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Sample records for nonmagnetic grains choose

  1. Choosing Whole-Grain Foods: 10 Tips for Purchasing and Storing Whole-Grain Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide 10 Tips: Choosing Whole-Grain Foods You are here Home 10 Tips: Choosing Whole-Grain Foods Print Share 10 Tips: Choosing Whole-Grain Foods Whole grains are important sources of nutrients ...

  2. Minimizing the scattering of a nonmagnetic cloak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    Nonmagnetic cloak offers a feasible way to achieve invisibility at optical frequencies using materials with only electric responses. In this letter, we suggest an approximation of the ideal nonmagnetic cloak and quantitatively study its electromagnetic characteristics using a full-wave scattering...

  3. Rigorous analysis of non-magnetic cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    Nonmagnetic cloak offers a feasible way to achieve invisibility at optical frequencies using materials with only electric responses. In this letter, we suggest an approximation of the ideal nonmagnetic cloak and quantitatively study its electromagnetic characteristics using a full-wave scattering...

  4. Evidence of Formation of Superdense Nonmagnetic Cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Nasrin; Singh, Surendra; Satpati, B.; Roy, A.; Basu, S.; Chakraborty, P.; Movva, Hema C. P.; Lauter, V.; Dev, B. N.

    2017-02-01

    Because of the presence of 3d transition metals in the Earth’s core, magnetism of these materials in their dense phases has been a topic of great interest. Theory predicts a dense face-centred-cubic phase of cobalt, which would be nonmagnetic. However, this dense nonmagnetic cobalt has not yet been observed. Recent investigations in thin film polycrystalline materials have shown the formation of compressive stress, which can increase the density of materials. We have discovered the existence of ultrathin superdense nonmagnetic cobalt layers in a polycrystalline cobalt thin film. The densities of these layers are about 1.2–1.4 times the normal density of Co. This has been revealed by X-ray reflectometry experiments, and corroborated by polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) experiments. Transmission electron microscopy provides further evidence. The magnetic depth profile, obtained by PNR, shows that the superdense Co layers near the top of the film and at the film-substrate interface are nonmagnetic. The major part of the Co film has the usual density and magnetic moment. These results indicate the possibility of existence of nonmagnetic Co in the earth’s core under high pressure.

  5. EUVE Observations of Nonmagnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauche, C W

    2001-09-05

    The authors summarize EUVE's contribution to the study of the boundary layer emission of high accretion-rate nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables, especially the dwarf novae SS Cyg, U Gem, VW Hyi, and OY Car in outburst. They discuss the optical and EUV light curves of dwarf nova outbursts, the quasi-coherent oscillations of the EUV flux of SS Cyg, the EUV spectra of dwarf novae, and the future of EUV observations of cataclysmic variables.

  6. Electrically-Generated Spin Polarization in Non-Magnetic Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0143 Electrically -generated spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductors Vanessa Sih UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 03...SUBTITLE (YIP) - Electrically -generated spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0258 5c...that produced electrically -generated electron spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. Electrically -generated electron spin

  7. UXC55 Non-Magnetic Robot

    CERN Document Server

    Najjar, Tony

    2017-01-01

    As part of the collaboration between CMS and the Lebanese American University, we are looking into building a non-magnetic inspection rover capable of roaming around UXC55 and specifically under the detector. The robot should be specifically tailored and engineered to cope with the strong magnetic field in the cavern (300 G on average with peaks up to 1500 G) as well as other constraints such as flammability and geometry. Moreover, we are also taking part in the development of the instrumentation and wireless communication of the rover. The biggest challenge in setting up a non-magnetic rover lies in the actuation mechanism, in other words, getting it to move; motors are rotary actuators that rely on the concept of a rotor “trying to catch up” to a rotating magnetic field. We quickly realize the complication with using this popular technology; the strong field created by the CMS magnet greatly interferes with the motor, rendering it utterly stalled. Our approach, on the other hand, consists of using compl...

  8. Pseudo-hcp nonmagnetic intermediate layer for granular media with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Saito, Shin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Itagaki, Norikazu [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Takahashi, Migaku [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2008-01-07

    Materials with the hexagonal close-packed structure (hcp) and the face-centred-cubic structure with stacking faults (pseudo-hcp) are examined for the nonmagnetic intermediate layer (NMIL) in order to suppress variant growth of magnetic grains for granular-type perpendicular recording media. Judging from the analysis of the epitaxial growth of Co-based magnetic grains, it has been found that a lattice misfit between NMIL and magnetic grain of less than 6% and a spreading coefficient of wettability of magnetic grain on NMIL of greater than 0.3 J m{sup -3} are required for the recording layer to have high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy. (fast track communication)

  9. Choosing a Family Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nav nav, .header-9#header-section #main-nav, #overlay-menu nav, #mobile-menu, #one-page-nav li . ... editorial staff Home Your Health Resources Doctor Visit Preparation Choosing a Family Doctor Choosing a Family Doctor ...

  10. Choosing Your Medical Specialty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AMA provides to help members save money. Residency & Career Planning Find resources for a range of medical career ... Fellowships Back to top Home Life & Career Residency & Career Planning Choosing a Medical Specialty Back to top Choosing ...

  11. To Choose or Not to Choose Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, there is a general concern that a less number of students choose to study science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM). This paper presents results from a Danish longitudinal study which examines students’ choice of whether or not to continue studying STEM after upper...

  12. How non-magnetic are "non-magnetic" Herbig Ae/Be stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, G A; Catala, C; Bagnulo, S; Landstreet, J D; Flood, J; Böhm, T; Bouret, J -C; Donati, J -F; Folsom, C P; Grunhut, J; Silvester, J

    2007-01-01

    Our recent discovery of magnetic fields in a small number of Herbig Ae/Be stars has required that we survey a much larger sample of stars. From our FORS1 and ESPaDOnS surveys, we have acquired about 125 observations of some 70 stars in which no magnetic fields are detected. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we have performed statistical comparisons of the observed longitudinal fields and LSD Stokes V profiles of these apparently non-magnetic stars with a variety of field models. This has allowed us to derive general upper limits on the presence of dipolar fields in the sample, and to place realistic upper limits on undetected dipole fields which may be present in individual stars. This paper briefly reports the results of the statistical modeling, as well as field upper limits for individual stars of particular interest.

  13. To Choose or Not to Choose Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, there is a general concern that a less number of students choose to study science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM). This paper presents results from a Danish longitudinal study which examines students’ choice of whether or not to continue studying STEM after upper......-secondary school. In particular, this study focuses on students who held an STEM subject as one of their favourite subjects at secondary educational level, but who chose not to study STEM at the tertiary level. This paper explores how students’ perceptions of STEM relate to their identity work. The data used...

  14. Why Men Choose Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Julia L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Male nursing students surveyed (n=146, 69 percent) responded that (1) career attributes (job security, opportunity, flexibility) were primary reasons for choosing nursing; (2) they had moderate to high support from significant others; and (3) they were more likely to be older and single. (SK)

  15. Choosing for learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Res

  16. The Customer Cannot Choose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPeople can choose and they make many choices each and every day. However, most people are unaware of how strong their environment influences the choices they make. In his inaugural address, Bas Donkers highlights the impact of what people see (and what they don’t see), what people experi

  17. Choosing for learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Res

  18. Choosing for learning objects

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Responding to differences between students; (4) The joint development of learning materials together with other institutions or external parties; (5) Attuning to professional practice; (6) Attuning to...

  19. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-21

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  20. The Potts model on a Bethe lattice with nonmagnetic impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkin, S. V., E-mail: li15@rambler.ru; Smagin, V. P. [Vladivistok State University of Economics and Service (VSUES) (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    We have obtained a solution for the Potts model on a Bethe lattice with mobile nonmagnetic impurities. A method is proposed for constructing a “pseudochaotic” impurity distribution by a vanishing correlation in the arrangement of impurity atoms for the nearest sites. For a pseudochaotic impurity distribution, we obtained the phase-transition temperature, magnetization, and spontaneous magnetization jumps at the phase-transition temperature.

  1. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  2. Choosing the right technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (RES) has continuously increased throughout the last decade. In the residential building sector the trend goes towards energy supply systems based on multiple RES. This is mainly due to political requirements, governmental subsidies and fuel price development....... These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. e aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... on mixed integer linear programming. The methodology chooses the right combination of technologies and sizes the components based on on-site weather data and expected consumption profiles. Through this approach the fluctuations of RES as well as the user behavior are taken into account already during...

  3. How couples choose vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schehl, M

    1997-01-01

    A study conducted by AVSC International between 1992 and 1995 found that couples around the world go through a highly similar decision-making process when they choose vasectomy as their family planning methods. Study findings are based upon in-depth, qualitative interviews with couples using vasectomy in Bangladesh, Mexico, Kenya, and Rwanda, where the prevalence of vasectomy is relatively low, and Sri Lanka and the US, where it is relatively high. 218 separate interviews were conducted with male and female partners. Concerns about the woman's health were cited by respondents in each country as reasons to cease childbearing and to opt for vasectomy as the means to achieving that end. Also, almost all respondents mentioned varying degrees of financial hardship as contributing to their decision to end childbearing. These findings highlight the concept of partnership in relationships and family planning decision-making, and demonstrate the importance of going beyond traditional stereotypes about gender roles in decision-making. Social influences and the potential risks of using other forms of contraception also contributed to the choice of using vasectomy. The decision-making process and lessons learned are discussed.

  4. Me Nuh Choose None

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Cooke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on textual modes of fictional representation first valorised then disseminated by British imperialists, this story appropriates then abrogates Eurocentric ideals of normative creative expression. By appropriating the rhythm of lyrical poetry into the descriptions of this fictionalized Jamaica as well as the structure of modernist prose into Akúa’s psychical shift from colonial subject to postcolonial agent, “Me Nuh Choose None” inverts these narrative conventions historically used to systematize and exclude in order to puncture the imperious myth that complex writing in English primarily concerns itself with gratifying the colonial centre. Moreover, by treating the textual approximations of the Jamaican storyteller Miss Lou’s oral folktales with equal depth and sophistication as the instances of alliteration and onomatopoeia, this story abrogates the autocratic standard of “proper” spelling and pronunciation so as to textually privilege Jamaican folklore using the literariness usually reserved for Western texts. The effect is a form of fiction that acknowledges the dense matrix of cultural and colonial systems English writing exists within, while simultaneously gesturing between and beyond these systems to the linguistic interstices of postcolonial liminality.

  5. Nuclear conversion theory: molecular hydrogen in non-magnetic insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilisca, Ernest; Ghiglieno, Filippo

    2016-09-01

    The hydrogen conversion patterns on non-magnetic solids sensitively depend upon the degree of singlet/triplet mixing in the intermediates of the catalytic reaction. Three main `symmetry-breaking' interactions are brought together. In a typical channel, the electron spin-orbit (SO) couplings introduce some magnetic excitations in the non-magnetic solid ground state. The electron spin is exchanged with a molecular one by the electric molecule-solid electron repulsion, mixing the bonding and antibonding states and affecting the molecule rotation. Finally, the magnetic hyperfine contact transfers the electron spin angular momentum to the nuclei. Two families of channels are considered and a simple criterion based on the SO coupling strength is proposed to select the most efficient one. The denoted `electronic' conversion path involves an emission of excitons that propagate and disintegrate in the bulk. In the other denoted `nuclear', the excited electron states are transients of a loop, and the electron system returns to its fundamental ground state. The described model enlarges previous studies by extending the electron basis to charge-transfer states and `continui' of band states, and focuses on the broadening of the antibonding molecular excited state by the solid conduction band that provides efficient tunnelling paths for the hydrogen conversion. After working out the general conversion algebra, the conversion rates of hydrogen on insulating and semiconductor solids are related to a few molecule-solid parameters (gap width, ionization and affinity potentials) and compared with experimental measures.

  6. NEWS: Why choose science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    National concerns over the uptake of science subjects and an analysis of how school science departments together with careers programmes influence students' subject choices feature in a recent report from the UK's National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling. It points out that decisions on science subjects are taken very early in pupils' education, often well before the implications of those choices can be clearly understood. If pupils are to be encouraged to keep science options open, then both science teachers and careers advisers have important roles to play. Physics is in fact singled out in the report's recommendations as in need of special attention, due to its perceived difficulty both within the double-award science course and also at A-level. The lack of qualified teachers in physics is noted as a problem for schools and the many initiatives to address these issues should be encouraged according to the report, but within an overall high-profile and well funded national strategy for developing science education in schools. The report also notes that science teachers do not feel able to keep up with career information, whilst few careers advisers have a science background and have little opportunity to build up their knowledge of science syllabuses or of science and engineering careers. More contact between both types of specialist is naturally advocated. Copies of the full report, Choosing Science at 16 by Mary Munro and David Elsom, are available from NICEC, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX on receipt of an A4 stamped (70p) addressed envelope. A NICEC briefing summary is also available from the same address (20p stamp required).

  7. Magnetic Nanoparticles in Non-magnetic CNTs and Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayondo, Moses; Seifu, Dereje

    Magnetic nanoparticles were embedded in non-magnetic CNTs and graphene matrix to incorporate all the advantages and the unique properties of CNTs and graphene. Composites of CNTs and graphene with magnetic nanoparticles may offer new opportunities for a wide variety of potential applications such as magnetic data storage, magnetic force microscopy tip, electromagnetic interference shields, thermally conductive films, reinforced polymer composites, transparent electrodes for displays, solar cells, gas sensors, magnetic nanofluids, and magnetically guided drug delivery systems. Magnetic nanoparticles coated CNTs can also be used as an electrode in lithium ion battery to replace graphite because of the higher theoretical capacity. Graphene nanocomposites, coated with magnetic sensitive nanoparticles, have demonstrated enhanced magnetic property. We would like to acknowledge support by NSF-MRI-DMR-1337339.

  8. Nano or micro grained alumina powder? A choose before sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different wet routes have been used to synthesize alumina powders in order to compare the characteristics of the final product and its behaviour during sintering. The Homogeneous Precipitation (HP gives rise to nanoparticulated powders of about 2 nm. However, such particles quickly aggregate and grow with calcination temperature. The Polymerized Organic-Inorganic Synthesis (POI produces homogeneous particle size powders (about 1 micron after resin charring. The characterization of the powder surface is the basis of an efficient process control. Particle characterization parameters (morphology, crystallinity and degree of aggregation are characterized by different techniques, such as DTA/TG, IR, XRD, SEM and TEM, and compared between these synthesis methods. The results show the evolution from the amorphous to the corundum alumina phase for both processes and their ability for sintering, as well discuses the beneficial of nanoparticles obtained by HP during sintering.

    Se han utilizado dos diferentes síntesis por vía húmeda para la preparación de polvos de alúmina con el fin de comparar las características de los productos finales y su comportamiento durante la sinterización. La Precipitación Homogénea (HP da lugar a polvos nanoparticulados de unos 2nm. Se observa sin embargo, como estas partículas se agregan rápidamente y crecen con la temperatura de calcinación. La Síntesis por Polimerización Orgánica-Inorgánica (POI produce polvos de tamaño de partícula homogéneo (en torno a 1 micra después de la descomposión de la resina. La caracterización de la superficie de los polvos es la base de un control eficiente del proceso. Los parámetros de caracterización de las partículas obtenidas (morfología, cristalinidad y grado de agregación se obtienen por diferentes técnicas como DTA/TG, IR, XRD, SEM y TEM, y se comparan entre estos métodos de síntesis. Los resultados muestran la evolución desde el amorfo a la fase de corindón de la alúmina para ambos procesos y su capacidad para la sinterización.

  9. Colloidal self assembly of non-magnetic particles in magnetic nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Mudra; Patel, Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    Here we present a technique using magnetic nanofluid to induce bidispersed suspension of nonmagnetic particles to assemble into colloidal chain, triangle, rectangle, ring-flower configurations. By changing the amplitude and direction of the magnetic field, we could tune the structure of nonmagnetic particles in magnetic nanofluid. The structures are assembled using magneto static interactions between effectively nonmagnetic particles dispersed in magnetizable magnetic nanofluid. The assembly of complex structures out of simple colloidal building blocks is of practical interest in photonic crystals and DNA biosensors.

  10. Colloidal self assembly of non-magnetic particles in magnetic nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadav, Mudra; Patel, Rajesh, E-mail: rjp@mkbhavuni.edu.in, E-mail: rpat7@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364002 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Here we present a technique using magnetic nanofluid to induce bidispersed suspension of nonmagnetic particles to assemble into colloidal chain, triangle, rectangle, ring-flower configurations. By changing the amplitude and direction of the magnetic field, we could tune the structure of nonmagnetic particles in magnetic nanofluid. The structures are assembled using magneto static interactions between effectively nonmagnetic particles dispersed in magnetizable magnetic nanofluid. The assembly of complex structures out of simple colloidal building blocks is of practical interest in photonic crystals and DNA biosensors.

  11. Giant spin Seebeck effect in a non-magnetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, C M; Myers, R C; Johnston-Halperin, E; Heremans, J P

    2012-07-11

    The spin Seebeck effect is observed when a thermal gradient applied to a spin-polarized material leads to a spatially varying transverse spin current in an adjacent non-spin-polarized material, where it gets converted into a measurable voltage. It has been previously observed with a magnitude of microvolts per kelvin in magnetically ordered materials, ferromagnetic metals, semiconductors and insulators. Here we describe a signal in a non-magnetic semiconductor (InSb) that has the hallmarks of being produced by the spin Seebeck effect, but is three orders of magnitude larger (millivolts per kelvin). We refer to the phenomenon that produces it as the giant spin Seebeck effect. Quantizing magnetic fields spin-polarize conduction electrons in semiconductors by means of Zeeman splitting, which spin-orbit coupling amplifies by a factor of ∼25 in InSb. We propose that the giant spin Seebeck effect is mediated by phonon-electron drag, which changes the electrons' momentum and directly modifies the spin-splitting energy through spin-orbit interactions. Owing to the simultaneously strong phonon-electron drag and spin-orbit coupling in InSb, the magnitude of the giant spin Seebeck voltage is comparable to the largest known classical thermopower values.

  12. Quantum anomalous Hall effect in stanene on a nonmagnetic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huisheng; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Jiayong; Zhao, Bao; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Zhongqin

    2016-12-01

    Since the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect was realized in magnetic topological insulators, research on the effect has become a hot topic. The very harsh realizing requirements of the effect in experiments, however, hinder its practical applications. Based on ab initio methods, we find that nonmagnetic Pb I2 films are ideal substrates for the two-dimensional honeycomb stanene. The QAH effect with a pretty large band gap (up to 90 meV) can be achieved in the functionalized stanene /Pb I2 heterostructure. Despite van der Waals interactions in the heterostructure, band inversions are found to be happening between Sn (s and px ,y ) and Pb (px ,y) orbitals, playing a key role in determining the nontrivial topology and the large band gap of the system. Having no magnetic atoms is imperative to triggering the QAH effect. A very stable rudimentary device having QAH effects is proposed based on the Sn /Pb I2 heterostructure. Our results demonstrate that QAH effects can be easily realized in the Sn /Pb I2 heterostructures in experiments.

  13. Plasma, magnetic, and electromagnetic measurements at nonmagnetic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.

    The need to explore the magnetospheres of the Earth and the giant planets is widely recognized and is an integral part of our planetary exploration program. The equal need to explore the plasma, magnetic, and electromagnetic environments of the nonmagnetic bodies is not so widely appreciated. The previous, albeit incomplete, magnetic and electric field measurements at Venus, Mars, and comets have proven critical to our understanding of their atmospheres and ionospheres in areas ranging from planetary lightning to solar wind scavenging and accretion. In the cases of Venus and Mars, the ionospheres can provide communication paths over the horizon for low-altitude probes and landers, but we know little about their lower boundaries. The expected varying magnetic fields below these planetary ionospheres penetrates the planetary crusts and can be used to sound the electrical conductivity and the thermal profiles of the interiors. However, we have no knowledge of the levels of such fields, let alone their morphology. Finally, we note that the absence of an atmosphere and an ionosphere does not make an object any less interesting for the purposes of electromagnetic exploration. Even weak remanent magnetism such as that found on the Moon during the Apollo program provides insight into the present and past states of planetary interiors. We have very intriguing data from our space probes during times of both close and distant passages of asteroids that suggest they may have coherent magnetization. If true, this observation will put important constraints on how the asteroids formed and have evolved. Our planetary exploration program must exploit its full range of exploration tools if it is to characterize the bodies of the solar system thoroughly. We should especially take advantage of those techniques that are proven and require low mass, low power, and low telemetry rates to undertake.

  14. New insights into the use of magnetic force microscopy to discriminate between magnetic and nonmagnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Cristina S; Quaresma, Pedro; Pereira, Eulalia; Eaton, Peter [Requimte/Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Baptista, Pedro V [CIGMH/Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, FCT-UNL, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, PatrIcia A [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, IST, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1049-100 Lisboa (Portugal); Araujo, Joao Pedro, E-mail: peter.eaton@fc.up.pt [IFIMUP, Rua do Campo Alegre, 678, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-07-30

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a very powerful technique, which can potentially be used to detect and localize the magnetic fields arising from nanoscopic magnetic domains, such as magnetic nanoparticles. However, in order to achieve this, we must be able to use MFM to discriminate between magnetic forces arising from the magnetic nanoparticles and nonmagnetic forces from other particles and sample features. Unfortunately, MFM can show a significant response even for nonmagnetic nanoparticles, giving rise to potentially misleading results. The literature to date lacks evidence for MFM detection of magnetic nanoparticles with nonmagnetic nanoparticles as a control. In this work, we studied magnetite particles of two sizes and with a silica shell, and compared them to nonmagnetic metallic and silica nanoparticles. We found that even on conducting, grounded substrates, significant electrostatic interaction between atomic force microscopy probes and nanoparticles can be detected, causing nonmagnetic signals that might be mistaken for a true MFM response. Nevertheless, we show that MFM can be used to discriminate between magnetic and nonmagnetic nanoparticles by using an electromagnetic shielding technique or by analysis of the phase shift data. On the basis of our experimental evidence we propose a methodology that enables MFM to be reliably used to study unknown samples containing magnetic nanoparticles, and correctly interpret the data obtained.

  15. Why Do Women Choose Nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughn, Susan; Lentini, Alison

    1999-01-01

    In interviews with 16 female nursing students, caring was a motivator, but power and empowerment for self and others were the most fully developed reasons for choosing nursing. They showed scant interest in practical motivations such as salary, security, and working conditions. (SK)

  16. Children and (Five Choose Two).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonkin, Alexander K.

    1993-01-01

    Recounts a teacher's experiences with a small group of elementary school students as they explore different forms of the combinatorics problem of choosing two out of five objects. Describes how students examine the connections between the problems and a proof of the relationship. (MDH)

  17. Local destruction of superconductivity by non-magnetic impurities in mesoscopic iron-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ji, Min; Schwarz, Tobias; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Yuan, Jie; Pereira, Paulo J; Huang, Ya; Zhang, Gufei; Feng, Hai-Luke; Yuan, Ya-Hua; Hatano, Takeshi; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Yamaura, Kazunari; Wang, Hua-Bing; Wu, Pei-Heng; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji; Vanacken, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2015-07-03

    The determination of the pairing symmetry is one of the most crucial issues for the iron-based superconductors, for which various scenarios are discussed controversially. Non-magnetic impurity substitution is one of the most promising approaches to address the issue, because the pair-breaking mechanism from the non-magnetic impurities should be different for various models. Previous substitution experiments demonstrated that the non-magnetic zinc can suppress the superconductivity of various iron-based superconductors. Here we demonstrate the local destruction of superconductivity by non-magnetic zinc impurities in Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 by exploring phase-slip phenomena in a mesoscopic structure with 119 × 102 nm(2) cross-section. The impurities suppress superconductivity in a three-dimensional 'Swiss cheese'-like pattern with in-plane and out-of-plane characteristic lengths slightly below ∼1.34 nm. This causes the superconducting order parameter to vary along abundant narrow channels with effective cross-section of a few square nanometres. The local destruction of superconductivity can be related to Cooper pair breaking by non-magnetic impurities.

  18. Quantum size effects on spin-transfer torque in a double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (semiconductor) spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daqiq, Reza; Ghobadi, Nader

    2016-07-01

    We study the quantum size effects of an MgO-based double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (DBMTJ-NM) (semiconductor (DBMTJ-SC)) spacer on the charge current and the spin-transfer torque (STT) components using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The results show oscillatory behavior due to the resonant tunneling effect depending on the structure parameters. We find that the charge current and the STT components in the DBMTJ-SC demonstrate the magnitude enhancement in comparison with the DBMTJ-NM. The bias dependence of the STT components in a DBMTJ-NM shows different behavior in comparison with spin valves and conventional MTJs. Therefore, by choosing a specific SC spacer with suitable thickness in a DBMTJ the charge current and the STT components significantly increase so that one can design a device with high STT and faster magnetization switching.

  19. Improvement of microwave magnetic properties by inserting nonmagnetic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoting; An, Chao; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Chunlong; Shi, Gang; Wang, Jinguo; Hou, Zhaoyang; Xi, Li

    2017-01-01

    Co/NM (nonmagnetic Ag and SiO2)/Co sandwich structure films with different thicknesses of NM were fabricated on Si(111) substrate via oblique radio frequency sputtering. With increasing thickness of nonmagnetic Ag (tAg), in-plane magnetic anisotropy field Hk initially increased from 100 Oe of tAg = 0 nm to 220 Oe of tAg = 1.5 nm, and then decreased when tAg > 1.5 nm. Resonance frequency showed the same tendency with maximum 5.2 GHz when tAg = 1.5 nm. Damp factor increased from 0.02 for tAg = 0-0.08 for tAg = 2.0 nm. The same result was observed in inserting oxide nonmagnetic SiO2 layer. This can be attributed to the competition between interface energy and exchange coupling energy.

  20. Magnetofluidic concentration and separation of non-magnetic particles using two magnet arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Majid; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-07-01

    The present paper reports the use of diluted ferrofluid and two arrays of permanent magnets for the size-selective concentration of non-magnetic particles. The micro magnetofluidic device consists of a straight channels sandwiched between two arrays of permanent magnets. The permanent magnets create multiple capture zones with minimum magnetic field strength along the channel. The complex interaction between magnetic forces and hydrodynamic force allows the device to operate in different regimes suitable for concentration of non-magnetic particles with small difference in size. Our experimental results show that non-magnetic particles with diameters of 3.1 μm and 4.8 μm can be discriminated and separated with this method. The results from this study could be used as a guide for the design of size-sensitive separation devices for particle and cell based on negative magnetophoresis.

  1. Simulation of magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetic Barkhausen noise of α-iron containing nonmagnetic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic hysteresis loops and Barkhausen noise of a single α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated to investigate into the magnetic hardening due to Cu-rich precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV steels. Phase field method basing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation is used for this simulation. The results show that the presence of the nonmagnetic particle could result in magnetic hardening by making the nucleation of reversed domains difficult. The coercive field is found to increase, while the intensity of Barkhausen noise voltage is decreased when the nonmagnetic particle is introduced. Simulations demonstrate the impact of nucleation field of reversed domains on the magnetization reversal behavior and the magnetic properties.

  2. Simulation of magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetic Barkhausen noise of α-iron containing nonmagnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei, E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China); Xu, Ben [School of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Hu, Shenyang; Li, Yulan [Energy Materials Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The magnetic hysteresis loops and Barkhausen noise of a single α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated to investigate into the magnetic hardening due to Cu-rich precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Phase field method basing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is used for this simulation. The results show that the presence of the nonmagnetic particle could result in magnetic hardening by making the nucleation of reversed domains difficult. The coercive field is found to increase, while the intensity of Barkhausen noise voltage is decreased when the nonmagnetic particle is introduced. Simulations demonstrate the impact of nucleation field of reversed domains on the magnetization reversal behavior and the magnetic properties.

  3. Removal of a giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body using micro alligator forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shenzhi; Wan, Guangming; Li, Xiujuan; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Zhu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    To introduce a new method for removal of a giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body using micro alligator forceps. Eleven patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy. The micro alligator forceps were used to grasp and extract the giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body through a sclerocorneal tunnel. All patients underwent surgical removal of the intraocular foreign body successfully without any intraoperative complications. The alligator forceps were operational in the intraocular environment and effective in surgical maneuvers. There was no accidental slippage during the procedures. Micro alligator forceps are a feasible option for removal of giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body during vitreoretinal surgery and offer advances in terms of operating stability and surgical safety. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Development of a Non-Magnetic Inertial Sensor for Vibration Stabilization in a Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, Josef; Decker, Valentin; Doyle, Eric; Hendrickson, Linda; Himel, Thomas; Markiewicz, Thomas; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC; Chang, Allison; Partridge, Richard; /Brown U.

    2006-09-01

    One of the options for controlling vibration of the final focus magnets in a linear collider is to use active feedback based on accelerometers. While commercial geophysics sensors have noise performance that substantially exceeds the requirements for a linear collider, they are physically large, and cannot operate in the strong magnetic field of the detector. Conventional nonmagnetic sensors have excessive noise for this application. We report on the development of a non-magnetic inertial sensor, and on a novel commercial sensor both of which have demonstrated the required noise levels for this application.

  5. Optimized cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zhenzhong; Feng Yijun; Xu Xiaofei; Zhao Junming; Jiang Tian, E-mail: yjfeng@nju.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

    2011-05-11

    We present optimized design of cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials. Through an optimization procedure based on genetic algorithm, simpler cloak structure and more realizable material parameters can be achieved with better cloak performance than that of an ideal non-magnetic cloak with a reduced set of parameters. We demonstrate that a cloak shell with only five layers of two normal materials can result in an average 20 dB reduction in the scattering width for all directions when covering the inner conducting cylinder with the cloak. The optimized design can substantially simplify the realization of the invisibility cloak, especially in the optical range.

  6. Magnetization Reversal Process of Single Crystal α-Fe Containing a Nonmagnetic Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Tsinghua Univ., Shenzhen (China); Xu, Ben [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Yulan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Qiu-Lin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Tsinghua Univ., Shenzhen (China); Liu, Wei [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Tsinghua Univ., Shenzhen (China)

    2015-09-25

    The magnetization reversal process and hysteresis loops in a single crystal α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated in this work based on the Landau-Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The evolutions of the magnetic domain morphology are studied, and our analyses show that the magnetization reversal process is affected by the interaction between the moving domain wall and the existing nonmagnetic particles. This interaction strongly depends on the size of the particles, and it is found that particles with a particular size contribute the most to magnetic hardening.

  7. How to choose the route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Choosing the route for nutrition support delivery is one of the main steps in the algorithm of providing successful nutrition to the critically ill, but it is certainly not an easy process. The rationale should be guided not only by principles like physiology and benefit versus harm, but also by individual patient factors like feasibility, contraindications, predicted versus actual tolerance, and (most important) the timing for starting food delivery. Although oral nutrition is the more physiological route for feeding, it is seldom possible or sufficient in critically ill patients. Enteral nutrition, in the form of tube feeding, remains the best option in the absence of absolute contraindications, but many other factors should be taken into account. These include the importance of starting early and trying to achieve target nutrients delivery early, especially in previously undernourished or in most severely ill patients, as well as the gastrointestinal intolerance present in the majority of critically ill patients. Parenteral nutrition is an alternative route for nutrition delivery when the enteral one is impossible or insufficient. The most common complication when choosing this route is overfeeding, which has been associated with increased complications rate. On the other hand, the most common complication of enteral nutrition is underfeeding, which has also been associated with worse outcome and even increased mortality. Combining enteral with supplemental parenteral nutrition is therefore a rational approach for providing early and adequate nutritional support in the most severely ill patients.

  8. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  9. Non-magnetic negative-refraction systems for terahertz and far-infrared frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseyev, Leonid V; Narimanov, Evgenii E

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that homogeneous naturally-occurring materials can form non-magnetic negative refractive index systems, and present specific realizations of the proposed approach for the THz and far-IR frequencies. The proposed structure operates away from resonance, thereby promising the capacity for low-loss devices.

  10. Nurse Outcomes in Magnet® and Non-Magnet Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lesly A.; McHugh, Matthew D.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2017-01-01

    The important goals of Magnet® hospitals are to create supportive professional nursing care environments. A recently published paper found little difference in work environments between Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine whether work environments, staffing, and nurse outcomes differ between Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals. A secondary analysis of data from a 4-state survey of 26,276 nurses in 567 acute care hospitals to evaluate differences in work environments and nurse outcomes in Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals was conducted. Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments (t = −5.29, P < .001) and more highly educated nurses (t = −2.27, P < .001). Magnet hospital nurses were 18% less likely to be dissatisfied with their job (P < .05) and 13% less likely to report high burnout (P < .05). Magnet hospitals have significantly better work environments than non-Magnet hospitals. The better work environments of Magnet hospitals are associated with lower levels of nurse job dissatisfaction and burnout. PMID:22976894

  11. Magnetism induced by nonmagnetic dopants in zinc-blende SiC: First-principle calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Magnetism induced by the nonmagnetic dopants in the zinc-blende SiC (3C-SiC) is investigated by first-principle calculations. The atoms of the first 20 elements in the periodic table except inert gas are used to replace either Si or C atoms as dopants. We find that some nonmagnetic substitutional dopants (mainly the Group IA, Group IIA, Group IIIB, and Group VIIB elements) prefer the spin-polarized ground states with local magnetic moments. In general, the condition for obtaining the local magnetic moments and the magnetic ground state requires that the dopants are p-type and have large electronegativity difference from the neighboring host atoms. The magnetic moments can be tuned over a range between 1 μ B and 3 μ B by doping with the nonmagnetic elements. The nearest-neighbor exchange couplings J 0 between the local magnetic moments are quite large and the codoping method is proposed to increase the dopant concentration. These imply that the nonmagnetic doping in SiC may exhibit collective magnetism. Moreover, the Group IIA Mg and Ca atoms substituting the preferred Si atoms favor the ferromagnetic ground states with the half-metallic electronic properties, which suggests that Mg or Ca substitutional doping on the Si sites in SiC could be a potential route to fabricating the diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  12. Pulsed remote field eddy current technique applied to non-magnetic flat conductive plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Binfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhanbin

    2013-12-01

    Non-magnetic metal plates are widely used in aviation and industrial applications. The detection of cracks in thick plate structures, such as multilayered structures of aircraft fuselage, has been challenging in nondestructive evaluation societies. The remote field eddy current (RFEC) technique has shown advantages of deep penetration and high sensitivity to deeply buried anomalies. However, the RFEC technique is mainly used to evaluate ferromagnetic tubes. There are many problems that should be fixed before the expansion and application of this technique for the inspection of non-magnetic conductive plates. In this article, the pulsed remote field eddy current (PRFEC) technique for the detection of defects in non-magnetic conducting plates was investigated. First, the principle of the PRFEC technique was analysed, followed by the analysis of the differences between the detection of defects in ferromagnetic and non-magnetic plain structures. Three different models of the PRFEC probe were simulated using ANSYS. The location of the transition zone, defect detection sensitivity and the ability to detect defects in thick plates using three probes were analysed and compared. The simulation results showed that the probe with a ferrite core had the highest detecting ability. The conclusions derived from the simulation study were also validated by conducting experiments.

  13. Magnetic field aligned assembly of nonmagnetic composite dumbbells in nanoparticle-based aqueous ferrofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hayato; Nagao, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kanako; Ishii, Haruyuki; Konno, Mikio

    2015-05-26

    Monodisperse, nonmagnetic, asymmetrical composite dumbbells in a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles (ferrofluid) were aligned by application of an external magnetic field to the ferrofluid. The asymmetrical composite dumbbells were prepared by two-step soap-free emulsion polymerization consisting of the first polymerization to coat spherical silica cores with cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell and the second polymerization to protrude a polystyrene (PSt) lobe from the core-shell particles. A chain structure of nonmagnetic dumbbells oriented to the applied magnetic field was observed at nanoparticle content of 2.0 vol % and field strengths higher than 1.0 mT. A similar chain structure of the dumbbells was observed under application of alternating electric field at strengths higher than 50 V/mm. Parallel and orthogonally combined applications of the electric and magnetic fields were also conducted to examine independence of the electric and magnetic applications as operational factors in the dumbbell assembling. Dumbbell chains stiffer than those in a single application of external field were formed in the parallel combined application of electric and magnetic fields. The orthogonal combination of the different applied fields could form a magnetically aligned chain structure of the nonmagnetic dumbbells oriented to the electric field. The present work experimentally indicated that the employment of inverse magnetorheological effect for nonmagnetic, anisotropic particles can be a useful method for the simultaneous controls over the orientation and the positon of anisotropic particles in their assembling.

  14. Internetwork chromospheric bright grains observed with IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Carlsson, Mats; De Pontieu, Bart; Pereira, Tiago M D; Boerner, Paul; Hurlburt, Neal; Kleint, Lucia; Lemen, James; Tarbell, Ted D; Title, Alan; Wuelser, Jean-Pierre; Hansteen, Viggo H; Golub, Leon; McKillop, Sean; Reeves, Kathy K; Saar, Steven; Testa, Paola; Tian, Hui; Jaeggli, Sarah; Kankelborg, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveals small-scale rapid brightenings in the form of bright grains all over coronal holes and the quiet sun. These bright grains are seen with the IRIS 1330 \\AA, 1400 \\AA\\ and 2796 \\AA\\ slit-jaw filters. We combine coordinated observations with IRIS and from the ground with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) which allows us to have chromospheric (Ca II 8542 \\AA, Ca II H 3968 \\AA, H\\alpha, and Mg II k 2796 \\AA), and transition region (C II 1334 \\AA, Si IV 1402) spectral imaging, and single-wavelength Stokes maps in Fe I 6302 \\AA at high spatial (0.33"), temporal and spectral resolution. We conclude that the IRIS slit-jaw grains are the counterpart of so-called acoustic grains, i.e., resulting from chromospheric acoustic waves in a non-magnetic environment. We compare slit-jaw images with spectra from the IRIS spectrograph. We conclude that the grain intensity in the 2796 \\AA\\ slit-jaw filter comes from both the Mg II k core and wings. The signal in the C II ...

  15. Novel magnetic half-metallic materials based on ionic insulators doped with nonmagnetic impurities: MgO + B, C, N Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, V. V.; Shein, I. R.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

    2007-07-01

    It is established that magnesium oxide (a nonmagnetic ionic insulator) exhibits a transition to the state of a magnetic half-metal upon the introduction of nonmagnetic impurities (boron, carbon, or nitrogen) into the crystal lattice. The possibility of obtaining novel magnetic materials for spintronics by doping ionic insulators with nonmagnetic impurities is discussed.

  16. Contracts for Grain Biosecurity and Grain Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Abougamos, Hoda; White, Benedict; Sadler,Rohan

    2012-01-01

    The export of grain from Western Australia depends upon a grain supply network that takes grain from farm to port through Cooperative Bulk Handling receival and storage sites. The ability of the network to deliver pest free grain to the port and onto ship depends upon the quality of grain delivered by farmers and the efficacy of phosphine based fumigation in controlling stored grain pests. Phosphine fumigation is critical to the grain supply network because it is the cheapest effective fumiga...

  17. Nonmagnetic rigid and flexible outer sheath with pneumatic interlocking mechanism for minimally invasive surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiromasa; Zuo, Siyang; Masamune, Ken; Liao, Hongen; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2009-01-01

    We developed a nonmagnetic rigid and flexible outer sheath with pneumatic interlocking mechanism using flexible toothed links and a wire-driven bending distal end. The outer sheath can be switched between rigid and flexible modes easily depending on surgical scenes, and the angle of its distal end can be controlled by three nylon wires. All components of flexible parts are made of MRI-compatible nonmagnetic plastics. We manufactured the device with 300-mm long, 16-mm outer diameter, 7-mm inner diameter and 90-mm bending distal end. Holding power of the device in rigid mode was maximum 3.6 N, which was sufficient for surgical tasks in body cavity. In vivo experiment using a swine, our device performed smooth insertion of a flexible endoscope and a biopsy forceps into reverse side of the liver, intestines and spleen with a curved path. In conclusion, our device shows availability of secure approach of surgical instruments into deep cavity.

  18. Designing the coordinate transformation function for non-magnetic invisibility cloaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiaofei; Feng Yijun; Zhao Lin; Jiang Tian [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Lu Chunhua; Xu Zhongzi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, 210009 (China)], E-mail: yjfeng@nju.edu.cn

    2008-11-07

    An optical invisibility cloak based on a transformation approach has recently been proposed by a reduced set of material properties due to their easier implementation in reality and little need for an inhomogeneous permeability distribution, but the drawback of undesired scattering caused by the impedance mismatching at the outer boundary is unavoidable in such a cloak. By properly designing the coordinate transformation function to ensure impedance matching at the outer surface, we show that the performance of a nonmagnetic cylindrical cloak could be improved with minimized scattering fields. Using either a single high order power function or an optimized piecewise continuous power function, a cylindrical non-magnetic cloak has been designed with nearly perfect cloaking performance, which is better than those generated with a linear or a quadratic function. Due to the monotonicity of the designed power functions, the resulting cloak has no restriction on the size of the cloaking shell, therefore is suitable for both thick and thin cloaking structures.

  19. Magnetic-Field-Modulated Resonant Tunneling in Ferromagnetic-Insulator-Nonmagnetic Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Dery, Hanan

    2014-07-01

    We present a theory for resonance-tunneling magnetoresistance (MR) in ferromagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic junctions. The theory sheds light on many of the recent electrical spin injection experiments, suggesting that this MR effect rather than spin accumulation in the nonmagnetic channel corresponds to the electrically detected signal. We quantify the dependence of the tunnel current on the magnetic field by quantum rate equations derived from the Anderson impurity model, with the important addition of impurity spin interactions. Considering the on-site Coulomb correlation, the MR effect is caused by competition between the field, spin interactions, and coupling to the magnetic lead. By extending the theory, we present a basis for operation of novel nanometer-size memories.

  20. Thermal spin current and spin accumulation at ferromagnetic insulator/nonmagnetic metal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. H.; Wang, X. S.; Wang, X. R.

    2016-07-01

    Spin current injection and spin accumulation near a ferromagnetic insulator (FI)/nonmagnetic metal (NM) bilayer film under a thermal gradient is investigated theoretically. By using the Fermi golden rule and the Boltzmann equations, we find that FI and NM can exchange spins via interfacial electron-magnon scattering because of the imbalance between magnon emission and absorption caused by either the deviation of the magnon number from the equilibrium Bose-Einstein distribution or the difference in magnon temperature and electron temperature. A temperature gradient in FI and/or a temperature difference across the FI/NM interface generates a spin current which carries angular momenta parallel to the magnetization of FI from the hotter side to the colder one. Interestingly, the spin current induced by a temperature gradient in NM is negligibly small due to the nonmagnetic nature of the nonequilibrium electron distributions. The results agree well with all existing experiments.

  1. Radiation-Suppressed plasmonic open resonators designed by nonmagnetic transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyi; Wang, Xingjue; Yu, Tianyuan; Sun, Handong; Zhang, Baile

    2012-01-01

    How to confine light energy associated with surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a physical space with minimal radiation loss whereas creating maximum interacting section with surrounding environment is of particular interest in plasmonic optics. By virtue of transformation optics, we propose a design method of forming a polygonal surface-plasmonic resonator in fully open structures by applying the nonmagnetic affine transformation optics strategy. The radiation loss can be suppressed because SPPs that propagate in the designed open structures will be deceived as if they were propagating on a flat metal/dielectric interface without radiation. Because of the nonmagnetic nature of the transformation strategy, this design can be implemented with dielectric materials available in nature. An experimentally verifiable model is subsequently proposed for future experimental demonstration. Our design may find potential applications in omnidirectional sensing, light harvesting, energy storage and plasmonic lasing. PMID:23136641

  2. Enhanced spin-torque in double tunnel junctions using a nonmagnetic-metal spacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. H.; Cheng, Y. H.; Ko, C. W.; Hsueh, W. J., E-mail: hsuehwj@ntu.edu.tw [Nanomagnetism Group, Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10660, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-12

    This study proposes an enhancement in the spin-transfer torque of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) designed with double-barrier layer structure using a nonmagnetic metal spacer, as a replacement for the ferromagnetic material, which is traditionally used in these double-barrier stacks. Our calculation results show that the spin-transfer torque and charge current density of the proposed double-barrier MTJ can be as much as two orders of magnitude larger than the traditional double-barrier one. In other words, the proposed double-barrier MTJ has a spin-transfer torque that is three orders larger than that of the single-barrier stack. This improvement may be attributed to the quantum-well states that are formed in the nonmagnetic metal spacer and the resonant tunneling mechanism that exists throughout the system.

  3. Spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Fan Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. We find that the periodic DMS/NB superlattices can achieve 100% spin filtering over a dramatically broader range of incident energies than the diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor (DMS/S case studied previously. And the positions and widths of spin-filtering bands can be manipulated effectively by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system or the strength of external magnetic field. Such a compelling filtering feature stems from the introduction of nonmagnetic barrier and the spin-dependent giant Zeeman effect induced by the external magnetic field. We also find that the external electric field can exert a significant influence on the spin-polarized transport through the DMS/NB superlattices.

  4. Spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoy66@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Zhu, Rui [Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-07-15

    We propose a spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. We find that the periodic DMS/NB superlattices can achieve 100% spin filtering over a dramatically broader range of incident energies than the diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor (DMS/S) case studied previously. And the positions and widths of spin-filtering bands can be manipulated effectively by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system or the strength of external magnetic field. Such a compelling filtering feature stems from the introduction of nonmagnetic barrier and the spin-dependent giant Zeeman effect induced by the external magnetic field. We also find that the external electric field can exert a significant influence on the spin-polarized transport through the DMS/NB superlattices.

  5. Hidden spin polarization in nonmagnetic centrosymmetric BaNiS2 crystal: Signatures from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławińska, Jagoda; Narayan, Awadhesh; Picozzi, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The recent discovery of hidden spin polarization emerging in bulk electronic states of specific nonmagnetic crystals is a fascinating phenomenon, though hardly explored yet. Here, we study from a theoretical perspective nonmagnetic BaNiS2, recently suggested to exhibit a giant Rashba-like spin-orbit splitting of the bulk bands, despite the absence of heavy elements. We employ density functional theory and Green's functions calculations to reveal the exact spin textures of both bulk and surface. We predict unambiguous signatures of spin-polarized electronic states at the surface, which reflect the bulk Rashba splitting and which could be experimentally measured with sufficient resolution: this would constitute a clear report of a bulk-Rashba-induced spin splitting at the surface of centrosymmetric crystals.

  6. Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor’s Perspective Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor’s Perspective Andrea Zinn June 16, 2015 · Amber ... preferences. Q: Why did you decide to wear a breast form/prosthesis rather than have a reconstruction? ...

  7. Temperature profile along an induction heated, moving non-magnetic charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januszkiewicz, K.

    1984-01-01

    Induction heating system, comprising three sections of a heating coil connected in series and supplied from one source, will be discussed. The charge to be heated is a non-magnetic pipe moving with steady speed. The heating coil is water cooled. Digital methods are used to compute temperature variations along the charge from start up to steady state temperature and also to determine power development in the heating circuit. Cooling zones between the heating coil sections are taken into account.

  8. Simulation of Electron Beam Dynamics in a Nonmagnetized High-Current Vacuum Diode

    CERN Document Server

    Anishchenko, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The electron beam dynamics in a nonmagnetized high-current vacuum diode is analyzed for different cathode-anode gap geometries. The conditions enabling to achieve the minimal {initial} momentum spread in the electron beam are found out. A drastic rise of current density in a vacuum diode with a ring-type cathode is described. The effect is shown to be caused by electrostatic repulsion.

  9. The space density and X-ray luminosity function of non-magnetic cataclysmic variables

    CERN Document Server

    Pretorius, Magaretha L

    2011-01-01

    We combine two complete, X-ray flux-limited surveys, the ROSAT Bright Survey (RBS) and the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) survey, to measure the space density (\\rho) and X-ray luminosity function (\\Phi) of non-magnetic CVs. The combined survey has a flux limit of F_X \\ga 1.1 \\times 10^{-12} erg cm^{-2}s^{-1} over most of its solid angle of just over 2\\pi, but is as deep as \\simeq 10^{-14} erg cm^{-2}s^{-1} over a small area. The CV sample that we construct from these two surveys contains 20 non-magnetic systems. We carefully include all sources of statistical error in calculating \\rho and \\Phi by using Monte Carlo simulations; the most important uncertainty proves to be the often large errors in distances estimates. If we assume that the 20 CVs in the combined RBS and NEP survey sample are representative of the intrinsic population, the space density of non-magnetic CVs is 4^{+6}_{-2} \\times 10^{-6} pc^{-3}. We discuss the difficulty in measuring \\Phi in some detail---in order to account for biases in the me...

  10. Valley and spin resonant tunneling current in ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic silicene junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Hajati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the transport properties in a ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic (FNF silicene junction in which an electrostatic gate potential, U, is attached to the nonmagnetic region. We show that the electrostatic gate potential U is a useful probe to control the band structure, quasi-bound states in the nonmagnetic barrier as well as the transport properties of the FNF silicene junction. In particular, by introducing the electrostatic gate potential, both the spin and valley conductances of the junction show an oscillatory behavior. The amplitude and frequency of such oscillations can be controlled by U. As an important result, we found that by increasing U, the second characteristic of the Klein tunneling is satisfied as a result of the quasiparticles chirality which can penetrate through a potential barrier. Moreover, it is found that for special values of U, the junction shows a gap in the spin and valley-resolve conductance and the amplitude of this gap is only controlled by the on-site potential difference, Δz. Our findings of high controllability of the spin and valley transport in such a FNF silicene junction may improve the performance of nano-electronics and spintronics devices.

  11. Magnetoresistance generated from charge-spin conversion by anomalous Hall effect in metallic ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical formulation of magnetoresistance effect in a metallic ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayer originated from the charge-spin conversion by the anomalous Hall effect is presented. Analytical expressions of the longitudinal and transverse resistivities in both nonmagnet and ferromagnet are obtained by solving the spin diffusion equation. The magnetoresistance generated from charge-spin conversion purely caused by the anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnet is found to be proportional to the square of the spin polarizations in the ferromagnet and has fixed sign. We also find additional magnetoresistances in both nonmagnet and ferromagnet arising from the mixing of the spin Hall and anomalous Hall effects. The sign of this mixing resistance depends on those of the spin Hall angle in the nonmagnet and the spin polarizations of the ferromagnet.

  12. Grain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Our fundamental knowledge of interstellar grain composition has grown substantially during the past two decades thanks to significant advances in two areas: astronomical infrared spectroscopy and laboratory astrophysics. The opening of the mid-infrared, the spectral range from 4000-400 cm(sup -1) (2.5-25 microns), to spectroscopic study has been critical to this progress because spectroscopy in this region reveals more about a materials molecular composition and structure than any other physical property. Infrared spectra which are diagnostic of interstellar grain composition fall into two categories: absorption spectra of the dense and diffuse interstellar media, and emission spectra from UV-Vis rich dusty regions. The former will be presented in some detail, with the latter only very briefly mentioned. This paper summarized what we have learned from these spectra and presents 'doorway' references into the literature. Detailed reviews of many aspects of interstellar dust are given.

  13. Dipole-Dipole Interactions of Charged Magnetic Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Jonathan; Hyde, Truell

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between dust grains is an important process in fields as diverse as planetesimal formation or the plasma processing of silicon wafers into computer chips. This interaction depends in large part on the material properties of the grains, for example whether the grains are conducting, non-conducting, ferrous or non-ferrous. This work considers the effects that electrostatic and magnetic forces, alone or in combination, can have on the coagulation of dust in various environments. A numerical model is used to simulate the coagulation of charged, charged-magnetic and magnetic dust aggregates formed from ferrous material and the results are compared to each other as well as to those from uncharged, non-magnetic material. The interactions between extended dust aggregates are also examined, specifically looking at how the arrangement of charge over the aggregate surface or the inclusion of magnetic material produces dipole-dipole interactions. It will be shown that these dipole-dipole interactions can ...

  14. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  15. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  16. Guide to Choosing Stroke Rehabilitation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Stroke Association’s Guide to Choosing Stroke Rehabilitation Services Rehabilitation, often referred to as rehab, is an important part of stroke recovery. Through rehab, you:  Re-learn basic skills such ...

  17. Non-magnetic simplified cylindrical cloak with suppressed zero-th order scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Wei; Qiu, Min

    2008-01-01

    A new type of simplified cloaks with matched exterior boundaries is proposed. The cloak uses non-magnetic material for the TM polarization and can function with a relatively thin thickness. It is shown that the $zero^{th}$ order scattering of such cloak is dominant among all cylindrical scattering terms. A gap is added at the cloak's inner surface to eliminate the zero-th order scattering, through the mechanism of scattering resonance. The reduction in scattering is relatively smooth, indicating that the proposed scattering reduction method has good tolerance to perturbations. Numerical simulations also confirm that the proposed structure has very low scattering.

  18. Few-layer graphene shells and nonmagnetic encapsulates: a versatile and nontoxic carbon nanomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Mendes, Rafael G; Hirsch, Cordula; Jähne, Carsten; Lohe, Martin R; Grothe, Julia; Kaskel, Stefan; Fu, Lei; Klingeler, Rüdiger; Eckert, Jürgen; Wick, Peter; Rümmeli, Mark H

    2013-12-23

    In this work a simple and scalable approach to coat nonmagnetic nanoparticles with few-layer graphene is presented. In addition, the easy processing of such nanoparticles to remove their core, leaving only the 3D graphene nanoshell, is demonstrated. The samples are comprehensively characterized, as are their versatility in terms of functionalization and as a material for electrochemical storage. Indeed, these 3D graphene nanostructures are easily functionalized much as is found with carbon nanotubes and planar graphene. Electrochemical investigations indicate these nanostructures are promising for stable long-life battery applications. Finally, initial toxicological investigations suggest no acute health risk from these 3D graphene nanostructures.

  19. Magnetism of Rare-Earth Compounds with Non-Magnetic Crystal-Field Ground Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-Sen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Among rare-earth compounds, there are many materials having non-magnetic crystal-field (CF) ground levels.To understand their magnetic behaviour at low temperatures, we study the effects of the CF levels and the Heisenberg-like coupling on the magnetic process of such a crystalline with mean-field and CF theory. It is found that the material can be magnetically ordered if the Heisenberg exchange is sufficiently strong. Additionally we obtain a condition for initial magnetic ordering, and derive a formula for estimating the Curie temperature if the ordering occurs.

  20. Spin-current-induced magnetoresistance in trilayer structure with nonmagnetic metallic interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Ryo; Sato, Koji; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    We have theoretically investigated the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) and Rashba–Edelstein magnetoresistance (REMR), mediated by spin currents, in a ferrimagnetic insulator/nonmagnetic metal/heavy metal system in the diffusive regime. The magnitude of both SMR and REMR decreases with increasing thickness of the interlayer because of the current shunting effect and the reduction in spin accumulation across the interlayer. The latter contribution is due to driving a spin current and persists even in the absence of spin relaxation, which is essential for understanding the magnetoresistance ratio in trilayer structures.

  1. Position feedback control of a nonmagnetic body levitated in magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H; Nam, Y J; Park, M K [Graduate School, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Yamane, R [Kokushikan University, Tokyo 154-8515 (Japan)], E-mail: magooro@pusan.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the position feedback control of a magnetic fluid actuator which is characterized by the passive levitation of a nonmagnetic body immersed in a magnetic fluid under magnetic fields. First of all, the magnetic fluid actuator is designed based on the ferrohydrostatic relation. After manufacturing the actuator, its static and dynamic characteristics are investigated experimentally. With the aid of the dynamic governing relation obtained experimentally and the proportional-derivative controller, the position tracking control of the actuator is carried out both theoretically and experimentally. As a result, the applicability of the proposed magnetic fluid actuator to various engineering devices is verified.

  2. The space density and X-ray luminosity function of non-magnetic cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Magaretha L.; Knigge, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We combine two complete, X-ray flux-limited surveys, the ROSAT Bright Survey (RBS) and the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) survey, to measure the space density (ρ) and X-ray luminosity function (Φ) of non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs). The combined survey has a flux limit of FX≳ 1.1 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 over most of its solid angle of just over ?, but is as deep as ≃10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 over a small area. The CV sample that we construct from these two surveys contains 20 non-magnetic systems. We carefully include all sources of statistical error in calculating ρ and Φ by using Monte Carlo simulations; the most important uncertainty proves to be the often large errors in distances estimates. If we assume that the 20 CVs in the combined RBS and NEP survey sample are representative of the intrinsic population, the space density of non-magnetic CVs is ?. We discuss the difficulty in measuring Φ in some detail - in order to account for biases in the measurement, we have to adopt a functional form for Φ. Assuming that the X-ray luminosity function of non-magnetic CVs is a truncated power law, we constrain the power-law index to -0.80 ± 0.05. It seems likely that the two surveys have failed to detect a large, faint population of short-period CVs, and that the true space density may well be a factor of 2 or 3 larger than what we have measured; this is possible, even if we only allow for undetected CVs to have X-ray luminosities in the narrow range 28.7 log(LX/erg s-1) < 29.7. However, ρ as high as 2 × 10-4 pc-3 would require that the majority of CVs has X-ray luminosities below LX= 4 × 1028 erg s-1 in the 0.5-2.0 keV band.

  3. Induction heating of rotating nonmagnetic billet in magnetic field produced by high-parameter permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Doležel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An advanced way of induction heating of nonmagnetic billets is discussed and modeled. The billet rotates in a stationary magnetic field produced by unmoving high-parameter permanent magnets fixed on magnetic circuit of an appropriate shape. The mathematical model of the problem consisting of two coupled partial differential equations is solved numerically, in the monolithic formulation. Computations are carried out using our own code Agros2D based on a fully adaptive higher-order finite element method. The most important results are verified experimentally on our own laboratory device.

  4. Quantum size effects on spin-transfer torque in a double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (semiconductor) spacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daqiq, Reza; Ghobadi, Nader

    2016-07-15

    We study the quantum size effects of an MgO-based double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (DBMTJ-NM) (semiconductor (DBMTJ-SC)) spacer on the charge current and the spin-transfer torque (STT) components using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The results show oscillatory behavior due to the resonant tunneling effect depending on the structure parameters. We find that the charge current and the STT components in the DBMTJ-SC demonstrate the magnitude enhancement in comparison with the DBMTJ-NM. The bias dependence of the STT components in a DBMTJ-NM shows different behavior in comparison with spin valves and conventional MTJs. Therefore, by choosing a specific SC spacer with suitable thickness in a DBMTJ the charge current and the STT components significantly increase so that one can design a device with high STT and faster magnetization switching. - Highlights: • The quantum size effects are studied in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. • Spin torque (ST) components oscillate for increasing of middle spacer thicknesses. • Due to the resonant tunneling in the quantum well, oscillations have appeared. • By replacement a metal spacer with a semiconductor (ZnO) ST has increased. • The ST components vs. bias show gradually decreasing unlike spin valves or MTJs.

  5. Anomalous Localized Resonance Phenomena in the Nonmagnetic, Finite-Frequency Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Onofrei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of anomalous localized resonance (ALR is observed at the interface between materials with positive and negative material parameters and is characterized by the fact that when a given source is placed near the interface, the electric and magnetic fields start to have very fast and large oscillations around the interface as the absorption in the materials becomes very small while they remain smooth and regular away from the interface. In this paper, we discuss the phenomenon of anomalous localized resonance (ALR in the context of an infinite slab of homogeneous, nonmagnetic material (μ=1 with permittivity ϵs=-1-iδ for some small loss δ≪1 surrounded by positive, nonmagnetic, homogeneous media. We explicitly characterize the limit value of the product between frequency and the width of slab beyond which the ALR phenomenon does not occur and analyze the situation when the phenomenon is observed. In addition, we also construct sources for which the ALR phenomenon never appears.

  6. Quantifying absolute spin polarization with non-magnetic contacts in FM/ n-GaAs heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Chad; Wienkes, Lee; Christie, Kevin; Patel, Sahil; Palmstrøm, Chris; Crowell, Paul

    2014-03-01

    We report on a novel method of quantifying spin accumulation in Co2MnSi/ n-GaAs and Fe/ n-GaAs heterostructures using a non-magnetic probe. The presence of a non-equilibrium spin polarization generates a large electrostatic potential shift relative to the equilibrium state. This is due to the combination of (1) the parabolic (non-constant) density of states and (2) the population imbalance between the two spin sub-bands. We observe this shift as a Hanle effect in a non-local, non-magnetic semiconducting contact. Since this signal depends only on experimentally accessible parameters of the bulk semiconductor, its magnitude may be used to quantify the injected spin polarization in absolute terms. By comparison with the (smaller) spin-valve signal observed with a second ferromagnetic contact, we demonstrate that this electrostatic shift scales quadratically with spin polarization, dephases in the presence of both applied and hyperfine fields, and is observable to higher temperatures than traditional non-local measurements. Quantitative modeling allows extraction of absolute polarizations in excess of 50 % at low temperatures, and further indicates that this contribution constitutes a large fraction of the three-terminal signal observed in these devices. Supported by NSF DMR-1104951; by STARnet, a SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA; and by the NSF MRSEC program.

  7. Kramers non-magnetic superconductivity in LnNiAsO superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuke; Luo, Yongkang; Li, Lin; Chen, Bin; Xu, Xiaofeng; Dai, Jianhui; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Li; Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Zhu-an

    2014-10-22

    We investigated a series of nickel-based oxyarsenides LnNiAsO (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) compounds. CeNiAsO undergoes two successive anti-ferromagnetic transitions at TN1=9.3 K and TN2=7.3 K; SmNiAsO becomes an anti-ferromagnet below TN≃3.5 K; NdNiAsO keeps paramagnetic down to 2 K but orders anti-ferromagnetically below TN≃1.3 K. Superconductivity was observed only in Kramers non-magnetic LaNiAsO and PrNiAsO with Tc=2.7 K and 0.93 K, respectively. The superconductivity of PrNiAsO is further studied by upper critical field and specific heat measurements, which reveal that PrNiAsO is a weakly coupled Kramers non-magnetic superconductor. Our work confirms that the nickel-based oxyarsenide superconductors are substantially different in mechanism to iron-based ones, and are likely to be described by the conventional superconductivity theory.

  8. Magnetism at the Interface of Magnetic Oxide and Nonmagnetic Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Avijit; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2017-03-28

    Engineering interfaces specifically in quantum dot (QD) heterostructures provide several prospects for developing multifunctional building block materials. Precise control over internal structure by chemical synthesis offers a combination of different properties in QDs and allows us to study their fundamental properties, depending on their structure. Herein, we studied the interface of magnetic/nonmagnetic Fe3O4/CdS QD heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate the decrease in the size of the magnetic core due to annealing at high temperature by the decrease in saturation magnetization and blocking temperature. Furthermore, surprisingly, in a prominently optically active and magnetically inactive material such as CdS, we observe the presence of substantial exchange bias in spite of the nonmagnetic nature of CdS QDs. The presence of exchange bias was proven by the increase in magnetic anisotropy as well as the presence of exchange bias field (HE) during the field-cooled magnetic measurements. This exchange coupling was eventually traced to the in situ formation of a thin antiferromagnetic FeS layer at the interface. This is verified by the study of Fe local structure using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, demonstrating the importance of interface engineering in QDs.

  9. Component masses of young, wide, non-magnetic white dwarf binaries in the SDSS DR7

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, R B; Parker, Q A; Casewell, S L; Lodieu, N; Burleigh, M R; Lawrie, K A; Kulebi, B; Koester, D; Holland, B R

    2014-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic component analysis of 18 candidate young, wide, non-magnetic, double-degenerate binaries identified from a search of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (DR7). All but two pairings are likely to be physical systems. We show SDSS J084952.47+471247.7 + SDSS J084952.87+471249.4 to be a wide DA+DB binary, only the second identified to date. Combining our measurements for the components of 16 new binaries with results for three similar, previously known systems within the DR7, we have constructed a mass distribution for the largest sample to date (38) of white dwarfs in young, wide, non-magnetic, double-degenerate pairings. This is broadly similar in form to that of the isolated field population with a substantial peak around M~0.6 Msun. We identify an excess of ultra-massive white dwarfs and attribute this to the primordial separation distribution of their progenitor systems peaking at relatively larger values and the greater expansion of their binary orbits during the final sta...

  10. Non-magnetic impurity effects in LiFeAs studied by STM/STS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaguri, T.; Khim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Bumsung; Kim, Kee Hoon; Kitagawa, K.; Matsubayashi, K.; Mazaki, Y.; Uwatoko, Y.; Takigawa, M.; Takagi, H.

    2012-02-01

    Detecting the possible sign reversal of the superconducting gap in iron-based superconductors is highly non-trivial. Here we use non-magnetic impurity as a sign indicator. If the sign of the superconducting gap is positive everywhere in momentum space, in-gap bound state should not be observed near the impurity site unless it is magnetic. On the other hand, if there is a sign-reversal in the gap, even non-magnetic impurity may create in-gap bound state [1]. We performed STM/STS experiments on self-flux and Sn-flux grown LiFeAs crystals and examined the effects of Sn impurity. In STM images of Sn-flux grown samples, we found a ring-like object which may represent Sn. Tunneling spectrum taken at this defect site exhibits in-gap bound state. Together with flat-bottom superconducting gap observed far from the defects, sign-reversing s-wave gap is the most plausible gap structure in LiFeAs. [1] T. Kariyado and M. Ogata, JPSJ 79, 083704 (2010).

  11. Choosing an optimum sand control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khamehchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation sand control is always one of the main concerns of production engineers. There are some different methods to prevent sand production. Choosing a method for preventing formation sand production depends on different reservoir parameters and politic and economic conditions. Sometimes, economic and politic conditions are more effective to choose an optimum than reservoir parameters. Often, simultaneous investigation of politic and economic conditions with reservoir parameters has different results with what is expected. So, choosing the best sand control method is the result of thorough study. Global oil price, duration of sand control project and costs of necessary equipment for each method as economic and politic conditions and well productivity index as reservoir parameter are the main parameters studied in this paper.

  12. Invariance of the magnetic behavior and AMI in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Gamino, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vázquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bohn, F., E-mail: felipebohn@fisica.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the quasi-static magnetic, magnetotransport, and dynamic magnetic properties in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacer layers. We observe that the nature of the non-magnetic metallic spacer material does not have significant influence on the overall biphase magnetic behavior, and, consequently, on the magnetotransport and dynamic magnetic responses. We focus on the magnetoimpedance effect and verify that the films present asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect. Moreover, we explore the possibility of tuning the linear region of the magnetoimpedance curves around zero magnetic field by varying the probe current frequency in order to achieve higher sensitivity values. The invariance of the magnetic behavior and the asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers place them as promising candidates for probe element and open possibilities to the development of lower-cost high sensitivity linear magnetic field sensor devices.

  13. Invariance of the magnetic behavior and AMI in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E. F.; Gamino, M.; Andrade, A. M. H. de; Vázquez, M.; Correa, M. A.; Bohn, F.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the quasi-static magnetic, magnetotransport, and dynamic magnetic properties in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacer layers. We observe that the nature of the non-magnetic metallic spacer material does not have significant influence on the overall biphase magnetic behavior, and, consequently, on the magnetotransport and dynamic magnetic responses. We focus on the magnetoimpedance effect and verify that the films present asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect. Moreover, we explore the possibility of tuning the linear region of the magnetoimpedance curves around zero magnetic field by varying the probe current frequency in order to achieve higher sensitivity values. The invariance of the magnetic behavior and the asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers place them as promising candidates for probe element and open possibilities to the development of lower-cost high sensitivity linear magnetic field sensor devices.

  14. Effects of orientation and interaction of grains on coercivity for sintered NdFeB magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高汝伟; 李卫; 张建成; 吴良学; 喻晓军

    1999-01-01

    The coercivity of NdFeB magnets is determined by the coercivity of individual grains and the interaction between the grains composed of the magnets. The coercivity of individual grains and the intergrain interaction depend on the degree of the grain alignment. "tanθ type" Ganssian function is applied to describing the degree of the grain alignment. According to different coercivity mechanisms, there are different formula on the coercivity and the angular dependence of coercivity. The interaction between grains can be classified as the long-range magnetostatic interaction and the exchange-coupling interaction of neighboring grains. For the sintered magnet, the grain size is large and the grain boundaries are mostly separated by the non-magnetic phase. So, the long-range magnetostatic interaction is much stronger than the exchange coupling interaction and it makes the coercivity of the magnet composed of misaligned grains be bigger than that of the magnet composed of ideally aligned grains. The effects o

  15. Don't Choose Your Own Successor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Harry

    1974-01-01

    Chief executive officers (CEOs) often select successors who fail. CEOs may choose badly because they cannot foresee the future, recognize the qualities that led them to success, or betray company traditions. Most often, however, they unconsciously wish to prove that no one can do the job as well as they have. (Author/JF)

  16. Free to Choose Service-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Michael P.; Heet, Justina A.

    2000-01-01

    Service learning holds tremendous potential for expanding and enriching children's education. However, community polarization can result when such programs are implemented in schools that are not freely chosen by families of children attending them. Parents must be allowed to choose schools reflecting their priorities and beliefs. (MLH)

  17. Cloud Computing and the Power to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Rob; Dodds, Ted; Northam, Richard; Plugge, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Some of the most significant changes in information technology are those that have given the individual user greater power to choose. The first of these changes was the development of the personal computer. The PC liberated the individual user from the limitations of the mainframe and minicomputers and from the rules and regulations of centralized…

  18. Cloud Computing and the Power to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Rob; Dodds, Ted; Northam, Richard; Plugge, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Some of the most significant changes in information technology are those that have given the individual user greater power to choose. The first of these changes was the development of the personal computer. The PC liberated the individual user from the limitations of the mainframe and minicomputers and from the rules and regulations of centralized…

  19. Who Chooses Primary Teaching and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sabine; Kiel, Ewald

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates who chooses primary teaching and how prospective primary school teachers differ from future teachers in other types of schools. Using variance analysis, future student-teachers of different types of schools are compared with regard to their motives for the choice of studies and profession. As a main result, prospective…

  20. Why do men choose to become pedagogues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results from a study on reasons for choosing social education for a profession when you are a man. The study concluded that multiple job opportunities and caring for others is a strong motive for men along with possible further studies. The study also disclosed that many...

  1. Magnetic reversal in iron thin films interspersed with non-magnetic pinning sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nau, Stefan; Wiedwald, Ulf; Wiedemann, Stefan; Plettl, Alfred; Ziemann, Paul [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Magnetic switching of continuous iron thin films is tailored by structuring a periodic array of nonmagnetic holes acting as pinning centers for domain walls. Contrary to common lithographically prepared antidots, nanostructures are prepared by deposition of densely packed monolayers of polystyrene (PS) spheres on silicon and silicon nitride substrates. Isotropic plasma etching leads to adjustable PS diameters between 20% and 80% of the initial value while conserving the particle spacing. The influence on the magnetic reversal process is studied as a function of diameter and distance of the PS spheres. Iron films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition. Antidot arrays of 100 nm period lead to up to 15 times increased in-plane coercive fields at 300 K, depending on dot diameters and film thicknesses. The magnetic reversal is imaged by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy accompanied by micromagnetic simulations in order to understand domain nucleation and propagation in varying external fields.

  2. Increasing energy relaxation time of superconducting qubits with nonmagnetic infrared filter and shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhao, Liu; Mengmeng, Li; Dong, Lan; Guangming, Xue; Xinsheng, Tan; Haifeng, Yu; Yang, Yu

    2016-05-01

    One of the primary origins of the energy relaxation in superconducting qubits is the quasiparticle loss. The quasiparticles can be excited remarkably by infrared radiation. In order to minimize the density of quasiparticle and increase the qubit relaxation time, we design and fabricate the infrared filter and shield for superconducting qubits. In comparison with previous filters and shields, a nonmagnetic dielectric is used as the infrared absorbing material, greatly suppressing the background magnetic fluctuations. The filters can be made to impedance-match with other microwave devices. Using the as-fabricated infrared filter and shield, we increased the relaxation time of a transmon qubit from 519 ns to 1125 ns. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91321310, 11274156, 11474152, 11474153, 61521001, and 11504165) and the State Key Program for Basic Research of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB922104 and 2011CBA00205).

  3. Theoretical study of optical conductivity of graphene with magnetic and nonmagnetic adatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Muhammad Aziz; Siregar, Syahril; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2014-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of the optical conductivity of graphene with magnetic and nonmagnetic adatoms. First, by introducing an alternating potential in a pure graphene, we demonstrate a gap formation in the density of states and the corresponding optical conductivity. We highlight the distinction between such a gap formation and the so-called Pauli blocking effect. Next, we apply this idea to graphene with adatoms by introducing magnetic interactions between the carrier spins and the spins of the adatoms. Exploring various possible ground-state spin configurations of the adatoms, we find that the antiferromagnetic configuration yields the lowest total electronic energy and is the only configuration that forms a gap. Furthermore, we analyze four different circumstances leading to similar gaplike structures and propose a means to interpret the magneticity and the possible orderings of the adatoms on graphene solely from the optical conductivity data. We apply this analysis to the recently reported experimental data of oxygenated graphene.

  4. Spin-dependent tunneling time in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoy66@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the tunneling time (dwell time) in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. It is found that spin-dependent resonant bands form in the spectra of dwell time, which can be effectively manipulated by not only the external magnetic field but also the geometric parameters of the system. Moreover, an intuitive semiclassical delay is defined to illustrate the behavior of the dwell time, and the former one is shown to be the result of “smoothing out” the latter one. We also find that the dwell time in diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor superlattices behaves surprisingly different from the DMS/NB case, especially for spin-down electrons.

  5. Spin-Selective Electron Quantum Transport in Nonmagnetic MgZnO/ZnO Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryenko, D; Falson, J; Bahramy, M S; Dmitriev, I A; Kozuka, Y; Tsukazaki, A; Kawasaki, M

    2015-11-06

    We report magnetotransport measurements on a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system at the nonmagnetic MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface showing distinct behavior for electrons with spin-up and spin-down orientations. The low-field Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations manifest alternating resistance peak heights which can be attributed to distinct scattering rates for different spin orientations. The tilt-field measurements at a half-integer filling factor reveal that the majority spins show usual diffusive behavior, i.e., peaks with the magnitude proportional to the index of the Landau level at the Fermi energy. By contrast, the minority spins develop "plateaus" with the magnitude of dissipative resistivity that is fairly independent of the Landau level index and is of the order of the zero-field resistivity.

  6. Spin-orbit-induced longitudinal spin-polarized currents in nonmagnetic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, S.; Seemann, M.; Chadova, K.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.

    2015-07-01

    For certain nonmagnetic solids with low symmetry the occurrence of spin-polarized longitudinal currents is predicted. These arise due to an interplay of spin-orbit interaction and the particular crystal symmetry. This result is derived using a group-theoretical scheme that allows investigating the symmetry properties of any linear response tensor relevant to the field of spintronics. For the spin conductivity tensor it is shown that only the magnetic Laue group has to be considered in this context. Within the introduced general scheme also the spin Hall and additional related transverse effects emerge without making reference to the two-current model. Numerical studies confirm these findings and demonstrate for (Au1-xPtx)4Sc that the longitudinal spin conductivity may be on the same order of magnitude as the conventional transverse one. The presented formalism only relies on the magnetic space group and therefore is universally applicable to any type of magnetic order.

  7. Affine nonmagnetic transformation optics and its application to a practical bending adapter design

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hongyi; Yu, Tianyuan; Barbastathis, George; Sun, Handong

    2011-01-01

    One of the bottlenecks that limit the transition of transformation-optics devices from concepts to practical use is the nonunit magnetic permeability generally required from a mathematical transformation. Simple renormalization of permeability, as used in many previous designs and experiments, introduces impedance mismatch and thus degrades the functional photonic performance. Here we propose an area-preserving affine coordinate transformation as a general method to solve this problem. Ideal transformation-optics functions can be preserved while nonmagnetism is achieved. As a specific example, we illustrate how to apply this affine method into the design of a two-dimensional electromagnetic beam bending adapter. Concerns related to fabrication, such as anisotropy degree and bending angles, are fully discussed. Our study is a significant step toward practical use of ideal transformation optics devices that can be implemented directly with existing dielectric materials.

  8. Ferromagnetic/Nonmagnetic Nanostructures for the Electrical Measurement of the Spin Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Tuong; Vila, Laurent; Zahnd, Gilles; Marty, Alain; Savero-Torres, Williams; Jamet, Matthieu; Attané, Jean-Philippe

    2016-11-09

    Spin-orbitronics is based on the ability of spin-orbit interactions to achieve the conversion between charge currents and pure spin currents. As the precise evaluation of the conversion efficiency becomes a crucial issue, the need for straightforward ways to observe this conversion has emerged as one of the main challenges in spintronics. Here, we propose a simple device, akin to the ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayers used in most spin-orbit torques experiments, and consisting of a spin Hall effect wire connected to two transverse ferromagnetic electrodes. We show that this system allows probing electrically the direct and inverse conversion in a spin Hall effect system and measuring both the spin Hall angle and the spin diffusion length. By applying this method to several spin Hall effect materials (Pt, Pd, Au, Ta, W), we show that it represents a promising tool for the metrology of spin-orbit materials.

  9. Non-magnetic photospheric bright points in 3D simulations of the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, F.; Steiner, O.; Freytag, B.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Small-scale bright features in the photosphere of the Sun, such as faculae or G-band bright points, appear in connection with small-scale magnetic flux concentrations. Aims: Here we report on a new class of photospheric bright points that are free of magnetic fields. So far, these are visible in numerical simulations only. We explore conditions required for their observational detection. Methods: Numerical radiation (magneto-)hydrodynamic simulations of the near-surface layers of the Sun were carried out. The magnetic field-free simulations show tiny bright points, reminiscent of magnetic bright points, only smaller. A simple toy model for these non-magnetic bright points (nMBPs) was established that serves as a base for the development of an algorithm for their automatic detection. Basic physical properties of 357 detected nMBPs were extracted and statistically evaluated. We produced synthetic intensity maps that mimic observations with various solar telescopes to obtain hints on their detectability. Results: The nMBPs of the simulations show a mean bolometric intensity contrast with respect to their intergranular surroundings of approximately 20%, a size of 60-80 km, and the isosurface of optical depth unity is at their location depressed by 80-100 km. They are caused by swirling downdrafts that provide, by means of the centripetal force, the necessary pressure gradient for the formation of a funnel of reduced mass density that reaches from the subsurface layers into the photosphere. Similar, frequently occurring funnels that do not reach into the photosphere, do not produce bright points. Conclusions: Non-magnetic bright points are the observable manifestation of vertically extending vortices (vortex tubes) in the photosphere. The resolving power of 4-m-class telescopes, such as the DKIST, is needed for an unambiguous detection of them. The movie associated to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Effect of nonmagnetic substituents Mg and Zn on the phase competition in the multiferroic antiferromagnet MnWO4

    OpenAIRE

    Meddar, Lynda; Josse, Michael; Deniard, Philippe; La, Carole; André, Gilles; Damay, Françoise; Petricek, Vaclav; Jobic, Stéphane; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Maglione, Mario; Payen, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The effects of substituting nonmagnetic Mg2+ and Zn2+ ions for the Mn2+ (S = 5/2) ions on the structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of the multiferroic frustrated antiferromagnet MnWO4 were investigated. Polycrystalline samples of Mn1-xMgxWO4 and Mn1-xZnxWO4 (0

  11. Giant magneto-optical response in non-magnetic semiconductor BiTeI driven by bulk Rashba spin splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Demkó, L.; Schober, G. A. H.; Kocsis, V.; Bahramy, M.S.; Murakawa, H.; Lee, J. S.; Kézsmárki, I.; Arita, R.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We study the magneto-optical (MO) response of polar semiconductor BiTeI with giant bulk Rashba spin splitting at various carrier densities. Despite being non-magnetic, the material is found to yield a huge MO activity in the infrared region under moderate magnetic fields (

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nonmagnetic Fe-25Mn-xCu-C steels by super solidus liquid phase sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shanquan; Xiao, Zhiyu; Wang, Jun; Yang, Shuo; Guan, Hangjian; Zhu, Quanli

    2016-11-01

    In this work, nonmagnetic steels Fe-25Mn-xCu-C were prepared by high manganese pre-alloyed steel powders through powder metallurgy (PM) technique. Four types of steels specimen were created to investigate the microstructure evolving with sintering process, mechanical properties and magnetic properties. The microstructures, fracture surfaces, phase constitutions and mechanical properties of Fe-25Mn-xCu-C were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and tensile strength test. The results showed that super solidus liquid-phase sintering (SLPS) phenomenon was conclusively verified, for the first time, in the Fe-Mn pre-alloyed powders: Liquids generated by SLPS process from pre-alloyed powders could improve the binding condition between the particles and enhance the densification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiment and physical property measurement system (PPMS) measurement verified the nonmagnetic properties of steels with single austenite phase. It is confirmed that mechanical properties are intensively influenced by the characteristic and quantity of liquids between the matrix particles. The fracture mechanism of the steel is dominated by intergranular decohesion mode. The preliminary study found this kind of new non-magnetic steel exhibits relatively high density. With the efficiency in fabricating and the non-magnetic property, this work foresees good prospects for application in the steel components manufacturing industry.

  13. Fabrication of a Textured Non-Magnetic Ni-12at.%V Alloy Substrate for Coated Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, M. M.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Suo, H. L.;

    2011-01-01

    Ni-12at.%V alloy is a promising candidate for non-magnetic cube textured metallic substrates used for high temperature coated conductors. In this work, a textured Ni-12at.%V substrate has been fabricated by powder metallurgy route. After cold rolling and recrystallization annealing, a cube texture...

  14. Choosing wisely-where is the choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A little over a year ago an editorial was posted in the Southwest Journal about the Choosing Wisely campaign from the American Board of Internal Medicine and Consumer Reports (1. You may remember that Choosing Wisely announced a list of procedures or treatments that patients should question (2. In the editorial we wondered why pulmonary organizations such as the American Thoracic Society (ATS and the American College of Chest Physicians authored none of the recommendations and offered 10 suggestions. We also openly questioned if the recommendations were intended to improve patient care or reduce costs, and thus improve the profits of third party carriers. We can now report that recommendations were announced at the recent ATS meeting in Philadelphia. Seven recommendations were made for critical care and seven for pulmonary disease. Five from the critical care list and five from the pulmonary list will eventually be chosen for inclusion in …

  15. Context and Word Choosing in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向阳

    2007-01-01

    This paper has a discussion on context in relation to translation,and elaborates with examples the important role context plays in helping translators to choose the right word in the line with a specific context. Context here does not only refer to the linguistic context,but also the non-linguistic context,which can be further subcategorized as situational and cultural context.

  16. Heinz dilemma? Let the subject choose!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durm, M W; Pitts, S

    1993-12-01

    This description of a novel approach for studying the validity of Kohlberg's sequential and hierarchical theory of moral development involved 138 boys and 113 girls (14 to 18 years old) choosing a solution among 12 to Kohlberg's Heinz dilemma instead of being assigned one by an interviewer. The results were not supportive of the theory. The methodology of research on moral development needs to be examined.

  17. Diapers: What do Parents Choose and Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Shanon, Amir; Feldman, William; JAMES, WILLIAM; Dulberg, Corinne

    1990-01-01

    Self-administered questionnaires about diaper choices and the reasons for such choices were completed by 600 parents of children younger than two years of age attending a hospital walk-in clinic or the private office of one of four pediatricians. Only 2.7% of the parents used cloth alone; another 15% used both cloth and disposable diapers; a further 18% reported having used cloth at some time. Convenience and rash prevention were reasons for choosing disposable diapers. Those who used only cl...

  18. ALTERNATIVE DIRECTIONS OF CHOOSING THE INVESTMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaduva Cecilia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategic choosing refers to making decisions (selecting the strategic option related to the future of the enterprise and the ways it respond to the action of certain pressure and influence factors identified by analysis and strategic diagnosis. The clear definition of the enterprise objectives is very important from the viewpoint of the business types where it is involved and of the connections existent between them (by means of the SBU mix. But, the successful development of the strategies should consider the fact that they cannot be built only on the existent financial resources, but also on the development of these resources.

  19. Whole Grains and Food Fun in an After-School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboy, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    Programs in community-based, after-school settings are ideal to teach children about healthy eating. Objectives: After completing this Whole Grains & Food Fun lesson, children will be able to: (1) list at least two benefits of eating more whole grains, (2) demonstrate skills involved in child-friendly, basic food preparation, and (3) choose a…

  20. Enhancing current-induced torques by abutting additional spin polarizer layer to nonmagnetic metal layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Gyungchoon; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Young Keun

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the switching of a perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnet (FM) by injecting an in-plane current into an attached non-magnet (NM) has become of emerging technological interest. This magnetization switching is attributed to the spin-orbit torque (SOT) originating from the strong spin-orbit coupling of the NM layer. However, the switching efficiency of the NM/FM structure itself may be insufficient for practical use, as for example, in spin transfer torque (STT)-based magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here we investigate spin torque in an NM/FM structure with an additional spin polarizer (SP) layer abutted to the NM layer. In addition to the SOT contribution, a spin-polarized current from the SP layer creates an extra spin chemical potential difference at the NM/FM interface and gives rise to a STT on the FM layer. We show that, using typical parameters including device width, thickness, spin diffusion length, and the spin Hall angle, the spin torque from the SP layer can be much larger than that from the spin Hall effect (SHE) of the NM.

  1. Spin filtering and switching action in a diamond network with magnetic-nonmagnetic atomic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Biplab; Dutta, Paramita

    2016-09-01

    We propose a simple model quantum network consisting of diamond-shaped plaquettes with deterministic distribution of magnetic and non-magnetic atoms in presence of a uniform external magnetic flux in each plaquette and predict that such a simple model can be a prospective candidate for spin filter as well as flux driven spintronic switch. The orientations and the amplitudes of the substrate magnetic moments play a crucial role in the energy band engineering of the two spin channels which essentially gives us a control over the spin transmission leading to a spin filtering effect. The externally tunable magnetic flux plays an important role in inducing a switch on-switch off effect for both the spin states indicating the behavior like a spintronic switch. Even a correlated disorder configuration in the on-site potentials and in the magnetic moments may lead to disorder-induced spin filtering phenomenon where one of the spin channel gets entirely blocked leaving the other one transmitting over the entire allowed energy regime. All these features are established by evaluating the density of states and the two terminal transmission probabilities using the transfer-matrix formalism within a tight-binding framework. Experimental realization of our theoretical study may be helpful in designing new spintronic devices.

  2. Chelating capture and magnetic removal of non-magnetic heavy metal substances from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liren; Song, Jiqing; Bai, Wenbo; Wang, Shengping; Zeng, Ming; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yang; Li, Haifeng; Lu, Haiwei

    2016-02-01

    A soil remediation method based on magnetic beneficiation is reported. A new magnetic solid chelator powder, FS@IDA (core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles coated with iminodiacetic acid chelators), was used as a reactive magnetic carrier to selectively capture non-magnetic heavy metals in soil by chelation and removal by magnetic separation. FS@IDA was prepared via inorganic-organic and organic synthesis reactions that generated chelating groups on the surface of magnetic, multi-core, core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 (FS) nanoparticles. These reactions used a silane coupling agent and sodium chloroacetate. The results show that FS@IDA could chelate the heavy metal component of Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni carbonates, lead sulfate and lead chloride in water-insoluble salt systems. The resulting FS@IDA-Cd and FS@IDA-Pb chelates could be magnetically separated, resulting in removal rates of approximately 84.9% and 72.2% for Cd and Pb, respectively. FS@IDA could not remove the residual heavy metals and those bound to organic matter in the soil. FS@IDA did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the soil, and it allowed for fast chelating capture, simple magnetic separation and facilitated heavy metal elution. FS@IDA could also be easily prepared and reprocessed.

  3. Induced magnetization spiral in a nonmagnetic metal sandwiched between two ferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathon, J.; Umerski, A.; Villeret, Murielle E-mail: m.a.villeret@city.ac.uk; Muniz, R.B.; Edwards, D.M

    2000-07-01

    Calculation of the magnetic moment induced in a non-magnetic metal, sandwiched between two ferromagnets with magnetizations at an arbitrary angle, is reported. It is found that the induced magnetization rotates along a complex three-dimensional spiral and can undergo many complete 360 deg. rotations. A simple free-electron model is used to derive an analytic formula for the twist angle phi inside the spacer. This demonstrates that, contrary to the behavior of magnetization inside a domain wall in a ferromagnet, phi varies non-uniformly inside the spacer and exhibits plateaus of almost constant rotation separated by regions of sharp rotations by large angles. The calculation is extended to the case of a realistic Co/Cu/Co(0 0 1) trilayer described by s, p, d tight-binding bands fitted to an ab initio band structure. An analytic formula for the components of the induced moment (and hence, for phi) is derived using the stationary phase approximation. Its validity is tested against a fully numerical calculation using the same band structure. The formula shows that the components of the induced magnetization each oscillate with a predominant short period determined by the Cu Fermi surface neck extrema. The twist angle again displays the same remarkable behavior as in the free-electron model and depends in an intricate manner on geometrical properties of the spacer Fermi surface as well as on the degree of confinement of carriers in the spacer quantum well.

  4. Room temperature ferromagnetism in liquid-phase pulsed laser ablation synthesized nanoparticles of nonmagnetic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. C., E-mail: subhash.laserlab@gmail.com; Gopal, R. [Laser Spectroscopy and Nanomaterials Lab, Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Kotnala, R. K. [Magnetic Standardization Division, National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi (India)

    2015-08-14

    Intrinsic Room Temperature Ferromagnetism (RTF) has been observed in undoped/uncapped zinc oxide and titanium dioxide spherical nanoparticles (NPs) obtained by a purely green approach of liquid phase pulsed laser ablation of corresponding metal targets in pure water. Saturation magnetization values observed for zinc oxide (average size, 9 ± 1.2 nm) and titanium dioxide (average size, 4.4 ± 0.3 nm) NPs are 62.37 and 42.17 memu/g, respectively, which are several orders of magnitude larger than those of previous reports. In contrast to the previous works, no postprocessing treatments or surface modification is required to induce ferromagnetism in the case of present communication. The most important result, related to the field of intrinsic ferromagnetism in nonmagnetic materials, is the observation of size dependent ferromagnetism. Degree of ferromagnetism in titanium dioxide increases with the increase in particle size, while it is reverse for zinc oxide. Surface and volume defects play significant roles for the origin of RTF in zinc oxide and titanium dioxide NPs, respectively. Single ionized oxygen and neutral zinc vacancies in zinc oxide and oxygen and neutral/ionized titanium vacancies in titanium dioxide are considered as predominant defect centres responsible for observed ferromagnetism. It is expected that origin of ferromagnetism is a consequence of exchange interactions between localized electron spin moments resulting from point defects.

  5. Induced magnetization spiral in a nonmagnetic metal sandwiched between two ferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mathon, J; Villeret, M; Muniz, R B; Edwards, D M

    2000-01-01

    Calculation of the magnetic moment induced in a non-magnetic metal, sandwiched between two ferromagnets with magnetizations at an arbitrary angle, is reported. It is found that the induced magnetization rotates along a complex three-dimensional spiral and can undergo many complete 360 deg. rotations. A simple free-electron model is used to derive an analytic formula for the twist angle phi inside the spacer. This demonstrates that, contrary to the behavior of magnetization inside a domain wall in a ferromagnet, phi varies non-uniformly inside the spacer and exhibits plateaus of almost constant rotation separated by regions of sharp rotations by large angles. The calculation is extended to the case of a realistic Co/Cu/Co(0 0 1) trilayer described by s, p, d tight-binding bands fitted to an ab initio band structure. An analytic formula for the components of the induced moment (and hence, for phi) is derived using the stationary phase approximation. Its validity is tested against a fully numerical calculation u...

  6. Magnetic and nonmagnetic doping dependence of the conducting surface states in Sm B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B. Y.; Min, Chul-Hee; Lee, S. S.; Song, M. S.; Cho, K. K.; Cho, B. K.

    2016-10-01

    Kondo insulator Sm B6 has attracted attention because it can realize new topological phenomena driven by the interplay between strong correlation effect and topology. However, its topological nature is still under debate. To examine the topological aspect, we demonstrate the nonmagnetic La and magnetic Ce doping dependence of the resistance of Sm B6 . Moreover, the resistance ratios of different thicknesses are analyzed to confirm the surface contribution. Lightly doped La samples show a purely conducting surface region at low temperature, whereas the lightly doped Ce samples do not have any conducting region at low temperature. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the electrical transport data of S m1 -xL axB6 (0.0 ≤x ≤1.0 ), an electronic phase diagram was found, composed of four regions: region I (0.0 ≤x ≤0.06 ), II (0.1 ≤x ≤0.15 ), III (x ≈0.2 ) , and IV (0.25 ≤x ≤1.0 ). Region I is characterized by the presence of conducting surface states, region II is characterized by the insulating phase due to the d -f hybridization gap without the conducting surface state, region III is characterized by the disappearance of the d -f hybridization gap and the existence of valence fluctuation, and region IV is a typical metallic state.

  7. Controlling magnetism on metal surfaces with non-magnetic means: electric fields and surface charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovko, Oleg O; Ruiz-Díaz, Pedro; Dasa, Tamene R; Stepanyuk, Valeri S

    2014-03-01

    We review the state of the art of surface magnetic property control with non-magnetic means, concentrating on metallic surfaces and techniques such as charge-doping or external electric field (EEF) application. Magneto-electric coupling via EEF-based charge manipulation is discussed as a way to tailor single adatom spins, exchange interaction between adsorbates or anisotropies of layered systems. The mechanisms of paramagnetic and spin-dependent electric field screening and the effect thereof on surface magnetism are discussed in the framework of theoretical and experimental studies. The possibility to enhance the effect of EEF by immersing the target system into an electrolyte or ionic liquid is discussed by the example of substitutional impurities and metallic alloy multilayers. A similar physics is pointed out for the case of charge traps, metallic systems decoupled from a bulk electron bath. In that case the charging provides the charge carrier density changes necessary to affect the magnetic moments and anisotropies in the system. Finally, the option of using quasi-free electrons rather than localized atomic spins for surface magnetism control is discussed with the example of Shockley-type metallic surface states confined to magnetic nanoislands.

  8. Physics of Nonmagnetic Relativistic Thermal Plasmas. Ph.D. Thesis - Calif. Univ., San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed treatment of the kinematics of relativistic systems of particles and photons is presented. In the case of a relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of particles, the reaction rate and luminosity are written as single integrals over the invariant cross section, and the production spectrum is written as a double integral over the cross section differential in the energy of the produced particles (or photons) in the center-of-momentum system of two colliding particles. The results are applied to the calculation of the annihilation spectrum of a thermal electron-positron plasma, confirming previous numerical and analytic results. Relativistic thermal electron-ion and electron-electron bremsstrahlung are calculated exactly to lowest order, and relativistic thermal electron-positron bremsstrahlung is calculated in an approximate fashion. An approximate treatment of relativistic Comptonization is developed. The question of thermalization of a relativistic plasma is considered. A formula for the energy loss or exchange rate from the interaction of two relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann plasmas at different temperatures is derived. Application to a stable, uniform, nonmagnetic relativistic thermal plasma is made. Comparison is made with other studies.

  9. Degradation of topological surface state by nonmagnetic S doping in SrxBi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Gu, Juanjuan; Tan, Min; Wang, Qinglong; Ji, Ping; Hu, Xueyou

    2017-01-01

    Research on possible topological superconductivity has grown rapidly over the past several years, from fundamental studies to the development of next generation technologies. Recently, it has been reported that the SrxBi2Se3 exhibits superconductivity with topological surface state, making this compound a promising candidate for investigating possible topological superconductivity. However, whether or not the topological surface state is robust against impurities is not clear in this system. Here we report a detailed investigation on the lattice structure, electronic and magnetic properties, as well as the topological superconducting properties of SrxBi2Se3−ySy samples. It is found that the superconducting transition temperature keeps nearly unchanged in all samples, despite of a gradual decrease of the superconducting shielding volume fraction with increasing S doping content. Meanwhile, the Shubnikov-de Hass oscillation results of the SrxBi2Se3−ySy samples reveal that the topological surface states are destroyed in S doped samples, suggesting the topological character is degraded by nonmagnetic dopants. PMID:28358021

  10. SQUID magnetometer using sensitivity correction signal for non-magnetic metal contaminants detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Toshifumi; Ohashi, Masaharu; Sakuta, Ken

    2016-11-01

    Measurement methods with SQUID can accurately detect small magnetic metal contaminants based on their magnetic remanence. But, a high-frequency excitation is necessary to detect nonmagnetic metals, on the base of contrasts in electric conductivity. In this work, an open loop technique is introduced to facilitate this. The SQUID is negative feedback controlled (flux locked loop (FLL) operation) for the low frequency range, which includes significant noise due to the movement of the magnetic body or the change of the ambient magnetic field composed of the geomagnetic field and technical signals, and it operates in an open loop configuration for the high frequency range. When using the open loop technique, negative feedback is not applied to the high frequency range. Consequently, the V-Φ characteristic changes due to various causes, which leads to variations in the conversion factor between the SQUID output voltage and the magnetic field. In this study, conversion techniques for the magnetic field for open loop operation of SQUID in the high frequency range are examined.

  11. Direct X-Ray Imaging of Transient Spin Accumulation near a Ferromagnet/Nonmagnet Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Kukreja, Roopali; Bonetti, Stefano; Backes, Dirk; Kent, Andrew; Katine, Jordan; Durr, Hermann; Ohldag, Hendrik; Stohr, Joachim

    2015-03-01

    The physics of spin transport across a ferromagnet/nonmagnet interface is not well understood, even though such interfaces are common in spintronic devices. We use time-resolved x-ray spectro-microscopy to directly image transient spin accumulation in a Cu film caused by an injected spin current from an adjacent Co film. The measurement uses element-specific, circularly polarized x-rays detected via a scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) in conjunction with 1.28MHz temporal modulation for remarkably increased x-ray sensitivity to spin signals. The transient moments per atom within the spin diffusion length from the interface were measured to be 8 x 10-5μB per Cu atom and 1.5 x 10-4μB per Co atom. The transient spin signal in Cu is found to be confined to states at the Fermi level, as expected, but we also observe a second peak of the same spin polarization in the spin accumulation signal that is 0.7eV higher than Fermi. The transient moments in the 28nm thick Cu layer exhibit the same spin sign as both the hybridization-induced static spins in Cu at the Cu/Co interface and the spins in the Co film. In contrast, the transient moments in the Co layer have the opposite sign, consistent with magnetization depleting from the Co polarizing layer.

  12. Reducing arsenic accumulation in rice grain through iron oxide amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Eric M; Wang, Jianmin; Burken, Joel G; Shi, Honglan; Yan, Wengui; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Deng, Baolin

    2015-08-01

    Effects of soil-arsenic (As), phosphorus and iron oxide on As accumulation in rice grain were investigated. Cultivars that have significantly different sensitivity to As, straighthead-resistant Zhe 733 and straighthead-susceptible Cocodrie, were used to represent different cultivar varieties. The grain accumulation of other elements of concern, selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd) was also monitored. Results demonstrated that high soil-As not only resulted in high grain-As, but could also result in high grain-Se, and Zhe 733 had significantly less grain-As than Cocodrie did. However, soil-As did not impact grain-Mo and Cd. Among all elements monitored, iron oxide amendment significantly reduced grain-As for both cultivars, while the phosphate application only reduced grain-Se for Zhe 733. Results also indicated that cultivar type significantly impacted grain accumulation of all monitored trace elements. Therefore, applying iron oxide to As-contaminated land, in addition to choosing appropriate rice cultivar, can effectively reduce the grain accumulation of As.

  13. Measurement of the nonmagnetic coating thickness of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles by controlled magnetization magnetic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, L.; Passeri, D.; Scaramuzzo, F. A.; Di Iorio, D.; Barteri, M.; Mantovani, D.; Rossi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent an interesting tool for several biomedical applications. In order to improve the dispersion stability, the biocompatibility and bio-functionality, MNPs need to be coated with non-magnetic films. The optimization of these systems requires the deep characterization not only of the magnetic core, but also of the coating features. Beside the chemical and physical properties of the coating, its thickness is another important property which can influence the size, the shape and the overall magnetic behavior of the NPs system. In this work we propose a possible method to measure the thickness of the non-magnetic coating of core-shell MNPs through the use of controlled magnetization-magnetic force microscopy (CM-MFM). A preliminary study on the applicability of the proposed method has been performed on Fe3O4 NPs coated with a Cu film.

  14. The Effect of Nonmagnetic Impurities on Phase-Transition Kinetics and Correlation Effects in a Quasi-1D Ising Nanomagnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabunina, E. V.; Spirin, D. V.; Popov, A. A.; Udodov, V. N.; Potekaev, A. I.

    2013-05-01

    Using a Monte Carlo simulation, the effect of external field, temperature, system's dimensions and interaction of non-nearest neighbors on the relaxation time and critical indices of an antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition is investigated taking into account nonmagnetic impurities within a modified, onedimensional, nanosized Ising model. It is shown that the non-equilibrium processes taking place in the magnetic material could be classified as fast and slow, whose velocities differ by more than a thousand times. In the case of fast processes, metastable (including ferromagnetic) states (observed experimentally) are the first to form, while in the case of slow processes the system transits into a stable state. The behavior of the dynamic critical exponent ( z) and static correlation-length critical exponent ( ν) is revealed for the model of a 1D ferromagnetic for the case of arbitrary concentrations of nonmagnetic impurities.

  15. Development of non-magnetic high manganese cryogenic steel for the construction of LHC project's superconducting magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Y; Kakihara, S; Shiraishi, M; Morito, N; Nohara, K

    2002-01-01

    High manganese steel (KHMN30L) as a cryogenic nonmagnetic material has been developed by Kawasaki Steel Corporation, which is designed for structural material for superconducting magnet in particle accelerator system. This steel satisfies the following requirements for the present use. 1) Low magnetic permeability: its relative magnetic permeability is lower than 1.002 throughout the range between 1.9 K and room temperature, and shows little temperature dependency which is the result of the highly elevated Neel temperature controlled by alloying composition design. 2) Low thermal expansion: its integrated contraction from room temperature to 4.2 K is as small as 0.18%. 3) Appropriate mechanical properties: yield strength and tensile strength can be adjusted to the desirable value by the manufacturing process condition without deteriorating physical properties. With these excellent properties, this steel is being supplied for nonmagnetic lamination of the cold mass of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) supercondu...

  16. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  17. Design of Matched Zero-Index Metamaterials Using Non-Magnetic Inclusions in Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Media

    OpenAIRE

    Silveirinha, Mario; Engheta, Nader

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we study the electrodynamics of metamaterials that consist of resonant non-magnetic inclusions embedded in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) host medium. It is shown that the inclusions can be designed in such a way that both the effective permittivity and permeability of the composite structure are simultaneously zero. Two different metamaterial configurations are studied and analyzed in detail. For a particular class of problems, it is analytically proven that such matched zero-index...

  18. AN INVESTIGATION ON SOFT MAGNETIC AND NON-MAGNETIC MATERIALS UNDER LOW FREQUENCY FOR BIOMEDICAL SENSOR APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheroz Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In consequence of the recent development of magnetic sensors in biomedical sector, the investigation of magneticmaterials has been a contributing factor in application stage. This paper proposes a novel technique to investigate materials by obtaining unique distinctive impedance peaks with unique impedance values. A magneto-inductive sensoris used to measure the induction of magnetic and non-magnetic impedance peaks related to the change in permeability, thus characterizing the materials under low frequency.

  19. INDUCTION HEATING OF NON-MAGNETIC SHEET METALS IN THE FIELD OF A FLAT CIRCULAR MULTITURN SOLENOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Batygin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of electromagnetic processes in the system for induction heating presented by a flat circular multiturn solenoid positioned above a plane of thin sheet non-magnetic metal has been conducted. The calculated dependences for the current induced in a metal sheet blank and ratio of transformation determined have been obtained. The maximal value of the transformation ratio with regard to spreading the eddy-currents over the whole area of the sheet metal has been determined.

  20. Cu, Pu and Fe high T{sub c} superconductors: Spin holes in anti-ferromagnetic clusters form nonmagnetic bipolarons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, Peter, E-mail: wachter@solid.phys.ethz.c [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    The new iron based high T{sub c} superconductors with T{sub c} up to 55 K have stirred new interest in this field. It is consensus that the BCS mechanism is not able to explain the high T{sub c}'s. In the following we propose that spin holes in anti-ferromagnetic clusters combine to make nonmagnetic bipolarons, which can condense and lead to superconductivity.

  1. The Identity of Students Choosing Marketing Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto, Idaly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to look deeply into the identity of young students interested in training professional in marketing programs in Bogotá, Colombia. This descriptive study was conducted with the application of multidimensional surveys to 262 young people from five universities that offer training in marketing. The results show that there are differences and similarities in the lifestyles of young people who choose to study Marketing. The first, relating mainly to the identities assumed by students of daytime and nighttime that differ in their activities and more income. The second, by the increasing use and development of academic and social activities through the Internet of interest to young people today. It is hoped that these results provide the administrative and academic management of marketing programs that result in better communication and care of students as consumers.

  2. Myth: babies would choose prelabour caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Anjita; Bewley, Susan; McIntosh, Thea

    2011-10-01

    Interest in rising caesarean section (CS) rates focuses on the putative relative effects on maternal health and perinatal mortality, especially in 'non-medical', 'request' or 'repeat' planned prelabour CS (PLCS). Shortening pregnancy and avoiding labour affect fetal maturity. Babies who do not experience labour have significantly increased respiratory and other morbidities that may have profound effects on development, determining immediate and potentially life-long disease. It is thus surprising that obstetricians do not advocate awaiting or inducing labour even in women considering CS. Mothers must be fully informed of all the evidence before they can give valid consent and make decisions on their baby's behalf. New evidence about immunological and metabolic differences induced by obstetric interventions continues to emerge, but large knowledge gaps exist. Although all modes of delivery carry potential risk of neonatal morbidity or mortality, we conclude that normal babies would indeed 'choose' labour. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A thermodynamic approach to choosing pervaporatives membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahacine Amrani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes separating a mixture of several components obtained as a product of methyl polymethyl metha- crylate (PMMA thermo-degradation. It was aimed at purifying methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA obtained by 95% mass thermal degradation to reach 99.5% maximum pervaporation concentration. This work studied the theory of pervaporation and applying the main thermodynamic criteria for choosing suitable polymer membranes for separating the MMA/PRP/ISB mixture. Such thermodynamic criteria were based on monomer interaction with and solubility on the membrane. The advantage of using this separation technique lies mainly in the fact that this method has low energy consumption compared to other processes, such as distillation or crystallisation.

  4. How to choose the right financial planner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Timothy J

    2010-01-01

    An "economic Pearl Harbor." That is how the world's most famous investor, Warren Buffett, described what we have gone through and what we're still going through.' Even the most optimistic appraisals of our economic conditions suggest that we are likely to feel the effects of the Great Recession through the decade we recently entered. Healthcare reform, in whatever form, may also create change in your medical practice ranging from immaterial to revolutionary. To whom should you turn to ensure that your personal economy survives and thrives, especially in these times? A financial planner, possibly, but what is a financial planner, how do you choose one, and what sort of service should you expect?

  5. Design and testing of piezo motors for non-magnetic and/or fine positioning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, M. F.; Le Letty, R.; Seiler, R.; Coste, P.

    2005-07-01

    Piezoelectric motors offer several outstanding characteristics that may be very interesting for new scientific instruments in space applications. Piezo motors use a combination of electro-mechanical and frictional forces for generating a progressive motion; they are well suited for positioning applications because they exhibit a large force at rest without any power supply, and they often do not require any reduction gear. They are increasingly used in optical applications. Using piezo motors in space applications may become more and more relevant because of the continuous trend towards adaptive optics in future scientific payloads. In general, piezoelectric actuators are more and more used in space. Piezoelectric motors exhibit a number of advantages compared to conventional electromagnetic (stepping) motors, e.g. superior force/mass ratio, improved direct drive capability, no power supply to maintain a position, feasibility of a fully non-magnetic motor design. In this context, two complementary concepts have been designed and evaluated in the frame of ESA funded research and development activities: a resonant concept, called Rotary Piezo Actuator (RPA), a quasi-static concept, called Rotary Piezo Motor for High Precision Pointing (RPMHPP). The developed Rotary Piezo Actuator (RPA) is based on a Ultrasonic Piezo Drive (UPD) unit that drives a friction ring on the rotor part supported by a ball bearing assembly. This new motorization principle offers excellent motion dynamics and positioning accuracy combined with a high un-powered torque at standstill, and it does not rely on any magnetic features. A rotary piezo motor compliant with the requirements of a reference space application has been designed and tested. The technology remains challenging to be mastered, since the interdisciplinary aspects of the concept include, among others, drive electronics and controller design, piezo-electricity, contact mechanics and tribology. The conceptual design has lead to a

  6. Effect of stellar wind induced magnetic fields on planetary obstacles of non-magnetized hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkaev, N. V.; Odert, P.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Mezentsev, A. V.; Johnstone, C. P.; Kubyshkina, D. I.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Khodachenko, M. L.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the interaction between the magnetized stellar wind plasma and the partially ionized hydrodynamic hydrogen outflow from the escaping upper atmosphere of non-magnetized or weakly magnetized hot Jupiters. We use the well-studied hot Jupiter HD 209458b as an example for similar exoplanets, assuming a negligible intrinsic magnetic moment. For this planet, the stellar wind plasma interaction forms an obstacle in the planet's upper atmosphere, in which the position of the magnetopause is determined by the condition of pressure balance between the stellar wind and the expanded atmosphere, heated by the stellar extreme ultraviolet radiation. We show that the neutral atmospheric atoms penetrate into the region dominated by the stellar wind, where they are ionized by photoionization and charge exchange, and then mixed with the stellar wind flow. Using a 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, we show that an induced magnetic field forms in front of the planetary obstacle, which appears to be much stronger compared to those produced by the solar wind interaction with Venus and Mars. Depending on the stellar wind parameters, because of the induced magnetic field, the planetary obstacle can move up to ≈0.5-1 planetary radii closer to the planet. Finally, we discuss how estimations of the intrinsic magnetic moment of hot Jupiters can be inferred by coupling hydrodynamic upper planetary atmosphere and MHD stellar wind interaction models together with UV observations. In particular, we find that HD 209458b should likely have an intrinsic magnetic moment of 10-20 per cent that of Jupiter.

  7. Perspective: A Definition for Whole-Grain Food Products-Recommendations from the Healthgrain Forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Alastair B.; van der Kamp, Jan-Willem; King, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Whole grains are a key component of a healthy diet, and enabling consumers to easily choose foods with a high whole-grain content is an important step for better prevention of chronic disease. Several definitions exist for whole-grain foods, yet these do not account for the diversity of food...... products that contain cereals. With the goal of creating a relatively simple whole-grain food definition that aligns with whole-grain intake recommendations and can be applied across all product categories, the Healthgrain Forum, a not-for-profit consortium of academics and industry working with cereal...... foods, established a working group to gather input from academics and industry to develop guidance on labeling the whole-grain content of foods. The Healthgrain Forum recommends that a food may be labeled as "whole grain" if it contains ≥30% whole-grain ingredients in the overall product and contains...

  8. Choose More than 50 Ways to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and calories you take in each day. 36. Drink water instead of juice and regular soda. Eat smart, Bart. 37. Make at least half of your grains whole grains, such as whole grain breads and cereals, brown rice, and quinoa. 38. Use whole grain bread for toast and ...

  9. Diallel analysis to choose parents for black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, L M; Carneiro, P C S; Vale, N M; Barili, L D; Silva, L C; Carneiro, J E S; Cruz, C D

    2016-08-29

    In this study, conducted in two different seasons, we aimed to choose parents to obtain promising segregating populations for the extraction of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines that are superior in terms of disease resistance, plant architecture, and grain yield. Twelve parents were arranged in two groups to compose a partial diallel in a 5 x 7 scheme. Group 1 was composed of parents with black grains and erect plant architecture, while group 2 was composed of parents that had carioca grains and were resistant to the main fungal diseases that occur in the common bean. The following traits were evaluated: severity of angular leaf spot (ALS), plant architecture (PAG), and grain yield (YIELD). The data were analyzed according to a partial diallel model using parents and F1 hybrids. In the genetic control of ALS and PAG, additive effects were predominant, while for YIELD, additive effects were predominant in one season and dominance effects were in another season, because it is a more complex trait than ALS and PAG. For YIELD, we observed an interaction between general combining ability and specific combining ability between seasons. The genes that control ALS, PAG, and YIELD were in eight of the 12 parents evaluated in the diallel. The cultivar 'BRS Estilo' is suitable to use as a parent in common bean breeding in terms of ALS, PAG and YIELD. Recurrent selection is the most recommended option for simultaneously breeding for PAG, YIELD, and resistance to angular leaf spot in bean culture.

  10. Coercivity enhancement in Ce-Fe-B based magnets by core-shell grain structuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce-based R2Fe14B (R= rare-earth nano-structured permanent magnets consisting of (Ce,Nd2Fe14B core-shell grains separated by a non-magnetic grain boundary phase, in which the relative amount of Nd to Ce is higher in the shell of the magnetic grain than in its core, were fabricated by Nd-Cu infiltration into (Ce,Nd2Fe14B hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity values of infiltrated core-shell structured magnets are superior to those of as-hot-deformed magnets with the same overall Nd content. This is attributed to the higher value of magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the shell phase in the core-shell structured infiltrated magnets compared to the homogeneous R2Fe14B grains of the as-hot-deformed magnets, and to magnetic isolation of R2Fe14B grains by the infiltrated grain boundary phase. First order reversal curve (FORC diagrams suggest that the higher anisotropy shell suppresses initial magnetization reversal at the edges and corners of the R2Fe14B grains.

  11. Dilution Effects on Two-Dimensional Heisenberg Antiferromagnets with Non-Magnetic Spin-Gapped Ground State

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuda, Chitoshi; Todo, Synge; Matsumoto, Munehisa; Takayama, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    Dilution effects on spin-1/2 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with a non-magnetic spin-gapped ground state are studied by means of the qunatum Monte Carlo simulation. In the site-diluted system, an antiferromagnetic long-range order (AF-LRO) is induced at an infinitesimal concentration of dilution due to an effective coupling $\\tilde{J}_{mn}$ between induced magnetic moments. In the bond-diluted case, on the other hand, the AF-LRO is not induced up to a certain concentration of dilution du...

  12. Enhancement of thermal spin transfer torque by double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with a nonmagnetic metal spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.; Tseng, P.; Yang, Y. Y.; Hsueh, W. J.

    2017-01-01

    Enhancement of thermal spin transfer torque in a double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal spacer is proposed in this study. The results indicate that, given the same temperature difference, thermal spin transfer torque and charge current density for the proposed double barrier magnetic tunnel junction configuration can be approximately twice as much as that of the traditional single-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. This enhancement can be attributed to the resonant tunneling mechanism in the double-barrier structure.

  13. Influence of Non-Magnetic Substitutional Atoms on Spontaneous Moment and Curie Temperature of Ce2Co17 Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of Ce2Co17-xMx(M=Ga,Al and Si) compounds for M concentrations up to x=5 were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The experimental results show that the Curie temperatures and Co spontaneous magnetization decrease significantly with increasing the addition of non-magnetic substitutional atoms, and that Si which has a minimum solid solubility in Ce2Co17 causes a largest reduction of Curie temperature, spontaneous magnetization and moment per Co atom compared with Ga and Al.

  14. Against the Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Ole

    2016-01-01

    Katalog-tekst til udstillingen Against the Grain om atomar-fotografi og det antropocæne. Kurateret af Peter Ole Pedersen på Galleri Image, august-oktober 2016.......Katalog-tekst til udstillingen Against the Grain om atomar-fotografi og det antropocæne. Kurateret af Peter Ole Pedersen på Galleri Image, august-oktober 2016....

  15. Patient values and preferences when choosing anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio AM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ana M Palacio,1–3 Irene Kirolos,2,3 Leonardo Tamariz1–3 1The Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, 2The Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA; 3Division of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA Background: New oral anticoagulants have similar efficacy and lower bleeding rates compared with warfarin. However, in case of bleeding there is no specific antidote to reverse their effects. We evaluated the preferences and values of anticoagulants of patients at risk of atrial fibrillation and those who have already made a decision regarding anticoagulation.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of Veterans in the primary care clinics and the international normalized ratio (INR laboratory. We developed an instrument with patient and physician input to measure patient values and preferences. The survey contained a hypothetical scenario of the risk of atrial fibrillation and the attributes of each anticoagulant. After the scenario, we asked participants to choose the option that best fits their preferences. The options were: 1 has better efficacy at reducing risk of stroke; 2 has been in the market for a long period of time; 3 has an antidote to reverse the rare case of bleeding; 4 has better quality of life profile with no required frequent laboratory tests; or 5 I want to follow physician recommendations. We stratified our results by those patients who are currently exposed to anticoagulants and those who are not exposed but are at risk of atrial fibrillation.Results: We approached 173 Veterans and completed 137 surveys (79% response rate. Ninety subjects were not exposed to anticoagulants, 46 reported being on warfarin, and one reported being on dabigatran at the time of the survey. Ninety-eight percent of subjects stated they would like to participate in the decision-making process of selecting an anticoagulant. Thirty-six percent of those exposed and 37% of those

  16. General aspects for choosing the DICOM viewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Niakan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of physicians choose the PACS by its viewer. DICOM Image viewers, the programs that run in workstations, facilitate accessing to the digital im-ages via a DICOM network. A good workstation should be equipped with professional monitors and other hardware requirements. A wide range of DICOM image viewers are available from simple 2D viewers which offer means of manipulating the im-ages (rotate, zoom, brightness, contrast and others to 3D or 4D programs with sophisticated features such as multimodality image fusion, vessel segmentation and computer aided diagnostic tools."nThese programs can be categorized to client-based and web-based viewers. Despite the client-based viewers, which are heavy-weighted programs, equipped with strong features, web-based viewers are usually light-weighted with essential imaging features and suitable for TeleRadiology. Accessing to the digital images via the Internet is the main propose behind a web-based viewer. Web-based viewers may be used for remote consulting when a city or region lacks of native specialists."nAn image viewer as a part of PACS should be in conformance with DICOM standard as communication protocol instated of customized networking. This issue allows the viewer to communicate with any DICOM server and operate as an independent module. Structured Report (SR editor is an essential part of a DICOM viewer. This kind of reporting benefits the archiving system because of small data size in comparison with keeping reports as scanned images or Secondary Capture Images (SC. Also, connection of DICOM viewer to RIS/HIS is important and as our previous experiences in RIS/HIS we connected Payvand DICOM viewer to the RIS/HIS. "nPayvand DICOM viewer has a lot of features and abilities, but for reaching to the high performance image processing by BARCO-EPD collaboration contract, we integrated our DICOM viewer to the VOXAR 3D and now our users have advanced 3D, vessel, cardiac and colon processing, PET CT

  17. GrainSpotter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for indexing multigrain diffraction data is presented. It is based on the use of a monochromatic beam simultaneously illuminating all grains. By operating in sub-volumes of Rodrigues space, a powerful vertex-finding algorithm can be applied, with a running time that is compatible...... with online analysis. The resulting program, GrainSpotter, is sufficiently fast to enable online analysis during synchrotron sessions. The program applies outlier rejection schemes, leading to more robust and accurate data. By simulations it is shown that several thousand grains can be retrieved. A new method...... to derive partial symmetries, called pseudo-twins, is introduced. Uniquely, GrainSpotter includes an analysis of pseudo-twins, which is shown to be critical to avoid erroneous grains resulting from the indexing....

  18. Physics of Grain Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A

    2000-01-01

    Aligned grains provide one of the easiest ways to study magnetic fields in diffuse gas and molecular clouds. How reliable our conclusions about the inferred magnetic field depends critically on our understanding of the physics of grain alignment. Although grain alignment is a problem of half a century standing recent progress achieved in the field makes us believe that we are approaching the solution of this mystery. I review basic physical processes involved in grain alignment and show why mechanisms that were favored for decades do not look so promising right now. I also discuss why the radiative torque mechanism ignored for more than 20 years looks right now the most powerful means of grain alignment.

  19. Majorizational Choosing of SeveralDifferent Fuzzy Counter Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Different fuzzy reasoning methods were made by choosing different fuzzy operater. This article generally introduced the basic structure of fuzzy controller ,and gave several different fuzzy controllers ,and compared and analyzed different fuzzy counters in theory and computer simulating control and realized majorizational choosing of several fuzzy counters.

  20. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  1. Choosing and Using Images in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie Smick

    2012-01-01

    Although using images for teaching has been a common practice in science classrooms (Gordon & Pea, 1995) understanding the purpose or how to choose images has not typically been intentional. For this dissertation three separate studies relating to choosing and using images are prepared with environmental science in mind. Each of the studies…

  2. Choosing Your China Structure: Foreign-Invested Commercial Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMAN

    2010-01-01

    When choosing an appropriate invest-When choosing an appropriate investment vehicle in China,many factors must be considered,as these will lead to different legal and tax considerations.Once you’ve clearly defined the needs and goals for your

  3. Choose Privacy Week: Educate Your Students (and Yourself) about Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of "Choose Privacy Week" is to encourage a national conversation to raise awareness of the growing threats to personal privacy online and in day-to-day life. The 2016 Choose Privacy Week theme is "respecting individuals' privacy," with an emphasis on minors' privacy. A plethora of issues relating to minors' privacy…

  4. Choosing and Using Images in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie Smick

    2012-01-01

    Although using images for teaching has been a common practice in science classrooms (Gordon & Pea, 1995) understanding the purpose or how to choose images has not typically been intentional. For this dissertation three separate studies relating to choosing and using images are prepared with environmental science in mind. Each of the studies…

  5. Non-Magnetic, Tough, Corrosion- and Wear-Resistant Knives From Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Douglas C.; Potter, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Quality knives are typically fabricated from high-strength steel alloys. Depending on the application, there are different requirements for mechanical and physical properties that cause problems for steel alloys. For example, diver's knives are generally used in salt water, which causes rust in steel knives. Titanium diver's knives are a popular alternative due to their salt water corrosion resistance, but are too soft to maintain a sharp cutting edge. Steel knives are also magnetic, which is undesirable for military applications where the knives are used as a tactical tool for diffusing magnetic mines. Steel is also significantly denser than titanium (8 g/cu cm vs. 4.5 g/cu cm), which results in heavier knives for the same size. Steel is hard and wear-resistant, compared with titanium, and can keep a sharp edge during service. A major drawback of both steel and titanium knives is that they must be ground or machined into the final knife shape from a billet. Since most knives have a mirrored surface and a complex shape, manufacturing them is complex. It would be more desirable if the knife could be cast into a net or near-net shape in a single step. The solution to the deficiencies of titanium, steel, and ceramic knives is to fabricate them using bulk metallic glasses (or composites). These alloys can be cast into net or near-net shaped knives with a combination of properties that exceed both titanium and steel. A commercially viable BMG (bulk metallic glass) or composite knife is one that exhibits one or all of the following properties: It is based on titanium, has a self-sharpening edge, can retain an edge during service, is hard, is non-magnetic, is corrosion-resistant against a variety of corrosive environments, is tough (to allow for prying), can be cast into a net-shape with a mirror finish and a complex shape, has excellent wear resistance, and is low-density. These properties can be achieved in BMG and composites through alloy chemistry and processing. For

  6. Investigations of the effect of nonmagnetic Ca substitution for magnetic Dy on spin-freezing in Dy₂Ti₂O₇.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, V K; Tennant, D A; Lake, B

    2015-11-01

    Physical properties of partially Ca substituted hole-doped Dy2Ti2O7 have been investigated by ac magnetic susceptibility χ(ac)(T), dc magnetic susceptibility χ(T), isothermal magnetization M(H) and heat capacity C(p)(T) measurements on Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7. The spin-ice system Dy2Ti2O7 exhibits a spin-glass type freezing behavior near 16 K. Our frequency dependent χ(ac)(T) data of Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7 show that the spin-freezing behavior is significantly influenced by Ca substitution. The effect of partial nonmagnetic Ca(2+) substitution for magnetic Dy(3+) is similar to the previous study on nonmagnetic isovalent Y(3+) substituted Dy(2-x)Y(x) Ti2O7 (for low levels of dilution), however the suppression of spin-freezing behavior is substantially stronger for Ca than Y. The Cole-Cole plot analysis reveals semicircular character and a single relaxation mode in Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7 as for Dy2Ti2O7. No noticeable change in the insulating behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 results from the holes produced by 10% Ca(2+) substitution for Dy(3+) ions.

  7. Component masses of young, wide, non-magnetic white dwarf binaries in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, R. B.; Dobbie, P. D.; Parker, Q. A.; Casewell, S. L.; Lodieu, N.; Burleigh, M. R.; Lawrie, K. A.; Külebi, B.; Koester, D.; Holland, B. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present a spectroscopic component analysis of 18 candidate young, wide, non-magnetic, double-degenerate binaries identified from a search of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (DR7). All but two pairings are likely to be physical systems. We show SDSS J084952.47+471247.7 + SDSS J084952.87+471249.4 to be a wide DA + DB binary, only the second identified to date. Combining our measurements for the components of 16 new binaries with results for three similar, previously known systems within the DR7, we have constructed a mass distribution for the largest sample to date (38) of white dwarfs in young, wide, non-magnetic, double-degenerate pairings. This is broadly similar in form to that of the isolated field population with a substantial peak around M ˜ 0.6 M⊙. We identify an excess of ultramassive white dwarfs and attribute this to the primordial separation distribution of their progenitor systems peaking at relatively larger values and the greater expansion of their binary orbits during the final stages of stellar evolution. We exploit this mass distribution to probe the origins of unusual types of degenerates, confirming a mild preference for the progenitor systems of high-field-magnetic white dwarfs, at least within these binaries, to be associated with early-type stars. Additionally, we consider the 19 systems in the context of the stellar initial mass-final mass relation. None appear to be strongly discordant with current understanding of this relationship.

  8. Folding of Pollen Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Alben, Silas; Cerda, Enrique; Nelson, David; Dumais, Jacques

    2008-03-01

    At dehiscence, which occurs when the anther reaches maturity and opens, pollen grains dehydrate and their volume is reduced. The pollen wall deforms to accommodate the volume loss, and the deformation pathway depends on the initial turgid pollen grain geometry and the mechanical properties of the pollen wall. We demonstrate, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, that the design of the apertures (areas on the pollen wall where the stretching and the bending modulus are reduced) is critical for controlling the folding pattern, and ensures the pollen grain viability. An excellent fit to the experiments is obtained using a discretized version of the theory of thin elastic shells.

  9. Influence of a dispersion of magnetic and nonmagnetic nanoparticles on the magnetic Fredericksz transition of the liquid crystal 5CB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhli, Ahmed; Ayeb, Habib; Othman, Tahar; Fresnais, Jérôme; Dupuis, Vincent; Nemitz, Ian R.; Pendery, Joel S.; Rosenblatt, Charles; Sandre, Olivier; Lacaze, Emmanuelle

    2017-07-01

    A long time ago, Brochard and de Gennes predicted the possibility of significantly decreasing the critical magnetic field of the Fredericksz transition (the magnetic Fredericksz threshold) in a mixture of nematic liquid crystals and ferromagnetic particles, the so-called ferronematics. This phenomenon is rarely measured to be large, due to soft homeotropic anchoring induced at the nanoparticle surface. Here we present an optical study of the magnetic Fredericksz transition combined with a light scattering study of the classical nematic liquid crystal: the pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB), doped with 6 nm diameter magnetic and nonmagnetic nanoparticles. Surprisingly, for both nanoparticles, we observe at room temperature a net decrease of the threshold field of the Fredericksz transition at low nanoparticle concentrations, which appears associated with a coating of the nanoparticles by a brush of polydimethylsiloxane copolymer chains inducing planar anchoring of the director on the nanoparticle surface. Moreover, the magnetic Fredericksz threshold exhibits nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the nanoparticle concentration for both types of nanoparticles, first decreasing down to a value from 23% to 31% below that of pure 5CB, then increasing with a further increase of nanoparticle concentration. This is interpreted as an aggregation starting at around 0.02 weight fraction that consumes more isolated nanoparticles than those introduced when the concentration is increased above c =0.05 weight fraction (volume fraction 3.5 ×10-2 ). This shows the larger effect of isolated nanoparticles on the threshold with respect to aggregates. From dynamic light scattering measurements we deduced that, if the decrease of the magnetic threshold when the nanoparticle concentration increases is similar for both kinds of nanoparticles, the origin of this decrease is different for magnetic and nonmagnetic nanoparticles. For nonmagnetic nanoparticles, the behavior may be associated with a

  10. Choosing a doctor and hospital for your cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm Choosing a doctor and hospital for your cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. When you seek cancer treatment, you want to find the best care possible. ...

  11. AN ANALYSIS ON CHOOSING A PROPER ECOMMERCE PLATFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Lixandroiu; Catalin Maican

    2015-01-01

    Choosing an electronic trading platform is a very important decision when opening an online store. A suitable platform must be able to meet many of the requirements as to not confuse the user. It should provide an online business operation providing tools for managing back-office of technically. There are dozens maybe hundreds of electronic ecommerce platforms available to create an online store, so the decision to choose a platform is difficult. In this article, we tried to compare 19 of the...

  12. The interface of the ferromagnetic metal CoS2 and the nonmagnetic semiconductor FeS2

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, S.

    2010-11-05

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the cubic pyriteCoS2/FeS2interface are studied using the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. We find that this contact between a ferromagneticmetal and a nonmagnetic semiconductor shows a metallic character. The CoS2 stays close to half-metallicity at the interface, while the FeS2 becomes metallic. The magnetic moment of the Co atoms at the interface slightly decreases as compared to the bulk value and a small moment is induced on the Fe atoms. Furthermore, at the interfaceferromagnetic ordering is found to be energetically favorable as compared to antiferromagnetic ordering.

  13. Imaging of room-temperature ferromagnetic nano-domains at the surface of a non-magnetic oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniuchi, T.; Motoyui, Y.; Morozumi, K.; Rödel, T. C.; Fortuna, F.; Santander-Syro, A. F.; Shin, S.

    2016-06-01

    Two-dimensional electron gases at oxide surfaces or interfaces show exotic ordered states of matter, like superconductivity, magnetism or spin-polarized states, and are a promising platform for alternative oxide-based electronics. Here we directly image a dense population of randomly distributed ferromagnetic domains of ~40 nm typical sizes at room temperature at the oxygen-deficient surface of SrTiO3, a non-magnetic transparent insulator in the bulk. We use laser-based photoemission electron microscopy, an experimental technique that gives selective spin detection of the surface carriers, even in bulk insulators, with a high spatial resolution of 2.6 nm. We furthermore find that the Curie temperature in this system is as high as 900 K. These findings open perspectives for applications in nano-domain magnetism and spintronics using oxide-based devices, for instance through the nano-engineering of oxygen vacancies at surfaces or interfaces of transition-metal oxides.

  14. Non-Equilibrium Chemistry of Dynamically Evolving Prestellar Cores: I. Basic Magnetic and Non-Magnetic Models and Parameter Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Yorke, Harold W; Turner, Neal

    2011-01-01

    We combine dynamical and non-equilibrium chemical modeling of evolving prestellar molecular cloud cores, and explore the evolution of molecular abundances in the contracting core. We model both magnetic cores, with varying degrees of initial magnetic support, and non-magnetic cores, with varying collapse delay times. We explore, through a parameter study, the competing effects of various model parameters in the evolving molecular abundances, including the elemental C/O ratio, the temperature, and the cosmic-ray ionization rate. We find that different models show their largest quantitative differences at the center of the core, whereas the outer layers, which evolve slower, have abundances which are severely degenerate among different dynamical models. There is a large range of possible abundance values for different models at a fixed evolutionary stage (central density), which demonstrates the large potential of chemical differentiation in prestellar cores. However, degeneracies among different models, compou...

  15. Enhanced infrared magneto-optical response of the nonmagnetic semiconductor BiTeI driven by bulk Rashba splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkó, L; Schober, G A H; Kocsis, V; Bahramy, M S; Murakawa, H; Lee, J S; Kézsmárki, I; Arita, R; Nagaosa, N; Tokura, Y

    2012-10-19

    We study the magneto-optical (MO) response of the polar semiconductor BiTeI with giant bulk Rashba spin splitting at various carrier densities. Despite being nonmagnetic, the material is found to yield a huge MO activity in the infrared region under moderate magnetic fields (up to 3 T). Our first-principles calculations show that the enhanced MO response of BiTeI comes mainly from the intraband transitions between the Rashba-split bulk conduction bands. These transitions connecting electronic states with opposite spin directions become active due to the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction and give rise to distinct features in the MO spectra with a systematic doping dependence. We predict an even more pronounced enhancement in the low-energy MO response and dc Hall effect near the crossing (Dirac) point of the conduction bands.

  16. Enhanced infrared magneto-optical response of the nonmagnetic semiconductor BiTeI driven by bulk Rashba splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demko, L.; Tokura, Y. [Multiferroics Project, ERATO, JST, c/o Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Schober, G.A.H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Kocsis, V.; Kezsmarki, I. [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Bahramy, M.S.; Murakawa, H. [CMRG and CERG, RIKEN ASI (Japan); Lee, J.S.; Arita, R.; Nagaosa, N. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    We study the magneto-optical (MO) response of the polar semiconducting BiTeI with giant bulk Rashba spin splitting at various carrier densities. Despite being nonmagnetic, the material is found to yield a huge MO activity in the infrared region under moderate magnetic fields (up to 3 T). Our first-principles calculations show that the enhanced MO response of BiTeI comes mainly from the intraband transitions between the Rashba-split bulk conduction bands. These transitions connecting electronic states with opposite spin directions become active due to the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction and give rise to distinct features in the MO spectra with a systematic doping dependence. We predict an even more pronounced enhancement in the low-energy MO response and dc Hall effect near the crossing (Dirac) point of the conduction bands.

  17. First-principles study for vacancy-induced magnetism in nonmagnetic ferroelectric BaTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, D; Cai, M Q; Zheng, Yue; Hu, W Y

    2009-12-14

    The possibilities of vacancy-induced magnetism in perovskite BaTiO(3) are investigated by first-principles calculations. Calculated results show that both titanium and oxygen vacancies could induce magnetism, but the barium vacancy did not induce magnetism. New and interesting magnetic properties of half-metallic magnetism are found in BaTiO(3) induced by the Ti-vacancy. Based on the density of states and the spin charge density distribution of BaTiO(3), we discuss the different origins of magnetism induced by the partial spin-polarized O 2p states around Ti vacancies and the partially filled d-states Ti around the oxygen vacancies. The discrepancy between the magnetic moments in the cubic phase and the tetragonal phase is due to anisotropic spin polarization induced by structure distortions. Our calculations would enable exploring magneto-electric coupling in nonmagnetic ferroelectric oxides.

  18. Nonmagnetic impurity resonances as a signature of sign-reversal pairing in FeAs-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Degang

    2009-10-30

    The energy band structure of FeAs-based superconductors is fitted by a tight-binding model with two Fe ions per unit cell and two degenerate orbitals per Fe ion. Based on this, superconductivity with extended s-wave pairing symmetry of the form cosk(x)+cosk(y) is examined. The local density of states near an impurity is also investigated by using the T-matrix approach. For the nonmagnetic scattering potential, we found that there exist two major resonances inside the gap. The height of the resonance peaks depends on the strength of the impurity potential. These in-gap resonances are originated in the Andreev's bound states due to the quasiparticle scattering between the hole Fermi surfaces around Gamma point with positive order parameter and the electron Fermi surfaces around M point with negative order parameter.

  19. The non-magnetic collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 and superconductivity in the iron pnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, J. H.; Tucker, G. S.; Pratt, D. K.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Ran, S.; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; McQueeney, R. J.; Goldman, A. I.

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations and superconductivity has become a central topic of research in studies of superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We present unambiguous evidence of the absence of magnetic fluctuations in the non-superconducting collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 via inelastic neutron scattering time-of-flight data, which is consistent with the view that spin fluctuations are a necessary ingredient for unconventional superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We demonstrate that the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 is non-magnetic, and discuss this result in light of recent reports of high-temperature superconductivity in the collapsed tetragonal phase of closely related compounds. Work at the Ames Laboratory was supported by the Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. Work at ORNL's Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  20. Tricritical wetting in the two-dimensional Ising magnet due to the presence of localized non-magnetic impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2016-03-31

    Fixed vacancies (non-magnetic impurities) are placed along the centre of Ising strips in order to study the wetting behaviour in this confined system, by means of numerical simulations analysed with the aid of finite size scaling and thermodynamic integration methods. By considering strips of size L × M (L interface between magnetic domains of different orientation (driven by the corresponding surface fields), which are the precursors of the wetting transitions that occur in the thermodynamic limit. By placing vacancies or equivalently non-magnetic impurities along the centre of the sample, we found that for low vacancy densities the wetting transitions are of second order, while by increasing the concentration of vacancies the transitions become of first order. Second- and first-order lines meet in tricritical wetting points (H(tric)(SW), T(tric)(W)), where H(tric)(SW) and T(Tric)(W) are the magnitude of the surface field and the temperature, respectively. In the phase diagram, tricritical points shift from the high temperature and weak surface field regime at large vacancy densities to the T --> 0, H(tric)(SW) --> 1 limit for low vacancy densities. By comparing the locations of the tricritical points with those corresponding to the case of mobile impurities, we conclude that in order to observe similar effects, in the latter the required density of impurities is much smaller (e.g. by a factor 3-5). Furthermore, a proper density of non magnetic impurities placed along the centre of a strip can effectively pin rather flat magnetic interfaces for suitable values of the competing surface fields and temperature.

  1. Magnetic properties and the effect of non-magnetic impurities in the quasi-2D quantum magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuntia, P.; Dey, T.; Mahajan, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    We present synthesis, x-ray diffraction, magnetisation and specific heat studies on the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) S = 1/2 antiferromagnet (CuCl)LaNb2O7 and its doping analogues (Cu1-x Zn x Cl)LaNb2O7 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05), (Cu0.95Mg0.05Cl)LaNb2O7, and (CuCl)La1-y Ba y Nb2O7 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.10). The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat of the parent compound and its isovalent or hetereovalent counterparts do not display any signature of magnetic ordering down to 1.8 K. The parent compound and its doping variants exhibit spin-singlet behaviour with a finite gap in the spin excitation spectrum due to dimerisation of the dominant intradimer interactions as evidenced from our magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data. The systematic increase of magnetic susceptibility at low temperature with non-magnetic Zn2+ and Mg2+ (S = 0) substitution at the Cu2+ site reflect that impurities induce local moments around the non-magnetic sites. While heterovalent Ba2+ substitution at the La3+ site do not result in mobile holes but rather give rise to a Curie term in the susceptibility due to localisation. The low value of spin S = 1/2, and absence of long range ordering or spin freezing, and the presence of competing exchange interactions hold special significance in hosting novel magnetic properties in this class of quasi-2D quantum material.

  2. Fingering phenomena during grain-grain displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Nathália M. P.; Paiva, Humberto A.; Combe, G.; Atman, A. P. F.

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous formation of fingered patterns during the displacement of dense granular assemblies was experimentally reported few years ago, in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Here, by means of discrete element simulations, we have recovered the experimental findings and extended the original study to explore the control parameters space. In particular, using assemblies of grains with different geometries (monodisperse, bidisperse, or polydisperse), we measured the macroscopic stress tensor in the samples in order to confirm some conjectures proposed in analogy with Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering phenomena for immiscible fluids. Considering an axial setup which allows to control the discharge of grains and to follow the trajectory and the pressure gradient along the displacing interface, we have applied the Darcy law for laminar flow in fluids in order to measure an "effective viscosity" for each assembly combination, in an attempt to mimic variation of the viscosity ratio between the injected/displaced fluids in the Saffman-Taylor experiment. The results corroborate the analogy with the viscous fluids displacement, with the bidisperse assembly corresponding to the less viscous geometry. But, differently to fluid case, granular fingers only develop for a specific combination of displaced/injected geometries, and we have demonstrated that it is always related with the formation of a force chain network along the finger direction.

  3. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  4. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  5. Perspective: A Definition for Whole-Grain Food Products-Recommendations from the Healthgrain Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; van der Kamp, Jan-Willem; King, Roberto; Lê, Kim-Anne; Mejborn, Heddie; Seal, Chris J; Thielecke, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Whole grains are a key component of a healthy diet, and enabling consumers to easily choose foods with a high whole-grain content is an important step for better prevention of chronic disease. Several definitions exist for whole-grain foods, yet these do not account for the diversity of food products that contain cereals. With the goal of creating a relatively simple whole-grain food definition that aligns with whole-grain intake recommendations and can be applied across all product categories, the Healthgrain Forum, a not-for-profit consortium of academics and industry working with cereal foods, established a working group to gather input from academics and industry to develop guidance on labeling the whole-grain content of foods. The Healthgrain Forum recommends that a food may be labeled as "whole grain" if it contains ≥30% whole-grain ingredients in the overall product and contains more whole grain than refined grain ingredients, both on a dry-weight basis. For the purposes of calculation, added bran and germ are not considered refined-grain ingredients. Additional recommendations are also made on labeling whole-grain content in mixed-cereal foods, such as pizza and ready meals, and a need to meet healthy nutrition criteria. This definition allows easy comparison across product categories because it is based on dry weight and strongly encourages a move from generic whole-grain labels to reporting the actual percentage of whole grain in a product. Although this definition is for guidance only, we hope that it will encourage more countries to adopt regulation around the labeling of whole grains and stimulate greater awareness and consumption of whole grains in the general population. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Whole Grains and Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whole grains. Does not contain partially hydrogenated oils. Dietary Fiber Dietary fiber is the term for several materials that make ... water. When eaten regularly as part of a diet low in saturated fat and trans fat soluble fiber has been associated with increased diet quality and ...

  7. Formation on grain surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazaux, S; Tielens, AGGM

    2004-01-01

    The most abundant interstellar molecule, H-2, is generally thought to form by recombination of H atoms on grain surfaces. On surfaces, hydrogen atoms can be physisorbed and chemisorbed and their mobility can be governed by quantum mechanical tunneling or thermal hopping. We have developed a model fo

  8. Sport, how people choose it: A network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Luca; Ivaldi, Marco; Daolio, Fabio; Giacobini, Mario; Rainoldi, Alberto; Tomassini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the behaviour of athletes in choosing sports, we analyse data from part of the We-Sport database, a vertical social network that links athletes through sports. In particular, we explore connections between people sharing common sports and the role of age and gender by applying "network science" approaches and methods. The results show a disassortative tendency of athletes in choosing sports, a negative correlation between age and number of chosen sports and a positive correlation between age of connected athletes. Some interesting patterns of connection between age classes are depicted. In addition, we propose a method to classify sports, based on the analyses of the behaviour of people practising them. Thanks to this brand new classifications, we highlight the links of class of sports and their unexpected features. We emphasise some gender dependency affinity in choosing sport classes.

  9. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering....... For contemporary states the planes have become increasingly disaggregated, in the sense that they do not fall into place at one and the same border. Thus, states have to pick and choose different articulations (often inconsistently) on different planes. We illustrate these ideas with instances, present......-day and historical, of bordering. A corollary of there being more need to pick and choose is that articulations of sovereignty change. So, sovereignty is increasingly the material of ‘sovereignty games’, where sovereignty is used as a political instrument. In sum, our theory directs attention to state bordering...

  10. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  11. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrients and health benefits Print Share Why is it important to eat grains, especially whole grains? Eating ... diabetes. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation and diverticulosis. Fiber-containing foods ...

  12. Microstructures of NiFe/nonmagnetic metal spacer/FeMn films and their influences on exchange coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Minghua(李明华); YU; Guanghua(于广华); ZHU; Fengwu(朱逢吾); HE; Ke(何珂); LAI; Wuyan(赖武彦)

    2003-01-01

    Ta/NiFe/nonmagnetic metal spacer/FeMn films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The dependences of the exchange coupling field (Hex) between an antiferromagnetic FeMn layer and a ferromagnetic NiFe layer on the thickness of nonmagnetic metal spacer layers were systematically studied. The results show that the Hex dramatically decreases with the increase in the thicknesses of Bi and Ag spacer layers. However, it gradually decreases with the increase in the thickness of a Cu spacer layer. For a Cu space layer, its crystalline structure is the same as that of NiFe and the lattice parameters of them are close to each other. The Cu layer and FeMn layer will epitaxially grow on the NiFe layer in succession, so the (111) texture of the FeMn layer will not be damaged. As a result, the Hex gradually decreases with the deposition thickness of a Cu layer. For an Ag space layer, its crystalline structure is the same as that of NiFe, but its lattice parameter is very different from that of NiFe. Thus, neither an Ag nor an FeMn layer will epitaxially grow on the NiFe layer and the (111) texture of the FeMn layer will be damaged. The Hex rapidly decreases with the increase in the deposition thickness of an Ag layer. For a Bi spacer layer, not only its crystalline structure but also its lattice parameter is greatly different from that of NiFe. For the same reason, the Bi and FeMn layer cannot epitaxially grow on the NiFe layer. The texture of the FeMn layer will also be damaged. Therefore, the Hex rapidly decreases with the increase in the deposition thickness of a Bi layer as well. However, the research result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that a very small amount of surfactant Bi atoms will migrate to the FeMn layer surface when they are deposited on the NiFe/FeMn interface. Thus, the Hex will hardly decrease.

  13. Grain rotation mediated by grain boundary dislocations in nanocrystalline platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Teng, Jiao; Liu, Pan; Hirata, Akihiko; Ma, En; Zhang, Ze; Chen, Mingwei; Han, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Grain rotation is a well-known phenomenon during high (homologous) temperature deformation and recrystallization of polycrystalline materials. In recent years, grain rotation has also been proposed as a plasticity mechanism at low temperatures (for example, room temperature for metals), especially for nanocrystalline grains with diameter d less than ~15 nm. Here, in tensile-loaded Pt thin films under a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, we show that the plasticity mechanism transitions from cross-grain dislocation glide in larger grains (d>6 nm) to a mode of coordinated rotation of multiple grains for grains with d<6 nm. The mechanism underlying the grain rotation is dislocation climb at the grain boundary, rather than grain boundary sliding or diffusional creep. Our atomic-scale images demonstrate directly that the evolution of the misorientation angle between neighbouring grains can be quantitatively accounted for by the change of the Frank–Bilby dislocation content in the grain boundary. PMID:25030380

  14. Predictive coarse-graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, Markus; Zabaras, Nicholas; Koutsourelakis, Phaedon-Stelios

    2017-03-01

    We propose a data-driven, coarse-graining formulation in the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast to existing techniques which are based on a fine-to-coarse map, we adopt the opposite strategy by prescribing a probabilistic coarse-to-fine map. This corresponds to a directed probabilistic model where the coarse variables play the role of latent generators of the fine scale (all-atom) data. From an information-theoretic perspective, the framework proposed provides an improvement upon the relative entropy method [1] and is capable of quantifying the uncertainty due to the information loss that unavoidably takes place during the coarse-graining process. Furthermore, it can be readily extended to a fully Bayesian model where various sources of uncertainties are reflected in the posterior of the model parameters. The latter can be used to produce not only point estimates of fine-scale reconstructions or macroscopic observables, but more importantly, predictive posterior distributions on these quantities. Predictive posterior distributions reflect the confidence of the model as a function of the amount of data and the level of coarse-graining. The issues of model complexity and model selection are seamlessly addressed by employing a hierarchical prior that favors the discovery of sparse solutions, revealing the most prominent features in the coarse-grained model. A flexible and parallelizable Monte Carlo - Expectation-Maximization (MC-EM) scheme is proposed for carrying out inference and learning tasks. A comparative assessment of the proposed methodology is presented for a lattice spin system and the SPC/E water model.

  15. Why do students choose English as a medium of instruction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Taking a Bourdieusian perspective, this paper analyzes the relevance of social background and capital for choosing English as a medium of instruction (EMI). It focuses on students with a non-native English-language background in a business school setting. While proponents argue that EMI generally...

  16. The Experience of Choosing Nursing as a Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2000-01-01

    Nursing students (n=27) wrote descriptions of the experience of choosing nursing as a career. Influences included intense desire to help others, professional reward, prior work experiences, family and friends in health care occupations, observing nurses in action, something lacking in previous career choices, and fascination with science and the…

  17. The Dilemma of Individual Autonomy versus Choosing Rightly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehezkely, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Many important goals or values of education are tokens of either one of these two meta-goals-values: raising our children to be autonomous, or raising them to choose rightly. Thus, the conflicts between many educational goals-values are tokens of the meta-conflict between these two, and the questions of priority that such conflicts invite are…

  18. Choosing a Career in Management: An Interdisciplinary Multicultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malach-Pines, Ayala; Ozbilgin, Mustafa F.; Burke, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the papers in this special issue and some issues surrounding choosing management as a career. A jointly developed questionnaire is also presented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is descriptive in nature. Findings: It is crucial for researchers and practitioners to expand their perspectives…

  19. Learning Basic Addition Facts from Choosing between Alternative Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Mirte S.; Reitsma, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of addition facts was investigated in a practice study. Participants were 103 Grade 1 children who practiced simple addition problems with three different methods: (a) writing down the answer, (b) choosing between two alternative answers, and (c) filling in the second missing addend. On a test with simple addition problems,…

  20. Choosing a Strategy for Return-on-Investment Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshay, Wellesley R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concept of human capital, including how it is linked to strategic analysis and how it relates to four alternative models for return-on-investment (ROI). Discusses how to choose the best model for ROI justification of training or other human performance technology (HPT) interventions. (AEF)

  1. Still "Choosing Our Futures": How Many Apples in the Seed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, James G.

    2015-01-01

    James Neal begins this essay with the introduction of the 1996 paper, "Choosing Our Futures," by calling it a provocation, and a call to arms for the academic library community to challenge complacency and move forward toward fundamental change. Neal writes here that in the context of extraordinary economic pressures, the early…

  2. Choosing early pregnancy termination methods in Urban Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.H. Mitchell; A. Kwizera; M. Usta; H. Gebreselassie

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about who chooses medication abortion with misoprostol and why. Women seeking early abortion in 5 public hospitals in Maputo, Mozambique were recruited in 2005 and 2006 to explore decision-making strategies, method preferences and experiences with misoprostol and vacuum aspiration fo

  3. Choosing the Right Assessment for the Right Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Assessments used for both clinical practice and research should show evidence of validity and reliability for the target group of people. It is easy to agree with this statement, but it is not always easy to choose the right assessment for the right purpose. Recently there have been increasing numbers of studies which investigate further the…

  4. Step 7: Choose the "Best" Risk Management Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate purpose of the SRM tactical phase is to choose how to manage risk. Prior to this stage, we determined the sources of risk, identified the relevant management actions and estimated the likelihood of all known outcomes. Next, we combine this information with your personal risk preference...

  5. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  6. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  7. Reversing ferroelectric polarization in multiferroic DyMn2O5 by nonmagnetic Al substitution of Mn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Liu, M. F.; Li, X.; Wang, J. X.; Yan, Z. B.; Wang, K. F.; Liu, J.-M.

    2014-08-01

    The multiferroic RMn2O5 family, where R is rare-earth ion or Y, exhibits rich physics of multiferroicity which has not yet well understood. DyMn2O5 is a representative member of this family. The ferroelectric polarization of DyMn2O5 is claimed to be magnetically relevant and have more than one component. Therefore, the polarization reversal upon the sequent magnetic transitions is expected. We investigate the evolution of the ferroelectric polarization upon a partial substitution of Mn3+ by nonmagnetic Al3+ in order to tailor the Mn3+-Mn4+ interactions and then to modulate the polarization in DyMn2-x/2Alx/2O5. It is revealed that the polarization can be successfully reversed by Al-substitution via substantially suppressing the Mn3+-Mn4+ interactions, while the Dy3+-Mn4+ interactions can sustain against the substitution until a level as high as x = 0.2. In addition, the independent Dy spin ordering is shifted remarkably down to an extremely low temperature due to the Al3+ substitution. The present work unveils the possibility of tailoring the Mn3+-Mn4+ and Dy3+-Mn4+ interactions independently, and thus reversing the ferroelectric polarization.

  8. Negative refractive index metamaterials from inherently non-magnetic materials for deep infrared to terahertz frequency ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannopapas, Vassilios; Moroz, Alexander

    2005-06-29

    We present a new set of artificial structures which can exhibit a negative refractive index band in excess of 6% in a broad frequency range from the deep infrared to the terahertz region. The structures are composites of two different kinds of non-overlapping spheres, one made from inherently non-magnetic polaritonic and the other from a Drude-like material. The polaritonic spheres are responsible for the existence of negative effective magnetic permeability whilst the Drude-like spheres are responsible for negative effective electric permittivity. The resulting negative refractive index structures are truly subwavelength structures with wavelength-to-structure ratio 14:1, which is almost 50% higher than has been previously achieved. Our results are explained in the context of the extended Maxwell-Garnett theory and are reproduced by calculations based on the layer Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method, an ab initio multiple scattering theory. The role of absorption in the constituent materials is discussed. Effective medium computer F77 code is freely available at http://www.wave-scattering.com.

  9. Comparison of the enrollment percentages of magnet and non-magnet schools in a large urban school district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Arcia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Are magnet schools in a position to meet diversity ideals? As districts are declared unitary and released from court ordered desegregation, many are framing their commitments to fairness and equity in terms of diversity˜i.e., comparable rates of participation and comparable educational outcomes in all segments the student population. In this study, the enrollment statistics for magnet and contiguous non-magnet public schools in Miami-Dade County Public Schools, a large, urban district that had been released from court ordered desegregation, were compared to each other and to district enrollment averages at two time points: the year the district was declared unitary and four years hence. Findings indicated that within four years of being declared unitary, the gains that the magnet schools had made with regards to Black/non-Black desegregation had eroded substantially. Also, in the four year span, magnet schools had not made significant strides in meeting the diversity ideals adopted by the district at being released from supervision by the court. These findings highlight the difficulty of attaining diversity in student enrollment characteristics when quotas are not used and suggest that recruitment and enrollment policies must be crafted with care if districts are to achieve diversity goals.

  10. Characterization of a spontaneous nonmagnetic mutant of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense reveals a large deletion comprising a putative magnetosome island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schübbe, Sabrina; Kube, Michael; Scheffel, André; Wawer, Cathrin; Heyen, Udo; Meyerdierks, Anke; Madkour, Mohamed H; Mayer, Frank; Reinhardt, Richard; Schüler, Dirk

    2003-10-01

    Frequent spontaneous loss of the magnetic phenotype was observed in stationary-phase cultures of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1. A nonmagnetic mutant, designated strain MSR-1B, was isolated and characterized. The mutant lacked any structures resembling magnetosome crystals as well as internal membrane vesicles. The growth of strain MSR-1B was impaired under all growth conditions tested, and the uptake and accumulation of iron were drastically reduced under iron-replete conditions. A large chromosomal deletion of approximately 80 kb was identified in strain MSR-1B, which comprised both the entire mamAB and mamDC clusters as well as further putative operons encoding a number of magnetosome-associated proteins. A bacterial artificial chromosome clone partially covering the deleted region was isolated from the genomic library of wild-type M. gryphiswaldense. Sequence analysis of this fragment revealed that all previously identified mam genes were closely linked with genes encoding other magnetosome-associated proteins within less than 35 kb. In addition, this region was remarkably rich in insertion elements and harbored a considerable number of unknown gene families which appeared to be specific for magnetotactic bacteria. Overall, these findings suggest the existence of a putative large magnetosome island in M. gryphiswaldense and other magnetotactic bacteria.

  11. Phase transition in nonmagnetic Al-doped delafossite oxide CuCrO{sub 2}: Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z.R.; Qin, M.H., E-mail: qinmh@scnu.edu.cn

    2015-10-09

    In this work, the effects of the lattice defects and random exchange interaction on the phase transition in the classical frustrated spin model (Lin et al., 2014) [14] are investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in order to study the nonmagnetic Al doping effect in CuCrO{sub 2}. It is observed that the long range magnetic order can be significantly suppressed by the lattice defects and random exchange induced by the Al substitution, qualitatively consistent with experimental observation. Thus, both the lattice defects and random exchange are confirmed to be responsible for the variation of the transition temperature of CuCr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}O{sub 2} with x. - Highlights: • Al doping effect on phase transition in CuCrO{sub 2} is studied by Monte Carlo simulation of a classical Heisenberg model. • Both the lattice defects and random exchange contribute to the variation of the transition temperature of CuCr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}O{sub 2} with x. • The effect of the lattice defects is proved to be dominant in the Al doping effect in CuCrO{sub 2}.

  12. Investigation of the influence of quenched nonmagnetic impurities on phase transitions in the three-dimensional Potts model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazaev, A. K.; Babaev, A. B.; Aznaurova, G. Ya.

    2008-04-01

    The influence of quenched nonmagnetic impurities on phase transitions in the three-dimensional Potts model with the number of spin states q = 3 is investigated using the Wolff single-cluster algorithm of the Monte Carlo method. The systems with linear sizes L = 20-44 at the spin concentrations p = 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, and 0.7 are analyzed. It is demonstrated with the use of the method of fourth-order Binder cumulants that the second-order phase transition occurs in the model under consideration at the spin concentrations p = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.7 and that the first-order phase transition is observed in the pure model ( p = 1.0). The static critical exponents α (heat capacity), γ (susceptibility), β (magnetization), and ν (correlation length) are calculated in the framework of the finite-size scaling theory. The problem regarding the universality classes of the critical behavior of weakly diluted systems is discussed.

  13. Effect of magnetic and nonmagnetic nano metal oxides doping on the critical temperature of a YBCO superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, A. H.; El-Hofy, M.; Rammah, Y. S.; Elkhatib, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bulk superconductor samples of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) doped with nano metal oxides of Mn3O4, Co3O4, Cr2O3, CuO and SnO2 respectively with 0.2 wt% are synthesized by a solid-state reaction route. The structural characterization of all samples has been carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The XRD patterns indicate that the magnetic doping of nano metal oxides ≤ft({{{Mn}}}{{3}}{{{O}}}{{4}}, {{{Co}}}{{3}}{{{O}}}{{4}}, {{{Cr}}}{{2}}{{{O}}}{{3}}\\right) gives a high value of orthorhombicity of the YBCO samples which is the result of high oxygen content, and consequently could give better superconducting properties contrary to the non magnetic nano oxides (CuO, SnO2). The critical temperature (Tc) of the studied samples was found to improve by nano magnetic doping and lower with nano nonmagnetic doping. The superconducting transition temperature Tc determined from electrical resistivity measurements was found to increase for Mn3O4 (5.27 μB) doping and decrease for other metal oxides doping.

  14. A photometric study of chemically peculiar stars with the STEREO satellites. II. Non-magnetic chemically peculiar stars

    CERN Document Server

    Paunzen, E; Fossati, L; Netopil, M; White, G J; Bewsher, D

    2012-01-01

    We have analysed the photometric data obtained with the STEREO spacecraft for 558 non-magnetic chemically peculiar (CP) stars to search for rotational and pulsational variability. Applying the Lomb-Scargle and the phase dispersion minimisation methods, we have detected photometric variability for 44 objects from which 35 were previously unknown. The new objects are all bright stars on the Ecliptic Plane (magnitude range 4.7 < V < 11.7) and will therefore be of great interest to studies of stellar structure and evolution. In particular, several show multiple signals consistent with hybrid delta Scuti and gamma Doradus pulsation, with different periodicities allowing very different regions of the stellar interior to be studied. There are two subgroups of stars in our sample: the cool metallic line Am (CP1) and the hot HgMn (CP3) stars. These objects fall well inside the classical instability strip where delta Scuti, gamma Doradus and slowly pulsating B-type stars are located. We also expect to find period...

  15. Magnetic susceptibility of Dirac fermions, Bi-Sb alloys, interacting Bloch fermions, dilute nonmagnetic alloys, and Kondo alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buot, Felix A.; Otadoy, Roland E. S.; Rivero, Karla B.

    2017-03-01

    Wide ranging interest in Dirac Hamiltonian is due to the emergence of novel materials, namely, graphene, topological insulators and superconductors, the newly-discovered Weyl semimetals, and still actively-sought after Majorana fermions in real materials. We give a brief review of the relativistic Dirac quantum mechanics and its impact in the developments of modern physics. The quantum band dynamics of Dirac Hamiltonian is crucial in resolving the giant diamagnetism of bismuth and Bi-Sb alloys. Quantitative agreement of the theory with the experiments on Bi-Sb alloys has been achieved, and physically meaningful contributions to the diamagnetism has been identified. We also treat relativistic Dirac fermion as an interband dynamics in uniform magnetic fields. For the interacting Bloch electrons, the role of translation symmetry for calculating the magnetic susceptibility avoids any approximation to second order in the field. The expressions for magnetic susceptibility of dilute nonmagnetic alloys give a firm theoretical foundation of the empirical formulas used in fitting experimental results. The unified treatment of all the above calculations is based on the lattice Weyl-Wigner formulation of discrete phase-space quantum mechanics. For completeness, the magnetic susceptibility of Kondo alloys is also given since Dirac fermions in conduction band and magnetic impurities exhibit Kondo effect.

  16. Structural and electronic properties of non-magnetic intermetallic YAuX (X = Ge and Si) in hexagonal and cubic phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Lekhal; F Z Benkhelifa; S Méçabih; B Abbar; B Bouhafs

    2016-02-01

    The structural and electronic properties of non-magnetic intermetallic YAuX (X = Ge and Si) crystallized in hexagonal phase have been investigated using the full potential linearized augmented-plane wave (FPLAPW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT), within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated lattice parameters were in good agreement with experiment. Also, the structural and electronic properties of the non-magnetic half-Heusler YAuPb compound including the artificial YAuX (X = Ge and Si) calculated in cubic phase were determined. It was found that the half-Heusler YAuPb compound presented metallic character. The results showed that YAuGe in cubic phase is a semiconductor whereas the cubic YAuSi is an isolator.

  17. Contactless electrical conductivity measurement of metallic submicron-grain material: Application to the study of aluminum with severe plastic deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mito, M; Matsui, H; Yoshida, T; Anami, T; Tsuruta, K; Deguchi, H; Iwamoto, T; Terada, D; Miyajima, Y; Tsuji, N

    2016-05-01

    We measured the electrical conductivity σ of aluminum specimen consisting of submicron-grains by observing the AC magnetic susceptibility resulting from the eddy current. By using a commercial platform for magnetic measurement, contactless measurement of the relative electrical conductivity σn of a nonmagnetic metal is possible over a wide temperature (T) range. By referring to σ at room temperature, obtained by the four-terminal method, σn(T) was transformed into σ(T). This approach is useful for cylinder specimens, in which the estimation of the radius and/or volume is difficult. An experiment in which aluminum underwent accumulative roll bonding, which is a severe plastic deformation process, validated this method of evaluating σ as a function of the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries.

  18. Effect of nonmagnetic zinc impurity on Tc in LaFe1−xZnxPO0.94F0.06 superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuke Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of nonmagnetic Zn impurity on superconductivity in the LaFe1−yZnyPO0.94F0.06 system by measuring the transport and magnetic properties. It is found that Zn doping drastically suppresses the superconducting transition temperature Tc. This is consistent with the theoretic prediction in the scenario of s±-wave or d-wave pairing.

  19. Grain Destruction in Interstellar Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Interstellar shock waves can erode and destroy grains present in the shocked gas, primarily as the result of sputtering and grain-grain collisions. Uncertainties in current estimates of sputtering yields are reviewed. Results are presented for the simple case of sputtering of fast grains being stopped in cold gas. An upper limit is derived for sputtering of refractory grains in C-type MHD shocks: shock speeds $v_s \\gtrsim 50 \\kms$ are required for return of more than 30\\% of the silicate to t...

  20. Influence of nonmagnetic disorder on specific heat and electrical resistivity in Kondo lattice system CePd{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnida, D., E-mail: d.gnida@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland); Dominyuk, N.; Zaremba, V. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mephodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Kaczorowski, D. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Interplay of Kondo and RKKY interactions in the presence of nonmagnetic disorder. • Suppression of the coherent Kondo state by nonmagnetic impurities. • Observation of quantum interference phenomena in Ce-based Kondo system. • Coexistence of incoherent Kondo effect and Altshuler-Aronov quantum correction. - Abstract: The alloy system CePd{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}In with 0.1⩽x⩽0.4 was investigated by means of heat capacity and electrical resistivity measurements. Its low-temperature behavior has been found to be governed by the interplay of Kondo effect and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions in the presence of atomic disorder in nonmagnetic atoms sublattice. The coherent Kondo state, observed for CePdIn, gradually vanishes with increasing the Ge-content. The incoherent Kondo state, which characterizes Ge-rich alloys, appears very sensitive to applied magnetic field. The observed systematic changes in the temperature- and field-dependent electrical transport in CePd{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}In manifest the important role of quantum correction due to electron-electron interactions in weakly localized regime.

  1. Whole grains and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2004-06-01

    Epidemiological studies find that whole-grain intake is protective against cancer, CVD, diabetes, and obesity. Despite recommendations to consume three servings of whole grains daily, usual intake in Western countries is only about one serving/d. Whole grains are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals with known health benefits. Whole grains have high concentrations of dietary fibre, resistant starch, and oligosaccharides. Whole grains are rich in antioxidants including trace minerals and phenolic compounds and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Other protective compounds in whole grains include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals. Published whole-grain feeding studies report improvements in biomarkers with whole-grain consumption, such as weight loss, blood-lipid improvement, and antioxidant protection. Although it is difficult to separate the protective properties of whole grains from dietary fibre and other components, the disease protection seen from whole grains in prospective epidemiological studies far exceeds the protection from isolated nutrients and phytochemicals in whole grains.

  2. Why do medical students choose orthopaedics as a career?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amanda L; Sharma, Jyoti; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Emery, Sanford E; McCollister Evarts, C; Floyd, Mark W; Kaeding, Christopher C; Lavelle, William F; Marsh, J Lawrence; Pellegrini, Vincent D; Van Heest, Ann E; Black, Kevin P

    2012-06-06

    The primary influence on medical students' career choice is their third-year clerkship. However, orthopaedics is not a required rotation in the curriculum of most medical schools. Our goals were to identify factors that motivate students to choose an orthopaedic career and to compare these with the factors that influence students to choose nonorthopaedic disciplines. Fourth-year medical students and orthopaedic residents at the postgraduate year (PGY)-1 level at eight orthopaedic training programs in the United States were surveyed to determine the reasons that they chose orthopaedics instead of other medical or surgical fields. Of the 622 individuals who responded to our survey, 125 were entering orthopaedics and 497 were not. Although career choice in both groups was most heavily influenced by third and fourth-year clinical rotations and faculty contacts, orthopaedics-bound respondents were more likely than non-orthopaedics-bound respondents to be strongly influenced by experiences and people prior to medical school. Orthopaedics-bound respondents were less likely to report a faculty member as the most important person influencing career choice. Fifty-one percent (sixty-three) of 124 students who selected orthopaedics had already decided to pursue this field prior to their third-year rotation. Patient care was chosen by 71% (347) of 490 non-orthopaedics-bound respondents and 75% (ninety-four) of 125 orthopaedics-bound respondents as the most important factor for pursuing a particular field. Income was not selected as the deciding factor by respondents in either group. Although faculty contacts and third-year clinical rotations played an important role in student selection of specialty training, they were less influential for those choosing an orthopaedic career than for those choosing other disciplines. Many students choosing orthopaedics made this decision prior to medical school. We believe that increased exposure to positive clinical role models and

  3. Alternative grains in nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevcsák Sz.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people suffer from gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance. They have to avoid or limit their gluten intake. Sorghum and millet are gluten-free cereals, wherefore persons with gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance could consume them. Moreover, they have a lot of positive effects due to their phenolic compounds as phenol acid or flavonoid. Antioxidant activity in sorghum is especially high in comparison with other cereals. Our aim was to compare literature data about the chemical compositions of sorghum and millet with other grains.

  4. Reasons for choosing Dermatology as a career choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Abdulaziz Aldahash

    2016-01-01

    Results: A total of six (3% students were considering Dermatology as their first choice, while it was the second choice for seven students (4.7%. Of the participants, 118 (60.8% found ′the difficulty of getting into a Dermatology residency programme′ to be the least attractive factor. Factors that significantly attracted medical students to consider Dermatology as a career choice were the appeal of being a dermatologist, how dermatologists lead a satisfying family life, reliance on clinical diagnostic skills and research opportunities in Dermatology (P = 0.004, 0.024, 0.039 and 0.010, respectively. Conclusions: A variety of factors influenced the medical students of KSAU-HS when choosing a future specialty. Identification of these factors can help medical student mentors and residency training programme directors to motivate students choose specialties that are limited in our nation.

  5. AN ANALYSIS ON CHOOSING A PROPER ECOMMERCE PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lixandroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Choosing an electronic trading platform is a very important decision when opening an online store. A suitable platform must be able to meet many of the requirements as to not confuse the user. It should provide an online business operation providing tools for managing back-office of technically. There are dozens maybe hundreds of electronic ecommerce platforms available to create an online store, so the decision to choose a platform is difficult. In this article, we tried to compare 19 of the most popular open source ecommerce platforms using a mathematical model based on the platform functionalities. Each of these allows parameterization of an online store in a very short time, with some relatively low cost or close to 0.

  6. Choosing the Path of Leadership in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Patrick Heard D.OT Reg. (Ont.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is vital to the success and sustainability of any group, organization, or profession. Using a qualitative phenomenological methodology, consistent with interpretative phenomenological analysis, this study examines why occupational therapists choose the path of leadership. Data was collected through the completion of semistructured interviews with 10 occupational therapy leaders in Ontario, Canada. This collected data was transcribed verbatim and coded for themes by multiple coders. Several methods were employed to establish trustworthiness. Results identify that a desire to influence the profession or care delivery, a need for personal or career development, and a need for change motivate those occupational therapists who might choose the path of leadership. Recommendations for supporting new or developing leaders include a focus on linking occupational therapy practice and leadership theory at the curriculum and professional levels. Moreover, application of novel approaches to mentorship for new and developing leaders, such as supportive communities of practice, are also considered.

  7. Choosing Your China Structure:Foreign-Invested Commercial Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD HOFFMAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ When choosing an appropriate investment vehicle in China,many factors must be considered,as these will lead to different legal and tax considerations.Once you've clearly defined the needs and goals for your China investment,it is time to consider the legal form your China entity should take.Foreign investors have several choices for structuring a China enterprise: the representative office,the joint venture,the wholly foreign-owned enterprise(WFOE)and the foreign-invested commercial enterprise(FICE).These structures have different features that can help or hinder your China venture,so choosing the appropriate vehicle from the outset will be invaluable for the long-term success of any investment.Here we examine the FICE.

  8. ALGORITHM TO CHOOSE ENERGY GENERATION MULTIPLE ROLE STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STĂNESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm that is based on a complex analysis method that is used for choosing the configuration of a power station. The station generates electric energy and hydrogen, and serves a "green" highway. The elements that need to be considered are: energy efficiency, location, availability of primary energy sources in the area, investment cost, workforce, environmental impact, compatibility with existing systems, meantime between failure.

  9. CHOOSING THE RIGHT FORM OF LICENSING A BUSINESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROIBAN Roxana Nadina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the most appropriate form of licensing a business is an important decision not easy to be made by an entrepreneur and it should be taken only after he has the required skills and abilities to do so. The business idea should harmonize with the business environment and its future trends, with the existing opportunities and the future products or services that the company will provide and not least the entrepreneur has to make sure that he has sufficient resources to get started. We consider that every business has a number of features that make certain forms of licensing to be more suitable than others. This paper aims to present a multitude of items to be reviewed by an entrepreneur at the start-up in order to choose the most appropriate licensing type for his business. Given that our country's law allows entrepreneurs to license their businesses in several forms, the decision to choose between many existing possibilities is a very important one for the future good of the business. Currently in our country there are two major laws governing the licensing of a business. The first one is the republished and subsequently amended Company Law number 31/1990 and the second, the Government Emergency Ordinance number 44/2008 regarding the economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises. The Company Law number 31/1990 allows companies to choose between one of the five types of business entities that can operate in Romania: General partnership (in Romanian SNC, Limited partnership (in Romanian SCS, Limited partnerships by shares (in Romanian SCA, Joint stock company (in Romanian S.A. and Limited liability company (in Romanian S.R.L.. GEO number 44/2008 on economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises regulates the licensing and the activity of a Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises.

  10. I choose health (Elijo Salud: impacting youth through parish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Janet; Hoebeke, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The 2009-2010 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) found that 34% of adolescents are overweight and 18% obese. The chance of an overweight/obese adolescent becoming an overweight/obese adult by age 35 is 60%. Hispanic youth are at risk for becoming obese related to eating habits. This paper describes an intervention, I Choose Health (Elijo Salud), with Hispanic church youth.

  11. On Design of Automatic Choosing Control by Pole Placement

    OpenAIRE

    高田, 等; 提, 祐樹; 八野, 知博; TAKATA, Hitoshi; Sage, Yuki; HACHINO, Tomohiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with design of an augmented automatic choosing control (AACC) for nonlinear systems. The AACC is synthesized by smoothly uniting a set of sectionwise linear controls, in which pole placement approach is used. An observer theory is applied to it in a case that the state vector includes some unmeasurable variables directly. Control and observer's gains are obtained by the pole placement method.

  12. Reversing ferroelectric polarization in multiferroic DyMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} by nonmagnetic Al substitution of Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Liu, M. F.; Li, X.; Wang, J. X.; Yan, Z. B.; Wang, K. F.; Liu, J.-M. [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-08-07

    The multiferroic RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} family, where R is rare-earth ion or Y, exhibits rich physics of multiferroicity which has not yet well understood. DyMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} is a representative member of this family. The ferroelectric polarization of DyMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} is claimed to be magnetically relevant and have more than one component. Therefore, the polarization reversal upon the sequent magnetic transitions is expected. We investigate the evolution of the ferroelectric polarization upon a partial substitution of Mn{sup 3+} by nonmagnetic Al{sup 3+} in order to tailor the Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} interactions and then to modulate the polarization in DyMn{sub 2−x/2}Al{sub x/2}O{sub 5}. It is revealed that the polarization can be successfully reversed by Al-substitution via substantially suppressing the Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} interactions, while the Dy{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} interactions can sustain against the substitution until a level as high as x = 0.2. In addition, the independent Dy spin ordering is shifted remarkably down to an extremely low temperature due to the Al{sup 3+} substitution. The present work unveils the possibility of tailoring the Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} and Dy{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} interactions independently, and thus reversing the ferroelectric polarization.

  13. Non-Magnetic Factors Affecting Magnetic Susceptibility of the Loess-Paleosol Sequences in the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Feng, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Several different proposals have been adopted to explain the linkage between the magnetic susceptibility of loess-paleosol sequences and the associated past climate. First, the intensity of dustfall controlled the variation in the susceptibility. Second, the degree of pedogenesis controlled the variation. A third proposal states that the susceptibility signal is a result of the competing processes between pedogenic enhancement and detrital inheritance. This paper examines the acceptability as the summer monsoon proxy from nonmagnetic perspectives. Several conclusions can be drawn from our data. First, clay translocation within the Last Interglacial paleosol S1 profiles must have moved some of the magnetic minerals downward so that the susceptibility reflects only the post-translocation distribution of the magnetic susceptibility-producing minerals. Second, the best-developed paleosol S1S3 (equivalent to MIS 5e) at most of the sections studied is not well expressed by the magnetic susceptibility because this paleosol developed in underlying coarse loess (L2) and coarse textures tend to lower the susceptibility. Third, carbonate concentration is negatively correlated with the magnetic susceptibility or suppresses the magnetic susceptibility peak when the susceptibility enhancement exceeds the carbonate dilution effect. It should be stressed that the susceptibility signal and its contributors in eolian sequences can be site- and time-dependent within the Chinese Loess Plateau. A stronger eolian component northwestward and a stronger pedogenic component southeastward are the general trends, but the trends can be complicated by those site- and time-dependent factors. Therefore, a more comprehensive model is needed to more precisely address the relationship between the paleoclimate and the proxy.

  14. Good Grains Gone Bad: How Grain to Grain Interactions Complicate the Onset of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, E.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Predictions of the onset of sediment motion are integral components of bed stability and bedload flux estimates. Mechanistic equations for initial motion employ a balance between driving and resisting forces. Driving forces are modeled as functions of the magnitude and duration of turbulence events whereas resisting forces are simply approximated by the grain weight and a static friction angle. Such resistance approximations do not include the effects of grain packing and dynamic interactions with surrounding sediment. To better understand and quantify grain resistance, we used a Discrete Element Method (DEM) model for a single test grain surrounded by a bed of smaller grains. We applied a constant external force on the test grain in each run and progressively increased the force between runs until the test grain moved out of its resting pocket. The DEM model calculated the test grain velocity, position and net force (sum of applied external force and forces from other grains) at time steps of 1×10-7 s. Despite applying a constant external force, the net force on the test grain fluctuated by three to six orders of magnitude, depending on the run. These fluctuations were driven by the creation and destruction of force chains, and the rearrangement of the positions of surrounding bed sediment. Stick-slip behavior, which has been observed in shear tests of granular material, occurred during test-grain motion. The frequency of stick-slip behavior generally declined with higher applied external forces. Therefore, the onset of grain motion was not continuous, as is often assumed even in the presence of fluctuating applied fluid forces. The duration and magnitude of turbulence fluctuations have received considerable attention but our results suggest that grain resistance oscillations are also important. Whether turbulence and resistance fluctuations are synchronous will likely dictate if grain movement occurs, and we are currently conducting model runs to better

  15. Germinated grains: a superior whole grain functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kristina; Stojanovska, Lily; Vasiljevic, Todor; Mathai, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Grains are global dietary staples that when consumed in whole grain form, offer considerable health benefits compared with milled grain foods, including reduced body weight gain and reduced cardiovascular and diabetes risks. Dietary patterns, functional foods, and other lifestyle factors play a fundamental role in the development and management of epidemic lifestyle diseases that share risks of developing adverse metabolic outcomes, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. Despite their benefits, the intake of grains appears to be lower than recommended in many countries. Of emerging interest is the application of germination processes, which may significantly enhance the nutritional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability. Enhancing grain foods in a natural way using germination techniques may therefore offer a practical, natural, dietary intervention to increase the health benefits and acceptability of whole grains, with potentially widespread effects across populations in attenuating adverse lifestyle disease outcomes. Continuing to build on the growing body of in-vitro studies requires substantiation with extended in-vivo trials so that we may further develop our understanding of the potential of germinated grains as a functional food.

  16. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) turbulence and grain growth which are coupled in a two-way process. We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains and aggregates with fractal dimension D_f = 2. Applying a simple chemical network that accounts for collisional charging of grains, we provide a semi-analytical solution. This allowed us to calculate the equilibrium population of grain charges and the ionisation fraction efficiently. The grain charging was evaluated for different dynamical environments ranging from static to non-stationary disc configurations. The results show that the adsorption/desorption of neutral gas-phase heavy metals, such as magnesium, effects the ...

  17. Grain Handling and Storage Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Jill, Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural Health and Safety Fact Sheet AHS-02 Grain Handling and Storage Safety Jill Webster Ph.D., S. Christian Mariger, Graduate Assistant Agricultural Systems Technology and Education There are several hazards that should be considered when working with grain. Storage structures, handling equipment, and the grain itself have all caused serious injuries and deaths. Storage structures (bins, silos, and granaries), like all confined spaces, have significant hazards associated with them. Be...

  18. grain-filling, chlorophyll content in relation with grain yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The main effect of high temperatures during grain filling is to ... performance, is a crucial determinant of grain yield in cereal crops. ... 6 rows with 0.20 m row spacing, sowing density ... of wheat, corn (Zea mays L.), and other plants. (Wood et al.

  19. Categorical and nonparametric data analysis choosing the best statistical technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, E Michael

    2014-01-01

    Featuring in-depth coverage of categorical and nonparametric statistics, this book provides a conceptual framework for choosing the most appropriate type of test in various research scenarios. Class tested at the University of Nevada, the book's clear explanations of the underlying assumptions, computer simulations, and Exploring the Concept boxes help reduce reader anxiety. Problems inspired by actual studies provide meaningful illustrations of the techniques. The underlying assumptions of each test and the factors that impact validity and statistical power are reviewed so readers can explain

  20. Bending the law and crossing borders choosing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    have to apply to the law, it is even possible to choose between anonymous and non-anonymous donors. In this presentation, I focus on how the fertility travellers seeking sperm donation in Denmark, and the employees at Danish fertility clinics and sperm banks, negotiate the ethical implications of using...... sperm donation. Inspired by Karen Barad’s theory agential realism, I will analyze how ethics is material-discoursively negotiated in practice. The presentation is based on an ethnographic fieldwork carried out at fertility clinics in Denmark. It includes observations from the clinics, and interviews...... with employees and the fertility travellers using sperm donation....

  1. Motor heuristics and embodied choices: how to choose and act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus

    2017-08-01

    Human performance requires choosing what to do and how to do it. The goal of this theoretical contribution is to advance understanding of how the motor and cognitive components of choices are intertwined. From a holistic perspective I extend simple heuristics that have been tested in cognitive tasks to motor tasks, coining the term motor heuristics. Similarly I extend the concept of embodied cognition, that has been tested in simple sensorimotor processes changing decisions, to complex sport behavior coining the term embodied choices. Thus both motor heuristics and embodied choices explain complex behavior such as studied in sport and exercise psychology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Choosing the Right Oral Contraceptive Pill for Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) continue to be the most commonly used form of prescription contraceptives used by adolescents in the United States. With proper use, oral contraceptives provide safe and effective birth control. Broad categories of OCPs include progestin-only pills (POPs) and combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs). Certain types of progestins have more potent antiandrogenic properties and are more effective in treating acne, hirsutism, and polycystic ovary syndrome. This article reviews types of OCPs, discusses risks and benefits of OCPs, and provides guidance for how to choose the most beneficial and appropriate OCP for individual adolescent patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. First- and second-order wetting transitions in confined Ising films in the presence of nonmagnetic impurities: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes, S. M.; Albano, E. V.

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we present the results of a systematic exploration of the effect caused by the introduction of nonmagnetic impurities (or defects) on the stabilization of the interface between two magnetic domains of opposite magnetic orientation. Those defects are simulated as spin vacancies along the center of confined two-dimensional Ising films, which have competing magnetic fields acting on the confinement walls. The calculations are performed for different L×M film sizes and by using the standard Metropolis dynamics. In the absence of defects, the film is characterized by an interface running along the M direction, which is induced by the competing surface fields. That interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition that is the precursor of a true wetting transition taking place in the thermodynamic limit. When the density of defects is relatively low, our results show that the wetting phase transition is of second order, as in the absence of defects. On the other hand, when the density of nonmagnetic impurities is relatively high, a pinning effect of the interface gives rise to a first-order wetting phase transition. The observed transitions are characterized by measuring relevant properties, such as magnetization profiles, cumulants, magnetization fluctuations, etc., as a function of the density of defects. So, our main finding is that the presence of nonmagnetic impurities introduces a rich physical scenery, such as a line of second-order wetting transitions (observed for low density of defects) that merges into a first-order one just at a tricritical point. Precisely, these two latter findings are the major contributions of our study.

  4. First- and second-order wetting transitions in confined Ising films in the presence of nonmagnetic impurities: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes, S M; Albano, E V

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we present the results of a systematic exploration of the effect caused by the introduction of nonmagnetic impurities (or defects) on the stabilization of the interface between two magnetic domains of opposite magnetic orientation. Those defects are simulated as spin vacancies along the center of confined two-dimensional Ising films, which have competing magnetic fields acting on the confinement walls. The calculations are performed for different L×M film sizes and by using the standard Metropolis dynamics. In the absence of defects, the film is characterized by an interface running along the M direction, which is induced by the competing surface fields. That interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition that is the precursor of a true wetting transition taking place in the thermodynamic limit. When the density of defects is relatively low, our results show that the wetting phase transition is of second order, as in the absence of defects. On the other hand, when the density of nonmagnetic impurities is relatively high, a pinning effect of the interface gives rise to a first-order wetting phase transition. The observed transitions are characterized by measuring relevant properties, such as magnetization profiles, cumulants, magnetization fluctuations, etc., as a function of the density of defects. So, our main finding is that the presence of nonmagnetic impurities introduces a rich physical scenery, such as a line of second-order wetting transitions (observed for low density of defects) that merges into a first-order one just at a tricritical point. Precisely, these two latter findings are the major contributions of our study.

  5. Antiferromagnetic vs. non-magnetic ε phase of solid oxygen. Periodic density functional theory studies using a localized atomic basis set and the role of exact exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Solís, A; Zicovich-Wilson, C M; Hernández-Lamoneda, R; Ochoa-Calle, A J

    2017-01-25

    The question of the non-magnetic (NM) vs. antiferromagnetic (AF) nature of the ε phase of solid oxygen is a matter of great interest and continuing debate. In particular, it has been proposed that the ε phase is actually composed of two phases, a low-pressure AF ε1 phase and a higher pressure NM ε0 phase [Crespo et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2014, 111, 10427]. We address this problem through periodic spin-restricted and spin-polarized Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations at pressures from 10 to 50 GPa using calibrated GGA and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals with Gaussian atomic basis sets. The two possible configurations for the antiferromagnetic (AF1 and AF2) coupling of the 0 ≤ S ≤ 1 O2 molecules in the (O2)4 unit cell were studied. Full enthalpy-driven geometry optimizations of the (O2)4 unit cells were done to study the pressure evolution of the enthalpy difference between the non-magnetic and both antiferromagnetic structures. We also address the evolution of structural parameters and the spin-per-molecule vs. pressure. We find that the spin-less solution becomes more stable than both AF structures above 50 GPa and, crucially, the spin-less solution yields lattice parameters in much better agreement with experimental data at all pressures than the AF structures. The optimized AF2 broken-symmetry structures lead to large errors of the a and b lattice parameters when compared with experiments. The results for the NM model are in much better agreement with the experimental data than those found for both AF models and are consistent with a completely non-magnetic (O2)4 unit cell for the low-pressure regime of the ε phase.

  6. Alignment of suprathermally rotating grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarian, A.

    1995-12-01

    It is shown that mechanical alignment can be efficient for suprathermally rotating grains, provided that they drift with supersonic velocities. Such a drift should be widely spread due to both Alfvenic waves and ambipolar diffusion. Moreover, if suprathermal rotation is caused by grain interaction with a radiative flux, it is shown that mechanical alignment may be present even in the absence of supersonic drift. This means that the range of applicability of mechanical alignment is wider than generally accepted and that it can rival the paramagnetic one. We also study the latter mechanism and re-examine the interplay between poisoning of active sites and desorption of molecules blocking the access to the active sites of H_2 formation, in order to explain the observed poor alignment of small grains and good alignment of large grains. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of alignment, we briefly discuss the alignment by radiation fluxes and by grain magnetic moments.

  7. Urbanization and Grain Production Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyang; LI; Dongge; LIU

    2015-01-01

    Based on DEA-Malmquist method,this paper calculated the integrated technology efficiency of grain production and total factor productivity and analyzed factors influencing the grain production technology efficiency using working documents of panel structure. Research results indicate that grain production integrated technology efficiency of China is relatively low,technology utilization level is low,and it remains at the stage of decreasing returns to scale,and the pure technology efficiency still has space to increase. Total factor productivity is declining and the total factor productivity of many provinces is relatively low. Since the total factor productivity of eastern areas is higher than central and western areas,it is required to strengthen technological support for grain production. The implementation of urbanization is helpful for promoting increase of grain production technology efficiency in central and eastern areas,but it will exert negative influence on western areas.

  8. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  9. Coarse Grained Quantum Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Agon, Cesar; Kasko, Skyler; Lawrence, Albion

    2014-01-01

    We consider coarse graining a quantum system divided between short distance and long distance degrees of freedom, which are coupled by the Hamiltonian. Observations using purely long distance observables can be described by the reduced density matrix that arises from tracing out the short-distance observables. The dynamics of this density matrix is that of an open quantum system, and is nonlocal in time, on the order of some short time scale. We describe these dynamics in a model system with a simple hierarchy of energy gaps $\\Delta E_{UV} > \\Delta E_{IR}$, in which the coupling between high-and low-energy degrees of freedom is treated to second order in perturbation theory. We then describe the equations of motion under suitable time averaging, reflecting the limited time resolution of actual experiments, and find an expansion of the master equation in powers of $\\Delta E_{IR}/\\Delta E_{UV}$, in which the failure of the system to be Hamiltonian or even Markovian appears at higher orders in this ratio. We com...

  10. Choosing nursing as a career: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mary; Glacken, Michele; O'Brien, Frances

    2008-04-01

    It is widely accepted that nursing as a career is viewed favourably by society in that it offers job security, mobility and career variety. The main reason for choosing nursing in the 21st century remains the desire to help and care for others, as this paper demonstrates. The findings presented here are part of an on-going longitudinal study which is exploring whether mode of selection into nursing has an impact on a number of variables, of which, career choice is one. The aim of this paper is to identify why non-mature under-graduate students choose nursing as a career and to determine what factors influence this decision. An exploratory-descriptive design, employing a qualitative approach was used. Following receipt of ethical approval, data were collected using focus group interviews and content analysis was employed. Participants were students on a general nursing programme delivered in a large Irish Higher Education Institute. Interviews took place within the first 3 months of the programme, prior to the first clinical placement. It emerged that although nursing was not everybody's first career choice, all participants had sought a career which involved caring. Family or friends in the profession played a role in influencing participants' career selection.

  11. The best motivator priorities parents choose via analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, R. N.; Latha, P.

    2015-05-01

    Motivation is probably the most important factor that educators can target in order to improve learning. Numerous cross-disciplinary theories have been postulated to explain motivation. While each of these theories has some truth, no single theory seems to adequately explain all human motivation. The fact is that human beings in general and pupils in particular are complex creatures with complex needs and desires. In this paper, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been proposed as an emerging solution to move towards too large, dynamic and complex real world multi-criteria decision making problems in selecting the most suitable motivator when choosing school for their children. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 ("Statistical Package for Social Science") software. Statistic testing used are descriptive and inferential statistic. Descriptive statistic used to identify respondent pupils and parents demographic factors. The statistical testing used to determine the pupils and parents highest motivator priorities and parents' best priorities using AHP to determine the criteria chosen by parents such as school principals, teachers, pupils and parents. The moderating factors are selected schools based on "Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia" (SKPM) in Ampang. Inferential statistics such as One-way ANOVA used to get the significant and data used to calculate the weightage of AHP. School principals is found to be the best motivator for parents in choosing school for their pupils followed by teachers, parents and pupils.

  12. Israelis' perceived motivation for choosing a nursing career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Becker, Fainna

    2010-05-01

    Recruitment problems are one of the main reasons for the shortage of nurses in Israel and elsewhere. The purpose of this study is to clarify factors affecting choice of ideal careers and nursing careers among the general population. A questionnaire constructed by McCabe et al. (2005) was administered to 309 men and women aged 18-50. Data were analyzed by quantitative methods. Research findings indicate that 8% of respondents expressed interest in studying nursing. Significant differences were reported between the choice of ideal and nursing careers. Nursing careers were perceived as lacking interest, challenge, creativity, responsibility, varied wages, high status, comfortable conditions, versus ideal careers. A moderately positive correlation was identified between choice of a nursing career and intrinsic factors affecting this choice. People motivated by desire to help others rather than personal interest or challenges are predisposed to choose a nursing career. Finally, a negative correlation was identified between psychometric scores and choice of a nursing career. The study also identified a positive correlation between both the image of nursing as a profession and the availability of nursing jobs - and the decision to choose a nursing career. This study may facilitate the development of nurse recruitment programs.

  13. 20 CFR 702.403 - Employee's right to choose physician; limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee's right to choose physician... PROCEDURE Medical Care and Supervision § 702.403 Employee's right to choose physician; limitations. The employee shall have the right to choose his/her attending physician from among those authorized by...

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GRAIN MICRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. During micronisation grain moisture evaporates mainly in decreasing drying rate period. Grain layer located on the surface of the conveyor micronisers will be regarded as horizontal plate. Due to the fact that the micronisation process the surface of the grain evaporates little moisture (within 2-7 % is assumed constant plate thickness. Because in the process of micronization grain structure is changing, in order to achieve an exact solution of the equations necessary to take into account changes thermophysical, optical and others. Equation of heat transfer is necessary to add a term that is responsible for the infrared heating. Because of the small thickness of the grain, neglecting the processes occurring at the edge of the grain, that is actually consider the problem of an infinite plate. To check the adequacy of the mathematical model of the process of micronisation of wheat grain moisture content must be comparable to the function of time, obtained by solving the system of equations with the measured experimental data of experience. Numerical solution of a system of equations for the period of decreasing drying rate is feasible with the help of the Maple 14, substituting the values of the constants in the system. Calculation of the average relative error does not exceed 7- 10 %, and shows a good agreement between the calculated data and the experimental values.

  15. Quantitative characterisation of sedimentary grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunwal, Mohit; Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Meere, Patrick A.

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of sedimentary texture helps in determining the formation, transportation and deposition processes of sedimentary rocks. Grain size analysis is traditionally quantitative, whereas grain shape analysis is largely qualitative. A semi-automated approach to quantitatively analyse shape and size of sand sized sedimentary grains is presented. Grain boundaries are manually traced from thin section microphotographs in the case of lithified samples and are automatically identified in the case of loose sediments. Shape and size paramters can then be estimated using a software package written on the Mathematica platform. While automated methodology already exists for loose sediment analysis, the available techniques for the case of lithified samples are limited to cases of high definition thin section microphotographs showing clear contrast between framework grains and matrix. Along with the size of grain, shape parameters such as roundness, angularity, circularity, irregularity and fractal dimension are measured. A new grain shape parameter developed using Fourier descriptors has also been developed. To test this new approach theoretical examples were analysed and produce high quality results supporting the accuracy of the algorithm. Furthermore sandstone samples from known aeolian and fluvial environments from the Dingle Basin, County Kerry, Ireland were collected and analysed. Modern loose sediments from glacial till from County Cork, Ireland and aeolian sediments from Rajasthan, India have also been collected and analysed. A graphical summary of the data is presented and allows for quantitative distinction between samples extracted from different sedimentary environments.

  16. [Strategies to choose scaffold materials for tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingdong; Zhu, Xulong; Xiang, Junxi; Lü, Yi; Li, Jianhui

    2016-02-01

    Current therapies of organ failure or a wide range of tissue defect are often not ideal. Transplantation is the only effective way for long time survival. But it is hard to meet huge patients demands because of donor shortage, immune rejection and other problems. Tissue engineering could be a potential option. Choosing a suitable scaffold material is an essential part of it. According to different sources, tissue engineering scaffold materials could be divided into three types which are natural and its modified materials, artificial and composite ones. The purpose of tissue engineering scaffold is to repair the tissues or organs damage, so could reach the ideal recovery in its function and structure aspect. Therefore, tissue engineering scaffold should even be as close as much to the original tissue or organs in function and structure. We call it "organic scaffold" and this strategy might be the drastic perfect substitute for the tissues or organs in concern. Optimized organization with each kind scaffold materials could make up for biomimetic structure and function of the tissue or organs. Scaffold material surface modification, optimized preparation procedure and cytosine sustained-release microsphere addition should be considered together. This strategy is expected to open new perspectives for tissue engineering. Multidisciplinary approach including material science, molecular biology, and engineering might find the most ideal tissue engineering scaffold. Using the strategy of drawing on each other strength and optimized organization with each kind scaffold material to prepare a multifunctional biomimetic tissue engineering scaffold might be a good method for choosing tissue engineering scaffold materials. Our research group had differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into bile canaliculi like cells. We prepared poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone) biliary stent. The scaffold's internal played a part in the long-term release of cytokines which

  17. An Improved Implementation of Grain

    CERN Document Server

    Mansouri, Shohreh Sharif

    2009-01-01

    A common approach to protect confidential information is to use a stream cipher which combines plain text bits with a pseudo-random bit sequence. Among the existing stream ciphers, Non-Linear Feedback Shift Register (NLFSR)-based ones provide the best trade-off between cryptographic security and hardware efficiency. In this paper, we show how to further improve the hardware efficiency of Grain stream cipher. By transforming the NLFSR of Grain from its original Fibonacci configuration to the Galois configuration and by introducing a clock division block, we double the throughput of the 80 and 128-bit key 1bit/cycle architectures of Grain with no area penalty.

  18. Investigations of the effect of nonmagnetic Ca substitution for magnetic Dy on spin-freezing in Dy2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, V. K.; Tennant, D. A.; Lake, B.

    2015-11-01

    Physical properties of partially Ca substituted hole-doped Dy2Ti2O7 have been investigated by ac magnetic susceptibility {χ\\text{ac}}(T) , dc magnetic susceptibility χ (T) , isothermal magnetization M(H) and heat capacity {{C}\\text{p}}(T) measurements on Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7. The spin-ice system Dy2Ti2O7 exhibits a spin-glass type freezing behavior near 16 K. Our frequency dependent {χ\\text{ac}}(T) data of Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7 show that the spin-freezing behavior is significantly influenced by Ca substitution. The effect of partial nonmagnetic Ca2+ substitution for magnetic Dy3+ is similar to the previous study on nonmagnetic isovalent Y3+ substituted Dy2-x Y x Ti2O7 (for low levels of dilution), however the suppression of spin-freezing behavior is substantially stronger for Ca than Y. The Cole-Cole plot analysis reveals semicircular character and a single relaxation mode in Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7 as for Dy2Ti2O7. No noticeable change in the insulating behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 results from the holes produced by 10% Ca2+ substitution for Dy3+ ions.

  19. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of austenitic steel strips for non-magnetic laminations of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 2 400 tonnes of cold-rolled austenitic steel strips for non-magnetic laminations of the cold mass of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets. Following a market survey carried out among 32 firms in fourteen Member States and two firms in Japan, a call for tenders (IT-2617/LHC/LHC) was sent on 3 June 1999 to three firms in two Member States and two firms in Japan. The Council agreed to the Management?s proposal to invite Japanese industry to participate, where appropriate, in calls for tenders for supplies for the LHC Project (CERN/CC/2110). By the closing date, CERN had received four tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the negotiation of a contract with the firm KAWASAKI STEEL (JP), the lowest bidder complying with the technical specification, for the supply of 2 400 tonnes of cold-rolled austenitic steel for non-magnetic laminations of the cold mass of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets for a total amount of 1 277 856 000 Ja...

  20. Magnetism without magnetic ions in non-magnetic perovskites SrTiO 3, SrZrO 3 and SrSnO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, V. V.; Shein, I. R.; Kozhevnikov, V. L.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

    Using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation potential, we studied spin polarization induced by replacement of oxygen atoms by non-magnetic 2p impurities (B, C and N) in non-magnetic cubic SrMO 3 perovskites, where M=Ti, Zr and Sn. The results show that the magnetization may appear because of the spin-split impurity bands inside the energy gap of the insulating SrMO 3 matrix. Large magnetic moments are found for the impurity centers. Smaller magnetic moments are induced on the oxygen atoms around impurities. It is shown that SrTiO 3:C and SrSnO 3:C should be magnetic semiconductors while other compounds in this series (SrTiO 3:B, SrTiO 3:N and SrZrO 3:C) are expected to exhibit magnetic half-metallic or pseudo-half-metallic properties.

  1. Magnetism without magnetic ions in non-magnetic perovskites SrTiO{sub 3}, SrZrO{sub 3} and SrSnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, V.V.; Shein, I.R.; Kozhevnikov, V.L. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ivanovskii, A.L. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ivanovskii@ihim.uran.ru

    2008-03-15

    Using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation potential, we studied spin polarization induced by replacement of oxygen atoms by non-magnetic 2p impurities (B, C and N) in non-magnetic cubic SrMO{sub 3} perovskites, where M=Ti, Zr and Sn. The results show that the magnetization may appear because of the spin-split impurity bands inside the energy gap of the insulating SrMO{sub 3} matrix. Large magnetic moments are found for the impurity centers. Smaller magnetic moments are induced on the oxygen atoms around impurities. It is shown that SrTiO{sub 3}:C and SrSnO{sub 3}:C should be magnetic semiconductors while other compounds in this series (SrTiO{sub 3}:B, SrTiO{sub 3}:N and SrZrO{sub 3}:C) are expected to exhibit magnetic half-metallic or pseudo-half-metallic properties.

  2. Choosing a coverage probability for forecasting the incidence of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Derek S; Mills, Terence M

    2014-10-15

    Loddon Mallee Integrated Cancer Service plays a key role in planning the delivery of cancer services in the Loddon Mallee Region of Victoria, Australia. Such planning relies on the accuracy of forecasting the incidence of cancer. Perhaps more importantly is the need to reflect the uncertainty of these forecasts, which is usually carried out through prediction intervals. Standard confidence levels (e.g., 90% or 95%) are typically employed when forecasting the incidence of cancer, but decision-theoretic approaches are available to help choose an optimal coverage probability by minimizing the combined risk of the interval width and noncoverage of the interval. We proceed with the decision-theoretic framework and discuss some general strategies for defining candidate loss functions for forecasting the incidence of cancer, such as the data we analyze for the Loddon Mallee Region.

  3. Bending the law and crossing borders choosing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    In recent years, Denmark has become a European destination for couples and single women wanting sperm donation. One reason is that the current regulation is liberal in the sense that it enables single women and lesbians to be treated. Since neither private sperm banks nor clinics run by midwifes...... have to apply to the law, it is even possible to choose between anonymous and non-anonymous donors. In this presentation, I focus on how the fertility travellers seeking sperm donation in Denmark, and the employees at Danish fertility clinics and sperm banks, negotiate the ethical implications of using...... sperm donation. Inspired by Karen Barad’s theory agential realism, I will analyze how ethics is material-discoursively negotiated in practice. The presentation is based on an ethnographic fieldwork carried out at fertility clinics in Denmark. It includes observations from the clinics, and interviews...

  4. The freedom to choose neutron star magnetic field equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Glampedakis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to interpret and glean useful information from the large body of observations of strongly magnetised neutron stars rests largely on our theoretical understanding of magnetic field equilibria. We answer the following question: is one free to arbitrarily prescribe magnetic equilibria such that fluid degrees of freedom can balance the equilibrium equations? We examine this question for various models for neutron star matter; from the simplest single-fluid barotrope to more realistic non-barotropic multifluid models with superfluid/superconducting components, muons and entropy. We do this for both axi- and non-axisymmetric equilibria, and in Newtonian gravity and general relativity. We show that, in axisymmetry, the most realistic model allows complete freedom in choosing a magnetic field equilibrium whereas non-axisymmetric equilibria are never completely arbitrary.

  5. MEDICAL TOURISTS' EXPECTATIONS WHEN CHOOSING LITHUANIA FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglė Eleonora Černikovaitė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Identify medical expectations of tourists choosing Lithuania as medical tourism country and to make comparative analysis with situation in Thailand. Medical tourism is one of the most promising fields of business in the world. International trade in medical services also has huge economic potential and gradually increasing outcome for the global economy (Bookman & Bookman, 2007. Major medical tourism destinations: Thailand, India, Singapore and Malaysia attracted more than 2.5 million medical travellers (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 2008. Lithuania is among the major emerging markets in medical tourism that is increasing every year. This study showed that main factors of attracting tourist to Lithuania: fast service and exceptional patient care, the high-tech medical equipment, good prices both for medical and travel services. Comparing to Thailand situation, Lithuania is attractive to the most medical tourist, because of the good quality services with affordable prices and location, while people choosing Thailand – mainly is affected by advertising. The main recommendation for attracting medical tourists to Lithuania is to initiate the advertising campaign to the targeted audiences. Design/methodology/approach – The comparative analysis of scientific literature and empirical comparative quantitative research was executed for acquiring the expectations for medical tourists in Lithuania. Findings – Overview of health and medical tourism situation in Lithuania and other emerging markets. This study showed that main factors of attracting tourist to Lithuania: fast service and exceptional patient care, the high-tech medical equipment, good prices both for medical and travel services and other. Comparative empirical analysis of medical tourist expectations in Lithuania and Thailand. Comparing to Thailand situation, Lithuania is attractive to the most medical tourist, because of the good

  6. Bedouin Women's Gender Preferences When Choosing Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Hadar; Abokaf, Hanaa; Levy, Yifat Amir; Azem, Foad; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-10-31

    Patients' preferences in choosing obstetricians/gynecologists are widely investigated, but studies among traditional populations are lacking. Bedouins comprise a traditional Arab Muslim society in the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia), The Levant (Syria, Jordan and Israel) and North Africa (Egypt). Most of the Bedouins in Israel populate several villages, mostly in the southern part of the country. This cross-sectional study compared 200 Bedouin and 200 Jewish women who responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Queried on gender alone, more Bedouin responders preferred female obstetricians/gynecologists (59.5 vs. 33% Jewish responders, p value reputation in 4th place and gender in 5th place. Bedouin women strongly preferred female obstetricians/gynecologists, although professional skills were an important factor in their choice of caregiver. The ideal obstetrician/gynecologist for Bedouin women would be a skilled, knowledgeable, and experienced female.

  7. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...... are required to navigate dynamically fluctuating participation frameworks and their contingent language scenarios. Although some interactional settings have institutionally implemented rules or norms relating to which language is the designated medium-of-interaction, this is not the case across all settings...

  8. Choosing a Commercial Broiler Strain Based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini SA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the complexity and amount of information in a wide variety of comparative performance reports in poultry production, making a decision is difficult. This problem is overcomed only when all data can be put into a common unit. For this purpose, five different decision making analysis approaches including  Maximin, Equally likely, Weighted average, Ordered weighted averages and Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution were used to choose the best broiler strain among three ones based on their comparative performance and carcass characteristics. Commercial broiler strains of 6000 designated as R, A, and C (each strain 2000 were randomly allocated into three treatments of five replicates. In this study, all methods showed similar results except Maximin approach. Comparing different methods indicated that strain C with the highest world share market has the best performance followed by strains R and A.

  9. Heterologous expression of membrane proteins: choosing the appropriate host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Bernaudat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane proteins are the targets of 50% of drugs, although they only represent 1% of total cellular proteins. The first major bottleneck on the route to their functional and structural characterisation is their overexpression; and simply choosing the right system can involve many months of trial and error. This work is intended as a guide to where to start when faced with heterologous expression of a membrane protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of 20 membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, in three prokaryotic (E. coli, L. lactis, R. sphaeroides and three eukaryotic (A. thaliana, N. benthamiana, Sf9 insect cells hosts was tested. The proteins tested were of various origins (bacteria, plants and mammals, functions (transporters, receptors, enzymes and topologies (between 0 and 13 transmembrane segments. The Gateway system was used to clone all 20 genes into appropriate vectors for the hosts to be tested. Culture conditions were optimised for each host, and specific strategies were tested, such as the use of Mistic fusions in E. coli. 17 of the 20 proteins were produced at adequate yields for functional and, in some cases, structural studies. We have formulated general recommendations to assist with choosing an appropriate system based on our observations of protein behaviour in the different hosts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the methods presented here can be quite easily implemented in other laboratories. The results highlight certain factors that should be considered when selecting an expression host. The decision aide provided should help both newcomers and old-hands to select the best system for their favourite membrane protein.

  10. Heterologous expression of membrane proteins: choosing the appropriate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaudat, Florent; Frelet-Barrand, Annie; Pochon, Nathalie; Dementin, Sébastien; Hivin, Patrick; Boutigny, Sylvain; Rioux, Jean-Baptiste; Salvi, Daniel; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Richaud, Pierre; Joyard, Jacques; Pignol, David; Sabaty, Monique; Desnos, Thierry; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Darrouzet, Elisabeth; Vernet, Thierry; Rolland, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Membrane proteins are the targets of 50% of drugs, although they only represent 1% of total cellular proteins. The first major bottleneck on the route to their functional and structural characterisation is their overexpression; and simply choosing the right system can involve many months of trial and error. This work is intended as a guide to where to start when faced with heterologous expression of a membrane protein. The expression of 20 membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, in three prokaryotic (E. coli, L. lactis, R. sphaeroides) and three eukaryotic (A. thaliana, N. benthamiana, Sf9 insect cells) hosts was tested. The proteins tested were of various origins (bacteria, plants and mammals), functions (transporters, receptors, enzymes) and topologies (between 0 and 13 transmembrane segments). The Gateway system was used to clone all 20 genes into appropriate vectors for the hosts to be tested. Culture conditions were optimised for each host, and specific strategies were tested, such as the use of Mistic fusions in E. coli. 17 of the 20 proteins were produced at adequate yields for functional and, in some cases, structural studies. We have formulated general recommendations to assist with choosing an appropriate system based on our observations of protein behaviour in the different hosts. Most of the methods presented here can be quite easily implemented in other laboratories. The results highlight certain factors that should be considered when selecting an expression host. The decision aide provided should help both newcomers and old-hands to select the best system for their favourite membrane protein. © 2011 Bernaudat et al.

  11. Motivations for choosing various food groups based on individual foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Uyen T X; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Understanding "why people eat what they eat" is important for improving the lives of people around the world by helping provide industrial and social solutions for people to have greater pleasure and health from the foods they choose. The objective of this study was to investigate the motivations behind everyday choices of different food groups using a bottom-up approach that targeted the specific choices of foods and beverages people consumed at various times of a day. This study was conducted using an online survey included questions related to demographics, the most recent meal including specific food choices, and a slightly modified Eating Motivation Surveys (2 motivations were added, and Check-All-That-Apply procedure was used), which contained 50 sub-scales to measure 17 motivations including such topics as Liking, Pleasure, Convenience, Health, Price, Variety Seeking etc. A total of 198 participants have completed the surveys. Data were analyzed by Correspondence Analysis. Liking was found to be the strongest motivation that drove people to select all sorts of foods. Need and Hunger and Convenience were the main motivations for baked products, "fast" foods, sausages and meats, and snack foods while Health and Weight Control were found to be the main driving factors for vegetables, fruits & fruit juices, nuts, seeds, dairy & egg, and poultry products. Sweets were linked to Pleasure. For beverages, people were motivated most by Heath and Weight Control to choose water and tea. Coffee was used due to Habits; soda was because of Pleasure and alcoholic was for socialization purposes. This study provided developers, marketers, health educators, etc. With a new method to understand food choice in order to promote better eating.

  12. Choosing the best heuristic for seeded alignment of DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhler Jeremy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeded alignment is an important component of algorithms for fast, large-scale DNA similarity search. A good seed matching heuristic can reduce the execution time of genomic-scale sequence comparison without degrading sensitivity. Recently, many types of seed have been proposed to improve on the performance of traditional contiguous seeds as used in, e.g., NCBI BLASTN. Choosing among these seed types, particularly those that use information besides the presence or absence of matching residue pairs, requires practical guidance based on a rigorous comparison, including assessment of sensitivity, specificity, and computational efficiency. This work performs such a comparison, focusing on alignments in DNA outside widely studied coding regions. Results We compare seeds of several types, including those allowing transition mutations rather than matches at fixed positions, those allowing transitions at arbitrary positions ("BLASTZ" seeds, and those using a more general scoring matrix. For each seed type, we use an extended version of our Mandala seed design software to choose seeds with optimized sensitivity for various levels of specificity. Our results show that, on a test set biased toward alignments of noncoding DNA, transition information significantly improves seed performance, while finer distinctions between different types of mismatches do not. BLASTZ seeds perform especially well. These results depend on properties of our test set that are not shared by EST-based test sets with a strong bias toward coding DNA. Conclusion Practical seed design requires careful attention to the properties of the alignments being sought. For noncoding DNA sequences, seeds that use transition information, especially BLASTZ-style seeds, are particularly useful. The Mandala seed design software can be found at http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~yanni/mandala/.

  13. PARASITE MYCOPOPULATION OF SOYBEAN GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Disease appearance on soybean can influence quality and quantity of yield. Different spieces of saprophyte and parasite fungi can be isolated from stems, pods and grain of soybean. The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of important disease on natural soybean grain over the period of 4 years (2004-2007 of experiment held on the location Sopot-Vinkovci and included 9 cultivars of soybean. The following plant pathogenic fungi were identified: Peronospora, Sclerotinia, Cercospora, Fusarium and Diaporthe/Phomopsis. The most frequent fungi on soybean grains were: Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Epicoccum. The health condition of the natural soybean grains over the four years period on all cultivars was good.

  14. Export Rebates on Grain Finished

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ According to the State Statistics Bureau, China's consumer price index (CPI) jumped by 6.9 percent year-on-year last November, approaching the high levels seen at the end of 1996, one of the largest areas of increase was the price of grain,which rose by 6.6 percent. There is no doubt the growth in CPI can be mainly attributed to soaring food prices and the diffusion effect of oil price adjustments. Large orders for grain exports have put Chinese grain suppliers under tremendous pressure. In order to solve this problem, the Finance Ministry and State Administration of Taxation together announced that 84 categories of export tax rebates on major types of grain will be eliminated.

  15. Export Rebates on Grain Finished

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Xinwen

    2008-01-01

      According to the State Statistics Bureau, China's consumer price index (CPI) jumped by 6.9 percent year-on-year last November, approaching the high levels seen at the end of 1996, one of the largest areas of increase was the price of grain,which rose by 6.6 percent. There is no doubt the growth in CPI can be mainly attributed to soaring food prices and the diffusion effect of oil price adjustments. Large orders for grain exports have put Chinese grain suppliers under tremendous pressure. In order to solve this problem, the Finance Ministry and State Administration of Taxation together announced that 84 categories of export tax rebates on major types of grain will be eliminated.……

  16. Consumer Decision-Making Based on Review Websites: Are There Differences Between Choosing a Hotel and Choosing a Physician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeni, Evi; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Background Web users are increasingly encouraged to rate and review consumer services (eg, hotels, restaurants) and, more recently, this is also the case for physicians and medical services. The resemblance in the setup and design of commercial rating websites (CRWs) and Web-based physician rating websites (PRWs) raises the question of whether choice-making processes based on the two types of websites could also be similar. Objective This qualitative study sought to explore the extent to which consumer decision making based on Web-based reviews is the same for consumer services (ie, choice of a hotel) and health services (ie, choice of a pediatrician), while providing an in-depth understanding of potential differences or similarities. Methods Between June and August 2015, we carried out a total of 22 qualitative interviews with young parents residing in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Participants were invited to complete 2 choice tasks, which involved (1) choosing a hotel based on the commercial Web-based rating website TripAdvisor and (2) selecting a pediatrician based on the PRW Jameda. To better understand consumers’ thought processes, we instructed participants to “think aloud”, namely to verbalize their thinking while sorting through information and reaching decisions. Using a semistructured interview guide, we subsequently posed open-ended questions to allow them to elaborate more on factors influencing their decision making, level of confidence in their final choice, and perceived differences and similarities in their search for a hotel and a physician. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Results Participants spent on average 9:57 minutes (standard deviation=9:22, minimum=3:46, maximum=22:25) searching for a hotel and 6:17 minutes (standard deviation=4:47, minimum=00:38, maximum=19:25) searching for a pediatrician. Although the choice of a pediatrician was perceived as more important

  17. Consumer Decision-Making Based on Review Websites: Are There Differences Between Choosing a Hotel and Choosing a Physician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenfluh, Fabia; Germeni, Evi; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-06-16

    Web users are increasingly encouraged to rate and review consumer services (eg, hotels, restaurants) and, more recently, this is also the case for physicians and medical services. The resemblance in the setup and design of commercial rating websites (CRWs) and Web-based physician rating websites (PRWs) raises the question of whether choice-making processes based on the two types of websites could also be similar. This qualitative study sought to explore the extent to which consumer decision making based on Web-based reviews is the same for consumer services (ie, choice of a hotel) and health services (ie, choice of a pediatrician), while providing an in-depth understanding of potential differences or similarities. Between June and August 2015, we carried out a total of 22 qualitative interviews with young parents residing in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Participants were invited to complete 2 choice tasks, which involved (1) choosing a hotel based on the commercial Web-based rating website TripAdvisor and (2) selecting a pediatrician based on the PRW Jameda. To better understand consumers' thought processes, we instructed participants to "think aloud", namely to verbalize their thinking while sorting through information and reaching decisions. Using a semistructured interview guide, we subsequently posed open-ended questions to allow them to elaborate more on factors influencing their decision making, level of confidence in their final choice, and perceived differences and similarities in their search for a hotel and a physician. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Participants spent on average 9:57 minutes (standard deviation=9:22, minimum=3:46, maximum=22:25) searching for a hotel and 6:17 minutes (standard deviation=4:47, minimum=00:38, maximum=19:25) searching for a pediatrician. Although the choice of a pediatrician was perceived as more important than the choice of a hotel, participants

  18. PARASITE MYCOPOPULATION OF SOYBEAN GRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jasenka Ćosić; Karolina Vrandečić; Draženka Jurković; Ivan Ereš; Jelena Poštić

    2008-01-01

    Disease appearance on soybean can influence quality and quantity of yield. Different spieces of saprophyte and parasite fungi can be isolated from stems, pods and grain of soybean. The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of important disease on natural soybean grain over the period of 4 years (2004-2007) of experiment held on the location Sopot-Vinkovci and included 9 cultivars of soybean. The following plant pathogenic fungi were identified: Peronospora, Sclerotinia, Cercospora...

  19. Effect of nonmagnetic defects on superconducting and transport properties of Ba(Fe{sub 1–x}Co{sub x}As){sub 2} high-T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhin, I. S.; Gavrilkin, S. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Gorshunov, B. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Dravin, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Zhukova, E. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Ivanenko, O. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Aida, K. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (Germany); Krasnosvobodtsev, S. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kurt, F. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (Germany); Mitsen, K. V., E-mail: mitsen@sci.lebedev.ru; Tsvetkov, A. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The effect of nonmagnetic defects on superconducting and transport properties of Ba(Fe{sub 0.94}Co{sub 0.06}As){sub 2} films is studied for obtaining information on the symmetry type of the order parameter for superconducting pnictides. Such defects are generated in the film by irradiation by He{sup +} ions with an energy of 200 keV. It is found that a decrease in superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} upon an increase in the concentration of nonmagnetic defects in this compound occurs much more slowly than predicted in the model assuming s{sup ±}-wave symmetry of the order parameter. Joint analysis of the influence of nonmagnetic defects on the superconducting and magnetotransport properties of such films leads to the conclusion that superconductivity is completely suppressed in them after critical disorder is attained, which assumes the s{sup ++}-wave symmetry.

  20. Superconductivity of small metal grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Renrong; CHEN; Zhiqian; ZHU; Shunquan

    2005-01-01

    The formulas of the energy gap and superconducting critical temperature appropriate for systems with both odd and even number of electrons are derived; the bases of the derivations are BCS theory and energy level statistics. Numerical results qualitatively agree with the experimental phenomena. i.e., the superconductivity of small metallic grains will first enhance then decrease to zero when the grain are getting smaller and smaller. The calculations indicate that the above phenomena happen in the metallic grains belonging to Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) and Gaussian Unitary ensemble (GUE) with zero spin; The superconductivity of small metallic grains in Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble (GSE) will monotonically decrease to zero with the decreasing of the grain size. The analyses suggest that the superconductivity enhancements come from pairing and the balance of the strengths between spin-orbital coupling and external magnetic field. In order to take the latter into account, it is necessary to include the level statistics given by Random Matrix Theory (RMT) in describing small metallic grains.

  1. Wavelets as basis functions to represent the coarse-graining potential in multiscale coarse graining approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiolo, M., E-mail: massimo.maiolo@zhaw.ch [SUPSI, Department of Innovative Technology, Galleria 2, 6928 Manno (Switzerland); ZHAW, Institut für Angewandte Simulation, Grüental, CH-8820 Wädenswil (Switzerland); Vancheri, A., E-mail: alberto.vancheri@supsi.ch [SUPSI, Department of Innovative Technology, Galleria 2, 6928 Manno (Switzerland); Krause, R., E-mail: rolf.krause@usi.ch [USI, Institute of Computational Science, Via Buffi 13, 6906 Lugano (Switzerland); Danani, A., E-mail: andrea.danani@supsi.ch [SUPSI, Department of Innovative Technology, Galleria 2, 6928 Manno (Switzerland)

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we apply Multiresolution Analysis (MRA) to develop sparse but accurate representations for the Multiscale Coarse-Graining (MSCG) approximation to the many-body potential of mean force. We rigorously framed the MSCG method into MRA so that all the instruments of this theory become available together with a multitude of new basis functions, namely the wavelets. The coarse-grained (CG) force field is hierarchically decomposed at different resolution levels enabling to choose the most appropriate wavelet family for each physical interaction without requiring an a priori knowledge of the details localization. The representation of the CG potential in this new efficient orthonormal basis leads to a compression of the signal information in few large expansion coefficients. The multiresolution property of the wavelet transform allows to isolate and remove the noise from the CG force-field reconstruction by thresholding the basis function coefficients from each frequency band independently. We discuss the implementation of our wavelet-based MSCG approach and demonstrate its accuracy using two different condensed-phase systems, i.e. liquid water and methanol. Simulations of liquid argon have also been performed using a one-to-one mapping between atomistic and CG sites. The latter model allows to verify the accuracy of the method and to test different choices of wavelet families. Furthermore, the results of the computer simulations show that the efficiency and sparsity of the representation of the CG force field can be traced back to the mathematical properties of the chosen family of wavelets. This result is in agreement with what is known from the theory of multiresolution analysis of signals.

  2. A technique for choosing an option for SDH network upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bulanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly developing data transmission technologies result in making the network equipment modernization inevitable. There are various options to upgrade the SDH networks, for example, by increasing the capacity of network overloaded sites, the entire network capacity by replacement of the equipment or by creation of a parallel network, by changing the network structure with the organization of multilevel hierarchy of a network, etc. All options vary in a diversity of parameters starting with the solution cost and ending with the labor intensiveness of their realization. Thus, there are no certain standard approaches to the rules to choose an option for the network development. The article offers the technique for choosing the SHD network upgrade based on method of expert evaluations using as a tool the software complex that allows us to have quickly the quantitative characteristics of proposed network option. The technique is as follows:1. Forming a perspective matrix of services inclination to the SDH networks.2. Developing the several possible options for a network modernization.3. Formation of the list of criteria and a definition of indicators to characterize them by two groups, namely costs of the option implementation and arising losses; positive effect from the option introduction.4. Criteria weight coefficients purpose.5. Indicators value assessment within each criterion for each option by each expert. Rationing of the obtained values of indicators in relation to the maximum value of an indicator among all options.6. Calculating the integrated indicators of for each option by criteria groups.7. Creating a set of Pareto by drawing two criteria groups of points, which correspond to all options in the system of coordinates on the plane. Option choice.In implementation of point 2 the indicators derivation owing to software complex plays a key role. This complex should produce a structure of the network equipment, types of multiplexer sections

  3. Grain dynamics in zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B. T.; Haff, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of granular materials has proved difficult to model, primarily because of the complications arising from inelastic losses, friction, packing, and the effect of many grains being in contact simultaneously. One interesting limit for which it was recently possible to construct a theory is that where the grain-grain interactions are dominated by binary collisions. The kinetic model of granular systems if similar to the kinetic theory of gases, except that collisional energy losses are always present in the former and must be treated explicitly. Few granular materials on Earth are describable by this limiting model, since gravity tends to collapse the grains into a high-density state where Coulombic friction effects are dominant. The planned Space Station offers an unusual opportunity to test the kinetic grain model and to explore its predictions. Without gravity, the regime of low interparticle velocities, where an elastic description of the collision is still valid, is investigated. This will allow direct interpretation by dynamical computer simulations as well as by kinetic theory.

  4. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...

  5. Time to choose – DSM-5, ICD-11 or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrer, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DSM-5 was published in May 2013, and ICD 11 is not due to be published until the end of 2015 at the earliest. Nevertheless, it is possible to make a comparison at this early stage as much of the main decisions have been made with both classifications. DSM-5 aimed to make a paradigm shift by providing objective, independent measures of classification, but in this respect it clearly failed. It did respond to previous criticisms that there were too many diagnoses in the classification and that eliminated some conditions in favour of larger groupings (eg, autism spectrum disorder, but it has still come in for heavy criticism. ICD 11 deviates from DSM-5 in radically different classifications of personality and stress disorders and in general has pursued a different pathway, concentrating on clinical utility as the main guide to the classification. It is up to practitioners to choose which they prefer, but ICD 11 will be in a much stronger position than ICD 10 was when it was published in 1999.

  6. SAFER STERILE COMPOUNDING: Choosing and Using Disinfectants for the Cleanroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastango, Eric S; Douglass, Kate; Patel, Kedar; Givehchi, Babak; Brister, Paul; Postlewaite, Jay; Taraban, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Compounders worldwide are responsible for ensuring that the sterile preparations they dispense are pure, potent, and safe. To achieve that result, proper cleaning and disinfection of International Organization for Standardization controlled environments must occur. Because those tasks must be performed according to established standards, the compounding pharmacist must research regulatory requirements and appropriate products for use. In this report, we focus on U.S. regulations, guiding entities, and effective products that enable compliance with the increasingly stringent procedures required for pharmaceutical compounding. We also review cleaning and disinfecting processes, discuss the importance of correctly choosing and using disinfectants and/ or sporicidal disinfectants with surface claims in the cleanroom, and provide answers to questions frequently asked by staff who use those agents. In addition, we profile specific disinfectants that are compliant with UnitedStates Pharmacopeia Chapter and current good manufacturing practice standards. Biological safety cabinets and compounding aseptic containment isolators must undergo an additional process that deactivates hazardous drug residues and removes them from the interior surfaces of those devices before they are cleaned and disinfected, but that discussion is beyond the scope of this article.

  7. Choosing Markovian Credit Migration Matrices by Nonlinear Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Hughes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Transition matrices, containing credit risk information in the form of ratings based on discrete observations, are published annually by rating agencies. A substantial issue arises, as for higher rating classes practically no defaults are observed yielding default probabilities of zero. This does not always reflect reality. To circumvent this shortcoming, estimation techniques in continuous-time can be applied. However, raw default data may not be available at all or not in the desired granularity, leaving the practitioner to rely on given one-year transition matrices. Then, it becomes necessary to transform the one-year transition matrix to a generator matrix. This is known as the embedding problem and can be formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, minimizing the distance between the exponential of a potential generator matrix and the annual transition matrix. So far, in credit risk-related literature, solving this problem directly has been avoided, but approximations have been preferred instead. In this paper, we show that this problem can be solved numerically with sufficient accuracy, thus rendering approximations unnecessary. Our direct approach via nonlinear optimization allows one to consider further credit risk-relevant constraints. We demonstrate that it is thus possible to choose a proper generator matrix with additional structural properties.

  8. Factors for Choosing a Point of Purchase of Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Souček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on factors influencing consumers when choosing an outlet when shopping for meat products. This issue is very relevant in the Czech Republic as there were a number of problems and affairs in the food industry in the past period. Consumers begin to change their buying habits gradually and focus more on product quality. In the Czech Republic producers specializing in their production of meat products on quality have begun to improve their situation. The research results come from a questionnaire survey conducted in the Czech Republic (n = 1137. The data were processed with Statistica v. 11. Frequency tables, contingency tables and cluster analysis were used for the data analysis. Results show that in the Czech population a strong influence of price as a factor influencing a choice of point of purchase still prevails. Analyses focused on assessment of three hypotheses that were validated through decomposition into sub-hypotheses and application of contingency analysis. Measures of associations were examined in particular in relation to age category of respondents, household income, and level of attained education. In all cases, associations were identified for all three characteristics, the strongest associations were found particularly in the context of respondent’s age. The presented results show that managers of stores selling meat products should pay attention to a demographic structure of their customers and adjust their services and offer to their preferences.

  9. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Francesca; Pucci, Neri; Rossi, Maria Elisabetta; de Martino, Maurizio; Azzari, Chiara; Novembre, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Mori F, Pucci N, Rossi ME, de Martino M, Azzari C, Novembre E. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose! Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e450–e453. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S A renewed interest in oral desensitization as treatment for food allergy has been observed in the last few years. We studied a novel method based on the end point skin prick test procedure to establish the starting dose for oral desensitization in a group of 30 children higly allergic to milk. The results (in terms of reactions to the first dose administered) were compared with a group of 20 children allergic to milk as well. Such control group started to swallow the same dose of 0.015 mg/ml of milk. None reacted to the first dose when administered according to the end point skin prick test. On the other side, ten out of 20 children (50%) from the control group showed mild allergic reactions to the first dose of milk. In conclusion the end point skin prick test procedure results safe and easy to be performed in each single child in order to find out the starting dose for oral desensitization to milk, also by taking into account the individual variability. PMID:19624618

  10. Choosing amine-based absorbents for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João; Santos, Samuel; Bordado, João

    2015-01-01

    CO2 capture from gaseous effluents is one of the great challenges faced by chemical and environmental engineers, as the increase in CO2 levels in the Earth atmosphere might be responsible for dramatic climate changes. From the existing capture technologies, the only proven and mature technology is chemical absorption using aqueous amine solutions. However, bearing in mind that this process is somewhat expensive, it is important to choose the most efficient and, at the same time, the least expensive solvents. For this purpose, a pilot test facility was assembled and includes an absorption column, as well as a stripping column, a heat exchanger between the two columns, a reboiler for the stripping column, pumping systems, surge tanks and all necessary instrumentation and control systems. Some different aquous amine solutions were tested on this facility and it was found that, from a set of six tested amines, diethanol amine is the one that turned out to be the most economical choice, as it showed a higher CO2 loading capacity (0.982 mol of CO2 per mol of amine) and the lowest price per litre (25.70 €/L), even when compared with monoethanolamine, the benchmark solvent, exhibiting a price per litre of 30.50 €/L.

  11. Tissue regeneration during tissue expansion and choosing an expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the various aspects of tissue regeneration during the process of tissue expansion. "Creep" and mechanical and biological "stretch" are responsible for expansion. During expansion, the epidermis thickens, the dermis thins out, vascularity improves, significant angiogenesis occurs, hair telogen phase becomes shorter and the peripheral nerves, vessels and muscle fibres lengthen. Expansion is associated with molecular changes in the tissue. Almost all these biological changes are reversible after the removal of the expander.This study is also aimed at reviewing the difficulty in deciding the volume and dimension of the expander for a defect. Basic mathematical formulae and the computer programmes for calculating the dimension of tissue expanders, although available in the literature, are not popular. A user-friendly computer programme based on the easily available Microsoft Excel spread sheet has been introduced. When we feed the area of defect and base dimension of the donor area or tissue expander, this programme calculates the volume and height of the expander. The shape of the expander is decided clinically based on the availability of the donor area and the designing of the future tissue movement. Today, tissue expansion is better understood biologically and mechanically. Clinical judgement remains indispensable in choosing the size and shape of the tissue expander.

  12. Matrix Model for Choosing Green Marketing Sustainable Strategic Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Sitnikov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing examines the symbiotic role played by marketing in ensuring sustainable business, exploring issues concerning the environment and the way strategic decisions can influence it. At present, the environmental issues concern more and more the competitive approach any organization can implement. Based on this approach, organizations can gain competitive advantage by managing environmental variables and by developing and implementing green marketing strategies. Considering the importance and impact of green marketing, by using theoretical concepts and defining a set of research directions, the paper and the research conducted were focused on creating a matrix model for choosing the optimal green marketing strategy, oriented towards competitive advantage. The model is based on the correlation that can be established among the generic strategies of competitive advantage, the variables of extended marketing mix (7Ps and the green marketing strategy matrix. There are also analyzed the implications that may be generated within a company by the adoption of a green marketing strategy and its role in promoting the environmental benefits of products.

  13. When I cut, you choose method implies intransitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W.

    2014-12-01

    There is a common belief that humans and many animals follow transitive inference (choosing A over C on the basis of knowing that A is better than B and B is better than C). Transitivity seems to be the essence of rational choice. We present a theoretical model of a repeated game in which the players make a choice between three goods (e.g. food). The rules of the game refer to the simple procedure of fair division among two players, known as the “I cut, you choose” mechanism which has been widely discussed in the literature. In this game one of the players has to make intransitive choices in order to achieve the optimal result (for him/her and his/her co-player). The point is that an intransitive choice can be rational. Previously, an increase in the significance of intransitive strategies was achieved by referring to models of quantum games. We show that relevant intransitive strategies also appear in the classic description of decision algorithms.

  14. Abnormal grain growth: a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for multi-grain binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F. D.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal grain growth as the abrupt growth of a group of the largest grains in a multi-grain system is treated within the context of unequal retardation of grain growth due to the segregation of solute atoms from the bulk of the grains into the grain boundaries. During grain boundary migration, the segregated solute atoms are dragged under a small driving force or left behind the migrating grain boundary under a large driving force. Thus, the solute atoms in the grain boundaries of large grains, exhibiting a large driving force, can be released from the grain boundary. The mobility of these grain boundaries becomes significantly higher and abnormal grain growth is spontaneously provoked. The mean-field model presented here assumes that each grain is described by its grain radius and by its individual segregation parameter. The thermodynamic extremal principle is engaged to obtain explicit evolution equations for the radius and segregation parameter of each grain. Simulations of grain growth kinetics for various conditions of segregation with the same initial setting (100 000 grains with a given radius distribution) are presented. Depending on the diffusion coefficients of the solute in the grain boundaries, abnormal grain growth may be strongly or marginally pronounced. Solute segregation and drag can also significantly contribute to the stabilization of the grain structure. Qualitative agreement with several experimental results is reported.

  15. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmanns M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  16. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years On

    CERN Document Server

    Wickramasinghe, N Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance - a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  17. Optimization of a partially non-magnetic primary radiation shielding for the triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II

    CERN Document Server

    Pyka, N M; Rogov, A

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to optimize the monochromator shielding of the polarized cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II. By using the Monte Carlo program MCNP-4B, the density of the total spectrum of incoming neutrons and gamma radiation from the beam tube SR-2 has been determined during the three-dimensional diffusion process in different types of heavy concrete and other absorbing material. Special attention has been paid to build a compact and highly efficient shielding, partially non-magnetic, with a total biological radiation dose of less than 10 mu Sv/h at its outsides. Especially considered was the construction of an albedo reducer, which serves to reduce the background in the experiment outside the shielding. (orig.)

  18. Properties of the antiferromagnetic selenite MnSeO3 and its non-magnetic analogue ZnSnO3 from first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honer, C. J.; Prosniewski, M. J.; Putatunda, A.; Singh, David J.

    2017-10-01

    We report the properties of the antiferromagnetic selenite MnSeO3 and the non-magnetic analogue ZnSeO3, based on first principles calculations. These compounds are rare examples of ABO3 perovskites with a tetravalent A-site and a divalent B-site. The electronic structure is discussed in the context of the bonding and crystal structure. There is cross-gap hybridization between the O p states that form the valence bands of these compounds and the unoccupied p states of Se, reflecting the lone pair physics that leads to the strong off-centering of Se from the perovskite A-site. The G-type antiferromagnetism of MnSeO3 is a local moment in nature arising from high spin Mn2+ with short range interactions. Additionally, there is an interesting spin-dependent hybridization of Mn d and O p states analogous to that in colossal magnetoresistance manganites.

  19. A few philosophical ruminations on the human condition and choosing to live well

    OpenAIRE

    Blake E. Hestir

    2008-01-01

    The notion that life is meaningful through choosing to live well has historically received substantive attention in various philosophical circles, notably the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and more recently several of the existentialists. In some respects, the idea of choosing to live well is a “thematization” of two widely-recognized, independent components of a meaningful life: happiness and authenticity. I develop this notion of choosing to live well by explori...

  20. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much in their content. The external fractions of the grain, the bran and specially the aleurone, are the richest. We observed that processing the bran in whole-grain breads increased three times the leve...

  1. Control of insects and mites in grain using a high temperature/short time (HTST) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier; Poulsen

    2000-07-01

    Wheat infested with grain mites (Acari) and Sitophilus granarius, and maize infested with Prostephanus truncatus, were exposed to hot air in a CIMBRIA HTST Microline toaster((R)). Inlet temperatures of the hot air were in the range of 150-750 degrees C decreasing to outlet temperatures in the range of 100-300 degrees C during the exposure period. A rotating drum, connected to a natural-gas burner was fed with grain which was in constant movement along the drum and thereby mixed thoroughly during the process. The capacity of the toaster was 1000 kg per hour.Complete control of grain mites and adult S. granarius in wheat was obtained with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average residence time in the drum of 6 s. More than 99% mortality was obtained for all stages of S. granarius with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average exposure period of 40 s. For control of P. truncatus in maize, an inlet temperature of 700 degrees C resulted in a complete disinfestation when the exposure time was 19 s.The reduction in grain moisture content was 0.5-1% at treatments giving 100% control. Germination tests indicate that it is possible to choose a combination of inlet temperatures and exposure periods which effectively kills mites and insects in small grains, without harming the functional properties of the grain.Economy of the method was considered to be competitive with fumigation using phosphine.

  2. PESTICIDES USE AMONG GRAIN MERCHANTS IN MUBI GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    have: low level of education, while (30%) of them have no formal education. ... various techniques to ensure that the quality of the stored grains does not deteriorate ... education level, period of storage, technical knowledge on how to apply the ...

  3. Grain centre mapping - 3DXRD measurements of average grain characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Lyckegaard, Allan;

    2014-01-01

    Three-Dimensional X-ray Diraction (3DXRD) Microscopy is a generic term covering a variety of dierent techniques for characterising the mi- crostructure within the bulk of polycrystalline materials. One strategy | namely grain centre mapping | enables fast measurements of the av- erage characteris...

  4. Applied Thermodynamics: Grain Boundary Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lejček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of interfaces—free surfaces and grain boundaries—is generally described by the Langmuir–McLean segregation isotherm controlled by Gibbs energy of segregation. Various components of the Gibbs energy of segregation, the standard and the excess ones as well as other thermodynamic state functions—enthalpy, entropy and volume—of interfacial segregation are derived and their physical meaning is elucidated. The importance of the thermodynamic state functions of grain boundary segregation, their dependence on volume solid solubility, mutual solute–solute interaction and pressure effect in ferrous alloys is demonstrated.

  5. Suitability of sorghum grain for the development of the larger grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suitability of sorghum grain for the development of the larger grain borer ... on sorghum grain, when stored as whole grain or finely ground grain flour. ... In a similar manner, the mean weight of beetles produced ranged from 1.70 to 3.02 mg.

  6. Best Practices and Processes for Choosing Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Individuals, teams, departments, organizations, funding agencies, committees, and others all need to select desirable research priorities from many possible alternatives. One cannot do everything, one cannot afford everything, so what to select? Essays and reports since Weinberg (1963) have suggested criteria for choosing science topics. Popper et al (2000) reviewed and summarized all that had gone before in the subject of setting priorities; their main conclusions were that the underlying principles were the promotion of excellence and relevance. Sea Change (2015) from the NRC/OSB focused on four criteria. From most important to least important, they were transformative science, societal impacts, readiness, and partnership potential; these four criteria embodied the essence of the suggestions from Weinberg on, framed with the pragmatism of ORPISS (2007). Getting to the final set of priorities from many candidates involves a sequence of formal or informal processes, only the last of which is the application of the selected, weighted criteria. As developed by professional prioritization experts, the best-practice steps and processes are: Collection of input candidates from the community. Clustering and parsing/rephrasing of the input to eliminate redundancy and repetition and develop statements at a useful level of specificity. (NOTE:there is no counting of input to see how many times a particular topic was mentioned. The goal is diversity in the input, not a popularity contest.) Development of the selection criteria, and weighting the chosen criteria. Application of the selection criteria to the clustered/adjusted candidates. Finally, two more best practices: Do continuing sanity checks, to avoid losing sight of the goals of the effort. Resist the temptation to just sit around a table and talk about it to arrive at the priorities, which depends too much on who the specific members of the prioritization team are, and provides no transparency or explanation of why

  7. 75 FR 81965 - Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice to... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) Grain Inspection Advisory Committee...

  8. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  9. Simulation of the effect of maize porridge fortified with grain amaranth or micronutrient powder containing NaFeEDTA on iron intake and status in Kenyan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macharia-Mutie, C.W.; Omusundi, A.M.; Mwai, J.M.; Mwangi, A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Simulating the probable impact of grain amaranth and highly absorbable, low-Fe micronutrient powder (MNP) on Fe status in a potential target population is an essential step in choosing and developing an appropriate actual intervention. Design: We simulated the potential effect of fortifyi

  10. Stress-driven grain growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1998-11-13

    Full Text Available This article shows the differences of two-dimensional polycrystal of a material with a rectangular unit cell with lattice spacing b and b (1 + epsilon), subjected to a uniform external stress sigma. Consider a grain in which the lattice vector...

  11. AGB stars and presolar grains

    CERN Document Server

    Busso, M; Maiorca, E; Palmerini, S

    2013-01-01

    Among presolar materials recovered in meteorites, abundant SiC and Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$ grains of AGB origins were found. They showed records of C, N, O, $^{26}$Al and s-element isotopic ratios that proved invaluable in constraining the nucleosynthesis models for AGB stars \\cite{zin,gal}. In particular, when these ratios are measured in SiC grains, they clearly reveal their prevalent origin in cool AGB circumstellar envelopes and provide information on both the local physics and the conditions at the nucleosynthesis site (the H- and He-burning layers deep inside the structure). Among the properties ascertained for the main part of the SiC data (the so-called {\\it mainstream} ones), we mention a large range of $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N ratios, extending below the solar value \\cite{mar}, and $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C ratios $\\gtrsim$ 30. Other classes of grains, instead, display low carbon isotopic ratios ($\\gtrsim 10$) and a huge dispersion for N isotopes, with cases of large $^{15}$N excess. In the same grains, isotopes currently...

  12. Concepts on Low Temperature Mechanical Grain Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, John Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.; Boyce, Brad Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.

    2013-11-01

    In metals, as grain size is reduced below 100nm, conventional dislocation plasticity is suppressed resulting in improvements in strength, hardness, and wears resistance. Existing and emerging components use fine grained metals for these beneficial attributes. However, these benefits can be lost in service if the grains undergo growth during the component’s lifespan. While grain growth is traditionally viewed as a purely thermal process that requires elevated temperature exposure, recent evidence shows that some metals, especially those with nanocrystalline grain structure, can undergo grain growth even at room temperature or below due to mechanical loading. This report has been assembled to survey the key concepts regarding how mechanical loads can drive grain coarsening at room temperature and below. Topics outlined include the atomic level mechanisms that facilitate grain growth, grain boundary mobility, and the impact of boundary structure, loading scheme, and temperature.

  13. Grain Refinement of Deoxidized Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balart, María José; Patel, Jayesh B.; Gao, Feng; Fan, Zhongyun

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the current status of grain refinement of copper accompanied in particular by a critical appraisal of grain refinement of phosphorus-deoxidized, high residual P (DHP) copper microalloyed with 150 ppm Ag. Some deviations exist in terms of the growth restriction factor ( Q) framework, on the basis of empirical evidence reported in the literature for grain size measurements of copper with individual additions of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 wt pct of Mo, In, Sn, Bi, Sb, Pb, and Se, cast under a protective atmosphere of pure Ar and water quenching. The columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) has been observed in copper, with an individual addition of 0.4B and with combined additions of 0.4Zr-0.04P and 0.4Zr-0.04P-0.015Ag and, in a previous study, with combined additions of 0.1Ag-0.069P (in wt pct). CETs in these B- and Zr-treated casts have been ascribed to changes in the morphology and chemistry of particles, concurrently in association with free solute type and availability. No further grain-refining action was observed due to microalloying additions of B, Mg, Ca, Zr, Ti, Mn, In, Fe, and Zn (~0.1 wt pct) with respect to DHP-Cu microalloyed with Ag, and therefore are no longer relevant for the casting conditions studied. The critical microalloying element for grain size control in deoxidized copper and in particular DHP-Cu is Ag.

  14. AGB stars and presolar grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busso, M.; Trippella, O. [INFN and University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Maiorca, E. [INAF - Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Firenze, Italy and INFN - Section of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Palmerini, S. [Departamento de Fìsica Teòrica y del Cosmsos, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2014-05-09

    Among presolar materials recovered in meteorites, abundant SiC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains of AGB origins were found. They showed records of C, N, O, {sup 26}Al and s-element isotopic ratios that proved invaluable in constraining the nucleosynthesis models for AGB stars [1, 2]. In particular, when these ratios are measured in SiC grains, they clearly reveal their prevalent origin in cool AGB circumstellar envelopes and provide information on both the local physics and the conditions at the nucleosynthesis site (the H- and He-burning layers deep inside the structure). Among the properties ascertained for the main part of the SiC data (the so-called mainstream ones), we mention a large range of {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios, extending below the solar value [3], and {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios ≳ 30. Other classes of grains, instead, display low carbon isotopic ratios (≳ 10) and a huge dispersion for N isotopes, with cases of large {sup 15}N excess. In the same grains, isotopes currently feeded by slow neutron captures reveal the characteristic pattern expected from this process at an efficiency slightly lower than necessary to explain the solar main s-process component. Complementary constraints can be found in oxide grains, especially Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals. Here, the oxygen isotopes and the content in {sup 26}Al are of a special importance for clarifying the partial mixing processes that are known to affect evolved low-mass stars. Successes in modeling the data, as well as problems in explaining some of the mentioned isotopic ratios through current nucleosynthesis models are briefly outlined.

  15. Cool Down!——The State Administration of Grain Lower Expectation of Grain Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ The rising grain price in the first half of the year,coupled with the news that China's summer grain output fell for the first time in seven years,has enhanced market expectation for the grain price to rise.

  16. Choosing mineral carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time the operation life of the majority of roads is essentially shorter than required. The reason for it is the increase in traffic intensity and axle loads of automobile transport. The obvious reasons for early wear of roads are the low quality of the components used and low industrial standards while producing asphalt pavement. In this paper the mineral material was selected as a carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt. The optimal modes for grinding mineral materials were identified, which provide correspondence of their structure parameters with the developed model. The influence of different mineral nanomodifier carriers on the structure formation processes was estimated. It is shown that among a number of mineral materials diatomite has high activity in relation to the bitumen, because it has a highly porous structure. It is also shown that as a result of lighter fractions of bitumen adsorption on the border of phase interface, diatomite and bitumen changes from the free state to the film, and solvate shell of bitumen is saturated with asphaltenes. With the help of IR spectroscopy the authors defined the nature of the diatomite and bitumen interaction and proved that in the process of their interaction there occurs physical adsorption with additional absorption of bitumen components into the pore space of diatomite grains.

  17. 鲜食玉米籽粒产品加工工艺与设备选择%Processing Technology and Equipment Choice of Fresh Corn Grain Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宏杰

    2011-01-01

    采用国际先进的刺皮、削腐、切粒、清洗、人工挑选籽粒新工艺,完善鲜食玉米籽粒产品的加工,保持籽粒色、形及细菌含量的加工.%Adopt international advanced new process of skinning, cutting rotten part, grain-sized dicing, cleaning, artificial choose, improve the process of fresh unriped com grain products, keep well grain color, form and content of bacteria when processing.

  18. Choose and Tell Cards: A 4-H Cloverbud Resource for Promoting Public Speaking and Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechschulte, Jill; Scheer, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Choose and Tell is a curriculum for 4-H Cloverbud members that introduces them to public speaking and life skill enhancement (communication and social interaction). Choose and Tell consists of activity cards analogous to a deck of cards. Activity card titles include Wash and Comb Your Hair, Plant a Seed, and Floss Your Teeth. The activities are…

  19. Do Magnet®-accredited hospitals show improvements in nurse and patient outcomes compared to non-Magnet hospitals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit Dit Dariel, Odessa; Regnaux, Jean-Phillipe

    2015-07-17

    The Magnet model proposes an accreditation for hospitals having demonstrated a healthy work environment and, as a result, positive staff and patient outcomes. Yet there are conflicting findings surrounding the actual impact of Magnet's organizational model on these outcomes, as well as a wide range of designs influencing the quality of these results. To conduct a systematic review that explores the effect of Magnet accreditation on objective nurse and patient outcomes. Magnet and non-Magnet accredited hospitals matched according to their similarity (e.g. size, type [urban or rural], level of acuity, location, etc.). Hospitals could be either university based or non-teaching hospitals and in any geographical location. As the focus of the study was outcomes specific to Magnet accreditation, studies reporting on "reputational Magnets" (the original hospitals), Magnet-aspiring and non-Magnet hospitals alone were excluded from the review. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S)/PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: Exposure to Magnet accreditation. A Magnet hospital is defined as a hospital with American Nursing Credentialing Center -designated Magnet status at the time of study and having received this accreditation in the last four years, as this is the length of time for which the accreditation is valid, after which the hospital must reapply for another four-year accreditation. TYPES OF STUDIES: This review considered any quantitative study comparing nurse and patient outcomes in Magnet accredited hospitals with those in non-Magnet hospitals. Controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after and interrupted time series were considered first. When these were not available, case-controlled, descriptive comparative and descriptive correlational designs were considered. All studies presenting a "case study" with no comparison and other studies reporting on interviews and other qualitative data were excluded. TYPES OF OUTCOMES: The outcomes of interest were nurse outcomes related to turnover and

  20. Spinodal decomposition in fine grained materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Ramanarayan; T A Abinandanan

    2003-01-01

    We have used a phase field model to study spinodal decomposition in polycrystalline materials in which the grain size is of the same order of magnitude as the characteristic decomposition wavelength ($\\lambda_{SD}$). In the spirit of phase field models, each grain () in our model has an order parameter ($\\eta_i$) associated with it; $\\eta_i$ has a value of unity inside the th grain, decreases smoothly through the grain boundary region to zero outside the grain. For a symmetric alloy of composition, = 0.5, our results show that microstructural evolution depends largely on the difference in the grain boundary energies, $\\gamma_{gb}$, of A-rich () and B-rich () phases. If $\\gamma^{\\alpha}_{gb}$ is lower, we find that the decomposition process is initiated with an layer being formed at the grain boundary. If the grain size is sufficiently small (about the same as $\\lambda_{SD}$), the interior of the grain is filled with the phase. If the grain size is large (say, about 10 $\\lambda_{SD}$ or greater), the early stage microstructure exhibits an A-rich grain boundary layer followed by a B-rich layer; the grain interior exhibits a spinodally decomposed microstructure, evolving slowly. Further, grain growth is suppressed completely during the decomposition process.

  1. Phenomenology of Abnormal Grain Growth in Systems with Nonuniform Grain Boundary Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated the potential for nonuniform grain boundary mobility to act as a persistence mechanism for abnormal grain growth (AGG) using Monte Carlo Potts model simulations. The model system consists of a single initially large candidate grain embedded in a matrix of equiaxed grains, corresponding to the abnormal growth regime before impingement occurs. We assign a mobility advantage to grain boundaries between the candidate grain and a randomly selected subset of the matrix grains. We observe AGG in systems with physically reasonable fractions of fast boundaries; the probability of abnormal growth increases as the density of fast boundaries increases. This abnormal growth occurs by a series of fast, localized growth events that counteract the tendency of abnormally large grains to grow more slowly than the surrounding matrix grains. Resulting abnormal grains are morphologically similar to experimentally observed abnormal grains.

  2. Molecule Formation on Interstellar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, G.

    2011-05-01

    The first experiments that were expressively designed to be applicable to hydrogen formation reactions in the ISM measured the efficiency of formation of molecular hydrogen on a polycrystalline olivine (Pirronello et al. (1997a)). It soon turned out that more was needed, and research began on the mechanism of reaction, on the in uence of the surface morphology, and on the excitation of the just- ormed molecule. In this review, I summarize what we learned from these and other experiments, and where more work is needed: in the elementary steps of reaction, in the bridging of the laboratory-ISM gap (large ux/large surface - small ux/small grain) using simulations, and in using realistic samples of dust grains. Understanding what experiments can and cannot deliver will help in designing and targeting observations, and vice-versa.

  3. Coarse-graining complex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat-tailed distribu......Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat......-law and logarithmic relaxation behaviors ubiquitous in complex dynamics, together with the sub-diffusive time dependence of the Mean Square Displacement characteristic of single particles moving in a complex environment....

  4. Efficient radiative transfer in dust grain mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, S

    2003-01-01

    The influence of a dust grain mixture consisting of spherical dust grains with different radii and/or chemical composition on the resulting temperature structure and spectral energy distribution of a circumstellar shell is investigated. The comparison with the results based on an approximation of dust grain parameters representing the mean optical properties of the corresponding dust grain mixture reveal that (1) the temperature dispersion of a real dust grain mixture decreases substantially with increasing optical depth, converging towards the temperature distribution resulting from the approximation of mean dust grain parameters, and (2) the resulting spectral energy distributions do not differ by more than 10% if >= 2^5 grain sizes are considered which justifies the mean parameter approximation and the many results obtained under its assumption so far. Nevertheless, the dust grain temperature dispersion at the inner boundary of a dust shell may amount to >>100K and has therefore to be considered in the cor...

  5. Solid Propellant Grain Structural Integrity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The structural properties of solid propellant rocket grains were studied to determine the propellant resistance to stresses. Grain geometry, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and failure modes are discussed along with design criteria and recommended practices.

  6. Grain legumes and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Lambein, Fernand; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Ikegami, Fumio; Kusama-Eguchi, Kuniko; Enneking, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Since early civilisation in different continents, grain legumes have been a part of balanced diets together with cereals. In general the seeds from those two plant families give together a good source of essential amino acids and may have given an evolutionary advantage. A sustainable diet for vegetarians may not be possible without the protein-rich legumes. Consumed alone, legumes can be a mixed blessing because of their deficiency of some essential amino acids. This deficiency can be balanc...

  7. Automatic Coarse Graining of Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Faller, Roland

    2003-01-01

    Several recently proposed semi--automatic and fully--automatic coarse--graining schemes for polymer simulations are discussed. All these techniques derive effective potentials for multi--atom units or super--atoms from atomistic simulations. These include techniques relying on single chain simulations in vacuum and self--consistent optimizations from the melt like the simplex method and the inverted Boltzmann method. The focus is on matching the polymer structure on different scales. Several ...

  8. Grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, S.; Faul, U.

    2013-12-01

    The grain scale melt distribution plays a key role for physical properties of partially molten regions in Earth's upper mantle, but our current understanding of the distribution of basaltic melt at the grain scale is still incomplete. A recent experimental study shows that wetted two-grain boundaries are a common feature of partially molten dunite at small melt fractions (Garapic et al., G3, 2013). In early ideal models which assume isotropic surface energy, the grain scale melt distribution is uniquely determined by knowing the melt fraction and the dihedral angle between two crystalline grains and the melt (von Bargen and Waff, JGR, 1986). Olivine is anisotropic in surface energy, hence the grain scale melt distribution at given melt fraction cannot be characterized by the dihedral angle alone. The grain boundary wetness, which is defined as the ratio of solid-liquid boundary area over the total interfacial area (Takei, JGR, 1998), is a more objective measure of the grain scale melt distribution. The aim of this study is to quantify the relationship between grain size, melt fraction, temperature and grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite under dry conditions. We annealed olivine-basalt aggregates with melt fractions from 0.03% to 6% at a range of temperatures and 1 GPa in a piston cylinder for 1 to 336 hours, with resulting mean grain sizes of 10 to 60 μm. The samples were sectioned, polished and imaged at high resolution by using a field emission SEM. Each image had a size of 2048 x 1536 pixels with a resolution of 0.014 to 0.029 μm/pixel, depending on magnification. For each sample, depending on grain sizes, we made mosaics of 3 x 3 or 6 x 6 overlapping images. Measurements of melt fraction, grain boundary wetness and grain size were carried out on these high resolution mosaics by using ImageJ software. Analyses of mosaics show that grain boundary wetness increases with increasing melt fraction at constant grain size to values well above those

  9. Grain Boundary Energies in Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ramli

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The dependence of grain boundary energy on boundary orientation was studied in copper annealed at 1000 ^circC. Grain boundary orientations and the disorientations across the boundaries were measured. A rotation matrix notation is used to interpret selected area electron channelling patterns observed in a scanning electron microscope. The Herring and Shewmon torque terms were investigated using wire specimens having a "bamboo" structure. The Herring torque terms were determined using the Hess relation. The (110) section of the Sigma 11 gamma-plot (i.e. the variation of grain boundary energy with boundary orientation) was evaluated. In this plot, minima in energies were found at the (311) and (332) mirror planes. Sigma 3 and Sigma9 boundaries were investigated in sheet specimens. The (110) and (111) sections of the Sigma3 gamma -plot were evaluated. In addition to the sharp cusps occurring at the Sigma3 {111} planes, the further shallower cusps occur at the incoherent Sigma 3 boundaries with the interfacial planes approximately parallel to {322} in one crystal and {11.44} in the other crystal. Flat and curved Sigma9 boundaries were investigated. The break up of Sigma9 boundaries into two Sigma3 boundaries and the relation between the Sigma3 and Sigma 9 gamma-plots was also examined. The (110) section of the Sigma9 gamma-plot was constructed.

  10. Whole grains: benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julie Miller; Engleson, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion of whole grains (WG) in the diet is recommended in dietary guidance around the world because of their associations with increased health and reduced risk of chronic disease. WGs are linked to reduced risk of obesity or weight gain; reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and stroke; improved gut health and decreased risk of cancers of the upper gut; perhaps reduced risk of colorectal cancer; and lower mortality rate. The 2005 United States Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that consumers make "half their grains whole." Yet, whole grains are puzzling both consumers and scientists. Scientists are trying to determine whether their health benefits are due to the synergy of WG components, individual WG components, or the fact that WG eaters make many of the recommended diet and lifestyle choices. Consumers need to understand the WG benefits and how to identify WG foods to have incentive to purchase and use such foods. Industry needs to develop great-tasting, clearly-labeled products. With both these factors working together, it will be possible to change WG consumption habits among consumers.

  11. Grain Boundary (GB) Studies in Nano- and Micro- Crystalline Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju, Mst Sohanazaman

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline materials are composed of grains and grain boundaries. The total volume of occupied grain boundaries in polycrystalline material depends on the grain size. When grain size decreases the volume fraction of grain boundaries increases. For example, when grain size is 10 nm grain boundary volume fraction is ~ 25%. In polycrystalline materials, different properties (mechanical, electrical, optical, magnetic) are affected by the size of their grains and by the atomic structure of...

  12. Lessons from our Own Solar System: Generation Mechanisms of Radio Emissions from Earth, Saturn and Jupiter and Atmospheric Loss from Magnetized versus non-magnetized planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Pontus

    2017-05-01

    The understanding of the engines and mechanisms behind kilometric and decametric radio emissions from the planets in our own solar system have taken great leaps with missions such as the NASA/Cassini, IMAGE and Galileo missions. The periodic Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR), the Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) at Earth and the periodic decametric radio emissions from Jupiter all point to the same generation mechanisms: very large-scale explosive plasma heating events in the magnetotail of each of the planets. The character and periodicity of the associated radio emissions not only tells us about the presence of a magnetic field but also about the plasma content and size of the planetary magnetosphere, and the nature of the interaction with the solar wind.The presence of a planetary magnetic field, as could be established for exoplanets by the positive detection of low-frequency exoplanetary radio emissions, has been thought to shield a planet from atmospheric loss to space. However, recent data from Mars Express, MAVEN, and Venus Express, together with the wealth of terrestrial measurements of atmospheric escape to space has brought a surprising question in to light: Does a planetary magnetic field suppress or enhance atmospheric loss? While at the non-magnetized planets such as Mars and Venus, the solar wind has a more direct access to the ionized upper atmosphere, these planets do set up self shielding currents that do limit escape. Furthermore, it is not clear if Mars have lost the majority of its atmosphere by condensation in to surface and sub-surface frost, or through atmospheric escape. At Earth, the geomagnetic field sets up a relatively large cross section to the solar wind, that allows the induced solar-wind electric field to transfer substantial energy to the upper ionosphere and atmosphere resulting in substantial loss. It is therefore not clear how a planetary magnetic field correlates to the atmospheric loss, or if it does at all.In this

  13. Determination of grain boundary geometry using TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, H.; Farkas, D.; Hosson, J.T.M. De

    1992-01-01

    An experimental method to obtain the grain boundary geometry using the transmission electron microscope is presented. The method allows Σ determination including grain boundary plane orientation. In order to determine the specialness of the grain boundary, three different criteria for maximum allowa

  14. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  15. Determination of grain boundary geometry using TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, H.; Farkas, D.; Hosson, J.T.M. De

    An experimental method to obtain the grain boundary geometry using the transmission electron microscope is presented. The method allows Σ determination including grain boundary plane orientation. In order to determine the specialness of the grain boundary, three different criteria for maximum

  16. Red grain mycetoma foot in Western Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur D

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually the colour of the grains seen in cases of mycetoma are either black or yellow. Recently there were reports that unusual red grains had been noticed in cases of mycetoma. A case of red grain mycetoma is reported.

  17. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  18. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  19. Structure and chemistry of the sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is grown around the world and often under harsh and variable environmental conditions. Combined with the high degree of genetic diversity present in sorghum, this can result in substantial variability in grain composition and grain quality. While similar to other cereal grains such as maize ...

  20. Whole grain gluten-free flat breads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food health claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative whole grain gluten free (without yeast or chemicals) ...

  1. Ancient whole grain gluten-free flatbreads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain gluten-free (no yeast or chemical...

  2. 77 FR 74781 - Safety Zones; Columbia Grain and United Grain Corporation Facilities; Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Columbia Grain and United Grain.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing temporary safety zones around the Columbia Grain facility on the Willamette River in Portland, OR, and the United Grain Corporation facility on the Columbia River in...

  3. 75 FR 76254 - Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 802 RIN 0580-AB19 Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain Handling Systems AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  4. Grain-size sorting and slope failure in experimental subaqueous grain flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Asch, Th.W.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Grain-size sorting in subaqueous grain flows of a continuous range of grain sizes is studied experimentally with three mixtures. The observed pattern is a combination of stratification and gradual segregation. The stratification is caused by kinematic sieving in the grain flow. The segregation is

  5. Weighing in on whole grains: A review of evidence linking whole grains to body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. dietary guidelines support the consumption of whole grains in lieu of refined grains. On January 31, 2011, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) were released and the recommendations with respect to grains were for individuals to “Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains” a...

  6. Grain-size sorting and slope failure in experimental subaqueous grain flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Asch, Th.W.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Grain-size sorting in subaqueous grain flows of a continuous range of grain sizes is studied experimentally with three mixtures. The observed pattern is a combination of stratification and gradual segregation. The stratification is caused by kinematic sieving in the grain flow. The segregation is ca

  7. Subsonic Mechanical Alignment of Irregular Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, Alex

    2007-01-01

    We show that grains can be efficiently aligned by interacting with a subsonic gaseous flow. The alignment arises from grains having irregularities that scatter atoms with different efficiency in the right and left directions. The grains tend to align with long axes perpendicular to magnetic field, which corresponds to Davis-Greenstein predictions, but does not involve magnetic field. For rather conservative factors characterizing the grain helicity and scattering efficiency of impinging atoms, the alignment of helical grains is much more efficient than the Gold-type alignment processes.

  8. Spinodal decomposition in fine grained materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanarayan, H.; Abinandanan, TA

    2003-01-01

    We have used a phase field model to study spinodal decomposition in polycrystalline materials in which the grain size is of the same order of magnitude as the characteristic decomposition wavelength (lambda(SD))In the spirit of phase field models, each grain (i) in our model has an order parameter (eta(i)) associated with it; eta(i) has a value of unity inside the ith grain, decreasessmoothly through the grain boundary region to zero outside the grain. For a symmetric alloy of composition, c ...

  9. 3D modeling of metallic grain growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D.; Carlson, N.; Gammel, J.T.; Kuprat, A.

    1999-06-01

    This paper will describe simulating metallic grain growth using the Gradient Weighted Moving Finite Elements code, GRAIN3D. The authors also describe the set of mesh topology change operations developed to respond to changes in the physical topology such as the collapse of grains and to maintain uniform calculational mesh quality. Validation of the method is demonstrated by comparison to analytic calculations. The authors present results of multigrain simulations where grain boundaries evolve by mean curvature motion and include results which incorporate grain boundary orientation dependence.

  10. Airborne Pollen Grains Of Afyon, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem BICAKCI; Süheyla ERGUN; Sevcan TATLIDIL; Hulusi MALYER; Sabri OZYURT; Ahmet AKKAYA; Nihat SAPAN

    2002-01-01

    The airborne pollen grains of Afyon have been studied for a two-year period (1999-2000) with a Durham sampler. A total of 14 367 pollen grains belonging to 40 taxa have been identified and recorded with some unidentified ones. Of them, 6 732 were identified in 1999 and 7 635 in 2000. Of the total pollen grains, 69.67% were arboreal, 26.64% non-arboreal and 3.68 % unidentified. The majority of the investigated pollen grains were from Pinus, Gramineae, Cupressaceae, Platanus, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Quercus, Ailanthus, Moraceae, Juglans, Salix, Cedrus and Rosaceae. The highest level of pollen grains was in May.

  11. Establishment of Grain Farmers’ Supply Response Model and Empirical Analysis under Minimum Grain Purchase Price Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on farmers’ supply behavior theory and price expectations theory,this paper establishes grain farmers’ supply response model of two major grain varieties (early indica rice and mixed wheat) in the major producing areas,to test whether the minimum grain purchase price policy can have price-oriented effect on grain production and supply in the major producing areas. Empirical analysis shows that the minimum purchase price published annually by the government has significant positive impact on farmers’ grain supply in the major grain producing areas. In recent years,China steadily raises the level of minimum grain purchase price,which has played an important role in effectively protecting grain farmers’ interests,mobilizing the enthusiasm of farmers’ grain production,and ensuring the market supply of key grain varieties.

  12. Azimuthal ExB drift of electrons induced by the radial electric field flowing through a longitudinal magnetic channel with non-magnetized ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsuka, Hiroshi; Takeda, Jun; Nezu, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    To examine of the effect of the radial electric field on the azimuthal electron motion under E × B field for plasmas with magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions, an experimental study is conducted by a stationary plasma flow. The argon plasma flow is generated by a DC arc generator under atmospheric pressure, followed by a cw expansion into a rarefied gas-wind tunnel with a uniform magnetic field 0 . 16 T. Inside one of the magnets, we set a ring electrode to apply the radial electric field. We applied an up-down probe for the analysis of the electron motion, where one of the tips is also used as a Langmuir probe to measure electron temperature, density and the space potential. We found that the order of the radial electric field is about several hundred V/m, which should be caused by the difference in the magnetization between electrons and ions. Electron saturation current indicates the existence of the E × B rotation of electrons, whose order is about 2000 - 4000 m/s. The order of the observed electron drift velocity is consistent with the theoretical value calculated from the applied magnetic field and the measured electric field deduced from the space potential.

  13. Effect of extra nonmagnetic Ga atoms on lattice ordering and magnetic properties of Fe2CoGa and Co2FeGa Heusler compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Arc-melting with ball milling was used for preparing Fe2CoGa1+x and Co2FeGa1+x (x=0,0.2 Heusler samples. Effect of extra nonmagnetic Ga atoms on lattice ordering and magnetic properties of Fe2CoGa and Co2FeGa Heusler compounds was studied. Rietveld refinement showed that lattice parameter of the samples increases in the presence of extra Ga atoms. Results showed that Co2FeGa1.2 has a partial lattice disordering. Saturation magnetization of Co2FeGa sample was lower than Slater – Paulig prediction due to the crystallite size on a scale of nanometer. Reduction of saturation magnetization by increasing Ga atoms was explained through the change of lattice parameter, lattice ordering, and crystallite size. Saturation magnetization of Fe2CoGa sample was greater than Slater – Paulig value. Change of lattice parameter by increasing Ga atoms resulted a decrease of saturation magnetization in Fe2CoGa1.2

  14. Tuning the Dirac cone of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films by substitutional nonmagnetic atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenliang; Zhang, Zhen [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Peng, Xiangyang, E-mail: xiangyang_peng@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Zhong, Jianxin, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China)

    2015-01-01

    Based on first‐principles calculations, it is found that the Dirac cone of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film, which is buried in the bulk valence bands, can be tuned by the substitutional nonmagnetic atoms. It is found that substituting the Bi layer at the two ends of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films with group III atoms Al, Ga, In and Tl, which have lower electronegativity than Bi atoms, can lead to an isolated Dirac cone with the Dirac point shifted into the bulk band gap and located on the Fermi level. Substituting the more electronegative Se, S and O atoms for Te atoms at the top and bottom layers of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film, only the most electronegative O atoms give rise to a nearly ideal Dirac cone. The charge distribution of the resulting isolated Dirac point state is concentrated at the Te layers facing the van der Waals layers and vanishes in the middle of the quintuple layers.

  15. Magnetization enhancement due to incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content in (Co{sub 84}Zr{sub 16})N{sub x} nano-composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jitendra, E-mail: jitendra@ceeri.ernet.in; Akhtar, Jamil [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110001 (India); Shukla, Rishabh; Bagri, Anita; Dhaka, Rajendra S. [Novel Materials and Interface Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-01-15

    We report the magnetic, electronic, and structural properties of nano-composite (Co{sub 84}Zr{sub 16})N{sub x} or CZN films prepared by reactive co-sputter deposition method. As-deposited CZN films have shown enhancement in magnetization (M{sub s}) with incorporation of nitrogen content, which is related to the evolution of nano-composite phase. X-ray diffraction study has confirmed poly-crystalline growth of CZN films with fcc(331) and fcc(422) phases. High-resolution transmission electron microscope study reveals that CZN films are composed of ordered and crystalline ferromagnetic Co nano-clusters, which are embedded in the nano-composite matrix. Photoemission measurements show the change in the intensity near the Fermi level most likely due to defects and shift in the core-levels binding energy with nitrogen concentration. Raman spectroscopy data show an increase in the intensity of the Raman lines with nitrogen concentration upto 20%. However, the intensity is significantly lower for 30% sample. This indicates that less nitrogen or defect states are being substituted into the lattice above 20% and is consistent with the observed magnetic behavior. Our studies indicate that defects induced due to the incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content play a key role to enhance the magnetization.

  16. Magnetization enhancement due to incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content in (Co84Zr16Nx nano-composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the magnetic, electronic, and structural properties of nano-composite (Co84Zr16Nx or CZN films prepared by reactive co-sputter deposition method. As-deposited CZN films have shown enhancement in magnetization (Ms with incorporation of nitrogen content, which is related to the evolution of nano-composite phase. X-ray diffraction study has confirmed poly-crystalline growth of CZN films with fcc(331 and fcc(422 phases. High-resolution transmission electron microscope study reveals that CZN films are composed of ordered and crystalline ferromagnetic Co nano-clusters, which are embedded in the nano-composite matrix. Photoemission measurements show the change in the intensity near the Fermi level most likely due to defects and shift in the core-levels binding energy with nitrogen concentration. Raman spectroscopy data show an increase in the intensity of the Raman lines with nitrogen concentration upto 20%. However, the intensity is significantly lower for 30% sample. This indicates that less nitrogen or defect states are being substituted into the lattice above 20% and is consistent with the observed magnetic behavior. Our studies indicate that defects induced due to the incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content play a key role to enhance the magnetization.

  17. Study on Fluctuation of Grain Yield in China’s Major Grain Producing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using the statistical data of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas from 1949 to 2008,and fluctuation theory,the historical process and main cause of fluctuation of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas are analyzed.The results of research show that the grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas grows in unstable fluctuation,with high-frequency fluctuation cycle and regular length;the amplitude of fluctuation,on the whole,is moderate,with not strong stability;the fluctuation of grain yield has correspondence,reflecting the N-shape developmental trend of grain production at present;the fluctuation of grain yield has gradient characteristics;in the process of comparison of grain yield,the average growth rate annually of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas is higher than that of the national average,but the relative fluctuation coefficient is also higher than that of the national average.From five aspects,namely natural disaster,agricultural policy,production input,grain price and grain circulation,the cause of fluctuation of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas is analyzed,and measures of preventing and arresting super-long fluctuation of grain yield are put forward.Firstly,stick to strict farmland protection system,and strive to promote farmland quality;secondly,strengthen infrastructure construction of grain production and beef up the ability of preventing natural disaster;thirdly,quicken the pace of agricultural technology and establish robust technology supporting system;fourthly,lay stress on innovation of agricultural organization system and provide implementation path and vehicle for application of agricultural technology measures;fifthly,perfect disaster precaution system and grain market system,and strengthen the ability of preventing risk of grain production.

  18. High Temperature at Grain-filling Stage Affects Nitrogen Metabolism Enzyme Activities in Grains and Grain Nutritional Quality in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Cheng-gang; CHEN Li-ping; WANG Yan; LIU Jia; Xu Guang-li; LI Tian

    2011-01-01

    Rice plants would more frequently suffer from high temperature (HT) stress at the grain-filling stage in future.A japonica rice variety Koshihikari and an indica rice variety IR72 were used to study the effect of high temperature on dynamic changes of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity,glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity,glutamic oxalo-acetic transminase (GOT) activity,glutamate pyruvate transminase (GPT) activity in grains and grain nutritional quality at the grain-filling stage.Under HT,the activities of GOGAT,GOT,GPT and soluble protein content in grains significantly increased,whereas GS activity significantly decreased at the grain-filling stage.In addition to the increase of protein and amino acids contents,it was suggested that GOGAT,GOT and GPT in grains played important roles in nitrogen metabolism at the grain-filling stage.Since the decrease of GS activity in grains did not influence the accumulations of amino acids and protein,it is implied that GS might not be the key enzyme in regulating glutamine content in grains.

  19. High Temperature at Grain-filling Stage Affects Nitrogen Metabolism Enzyme Activities in Grains and Grain Nutritional Quality in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-gang LIANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice plants would more frequently suffer from high temperature (HT stress at the grain-filling stage in future. A japonica rice variety Koshihikari and an indica rice variety IR72 were used to study the effect of high temperature on dynamic changes of glutamine synthetase (GS activity, glutamate synthase (GOGAT activity, glutamic oxalo-acetic transminase (GOT activity, glutamate pyruvate transminase (GPT activity in grains and grain nutritional quality at the grain-filling stage. Under HT, the activities of GOGAT, GOT, GPT and soluble protein content in grains significantly increased, whereas GS activity significantly decreased at the grain-filling stage. In addition to the increase of protein and amino acids contents, it was suggested that GOGAT, GOT and GPT in grains played important roles in nitrogen metabolism at the grain-filling stage. Since the decrease of GS activity in grains did not influence the accumulations of amino acids and protein, it is implied that GS might not be the key enzyme in regulating glutamine content in grains.

  20. Whole grains and health: from theory to practice--highlights of The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Nicola M; Jacques, Paul F; Seal, Chris J; de Vries, Jan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Clemens, Roger; Webb, Densie; Murphy, Lee Anne; van Klinken, Jan-Willem; Topping, David; Murray, Robyn; Degeneffe, Dennis; Marquart, Leonard F

    2013-05-01

    The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit, held May 19-22, 2012 in Minneapolis, was the first meeting of its kind to convene >300 scientists, educators, food technologists, grain breeders, food manufacturers, marketers, health professionals, and regulators from around the world. Its goals were to identify potential avenues for collaborative efforts and formulate new approaches to whole-grains research and health communications that support global public health and business. This paper summarizes some of the challenges and opportunities that researchers and nutrition educators face in expanding the knowledge base on whole grains and health and in translating and disseminating that knowledge to consumers. The consensus of the summit was that effective, long-term, public-private partnerships are needed to reach across the globe and galvanize the whole-grains community to collaborate effectively in translating whole-grains science into strategies that increase the availability and affordability of more healthful, grain-based food products. A prerequisite of that is the need to build trust among diverse multidisciplinary professionals involved in the growing, producing, marketing, and regulating of whole-grain products and between the grain and public health communities.

  1. More than Rising Grain Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Junhua

    2010-01-01

    @@ According to the bulletin of the National Bureau of Statistics,the summer harvest nationwide this year was 246.2billion jin,a decline of 0.3% compared to last year.The cold spell in late spring and high temperatures afterwards are considered as the main causes for this round of rising grain prices.However,"natural disasters"are dwarfed by another worrisome picture: young and strong farming hands flooding out of the rural areas and the elderly,the weak,females and children are made the mainstay of the tilling army.

  2. Direct imaging of grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronsky, R.

    1979-09-01

    There are currently two types of microscopes which, in principle, are capable of imaging atom positions at grain boundaries. One, the field ion microscope (FIM), yields a projection of the specimen surface (approximately stereographic) by field ionization of an imaging gas at protruding atom sites, and provides topographic information in high-index pole regions which may be interpreted atom-by-atom. The other, a transmission electron microscope (TEM), yields a projection (approximately linear) of the entire specimen thickness by electron optical imaging, and provides atomic resolution detail throughout the illuminated area. In this paper, both methods are described and compared, using examples from practical materials systems.

  3. Roles of grain boundaries in improving fracture toughness of ultrafine-grained metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, T.; Tanaka, M.; Kinoshita, K.; Higashida, K.

    2011-06-01

    In order to improve the fracture toughness in ultrafine-grained metals, we investigate the interactions among crack tips, dislocations, and grain boundaries in aluminum bicrystal models containing a crack and tilt grain boundaries using molecular dynamics simulations. The results of previous computer simulations showed that grain refinement makes materials brittle if grain boundaries behave as obstacles to dislocation movement. However, it is actually well known that grain refinement increases fracture toughness of materials. Thus, the role of grain boundaries as dislocation sources should be essential to elucidate fracture phenomena in ultrafine-grained metals. A proposed mechanism to express the improved fracture toughness in ultrafine-grained metals is the disclination shielding effect on the crack tip mechanical field. Disclination shielding can be activated when two conditions are present. First, a transition of dislocation sources from crack tips to grain boundaries must occur. Second, the transformation of grain-boundary structure into a neighboring energetically stable boundary must occur as dislocations are emitted from the grain boundary. The disclination shielding effect becomes more pronounced as antishielding dislocations are continuously emitted from the grain boundary without dislocation emissions from crack tips, and then ultrafine-grained metals can sustain large plastic deformation without fracture with the drastic increase of the mobile dislocation density. Consequently, it can be expected that the disclination shielding effect can improve the fracture toughness in ultrafine-grained metals.

  4. Multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains using modified magnetic nanoparticle adsorbent for facile and efficient cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Qi, Peipei; Wang, Xiangyun; Wang, Zhiwei; Xu, Xiahong; Chen, Wenxue; Wu, Liyu; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinquan

    2017-09-01

    A facile, rapid sample pretreatment method was developed based on magnetic nanoparticles for multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles modified with 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (Fe3O4-PSA) and commercial C18 were selected as the cleanup adsorbents to remove the target interferences of the matrix, such as fatty acids and non-polar compounds. Rice was used as the representative grain sample for method optimization. The amount of Fe3O4-PSA and C18 were systematically investigated for selecting the suitable purification conditions, and the simultaneous determination of 50 pesticides and 8 related metabolites in rice was established by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimal conditions, the method validation was performed including linearity, sensitivity, matrix effect, recovery and precision, which all satisfy the requirement for pesticides residue analysis. Compared to the conventional QuEChERS method with non-magnetic material as cleanup adsorbent, the present method can save 30% of the pretreatment time, giving the high throughput analysis possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Choosing goals, not rules: deciding among rule-based action plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaes, Christian; Westendorff, Stephanie; Chakrabarti, Shubhodeep; Gail, Alexander

    2011-05-12

    In natural situations, movements are often directed toward locations different from that of the evoking sensory stimulus. Movement goals must then be inferred from the sensory cue based on rules. When there is uncertainty about the rule that applies for a given cue, planning a movement involves both choosing the relevant rule and computing the movement goal based on that rule. Under these conditions, it is not clear whether primates compute multiple movement goals based on all possible rules before choosing an action, or whether they first choose a rule and then only represent the movement goal associated with that rule. Supporting the former hypothesis, we show that neurons in the frontoparietal reach areas of monkeys simultaneously represent two different rule-based movement goals, which are biased by the monkeys' choice preferences. Apparently, primates choose between multiple behavioral options by weighing against each other the movement goals associated with each option.

  6. Causes and Consequences of Choosing Different Assurance Providers: An International Study of Sustainability Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Perego (Paolo)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAn increasing number of companies voluntary disclose information about their social and environment performance in sustainability reports. This study investigates the causes and consequences of choosing different assurance providers for companies seeking independent verification of their

  7. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted ... help address your problems. Why do I need a PCP? You need a PCP so that your ...

  8. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted ... taking care of yourself. Why do I need a PCP? You need a PCP so that your ...

  9. Causes and Consequences of Choosing Different Assurance Providers: An International Study of Sustainability Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Perego (Paolo)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAn increasing number of companies voluntary disclose information about their social and environment performance in sustainability reports. This study investigates the causes and consequences of choosing different assurance providers for companies seeking independent verification of their

  10. 77 FR 76452 - Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Doc No: 2012-31281] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... of Agriculture has reestablished the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA...

  11. Whole Grains: Hearty Options for a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Find out why whole grains are better than refined grains and how to ... your diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff Grains, especially whole grains, are an essential part of a healthy diet. ...

  12. Study of Model of Grey Decision Making to Choose Leading Industry of Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinglongZhang; GuangyongChen; WeiGuo; GangXie

    2004-01-01

    The Leading industry influences the economic development of one city. This paper establishes a decision factor system of choosing leading industry of cities, applies related decision theory in Grey System and invents the procedure of choosing leading industry, which achieved a good practical effect. Afterwards, the city Tianmen acclaims the dress industry as Leading Industry in its "The Tenth Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development of City TianMen".

  13. Grain alignment in starless cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krejny, M. [Cree Inc., 4600 Silicon Dr., Durham, NC (United States); Andersson, B.-G. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Bastien, P., E-mail: tjj@astro.umn.edu [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  14. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic stirring under effect of grain-refiner

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Y Gao; Q C Le; Z Q Zhang; J Z Cui

    2012-08-01

    The effects of electromagnetic stirring and Al4C3 grain refiner on the grain refinement of semicontinuously cast AZ31 magnesium alloy were discussed in this investigation. The results indicate that electromagnetic stirring has an effective refining effect on the grain size of AZ31 magnesium alloy under the effect of Al4C3 grain refiner. Electromagnetic stirring can `activate’ the Al4C3 particles, resulting in more heterogeneous nucleation sites for the primary -Mg grains. But, longer holding time can `deactivate’ the Al4C3 particles and poison the grain refining effect.

  15. Prediction of HAZ grain size in welding of ultra fine grained steel with different parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hongyun; Zhang Hongtao; Li Dongqing; Wang Guodong

    2010-01-01

    The temperature field and thermal cycling curve in the heat-affected zone during welding 400 MPa ultra fine grained steel by plasma arc were simulated using finite element method.The principle of grain growth kinetics was used to predict the grain size in the heat-affected zone under different welding parameters.The simulation results show that the growing tendency of HAZ grain could be controlled by adjusting the welding parameters,but the growth of HAZ grain could not be eliminated at all.The HAZ grain size became small with increasing of the cooling rate and added with increasing of welding current,arc voltage and welding speed.

  16. Determination of grain boundary geometry using TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, H.; Farkas, D. (Department of Materials Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061-0237 (United States)); De Hosson, J.T.M. (Department of Applied Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 18, 9747 AG, Groningen (Netherlands))

    1992-07-01

    An experimental method to obtain the grain boundary geometry using the transmission electron microscope is presented. The method allows {Sigma} determination including grain boundary plane orientation. In order to determine the specialness of the grain boundary, three different criteria for maximum allowable deviations from exact CSL misorientations were examined. We tested these three criteria from a statistical distribution of grain boundary types in terms of {Sigma}. We compared grain boundary distributions from other studies in Ni{sub 3}Al and found discrepancies among them. It seems that the discrepancy came from the different criteria for special boundaries in {Sigma} determination and different experimental procedures they used. The statistical distribution of grain boundary plane orientations showed that low {Sigma} boundaries ({Sigma}{lt}11) were oriented to the plane of high density of coincident sites.

  17. Grain Boundary Engineering of Electrodeposited Thin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein

    of the favorable boundaries that break the network of general grain boundaries. Successful dedicated synthesis of a textured nickel film fulfilling the requirements of grain boundary engineered materials, suggests improved boundary specific properties. However, the textured nickel film shows fairly low......Grain boundary engineering aims for a deliberate manipulation of the grain boundary characteristics to improve the properties of polycrystalline materials. Despite the emergence of some successful industrial applications, the mechanism(s) by which the boundary specific properties can be improved...... is not yet well-understood. This, at least partly, owes to the lack of robust characterization methods for analyzing the nature of grain boundaries including the grain boundary plane characteristics, until recently. In the past decade, significant improvements in the 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional analysis...

  18. Quasiclassical Coarse Graining and Thermodynamic Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James

    2006-01-01

    Our everyday descriptions of the universe are highly coarse-grained, following only a tiny fraction of the variables necessary for a perfectly fine-grained description. Coarse graining in classical physics is made natural by our limited powers of observation and computation. But in the modern quantum mechanics of closed systems, some measure of coarse graining is inescapable because there are no non-trivial, probabilistic, fine-grained descriptions. This essay explores the consequences of that fact: Quantum theory allows for various coarse-grained descriptions some of which are mutually incompatible. For most purposes, however, we are interested in the small subset of ``quasiclassical descriptions'' defined by ranges of values of averages over small volumes of densities of conserved quantities such as energy and momentum and approximately conserved quantities such as baryon number. The near-conservation of these quasiclassical quantities results in approximate decoherence, predictability, and local equilibriu...

  19. 78 FR 33224 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist... and outbound grain-shipment and grain-shipment assist vessels involved in commerce with the Columbia Grain facility on the Willamette River in Portland, OR, the United Grain Corporation facility on the...

  20. Grain boundaries in silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, L. L.; Russell, P. E.; Ireland, P. J.; Herrington, C. R.; Dick, J. R.; Matson, R. J.; Jones, K. M.

    The correlations between the electrical and compositional properties of grain boundaries in polycrystalline Si are examined in detail. High-resolution surface analysis techniques (AES, SIMS, XPS, EELS) and microelectrical (SAM, EBIC, minority-carrier lifetime) characterization methods are used. The direct evidence for impurity segregation to the intergrain regions is presented. Effect of illumination on the grain boundary electrical characteristics are correlated with impurity compositions. Finally, the interrelationships among heat-treatment, oxygen segregation and grain boundary electrical activity are discussed.

  1. Grain legumes in organic cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Dr. Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Grain legumes are valuable protein and energy sources in animal feeds and in human diets low in meat. Furthermore, grain legumes strongly benefit the cropping system, via biological fixation of atmospheric N2 - a fundamental process for maintaining soil fertility in organic farming systems. Other positive effects in the crop rotations are recycled N-rich crop residues and the break-crop effect in cereals-rich rotations. However, yield variability in grain legumes is well known and related to...

  2. Interstellar Extinction by Spheroidal Dust Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ranjan; Mukai, Tadashi; Vaidya, D. B.; Sen, Asoke K.; Okada, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Observations of interstellar extinction and polarization indicate that the interstellar medium consists of aligned non-spherical dust grains which show variation in the interstellar extinction curve for wavelengths ranging from NIR to UV. To model the extinction and polarization, one cannot use the Mie theory which assumes the grains as solid spheres. We have used a T-matrix based method for computing the extinction efficiencies of spheroidal silicate and graphite grains of different shapes (...

  3. Contour fractal analysis of grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Giulia; Casini, Francesca; Viggiani, Giulia MB

    2017-06-01

    Fractal analysis has been shown to be useful in image processing to characterise the shape and the grey-scale complexity in different applications spanning from electronic to medical engineering (e.g. [1]). Fractal analysis consists of several methods to assign a dimension and other fractal characteristics to a dataset describing geometric objects. Limited studies have been conducted on the application of fractal analysis to the classification of the shape characteristics of soil grains. The main objective of the work described in this paper is to obtain, from the results of systematic fractal analysis of artificial simple shapes, the characterization of the particle morphology at different scales. The long term objective of the research is to link the microscopic features of granular media with the mechanical behaviour observed in the laboratory and in situ.

  4. Pressure-driven phase transition from antiferromagnetic semiconductor to nonmagnetic metal in the two-leg ladders A Fe2X3 (A =Ba ,K ; X =S ,Se )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Lin, Lingfang; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Dagotto, Elbio; Dong, Shuai

    2017-03-01

    The recent discovery of superconductivity in BaFe2S3 [H. Takahashi et al., Nat. Mater. 14, 1008 (2015), 10.1038/nmat4351] has stimulated considerable interest in 123-type iron chalcogenides. This material is the first reported iron-based two-leg ladder superconductor, as opposed to the prevailing two-dimensional layered structures of the iron superconductor family. Once the hydrostatic pressure exceeds 11 GPa, BaFe2S3 changes from a semiconductor to a superconductor below 24 K. Although previous calculations correctly explained its ground-state magnetic state and electronic structure, the pressure-induced phase transition was not successfully reproduced. In this work, our first-principles calculations show that with increasing pressure the lattice constants as well as local magnetic moments are gradually suppressed, followed by a first-order magnetic transition at a critical pressure, with local magnetic moments dropping to zero suddenly. Our calculations suggest that the self-doping caused by electrons transferred from S to Fe may play a key role in this transition. The development of a nonmagnetic metallic phase at high pressure may pave the way to superconductivity. As extensions of this effort, two other 123-type iron chalcogenides, KFe2S3 and KFe2Se3 , have also been investigated. KFe2S3 also displays a first-order transition with increasing pressure, but KFe2Se3 shows instead a second-order or weakly first-order transition. The required pressures for KFe2S3 and KFe2Se3 to quench the magnetism are higher than for BaFe2S3 . Further experiments could confirm the predicted first-order nature of the transition in BaFe2S3 and KFe2S3 , as well as the possible metallic/superconductivity state in other 123-type iron chalcogenides under high pressure.

  5. Interactions between grain boundary faceting, migration and grain rotation: Color group and molecular dynamics simulation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue

    Color group theory and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the faceting and rotation of grains in nanocrystalline materials and their interactions. Color group arguments were used to determine symmetry-dictated extrema with respect to misorientation of the grains and with respect to grain boundary normal orientations. MD simulations were used to study the evolution of the system and to elucidate the interactions between grain rotation and faceting in nano-scale systems. The systems of study were fcc bicrystalline systems with two grains sharing their [110] directions. Two geometric parameters were studied: the misorientation between two grains with a common rotation axis in the [110] direction of both grains, and the grain boundary normal orientation of fcc (110) tilt grain boundaries. The symmetry-dictated extremum (SDE) with respect to misorientation around both grains' [110] direction is 90 degrees. The SDE with respect to GB normal orientations for (110) tilt GBs are located on top of the color and classical mirror planes of their dichromatic patterns. By using periodic boundary conditions and a cylindrical embedded grain structure in our simulations, grains are only free to vary the misorientation between grains around the common [110] direction, and the normal of the grain boundaries are always perpendicular to both grains [110] direction. All SDE studied in our simulation are observed to be local energy minimum states. We observed the systems reducing their excess energy through three main modes: forming facets at the boundaries, rotating between the two grains, and reduction of grain boundary area through grain shrinkage. Facets are formed in low-energy grain boundaries and oscillating rotation occurred when the initial misorientation was not a SDE. A new algorithm was developed to quantitatively measure the grain rotation. The ovsered rotations are not rigid-body rotations and have strong interaction with faceting. Systems with lower

  6. The Role of Grain Boundary Energy on Grain Boundary Complexion Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarski, Stephanie A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Rohrer, Gregory S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary complexions are distinct equilibrium structures and compositions of a grain boundary and complexion transformations are transition from a metastable to an equilibrium complexion at a specific thermodynamic and geometric conditions. Previous work indicates that, in the case of doped alumina, a complexion transition that increased the mobility of transformed boundaries and resulted in abnormal grain growth also caused a decrease in the mean relative grain boundary energy as well as an increase in the anisotropy of the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). The current work will investigate the hypothesis that the rates of complexion transitions that result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) depend on grain boundary character and energy. Furthermore, the current work expands upon this understanding and tests the hypothesis that it is possible to control when and where a complexion transition occurs by controlling the local grain boundary energy distribution.

  7. Grain growth and experimental deformation of fine-grained ice aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, Sabrina; de Bresser, Hans; Spiers, Chris; Durham, William B.; Stern, Laura

    2010-05-01

    Ice is one of the most abundant materials in our solar system. It is the principal constituent of most of the moons of the outer solar system. Thus, the flow behavior of ice is of great interest when studying geodynamic processes on icy moons. Grain growth is an elementary process that is assumed to be important in the ice sheet layering of planetary moons, where temperatures 100-273 K exist. We concentrate on the questions to what extent grain growth may influence the evolution of strength of deforming ice and if the grain growth process is independent or dependent of deformation. The answers to these questions will help us to quantitatively test the hypothesis that the progressive evolution of the grain (crystal) size distribution of deforming and recrystallizing ice directly affects its rheological behaviour in terms of composite grain-size-sensitive (GSS) and grain-size-insensitive (GSI) creep, and that this might, after time, result in a steady state balance between mechanisms of GSS and GSI creep. We performed static grain growth experiments at different temperatures and a pressure (P) of 1 atm, and deformation experiments at P = 30-100 MPa starting in the GSS-creep field. The starting material ice Ih has a grain size growth tests a Hart Scientific temperature bath was filled with d-Limonene as cooling medium. The ice specimens were put into sealed alumina cylinders. For the grain growth tests, temperatures (T) between 213 K and 268 K were chosen. The durations of these tests varied between one day and two weeks. For the deformation experiments, temperatures of > 170 K and strain rates between 10-8 s-1 and 10-4 s-1 were chosen. Grain sizes, grain size distributions and grain topologies were measured by cryogenic SEM and image analysis techniques. We found clear evidence of grain growth and a significantly T-dependent variation of grain size distributions. The observations allow us to calibrate values for the grain size exponent n and the activation energy Q

  8. Decision Support System to Choose Digital Single Lens Camera with Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pina Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies that evolve today is Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR camera. The number of products makes users have difficulties to choose the appropriate camera based on their criteria. Users may utilize several ways to help them choosing the intended camera such as using magazine, internet, and other media. This paper discusses about a web based decision support system to choose cameras by using SAW (Simple Additive Weighting method in order to make the decision process more effective and efficient. This system is expected to give recommendations about the camera which is appropriate with the user’s need and criteria based on the cost, the resolution, the feature, the ISO, and the censor. The system was implemented by using PHP and MySQL. Based on the result of questionnaire distributed to 20 respondents, 60% respondents agree that this decision support system can help users to choose the appropriate camera DSLR in accordance with the user’s need, 60% of respondents agree that this decision support system is more effective to choose DSLR camera and 75% of respondents agree that this system is more efficient. In addition, 60.55% of respondents agree that this system has met 5 Es Usability Framework.

  9. Decision Support System to Choose Digital Single Lens Camera with Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pina Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies that evolve today is Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR camera. The number of products makes users have difficulties to choose the appropriate camera based on their criteria. Users may utilize several ways to help them choosing the intended camera such as using magazine, internet, and other media. This paper discusses about a web based decision support system to choose cameras by using SAW (Simple Additive Weighting method in order to make the decision process more effective and efficient. This system is expected to give recommendations about the camera which is appropriate with the user’s need and criteria based on the cost, the resolution, the feature, the ISO, and the censor. The system was implemented by using PHP and MySQL. Based on the result of questionnaire distributed to 20 respondents, 60% respondents agree that this decision support system can help users to choose the appropriate camera DSLR in accordance with the user’s need, 60% of respondents agree that this decision support system is more effective to choose DSLR camera and 75% of respondents agree that this system is more efficient. In addition, 60.55% of respondents agree that this system has met 5 Es Usability Framework.

  10. Grain boundary corrosion of copper canister material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennell, P.A.H.; Graham, A.J.; Smart, N.R.; Sofield, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    The proposed design for a final repository for spent fuel and other long-lived residues in Sweden is based on the multi-barrier principle. The waste will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, which will then be placed in granite bedrock and surrounded by compacted bentonite clay. The canister design is based on a thick cast inner container fitted inside a corrosion-resistant copper canister. During fabrication of the outer copper canisters there will be some unavoidable grain growth in the welded areas. As grains grow they will tend to concentrate impurities within the copper at the new grain boundaries. The work described in this report was undertaken to determine whether there is any possibility of enhanced corrosion at grain boundaries within the copper canister. The potential for grain boundary corrosion was investigated by exposing copper specimens, which had undergone different heat treatments and hence had different grain sizes, to aerated artificial bentonite-equilibrated groundwater with two concentrations of chloride, for increasing periods of time. The degree of grain boundary corrosion was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. AFM showed no increase in grain boundary 'ditching' for low chloride groundwater. In high chloride groundwater the surface was covered uniformly with a fine-grained oxide. No increases in oxide thickness were observed. No significant grain boundary attack was observed using optical microscopy either. The work suggests that in aerated artificial groundwaters containing chloride ions, grain boundary corrosion of copper is unlikely to adversely affect SKB's copper canisters.

  11. Grain Unloading of Arsenic Species in Rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Charnock, John M.; Feldmann, Joerg; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Manchester); (Aberdeen); (UC)

    2010-01-11

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). To investigate how As species are unloaded into grain rice, panicles were excised during grain filling and hydroponically pulsed with arsenite, arsenate, glutathione-complexed As, or DMA. Total As concentrations in flag leaf, grain, and husk, were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and As speciation in the fresh grain was determined by x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. The roles of phloem and xylem transport were investigated by applying a {+-} stem-girdling treatment to a second set of panicles, limiting phloem transport to the grain in panicles pulsed with arsenite or DMA. The results demonstrate that DMA is translocated to the rice grain with over an order magnitude greater efficiency than inorganic species and is more mobile than arsenite in both the phloem and the xylem. Phloem transport accounted for 90% of arsenite, and 55% of DMA, transport to the grain. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping and fluorescence microtomography revealed marked differences in the pattern of As unloading into the grain between DMA and arsenite-challenged grain. Arsenite was retained in the ovular vascular trace and DMA dispersed throughout the external grain parts and into the endosperm. This study also demonstrates that DMA speciation is altered in planta, potentially through complexation with thiols.

  12. Establishment of Grain Farmers' Supply Response Model and Empirical Analysis under Minimum Grain Purchase Price Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang

    2012-01-01

    Based on farmers' supply behavior theory and price expectations theory, this paper establishes grain farmers' supply response model of two major grain varieties (early indica rice and mixed wheat) in the major producing areas, to test whether the minimum grain purchase price policy can have price-oriented effect on grain production and supply in the major producing areas. Empirical analysis shows that the minimum purchase price published annually by the government has significant positive imp...

  13. Superior grains determined by grain weight are not fully correlated with the lfowering order in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ting; ZHAO Quan-zhi; L Qiang; ZHAO Ya-fan; SUN Hong-zheng; HAN Ying-chun; DU Yan-xiu; ZHANG Jing; LI Jun-zhou; WANG Lin-lin

    2015-01-01

    Rice panicles are composed of many branches with two types of extreme grains, the superior and the inferior. Traditional y, it has been wel accepted that earlier lfowers result in superior grains and late lfowers generate inferior grains. However, these correlations have never been strictly examined in practice. In order to determine the accurate relationship between superior and inferior grains and the lfowering order, we localized al the seeds in a panicle in four distinct rice species and systematical y documented the rice lfowering order, lfower locations and the ifnal grain weight for their relationships. Our results demonstrated that the grain weight is more heavily determined by the position of the seeds than by the lfowering order. Despite earlier lfowering has a positive correlation with the grain weight in general, grains from lfowers blooming on the second day after anthesis general y gained the highest weight. This suggests earlier lfowers may not result in superior grains. Therefore, we concluded that superior and inferior grains, commonly determined by grain weight, are not ful y cor-related with the lfowering order in rice. Fol owing the order of the grain weight, the superior grains are general y localized at the middle parts of the primary branches, whereas inferior grains were mainly on the last two secondary branches of the lower half part of the panicle. In addition, the weight of inferior grains were affected by spikelet thinning and spraying with exogenous plant growth regulators, indicating that physiological incompetence might be the major reason for the occurrence of the inferior grains.

  14. Plagioclase-Rich Itokawa Grains: Space Weathering, Exposure Ages, and Comparison to Lunar Soil Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Berge, E.

    2017-01-01

    Regolith grains returned by the Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa provide the only samples currently available to study the interaction of chondritic asteroidal material with the space weathering environment. Several studies have documented the surface alterations observed on the regolith grains, but most of these studies involved olivine because of its abundance. Here we focus on the rarer Itokawa plagioclase grains, in order to allow comparisons between Itokawa and lunar soil plagioclase grains for which an extensive data set exists.

  15. Linear grain growth kinetics and rotation in nanocrystalline Ni

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Diana; Mohanty, S.; Monk, J.

    2007-01-01

    We report three-dimensional atomistic molecular dynamics studies of grain growth kinetics in nanocrystalline Ni. The results show the grain size increasing linearly with time, contrary to the square root of the time kinetics observed in coarse-grained structures. The average grain boundary energy per unit area decreases simultaneously with the decrease in total grain boundary area associated with grain growth. The average mobility of the boundaries increases as the grain size increases. The r...

  16. Stabilisation of the grain market by the flexible use of grain for bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Pronk, A.; Woltjer, I.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews whether the grain market and grain price can be stabilised by the variation of the use of grain in the EU-27's production of bioethanol. The time horizon of this study is 2020, whereby account is taken of the minimum 10% obligation for biofuel use in the EU-27. An economic comput

  17. Stabilisation of the grain market by the flexible use of grain for bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Pronk, A.; Woltjer, I.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews whether the grain market and grain price can be stabilised by the variation of the use of grain in the EU-27's production of bioethanol. The time horizon of this study is 2020, whereby account is taken of the minimum 10% obligation for biofuel use in the EU-27. An economic

  18. Irradiation-induced grain growth and defect evolution in nanocrystalline zirconia with doped grain boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanchita; Mardinly, John; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James A; Holesinger, Terry G; Uberuaga, Blas P; Ditto, Jeff J; Drazin, John W; Castro, Ricardo H R

    2016-06-22

    Grain boundaries are effective sinks for radiation-induced defects, ultimately impacting the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials (dense materials with nanosized grains) against net defect accumulation. However, irradiation-induced grain growth leads to grain boundary area decrease, shortening potential benefits of nanostructures. A possible approach to mitigate this is the introduction of dopants to target a decrease in grain boundary mobility or a reduction in grain boundary energy to eliminate driving forces for grain growth (using similar strategies as to control thermal growth). Here we tested this concept in nanocrystalline zirconia doped with lanthanum. Although the dopant is observed to segregate to the grain boundaries, causing grain boundary energy decrease and promoting dragging forces for thermally activated boundary movement, irradiation induced grain growth could not be avoided under heavy ion irradiation, suggesting a different growth mechanism as compared to thermal growth. Furthermore, it is apparent that reducing the grain boundary energy reduced the effectiveness of the grain boundary as sinks, and the number of defects in the doped material is higher than in undoped (La-free) YSZ.

  19. Temperature fluctuations of interstellar dust grains

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Kobi; Biham, Ofer

    2007-01-01

    The temperatures of interstellar dust grains are analyzed using stochastic simulations, taking into account the grain composition and size and the discreteness of the photon flux. [...] The distribution of grain temperatures is calculated for a broad range of grain sizes and for different intensities of the interstellar radiation field, relevant to diffuse clouds and to PDRs. The dependence of the average grain temperature on its size is shown for different irradiation intensities. It is found that the average temperatures of grains with radii smaller than about 0.02 $\\mu$m are reduced due to the fluctuations. The average temperatures of grains of radii larger than about 0.35 $\\mu$m are also slightly reduced due to their more efficient emission of infrared radiation, particularly when exposed to high irradiation intensities. The average temperatures of silicate and carbonaceous grains are found to depend on the radiation field intensity X_MMP according to ~X_MMP^gamma, where the exponent gamma depends on the...

  20. Grain transport mechanics in shallow overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flow. The two phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a disper...

  1. Grain transport mechanics in shallow flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flows. The two-phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a dispe...

  2. Grain boundaries in high temperature superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Mannhart, J.

    2002-01-01

    Since the first days of high-Tc superconductivity, the materials science and the physics of grain boundaries in superconducting compounds have developed into fascinating fields of research. Unique electronic properties, different from those of the grain boundaries in conventional metallic

  3. Reducing grain storage losses in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the use of insecticide-treated material and modified atmosphere storage for reducing insect damage in stored maize. Results showed that insecticide treated netting and insecticide treated seed bags protected grain from insect damage for up to nine months if the grain was free from i...

  4. SEGMENTATION AND GRAIN SIZE OF CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Arnould

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some methods to automatically extract the grain boundaries of materials in order to develop an automatic method to determine the grain size and morphological parameters of ceramic materials. Results are presented in the case of sintered cerine (CeO2 materials.

  5. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  6. Grain boundaries in high-Tc superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, H.; Mannhart, J.

    2002-01-01

    Since the first days of high-Tc superconductivity, the materials science and the physics of grain boundaries in superconducting compounds have developed into fascinating fields of research. Unique electronic properties, different from those of the grain boundaries in conventional metallic supercondu

  7. Topological Transformation during Normal Grain Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaogang LOU; Michael A.Player

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates topological transformation during normal grain growth by carrying out a computer vertex simulation.Results show that topological correlation agrees with the models proposed by Blanc et al. and Weaire. Topological transformation occurs more often on grains with some topological classes instead of equal probability on each boundary. This can be qualitatively explained by topological correlation.

  8. [Dentistry students' reasons for choosing dentistry as a career in Damascus University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashlah, A M

    2012-05-01

    This cross-sectional questionnaire survey assessed the motives for choosing dentist as a profession among dentistry students at Damascus University, Syrian Arab Republic. A total of 408 undergraduate students (233 males and 175 females) aged 18-23 years were selected randomly from students in the second, third and fourth years of dentistry study. They completed a questionnaire that enquired about their reasons for studying dentistry as well as their sociodemographic characteristics. The number of admissions in females had increased over the 3 years. Most parents of the students were university-educated. The main motivation for choosing dentistry was as a means to achieve personal goals, including getting a good job abroad, having financial independence, and attaining a good reputation. There were significant differences between the sexes with regard to the reasons for choosing dentistry.

  9. [The social representations of the process of choosing leaders in the perspective of the nursing team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Gisela Maria Schebella Souto; de Magalhães, Ana Maria Müller; Souza, Dirciara Barañano; Dall'agnol, Clarice Maria

    2012-10-01

    This exploratory-descriptive, qualitative study was performed with the objective to analyze the social representation of the process of choosing leaders among nursing workers of a university hospital. The information was obtained through free word association and open interviews. For the purposes of this study, thematic content analysis was performed, guided by the Social Representations Theory. Through this focus the following category emerged: division of the nursing team - the input and output of the process of choosing leaders. The category consists of a crystallization of the social representation of the subject, anchored in elements related to leadership, impartiality, change, knowledge, trust and humanization. The idea of leadership is highlighted as inducing a movement in the division of the team as it is associated with the process of choosing leaders for an environment of communication, suitable for integrating the team and recognizing potential leaders.

  10. Making difficult decisions: the role of quality of care in choosing a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesis-Katz, Irena; Phelps, Charles E; Temkin-Greener, Helena; Spector, William D; Veazie, Peter; Mukamel, Dana B

    2013-05-01

    We investigated how quality of care affects choosing a nursing home. We examined nursing home choice in California, Ohio, New York, and Texas in 2001, a period before the federal Nursing Home Compare report card was published. Thus, consumers were less able to observe clinical quality or clinical quality was masked. We modeled nursing home choice by estimating a conditional multinomial logit model. In all states, consumers were more likely to choose nursing homes of high hotel services quality but not clinical care quality. Nursing home choice was also significantly associated with shorter distance from prior residence, not-for-profit status, and larger facility size. In the absence of quality report cards, consumers choose a nursing home on the basis of the quality dimensions that are easy for them to observe, evaluate, and apply to their situation. Future research should focus on identifying the quality information that offers the most value added to consumers.

  11. A few philosophical ruminations on the human condition and choosing to live well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake E. Hestir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion that life is meaningful through choosing to live well has historically received substantive attention in various philosophical circles, notably the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and more recently several of the existentialists. In some respects, the idea of choosing to live well is a “thematization” of two widely-recognized, independent components of a meaningful life: happiness and authenticity. I develop this notion of choosing to live well by exploring, developing, and relating these conceptions of happiness and authenticity. By appealing to a very basic account of human nature that has found favor among a great number of people, I show how happiness and authenticity complement each other as conditions for the possibility of living meaningfully.

  12. Nonmagnetic driver for piezoelectric actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuator drive aims to enable reliable motor performance in strong magnetic fields for magnetic res- onance imaging and computed tomography treatment tables. There are technical limitations in operation of these motors and drive systems related to magnetic interference. Piezoelectric...... actuators. Therefore, piezoelectric transformer-based power converters are used for driving piezoelectric actuator drive motor in the presence of high electromagnetic field....

  13. Constraining the Porosities of Interstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations of the X-ray scattering properties of porous grain aggregates with olivine monomers. The small and large angle scattering properties of these aggregates are governed by the global structure and substructure of the grain, respectively. We construct two diagnostics, R_X and T_X, based on the optical and X-ray properties of the aggregates, and apply them to a Chandra measurement of the dust halo around the Galactic binary GX13+1. Grain aggregates with porosities higher than about 0.55 are ruled out. Future high-precision observations of X-ray dust haloes together with detailed modeling of the X-ray scattering properties of porous grain mixtures will further constrain the presence of porous grain aggregates in a given dust population.

  14. Refinement and stability of grain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Humphreys, F.; Bate, P.S. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Manchester Materials Science Centre

    2001-07-01

    The various methods of producing fine-grained alloys are discussed and it is concluded that thermomechanical processing routes are most suitable for the economic production of the large quantities of material required for structural applications. The limits of grain refinement by conventional discontinuous recrystallization are considered, and the production of micron-grained alloys by continuous recrystallization processes during or after large strain deformation is discussed. The stability of highly deformed microstructures against recrystallization is analysed, and the effect of second-phase particles on grain growth is discussed. It is shown that perturbations of the Zener drag during high temperature deformation may lead to dynamic grain growth in two-phase alloys. (orig.)

  15. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Li; Zhengyong Cui; Yingli Ni; Mengjing Zheng; Dongqing Yang; Min Jin; Jin Chen; Zhenlin Wang; Yanping Yin

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Wennong6' and 'Jimai20', were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The resul...

  16. Coarse graining of polystyrene sulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perahia, Dvora; Agrawal, Anupriya; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-03-01

    Capturing large length scales in soft matter while retaining atomistic properties is imperative to computational studies. Here we develop a new coarse-grained model for polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) that often serves as a model system because of its narrow molecular weight distribution and defined degree of sulfonation. Four beads are used to represent polymer where the backbone, the phenyl group, and the sulfonated group are each represented by a different bead and the fourth one represents counterion, which is sodium in our case. Initial atomistic simulations of PSS melt with sulfonation levels of 2-10%, with a dielectric constant ɛ = 1 revealed a ``locked'' phase where motion of the polymer is limited. Dielectric constant of ɛ = 5 was used to accelerate the dynamics. Bonded interactions were obtained using Boltzmann inversion on the bonded distributions extracted from atomistic simulation. Non-bonded interaction of polystyrene monomer was taken from our previous work and potential of mean force was used as the initial guess for interaction of the ionic beads. This set of potential was subsequently iterated to get a good match with radial distribution functions. This potential and its transferability across dielectric constants and temperatures will be presented. Grant DE-SC007908.

  17. ISOCHRONS IN PRESOLAR GRAPHITE GRAINS FROM ORGUEIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinner, Ernst; Jadhav, Manavi, E-mail: ekz@wustl.edu [Laboratory for Space Sciences and the Physics Department, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Primitive meteorites contain tiny dust grains that condensed in stellar outflows and explosions. These stardust grains can be extracted from their host meteorites and studied in detail in the laboratory. We investigated depth profiles of the Al-Mg, Ca-K, and Ti-Ca isotopic systems obtained during NanoSIMS isotopic analysis of presolar graphite grains from the CI carbonaceous meteorite Orgueil. Large {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al, {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca, and {sup 44}Ti/{sup 48}Ti ratios, inferred from {sup 26}Mg, {sup 41}K, and {sup 44}Ca excesses from the decay of the short-lived radioisotopes {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 44}Ti, indicate a supernova (SN) origin. From the depth distribution of the radiogenic isotopes and the stable isotopes of their parent elements we constructed isochron-type correlation plots. The plots indicate quantitative retention of radiogenic {sup 26}Mg, {sup 41}K, and {sup 44}Ca in most grains. Deviations from straight lines in the Al-Mg and Ca-K plots can be explained by contamination with {sup 27}Al and isotopically normal Ca, respectively. For the Ti-Ca system in some grains, the lack of parent-daughter correlation indicates either redistribution of radiogenic {sup 44}Ca or heterogeneity in the initial {sup 44}Ti/{sup 48}Ti ratio. We also obtained Si isotopic depth profiles in three graphite grains with large {sup 29}Si and {sup 30}Si excesses, for which a SN origin has been proposed. In two grains no Si-rich subgrains are observed; in the third grain with an apparent Si-rich subgrain the anomalous Si isotopic ratios in the subgrain are the same as in the rest of the graphite host. Our studies show that by measuring depth profiles, information on presolar grains can be obtained that cannot be obtained by whole-grain analysis.

  18. Entropy production in coarse grained Vlasov equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawetz, K. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), LPC-ISMRA, 14 - Caen (France); Walke, R. [Rostock Univ., Fachbereich Physick (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The Vlasov equation is analyzed for coarse grained distributions. This coarse graining resembles a finite width of test-particles as used in numerical implementations. It is shown that this coarse grained distribution obeys a kinetic equation similar to the Vlasov equation, but with additional terms. These terms give rise to entropy production indicating dissipative features. The reason is a nonlinear mode coupling due to the finite width of the test-particles. The interchange of coarse graining and dynamical evolution is discussed with the help of an exactly solvable model and practical consequences are worked out. By calculating analytically the stationary solution we can show that a sum of modified Boltzmann-like distributions is approached dependent on the initial distribution. This behavior is independent of degeneracy and only controlled by the width of test-particles. The condition for approaching a stationary solution is derived in that the coarse graining energy given by momentum coarse graining should be smaller than a quarter of the kinetic energy. Observable consequences of this coarse graining are: (i) In the thermodynamics the coarse graining leads to spatial correlations in observables. (ii) Too large radii of nucleus in self-consistent treatments are observed and an explicit correction term appears in the Thomas Fermi equation. (iii) The momentum coarse graining translates into a structure term in the response function and resembles to a certain extent vertex correction correlations or internal structure effects. (iv) The coarse graining which is numerically unavoidable leads to a modified centroid energy and higher damping width of collective modes. The numerical codes should be revised in that a refolding is proposed. (author)

  19. Influence of China’s Grain Industrial Market Structure over Grain Pricing Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the point of view of industrial market structure,we analyze the influence of market structure on grain production,circulation,and processing,and on the grain pricing power of entities along China’s grain industrial chain.Through analysis,it is indicated that different features of market structure play a significant role in pricing power of such microeconomic entities as farmers and grain enterprises in grain production and transaction.And the market structure determines welfare distribution model of consumers’ surplus and producers’ surplus at the market.

  20. [Choosing contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    The development of contraception has allowed women to think about and experience motherhood not as their destiny but as an option. Humans have always been interested in controlling their fertility. Writings unearthed in the 18th century demonstrated the interest of the ancient Egyptians and Greeks in fertility control. The oral contraceptive (OC) pill, developed in the 1950s by Pincus and Rock, has allowed millions of women to avoid unwanted pregnancy. Since 1960, when the oral contraceptive Enovid was first marketed in the US, over 200 million women throughout the world have used OCs. Modern formulations have low hormone doses, which has minimized side effects. OCs now have an effectiveness of 98%. The method is controlled by the woman, permitting autonomous decisions about pregnancy. Currently, in Colombia, 12.9% of women in union use OCs, 25.7% are sterilized, 11.1% each use IUDs and traditional methods, 4.3% use condoms, 2.5% use injectables, 1.4% use vaginal tablets, 0.7% each use Norplant and vasectomy, and 1.8% use other methods. 27.8% use no method. OCs can be used as an emergency method in case of rape, an unexpected sexual encounter, or failure of another method. When used as a postcoital method, OCs must be taken within 72 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse.

  1. Choosing surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstensson, Carina; Lohmander, L; Frobell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective was to understand patients' views of treatment after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and their reasons for deciding to request surgery despite consenting to participate in a randomised controlled trial (to 'cross-over'). METHODS: Thirty-four in......-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with young (aged 18-35), physically active individuals with ACL rupture who were participating in a RCT comparing training and surgical reconstruction with training only. 22/34 were randomised to training only but crossed over to surgery. Of these, 11 were interviewed...... before surgery, and 11 were interviewed at least 6 months after surgery. To provide additional information, 12 patients were interviewed before randomisation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the Framework approach. RESULTS: Strong preference for surgery was commonplace...

  2. Choosing Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Milo Djukanovic, Prime Minister of Montenegro, won a key referendum May 21 when voters in his tiny, mountainous nation endorsed a plan to split from Serbia and become an independent state. This marked a final step in the breakup of the former Yugoslavia formed by six republics.

  3. Short Communication. Effect of phosphorus nutrition and grain position within maize cob on grain phosphorus accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamamad Nadeem

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of grains may vary due to external nutrient supply and their position within parent maize cob. Phosphorus (P is the least mobile nutrient in the soil and therefore newly growing seedlings are largely dependent on the stored grain P contents which are accumulated during the crop maturity period. Objective of this study was to access the effects of different P applications and grain positions on P and dry matter contents in grains. Phosphorus application and grain position has significant (p<0.05 effects on P contents in grains whereas dry weight and P content are highly correlated. Grain weight and P contents decreased linearly from base to apical position possibly due to flow of nutrients from base towards apical position within cob. Significantly higher grain dry weight (0.35±0.01 g and P contents (962±57 µg P are recorded in high P application (92.50 kg ha-1 rate on base position whereas minimum grain dry weight (0.14±0.01 g and P contents (219±11 µg P were recorded on apical grain position in low P application (5.60 kg ha-1 rate. The results suggest that for better seedling P nutrition especially in soils of low inherent P, maize grains should be selected from base or middle position where maximum dry weight and P contents are concentrated to support the seedlings to reach at growth at which roots are capable of external P uptake.

  4. A constitutive model of nanocrystalline metals based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary diffusion, grain boundary sliding and dislocation activities are considered. Effects of pressure on the grain boundary diffusion and sliding mechanisms are taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of grain size distribution on macroscopic response is studied. The model is shown to capture the fundamental mechanical characteristics of nanocrystalline metals. These include grain size dependence of the strength, i.e., both the traditional and the inverse Hall-Petch effects, the tension-compression asymmetry and the enhanced rate sensitivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. AC susceptibility studies of grain-aligned superconductors by grained Bean model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Nobuyoshi; Akune, Tadahiro [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, Yasukuni, E-mail: saka@te.kyusan-u.ac.j [Department of Electrical Engineering, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma Fukuoka (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    AC susceptibility of low-T{sub c} metallic superconductors shows smooth transition in the in-phase chi' and a peak in the out-phase chi''. High-T{sub c} oxide superconductors with anisotropic and grain-textured structures show deformed complex characteristics, such as double peaks in chi'' and shoulders in chi'. Instead of simple Bean model, a grained Bean model, where the superconducting grains is immersed in weak superconducting matrix, are proposed. The susceptibilities numerically analyzed using the grained Bean model show varied and deformed curves as observed in the high-T{sub c} superconductors. From the dependence of chi' and chi'' on temperatures T and DC magnetic fields B{sub dc} in grain-aligned Hg(Re)-1223 superconductors, textures of grains and interconnecting links and their grain-aligned nature can be estimated.

  6. AC susceptibility studies of grain-aligned superconductors by grained Bean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Nobuyoshi; Akune, Tadahiro; Matsumoto, Yasukuni

    2009-03-01

    AC susceptibility of low-Tc metallic superconductors shows smooth transition in the in-phase χ' and a peak in the out-phase χ". High-Tc oxide superconductors with anisotropic and grain-textured structures show deformed complex characteristics, such as double peaks in χ" and shoulders in χ'. Instead of simple Bean model, a grained Bean model, where the superconducting grains is immersed in weak superconducting matrix, are proposed. The susceptibilities numerically analyzed using the grained Bean model show varied and deformed curves as observed in the high-Tc superconductors. From the dependence of χ' and χ" on temperatures T and DC magnetic fields Bdc in grain-aligned Hg(Re)-1223 superconductors, textures of grains and interconnecting links and their grain-aligned nature can be estimated.

  7. Complete grain boundaries from incomplete EBSD maps: the influence of segmentation on grain size determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Renée; Kilian, Ruediger

    2017-04-01

    Grain size analyses are carried out for a number of reasons, for example, the dynamically recrystallized grain size of quartz is used to assess the flow stresses during deformation. Typically a thin section or polished surface is used. If the expected grain size is large enough (10 µm or larger), the images can be obtained on a light microscope, if the grain size is smaller, the SEM is used. The grain boundaries are traced (the process is called segmentation and can be done manually or via image processing) and the size of the cross sectional areas (segments) is determined. From the resulting size distributions, 'the grain size' or 'average grain size', usually a mean diameter or similar, is derived. When carrying out such grain size analyses, a number of aspects are critical for the reproducibility of the result: the resolution of the imaging equipment (light microscope or SEM), the type of images that are used for segmentation (cross polarized, partial or full orientation images, CIP versus EBSD), the segmentation procedure (algorithm) itself, the quality of the segmentation and the mathematical definition and calculation of 'the average grain size'. The quality of the segmentation depends very strongly on the criteria that are used for identifying grain boundaries (for example, angles of misorientation versus shape considerations), on pre- and post-processing (filtering) and on the quality of the recorded images (most notably on the indexing ratio). In this contribution, we consider experimentally deformed Black Hills quartzite with dynamically re-crystallized grain sizes in the range of 2 - 15 µm. We compare two basic methods of segmentations of EBSD maps (orientation based versus shape based) and explore how the choice of methods influences the result of the grain size analysis. We also compare different measures for grain size (mean versus mode versus RMS, and 2D versus 3D) in order to determine which of the definitions of 'average grain size yields the

  8. Grain dissection as a grain size reducing mechanism during ice microdynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Florian; Kuiper, Ernst N.; Eichler, Jan; Bons, Paul D.; Drury, Martin R.; Griera, Albert; Pennock, Gill M.; Weikusat, Ilka

    2017-04-01

    Ice sheets are valuable paleo-climate archives, but can lose their integrity by ice flow. An understanding of the microdynamic mechanisms controlling the flow of ice is essential when assessing climatic and environmental developments related to ice sheets and glaciers. For instance, the development of a consistent mechanistic grain size law would support larger scale ice flow models. Recent research made significant progress in numerically modelling deformation and recrystallisation mechanisms in the polycrystalline ice and ice-air aggregate (Llorens et al., 2016a,b; Steinbach et al., 2016). The numerical setup assumed grain size reduction is achieved by the progressive transformation of subgrain boundaries into new high angle grain boundaries splitting an existing grain. This mechanism is usually termed polygonisation. Analogue experiments suggested, that strain induced grain boundary migration can cause bulges to migrate through the whole of a grain separating one region of the grain from another (Jessell, 1986; Urai, 1987). This mechanism of grain dissection could provide an alternative grain size reducing mechanism, but has not yet been observed during ice microdynamics. In this contribution, we present results using an updated numerical approach allowing for grain dissection. The approach is based on coupling the full field theory crystal visco-plasticity code (VPFFT) of Lebensohn (2001) to the multi-process modelling platform Elle (Bons et al., 2008). VPFFT predicts the mechanical fields resulting from short strain increments, dynamic recrystallisation process are implemented in Elle. The novel approach includes improvements to allow for grain dissection, which was topologically impossible during earlier simulations. The simulations are supported by microstructural observations from NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) ice core. Mappings of c-axis orientations using the automatic fabric analyser and full crystallographic orientations using electron

  9. Phase separation in NiCrN coatings induced by N2 addition in the gas phase: A way to generate magnetic thin films by reactive sputtering of a non-magnetic NiCr target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciu, I.; Duday, D.; Choquet, P.; Perigo, E. A.; Michels, A.; Wirtz, T.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic coatings are used for a lot of applications from data storage in hard discs, spintronics and sensors. Meanwhile, magnetron sputtering is a process largely used in industry for the deposition of thin films. Unfortunately, deposition of magnetic coatings by magnetron sputtering is a difficult task due to the screening effect of the magnetic target lowering the magnetic field strength of the magnet positioned below the target, which is used to generate and trap ions in the vicinity of the target surface to be sputtered. In this work we present an efficient method to obtain soft magnetic thin films by reactive sputtering of a non-magnetic target. The aim is to recover the magnetic properties of Ni after dealloying of Ni and Cr due to the selective reactivity of Cr with the reactive nitrogen species generated during the deposition process. The effects of nitrogen content on the dealloying and DC magnetron sputtering (DCMS) deposition processes are studied here. The different chemical compositions, microstructures and magnetic properties of DCMS thin films obtained by sputtering in reactive gas mixtures with different ratios of Ar/N2 from a non-magnetic Ni-20Cr target have been determined. XPS data indicate that the increase of nitrogen content in the films has a strong influence on the NiCr phase decomposition into Ni and CrN, leading to ferromagnetic coatings due to the Ni phase. XRD results show that the obtained Ni-CrN films consist of a metallic fcc cubic Ni phase mixed with fcc cubic CrN. The lattice parameter decreases with the N2 content and reaches the theoretical value of the pure fcc-Ni, when Cr is mostly removed from the Ni-Cr phase. Dealloying of Cr from a Ni80-Cr20 solid solution is achieved in our experimental conditions and the deposition of Ni ferromagnetic coatings embedding CrN from a non-magnetic target is possible with reactive DC magnetron sputtering.

  10. Spatial correlation in grain misorientation distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausir, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.beausir@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz/CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France)] [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Fressengeas, Claude [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz/CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Gurao, Nilesh P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Toth, Laszlo S. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz/CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Suwas, Satyam [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2009-10-15

    Grain misorientation was studied in relation to the nearest neighbor's mutual distance using electron back-scattered diffraction measurements. The misorientation correlation function was defined as the probability density for the occurrence of a certain misorientation between pairs of grains separated by a certain distance. Scale-invariant spatial correlation between neighbor grains was manifested by a power law dependence of the preferred misorientation vs. inter-granular distance in various materials after diverse strain paths. The obtained negative scaling exponents were in the range of -2 {+-} 0.3 for high-angle grain boundaries. The exponent decreased in the presence of low-angle grain boundaries or dynamic recrystallization, indicating faster decay of correlations. The correlations vanished in annealed materials. The results were interpreted in terms of lattice incompatibility and continuity conditions at the interface between neighboring grains. Grain-size effects on texture development, as well as the implications of such spatial correlations on texture modeling, were discussed.

  11. Roundness of grains in cellular microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, F. H.; Mason, J. K.; Lazar, E. A.; MacPherson, R. D.

    2017-08-01

    Many physical systems are composed of polyhedral cells of varying sizes and shapes. These structures are simple in the sense that no more than three faces meet at an edge and no more than four edges meet at a vertex. This means that individual cells can usually be considered as simple, three-dimensional polyhedra. This paper is concerned with determining the distribution of combinatorial types of such polyhedral cells. We introduce the terms fundamental and vertex-truncated types and apply these concepts to the grain growth microstructure as a testing ground. For these microstructures, we demonstrate that most grains are of particular fundamental types, whereas the frequency of vertex-truncated types decreases exponentially with the number of truncations. This can be explained by the evolutionary process through which grain growth structures are formed and in which energetically unfavorable surfaces are quickly eliminated. Furthermore, we observe that these grain types are "round" in a combinatorial sense: there are no "short" separating cycles that partition the polyhedra into two parts of similar sizes. A particular microstructure derived from the Poisson-Voronoi initial condition is identified as containing an unusually large proportion of round grains. This microstructure has an average of 14.036 faces per grain and is conjectured to be more resistant to topological change than the steady-state grain growth microstructure.

  12. Densification and grain coarsening of melting snow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周石硚; 中尾正义; 桥本重将; 坂井亚规子; 成田英器; 石川信敬

    2003-01-01

    A field work was conducted at Moshiri in Japan.The work included intensive snow pit work, taking snow grain photos, recording snow and air temperatures, as well as measuring snow water content.By treating the snow as a viscous fluid, it is found that the snow compactive viscosity decreases as the density increases, which is opposite to the relation for dry snow.Based on the measurements of snow grain size, it is shown that, similar to the water-saturated snow, the frequency distributions of grain size at different times almost have the same shape.This reveals that the water-unsaturated melting snow holds the same grain-coarsening behavior as the water-saturated snow does.It is also shown that the water-unsaturated melting snow coarsens much more slowly than the water-saturated snow.The C value, which is the viscosity when the snow density is zero, is related to the mean grain size and found to decrease with increasing grain size.The decreasing rate of C value increases with decreasing grain-coarsening rate.

  13. 78 FR 57261 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist...: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around all inbound and outbound grain-shipment and grain-shipment assist vessels involved in commerce with the Columbia Grain facility on the...

  14. Which Teachers Choose a Defined Contribution Pension Plan? Evidence from the Florida Retirement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2002, public school teachers in Florida have been permitted to choose between a defined benefit (DB) and a defined contribution (DC) retirement plan. We exploit this unique policy environment to study new teachers' revealed preferences over pension plan structures. Roughly 30 percent of teachers hired between 2003 and 2008 selected the DC…

  15. Empirical Investigation into Motives for Choosing Web-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhattabi, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Today, in association with rapid social and economic changes, there is an increasing level of demand for distance and online learning programs. This study will focus on identifying the main motivational factors for choosing a web-based distance-learning program. Moreover, it will investigate how these factors relate to age, gender, marital status…

  16. Why Women Choose Information Technology Careers: Educational, Social, and Familial Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sandra V.; Bernt, Phyllis W.; Pecora, Norma

    The educational, social, and familial influences that lead women to choose information technology (IT) careers were examined in an online survey. Of the 2,500 women who were employed in IT careers in 38 countries and who belonged to the IT professional organization, Systers, 275 responded to the online survey (11% response rate). The respondents…

  17. First-year dental students’ motivation and attitudes for choosing the dental profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Avramova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine first-year dental students’ current motivation and attitudes for choosing the dental profession at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria. Material and methods. An anonymous questionnaire, consisting of 12 questions about students’ socio-demographic profile and their motivation for choosing dentistry, was administered to 119 first-year dental students at the Faculty of Dental Medicine of the Medical University of Sofia. The study was conducted at the beginning of the 2012-2013 academic year. The data was processed and analyzed with the following software: Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2; Microsoft SQL Server 2008; Internet Information Server 7.5.; Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. Results. The majority of the students (73% were self-motivated for choosing dentistry as a career; 61% of them did not have relatives in the medical profession; 43% chose dental medicine because it is a prestigious, humane and noble profession; 50% – for financial security; 59% – because of the independence that it provides. There were no significant differences in the motivation between males and females. Conclusion. Independence, financial security and ‘prestige’ were the predominant motivating factors in this group of first-year dental students. Determining the reasons for choosing dentistry has important implications for the selection and training of students as well as for their future job satisfaction.

  18. First-year dental students' motivation and attitudes for choosing the dental profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramova, Nadya; Yaneva, Krassimira; Bonev, Boyko

    2014-01-01

    To determine first-year dental students' current motivation and attitudes for choosing the dental profession at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University - Sofia, Bulgaria. An anonymous questionnaire, consisting of 12 questions about students' socio-demographic profile and their motivation for choosing dentistry, was administered to 119 first-year dental students at the Faculty of Dental Medicine of the Medical University of Sofia. The study was conducted at the beginning of the 2012-2013 academic year. The data was processed and analyzed with the following software: Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2; Microsoft SQL Server 2008; Internet Information Server 7.5.; Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. The majority of the students (73%) were self-motivated for choosing dentistry as a career; 61% of them did not have relatives in the medical profession; 43% chose dental medicine because it is a prestigious, humane and noble profession; 50% - for financial security; 59% - because of the independence that it provides. There were no significant differences in the motivation between males and females. Independence, financial security and 'prestige' were the predominant motivating factors in this group of first-year dental students. Determining the reasons for choosing dentistry has important implications for the selection and training of students as well as for their future job satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  19. Choosing a Hospital for Surgery: The Importance of Information on Quality of Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijs-Elsinga, J.; Otten, W.; Versluijs, M.; Smeets, H.J.; Kievit, J.; Vree, R.; Made, W.J. van der; Marang-Van De Mheen, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether patients use information on quality of care when choosing a hospital for surgery compared with more general hospital information. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study in 3 Dutch hospitals, questionnaires were sent to 2122 patients who underwent 1 of 6 elective surgical

  20. Elementary School-Age Children's Capacity To Choose Positive Diagnostic and Negative Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Mark C.; McDonald, John

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments compared 10-year-olds' and adults' ability to choose positive and negative diagnostic tests over positive and negative nondiagnostic tests. Findings indicated that both age groups were more likely to prefer positive diagnostic tests over positive nondiagnostic tests, although only adults showed a significant preference for negative…

  1. Destined to Design? How and Why Australian Women Choose to Study Industrial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Cathy; Miller, Evonne

    2016-01-01

    Despite over three decades of legislation and initiatives designed to tackle the traditional gender divide in the science, technology and design fields, only a quarter of the registered architects in Australia are women. There are no statistics available for other design disciplines, with little known about why women choose design as a career path…

  2. Effects of choosing academic assignments on a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The effects of choosing academic assignments on the undesirable behaviors manifested by a second-grade student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed. This study extended Dunlap et al.'s (1994) research on choice making as a form of antecedent control. A reversal design showed that undesirable behaviors decreased when the student was given a choice of academic assignments.

  3. Assignment Choice: Do Students Choose Briefer Assignments or Finishing What They Started?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; O'Neil, Michael; Conley, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Academic skill development requires engagement in effortful academic behaviors. Although students may be more likely to choose to engage in behaviors that require less effort, they also may be motivated to complete assignments that they have already begun. Seventh-grade students (N = 88) began a mathematics computation worksheet, but were stopped…

  4. Choosing tree genotypes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate using phyto-recurrent selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Information about the response of poplar (Populus spp.) genotypes to landfill leachate irrigation is needed, along with efficient methods for choosing genotypes based on leachate composition. Poplar clones were irrigated during three cycles of phyto-recurrent selection to test whether genotypes responded differently to leachate and water, and to test...

  5. Why political context is key in determining the parties interest groups choose to collaborate with

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    When interest groups choose to collaborate with political parties what determines the type of party they opt to work with? Anne Rasmussen and Simon Otjes write that the two key elements shaping this decision are typically the ideological similarities between the interest group and the party, togethe

  6. Fuzzy Reasoning Methods by Choosing Different Fuzzy Counters and Analysis of Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Different fuzzy reasoning methods were gave by choosing different fuzzy counters. This article generally introduced the basic structure of fuzzy controller,and compared and analysised the reasoning effect of fuzzy reasoning methods and the effect of computer simulating control basicly on different fuzzy counters.

  7. Choosing none of the above: Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  8. Choosing none of the above : Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  9. How do individuals apply risk information when choosing among health care interventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    weighting of different types of risk information under various circumstances. The effect of presenting questions, and of explicitly formulating RRR, was analyzed. A preference for increases in RRR was demonstrated. There was a stronger inclination to choose the intervention that offered the highest RRR...

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour for Choosing Oral Hygiene Aids among Students of Management Institutes, Ghaziabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kote, S; Dadu, M; A R, Sowmya; Ds, Aruna; Arora, D

    2013-11-01

    There is a lot of information available about various oral hygiene aids used for the maintenance of oral hygiene and the prevention of oral diseases but the reason why people choose a particular product is under-reported. This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of choosing oral hygiene aids among students of management institutes in Ghaziabad, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five management institutes selected by simple random sampling and data were collected from 1224 students by self-administered structured validated questionnaire. The study showed that toothbrush (96.8%) and toothpaste (95.2%) were the main products used for the maintenance of oral hygiene. The most commonly used brand dentifrices were Colgate and Close-Up (47%, 23.3%) and in toothbrush, Oral B and Colgate (48.4%, 30.9%), respectively. A particular brand of toothpaste was preferred by 66.4% of the subjects because of childhood and parental use, which was the most influential factor (56.9%). Bristle design was the main criterion for choosing a toothbrush (44.9%), followed by bristle consistency (33.1%). The most commonly used toothbrushes were of soft bristle consistency (51.2%) and 10.9% of the subjects did not know the type of bristle consistency present in their toothbrush. Selection of oral hygiene products was based more on parental influence and there seems to be a lack of knowledge and awareness about how to choose a dentifrice and toothbrush.

  11. Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Michael J; Lohrenz, Terry; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; McClure, Samuel M; De La Garza, Richard; Salas, Ramiro; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Newton, Thomas F; Bickel, Warren K; Montague, P Read

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

  12. Choosing High-Yield Tasks for the Mathematical Development of Practicing Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, James A. Mendoza; Rhoads, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Many mathematics teacher educators encounter the challenge of creating or choosing mathematical tasks that evoke important mathematical insights and connections yet remain firmly grounded in school mathematics. This challenge increases substantially when trying to meet the needs of practicing secondary mathematics teachers pursuing graduate work…

  13. Destined to Design? How and Why Australian Women Choose to Study Industrial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Cathy; Miller, Evonne

    2016-01-01

    Despite over three decades of legislation and initiatives designed to tackle the traditional gender divide in the science, technology and design fields, only a quarter of the registered architects in Australia are women. There are no statistics available for other design disciplines, with little known about why women choose design as a career path…

  14. Review of the CDC’s “Choose Respect” Dating Violence Prevention Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie Hertzog

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview of resources developed for the Center for Disease Control’s national “Choose Respect” initiative targeting youth ages 11-14 is provided. The initiative’s goal is to prevent teen dating violence by promoting healthy relationship development. Resources include a community action kit, downloadable video, television and radio advertisements as well as educational posters.

  15. Choosing Communication Portfolios to Accomplish Tasks: The Effects of Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chei Sian; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Chua, Alton Y. K; Luyt, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    The myriad of information communication technologies (ICTs) available today has changed the way students choose and use them. Specifically, individuals are increasingly relying on a mix of ICTs for communication to accomplish tasks. Yet, past studies on ICT use has largely assumed that people use a single ICT per task. We attempt to address this…

  16. Empirical Investigation into Motives for Choosing Web-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhattabi, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Today, in association with rapid social and economic changes, there is an increasing level of demand for distance and online learning programs. This study will focus on identifying the main motivational factors for choosing a web-based distance-learning program. Moreover, it will investigate how these factors relate to age, gender, marital status…

  17. Refined Method for Choosing a Security Solution for Mobile Application – Web Service Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Trif; Adrian Visoiu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present a refined algorithm for choosing the appropriate security implementation for mobile applications connecting to web services. Common security scenarios are presented. Each scenario has several characteristics associated. The correlations between these security scenarios characteristics are computed and selected only the characteristics that are less correlated. The proposed algorithm inventories the available scenarios, inventories the requirements and selects the se...

  18. Como escoger una escuela para su hijo (Choosing a School for Your Child).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Susan Perkins

    Step-by-step advice for Spanish-speaking parents on how to choose among available schools for their children is offered in this guidebook. Factors to consider in making the choice are discussed, as well as information on alternatives to the available choices, which include home schooling and working to create new options. After an introductory…

  19. A Method for Choosing an Initial Time Eigenstate in Classical and Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Noemí Jiménez-García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A subject of interest in classical and quantum mechanics is the development of the appropriate treatment of the time variable. In this paper we introduce a method of choosing the initial time eigensurface and how this method can be used to generate time-energy coordinates and, consequently, time-energy representations for classical and quantum systems.

  20. Choosing a Hospital for Surgery: The Importance of Information on Quality of Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijs-Elsinga, J.; Otten, W.; Versluijs, M.; Smeets, H.J.; Kievit, J.; Vree, R.; Made, W.J. van der; Marang-Van De Mheen, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether patients use information on quality of care when choosing a hospital for surgery compared with more general hospital information. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study in 3 Dutch hospitals, questionnaires were sent to 2122 patients who underwent 1 of 6 elective surgical

  1. Econobiophysics - game of choosing. Model of selection or election process with diverse accessible information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    We propose several models applicable to both selection and election processes when each selecting or electing subject has access to different information about the objects to choose from. We wrote special software to simulate these processes. We consider both the cases when the environment is neutral (natural process) as well as when the environment is involved (controlled process). PMID:21892959

  2. CASS Ferrite and Grain Structure Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Clayton O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This document summarizes the results of research conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine whether, based on experimental measurements, a correlation existed between grain structure in cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping and ferrite content of the casting alloy. The motivation for this research lies in the fact that ultrasonic testing (UT) is strongly influenced by CASS grain structure; knowledge of this grain structure may help improve the ability to interpret UT responses, thereby improving the overall reliability of UT inspections of CASS components.

  3. Design of Grain Dryers’ Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shizhuang; Cao, Shukun; Meng, Wenjing

    2017-06-01

    TMS320F28335 which is a TI high-performance TMS320C28x series 32-bit floating point DSP processor is used as the core of the controller, and the hardware is designed, which includes temperature collection, temperature and humidity collection, moisture detection and motor control. The development environment of the system CCS, and then for the characteristics of grain dryer control system, the control system software modular design, the use of fuzzy control method to achieve food grain motor control, and MATLAB simulation analysis, Fuzzy control is used to control the feasibility of the grain moisture.

  4. RF installation for the grain disinfestation

    CERN Document Server

    Zajtzev, B V; Kobetz, A F; Rudiak, B I

    2001-01-01

    The ecologically pure method of grain product disinfestations through the grain treatment with the RF electric field is described. The experimental data obtained showed that with strengths of the electrical RF field of E=5 kV/cm and frequency of 80 MHz the relative death rate is 100%.The time of the grain treatment it this case is 1 sec. The pulses with a duration of 600 mu s and repetition rate of 2 Hz were used, the duration of the front was 10 mu s. The schematic layout of installation with a productivity of 50 tones/h and power of 10 kW is given.

  5. Interstellar Grains: Effect of Inclusions on Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Katyal, Nisha; Vaidya, D B

    2011-01-01

    A composite dust grain model which simultaneously explains the observed interstellar extinction, polarization, IR emission and the abundance constraints, is required. We present a composite grain model, which is made up of a host silicate oblate spheroid and graphite inclusions. The interstellar extinction curve is evaluated in the spectral region 3.4-0.1$\\mu m$ using the extinction efficiencies of the composite spheroidal grains for three axial ratios. Extinction curves are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The model curves are subsequently compared with the average observed interstellar extinction curve and with an extinction curve derived from the IUE catalogue data.

  6. Interstellar grains: Effect of inclusions on extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, N.; Gupta, R.; Vaidya, D. B.

    2011-10-01

    A composite dust grain model which simultaneously explains the observed interstellar extinction, polarization, IR emission and the abundance constraints, is required. We present a composite grain model, which is made up of a host silicate oblate spheroid and graphite inclusions. The interstellar extinction curve is evaluated in the spectral region 3.4-0.1 μm using the extinction efficiencies of composite spheroidal grains for three axial ratios. Extinction curves are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The model curves are subsequently compared with the average observed interstellar extinction curve and with an extinction curve derived from the IUE catalogue data.

  7. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  8. Hard-core thinnings of germ-grain models with power-law grain sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuronen, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Random sets with long-range dependence can be generated using a Boolean model with power-law grain sizes. We study thinnings of such Boolean models which have the hard-core property that no grains overlap in the resulting germ-grain model. A fundamental question is whether long-range dependence is preserved under such thinnings. To answer this question we study four natural thinnings of a Poisson germ-grain model where the grains are spheres with a regularly varying size distribution. We show that a thinning which favors large grains preserves the slow correlation decay of the original model, whereas a thinning which favors small grains does not. Our most interesting finding concerns the case where only disjoint grains are retained, which corresponds to the well-known Mat\\'ern type I thinning. In the resulting germ-grain model, typical grains have exponentially small sizes, but rather surprisingly, the long-range dependence property is still present. As a byproduct, we obtain new mechanisms for generating hom...

  9. Choose and Book: a sociological analysis of 'resistance' to an expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob; Swinglehurst, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    In 2004, the English Department of Health introduced a technology (Choose and Book) designed to help general practitioners and patients book hospital outpatient appointments. It was anticipated that remote booking would become standard practice once technical challenges were overcome. But despite political pressure and financial incentives, Choose and Book remained unpopular and was generally used reluctantly if at all. Policymakers framed this as a problem of 'clinician resistance'. We considered Choose and Book from a sociological perspective. Our dataset, drawn from a qualitative study of computer use in general practice, comprised background documents, field notes, interviews, clinical consultations (directly observed and videotaped) and naturally occurring talk relating to referral to hospital in four general practices. We used strong structuration theory, Giddens' conceptualisation of expert systems, and sensitivity to other sociological perspectives on technology, institutions and professional values to examine the relationship between the external environment, the evolving technology and actions of human agents (GPs, administrators, managers and patients). Choose and Book had the characteristics of an expert system. It served to 'empty out' the content of the consultation as the abstract knowledge it contained was assumed to have universal validity and to over-ride the clinician's application of local knowledge and practical wisdom. Sick patients were incorrectly assumed to behave as rational choosers, able and willing to decide between potential options using abstracted codified information. Our analysis revealed four foci of resistance: to the policy of choice that Choose and Book symbolised and purported to deliver; to accommodating the technology's socio-material constraints; to interference with doctors' contextual judgements; and to adjusting to the altered social relations consequent on its use. We conclude that 'resistance' is a complex phenomenon

  10. The Comparison of Iranian and Foreign Students’ Motivations to Choose Dentistry Field of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Because of some special and privileged attractions of dentistry discipline, the first choice of volunteers who want to enter university is dentistry. The students usually choose it regardless to their interests and talents. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Iranian and Foreign student’s motivations to choose dentistry field of study. Materials and Methods We searched international databases such as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Iranian databases such as SID, Magiran, Iranmedex using a searching strategy during 2000 to 2015 years. Database without language restriction, since 2000 sources, with the MeSH term "Choose dentistry field" AND "Students". At first, in the initial search,152 articles were found, and finally, 51 of them which were related to the subject of this research were used. Results In general, the motivation of students to choose field of study in Iranain and Foreign students include the following:: an independent office or job independence, high economic income, appropriate social status,  job attractiveness of dentistry, appropriate job position, individual longing, help others, top rank of student in the university entrance exam, continue to study at specialized PhD in one of dentistry trends, successful marriage nd interest in the field of dentistry. Conclusion It seems that with regard to the high unemployment rate of university graduates in Iran, the most important incentives of applicants who want to enter the dentistry discipline are high income and  particular social prestige at this major. Moreover, high income and independent job situations are the most important factors in Foreign students for choosing this filed of study in the overseas studies.

  11. Student nurses' motivation to choose gerontological nursing as a career in China: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Cheng, Cheng; Tian, Yan; Fan, Xiuzhen

    2015-07-01

    The world's population is aging, and the need for nurses is increasing. Working with older adults, however, has always been an unpopular career choice among student nurses. It is important to understand student nurses' motivation for choosing gerontological nursing as a career. The purpose of this study was to examine the motivation for choosing gerontological nursing as a career and to identify the associated factors among student nurses. Cross-sectional survey. Participants were last-semester student nurses from 7 universities offering nursing undergraduate programs in Shandong, China. Of the 1290 student nurses, 916 completed the survey (a response rate of 71.0%). The outcome variable was the motivation to choose gerontological nursing as a career. This was measured using a motivation questionnaire that included expectancy and value subscales. Other instruments included the Chinese version of the Facts on Aging Quiz I, the Geriatrics Attitudes Scale, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, a clinical practice environment questionnaire and a self-administered general information questionnaire. Student nurses' expectancy and value aspects of motivation for choosing gerontological nursing as a career were both at a moderate level; the highest value they held was of personal interest. Clinical practice environment, anxiety about aging and the attitudes about geriatrics were the main factors influencing student nurses' motivation to choose gerontological nursing as a career in China. It is imperative for nurse educators to improve the gerontological nursing clinical practice environment for student nurses. Moreover, cultivating student nurses' positive attitudes about geriatrics and relieving anxiety about aging could be beneficial. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Scale effect and geometric shapes of grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui; GUO Xing-ming

    2007-01-01

    The rule-of-mixture approach has become one of the widely spread ways to investigate the mechanical properties of nano-materials and nano-structures, and it is very important for the simulation results to exactly compute phase volume fractions. The nanocrystalline (NC) materials are treated as three-phase composites consisting of grain core phase, grain boundary (GB) phase and triple junction phase, and a two-dimensional three-phase mixture regular polygon model is established to investigate the scale effect of mechanical properties of NC materials due to the geometrical polyhedron characteristics of crystal grain. For different multi-sided geometrical shapes of grains, the corresponding regular polygon model is adopted to obtain more precise phase volume fractions and exactly predict the mechanical properties of NC materials.

  13. Grain operator miffed at port administration

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ventspils Grain Terminal saatis president Vaira Vike-Freibergale ja mitmetele ministritele kirja sõnumiga, et Ventspilsi Vabasadama (Ventspils Free Port) administratsiooni tegevus takistab terminali äritegevust

  14. Evidence from Ethiopian Grain Traders and Millers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    poverty alleviation strategy, medium firms such as most grain traders and millers .... However, financial repression such as high inflation, high reserve requirement of ... deposit and lending interest rates can hinder the development of financial.

  15. The NGDC Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGDC (now NCEI) Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database contains particle size data for over 17,000 seafloor samples worldwide. The file was begun by NGDC in 1976...

  16. Grains storage using a field technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgue, H.

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize or other grains can be protected from insects during storage by filling empty drums, and adding a few handfuls of dry laterite soil. The tap is then rescrewed. The drum is ready for storage.

  17. Grain operator miffed at port administration

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ventspils Grain Terminal saatis president Vaira Vike-Freibergale ja mitmetele ministritele kirja sõnumiga, et Ventspilsi Vabasadama (Ventspils Free Port) administratsiooni tegevus takistab terminali äritegevust

  18. Thermomagnetic Stability in Pseudo Single Domain Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Lesleis; Williams, Wyn; Muxworthy, Adrian; Fabian, Karl; Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.

    2016-04-01

    The reliability of paleomagnetic remanences are well understood for fine grains of magnetite that are single-domain (SD, uniformly magnetized). In particular Néel's theory [1] outlined the thermal energies required to block and unblock magnetic remanences. This lead to determination of thermal stability for magnetization in fine grains as outlined in Pullaiah et. al. [2] and a comprehensive understanding of SD paleomagnetic recordings. It has been known for some time that single domain magnetite is possible only in the grain size range 30 - 80nm, which may only account for a small fraction of the grain size distribution in any rock sample. Indeed rocks are often dominated by grains in the pseudo single domain (PSD) size range, at approximately 80 - 1000nm. Toward the top end of this range multi-domain features begin to dominate. In order to determine thermomagnetic stability in PSD grains we need to identify the energy barriers between all possible pairs of local energy minima (LEM) domain states as a function of both temperature and grain size. We have attempted to do this using the nudged elastic band (NEB) method [3] which searches for minimum energy paths between any given pair of LEM states. Using this technique we have determined, for the first time, complete thermomagnetic stability curves for PSD magnetite. The work presented is at a preliminary stage. However it can be shown that PSD grains of magnetite with simple geometries (e.g. cubes or cuboctahedra) have very few low energy transition paths and the stability is likely to be similar to that observed for SD grains (as expected form experimental observations). The results will provide a basis for a much more rigorous understanding of the fidelity of paleomagnetic signals in assemblages of PSD grains and their ability to retain ancient recordings of the geomagnetic field. References: [1] Néel, Louis. "Théorie du traînage magnétique des ferromagnétiques en grains fins avec applications aux terres

  19. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  20. A multibody strategy for deformable grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, Guilhem

    2017-06-01

    This article presents a numerical framework dedicated to the simulation of granular materials with highly deformable grains. This framework is based on a multibody meshfree strategy, which makes it possible to account for the constitutive model of the material composing each grain and for possibly complex contact laws (e.g. adhesion, friction, etc.). The main principles of the approach are first presented, and two illustrative cases are then detailed in order to emphasize its potential in several domains of the granular science.

  1. Merging of the grains during wire drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Metlov, Leonid; Zavdoveev, Anatoliy; Pashinska, Elena

    2015-01-01

    It has been first proved the effect of grains merging during drawing deformation. This was done with example of producing a steel wire from rod manufactured by rolling with shear technology and was shown not only grain refinement but its merging as well. The result obtained in current work has fundamental importance; it reveals new mechanism of the "recrystallization" which takes place without diffusion actions owing to the mechanical impact.

  2. 3-D analysis of grain selection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arao, Tomoka; Esaka, Hisao; Shinozuka, Kei

    2012-07-01

    It is known that the grain selection plays an important role in the manufacturing process for turbine blades. There are some analytical or numerical models to treat the grain selection. However, the detailed mechanism of grain selection in 3-D is still uncertain. Therefore, an experimental research work using Al-Cu alloy has been carried out in order to understand the grain selection in 3-D.A mold made by Al2O3 was heated to 600 °C ( = liquids temperature of the alloy) and was set on a water-colded copper chill plate. Molten Al-20 wt%Cu alloy was cast into the mold and unidirectional solidified ingot was prepared. The size of ingot was approximately phi25×65H mm. To obtain the thermal history, 4 thermocouples were placed in the mold. It is confirmed that the alloy solidified unidirectionally from bottom to top. Solidified structure on a longitudinal cross section was observed and unidirectional solidification up to 40 mm was ensured. EBSD analysis has been performed on horizontal cross section at an interval of ca.200 μm. These observations were carried out 7-5 mm from the bottom surface. Crystallographic orientation of primary Al phase and size of solidified grains were characterized. A large solidified grain, the crystallographic orientation of which is approximately along heat flow direction, is observed near the lowest cross section. The area of grain decreased as solidification proceeded. On the other hand, it is found that the area of grain increased.

  3. Coarse graining lessons from simple examples

    CERN Document Server

    Akritas, P; Yarevsky, E

    2001-01-01

    We assess Coarse Graining by studying different partitions of the phase space of the Baker transformation and the periodic torus automorphisms. It turns out that the shape of autocorrelation functions for the Baker transformation is more or less reproduced. However, for certain partitions the decay rates turn out to be irrelevant, even decay may stop in a finite time. For the periodic torus automorphisms, Coarse Graining introduces artificial dumping.

  4. Evaluation of special grains bean lines for grain yield, cooking time and mineral concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability of 32 inbred special grains bean lines was investigated for grain yield, mass of 100 grains, cooking time, and mineral concentrations in grains, and Z index was used for selection of superior lines in most of the characters. IAC Centauro, IAC Galante, Xamego, Ouro Branco, Montcalm, and Hooter lines presented high yield grain, short cooking time (less than 24 min, and high potassium (>14 g kg-1 dry matter [DM], calcium (>1.42 g kg-1 DM, iron (>97.60 mg kg-1 DM, zinc (>29.05 mg kg-1 DM and copper (>8.67 mg kg-1 DM concentrations, and their dietary use is therefore recommended. Cal-96 line presents higher Z index for grain yield and for the most of the minerals, and its use is recommended for crosses for the development of superior lines.

  5. Whole grains protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James W

    2003-02-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the most common cause of death in most Western countries. Nutrition factors contribute importantly to this high risk for ASCVD. Favourable alterations in diet can reduce six of the nine major risk factors for ASCVD, i.e. high serum LDL-cholesterol levels, high fasting serum triacylglycerol levels, low HDL-cholesterol levels, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Wholegrain foods may be one the healthiest choices individuals can make to lower the risk for ASCVD. Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with higher levels (in the highest quintile) of whole-grain intake have a 29 % lower risk for ASCVD than individuals with lower levels (lowest quintile) of whole-grain intake. It is of interest that neither the highest levels of cereal fibre nor the highest levels of refined cereals provide appreciable protection against ASCVD. Generous intake of whole grains also provides protection from development of diabetes and obesity. Diets rich in wholegrain foods tend to decrease serum LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels as well as blood pressure while increasing serum HDL-cholesterol levels. Whole-grain intake may also favourably alter antioxidant status, serum homocysteine levels, vascular reactivity and the inflammatory state. Whole-grain components that appear to make major contributions to these protective effects are: dietary fibre; vitamins; minerals; antioxidants; phytosterols; other phytochemicals. Three servings of whole grains daily are recommended to provide these health benefits.

  6. Coarse-graining methods for computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Marissa G; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Connecting the molecular world to biology requires understanding how molecular-scale dynamics propagate upward in scale to define the function of biological structures. To address this challenge, multiscale approaches, including coarse-graining methods, become necessary. We discuss here the theoretical underpinnings and history of coarse-graining and summarize the state of the field, organizing key methodologies based on an emerging paradigm for multiscale theory and modeling of biomolecular systems. This framework involves an integrated, iterative approach to couple information from different scales. The primary steps, which coincide with key areas of method development, include developing first-pass coarse-grained models guided by experimental results, performing numerous large-scale coarse-grained simulations, identifying important interactions that drive emergent behaviors, and finally reconnecting to the molecular scale by performing all-atom molecular dynamics simulations guided by the coarse-grained results. The coarse-grained modeling can then be extended and refined, with the entire loop repeated iteratively if necessary.

  7. Pollen grains are efficient cloud condensation nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, F D, E-mail: fdp21@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    This letter presents a laboratory study investigating the ability of pollen grains to act as cloud condensation nuclei. The hygroscopicity of pollen is measured under subsaturated relative humidities using an electrodynamic balance. It is found, along with other results, that pollen exhibits bulk uptake of water under subsaturated conditions. Through the use of an environmental scanning electron microscope it was observed that the surface of pollen is wettable at high subsaturated humidities. The hygroscopic response of the pollen to subsaturated relative humidities is parametrized using {kappa}-Koehler theory and values of the parameter {kappa} for pollen are between 0.05 and 0.1. It is found that while pollen grains are only moderately hygroscopic, they can activate at critical supersaturations of 0.001% and lower, and thus pollen grains will readily act as cloud condensation nuclei. While the number density of pollen grains is too low for them to represent a significant global source of cloud condensation nuclei, the large sizes of pollen grains suggest that they will be an important source of giant cloud condensation nuclei. Low temperature work using the environmental scanning electron microscope indicated that pollen grains do not act as deposition ice nuclei at temperatures warmer than - 15 deg. C.

  8. Applications of surface analysis techniques to photovoltaic research: Grain and grain boundary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, L. L.

    Complementary surface analysis techniques (AES, SIMS, XPS) are applied to photovoltaic devices in order to assess the limiting factors of grain and grain boundary chemistry to the performance of polycrystalline solar cells. Results of these compositional and chemical studies are directly correlated with electrical measurements (EBIC) and with resulting device performance. Examples of grain boundary passivation in polycrystalline Si and GaAs solar cells are cited. The quality of the intragrain material used in these devices is shown to be equally important to the grain boundary activity in determining overall photovoltaic performance.

  9. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  10. SIMULATIVE INVESTIGATION OF GRAIN BOUNDARIES IN NiAl ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Using embedded atom potentials and molecular static relaxation method or Monte Carlo relaxation method, the grain boundary atomic structures of a series of [100], [110] and [111] symmetric tilt grain boundaries in NiAl with different geometrical indexes and compositions were studied. The grain boundary energies, grain boundary cohesive energies and point defects formation energies at the grain boundary were calculated. The results show that the grain boundaries of NiAl alloy have a periodic unit structure. Grain boundary energies of Al rich grain boundary is very high, but the cohesive energies are lower than those of others. The interaction of point defects and grain boundaries shows that grain boundaries incline to absorb point defects to decrease their orders and to relax the distortions caused by point defects. The boundary atomic structures relaxed by Monte Carlo method show that the disorder of them, grain boundary energies and cohesive energies increase with increasing temperature.

  11. Effect of grain constraint on the field requirements for magnetocaloric effect in Ni45Co5Mn40Sn10 melt-spun ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, N. M.; Huang, Y. J.; Dennis, C. L.; Li, J. G.; Shull, R. D.; Ross, J. H.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Karaman, I.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of grain constraint on the magnetic field levels required to complete the isothermal martensitic transformation in magnetic shape memory alloys has been demonstrated for a NiCoMnSn alloy, and the magnetocaloric performance of an optimally heat treated alloy was quantified. Ni45CoxMn45-xSn10 melt spun ribbons with x = 2, 4, 5, and 6 were characterized. The x = 5 sample was determined to exhibit the lowest transformation thermal hysteresis (7 K) and transformation temperature range during transformation from paramagnetic austenite to non-magnetic martensite, as well as a large latent heat of transformation (45 J kg-1 K-1). For this composition, it was found that increasing the grain size to thickness ratio of the ribbons from 0.2 to 1.2, through select heat treatments, resulted in a decrease in the magnetic field required to induce the martensitic transformation by about 3 T due to the corresponding reduction in the martensitic transformation temperature range. This decrease in the field requirement ultimately led to a larger magnetocaloric entropy change achieved under relatively smaller magnetic field levels. The giant inverse magnetocaloric effect of the optimized alloy was measured and showed that up to 25 J kg-1 K-1 was generated by driving the martensitic transition with magnetic fields up to 7 T.

  12. Choosing Membership Function for Method of Localization of Additional Reactive Power Sources in a Power Grid Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Zbroński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces choosing location for additional reactive power sources for a power grid. The fuzzy logic method for localization is described, with special attention focused on choosing the proper fuzzification method, used for reasoning. Results of using such a method are presented for an example power network.

  13. 40 CFR 270.180 - For what reasons may the Director choose to revoke and reissue my final RAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... choose to revoke and reissue my final RAP? 270.180 Section 270.180 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) How May My Rap Be Modified, Revoked and Reissued, Or Terminated? § 270.180 For what reasons may the Director choose to revoke and reissue my final RAP...

  14. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms.

  15. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 444: choosing the route of hysterectomy for benign disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Hysterectomies are performed vaginally, abdominally, or with laparoscopic or robotic assistance. When choosing the route and method of hysterectomy, the physicians should take into consideration how the procedure may be performed most safely and cost-effectively to fulfill the medical needs of the patient. Evidence demonstrates that, in general, vaginal hysterectomy is associated with better outcomes and fewer complications than laparoscopic or abdominal hysterectomy. When it is not feasible to perform a vaginal hysterectomy, the surgeon must choose between laparoscopic hysterectomy,robot-assisted hysterectomy, or abdominal hysterectomy. Experience with robot-assisted hysterectomy is limited at this time; more data are necessary to determine its role in the performance of hysterectomy. The decision to electively perform a salpingoophorectomy should not be influenced by the chosen route of hysterectomy and is not a contraindication to performing a vaginal hysterectomy.

  16. Empowering Learners to Choose the Difficulty Level of Problems Based on Their Learning Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Mannheimer Zydney

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that increasing learner control offers several benefits, including increased motivation, attitude, and learning. The goal of the present study was to determine how prior math achievement influences students' selection of the difficulty level of problems within Math Pursuits, a hypermedia learning program. Math Pursuits was designed to help children understand mathematics by discovering how it relates to the world around them. The program presented each learner with an adjustable level of challenge, along with the necessary scaffolding to support success. The researchers hypothesized that students with lower math skills would choose to start with a lower difficultly level; whereas, students with higher math skills would begin the program by choosing a question with a higher level of difficulty. Results supported these hypotheses. This research also examined the motivational framework guiding students' selection of problem difficulty.

  17. Choose Health Action Teens: A Review of a Teens as Teachers Nutritional Education Training Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Flesch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review draws from published research related to the best practices for the utilization of teens as teachers to examine Choose Health Action Teens (CHAT, a teen’s as teachers (TAT training curriculum.  Research shows that there are various components necessary to build a high quality TAT program.  Most of these components fall under four areas in which training is necessary for teens and adults: Teaching strategies, youth/child development, subject matter to be taught, and youth-adult partnerships.  These four areas provide a framework to review the Choose Health Action Teens (CHAT (Crosiar & Wolfe, 2013 teens as teachers training program curriculum.

  18. The capacity to choose: reformulating the concept of choice in economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Peacock

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite being conceived as a ‘theory of rational choice’, orthodox economics fails to ascribe to human beings the ability to choose in a meaningful sense, something philosophical approaches to economics have long noted and tried to remedy. Tony Lawson’s critical realism is one attempt at a remedy. If, following Lawson, one conceives of choice as a ‘capacity’ of human beings, critical realist analysis suggests a distinction between humans’ possession and their exercise of this capacity. If one can sustain this distinction, one should be able to distinguish cases in which agents actually exercise their capacity to choose from those in which they do not. Investigation of this distinction does not, however, lead to the desired distinction between such cases. Consequently, a reformulation of the notion of choice is required. An implication for economic theory – namely, the possibility of conceptualizing ‘exploitation’ – is discussed.

  19. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m(-2), i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  20. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m-2, i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared