observed in the lattice of (100) and the central dark lines were not present.Ca,P,and F were detected in the crystal using EPMA.Our results indicate that the apatite crystal in conodont fossils is not hydroxyapatite but fluorapatite.

  20. On the growth of calcium tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X Sahaya Shajan; C Mahadevan

    2004-08-01

    Calcium tartrate single crystals were grown using silica gel as the growth medium. Calcium formate mixed with formic acid was taken as the supernatant solution. It was observed that the nucleation density was reduced and the size of the crystals was improved to a large extent compared to the conventional way of growing calcium tartrate crystals with calcium chloride. The role played by formate–formic acid on the growth of crystals is discussed. The grown crystals were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), microhardness measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results obtained are compared with the previous work.

  1. Strongly Driven Crystallization Processes in a Metallic Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGrange, T; Grummon, D S; Reed, B W; Browning, N D; King, W E; Campbell, G H

    2009-02-09

    The crystallization of amorphous NiTi thin films was studied in situ using pulsed laser heating in a dynamic transmission electron microscope. A single pulse can crystallize small areas of the film within 2 {micro}s. The crystallized volume fraction and morphology depend strongly on the laser energy, the laser spatial profile, and the heat transport in the film. As compared to slower furnace and continuous wave laser annealing, pulsed laser heating produces a dramatically different microstructure. Higher than expected crystallization rates were observed under pulsed irradiation that do not correlate with kinetic data obtained from the slow-heating crystallization experiments.

  2. Photoconductivity and dielectric studies of potassium pentaborate crystal (KB5)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Joseph; S Gunasekaran; V Santhanam

    2003-06-01

    Single crystal of potassium pentaborate (KB5) has been grown by solution growth technique. FTIR and laser Raman measurements are carried out to make a qualitative analysis on KB5 crystal. Dielectric behaviour of the KB5 crystal has been studied in the microwave region using K-band microwave bench equipped with the Gunn Oscillator guided with rectangular wave-guide. To confirm the suitability of this crystal as electro optic device, its dielectric behaviour with the change of frequency has also been investigated. Photoconductivity studies were also carried out on this material. It was interesting to observe that the KB5 crystal exhibited negative photoconductivity.

  3. Structure of crystals of hard colloidal spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusey, P.N.; van Megen, W.; Bartlett, P.; Ackerson, B.J.; Rarity, J.G.; Underwood, S.M. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern, WR14 3PS, United Kingsom (GB) Department of Applied Physics, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia School of Chemistry, Bristol University, Bristol, BS8 1TS, United Kingdom Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078)

    1989-12-18

    We report light-scattering measurements of powder diffraction patterns of crystals of essentially hard colloidal spheres. These are consistent with structures formed by stacking close-packed planes of particles in a sequence of permitted lateral positions, {ital A},{ital B},{ital C}, which shows a high degree of randomness. Crystals grown slowly, while still containing many stacking faults, show a tendency towards face-centered-cubic packing: possible explanations for this observation are discussed.

  4. A test of macromolecular crystallization in microgravity: large well ordered insulin crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgstahl, G E; Vahedi-Faridi, A; Lovelace, J; Bellamy, H D; Snell, E H

    2001-08-01

    Crystals of insulin grown in microgravity on Space Shuttle Mission STS-95 were extremely well ordered and unusually large (many >2 mm). The physical characteristics of six microgravity and six earth-grown crystals were examined by X-ray analysis employing superfine phi slicing and unfocused synchrotron radiation. This experimental setup allowed hundreds of reflections to be precisely examined from each crystal in a short period of time. The microgravity crystals were on average 34 times larger, had sevenfold lower mosaicity, had 54-fold higher reflection peak heights and diffracted to significantly higher resolution than their earth-grown counterparts. A single mosaic domain model could account for the observed reflection profiles in microgravity crystals, whereas data from earth crystals required a model with multiple mosaic domains. This statistically significant and unbiased characterization indicates that the microgravity environment was useful for the improvement of crystal growth and the resultant diffraction quality in insulin crystals and may be similarly useful for macromolecular crystals in general.

  5. From Crystals to Disordered Crystals: A Hidden Order-Disorder Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hua; Tan, Peng; Xu, Ning

    2015-10-20

    To distinguish between order and disorder is of fundamental importance to understanding solids. It becomes more significant with recent observations that solids with high structural order can behave like disordered solids, while properties of disordered solids can approach crystals under certain circumstance. It is then imperative to understand when and how disorder takes effect to deviate the properties of a solid from crystals and what the correct factors are to control the behaviours of solids. Here we answer these questions by reporting the finding of a hidden order-disorder transition from crystals to disordered crystals for static packings of frictionless spheres. While the geometric indicators are mostly blind to the transition, disordered crystals already exhibit properties apart from crystals. The transition approaches the close packing of hard spheres, giving rise to the singularity of the close packing point. We evidence that both the transition and properties of disordered crystals are jointly determined by the structural order and density. Near the transition, the elastic moduli and coordination number of disordered crystals show particular pressure dependence distinct from known behaviours of both crystals and jammed solids. The discovery of the transition therefore reveals some unknown aspects of solids.

  6. Polymer semiconductor crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the long-standing challenges in the field of polymer semiconductors is to figure out how long interpenetrating and entangled polymer chains self-assemble into single crystals from the solution phase or melt. The ability to produce these crystalline solids has fascinated scientists from a broad range of backgrounds including physicists, chemists, and engineers. Scientists are still on the hunt for determining the mechanism of crystallization in these information-rich materials. Understanding the theory and concept of crystallization of polymer semiconductors will undoubtedly transform this area from an art to an area that will host a bandwagon of scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the basic concept of crystallization and highlight some of the advances in polymer crystallization from crystals to nanocrystalline fibers.

  7. Kinetics of barium sulphate reaction crystallization in crystallizers with internal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Koralewska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic calculation results describing the observed nucleation and growth rates of barium sulphate crystals precipitated in an integrated reaction-crystallization process in a barium sulphate-ammonium chloride-water system are presented and analyzed. The scope of experiments included two continuous model DTM-type crystallizers (Draft Tube Magma with internal circulation of the suspension forced by a liquid jet-pump device responsible for stable and intensive enough ascending/descending flow of BaSO4 crystal magma in a mixing chamber. For comparison purposes the experimental data corresponding to a continuous DT (Draft Tube crystallizer with propeller agitator are presented and discussed. The various types of laboratory crystallizers used were fed with concentrated water solution of barium chloride (of 10 or 24 mass % and - in a stoichiometric proportion - crystalline ammonium sulphate, assuming isothermal (348 K and hydrodynamic (average residence time of suspension in a crystallizer: 900 s process conditions. The observed nucleation and growth rates of barium sulphate crystals were estimated on the basis of crystal size distributions (CSDs using convenient calculation scheme derived for an MSMPR (Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal model approach. Considering the experimental population density distribution courses, a size-dependent growth (SDG phenomenon was taken into account in the kinetic calculations. Five SDG kinetic models recommended in the accessible literature were used for kinetic parameter values estimation. It was proved statistically, that Rojkowski’s two SDG models (hyperbolic and exponential best suit for our own experimental data description. The experimental data presented can be practically applied for improving the constructions of liquid jet-pump DTM crystallizers recommended for reaction crystallization of sparingly soluble inorganic salts (especially for high concentrations of reaction substrates in the modern

  8. Glass transition, crystallization kinetics and pressure effect on crystallization of ZrNbCuNiBe bulk metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, P.F.; Zhuang, Yanxin; Wang, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    The glass transition behavior and crystallization kinetics of Zr48Nb8Cu14Ni12Be18 bulk metallic glass have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The activation energies of both glass transition and crystallization events have been obtained using...... effect on crystallization is studied by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature XRD using synchrotron radiation. Two crystallization temperatures, observed by in-situ XRD, behave differently with varying pressure. The onset crystallization temperature increases with pressure with a slope of 9.5 K...

  9. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  10. Macromolecular crystallization in microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Edward H [Biophysics Group, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Code XD42, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Helliwell, John R [Department of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of growing crystals are greatly reduced when crystallization takes place in a reduced gravity environment. In the case of macromolecular crystallography a crystal of a biological macromolecule is used for diffraction experiments (x-ray or neutron) so as to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal then the greater the molecular structure detail that can be extracted. It is this structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences, with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyse the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural advances. Finally, limitations and alternatives to microgravity and future directions for this research are covered. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry and mathematics meet to enable insight to the fundamentals of life. As the reader will see, there is a great deal of physics involved when the microgravity environment is applied to crystallization, some of it known, and undoubtedly much yet to

  11. Analysis of liquid crystal properties for photonic crystal fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei;

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the bandgap structure of Liquid Crystal infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers depending on the parameters of the Liquid Crystals by means of finite element simulations. For a biased Liquid Crystal Photonic Crystal Fiber, we show how the tunability of the bandgap position depends on the L...

  12. Phononic crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  13. Heroin crystal nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Josef Edrik Keith; Merhi, Basma; Gregory, Oliver; Hu, Susie; Henriksen, Kammi; Gohh, Reginald

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present an interesting case of acute kidney injury and severe metabolic alkalosis in a patient with a history of heavy heroin abuse. Urine microscopy showed numerous broomstick-like crystals. These crystals are also identified in light and electron microscopy. We hypothesize that heroin crystalizes in an alkaline pH, resulting in tubular obstruction and acute kidney injury. Management is mainly supportive as there is no known specific therapy for this condition. This paper highlights the utility of urine microscopy in diagnosing the etiology of acute kidney injury and proposes a novel disease called heroin crystal nephropathy.

  14. Geometric and unipotent crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Berenstein, Arkady; Kazhdan, David

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we introduce geometric crystals and unipotent crystals which are algebro-geometric analogues of Kashiwara's crystal bases. Given a reductive group G, let I be the set of vertices of the Dynkin diagram of G and T be the maximal torus of G. The structure of a geometric G-crystal on an algebraic variety X consists of a rational morphism \\gamma:X-->T and a compatible family e_i:G_m\\times X-->X, i\\in I of rational actions of the multiplicative group G_m satisfying certain braid-like ...

  15. Automation in biological crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  16. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  17. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  18. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  19. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  20. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  1. Polymorphic crystal structures of an all-AT DNA dodecamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Reyes, Francisco J; Subirana, Juan A; Pous, Joan; Sánchez-Giraldo, Raquel; Condom, Núria; Baldini, Roberto; Malinina, Lucy; Campos, J Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we explore the influence of different solvents and ions on the crystallization behavior of an all-AT dodecamer d(AATAAATTTATT)2 In all cases, the oligonucleotides are found as continuous columns of stacked duplexes. The spatial organization of such columns is variable; consequently we have obtained seven different crystal forms. The duplexes can be made to crystallize in either parallel or crossed columns. Such versatility in the formation of a variety of crystal forms is characteristic for this sequence. It had not been previously reported for any other sequence. In all cases, the oligonucleotide duplexes have been found to crystallize in the B form. The crystallization conditions determine the organization of the crystal, although no clear local interactions have been detected. Mg(2+) and Ni(2+) can be used in order to obtain compact crossed structures. DNA-DNA interactions in the crystals of our all-AT duplexes present crossovers which are different from those previously reported for mixed sequence oligonucleotides. Our results demonstrate that changes in the ionic atmosphere and the crystallization solvent have a strong influence on the DNA-DNA interactions. Similar ionic changes will certainly influence the biological activity of DNA. Modulation of the crystal structure by ions should also be explored in DNA crystal engineering. Liquid crystals with a peculiar macroscopic shape have also been observed.

  2. Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility (APCF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication contains articles entitled: (1) Crystallization of EGFR-EGF; (2) Crystallization of Apocrustacyanin C1; (3) Crystallization and X-ray Analysis of 5S rRNA and the 5S rRNA Domain A; (4) Growth of Lysozyme Crystals at Low Nucleation Density; (5) Comparative Analysis of Aspartyl tRNA-synthetase and Thaumatin Crystals Grown on Earth and In Microgravity; (6) Lysosome Crystal Growth in the Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility Monitored via Mach-Zehnder Interferometry and CCD Video; (7) Analysis of Thaumatin Crystals Grown on Earth and in Microgravity; (8) Crystallization of the Nucleosome Core Particle; (9) Crystallization of Photosystem I; (10) Mechanism of Membrane Protein Crystal Growth: Bacteriorhodopsin-mixed Micelle Packing at the Consolution Boundary, Stabilized in Microgravity; (11) Crystallization in a Microgravity Environment of CcdB, a Protein Involved in the Control of Cell Death; and (12) Crystallization of Sulfolobus Solfataricus

  3. Biodegradation of Crystal Violet by Agrobacterium radiobacter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.K.Parshetti; S.G.Parshetti; A.A.Telke; D.C.Kalyani; R.A.Doong; S.P.Govindwar

    2011-01-01

    Agrobacterium radiobacter MTCC 8161 completely decolorized the Crystal Violet with 8 hr (10 mg/L) at static anoxic conditions.The decreased decolorization capability by A.radiobacter was observed,when the Crystal Violet concentration was increased from 10 to 100 mg/L.Semi-synthetic medium containing 1% yeast extract and 0.1% NH4Cl has shown 100% decolorization of Crystal Violet within 5 hr.A complete degradation of Crystal Violet by A.radiobacter was observed up to 7 cycles of repeated addition (10 mg/L).When the effect of increasing inoculum concentration on decolorization of Crystal Violet (100 rag/L) was studied,maximum decolorization was observed with 15% inoculum concentration.A significant increase in the activities of laccase (184%) and aminopyrine N-demethylase (300%) in cells obtained after decolorization indicated the involvement of these enzymes in decolorization process.The intermediates formed during the degradation of Crystal Violet were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS).It was detected the presence of N,N,N′,N"-tetramethylpararosaniline,[N,N-dimethylaminophenyl][N-methylaminophenyl] benzophenone,N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde,4-methyl amino phenol and phenol.We proposed the hypothetical metabolic pathway of Crystal Violet biodegradation by A.radiobacter.Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity study showed that Crystal Violet biodegradation metabolites were less toxic to bacteria (A.radiobacter,P.aurugenosa and A.vinelandii) contributing to soil fertility and for four kinds of plants (Sorghum bicolor,Vigna radiata,Lens culinaris and Triticum aestivum) which are most sensitive,fast growing and commonly used in Indian agriculture.

  4. Swimming bacteria in liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Zhou, Shuang; Aranson, Igor; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    Dynamics of swimming bacteria can be very complex due to the interaction between the bacteria and the fluid, especially when the suspending fluid is non-Newtonian. Placement of swimming bacteria in lyotropic liquid crystal produces a new class of active materials by combining features of two seemingly incompatible constituents: self-propelled live bacteria and ordered liquid crystals. Here we present fundamentally new phenomena caused by the coupling between direction of bacterial swimming, bacteria-triggered flows and director orientations. Locomotion of bacteria may locally reduce the degree of order in liquid crystal or even trigger nematic-isotropic phase transition. Microscopic flows generated by bacterial flagella disturb director orientation. Emerged birefringence patterns allow direct optical observation and quantitative characterization of flagella dynamics. At high concentration of bacteria we observed the emergence of self-organized periodic texture caused by bacteria swimming. Our work sheds new light on self-organization in hybrid bio-mechanical systems and can lead to valuable biomedical applications. Was supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, under the Contract No. DE AC02-06CH11357.

  5. Elastic constants in orthorhombic hen egg-white lysozyme crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, N; Tsukashima, S; Fujii, D; Tachibana, M; Koizumi, H; Wako, K; Kojima, K

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasonic sound velocities of cross-linked orthorhombic hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals, including a large amount of water in the crystal, were measured using an ultrasonic pulse-echo method. As a result, seven elastic constants of orthorhombic crystals were observed to be C11 = 5.24 GPa, C22 = 4.87 GPa, C12 = 4.02 GPa, C33 = 5.23 GPa, C44 = 0.30 GPa, C55 = 0.40 GPa, and C66 = 0.43 GPa, respectively. However, C13 and C23 could not be observed because the suitable crystal planes could not be cut from bulk crystals. We conclude that the observed elastic constants of the cross-linked crystals are coincident with those of the intrinsic crystals without cross-linking. Moreover, the characteristics of the elastic constants in orthorhombic HEWL crystals are due to the fact that the shear elastic constants, C44, C55, and C66, are softer than in tetragonal crystals. That is, the shear components, C44, C55, and C66, are one half of those of the tetragonal crystals.

  6. Uric acid urolithiasis and crystallization inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Ramis, M; Villacampa, A I; Costa-Bauzá, A

    1999-01-01

    An in vitro study of the inhibitory effects that some substances occasionally present in urine can provoke on the crystallization of uric acid has been performed. The most remarkable crystallization inhibitory effects were produced by mucine at concentrations of >0.5 mg/l. Pentosan polysulfate and chondroitin sulfate also clearly increased the uric acid crystallization times at concentrations of >100 mg/l. Saponins, such as escin and glycyrrhizic acid, also produced a notable delay in uric acid crystallization times at concentrations of >10 mg/l. Similar effects were observed in the presence of a surfactant substance, lauryl sulfate. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine caused crystallization perturbations only when it was present at concentrations of >50 mg/l. Citric acid and phytic acid caused no effects on uric acid crystallization even at the highest concentrations assayed (1,000 and 5 mg/l, respectively). From the results obtained it can be deduced that mainly glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans and surfactant substances can exert protective effects against uric acid crystallization.

  7. Discovery Mondays: crystals and particles for medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Question: what are as heavy as lead, as clear as glass, and appear as tiny specks in a doctor's scanner but large as life in a physicist's detector? Answer: the crystals you will be able to observe in all their facets on 1 September at the start of a new season of Discovery Mondays at Microcosm. Come along and meet the CERN physicists who use crystals not only in their detectors but also in the latest generation of scanners. Four workshops will be organised, each devoted to a different medical imaging technique. The first workshop will be run by a physicist from the Crystal Clear collaboration, who will present her collaboration's special breed of crystals, which emit light when they are traversed by high-energy particles, and explain to you these crystals' role in Positron Emission Tomographs. The second workshop will focus on an imaging technique known as the Compton Camera, also based on scintillating crystals. Crystals worth looking at and admiring. Come to the next Discovery Monday to find out how they ...

  8. Revisiting the blind tests in crystal structure prediction: accurate energy ranking of molecular crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmadi, Aldi; Neumann, Marcus A; Kendrick, John; Girard, Pascale; Perrin, Marc-Antoine; Leusen, Frank J J

    2009-12-24

    In the 2007 blind test of crystal structure prediction hosted by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a hybrid DFT/MM method correctly ranked each of the four experimental structures as having the lowest lattice energy of all the crystal structures predicted for each molecule. The work presented here further validates this hybrid method by optimizing the crystal structures (experimental and submitted) of the first three CCDC blind tests held in 1999, 2001, and 2004. Except for the crystal structures of compound IX, all structures were reminimized and ranked according to their lattice energies. The hybrid method computes the lattice energy of a crystal structure as the sum of the DFT total energy and a van der Waals (dispersion) energy correction. Considering all four blind tests, the crystal structure with the lowest lattice energy corresponds to the experimentally observed structure for 12 out of 14 molecules. Moreover, good geometrical agreement is observed between the structures determined by the hybrid method and those measured experimentally. In comparison with the correct submissions made by the blind test participants, all hybrid optimized crystal structures (apart from compound II) have the smallest calculated root mean squared deviations from the experimentally observed structures. It is predicted that a new polymorph of compound V exists under pressure.

  9. Crystal activation experiment MA-151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombka, J. I.; Eller, E. L.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Dyer, C. S.; Reedy, R. C.; Barr, D. W.; Gilmore, J. S.; Prestwood, R. J.; Bayhurst, B. P.; Perry, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The crystal activation experiment consisted of two sample packages that were flown in the command module and returned to earth for analysis of the radioactivity induced in them during the flight. The objective of the experiment was to define the background caused by detector activation that interferes when gamma radiation is measured in the 0.02- to 10-megaelectronvolt range from earth orbit. Preliminary results show that the activation of the NaI(Tl) crystal was a factor of 3 below that from a similar measurement on Apollo 17. The identification of certain species and the level of activation observed show an important contribution from the interactions of thermal and energetic neutrons produced as secondaries in the spacecraft. That the activation was reduced by only a factor of 3 compared with the Apollo 17 experiment, despite the geomagnetically shielded orbit, possibly indicates more efficient secondary neutron production by the more energetic cosmic rays.

  10. Growth and characterization of strontium tartrate pentahydrate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firdous, A.; Ahmad, M.M. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kashmir (India); Quasim, I.; Kotru, P.N. [Crystal Growth and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu (India)

    2008-10-15

    Silica gel impregnated with L-tartaric acid and using strontium nitrate as the second reactant leads to the growth of well faceted strontium tartrate pentahydrate single crystals.The morphological developmen and internal cell dimensions are observed to be different from the ones reported in the literature for strontium tartrate trihydrate crystals. The crystals are characterized using XRD, CH analysis, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy and thermoanalytical techniques. The crystals are observed to be thermally stable upto about 105 C but thereafter start decomposing and ejecting water of hydration at various stages, finally reducing to strontium oxide. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Anisotropic domain structure of KTiOPO4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urenski, P.; Lesnykh, M.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Rosenman, G.; Molotskii, M.

    2001-08-01

    Highly anisotropic ferroelectric domain structure is observed in KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystals reversed by low electric field. The applied Miller-Weinreich model for sidewise motion of domain walls indicates that this anisotropy results from the peculiarities of KTP crystal lattice. The domain nuclei of dozen nanometer size, imaged by atomic force microscopy method, demonstrate regular hexagonal forms. The orientation of domain walls of the elementary nuclei coincides with the orientation of the facets of macroscopic KTP crystals. The observed strong domain elongation along one principal crystal axis allows us to improve tailoring of ferroelectric domain engineered structures for nonlinear optical converters.

  12. Chitosan-Assisted Crystallization and Film Forming of Perovskite Crystals through Biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Chen; Yip, Hin-Lap; Sun, Runcang; Wang, Xiaohui

    2016-03-18

    Biomimetic mineralization is a powerful approach for the synthesis of advanced composite materials with hierarchical organization and controlled structure. Herein, chitosan was introduced into a perovskite precursor solution as a biopolymer additive to control the crystallization and to improve the morphology and film-forming properties of a perovskite film by way of biomineralization. The biopolymer additive was able to control the size and morphology of the perovskite crystals and helped to form smooth films. The mechanism of chitosan-mediated nucleation and growth of the perovskite crystals was explored. As a possible application, the chitosan-perovskite composite film was introduced into a planar heterojunction solar cell and increased power conversion efficiency relative to that observed for the pristine perovskite film was achieved. The biomimetic mineralization method proposed in this study provides an alternative way of preparing perovskite crystals with well-controlled morphology and properties and extends the applications of perovskite crystals in photoelectronic fields, including planar-heterojunction solar cells.

  13. Crystallization kinetics in liquid crystals with hexagonal precursor phases by calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmaja, Sunkara; Ajita, Narayanan; Potukuchi, Dakshina Murthy [Dept. of Physics, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Univ., Kakinada (India); Srinivasulu, Maddasani; Girish, Sriram Ramchandra [Liquid Crystal Research Centre, Koneru Lakshmaiah Coll. of Engineering, Vaddeswaram (India); Pisipati, Venkata Gopala Krishna Murthy [Dept. of Chemistry, Manipal Inst. of Tech. (India)

    2010-08-15

    Design and characterization of Schiff based liquid crystalline nO.m compounds exhibiting hexagonal smectic phases are reported. Crystallization kinetics investigations are carried out in the liquid crystals (LCs) exhibiting hexagonal ordered orthogonal and tilted precursor LC phases by calorimetry. The Avrami theory is referred and results are analyzed. Influence of molecular ordering, structure, and dimensionality of the LC precursor phase on kinetics is studied. Effect of shape and flexibility of the molecule for nucleation and growth processes is investigated. Varying rate of kinetics reflects upon the transit of the system from constant type to independent type of nucleation. The trends in the Avrami parameter b and exponent n suggest sporadic nucleation. Crystal growth is interpreted as heterogeneous permeation of layered domains (or aggregates) formed by needle shaped calamitic molecules. Calorimetric observations at different crystallization temperatures CT and hold time t infer diffusion mediated crystallization. (orig.)

  14. Observation of a truly supercoducting phase in the c-axis conduction of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} single crystal in zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doh, Yong Joo; Chung, Moonkyo; Chang, Hyun Sik; Lee, Hu Jong [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    We report results on isothermal current-voltage (IV) measurements of a Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} singel crystal taken both in the ab-plane and along the c-axis in zero magnetic field. Decreasing the temperature, a bulk zero-resistance state develops in sequence characterized by three temperatures, T{sup c}{sub c}, T{sub g}, and T{sup ab}{sub c}. In the temperature range of T > T{sup ab}{sub c}, the in-plane IV curves are all ohmic. The out-of-plane IV curves show very diverse behaviors; ohmic in the high-temperature region above T{sup c}{sub c}, highly nonlinear with an ohmic tail consistent with the effect of thermal fluctuations on Josephson coupling between Cu-O layers for T{sub g} < T < T{sup c}{sub c}, and a down-turn behavior in logarithmic scale showing a true superconducting state with zero linear resistance for T < T{sub .} This down-turn of the c-axis IV curves is reminiscent of the vortex-glass behavior seen in the in-plane resistivities in an external magnetic field and cannot be explained by the conventional interlayer Josephson coupling model with thermal fluctuation effects.

  15. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  16. Demonstration of Crystal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Joseph P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment where equal parts of copper and aluminum are heated then cooled to show extremely large crystals. Suggestions are given for changing the orientation of crystals by varying cooling rates. Students are more receptive to concepts of microstructure after seeing this experiment. (DH)

  17. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  18. Manipulation of colloidal crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, E.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Colloidal particles (approximately a micrometer in diameter) that are dispersed in a fluid, behave thermodynamically similar to atoms and molecules: at low concentrations they form a fluid, while at high concentrations they can crystallize into a colloidal crystal to gain entropy. The analogy with m

  19. Crystal growth and crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Selected topics that may be of interest for both crystal-structure and crystal-growth communities are overviewed. The growth of protein crystals, along with that of some other compounds, is one of the topics, and recent insights into related phenomena are considered as examples of applications of general principles. The relationship between crystal growth shape and structure is reviewed and an attempt to introduce semiquantitative characterization of binding for proteins is made. The concept of kinks for complex structures is briefly discussed. Even at sufficiently low supersaturations, the fluctuation of steps may not be sufficient to implement the Gibbs-Thomson law if the kink density is low enough. Subsurface ordering of liquids and growth of rough interfaces from melts is discussed. Crystals growing in microgravity from solution should be more perfect if they preferentially trap stress-inducing impurities, thus creating an impurity-depleted zone around themselves. Evidently, such a zone is developed only around the crystals growing in the absence of convection. Under terrestrial conditions, the self-purified depleted zone is destroyed by convection, the crystal traps more impurity and grows stressed. The stress relief causes mosaicity. In systems containing stress-inducing but poorly trapped impurities, the crystals grown in the absence of convection should be worse than those of their terrestrial counterparts.

  20. Crystals in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Bent crystals can be used to deflect charged particle beams. Their use in high-energy accelerators has been investigated for almost 40 years. Recently, a bent crystal was irradiated for the first time in the HiRadMat facility with an extreme particle flux, which crystals would have to withstand in the LHC. The results were very encouraging and confirmed that this technology could play a major role in increasing the beam collimation performance in future upgrades of the machine.   UA9 bent crystal tested with a laser. Charged particles interacting with a bent crystal can be trapped in channelling states and deflected by the atomic planes of the crystal lattice (see box). The use of bent crystals for beam manipulation in particle accelerators is a concept that has been well-assessed. Over the last three decades, a large number of experimental findings have contributed to furthering our knowledge and improving our ability to control crystal-particle interactions. In modern hadron colliders, su...

  1. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo; Beom; Eom; Hokyung; Kim; Jinchae; Kim; Un-Chul; Paek; Byeong; Ha; Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  2. DATA CRYSTALLIZATION APPLIED FOR DESIGNING NEW PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichi HORIE; Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2007-01-01

    It is only the observable part of the real world that can be stored in data.For such incomplete and ill-structured data,data crystallizing aims at presenting the hidden structure among events including unobservable events.This is realized by data crystallization,where dummy items,corresponding to potential existence ofunobservable events,are inserted to the given data.These dummy items and their relations with observable events are visualized by applying KeyGraph to the data with dummy items,like the crystallization of snow where dusts are involved in the formation of crystallization of water molecules.For tuning the granularity level of structure to be visualized,the tool of data crystallization is integrated with human's process of understanding significant scenarios in the real world.This basic method is expected to be applicable for various real world domains where previous methods of chance-discovery lead human to successful decision making.In this paper,we apply the data crystallization with human-interactive annealing (DCHA) to the design of products in a real company.The results show its effect to industrial decision making.

  3. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  4. Function Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Yang, Jing-Hai; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Ba, Nuo; Wu, Yi-Heng; Wang, Qing-Cai; Li, Jing-Wu

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals, which refractive index is a function of space position. Unlike conventional PCs, which structure grow from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants $\\epsilon_{A}$ and $\\epsilon_{B}$. By Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we study the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals. By choosing various refractive index distribution function $n(z)$, we can obtain more width or more narrow band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.

  5. Progress on photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P; Gundacker, S; Hillemanns, H; Jarron, P; Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Meyer, T; Pauwels, K; Powolny, F; Seassal, C

    2010-01-01

    The renewal of interest for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) has highlighted the need for increasing the light output of scintillating crystals and in particular for improving the light extraction from materials with a high index of refraction. One possible solution to overcome the problem of total internal reflection and light losses resulting from multiple bouncing within the crystal is to improve the light extraction efficiency at the crystal/photodetector interface by means of photonic crystals, i.e. media with a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant at the wavelength scale. After a short reminder of the underlying principles this contribution proposes to present the very encouraging results we have recently obtained on LYSO pixels and the perspectives on other crystals such as BGO, LuYAP and LuAG. These results confirm the impressive predictions from our previously published Monte Carlo simulations. A detailed description of the sample preparation procedure is given as well ...

  6. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  7. Liquid crystal on subwavelength metal gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P.; Barnik, M. I.; Artemov, V. V.; Shtykov, N. M.; Geivandov, A. R.; Yudin, S. G.; Gorkunov, M. V. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-14

    Optical and electrooptical properties of a system consisting of subwavelength metal gratings and nematic liquid crystal layer are studied. Aluminium gratings that also act as interdigitated electrodes are produced by focused ion beam lithography. It is found that a liquid crystal layer strongly influences both the resonance and light polarization properties characteristic of the gratings. Enhanced transmittance is observed not only for the TM-polarized light in the near infrared spectral range but also for the TE-polarized light in the visible range. Although the electrodes are separated by nanosized slits, and the electric field is strongly localized near the surface, a pronounced electrooptical effect is registered. The effect is explained in terms of local reorientation of liquid crystal molecules at the grating surface and propagation of the orientational deformation from the surface into the bulk of the liquid crystal layer.

  8. The Crystal Method: Asteroseismology of BPM 37093

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, T S; Kanaan, A

    2004-01-01

    More than 40 years have passed since Ed Salpeter and others predicted that the carbon/oxygen cores of the coolest white dwarf stars in our Galaxy will theoretically crystallize. This effect has a dramatic impact on the calculated ages of cool white dwarfs, but until recently we have had no way of testing the theory. In 1992, pulsations were discovered in the massive potentially crystallized white dwarf BPM 37093, and in 1999 the theoretical effects of crystallization on the pulsation modes were determined. Observations from two Whole Earth Telescope campaigns in 1998 and 1999, combined with a new model-fitting method using a genetic algorithm, are now giving us the first glimpse inside of a crystallized star.

  9. The Crystal Method: Asteroseismology of BPM 37093

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Montgomery, M. H.; Kanaan, A.

    2005-07-01

    More than 40 years have passed since Ed Salpeter and others predicted that the carbon/oxygen cores of the coolest white dwarf stars in our Galaxy will theoretically crystallize. This effect has a dramatic impact on the calculated ages of cool white dwarfs, but until recently we have had no way of testing the theory. In 1992, pulsations were discovered in the massive potentially crystallized white dwarf BPM 37093, and in 1999 the theoretical effects of crystallization on the pulsation modes were determined. Observations from two Whole Earth Telescope campaigns in 1998 and 1999, combined with a new model-fitting method using a genetic algorithm, are now giving us the first glimpse inside of a crystallized star.

  10. Photographic appraisal of crystal lattice growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Concept of creating mechanical retention for bonding through crystal growth has been successfully achieved in the present study. By using polyacrylic acid, sulphated with sulphuric acid as etchant, abundant crystal growth was demonstrated. Keeping in view the obvious benefits of crystal growth technique, the present SEM study was aimed to observe and compare the changes brought about by different etching agents (phosphoric acid, polyacrylic acid and polyacrylic acid sulphated and to evaluate their advantages and disadvantages in an attempt to reduce iatrogenic trauma caused due to surface enamel alteration. Control and experimental groups were made of 24 and 30 premolars, respectively, for scanning electron microscopic appraisal of normal unetched and etched enamel surface and fracture site and finished surface evaluation. When compared with conventional phosphoric acid and weaker polyacrylic acid, investigations indicated that crystal growth treatment on enamel surface caused minimal iatrogenic trauma and surface alteration were restored to the original untreated condition to a large extent.

  11. Nickel-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J A; Arce, R D; Buitrago, R H [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, S3000GLN Santa Fe (Argentina); Budini, N; Rinaldi, P, E-mail: jschmidt@intec.unl.edu.a [FIQ - UNL, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    The nickel-induced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is used to obtain large grained polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates. a-Si:H is deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at 200 deg. C, preparing intrinsic and slightly p-doped samples. Each sample was divided in several pieces, over which increasing Ni concentrations were sputtered. Two crystallization methods are compared, conventional furnace annealing (CFA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The crystallization was followed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations, X-ray diffraction, and reflectance measurements in the UV region. The large grain sizes obtained - larger than 100{mu}m for the samples crystallized by CFA - are very encouraging for the preparation of low-cost thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells.

  12. Twinning of Polymer Crystals Suppressed by Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Ch. Karayiannis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose an entropic argument as partial explanation of the observed scarcity of twinned structures in crystalline samples of synthetic organic polymeric materials. Polymeric molecules possess a much larger number of conformational degrees of freedom than low molecular weight substances. The preferred conformations of polymer chains in the bulk of a single crystal are often incompatible with the conformations imposed by the symmetry of a growth twin, both at the composition surfaces and in the twin axis. We calculate the differences in conformational entropy between chains in single crystals and chains in twinned crystals, and find that the reduction in chain conformational entropy in the twin is sufficient to make the single crystal the stable thermodynamic phase. The formation of cyclic twins in molecular dynamics simulations of chains of hard spheres must thus be attributed to kinetic factors. In more realistic polymers this entropic contribution to the free energy can be canceled or dominated by nonbonded and torsional energetics.

  13. Heralded quantum entanglement between two crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Usmani, Imam; Bussieres, Felix; Sangouard, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Quantum networks require the crucial ability to entangle quantum nodes. A prominent example is the quantum repeater which allows overcoming the distance barrier of direct transmission of single photons, provided remote quantum memories can be entangled in a heralded fashion. Here we report the observation of heralded entanglement between two ensembles of rare-earth-ions doped into separate crystals. A heralded single photon is sent through a 50/50 beamsplitter, creating a single-photon entangled state delocalized between two spatial modes. The quantum state of each mode is subsequently mapped onto a crystal, leading to an entangled state consisting of a single collective excitation delocalized between two crystals. This entanglement is revealed by mapping it back to optical modes and by estimating the concurrence of the retrieved light state. Our results highlight the potential of rare-earth-ions doped crystals for entangled quantum nodes and bring quantum networks based on solid-state resources one step clos...

  14. Crystallization phenomena of isotactic polystyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Peter Jan

    1975-01-01

    In this thesis the crystallization behavior of isotactic polystyrene has been described. The kinetics of the crystallization process and the crystalline structure were studied both for crystallization in the bulk and from dilute solutions. ... Zie Summary

  15. Crystallization kinetics of polydisperse colloidal hard spheres. II. Binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S; Bryant, G; van Megen, W

    2005-02-01

    In this paper we present measurements of the crystallization kinetics of binary mixtures of two different sized hard sphere particles. The growth of the Bragg reflections over time were analyzed to yield the crystallite scattering vector, the total amount of crystal, and the average linear crystal size. It was observed that a particle size distribution skewed to higher sized particles has a less detrimental effect on the crystal structure than a skew to smaller sized particles. In the latter case we observe that initial crystallite growth occurs at only a small number of sites, with further crystallization sites developing at later times. Based on these measurements we elaborate further on the previously proposed growth mechanism whereby crystallization occurs in conjunction with a local fractionation process in the fluid, which significantly affects the kinetic growth of crystallites in polydisperse systems.

  16. Shaped crystal growth of langasite-type piezoelectric single crystals and their physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira; Futami, Yoshisuke; Sato, Masato; Tota, Kazushige; Onodera, Ko; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2012-09-01

    We have grown shape-controlled langasite-type crystals by the micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. Columnar shaped La(3)Ta(0.5)Ga(5.5)O(14) (LTG), Ca(3)NbGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (CNGS), Ca(3)TaGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (CTGS), Sr(3)NbGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (SNGS), and Sr(3)Ta- Ga(3)Si(2)O(14) (STGS) crystals were grown using a Pt-Rh crucible with a 3-mm-diameter columnar die at the bottom. All grown crystals showed high transparency except for the peripheral area and diameter of approximately 3 mm. The chemical phases at the central parts of the grown crystals were identified as a single phase of langasite-type structure and their lattice parameters were almost the same as those of crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method; however, some impurity phases were observed in the peripheral area. In X-ray rocking curve measurements, the grown crystals indicated equivalent crystallinity to the crystal grown by the Cz method. The piezoelectric constant d(11) of the CNGS crystal was 3.98 pC/N; this value is well correlated with those of previous reports.

  17. CRYSTAL Simulation Code and New Coherent Effects in Bent Crystal at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sytov, Alexei I

    2015-01-01

    The LHC crystal-based collimation system is mainly addressed. A CRYSTAL simulation code for particle tracking in crystals is introduced. Its essence consists in both adequate and fast sampling of proton trajectories in crystals which is crucial for both correct description of experiments and quantitative prediction of new effects. The H8 single-pass experiment at the CERN SPS as well as 7 TeV proton deflection by a bent crystal at the LHC are simulated. We predict the existence of dechanneling peaks corresponding to the planar channeling oscillations as well as describe the possibility of their observation at high energies, specifically in the LHC crystal-assisted collimation experiment planned on 2015. An effect of excess over the amorphous level of ionization losses in the channeling mode was also found for the LHC energy. In addition, the LHC crystal-based collimation system is simulated as well as its possible improved layouts with application of a crystal with the cut and multiple volume reflection in on...

  18. Temperature-mediated polymorphism in molecular crystals: The impact on crystal packing and charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Stevens, Loah A.

    2015-01-13

    We report a novel synthesis to ultra high purity 7,14-bis((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)dibenzo[b,def]-chrysene (TMS-DBC) and the use of this material in the growth of single crystals by solution and vapor deposition techniques. We observe that the substrate temperature has a dramatic impact on the crystal growth, producing two distinct polymorphs of TMS-DBC; low temperature (LT) fine red needles and high temperature (HT) large yellow platelets. Single crystal X-ray crystallography confirms packing structures where the LT crystals form a 1D slipped-stack structure, while the HT crystals adopt a 2D brickwork motif. These polymorphs also represent a rare example where both are extremely stable and do not interconvert to the other crystal structure upon solvent or thermal annealing. Single crystal organic field-effect transistors of the LT and HT crystals show that the HT 2D brickwork motif produces hole mobilities as high as 2.1 cm2 V-1 s-1, while the mobility of the 1D structure is significantly lower, at 0.028 cm2 V-1 s-1. Electronic-structure calculations indicate that the superior charge transport in the brickwork polymorph in comparison to the slipped-stack polymorph is due to the presence of an increased dimensionality of the charge migration pathways.

  19. DHS Internship Summary-Crystal Assembly at Different Length Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, L

    2009-08-06

    I was part of a project in which in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor growth and dissolution of atomic and colloidal crystals. At both length scales, the chemical environment of the system greatly altered crystal growth and dissolution. Calcium phosphate was used as a model system for atomic crystals. A dissolution-reprecipitation reaction was observed in this first system, involving the conversion of brushite (DCPD) to octacalcium phosphate (OCP). In the second system, polymeric colloidal crystals were dissolved in an ionic solvent, revealing the underlying structure of the crystal. The dissolved crystal was then regrown through an evaporative step method. Recently, we have also found that colloids can be reversibly deposited in situ onto an ITO (indium tin oxide) substrate via an electrochemistry setup. The overall goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that control crystallization and order, so that these might be controlled during material synthesis. Controlled assembly of materials over a range of length scales from molecules to nanoparticles to colloids is critical for designing new materials. In particular, developing materials for sensor applications with tailorable properties and long range order is important. In this work, we examine two of these length scales: small molecule crystallization of calcium phosphate (whose crystal phases include DCPD, OCP, and HAP) and colloidal crystallization of Poly(methyl methacrylate) beads. Atomic Force Microscopy is ideal for this line of work because it allows for the possibility of observing non-conducting samples in fluid during growth with high resolution ({approx} 10 nm). In fact, during atomic crystal growth one can observe changes in atomic steps, and with colloidal crystals, one can monitor the individual building blocks of the crystal. Colloids and atoms crystallize under the influence of different forces acting at different length scales as seen in Table 1

  20. Shaped Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatartchenko, Vitali A.

    Crystals of specified shape and size (shaped crystals) with controlled crystal growth (SCG) defect and impurity structure have to be grown for the successful development of modern engineering. Since the 1950s many hundreds of papers and patents concerned with shaped growth have been published. In this chapter, we do not try to enumerate the successful applications of shaped growth to different materials but rather to carry out a fundamental physical and mathematical analysis of shaping as well as the peculiarities of shaped crystal structures. Four main techniques, based on which the lateral surface can be shaped without contact with the container walls, are analyzed: the Czochralski technique (CZT), the Verneuil technique (VT), the floating zone technique (FZT), and technique of pulling from shaper (TPS). Modifications of these techniques are analyzed as well. In all these techniques the shape of the melt meniscus is controlled by surface tension forces, i.e., capillary forces, and here they are classified as capillary shaping techniques (CST). We look for conditions under which the crystal growth process in each CST is dynamically stable. Only in this case are all perturbations attenuated and a crystal of constant cross section shaping technique (CST) grown without any special regulation. The dynamic stability theory of the crystal growth process for all CST is developed on the basis of Lyapunov's dynamic stability theory. Lyapunov's equations for the crystal growth processes follow from fundamental laws. The results of the theory allow the choice of stable regimes for crystal growth by all CST as well as special designs of shapers in TPS. SCG experiments by CZT, VT, and FZT are discussed but the main consideration is given to TPS. Shapers not only allow crystal of very complicated cross section to be grown but provide a special distribution of impurities. A history of TPS is provided later in the chapter, because it can only be described after explanation of the

  1. Synthesis of SAPO-56 with controlled crystal size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Feng, Xuhui; Carreon, Maria L.; Carreon, Moises A.

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we present the hydrothermal synthesis of SAPO-56 crystals with relatively controlled crystal/particle size. The effects of water content, aluminum source, gel composition, stirring, crystallization temperature and time, as well as the incorporation of crystal growth inhibitors during synthesis were systematically investigated. The synthesized SAPO-56 crystals displayed BET surface areas as high as ˜630 m2 g-1 with relative narrow size distribution in the ˜5-60 μm range. Nitrogen BET surface areas in the 451 to 631 m2 g-1 range were observed. Decreasing the crystallization temperature from 220 to 210 °C helped to decrease the average SAPO-56 crystal size. Diluted gel compositions promoted the formation of smaller crystals. Crystal growth inhibitors were found to be helpful in reducing crystal size and narrow the size distribution. Specifically, ˜5 μm SAPO-56 crystals displaying narrow size distribution were synthesized employing aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide as Al source, high water content, and high stirring rates.

  2. Thermodynamics, molecular mobility and crystallization kinetics of amorphous griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Deliang; Zhang, Geoff G Z; Law, Devalina; Grant, David J W; Schmitt, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    Griseofulvin is a small rigid molecule that shows relatively high molecular mobility and small configurational entropy in the amorphous phase and tends to readily crystallize from both rubbery and glassy states. This work examines the crystallization kinetics and mechanism of amorphous griseofulvin and the quantitative correlation between the rate of crystallization and molecular mobility above and below Tg. Amorphous griseofulvin was prepared by rapidly quenching the melt in liquid N2. The thermodynamics and dynamics of amorphous phase were then characterized using a combination of thermal analysis techniques. After characterization of the amorphous phase, crystallization kinetics above Tg were monitored by isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Transformation curves for crystallization fit a second-order John-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) model. Crystallization kinetics below Tg were monitored by powder X-ray diffraction and fit to the second-order JMA model. Activation energies for crystallization were markedly different above and below Tg suggesting a change in mechanism. In both cases molecular mobility appeared to be partially involved in the rate-limiting step for crystallization, but the extent of correlation between the rate of crystallization and molecular mobility was different above and below Tg. A lower extent of correlation below Tg was observed which does not appear to be explained by the molecular mobility alone and the diminishing activation energy for crystallization suggests a change in the mechanism of crystallization.

  3. Morphological and optical properties of doped potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enculescu, M., E-mail: mdatcu@infim.r [National Institute of Materials Physics, Multifunctional Materials and Structures Laboratory, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-09-01

    Potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystals doped with rhodamine 6G (Rh 6G) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were grown by solution evaporation technique. Nucleation occurred without the use of seeds and optically transparent crystals were obtained. The grown crystals were characterized by XRD measurements performed on crystals and their powders, optical transmission and photoluminescence measurements. The influence of the dopants on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the KAP crystals was analysed. Dopants do not change the structure of the single crystals while the addition of PVP changes the morphology of crystals from pseudo-hexagonal to rhomb. Three new XRD reflections are observed in all single-crystal and powder XRD spectra and are probably (0 3 0), (0 4 0) and (0 5 0) lines. The UV cut-off and transparency of the crystals are not changed by doping. Dye-doped KAP crystals exhibit a strong emission band centred at 550 nm excited with 480 nm wavelength. For the dye-doped crystals the up-conversion was investigated and its second harmonic origins are proved using photoluminescence measurements.

  4. [Spherical crystallization in pharmaceutical technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné, R P; Pintyéné, H K; Kása, P; Erös, I; Hasznosné, N M; Farkas, B

    1998-03-01

    Physical properties of crystals, such as size, crystal size distribution and morphology, may predetermine the usefulness of crystalline materials in many pharmaceutical application. The above properties can be regulated with the crystallization process. The spherical crystals are suitable for direct tablet-making because of their better flowability and compressibility properties. These crystals can be used in the filling of the capsule. In this work, the spherical crystals such as "single crystal", "poly-crystals" and agglomerates with other excipients are collected from the literature and the experimental results of the authors. A close cooperation between chemists and the pharmaceutical technologists can help for doing steps in this field.

  5. Ultraviolet Photoelectric Effect in ZrO2 Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Jie; WANG Xu; ZHAO Kun; LI Jie; JIN Kui-Juan; HE Meng; ZHENG Dong-Ning; L(U) Hui-Bin

    2007-01-01

    Nanosecond photoelectric effect is observed in a ZrO2 single crystal at ambient temperature for the first time.The rise time is 20ns and the full width at half maximum is about 30ns for the photovoltaic pulse when the wafer surface of the ZrO2 single crystal is irradiated by 248nm KrF laser pulses. The experimental results show that ZrO2 single crystals may be a potential candidate in UV photodetectors.

  6. Crystallization in nano-confinement seeded by a nanocrystal—A molecular dynamics study

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Heng

    2014-03-14

    Seeded crystallization and solidification in nanoscale confinement volumes have become an important and complex topic. Due to the complexity and limitations in observing nanoscale crystallization, computer simulation can provide valuable details for supporting and interpreting experimental observations. In this article, seeded crystallization from nano-confined liquid, as represented by the crystallization of a suspended gold nano-droplet seeded by a pre-existing gold nanocrystal seed, was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations in canonical (NVT) ensemble. We found that the crystallization temperature depends on nano-confinement volume, crystal orientation, and seed size as explained by classical two-sphere model and Gibbs-Thomson effect. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  7. Quartz crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  8. Kinetics of the growth of filamentary KH2PO4 crystals on a seed crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaeva, E. K.; Kuritsyn, M. S.; Noskova, A. N.; Portnov, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    At oversaturations exceeding the inert range end for face {101} due to the presence of admixture Al(NO3)3 · 9H2O, a new phase is observed during the growth of this face in the form of filamentary crystals. Some experimental dependences of the growth rate of filamentary potassium dihydrophosphate (KH2PO4) crystals on the oversaturation have been obtained at different admixture concentrations. The growth of filamentary crystals occurs by the mechanism of two-dimensional nucleation. Their formation is governed by the effect of [AlHPO4]+ complexes in the form of Cabrera and Vermilyea stoppers.

  9. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3 +, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at e...

  10. The effective crystal field potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mulak, J

    2000-01-01

    As it results from the very nature of things, the spherical symmetry of the surrounding of a site in a crystal lattice or an atom in a molecule can never occur. Therefore, the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of any bound ion or atom have to differ from those of spherically symmetric respective free ions. In this way, the most simplified concept of the crystal field effect or ligand field effect in the case of individual molecules can be introduced. The conventional notion of the crystal field potential is narrowed to its non-spherical part only through ignoring the dominating spherical part which produces only a uniform energy shift of gravity centres of the free ion terms. It is well understood that the non-spherical part of the effective potential "seen" by open-shell electrons localized on a metal ion plays an essential role in most observed properties. Light adsorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering and basic characteristics derived from magnetic and thermal measurements, ar...

  11. Spherical colloidal photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Shang, Luoran; Cheng, Yao; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Colloidal photonic crystals (PhCs), periodically arranged monodisperse nanoparticles, have emerged as one of the most promising materials for light manipulation because of their photonic band gaps (PBGs), which affect photons in a manner similar to the effect of semiconductor energy band gaps on electrons. The PBGs arise due to the periodic modulation of the refractive index between the building nanoparticles and the surrounding medium in space with subwavelength period. This leads to light with certain wavelengths or frequencies located in the PBG being prohibited from propagating. Because of this special property, the fabrication and application of colloidal PhCs have attracted increasing interest from researchers. The most simple and economical method for fabrication of colloidal PhCs is the bottom-up approach of nanoparticle self-assembly. Common colloidal PhCs from this approach in nature are gem opals, which are made from the ordered assembly and deposition of spherical silica nanoparticles after years of siliceous sedimentation and compression. Besides naturally occurring opals, a variety of manmade colloidal PhCs with thin film or bulk morphology have also been developed. In principle, because of the effect of Bragg diffraction, these PhC materials show different structural colors when observed from different angles, resulting in brilliant colors and important applications. However, this angle dependence is disadvantageous for the construction of some optical materials and devices in which wide viewing angles are desired. Recently, a series of colloidal PhC materials with spherical macroscopic morphology have been created. Because of their spherical symmetry, the PBGs of spherical colloidal PhCs are independent of rotation under illumination of the surface at a fixed incident angle of the light, broadening the perspective of their applications. Based on droplet templates containing colloidal nanoparticles, these spherical colloidal PhCs can be

  12. Crystals in light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Bart; Freudenthal, John; Gunn, Erica

    2010-05-18

    We have made images of crystals illuminated with polarized light for almost two decades. Early on, we abandoned photosensitive chemicals in favor of digital electrophotometry with all of the attendant advantages of quantitative intensity data. Accurate intensities are a boon because they can be used to analytically discriminate small effects in the presence of larger ones. The change in the form of our data followed camera technology that transformed picture taking the world over. Ironically, exposures in early photographs were presumed to correlate simply with light intensity, raising the hope that photography would replace sensorial interpretation with mechanical objectivity and supplant the art of visual photometry. This was only true in part. Quantitative imaging accurate enough to render the separation of crystalloptical quantities had to await the invention of the solid-state camera. Many pioneers in crystal optics were also major figures in the early history of photography. We draw out the union of optical crystallography and photography because the tree that connects the inventors of photography is a structure unmatched for organizing our work during the past 20 years, not to mention that silver halide crystallites used in chemical photography are among the most consequential "crystals in light", underscoring our title. We emphasize crystals that have acquired optical properties such as linear birefringence, linear dichroism, circular birefringence, and circular dichroism, during growth from solution. Other crystalloptical effects were discovered that are unique to curiously dissymmetric crystals containing embedded oscillators. In the aggregate, dyed crystals constitute a generalization of single crystal matrix isolation. Simple crystals provided kinetic stability to include guests such as proteins or molecules in excited states. Molecular lifetimes were extended for the preparation of laser gain media and for the study of the photodynamics of single

  13. Raman scattering in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.F.

    1988-09-30

    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Crystallization on prestructured seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization transition of an undercooled monodisperse Lennard-Jones fluid in the presence of small prestructured seeds is studied with transition path sampling combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the homogeneous crystallization, clusters of a few particles arranged into a face- and body-centered cubic structure enhance the crystallization, while icosahedrally ordered seeds do not change the reaction rate. We identify two distinct nucleation regimes-close to the seed and in the bulk. Crystallites form close to the face- and body-centered structures and tend to stay away from the icosahedrally ordered seeds.

  15. Molecules in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Mark A.

    2013-04-01

    Hirshfeld surface analysis has developed from the serendipitous discovery of a novel partitioning of the crystal electron density into discrete molecular fragments, to a suite of computational tools used widely for the identification, analysis and discussion of intermolecular interactions in molecular crystals. The relationship between the Hirshfeld surface and very early ideas on the internal structure of crystals is outlined, and applications of Hirshfeld surface analysis are presented for three molecules of historical importance in the development of modern x-ray crystallography: hexamethylbenzene, hexamethylenetetramine and diketopiperazine.

  16. Maintenance of supersaturation II: indomethacin crystal growth kinetics versus degree of supersaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhaval D; Anderson, Bradley D

    2013-05-01

    This study compares the kinetics of crystal growth of indomethacin from supersaturated suspensions at varying degrees of supersaturation (2 ≤ S ≥ 9) in the presence of seed crystals of the γ-form of indomethacin, the lowest energy polymorph. At high S (6 ≤ S ≥ 9), the crystal growth was first order with rate coefficients (kG ) that were nearly constant and consistent with the value predicted for bulk-diffusion control. At lower S (supersaturation suggesting that a higher energy surface layer was deposited on the γ-form seed crystals during crystal growth. When growth experiments were repeated at low S in the presence of indomethacin seed crystals isolated from a previous crystal growth experiment (i.e., seed crystals having higher energy surface), kG matched the higher values observed for bulk diffusion-controlled crystal growth. Crystal growth experiments were also conducted at S supersaturation during oral absorption. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Morphology and Growth of Methyl Stearate as a Function of Crystallization Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, DM; Roberts, KJ; Muller, FL; Thomas, D.; More, I; Lewtas, K

    2017-01-01

    In situ studies of methyl stearate growing from supersaturated n-dodecane, kerosene, and toluene solutions reveal strong evidence that solvent choice influences the crystal morphology and crystal growth kinetics. Crystals with similar habit are observed in all solvents, with the exception of lower supersaturations in kerosene, where a less symmetric morphology was observed. BFDH analysis based on the monoclinic C2 crystal structure of methyl stearate yielded the morphological indexation to be...

  18. The Crystal Hotel: A Microfluidic Approach to Biomimetic Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiuqing; Wang, Yun-Wei; Ihli, Johannes; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Li, Shunbo; Walshaw, Richard; Chen, Li; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2015-12-02

    A "crystal hotel" microfluidic device that allows crystal growth in confined volumes to be studied in situ is used to produce large calcite single crystals with predefined crystallographic orientation, microstructure, and shape by control of the detailed physical environment, flow, and surface chemistry. This general approach can be extended to form technologically important, nanopatterned single crystals.

  19. Reversible crystal-to-amorphous-to-crystal phase transition and a large magnetocaloric effect in a spongelike metal organic framework material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chong-Bin; Chen, Rui-Ping; He, Chao; Li, Wei-Jin; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Du, Shao-Wu

    2014-02-21

    Reversible crystal-to-amorphous-to-crystal phase transition accompanied by changes in magnetic and NLO properties was first observed in a rigid non-porous spongelike MOF material. The crystal phase exhibits a high magnetocaloric effect, while the amorphous phase has potential application as a magnetic DMF sensor.

  20. Crystallization Growth of Single Crystal Cu by ContinuousCasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Crystallization growth of single-crystal Cu by continuous casting has been investigated using selfdesigned horizontal continuous casting equipment and XRD. Experimental results showed that the crystallization plane of (311), (220) and (111) were eliminated sequentially in evolutionary process. The final growth plane of crystal was (200), the direction of crystallization was [100],the growth direction of both sides of the rod inclined to axis, and the degree of deviation of direction [100] from the crystal axis was less than 10. In order to produce high quality single crystal, the solid-liquid interface morphology must be smooth, even be planar.

  1. Cooperative dynamics in ultrasoft 2D crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprakel, Joris; van der Meer, Berend; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2015-03-01

    The creation, annihilation, and diffusion of defects in crystal lattices play an important role during crystal melting and deformation. Although it is well understood how defects form and react when crystals are subjected to external stresses, it remains unclear how crystals cope with internal stresses. We report a study in which we create a highly localized internal stress, by means of optical tweezing, in a crystal formed from micrometer-sized colloidal spheres and directly observe how the solid reacts using microscopy. We find that, even though the excitation is highly localized, a collective dance of colloidal particles results; these collective modes take the form of closed rings or open-ended strings, depending on the sequence of events which nucleate the rearrangements. Surprisingly, we find from Brownian Dynamics simulations that these cooperative dynamics are thermally-activated modes inherent to the crystal, and can even occur through a single, sufficiently large thermal fluctuation, resulting in the irreversible displacement of 100s of particles from their lattice sites.

  2. Deformations of crystal frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Borcea, Ciprian S

    2011-01-01

    We apply our deformation theory of periodic bar-and-joint frameworks to tetrahedral crystal structures. The deformation space is investigated in detail for frameworks modelled on quartz, cristobalite and tridymite.

  3. Shaping Crystals using Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Mackiewicz, Kristian

    2016-11-01

    Electrophoresis is size and shape independent as stressed by Morrison in his seminal paper. Here we present an original approach to reshape colloidal crystals using an electric field as a carving tool.

  4. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  5. Crystal Structures of Furazanes

    OpenAIRE

    Klapötke, Thomas; Schmid, Philipp; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Several nitrogen-rich salts of 3-nitramino-4-nitrofurazane and dinitraminoazoxyfurazane were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The crystal structures were determined by low temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover the sensitivities toward thermal and mechanical stimuli were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and BAM (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung) methods. The standard enthalpies of formation were calculated for all...

  6. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  7. Using crystal zoning to track crystal mush differentiation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, M.

    2010-12-01

    Exposed plutonic rocks contain clues to the differentiation and fractionation processes that may be operating beneath currently active volcanoes. There is potential to gain insights into phenomena including crystal fractionation, the movement of evolved fluids within a porous crystal mush, the extraction of late-stage melts, and the formation of precious metal deposits. In layered intrusions, attention has commonly focused on bulk magma differentiation, with the differentiation of interstitial liquids remaining in the mush being relatively neglected. However, μm-scale study of minor element zonation in intercumulus overgrowths and interstitial phases can help to understand the intricacies of crystal mush processes. By studying very slowly diffusing elements or components (such as TiO2 or anorthite content) it is possible to essentially eliminate problems relating to diffusive equilibration during prolonged slow cooling, and infer the evolving composition of the residual liquid. For layered intrusions, insights into crystal mush differentiation mechanisms can be obtained by comparing interstitial zoning profiles with the cryptic chemical changes that are observed in primocrysts with increasing stratigraphic height. The Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, formed from essentially a single pulse of magma that solidified by near-perfect fractional crystallisation. The anorthite content (XAn) of the plagioclase primocrysts decreases monotonically with increasing stratigraphic height, as a result of crystallisation at lower temperatures and from increasingly evolved liquids. Ti contents of plagioclase increase systematically with stratigraphic height until cumulus Fe-Ti oxides appear, and then decrease as a result of falling liquid TiO2. However, interstitial Ti zoning follows different trends, which demonstrates that the interstitial and bulk liquids undergo very different liquid lines of descent. Distinct compositional trends develop adjacent to fine-grained, mafic

  8. Building a crystal palace

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The end-caps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) take shape as the first quadrant was completed on Wednesday 3 October. 1831 crystals, organised into five by five blocks named ‘supercrystals’, make up the first quadrant of Dee 1.With the 61,200-crystal barrel of its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) complete, CMS is now building the endcaps, on the tenth anniversary of their initial design. Crystals for the endcaps were the last to be made, so the race is now on to have them all in place and ready for the turn-on of the LHC next year. Assembly of the first of eight quadrants began in June and crystal mounting was completed on Wednesday 3 October. Each crystal is transparent, has a volume just larger than a CERN coffee cup yet weighs a huge 1.5kg. 1831 of these lead tungstate crystals went into the first quadrant from a total 14,648 in the endcaps. The lead and tungsten account for 86% of each crystal’s weight, but as project leader Dave Cockerill expl...

  9. High-throughput crystallization screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarina, Tatiana; Xu, Xiaohui; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    Protein structure determination by X-ray crystallography is dependent on obtaining a single protein crystal suitable for diffraction data collection. Due to this requirement, protein crystallization represents a key step in protein structure determination. The conditions for protein crystallization have to be determined empirically for each protein, making this step also a bottleneck in the structure determination process. Typical protein crystallization practice involves parallel setup and monitoring of a considerable number of individual protein crystallization experiments (also called crystallization trials). In these trials the aliquots of purified protein are mixed with a range of solutions composed of a precipitating agent, buffer, and sometimes an additive that have been previously successful in prompting protein crystallization. The individual chemical conditions in which a particular protein shows signs of crystallization are used as a starting point for further crystallization experiments. The goal is optimizing the formation of individual protein crystals of sufficient size and quality to make them suitable for diffraction data collection. Thus the composition of the primary crystallization screen is critical for successful crystallization.Systematic analysis of crystallization experiments carried out on several hundred proteins as part of large-scale structural genomics efforts allowed the optimization of the protein crystallization protocol and identification of a minimal set of 96 crystallization solutions (the "TRAP" screen) that, in our experience, led to crystallization of the maximum number of proteins.

  10. Crystal growth and optical properties of 4-aminobenzophenone (ABP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengdong; Wu, Baichang; Su, Genbo; Huang, Gongfan

    1997-02-01

    Bulk crystals of 4-aminobenzophenone (ABP) were grown from organic solution. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray analysis. The refractive indices were determined by the method of prism minimum deviation. Some effective nonlinear-optical coefficients deff were measured. A blue second-harmonic emission with wavelengths of 433 and 460 nm were observed during laser diode pumping.

  11. Cross-twinning model of fcc crystal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, van de Benjamin W.

    1996-01-01

    The theory developed in 1960 by Wagner, Hamilton and Seidensticker (WHS-theory) to explain observed crystal growth phenomena in Ge is critically reviewed and shown to be capable of explaining preservation of ABC stacking order in two dimensions in fcc crystals of effectively spherical closed shell m

  12. Degeneracy and Split of Defect States in Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓琴; 崔一平

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional photonic crystals with two or more structural defects are studied. We observed an interesting characteristic of transmission band structure of photonic crystals with defects using the transmission-matrixmethod simulation. The transmission states in the wide photonic band gap caused by defects revealdegeneracy and split in certain conditions. Every split state is contributed by coupling of all defects in a photonic crystal.Using the tight-binding method, we obtain an approximate analytic expression for the split frequency of photonic crystals with two structural defects.

  13. Discovery of Reversible Crystallization of Macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Bernhard

    2004-03-01

    For 10 years "reversing melting" was observed with temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry, TMDSC. This reversing melting is the first harmonic response beyond that caused by the heat capacity of a metastable, semicrystalline macromolecular sample. Before one can identify "reversible melting," the calorimeter response must be corrected for loss of linearity, stationarity, frequency, amplitude, and instrument lag, or proper experiment-design must avoid these problems. Using quasi-isothermal TMDSC, the following observations were made [Prog. Polymer Sci. 28 (2003) 383-450]: Equilibrium crystals of polymers may melt at the equilibrium melting-temperature, but crystallization needs supercooling, even in the presence of crystal nuclei, making the overall process irreversible. Metastable, folded-chain crystals of the same molecules also melt irreversibly, however, may have some specific reversibility. Flexible, linear molecules of up to 10 nm length may melt fully reversibly. Macromolecules of less flexibility may lose the ability to melt reversibly. Decoupling of molecular segments, molecular nucleation, segregation of molar masses, rigid amorphous fractions, effects of equilibrium point defects in crystals and glasses, and transition-less ordering and solidification will be discussed in some detail. Supported by NSF, Polymers Program, DMR-0312233, and the Div. of Mat. Sci., BES, of DOE at ORNL, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE-AC05-00OR22725.

  14. Absolute activity determination of CaWO{sub 4} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, Andrea; Ertl, Andreas; Guetlein, Achim; Lanfranchi, Jean-Come; Potzel, Walter; Roth, Sabine; Simon, Daniel; Scholl, Stephan; Sivers, Moritz von; Strauss, Raimund; Wawoczny, Stephan; Willers, Michael; Wuestrich, Marc; Zoeller, Andreas [TU Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, E15, Garching (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The direct Dark Matter search experiment CRESST uses CaWO{sub 4} single crystals as targets for possible WIMP recoils. A particle interaction in the crystal produces phonons as well as scintillation light. As the light signal is dependent on the kind of interacting particle, a particle discrimination on an event-by-event basis is feasible. The observed background is mainly due to intrinsic radioactive impurities of the CaWO{sub 4} target. An activity of this intrinsic contamination can be determined with the investigation of α-decays in the crystal. Up to now, CaWO{sub 4} crystals were produced by suppliers in Russia and Ukraine. Since 2011 we are able to grow CaWO{sub 4} crystals in a Czochralski furnace installed in the crystal laboratory of TU Munich, which has the advantage to better meet the requirements of CRESST and to ensure the availability of CaWO{sub 4} crystals for the successive future multi-material experiment EURECA. To check the radiopurity, first self-grown crystals were investigated in test measurements. In this talk we will present the results for absolute α-activities of self-grown crystals and compare them to α-activities of the crystals installed in the last CRESST run (Run32).

  15. Phase Relationship in Phenol-Insulin Crystal Growth System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁栋材; 宋浪舟; 万柱礼; 常文瑞

    1994-01-01

    Based on the crystal growth system of rhombohedral 2Zn-insulin,the phase transition ofinsulin crystals has been investigated with the phenol concentration as an independent component.The dia-gram of the phase relationship in this crystal growth system was established,and two points of phase transi-tion were found.The transition point Ⅰ indicates the phase transition between rhombohedral 2Zn-insulin crys-tal and rhombohedral 4Zn-insulin crystal,and these two phases coexist within a narrow region of phenol con-centration (0.028%-0.029% (g/ml)).Point Ⅱ at 0.76%-0.77% (g/ml) of phenol concentration showsthe phase transition between rhombohcdral crystal and monoclinic crystals,and a new phase of monocliniccrystal (B-form monoclinic insulin crystal) has been observed.This paper reports the diagram of phase rela-tionship obtained from our experiments,and analyses and discusses the dependence of phase transition of in-sulin crystals on phenol concentration in crystal growth system.

  16. Effects of Degree of Enzymatic Interesterification on the Physical Properties of Margarine Fats: Solid Fat Content, Crystallization Behavior, Crystal Morphology, and Crystal Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Smith, Paul; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    In this study enzymatic-interesterified margarine fats with different conversion degrees were produced in a packed-bed reactor. The effects of conversion degree on the formation of free fatty acids and diacyglycerols, solid fat content, crystallization behavior, microstructure, and crystal network...... was observed for both the blend and products. Isothermal crystallization kinetics was characterized by the Fisher- Turnbull model. The highest free energy was observed for the blend. A small deformation with oscillation tests shows a significant difference between the blend and interesterified products...

  17. Design and optimization of production parameters for boric acid crystals with the crystallization process in an MSMPR crystallizer using FBRM® and PVM® technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutluay, Sinan; Şahin, Ömer; Ceyhan, A. Abdullah; İzgi, M. Sait

    2017-06-01

    In crystallization studies, newly developed technologies, such as Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM) and Particle Vision and Measurement (PVM) are applied for determining on-line monitoring of a representation of the Chord Length Distribution (CLD) and observe the photographs of crystals respectively; moreover recently they are widely used. Properly installed, the FBRM ensures on-line determination of the CLD, which is statistically associated to the Crystal Size Distribution (CSD). In industrial crystallization, CSD and mean crystal size as well as external habit and internal structure are important characteristics for further use of the crystals. In this paper, the effect of residence time, stirring speed, feeding rate, supersaturation level and the polyelectrolytes such as anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) and non-ionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) on the CLD as well as the shape of boric acid crystals were investigated by using the FBRM G600 and the PVM V819 probes respectively in an MSMPR (Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal) crystallizer. The CSD and kinetic data were determined experimentally using continuous MSMPR crystallizer running at steady state. The population density of nuclei, the nucleation rate and the growth rate were determined from the experimental population balance distribution when the steady state was reached.

  18. Light scattering from macromolecular systems: Molecular crystals and polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, E. R.

    1981-11-01

    The research objectives were to: (1) characterize phase transitions theoretically and experimentally in molecular crystal systems; (2) use the above understanding gained by light scattering studies and theoretical interpretation to apply to the more complex system of lyotropic liquid crystals; and (3) then apply knowledge gained on the model systems of increasing complexity to polymer liquid crystals and solid polymers as observed by laser light scattering techniques. Systems experimentally and theoretically discussed are: trioxane, triazine, benzil, and chloranil. Studies of lyotropic liquid crystals (sodium decyl sulfate, sodium sulfate, decanol, water) have progressed. The major findings are: a number of phase transitions occur between 20 and 60 C; these transitions evidence strong critical behavior and long correlation times for fluctuations; and liquid crystals can be studied by light scattering. Spectra of solid powders, ribbons, and liquid crystals of PBT and solid PBO were obtained.

  19. Growth and characterization of DAST crystal with large-thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lifeng; Teng, Bing; Zhong, Degao; Hao, Lun; Sun, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Highly nonlinear optical 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4-N-methyl stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) crystals with large surface and thickness was grown by the slope nucleation technology with slow-cooling in a high concentration solution. The structure and composition of the crystal were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of the crystal was characterized by optical microscope. Growth layers were observed on the (001) surface and several isolated "island layers" were also found. The mechanism of crystal growth was analyzed. Etching behavior of the (001) and (00 1 bar) faces of the crystal was studied with methanol, respectively. Optical properties of the crystal were also characterized by UV-vis-NIR spectrometer. The dielectric constants and the dielectric loss were tested by impedance analyzer.

  20. Ionic strength and intermolecular contacts in protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ganesh H.; Dasgupta, Swagata; Bell, Jeffrey A.

    2000-08-01

    The ionic strengths of crystallization solutions for 206 proteins were observed to form a bimodal distribution. The data was divided into two sets at an ionic strength of 4.4 M, and knowledge-based potentials were calculated to determine contact preferences at intermolecular crystal interfaces. Consistent with previous observations over all ionic strengths, intermolecular crystal contacts tend to exclude nonpolar amino acids; lysine is the least favored polar amino acid at crystal contacts; and arginine and glutamine are the two most favored amino acid at crystal contacts. However, some aspects of intermolecular contact preferences within protein crystals are significantly dependent on ionic strength. Arginine is the most favored residue at low ionic strength, but it takes second place to glutamine at high ionic strength. Other major ionic strength-dependent differences in protein crystal contacts can be explained by the binding of cations or anions. While others have shown the importance of ion binding experimentally in selected protein crystals, these statistical results indicate that intermolecular interface formation must involve ion-mediated contacts in a large number of protein crystals.

  1. Crystal Growth and Characterization of Ca3NbGa3Si2O14 Single Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Single crystals of Ca3NbGa3Si2O14 (CNGS) with ordered Ca3Ga2Ge4O14 (CGG) structure were successfully grown from stoichiometric melts by conventional Czochralski technique along the a-axis and two large (001) facets and two small (100) facets appear in every crystal. An arrangement of parallel steps and a clear height change were observed in (001) facet by atomic force microscopy (AFM). High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) results indicate that CNGS crystals have good quality and free low-angle boundaries. The crystals also exhibit good optical quality and high optical transmittance in c-direction.

  2. Advanced Crystal Growth Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Hawley-Fedder, R A

    2005-03-01

    Although the fundamental mechanism of crystal growth has received and continues to receive deserved attention as a research activity, similar research efforts addressing the need for advanced materials and processing technology required to grow future high quality crystals has been sorely lacking. The purpose of this research effort is to develop advanced rapid growth processing technologies and materials suitable for providing the quality of products needed for advanced laser and photonics applications. In particular we are interested in developing a methodology for growing high quality KDP crystals based on an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms affecting growth. One problem in particular is the issue of control of impurities during the growth process. Many unwanted impurities are derived from the growth system containers and can adversely affect the optical quality and aspect ratio (shape) of the crystals. Previous studies have shown that even trace concentrations ({approx}10{sup -9} M) of impurities affect growth and even 'insignificant' species can have a large impact. It is also known that impurities affect the two growth faces of KDP very differently. Traces of trivalent metal impurities such as Fe{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Al{sup 3+} in solution are known to inhibit growth of the prismatic {l_brace}100{r_brace} faces of KDP while having little effect on the growth of the pyramidal {l_brace}101{r_brace} faces. This differentiation opens the possibility of intentionally adding select ions to control the aspect ratio of the crystal to obtain a more advantageous shape. This document summarizes our research efforts to improve KDP crystal growth. The first step was to control unwanted impurity addition from the growth vessel by developing an FEP liner to act as a barrier to the glass container. The other focus to develop an understanding of select impurities on growth rates in order to be able to use them to control the habit or shape of the

  3. X-ray diffraction observations of a charge-density-wave order in superconducting ortho-II YBa2Cu3O6.54 single crystals in zero magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, E; Chang, J; Hücker, M; Holmes, A T; Christensen, N B; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Rütt, U; Gutowski, O; von Zimmermann, M; Forgan, E M; Hayden, S M

    2013-03-29

    X-ray diffraction measurements show that the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6.54, with ortho-II oxygen order, has charge-density-wave order in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The dominant wave vector of the charge density wave is q(CDW)=(0,0.328(2),0.5), with the in-plane component parallel to the b axis (chain direction). It has a similar incommensurability to that observed in ortho-VIII and ortho-III samples, which have different dopings and oxygen orderings. Our results for ortho-II contrast with recent high-field NMR measurements, which suggest a commensurate wave vector along the a axis. We discuss the relationship between spin and charge correlations in YBa2Cu3O(y) and recent high-field quantum oscillation, NMR, and ultrasound experiments.

  4. X-Ray Diffraction Observations of a Charge-Density-Wave Order in Superconducting Ortho-II YBa2Cu3O6.54 Single Crystals in Zero Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, E.; Chang, J.; Hücker, M.; Holmes, A. T.; Christensen, N. B.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Rütt, U.; Gutowski, O.; Zimmermann, M. v.; Forgan, E. M.; Hayden, S. M.

    2013-03-01

    X-ray diffraction measurements show that the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6.54, with ortho-II oxygen order, has charge-density-wave order in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The dominant wave vector of the charge density wave is qCDW=(0,0.328(2),0.5), with the in-plane component parallel to the b axis (chain direction). It has a similar incommensurability to that observed in ortho-VIII and ortho-III samples, which have different dopings and oxygen orderings. Our results for ortho-II contrast with recent high-field NMR measurements, which suggest a commensurate wave vector along the a axis. We discuss the relationship between spin and charge correlations in YBa2Cu3Oy and recent high-field quantum oscillation, NMR, and ultrasound experiments.

  5. Molecular Weight and Crystallization Temperature Effects on Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET Homopolymers, an Isothermal Crystallization Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Baldenegro-Perez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET homopolymers with different molecular weight was studied in a wide temperature range (140–230 °C using different experimental techniques. Three different morphological regions, labeled r1, r2 and r3, were distinguished as a function of crystallization temperature (Tc. In r1 (low Tc crystallized samples were characterized by a low crystalline degree with a small spherulite texture containing thin crystals. In r2 (intermediate Tc samples showed medium size spherulites composed of two distinct crystalline families (thin and thick crystals. In this temperature range, the crystallization exhibited a maximum value and it was associated with a high content of secondary crystals. In r3 (high Tc, samples presented considerable amorphous zones and regions consisting of oversized spherulites containing only thick crystals. Time-resolved wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements, using synchrotron radiation, indicated a rapid evolution of the crystalline degree within the second region, in contrast with the quite slow evolution observed in the third region. On the other hand, by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and time-resolved SAXS experiment, it was found that the long period (L as well as the lamellar thickness (lc increase as a function of Tc, corroborating the formation of the thickest crystals in the third region. From all these observations, a morphological model was proposed for each region.

  6. CRYSTAL simulation code and modeling of coherent effects in a bent crystal at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytov, A.I., E-mail: alex_sytov@mail.ru [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya str., 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Tikhomirov, V.V., E-mail: vvtikh@mail.ru [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya str., 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-07-15

    A CRYSTAL simulation code for particle tracking in crystals is introduced. Its essence consists in both adequate and fast sampling of proton trajectories in crystals which is crucial for both correct description of experiments and quantitative prediction of new effects. The H8 single-pass experiment at the CERN SPS as well as 7 TeV proton deflection by a bent crystal at the LHC are simulated. We predict the existence of dechanneling peaks corresponding to the planar channeling oscillations as well as describe the possibility of their observation at high energies, specifically at the LHC energy. An effect of excess over the amorphous level of ionization losses in the channeling mode was also found at 7 TeV.

  7. CRYSTAL simulation code and modeling of coherent effects in a bent crystal at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytov, A. I.; Tikhomirov, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    A CRYSTAL simulation code for particle tracking in crystals is introduced. Its essence consists in both adequate and fast sampling of proton trajectories in crystals which is crucial for both correct description of experiments and quantitative prediction of new effects. The H8 single-pass experiment at the CERN SPS as well as 7 TeV proton deflection by a bent crystal at the LHC are simulated. We predict the existence of dechanneling peaks corresponding to the planar channeling oscillations as well as describe the possibility of their observation at high energies, specifically at the LHC energy. An effect of excess over the amorphous level of ionization losses in the channeling mode was also found at 7 TeV.

  8. Crystallization of inorganic nonlinear optical zinc di-magnesium chloro sulphate (ZDMCS) single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivuselvi, R.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    2017-02-01

    The growth of inorganic zinc di-magnesium chloro sulphate (ZDMCS) nonlinear optical material from low temperature evaporation technique at ambient temperature has been reported. The dimension of harvested crystal is 28×10×2 mm3 and is possess rectangular shape morphology. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that the grown crystal belongs to the system of trigonal. The S-Cl stretching vibrations and Mg2+ ions present in the sample were observed by FTIR spectrometer. The cut-off wavelength of the grown crystal is about 203 nm is found by UV-visible absorption spectrum. The nonlinear optical efficiency was determined by powder Kurtz Perry technique. EDAX spectrum confirms the presence of elements within the material. Dielectric nature of the sample was analyzed for the frequency range 50 Hz to 5 MHz at different temperatures. The mechanical behaviour of the title compound was investigated using Vicker's microhardness tester.

  9. Introduction to protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Alexander; Gavira, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystallization was discovered by chance about 150 years ago and was developed in the late 19th century as a powerful purification tool and as a demonstration of chemical purity. The crystallization of proteins, nucleic acids and large biological complexes, such as viruses, depends on the creation of a solution that is supersaturated in the macromolecule but exhibits conditions that do not significantly perturb its natural state. Supersaturation is produced through the addition of mild precipitating agents such as neutral salts or polymers, and by the manipulation of various parameters that include temperature, ionic strength and pH. Also important in the crystallization process are factors that can affect the structural state of the macromolecule, such as metal ions, inhibitors, cofactors or other conventional small molecules. A variety of approaches have been developed that combine the spectrum of factors that effect and promote crystallization, and among the most widely used are vapor diffusion, dialysis, batch and liquid-liquid diffusion. Successes in macromolecular crystallization have multiplied rapidly in recent years owing to the advent of practical, easy-to-use screening kits and the application of laboratory robotics. A brief review will be given here of the most popular methods, some guiding principles and an overview of current technologies.

  10. Crystal Ball Functional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, David

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the MAinz MIkrotron is dedicated to studying meson production and nucleon structure and behavior via photon scattering. The photons are made via bremsstrahlung process and energy-tagged using the Glasgow Photon tagger. The photon beam then interacts in a variety of targets: cryogenic, polarized or solid state, and scattered particles deposit their energy within the NaI crystals. Scintillators are able to give results on particles energy and time. Events are reconstructed by combining information from the Tagging spectrometer, the Crystal Ball detector, the TAPS forward wall spectrometer, a Cherenkov detector, and multi-wire proportional chambers. To better understand the detector and experimental events, a live display was built to show energies deposited in crystals in real-time. In order to show a range of energies and particles, addressable LEDs that are individually programmable were used. To best replicate the Crystal Ball, 3D printing technology was employed to build a similar highly segmented icosahedron that can hold each LED, creating a 3D representation of what photons see during experiments. The LEDs were controlled via Arduino microcontroller. Finally, we implemented the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System to grab live event data, and a simple program converts this data in to color and crystal number data that is able to communicate with the Arduino. Using these simple parts, we can better visualize and understand the tools used in nuclear physics. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  11. Dielectric behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Arora; Vipul Patel; Brijesh Amin; Anjana Kothari

    2004-04-01

    Strontium tartrate trihydrate (STT) crystals have been grown in silica hydrogel. Various polarization mechanisms such as atomic polarization of lattice, orientational polarization of dipoles and space charge polarization in the grown crystals have been understood using results of the measurements of dielectric constant (') and dielectric loss (tan ) as functions of frequency and temperature. Ion core type polarization is seen in the temperature range 75–180°C, and above 180°C, there is interfacial polarization for relatively lower frequency range. One observes dielectric dispersion at lower frequency presumably due to domain wall relaxation.

  12. Radiation piezoelectric effect in germanium single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.

    1977-06-01

    Irradiation with ionizing particles of a germanium single crystal and uniaxial deformation at right-angles to the particle beam produced an electric field and a corresponding emf due to the radiation piezoelectric effect. Measurements were carried out when such a single crystal was irradiated with ..cap alpha.. particles and protons. The piezoelectric emf increased linearly with the compressive stress and the ..cap alpha..-particle flux intensity. The emf depended weakly on the particle energy. The observed effect was due to the anisotropy resulting from uniaxial deformation.

  13. Study on Purifying Technology of Andrographolide by Supercritical CO2 Secondary Gradient Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-cheng; PAN Jian

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the secondary gradient crystallizing pressure, temperature and time on the purity and crystallization ratio of andrographolide were investigated via single factor experiments. The shape of crystal was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The purity of andrographolide was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was found that the optimized parameters were pressure 14 MPa, temperature 55℃,time 60 min, and CO2 flow rate 15 L min-1, under these conditions the particle of andrographolide was much smaller, the crystal of andrographolide was distributed in floccule on crystal board, with the purity of andrographolide 92.5%, the crystallization ratio 48.9%.

  14. Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, L Ruby; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

  15. Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, L. Ruby; Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

  16. Liquid crystal interfaces: Experiments, simulations and biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Piotr

    hydrocarbon surfaces at the atomic level. I show that the vertical alignment of a rod-like liquid crystal molecule first requires its insertion into the alignment layer. In CHAPTER 4, I investigate the Brownian behavior of a tracer molecule at an oil/water interface and explain the experimentally-observed anomaly of its increased mobility. Following my molecular dynamics simulation studies of liquid interfaces, I continue my work in CHAPTER 5 with experimental research. I employ the high sensitivity of liquid crystal alignment to the presence of amphiphiles adsorbed to the liquid crystal surface from water for potential biosensor applications. I propose a more accurate method of sensing using circular polarization and spectrophotometry. In CHAPTER 6, I investigate if cholesteric and smectic liquid crystals can potentially offer new modes of biosensing. In CHAPTER 7, I describe preliminary results toward constructing a liquid crystal biosensor platform with capabilities of specific sensitivity using proteins and antibodies. Finally in CHAPTER 8, I summarize the findings of my studies and research and suggest possible future experiments to further advance our knowledge in interfacial science for future applications.

  17. Growth and micro-topographical studies of gel grown cholesterol crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anit Elizabeth; Cyriac Joseph; M A Ittyachen

    2001-08-01

    Cholesterol (C27H46O) is the most abundant and best-known steroid in the animal kingdom. The in vitro crystallization of this important biomaterial has been attempted by few researchers. Here we are reporting crystallization of pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals in gel medium. It is found that the morphology of the crystals depends on various parameters. The effect of solvent has been studied in detail. The different morphologies observed are fibrous, needle, platelet, dendrite etc. Micro topographical studies have been made and it is found that the crystals grow, at least in the last stage, by spreading of layers. However, at initial stage microcrystals formed and developed into dendrite or needle forms. These one-dimensional crystals developed into platelets and finally thickened. Further studies reveal that micro impurities play a vital role in the development of these crystals as seen by dissolution figures on the crystals. These crystals are characterized by using the XRD and IR spectroscopic methods.

  18. Physicochemical properties of dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate– p-nitrophenol: A nonlinear optical crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathika, A. [Department of Physics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India); Prasad, L. Guru [Departemnt of Science & Humanities, M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur (India); Raman, R. Ganapathi, E-mail: ganapathiraman83@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Single crystals of Dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate–p-nitrophenol have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Unit cell parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the synthesized compound is crystallized in monoclinic system. Various functional groups and their vibrational frequencies were recognized from the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Thermal stability of the crystal was examined by recording the TGA/DTA curve. The grown crystal has wider transparency nature in the visible region and the lower cut-off wavelength is found at 465 nm. Mechanical property of the crystal was studied by analyzing the Vicker's microhardness measurements. The fluorescence emission from the crystal is observed at 350 nm which arise due to the presence of aromatic ring. Relative SHG conversion efficiency of the grown crystal is about 0.59 times that of KDP.

  19. Growth and characterization of gel grown pure and mixed iron–manganese levo-tartrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Joshi; B B Parekh; K D Vohra; M J Joshi

    2006-06-01

    Several applications of iron tartrate and manganese tartrate compounds are reported in the literature. In the present investigation, we have grown pure and mixed iron (II)–manganese levo-tartrate crystals by single diffusion gel growth technique. Crystals with spherulitic morphology were harvested. The colouration of the crystals changed from black to pinkish brown upon increasing the content of manganese in the crystals. The crystals were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, powder XRD, TGA, VSM and dielectric study. Crystal structures of different mixed crystals were studied. From TGA it was observed that on heating the hydrated crystals became anhydrous and then converted into oxides. Paramagnetic nature of the crystals was revealed from VSM study. The variation of the dielectric constant with frequency was studied. The results are discussed.

  20. Physicochemical properties of dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate- p-nitrophenol: A nonlinear optical crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathika, A.; Prasad, L. Guru; Raman, R. Ganapathi

    2016-03-01

    Single crystals of Dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate-p-nitrophenol have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Unit cell parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the synthesized compound is crystallized in monoclinic system. Various functional groups and their vibrational frequencies were recognized from the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Thermal stability of the crystal was examined by recording the TGA/DTA curve. The grown crystal has wider transparency nature in the visible region and the lower cut-off wavelength is found at 465 nm. Mechanical property of the crystal was studied by analyzing the Vicker's microhardness measurements. The fluorescence emission from the crystal is observed at 350 nm which arise due to the presence of aromatic ring. Relative SHG conversion efficiency of the grown crystal is about 0.59 times that of KDP.

  1. Coulomb crystallization in classical and quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Coulomb crystallization occurs in one-component plasmas when the average interaction energy exceeds the kinetic energy by about two orders of magnitude. A simple road to reach such strong coupling consists in using external confinement potentials the strength of which controls the density. This has been succsessfully realized with ions in traps and storage rings and also in dusty plasma. Recently a three-dimensional spherical confinement could be created [1] which allows to produce spherical dust crystals containing concentric shells. I will give an overview on our recent results for these ``Yukawa balls'' and compare them to experiments. The shell structure of these systems can be very well explained by using an isotropic statically screened pair interaction. Further, the thermodynamic properties of these systems, such as the radial density distribution are discussed based on an analytical theory [3]. I then will discuss Coulomb crystallization in trapped quantum systems, such as mesoscopic electron and electron hole plasmas in coupled layers [4,5]. These systems show a very rich correlation behavior, including liquid and solid like states and bound states (excitons, biexcitons) and their crystals. On the other hand, also collective quantum and spin effects are observed, including Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of bound electron-hole pairs [4]. Finally, I consider Coulomb crystallization in two-component neutral plasmas in three dimensions. I discuss the necessary conditions for crystals of heavy charges to exist in the presence of a light component which typically is in the Fermi gas or liquid state. It can be shown that their exists a critical ratio of the masses of the species of the order of 80 [5] which is confirmed by Quantum Monte Carlo simulations [6]. Familiar examples are crystals of nuclei in the core of White dwarf stars, but the results also suggest the existence of other crystals, including proton or α-particle crystals in dense matter

  2. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  3. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  4. Frequency doubling crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Francis; Velsko, Stephan P.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the production of frequency conversion crystals is described in which a chiral molecule has attached to it a "harmonic generating unit" which contributes to the noncentrosymmetry of the molecule. Certain preferred embodiments of such harmonic generating units include carboxylate, guanadyly and imidazolyl units. Certain preferred crystals include L-arginine fluoride, deuterated L-arginine fluoride, L-arginine chloride monohydrate, L-arginine acetate, dithallium tartrate, ammonium N-acetyl valine, N-acetyl tyrosine and N-acetyl hydroxyproline. Chemical modifications of the chiral molecule, such as deuteration, halogenation and controlled counterion substitution are available to adapt the dispersive properties of a crystal in a particular wavelength region.

  5. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  6. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...... readers with a general interest in photonic crystals, as well as for scientists who are entering the field and desire a broad overview as well as a solid starting point for further specialized stuides. Teh book, therefore, covers bothe general aspects such as the link from classical optics to photonic...

  7. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...... readers with a general interest in photonic crystals, as well as for scientists who are entering the field and desire a broad overview as well as a solid starting point for further specialized stuides. Teh book, therefore, covers bothe general aspects such as the link from classical optics to photonic...

  8. A facile method to assemble PNIPAM-containing microgel photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Xing, Fubao; Ren, Meilin; Feng, Yan; Zhao, Yongqiang; Qiu, Haixia; Wang, Xiaodong; Gao, Chunjuan; Sun, Feifei; He, Yongqiang; Ma, Zhiqing; Wen, Pu; Gao, Jianping

    2009-02-23

    Structural colors: Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) based microgel photonic crystals are fabricated by using a new method called "high-temperature-induced hydrophobic assembly". The assembling conditions affect the water content of the crystals, thus determining their structural color (see image). The obtained photonic crystals are sensitive to solvents, and the reversible changes in their color can be observed with the naked eye.

  9. Effect of borax on the wetting properties and crystallization behavior of sodium sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Shahidzadeh, N.; Lubelli, B.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Borax has been identified as a possible crystallization modifier for sodium sulfate. Understanding the effect of borax on factors influencing transport and crystallization kinetics of sodium sulfate helps to clarify how this modifier might limit crystallization damage. It has been observed that the

  10. Tunable nonlinear beam defocusing in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H; Neshev, Dragomir N.;

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel experimental platform for discrete nonlinear optics based on infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We observe tunable discrete diffraction and nonlinear self-defocusing, and apply the effects to realize a compact all-optical power limiter....

  11. Visualization of Thin Liquid Crystal Bubbles in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C. S.; Clark, N. A.; Maclennan, J. E.; Glaser, M. A.; Tin, P.; Stannarius, R.; Hall, N.; Storck, J.; Sheehan, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Observation and Analysis of Smectic Islands in Space (OASIS) experiment exploits the unique characteristics of freely suspended liquid crystals in a microgravity environment to advance the understanding of fluid state physics.

  12. Crystal growth and reflectivity studies of Zn1–MnTe crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Veera Brahmam; D Raja Reddy; B K Reddy

    2005-08-01

    Single crystals of Zn1–MnTe were prepared by vertical Bridgman crystal growth method for different concentrations of Mn. Chemical analysis and reflectivity studies were carried out for compositional and band structure properties. Microscopic variation in composition between starting and end compounds was observed from EDAX analysis. Linear dependence of fundamental absorption edge (0) as a function of Mn concentration () was expressed in terms of a straight line fit and a shift in 0 towards higher energy was observed in reflectivity spectra of Zn1–MnTe.

  13. Crystallization of DNA-coated colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Ducrot, Étienne; Yodh, Jeremy S; Weck, Marcus; Pine, David J

    2015-06-16

    DNA-coated colloids hold great promise for self-assembly of programmed heterogeneous microstructures, provided they not only bind when cooled below their melting temperature, but also rearrange so that aggregated particles can anneal into the structure that minimizes the free energy. Unfortunately, DNA-coated colloids generally collide and stick forming kinetically arrested random aggregates when the thickness of the DNA coating is much smaller than the particles. Here we report DNA-coated colloids that can rearrange and anneal, thus enabling the growth of large colloidal crystals from a wide range of micrometre-sized DNA-coated colloids for the first time. The kinetics of aggregation, crystallization and defect formation are followed in real time. The crystallization rate exhibits the familiar maximum for intermediate temperature quenches observed in metallic alloys, but over a temperature range smaller by two orders of magnitude, owing to the highly temperature-sensitive diffusion between aggregated DNA-coated colloids.

  14. Microfluidic Flow of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wiese, Oliver; Henrich, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We explore the rheology and flow-induced morphological changes of cholesteric liquid crystal patterns subject to Poiseuille flow within a slab geometry, and under different anchoring conditions at the wall. Our focus is particularly on the behaviour of Cholesteric Fingers of the first kind and of Blue Phase II. Depending on the applied pressure gradient, we observe a number of dynamic regimes with different rheological properties. Our results provide the first insight into the flow response of cholesteric phases with fully two- or three-dimensional director field patterns and normal and planar degenerate anchoring conditions as commonly realised in experiments. They are also of high relevance for a fundamental understanding of complex liquid crystals in confinement and an important step towards future microfluidic applications that are based on cholesteric liquid crystals.

  15. Microfluidic flow of cholesteric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Oliver; Marenduzzo, Davide; Henrich, Oliver

    2016-11-16

    We explore the rheology and flow-induced morphological changes of cholesteric liquid crystal patterns subject to Poiseuille flow within a slab geometry, and under different anchoring conditions at the wall. Our focus is particularly on the behaviour of "Cholesteric Fingers of the first kind" and of Blue Phase II. Depending on the applied pressure gradient, we observe a number of dynamic regimes with different rheological properties. Our results provide the first insight into the flow response of cholesteric phases with fully two- or three-dimensional director field patterns and normal and planar degenerate anchoring conditions as commonly realised in experiments. They are also of high relevance for a fundamental understanding of complex liquid crystals in confinement and an important step towards future microfluidic applications that are based on cholesteric liquid crystals.

  16. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  17. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Dehydroandrographolide Dipolycyclophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The title compound was synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR, H R S I-M S and MS, and its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal is of orthorhombic system (C4oH52O11P2, Mr= 770.76), space group P21212, with a = 22.562(5), b =29.224(6), c = 7.1953(14) A, V = 4744.2(16) A3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.079 g/cm3, F(000) = 1640 andμ =0.141 mm-1. The final R = 0.0758 and wR = 0.1778 for 2794 observed reflections with I > 2o(I).Intermolecular hydrogen bonds are found between the O atom of carbonyl group and H atoms of olefinic carbon. The absolute configuration of this molecule was confirmed by comparison with that of the original material.

  18. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1995-01-01

    During the fifth semi-annual period under this grant we have pursued the following activities: (1) Characterization of the purity and further purification of lysozyme solutions, these efforts are summarized in Section 2; (2) Crystal growth morphology and kinetics studies with tetragonal lysozyme, our observation on the dependence of lysozyme growth kinetics on step sources and impurities has been summarized in a manuscript which was accepted for publication in the Journal of Crystal Growth; (3) Numerical modelling of the interaction between bulk transport and interface kinetics, for a detailed summary of this work see the manuscript which was accepted for publication in the Journal of Crystal Growth; and (4) Light scattering studies, this work has been summarized in a manuscript that has been submitted for publication to the Journal of Chemical Physics.

  19. Photonic crystals as metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinopoulou, S.

    2012-10-01

    The visionary work of Veselago had inspired intensive research efforts over the last decade, towards the realization of man-made structures with unprecedented electromagnetic (EM) properties. These structures, known as metamaterials, are typically periodic metallic-based resonant structures demonstrating effective constitutive parameters beyond the possibilities of natural material. For example they can exhibit optical magnetism or simultaneously negative effective permeability and permittivity which implies the existence of a negative refractive index. However, also periodic dielectric and polar material, known as photonic crystals, can exhibit EM capabilities beyond natural materials. This paper reviews the conditions and manifestations of metamaterial capabilities of photonic crystal systems.

  20. Crystal Structures of Furazanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Klapötke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nitrogen-rich salts of 3-nitramino-4-nitrofurazane and dinitraminoazoxyfurazane were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The crystal structures were determined by low temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover the sensitivities toward thermal and mechanical stimuli were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA and BAM (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung methods. The standard enthalpies of formation were calculated for all compounds at the CBS-4M level of theory, and the energetic performance was predicted with the EXPLO5 V6.02 computer code.

  1. Liquid crystals fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shri

    2001-01-01

    Liquid crystals are partially ordered systems without a rigid, long-range structure. The study of these materials covers a wide area: chemical structure, physical properties and technical applications. Due to their dual nature - anisotropic physical properties of solids and rheological behavior of liquids - and easy response to externally applied electric, magnetic, optical and surface fields liquid crystals are of greatest potential for scientific and technological applications. The subject has come of age and has achieved the status of being a very exciting interdisciplinary field of scienti

  2. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean

    2000-04-01

    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  3. High Birefringence Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Herman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals, compounds and mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropies are reviewed. The mesogenic properties and physical chemical properties (viscosity, birefringence, refractive indices, dielectric anisotropy and elastic constants of compounds being cyano, fluoro, isothiocyanato derivatives of biphenyl, terphenyl, quaterphenyl, tolane, phenyl tolane, phenyl ethynyl tolane, and biphenyl tolane are compared. The question of how to obtain liquid crystal with a broad range of nematic phases is discussed in detail. Influence of lateral substituent of different kinds of mesogenic and physicochemical properties is presented (demonstrated. Examples of mixtures with birefringence ∆n in the range of 0.2–0.5 are given.

  4. An assessment of calcite crystal growth mechanisms based on crystal size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kile, D.E.; Eberl, D.D.; Hoch, A.R.; Reddy, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    was established and maintained during the constant-composition experiments. CSDs having shapes intermediate between lognormal and Ostwald also were generated by varying the initial levels of supersaturation (initial Ω = 28.2 to 69.2) in rapidly mixed solutions. Lognormal CSDs were observed for natural calcite crystals that are found in septarian concretions occurring in southeastern Colorado. Based on the model described above, these CSDs indicate initial growth by surface control, followed by supply-controlled growth. Thus, CSDs may be used to deduce crystal growth mechanisms from which geologic conditions early in the growth history of a mineral can be inferred. Conversely, CSD shape can be predicted during industrial crystallization by applying the appropriate conditions for a particular growth mechanism.

  5. CRYSTALLIZATION AND MELTING OF NYLON 610

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the crystallization and melting of nylon 610. For nylon 610 crystallized from the melt state (260℃), the overall rate of bulk crystallization can be described by a simple Avrami equation with Avrami exponent n≈2, independent of crystallization temperature. With the experimentally obtained Tm0 (235℃~255℃) of nylon 610, the fold surface free energy σe was determined to be 35~38 erg/cm2. The effects of annealing temperature and time on the melting of quenched nylon 610 were also investigated. For nylon 610 quenched at room temperature there is only one DSC endotherm peak DSC scans on annealed samples exhibited an endotherm peak at approximately 10℃ above the annealing temperature. The size and position of the endothermic peak is strongly related to annealing temperature and time. An additional third melting was observed when quenched nylon 610 was annealed at high temperature for a sufficiently long residence time. The existence of the third melting peak suggests that more than one kind of distribution of lamella thickness may occur when quenched nylon610 is annealed. The implications of these results in terms of crystal thickening mechanism were discussed.

  6. Engineering crystal growth of calcium hydrogenphosphate dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikiric, M.; Babic-Ivancic, V. [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Croatia); Milat, O. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Inst. za Fiziku; Sarig, S.; Fueredi-Milhofer, H. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    The factors underlying calcium hydrogenphosphate dihydrate (CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O, DCPD) interactions with several structurally different additives: glutamic and aspartic acid, sodium citrate, hexaammonium tetrapolyphosphate, calcium phytate and polyaspartic acid were studied. DCPD crystals were prepared under controlled conditions by fast mixing of the anionic and cationic reactant solutions and subsequent growth without further stirring in the course of 24 hours at 37 C. The initial conditions were c(CaCl{sub 2}) = c(Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) = 0.021 mol dm{sup -3}, c(NaCl) = 0.3 mol dm{sup -3}, pH{sub i} 5.5. The respective additive was added to the anionic component prior to pH adjustment. Crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, while their morphology was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Miller indices of the crystal faces were determined from SEM micrographs, after the orientation of the most prominent face was ascertained by the Weissenberg method. Mechanism of additive-DCPD crystals interaction depends on size and structure of additive molecule, structural fit between organic molecule and the ionic structure of particular crystal face. Small molecules (ions) specifically adsorb on lateral faces by electrostatic interactions, while macromolecules and molecules with hindered structure specifically adsorb on dominant (010) face, for which certain degree of structural fit is necessary. (orig.)

  7. INTERFACIAL MASS TRANSPORT IN OXIDE CRYSTAL GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ A space high temperature in situobservation instrument (SHITISOI) is dedicated to visualize and record the whole growth process of oxide crystal in high temperature melts and solutions. Model experiments using transparent liquids such as KNbO3,Li2B4O7+KNbO3 were chosen to investigate effects of interracial mass transport in oxide crystal growth. For the scaling of the coupled velocity, heat and concentration fields in KNbO3 crystal growth, a rotating crystal growth process was performed and the widths of interfacial concentration, heat and momentum transition zones (The "boundary layers") are obtained, which are 7.5×10-a, 8.6×10-2 and 4.4×10-1 cm,respectively. Hence one can expect that interfacial concentration gradient will be confined to a narrow layer and in region of major concentration change at the in terface. In order to study a mechanism based on the interfacial mass transport resulting from hydrodynamics, the growth of KNbO3 grain in high temperature Li2B4O7 and KNbO3 solutin was studied. The result shows that the pivotal feature in the KNbO3 crystal growth is the initiated by KNbO3 solute surface tension gra dient which is caused by the slow diffusion of KNbO3 solutes. Direct comparison of the model predictions and experimental observed phenomena demonstrate the predictive capability of this model.

  8. Functionalizing Designer DNA Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard

    Three-dimensional crystals have been self-assembled from a DNA tensegrity triangle via sticky end interaction. The tensegrity triangle is a rigid DNA motif containing three double helical edges connected pair-wise by three four-arm junctions. The symmetric triangle contains 3 unique strands combined in a 3:3:1 ratio: 3 crossover, 3 helical and 1 central. The length of the sticky end reported previously was two nucleotides (nt) (GA:TC) and the motif with 2-helical turns of DNA per edge diffracted to 4.9 A at beam line NSLS-X25 and to 4 A at beam line ID19 at APS. The purpose of these self-assembled DNA crystals is that they can be used as a framework for hosting external guests for use in crystallographic structure solving or the periodic positioning of molecules for nanoelectronics. This thesis describes strategies to improve the resolution and to incorporate guests into the 3D lattice. The first chapter describes the effect of varying sticky end lengths and the influence of 5'-phosphate addition on crystal formation and resolution. X-ray diffraction data from beam line NSLS-X25 revealed that the crystal resolution for 1-nt (G:C) sticky end was 3.4 A. Motifs with every possible combination of 1-nt and 2-nt sticky-ended phosphorylated strands were crystallized and X-ray data were collected. The position of the 5'-phosphate on either the crossover (strand 1), helical (strand 2), or central strand (3) had an impact on the resolution of the self-assembled crystals with the 1-nt 1P-2-3 system diffracting to 2.62 A at APS and 3.1 A at NSLS-X25. The second chapter describes the sequence-specific recognition of DNA motifs with triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs). This study examined the feasibility of using TFOs to bind to specific locations within a 3-turn DNA tensegrity triangle motif. The TFO 5'-TTCTTTCTTCTCT was used to target the tensegrity motif containing an appropriately embedded oligopurine.oligopyrimidine binding site. As triplex formation involving cytidine

  9. Convective Regimes in Crystallizing Basaltic Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A. J.; Neufeld, J. A.; Holness, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Cooling through the chamber walls drives crystallisation in crustal magma chambers, resulting in a cumulate pile on the floor and mushy regions at the walls and roof. The liquid in many magma chambers, either the bulk magma or the interstitial liquid in the mushy regions, may convect, driven either thermally, due to cooling, or compositionally, due to fractional crystallization. We have constructed a regime diagram of the possible convective modes in a system containing a basal mushy layer. These modes depend on the large-scale buoyancy forcing characterised by a global Rayleigh number and the proportion of the chamber height constituting the basal mushy region. We have tested this regime diagram using an analogue experimental system composed of a fluid layer overlying a pile of almost neutrally buoyant inert particles. Convection in this system is driven thermally, simulating magma convection above and within a porous cumulate pile. We observe a range of possible convective regimes, enabling us to produce a regime diagram. In addition to modes characterised by convection of the bulk and interstitial fluid, we also observe a series of regimes where the crystal pile is mobilised by fluid motions. These regimes feature saltation and scouring of the crystal pile by convection in the bulk fluid at moderate Rayleigh numbers, and large crystal-rich fountains at high Rayleigh numbers. For even larger Rayleigh numbers the entire crystal pile is mobilised in what we call the snowglobe regime. The observed mobilisation regimes may be applicable to basaltic magma chambers. Plagioclase in basal cumulates crystallised from a dense magma may be a result of crystal mobilisation from a plagioclase-rich roof mush. Compositional convection within such a mush could result in disaggregation, enabling the buoyant plagioclase to be entrained in relatively dense descending liquid plumes and brought to the floor. The phenocryst load in porphyritic lavas is often interpreted as a

  10. Shear induced orientation of edible fat and chocolate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2003-03-01

    Shear-induced orientation of fat crystallites was observed during crystallization of cocoa butter, milk fat, stripped milk fat and palm oil. This universal effect was observed in systems crystallized under high shear. The minor polar components naturally present in milk fat were found to decrease the shear-induced orientation effect in this system. The competition between Brownian and shear forces, described by the Peclet number, determines the crystallite orientation. The critical radius size, from the Gibbs-Thomson equation, provides a tool to understand the effect of shear at the onset stages of crystallization.

  11. CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF SYNDIOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE STUDIED BY TIME-DEPENDENT LIGHT ATTENUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-ying Wen; Shi-chun Jiang; Yong-feng Men; Li-jia An

    2008-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics of syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) was observed by light attenuation measurements.The initial stages of temperature dependent sPP crystallization fall in the range of Rayleigh scattering and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans scattering. Initial time and growth time of crystallization were obtained, and the trend of crystallization temperaturedependent linear attenuation coefficient on the radius and the index of the refraction of the spherulite were evaluated.

  12. REFINEMENT OF THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF GUANIDINIUM ALUMINUM SULFATE HEXAHYDRATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FERROELECTRIC CRYSTALS, * CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), (*GUANIDINES, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), (*ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), SULFATES, HYDRATES, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL LATTICES, CHEMICAL BONDS

  13. Electrospray crystallization for high-quality submicron-sized crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radacsi, N.; Stankiewicz, A.I.; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Horst, J.H. ter

    2011-01-01

    Nano- and submicron-sized crystals are too small to contain inclusions and are, therefore, expected to have a higher internal quality compared to conventionally sized particles (several tens to hundreds of microns). Using electrospray crystallization, nano- and submicron-sized crystals can be easily

  14. Calcium oxalate crystals in eucalypt ectomycorrhizae: morphochemical characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Satler Pylro

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to evaluate the location of crystals within cortical root cells. Ectomycorrhizal sections were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDS microprobe analysis. The predominant forms of crystals were crystal sand (granules and concretions. Calcium, carbon and oxygen were detected by EDS as constituent elements and similar elemental profiles were observed between both crystal morphologies. All analyzed crystalline structures were characterized as calcium oxalate crystals. This is the first report of the stoichiometry and morphology of crystals occurring in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas in tropical soils. The data corroborates the role of ectomycorrhizae in the uptake and accumulation of calcium in the form of calcium oxalate crystals in hybrid eucalypt plants.

  15. Effect of gallbladder hypomotility on cholesterol crystallization and growth in CCK-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen H; Portincasa, Piero; Liu, Min; Tso, Patrick; Samuelson, Linda C; Wang, David Q-H

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the effect of gallbladder hypomotility on cholesterol crystallization and growth during the early stage of gallstone formation in CCK knockout mice. Contrary to wild-type mice, fasting gallbladder volumes were enlarged and the response of gallbladder emptying to a high-fat meal was impaired in knockout mice on chow or the lithogenic diet. In the lithogenic state, large amounts of mucin gel and liquid crystals as well as arc-like and tubular crystals formed first, followed by rapid formation of classic parallelogram-shaped cholesterol monohydrate crystals in knockout mice. Furthermore, three patterns of crystal growth habits were observed: proportional enlargement, spiral dislocation growth, and twin crystal growth, all enlarging solid cholesterol crystals. At day 15 on the lithogenic diet, 75% of knockout mice formed gallstones. However, wild-type mice formed very little mucin gel, liquid, and solid crystals, and gallstones were not observed. We conclude that lack of CCK induces gallbladder hypomotility that prolongs the residence time of excess cholesterol in the gallbladder, leading to rapid crystallization and precipitation of solid cholesterol crystals. Moreover, during the early stage of gallstone formation, there are two pathways of liquid and polymorph anhydrous crystals evolving to monohydrate crystals and three modes for cholesterol crystal growth.

  16. Calcium oxalate crystals: an integral component of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum/Brassica carinata pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloth, Margaret B; Clode, Peta L; You, Ming Pei; Barbetti, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Oxalic acid is an important virulence factor for disease caused by the fungal necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, yet calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals have not been widely reported. B. carinata stems were infected with S. sclerotiorum and observed using light microscopy. Six hours post inoculation (hpi), CaOx crystals were evident on 46% of stem sections and by 72 hpi on 100%, demonstrating that the secretion of oxalic acid by S. sclerotiorum commences before hyphal penetration. This is the first time CaOx crystals have been reported on B. carinata infected with S. sclerotiorum. The shape of crystals varied as infection progressed. Long tetragonal rods were dominant 12 hpi (68% of crystal-containing samples), but by 72 hpi, 50% of stems displayed bipyramidal crystals, and only 23% had long rods. Scanning electron microscopy from 24 hpi revealed CaOx crystals in all samples, ranging from tiny irregular crystals (Crystal morphology encompassed various forms, including tetragonal prisms, oval plates, crystal sand, and druses. Large conglomerates of CaOx crystals were observed in the hyphal mass 72 hpi and these are proposed as a strategy of the fungus to hold and detoxify Ca2+ions. The range of crystal morphologies suggests that S. sclerotiorum growth and infection controls the form taken by CaOx crystals.

  17. Liquid crystal colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of "Condensed Matter Physics" focuses on the most recent developments in the study of a fascinating soft matter system, representing colloidal particles in a liquid crystalline environment. Furthermore, some articles address pioneering steps in the discovery of liquid crystals going back to 1861 paper by Julius Planer.

  18. Crystal Ball Replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajamian, John

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the Institute for Nuclear Physics of Johannes Gutenberg University performs research on (multiple) meson photoproduction and nucleon structure and dynamics using a high energy polarized photon beam at specific targets. Particles scattered from the target are detected in the Crystal Ball, or CB. The CB is composed of 672 NaI crystals that surround the target and can analyze particle type and energy of ejected particles. Our project was to create a replica of the CB that could display what was happening in real time on a 3 Dimensional scale replica. Our replica was constructed to help explain the physics to the general public, be used as a tool when calibrating each of the 672 NaI crystals, and to better analyze the electron showering of particles coming from the target. This poster will focus on the hardware steps necessary to construct the replica and wire the 672 programmable LEDS in such a way that they can be mapped to correspond to the Crystal Ball elements. George Washington NSF Grant.

  19. Poet Lake Crystal Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS

  20. The Crystal Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…

  1. Computer-assisted Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeister, Joseph J., Jr.; Dowden, Edward

    1989-01-01

    To avoid a tedious task for recording temperature, a computer was used for calculating the heat of crystallization for the compound sodium thiosulfate. Described are the computer-interfacing procedures. Provides pictures of laboratory equipment and typical graphs from experiments. (YP)

  2. The CMS crystal calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lustermann, W

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the energy of electrons and photons with very high accuracy is of primary importance far the study of many physics processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in particular for the search of the Higgs Boson. The CMS experiment will use a crystal calorimeter with pointing geometry, almost covering 4p, as it offers a very good energy resolution. It is divided into a barrel composed of 61200 lead tungstate crystals, two end-caps with 14648 crystals and a pre-shower detector in front of the end-cap. The challenges of the calorimeter design arise from the high radiation environment, the 4 Tesla magnetic eld, the high bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the large dynamic range, requiring the development of fast, radiation hard crystals, photo-detectors and readout electronics. An overview of the construction and design of the calorimeter will be presented, with emphasis on some of the details required to meet the demanding performance goals. 19 Refs.

  3. The Crystal Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…

  4. DIFFRACTION FROM MODEL CRYSTALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although calculating X-ray diffraction patterns from atomic coordinates of a crystal structure is a widely available capability, calculation from non-periodic arrays of atoms has not been widely applied to cellulose. Non-periodic arrays result from modeling studies that, even though started with at...

  5. Simulating polymer liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladon, P.; Frenkel, D.

    1996-01-01

    A model suitable for simulating lyotropic polymer liquid crystals (PLCs) is described. By varying the persistence length between infinity and 25, the effect of increasing flexibility on the nematic - smectic transition of a PLC with a length-to-width ratio L/D = 6 is investigated. It is found that

  6. Crystal Structure of Macrocalyxin J

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shan; WU Bin; SHI Hao; SUN Cui-Rong

    2007-01-01

    The title compound, (1α,6β, 1 1β, 14α)-1,7:6,20-diepoxy-6,1 1-dihydroxy- 6,7-secoent- kaur-1 6-ene-7,15-dione-14-acetate (macrocalyxin J), is a diterpenoid which was isolated from the leaves of Rabdosia macrocalyx and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in orthorhombic, spac e group P212121 with a = 9.3608(8), b = 14.9787(12), c = 15.5750(13)(A), Z = 4, V = 2183.8(3) (A)3, C22H30O9, Mr = 438.46, Dc = 1.334 g/m3, μ(MoKα) = 0.103 mm-1,F(000) = 936, the final R = 0.0532 and wR = 0.1262 for 2252 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). In the molecule, three six-membered rings adopt chair, boat and slightly distorted boat conformations,respectively, while both five-membered rings have approximate envelope conformations.

  7. In situ proteolysis to generate crystals for structure determination: an update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Wernimont

    Full Text Available For every 100 purified proteins that enter crystallization trials, an average of 30 form crystals, and among these only 13-15 crystallize in a form that enables structure determination. In 2007, Dong et al reported that the addition of trace amounts of protease to crystallization trials--in situ proteolysis--significantly increased the number of proteins in a given set that produce diffraction quality crystals. 69 proteins that had previously resisted structure determination were subjected to crystallization with in situ proteolysis and ten crystallized in a form that led to structure determination (14.5% success rate. Here we apply in situ proteolysis to over 270 new soluble proteins that had failed in the past to produce crystals suitable for structure determination. These proteins had produced no crystals, crystals that diffracted poorly, or produced twinned and/or unmanageable diffraction data. The new set includes yeast and prokaryotic proteins, enzymes essential to protozoan parasites, and human proteins such as GTPases, chromatin remodeling proteins, and tyrosine kinases. 34 proteins yielded deposited crystal structures of 2.8 A resolution or better, for an overall 12.6% success rate, and at least ten more yielded well-diffracting crystals presently in refinement. The success rate among proteins that had previously crystallized was double that of those that had never before yielded crystals. The overall success rate is similar to that observed in the smaller study, and appears to be higher than any other method reported to rescue stalled protein crystallography projects.

  8. Crystal thickness and sphere dispersion dependence of the photonic band gap of silica colloidal crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjun He(何拥军); Zhongchao Wei(韦中超); Yongchun Zhong(钟永春); Jianwei Diao(刁建伟); Hezhou Wang(汪河洲)

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results demonstrate that the band gap of colloidal suspension crystal changes with both the thickness of crystal and the dispersity of micro-spheres.As the thickness decreases,a red shift of band gap is observed,and there is a maximum of red shift.The values of the maximum red shifts are dependent on the standard deviations of micro-spheres.The experimental results are consistent with theoretical calculation.As the colloidal suspension crystal is assembled from micro-spheres with a standard deviation of 8.4% in a thick cell,an incident angles independent broadband is observed,which is explained as an amorphous structure.Two amorphous models are discussed.

  9. Crystal growth mechanisms of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    The growth rates of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystals were measured at 30, 40 and 50 °C in the relative supersaturation range 0.55-2.33 in aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of growth were investigated. Spiral growth was found to be the mechanism of growth up to a critical relative supersaturation ( s-1) crit=1.9 at 30 °C. Above the critical relative supersaturation, the crystal growth mechanisms were predicted to change. All growth models fit equally well to the growth rates. No two-dimensional nucleation was observed above critical supersaturation by AFM. On the other hand increased step height and roughness on the edges of steps were observed. It was concluded that the growth mechanism of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystal is spiral growth. A parabolic relationship was obtained below critical supersaturation followed by a linear relationship with relative supersaturation.

  10. Ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Qi-huang; HU Xiao-yong

    2006-01-01

    Photonic crystal,a novel and artificial photonic material with periodic dielectric distribution,possesses photonic bandgap and can control the propagation states of photons.Photonic crystal has been considered to be a promising candidate for the future integrated photonic devices.The properties and the fabrication method of photonic crystal are expounded.The progresses of the study of ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching are discussed in detail.

  11. Subcutaneous crystal deposition in pseudogout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, B M; Round, M J

    1980-11-07

    Aspiration of inflamed periarticular tissues in seven patients suspected of having gout on clinical examination revealed positively birefringent calcium pyrophosphate crystals. The identification of calcium pyrophosphate crystals within articular structures and in the surrounding soft tissues and radiologic findings of chondrocalcinosis, in the absence of identifiable uric acid crystals, emphasize the importance of crystal identification in all cases of probable gout and stress the diagnostic role of soft-tissue aspiration in cases of soft-tissue inflammation, especially when arthrocentesis is unsuccessful.

  12. Intensified crystallization in complex media: heuristics for crystallization of platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Verdoes, D.; Horst, J.H. ter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristics for the integration of fermentation with the appropriate crystallization based in-situ product recovery (ISPR) technique. Here techniques, such as co-crystallization (CC), evaporative crystallization (EC), template induced crystallization (TIC), cooling crystallization

  13. Intensified crystallization in complex media: heuristics for crystallization of platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Verdoes, D.; Horst, J.H. ter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristics for the integration of fermentation with the appropriate crystallization based in-situ product recovery (ISPR) technique. Here techniques, such as co-crystallization (CC), evaporative crystallization (EC), template induced crystallization (TIC), cooling crystallization

  14. Mechanisms for the Crystallization of ZBLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Tucker, Dennis S.; Kaukler, William; Antar, Basil

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this ground based study is to test the hypothesis that shear thinning (the non-Newtonian response of viscosity to shear rate) is a viable mechanism to explain the observation of enhanced glass formation in numerous low-g experiments. In 1-g, fluid motion results from buoyancy forces and surface tension driven convection. This fluid flow will introduce shear in undercooled liquids in 1-g. In low-g it is known that fluid flows are greatly reduced so that the shear rate in fluids can be extremely low. It is believed that some fluids may have weak structure in the absence of flow. Very small shear rates could cause this structure to collapse in response to shear resulting in a lowering of the viscosity of the fluid. The hypothesis of this research is that: Shear thinning in undercooled liquids decreases the viscosity, increasing the rate of nucleation and crystallization of glass forming melts. Shear in the melt can be reduced in low-g, thus enhancing undercooling and glass formation. The viscosity of a model glass (lithium di-silicate, L2S) often used for crystallization studies has been measured at very low shear rates using a dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer. Our results are consistent with increasing viscosity with a lowering of shear rates. The viscosity of L2S may vary as much as an order of magnitude depending on the shear rate in the temperature region of maximum nucleation and crystal growth. Classical equations for nucleation and crystal growth rates, are inversely related to the viscosity and viscosity to the third power respectively. An order of magnitude variation in viscosity (with shear) at a given temperature would have dramatic effects on glass crystallization Crystallization studies with the heavy metal fluoride glass ZBLAN (ZrF2-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) to examine the effect of shear on crystallization are being initiated. Samples are to be melted and quenched under quiescent conditions at different shear rates to determine the effect

  15. Electrochemical deposition of silver crystals aboard Skylab 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Facemire, B. R.; Johnston, M. H.; Gates, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Silver crystals were grown aboard Skylab 4 by an electro-chemical reaction and subsequently returned to earth for comparison with crystals grown at 1- and 5-g. Both the Skylab and earth-grown crystals show a variety of structures. Certain tendencies in structure dependency on gravity level, however, can be discerned. In addition, downward growing dendrite streamers; upward growing chunky crystal streamers; growth along an air/liquid interface; and ribbon, film, and fiber crystal habits were observed in experiments conducted on the ground with solutions of varying concentrations. It was also observed that the crystal structures of space and ground electro-deposited silver crystals were very similar to the structures of germanium selenide and germanium telluride crystals grown in space and on the ground by a vapor transport technique. Consideration of the data leads to the conclusions that: (1) the rate of electrochemical displacement of silver ions from a 5 percent aqueous solution by copper is predominantly diffussion controlled in space and kinetically controlled in 1- and higher-g because of augmentation of mass transport by convection; (2) downward and upward crystal streamers are the result of gravity-driven convection, the flow patterns of which can be delineated. Lateral growths along an air/liquid interface are the result of surface-tension-driven convection, the pattern of which also can be delineated; (3) electrolysis in space or low-g environments can produce either dendritic crystals with more perfect microcrystalline structures or massive, single crystals with fewer defects than those grown on ground or at higher g-levels. Ribbons or films of space-grown silicon crystals would find a ready market for electronic substrate and photocell applications. Space-grown dendritic, metal crystals present the possibility of unique catalysts. Large perfect crystals of various materials are desired for a number of electronic and optical applications; and (4) vapor

  16. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  17. Classical and quantum Coulomb crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, M; Baumgartner, H; Henning, C; Filinov, A; Block, D; Arp, O; Piel, A; Kading, S; Ivanov, Y; Melzer, A; Fehske, H; Filinov, V

    2008-01-01

    Strong correlation effects in classical and quantum plasmas are discussed. In particular, Coulomb (Wigner) crystallization phenomena are reviewed focusing on one-component non-neutral plasmas in traps and on macroscopic two-component neutral plasmas. The conditions for crystal formation in terms of critical values of the coupling parameters and the distance fluctuations and the phase diagram of Coulomb crystals are discussed.

  18. Surface properties of HMX crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, R. Y.; Adicoff, A.; Dibble, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The surface properties of Beta-HMX crystals were studied. The surface energies of three principal crystal faces were obtained by measuring contact angles with several reference liquids. The surface energies and polarity of the three crystal faces are found to be different.

  19. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...

  20. A Few Good Crystals Please

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.

    1999-01-01

    Part of the challenge of macromolecular crystal growth for structure determination is obtaining an appropriate number of crystals with a crystal volume suitable for X-ray analysis. In this respect an understanding of the effect of solution conditions on macromolecule nucleation rates is advantageous. This study investigated the effects of solution conditions on the nucleation rate and final crystal size of two crystal systems; tetragonal lysozyme and glucose isomerase. Batch crystallization plates were prepared at given solution concentration and incubated at set temperatures over one week. The number of crystals per well with their size and axial ratios were recorded and correlated with solution conditions. Duplicate experiments indicate the reproducibility of the technique. Results for each system showing the effect of supersaturation, incubation temperature and solution pH on nucleation rates will be presented and discussed. In the case of lysozyme, having optimized solution conditions to produce an appropriate number of crystals of a suitable size, a batch of crystals were prepared under exactly the same conditions. Fifty of these crystals were analyzed by x-ray techniques. The results indicate that even under the same crystallization conditions, a marked variation in crystal properties exists.

  1. Generation of Absolute Controlled Crystal Chirality by the Removal of Crystal Water from Achiral Crystal of Nucleobase Cytosine

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Tsuneomi; Hakoda, Yuko; Mineki, Hiroko; Suzuki, Kenta; Soai, Kenso

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective formation of chiral crystal of achiral nucleobase cytosine was achieved mediated by the crystal direction selective dehydration of crystal water in the achiral crystal of cytosine monohydrate (P21/c). Heat transfer from the enantiotopic face of the single crystal of cytosine monohydrate afforded the enantiomorphous crystal of anhydrous cytosine.

  2. Chemical etching of a GaSb crystal incorporated with Mn grown by the Bridgman method under microgravity conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaofeng; Chen Nuofu; Wu Jinliang; Zhang Xiulan; Chai Chunlin; Yu Yude

    2009-01-01

    uring crystal growth can be reflected by the observations of etch pit distribution and other structural defects. Suggestions for improving the space experiment to improve the quality of the crystal are given.

  3. Crystal structure of 9-methacryloylanthracene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Agrahari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H14O, with systematic name 1-(anthracen-9-yl-2-methylprop-2-en-1-one, the ketonic C atom lies 0.2030 (16 Å out of the anthryl-ring-system plane. The dihedral angle between the planes of the anthryl and methacryloyl moieties is 88.30 (3° and the stereochemistry about the Csp2—Csp2 bond in the side chain is transoid. In the crystal, the end rings of the anthryl units in adjacent molecules associate in parallel–planar orientations [shortest centroid–centroid distance = 3.6320 (7 Å]. A weak hydrogen bond is observed between an aromatic H atom and the O atom of a molecule displaced by translation in the a-axis direction, forming sheets of parallel-planar anthryl groups packing in this direction.

  4. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  5. Characterization of calcium lactate crystals on cheddar cheese by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, P; Kindstedt, P S

    2008-06-01

    Previous research demonstrated that crystal coverage on the surface of Cheddar cheese can be quantitatively and nondestructively measured using image analysis of digital photographs of the cheese surface. The objective of the present study was to extend image analysis methodology to quantify and characterize additional features of visible crystals on cheese surfaces as they grow over time. A random weight (approximately 300 g) retail sample of naturally smoked Cheddar cheese exhibiting white surface crystals was obtained from a commercial source. The total area occupied by crystals and total number of discrete crystal regions on one of the surfaces (approximately 55 x 120 mm) was measured at 3-wk intervals for 30 wk using image analysis. In addition, 5 small (approximately 0.3 mm radius) individual crystals on that surface were chosen for observation over the 30-wk period. The crystals were evaluated for area, radius, and shape factor (circularity) every third week using image analysis. The total area occupied by crystals increased in a linear manner (R(2) = 0.95) from about 0.44 to 7.42% of the total cheese surface area over the 30-wk period. The total number of discrete crystal regions also increased but in a nonlinear manner that was best described by a quadratic relationship. Measurement of discrete crystal regions underestimated the true number of crystals present at the cheese surface due to merging of adjacent crystals as they grew and merged into a single crystal region over time. Throughout this period, the shapes of the 5 individual crystals closely approximated perfect circles, except when adjacent crystals merged to form a single irregular crystal region, and the area occupied by each of the 5 crystals increased in a near-linear manner (R(2) = 0.95). Image analysis approaches may be used to evaluate crystal formation and growth rates and morphology on cheese.

  6. Time scales of crystal mixing in magma mushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Jillian M.; Bergantz, George W.; Breidenthal, Robert E.; Burgisser, Alain

    2016-02-01

    Magma mixing is widely recognized as a means of producing compositional diversity and preconditioning magmas for eruption. However, the processes and associated time scales that produce the commonly observed expressions of magma mixing are poorly understood, especially under crystal-rich conditions. Here we introduce and exemplify a parameterized method to predict the characteristic mixing time of crystals in a crystal-rich magma mush that is subject to open-system reintrusion events. Our approach includes novel numerical simulations that resolve multiphase particle-fluid interactions. It also quantifies the crystal mixing by calculating both the local and system-wide progressive loss of the spatial correlation of individual crystals throughout the mixing region. Both inertial and viscous time scales for bulk mixing are introduced. Estimated mixing times are compared to natural examples and the time for basaltic mush systems to become well mixed can be on the order of 10 days.

  7. The Pressure induced by salt crystallization in confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarnaud, J.; Bonn, D.; Shahidzadeh, N.

    2016-08-01

    Salt crystallization is a major cause of weathering of rocks, artworks and monuments. Damage can only occur if crystals continue to grow in confinement, i.e. within the pore space of these materials, thus generating mechanical stress. We report the direct measurement, at the microscale, of the force exerted by growing alkali halide salt crystals while visualizing their spontaneous nucleation and growth. The experiments reveal the crucial role of the wetting films between the growing crystal and the confining walls for the development of the pressure. Our results suggest that the measured force originates from repulsion between the similarly charged confining wall and the salt crystal separated by a ~1.5 nm liquid film. Indeed, if the walls are made hydrophobic, no film is observed and no repulsive forces are detected. We also show that the magnitude of the induced pressure is system specific explaining why different salts lead to different amounts of damage to porous materials.

  8. Anisotropic crystal structure of magnetized neutron star crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiko, D. A.; Kozhberov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Although crystallized neutron star crust is responsible for many fascinating observational phenomena, its actual microscopic structure in tremendous gravitational and magnetic fields is not understood. Here we show that in a non-uniform magnetic field, three-dimensional ionic Coulomb crystals comprising the crust may stretch or shrink while their electrostatic pressure becomes anisotropic. The pressure depends non-linearly on the magnitude of the stretch, so that a continuous magnetic field evolution may result in an abrupt crystal elongation or contraction. This may provide a trigger for magnetar activity. A phonon mode instability is revealed, which sets the limits of magnetic field variation beyond which the crystal is destroyed. These limits sometimes correspond to surprisingly large deformations. It is not known what happens to crust matter subject to a pressure anisotropy exceeding these limits. We hypothesize that the ion system then possesses a long-range order only in one or two dimensions, that is becomes a liquid crystal.

  9. Spectroscopic properties and laser operation of Yb3+ : SGYB crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Houping; Ma, Qian; Xu, Qiang; Zhao, Lei

    2017-03-01

    A Sr3Yb0.1Gd0.2Y0.7) single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The crystal was evaluated by absorption, emission, and luminescence decay measurements. The relevant absorption and emission cross-sections as well as fluorescence lifetimes were calculated and compared. Studies showed that the existence of Gd3+ can lead to greater structural disorder and broaden the spectra of the crystal. Diode-pumped laser action of this crystal is demonstrated for the first time, and the best output power of 1.8 W with a slope efficiency of 75.8% was obtained. Dual-wavelength and three-wavelength oscillations were observed. Thus, this crystal is suitable for use as tunable or ultrashort laser mediums.

  10. Rotavirus gastroenteritis-associated urinary ammonium acid urate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tadafumi; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Kato, Eiji; Ohta, Kazuhide; Ishikawa, Sayaka; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Masaki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although ammonium acid urate (AAU) calculi are extremely rare renal stone components, it was recently found that many urinary tract calculi that cause post-renal renal failure in rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis are AAU calculi. The mechanism of AAU calculi development in RV gastroenteritis has not been fully elucidated. We analyzed data from eight RV gastroenteritis patients who transiently had AAU crystals in their urinary sediment. In these patients, formation of AAU crystals occurred earlier than the formation of AAU calculi. No difference was observed in serum and urine uric acid levels between RV gastroenteritis patients with or without AAU crystals. Interestingly, fractional excretion of sodium was extremely low among patients with AAU crystals. These results suggest that the formation of AAU crystals might not be due to excretion of uric acid, but excretion of sodium.

  11. Unstitching the nanoscopic mystery of zeolite crystal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Rhea; Cubillas, Pablo; Stevens, Sam M; Jelfs, Kim E; Umemura, Ayako; Gebbie, James T; Slater, Ben; Terasaki, Osamu; Holden, Mark A; Anderson, Michael W

    2010-10-06

    A molecular-scale understanding of crystal growth is critical to the development of important materials such as pharmaceuticals, semiconductors and catalysts. Only recently has this been possible with the advent of atomic force microscopy that permits observation of nanoscopic features on solid surfaces under a liquid or solution environment. This allows in situ measurement of important chemical transformations such as crystal growth and dissolution. Further, the microscope can access not only an accurate height measurement of surface topography, important to deduce structural elements, but also the forces involved during nanoscopic processes. We have discovered that it is possible to use these features to "illuminate" critical nanoscopic chemical events at crystal surfaces and at the same time extract the associated energies and unstitch the details of the stepwise mechanism of growth and dissolution. This approach has been developed using nanoporous crystals of the heterogeneous catalyst zeolite L; however, in principle the approach could be adapted to many crystal growth problems.

  12. Bonding Energy and Growth Habit of Lithium Niobate Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of crystallographic structure of lithium niobate (LN), the bonding energy was quantitatively calculated by the bond valence sum model, which was employed to investigate the crystal growth. A possible relationship between the crystal growth habit and chemical bonding energy of LN crystals are found. It is found that the higher the bond energy, the slower the growth rate, and the more important the plane. The analytical results indicate that (012) plane is the most influential face for the LN crystal growth, which consists well with the standard card (JCPDS Card: 20-0631) and our previous experimental observation. The current work shows that the chemical bond analysis of LN crystals allows us to predict its growth habit and thus to obtain the expected morphology during the spontaneous growth.

  13. Crystallization-induced properties from morphology-controlled organic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chibeom; Park, Ji Eun; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2014-08-19

    During the past two decades, many materials chemists have focused on the development of organic molecules that can serve as the basis of cost-effective and flexible electronic, optical, and energy conversion devices. Among the potential candidate molecules, metal-free or metal-containing conjugated organic molecules offer high-order electronic conjugation levels that can directly support fast charge carrier transport, rapid optoelectric responses, and reliable exciton manipulation. Early studies of these molecules focused on the design and synthesis of organic unit molecules that exhibit active electrical and optical properties when produced in the form of thin film devices. Since then, researchers have worked to enhance the properties upon crystallization of the unit molecules as single crystals provide higher carrier mobilities and exciton recombination yields. Most recently, researchers have conducted in-depth studies to understand how crystallization induces property changes, especially those that depend on specific crystal surfaces. The different properties that depend on the crystal facets have been of particular interest. Most unit molecules have anisotropic structures, and therefore produce crystals with several unique crystal facets with dissimilar molecular arrangements. These structural differences would also lead to diverse electrical conductance, optical absorption/emission, and even chemical interaction properties depending on the crystal facet investigated. To study the effects of crystallization and crystal facet-dependent property changes, researchers must grow or synthesize crystals of highly conjugated molecules that have both a variety of morphologies and high crystallinity. Morphologically well-defined organic crystals, that form structures such as wires, rods, disks, and cubes, provide objects that researchers can use to evaluate these material properties. Such structures typically occur as single crystals with well-developed facets with

  14. Biomolecular Modification of Inorganic Crystal Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Yoreo, J J

    2007-04-27

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures are an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over materials synthesis. Conversely, the failure to prevent or limit tissue mineralization in the vascular, skeletal, and urinary systems is a common source of disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which organisms direct or limit crystallization has long been a central challenge to the biomineralization community. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for either inhibiting crystallization or initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineralizing surfaces. In particular, biomolecules that present carboxyl groups to the growing crystal have been implicated as primary modulators of growth. Here we review the results from a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling (MM) studies to investigate the effect of specific interactions between carboxylate-rich biomolecules and atomic steps on crystal surfaces during the growth of carbonates, oxalates and phosphates of calcium. Specifically, we how the growth kinetics and morphology depend on the concentration of additives that include citrate, simple amino acids, synthetic Asp-rich polypeptides, and naturally occurring Asp-rich proteins found in both functional and pathological mineral tissues. The results reveal a consistent picture of shape modification in which stereochemical matching of modifiers to specific atomic steps drives shape modification. Inhibition and other changes in growth kinetics are shown to be due to a range of mechanisms that depend on chemistry and molecular size. Some effects are well described by classic crystal growth theories, but others, such as step acceleration due to peptide charge and hydrophylicity, were previously unrealized

  15. What makes polymer crystallization depend on time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccarolo, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Here we report a series of objections to the mechanism of polymer crystallization by secondary nucleation plausible for very mild cooling conditions, i.e. when solidification time is long enough or when the molecular weight, M, is not too large, conditions not preventing segregation at the growth front to take place. With a manichean approach, if otherwise time is controlling, e.g. in polymer processing, or M is large, segregation is precluded and accumulation of topological defects takes place in the amorphous phase preventing sequential growth of crystalline domains. A non crystalline phase forms very much departed from equilibrium, constrained by the crystalline domains and frozen to an extent dependent on the morphology developed. Consequences are discussed, themselves a proof that segregation simplifies topology when crystallization conditions are mild. A situation responsible for the often reported memory effects as well as for mechanical and rheological properties. Results collected from our own experimental evidence by the originally developed Continuous Cooling Transformation are discussed within this framework and related to the broad, albeit often overlooked, literature on subjects intimately connected to crystallization and therefore spanning different fields of polymer science. We focus our attention on two recent results opening the way to this new perspective on polymer crystallization: the onset of the nodular morphology in iPP also in the presence of the stable a-monoclinic phase and the extended crystallization behaviour of polyester blends once local mobility is enhanced. Observing that demixing at the growth front controls crystallization under processing conditions we speculate that the high cooling rate solidification experiment is but a peculiar transient rheological measurement. Implications of this view are far reaching as the crucial role of the melt before solidification is evident.

  16. Observing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    , and analyse how their conceptions of environment are connected to differences of perspective and observation. Results: We show the need to distinguish between inside and outside perspectives on the environment, and identify two very different and complementary logics of observation, the logic of distinction......, and that it is based fully on the conception of observation as indication by means of distinction....

  17. Surrogate Seeds For Growth Of Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Larger crystals of higher quality grown. Alternative method for starting growth of crystal involves use of seed crystal of different material instead of same material as solution. Intended for growing single-crystal proteins for experiments but applicable in general to growth of crystals from solutions and to growth of semiconductor or other crystals from melts.

  18. Twisted aspirin crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Rohl, Andrew L; Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2013-03-06

    Banded spherulites of aspirin have been crystallized from the melt in the presence of salicylic acid either generated from aspirin decomposition or added deliberately (2.6-35.9 mol %). Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and optical polarimetry show that the spherulites are composed of helicoidal crystallites twisted along the growth directions. Mueller matrix imaging reveals radial oscillations in not only linear birefringence, but also circular birefringence, whose origin is explained through slight (∼1.3°) but systematic splaying of individual lamellae in the film. Strain associated with the replacement of aspirin molecules by salicylic acid molecules in the crystal structure is computed to be large enough to work as the driving force for the twisting of crystallites.

  19. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead...... of doping, use a microstructure of air and glass to obtain a refractive index difference between the core and the cladding. This air/glass microstructure lends the photonic crystal fibers a range of unique and highly usable properties, which are very different from those found in solid standard fibers....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...

  20. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    , leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...... nonlinear coefficient and in various applications, it is therefore possible to reduce the required fiber lengths quite dramatically, leading to increased stability and efficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to design these fibers with zero-dispersion at previously unreachable wavelengths, paving the way...... for completely new applications, especially in and near the visible wavelength region. One such application is supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is extreme broadening of pulses in a nonlinear medium (in this case a small-core fiber), and depending on the dispersion of the fiber, it is possible...

  1. Liquid crystal dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar Pal, Santanu

    2017-01-01

    This book covers in-depth discussion of design principles, synthesis and thermal behavior of all types of liquid crystal (LC) dimers. The text presents recent advances in the field of LC dimers consisting of different mesogenic units such as calamitic, discotic and bent-core molecules. It starts with a chapter on the introduction of liquid crystal dimers, including their odd-even behavior, basic classification of dimers and common mesophases in dimers. The text shows how the molecular architectures are being used to develop new materials to study a range of interesting phenomena such as the biaxial nematic phase containing rod-like and disc-like mesogenic units. Finally, the text presents perspectives related to technological relevance of these dimers such as dopants in LC display mixtures exhibiting faster relaxation time, strong flexoelectric coupling and others to effect control over the properties of these materials.

  2. Liquid crystals in tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco-José; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, José; Bermúdez, María-Dolores

    2009-09-18

    Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered.

  3. Liquid Crystal Motion Picture Projector①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYongji

    1997-01-01

    A liquid crystal moving picture projector and method are described.Light incident on a liquid crystal display-type device is selectively scattered or transmitted by respective portions of liquid crystal display,and a projection mechanism projects an image formed by either such scattered light or such transmitted light.A liquid cystal moving picture projector includes a liquid crystal display for creating characteristics of an image,and projecttion optics for projecting images sequentially created by the display.The display includes a liquid crystal material capable of temporary storing information at respective areas.The temporary storage may be a function of charge storing directly on liquid crystal material.A method of projecting plural images in sequence includes:creating an image or characteristics of an image in a liquid crystal material,storing such image in such liquid crystal material,directing light at such liquid crystal material,projecting such image as a function of light transmitted through or scattered by such liquid crystal material,and creating a further image in such liquid crystal material for subsequent projection.

  4. Structural, Microhardness, Photoconductivity, and Dielectric Properties of Tris(thiourea Cadmium Sulphate Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Arthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiorganic nonlinear optical tris(thiourea cadmium sulphate (TTCS single crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. The crystal system, cell parameter of the grown crystal, was identified by powder X-ray diffraction study. The self-focusing Z-scan technique has been employed to observe the third-order nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal. The mechanical property of the grown crystal was examined by using Vicker’s microhardness test. Chemical etching studies were made on the TTCS crystal using water as an etchant. The dark current and photocurrent properties of the crystal were estimated by using photoconductivity study. The dielectric constant of grown crystal was studied in different temperature by varying applied frequencies.

  5. Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Adibi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.

  6. Modern trends in technical crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, G.

    1980-04-01

    Interesting and significant developments have occurred in the last decade in both crystallization equipment and in the theory of crystallization process. In the field of technical crystallization new crystallizers have been developed and computer modelling has become important in scaling up and in the achievement of increased performance. The DP-Kristaller developed by Escher-Wyss-Tsukishima, the Brodie purifier, the sieve tray column having dancing balls, the automated multiple crystallization process due to Mützenberg and Saxer and the double belt cooler, all of which represent technical developments, are described in the first section. The second part of the paper reviews computer modelling of the fluidized bed crystallizer, chemical precipitation, flaking and prilling. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the impact of technical crystallization processes on environmental protection.

  7. Crystallization of undercooled liquid fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstad, Esther; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A

    2015-11-28

    Formulation of hydrophobic drugs as amorphous materials is highly advantageous as this increases their solubility in water and therefore their bioavailability. However, many drugs have a high propensity to crystallize during production and storage, limiting the usefulness of amorphous drugs. We study the crystallization of undercooled liquid fenofibrate, a model hydrophobic drug. Nucleation is the rate-limiting step; once seeded with a fenofibrate crystal, the crystal rapidly grows by consuming the undercooled liquid fenofibrate. Crystal growth is limited by the incorporation of molecules into its surface. As nucleation and growth both entail incorporation of molecules into the surface, this process likely also limits the formation of nuclei and thus the crystallization of undercooled liquid fenofibrate, contributing to the good stability of undercooled liquid fenofibrate against crystallization.

  8. Crystalizing the Spinon Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayashiki, Atsushi; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    1995-01-01

    The quasi-particle structure of the higher spin XXZ model is studied. We obtained a new description of crystals associated with the level $k$ integrable highest weight $U_q(\\widehat{sl_2})$ modules in terms of the creation operators at $q=0$ (the crystaline spinon basis). The fermionic character formulas and the Yangian structure of those integrable modules naturally follow from this description. We have also derived the conjectural formulas for the multi quasi-particle states at $q=0$.

  9. Photonic crystal optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2011-06-01

    After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

  10. Textures of liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dierking, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    A unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of the texture of liquid crystals, providing not just detailed information on texture formation and determination, but also an in-depth discussion of different characterization methods. Experts as well as graduates entering the field will find all the information they need in this handbook, while the magnitude of the color images make it valuable hands-on-reference.

  11. Crystals against cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    This is a remarkable example of direct technology transfer from particle physics to medicine. Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new medical imaging system for the diagnosis of breast cancer, which uses positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  12. Crystallization and evaluation of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals for protein pH titration in the crystalline state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Wakari; Yagi, Daichi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Ohnishi, Yuki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-05-01

    To observe the ionized status of the amino acid residues in proteins at different pH (protein pH titration in the crystalline state) by neutron diffraction, hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5-8.0). Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined. At pH diagram, and at pH > 4.5 the border shifted to the right (higher precipitant concentration). The qualities of these crystals were characterized using the Wilson plot method. The qualities of all crystals at different pH were more or less equivalent (B-factor values within 25-40). It is expected that neutron diffraction analysis of these crystals of different pH provides equivalent data in quality for discussions of protein pH titration in the crystalline state of hen egg-white lysozyme.

  13. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxamusa, S H

    2011-11-16

    We are using a Qpod quartz crystal microbalance (manufactured by Inficon) for use as a low-volume non-volatile residue analysis tool. Inficon has agreed to help troubleshoot some of our measurements and are requesting to view some sample data, which are attached. The basic principle of an NVR analysis is to evaporate a known volume of solvent, and weigh the remaining residue to determine the purity of the solvent. A typical NVR analysis uses 60 g of solvent and can measure residue with an accuracy of +/- 0.01 mg. The detection limit is thus (0.01 mg)/(60 g) = 0.17 ppm. We are attempting to use a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to make a similar measurement. The attached data show the response of the QCM as a 5-20 mg drop of solvent evaporates on its surface. The change in mass registered by the QCM after the drop evaporates is the residue that deposits on the crystal. On some measurements, the change in mass in less than zero, which is aphysical since the drop will leave behind {>=}0 mass of residue. The vendor, Inficon, has agreed to look at these data as a means to help troubleshoot the cause.

  14. Cholesterol crystal embolism (atheroembolism)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VENTURELLI, CHIARA; JEANNIN, GUIDO; SOTTINI, LAURA; DALLERA, NADIA; SCOLARI, FRANCESCO

    2006-01-01

    Cholesterol crystal embolism, known as atheroembolic disease, is caused by showers of cholesterol crystals from an atherosclerotic plaque that occludes small arteries. Embolization can occur spontaneously or as an iatrogenic complication from an invasive vascular procedure (angiography or vascular surgery) and after anticoagulant therapy. The atheroembolism can give rise to different degrees of renal impairment. Some patients show a moderate loss of renal function, others severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Renal outcome can be variable: some patients deteriorate or remain on dialysis, some improve and some remain with chronic renal impairment. Clinically, three types of atheroembolic renal disease have been described: acute, subacute or chronic. More frequently a progressive loss of renal function occurs over weeks. Atheroembolization can involve the skin, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. The diagnosis is difficult and controversial for the protean extrarenal manifestations. In the past, the diagnosis was often made post-mortem. In the last 10 yrs, awareness of atheroembolic renal disease has improved. The correct diagnosis requires the clinician to be alert. The typical patient is a white male aged >60 yrs with a history of hypertension, smoking and arterial disease. The presence of a classic triad (precipitating event, renal failure and peripheral cholesterol crystal embolization) suggests the diagnosis. This can be confirmed by a biopsy of the target organs. A specific treatment is lacking; however, it is an important diagnosis to make because an aggressive therapeutic approach can be associated with a more favorable clinical outcome. PMID:21977265

  15. Living liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles, often termed “active fluid,” has attracted enormous attention in the broad scientific community because of its fundamentally nonequilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here, we introduce a class of active matter––living liquid crystals (LLCs)––that combines living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (i) nonlinear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by nonuniform director, (ii) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (iii) activity-triggered transition from a nonflowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, and (iv) birefringence-enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers-thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications. PMID:24474746

  16. Instabilities in liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barclay, G J

    1998-01-01

    and we examine the differences which occur for differing dielectric anisotropies. Finally, in Chapter 7 we study how a sample of smectic C liquid crystal behaves when it is subjected to a uniform shear flow within the smectic plane. We find travelling wave solutions for the behaviour of the c-director and adapt these solutions to incorporate the effects of an applied field. This thesis contains theoretical work dealing with the effects of magnetic and electric fields on samples of nematic, smectic A and smectic C liquid crystals. Some background material along with the continuum theory is introduced in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 we consider the effect on the director within an infinite sample of nematic liquid crystal which is subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. In particular we examine the stability of the travelling waves which describe the director motion by considering the behaviour of the stable perturbations as time increases. The work of Chapter 4 examines a bounded sample of smectic A liqu...

  17. On dewetting of thin films due to crystallization (crystallization dewetting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehran; Rahimzadeh, Amin; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-03-01

    Drying and crystallization of a thin liquid film of an ionic or a similar solution can cause dewetting in the resulting thin solid film. This paper aims at investigating this type of dewetting, herein termed "crystallization dewetting", using PbI2 dissolved in organic solvents as the model solution. PbI2 solid films are usually used in X-ray detection and lead halide perovskite solar cells. In this work, PbI2 films are fabricated using spin coating and the effect of major parameters influencing the crystallization dewetting, including the type of the solvent, solution concentration, drying temperature, spin speed, as well as imposed vibration on the substrate are studied on dewetting, surface profile and coverage, using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Simplified hydrodynamic governing equations of crystallization in thin films are presented and using a mathematical representation of the process, it is phenomenologically demonstrated that crystallization dewetting occurs due to the absorption and consumption of the solution surrounding a growing crystal. Among the results, it is found that a low spin speed (high thickness), a high solution concentration and a low drying temperature promote crystal growth, and therefore crystallization dewetting. It is also shown that imposed vibration on the substrate can affect the crystal size and crystallization dewetting.

  18. Imaging and interferometric analysis of protein crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Ranjini; Gupta, Anamika Sethia; Muralidhar, K.

    2008-04-01

    Protein crystals are grown under controlled temperature, concentration and vapor pressure conditions, usually by vapor diffusion, liquid-liquid diffusion and dialysis techniques. The present study examines the effects of protein concentration, drop size and reservoir height on the crystal growth of Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL). Crystals are grown by the hanging drop vapor diffusion method using Modular VDX TM Plates. Due to the vapor pressure difference created between the protein drop and the reservoir, evaporation takes place till equilibrium is attained. Crystal formation takes place after a certain level of supersaturation is attained when the protein precipitates out in crystalline form. The observations revealed that the growth is faster for higher lysozyme concentration, smaller drop sizes and larger reservoir heights. The morphology of the crystals is viewed during the growth process using stereomicroscope. The number of crystals formed is the maximum for higher concentrations, drop sizes and reservoir heights. When the number of crystals formed is less, the size of the crystals is comparatively larger. The effect of evaporation of water vapor from the protein drop into the reservoir is studied using Mach-Zehnder interferometry. The recorded interferograms and shadowgraph images indicate the diffusion of condensed water into the reservoir. The radius of the drop is determined using the shadowgraph images of the growth process. The radius decreases with evaporation and the rate of decrease of radius is highest for higher protein concentrations, smaller drop sizes and larger reservoir heights.

  19. Formation of porous crystals via viscoelastic phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusawa, Hideyo; Russo, John; Leocmach, Mathieu; Tanaka, Hajime

    2017-10-01

    Viscoelastic phase separation of colloidal suspensions can be interrupted to form gels either by glass transition or by crystallization. With a new confocal microscopy protocol, we follow the entire kinetics of phase separation, from homogeneous phase to different arrested states. For the first time in experiments, our results unveil a novel crystallization pathway to sponge-like porous crystal structures. In the early stages, we show that nucleation requires a structural reorganization of the liquid phase, called stress-driven ageing. Once nucleation starts, we observe that crystallization follows three different routes: direct crystallization of the liquid phase, the Bergeron process, and Ostwald ripening. Nucleation starts inside the reorganized network, but crystals grow past it by direct condensation of the gas phase on their surface, driving liquid evaporation, and producing a network structure different from the original phase separation pattern. We argue that similar crystal-gel states can be formed in monatomic and molecular systems if the liquid phase is slow enough to induce viscoelastic phase separation, but fast enough to prevent immediate vitrification. This provides a novel pathway to form nanoporous crystals of metals and semiconductors without dealloying, which may be important for catalytic, optical, sensing, and filtration applications.

  20. New scintillating media based on liquid crystals for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Barnik, M I; Vasilchenko, V G; Golovkin, S V; Medvedkov, A M; Soloviev, A S

    2000-01-01

    The study results of optical, photoluminiscent and scintillation properties of a liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl are presented. The scintillation light output of this liquid crystal is about 35% of crystal anthracene, its main decay time constants are 4 and 14 ns, and the maximum of light emission spectrum is about 400 nm. The light output of a dissolution of green emitting light scintillation dopant R6 in the liquid crystal is about 120% of crystal anthracene. The light output of the frozen dissolution measured at -112 deg. C is about 2.5 times higher as observed at +20 deg. C. In the uniaxially oriented liquid crystal, the predominant intensity direction of emitted light is pointed perpendicular to the liquid crystal director and an appreciable part of the emitted light is elliptically polarized. The possibility to use scintillation properties of liquid crystals is considered both for the improvement of existing particle detector characteristics and for the creation of new gated particle detectors.