WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonmagnetic drill collar

  1. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Register on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54912). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on January 5, 2011... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22,...

  2. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 877). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings...

  3. Insulating coupling for drill collars and method of manufacture thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, F.A.; Maron, R.J.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an insulating drill collar joint, including: a first metallic drill collar segment having a first threaded section with a coating of electrically insulating ceramic material; insulating coating in the range of from 0.002 to 0.006 inch thick; and a second metallic drill collar segment connected to first drill collar segment; second drill collar segment having a second threaded section engaged with the insulation coated section of the first drill collar section. An electrically insulated drill collar joint is formed.

  4. Generalized collar waves in acoustic logging while drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Ming; He, Xiao; Zhang, Xiu-Mei

    2016-12-01

    Tool waves, also named collar waves, propagating along the drill collars in acoustic logging while drilling (ALWD), strongly interfere with the needed P- and S-waves of a penetrated formation, which is a key issue in picking up formation P- and S-wave velocities. Previous studies on physical insulation for the collar waves designed on the collar between the source and the receiver sections did not bring to a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we investigate the propagation features of collar waves in different models. It is confirmed that there exists an indirect collar wave in the synthetic full waves due to the coupling between the drill collar and the borehole, even there is a perfect isolator between the source and the receiver. The direct collar waves propagating all along the tool and the indirect ones produced by echoes from the borehole wall are summarized as the generalized collar waves. Further analyses show that the indirect collar waves could be relatively strong in the full wave data. This is why the collar waves cannot be eliminated with satisfactory effect in many cases by designing the physical isolators carved on the tool. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11134011 and 11374322) and the Foresight Research Project, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... green tubes suitable for drill pipe), without regard to the specific chemistry of the steel (i.e... general application, consult the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, part 201, subparts A... hearing and make oral presentations should attend a prehearing conference to be held at 9:30 a.m....

  6. Numerical study of the collar wave characteristics and the effects of grooves in acoustic logging while drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yufeng; Guan, Wei; Hu, Hengshan; Xu, Minqiang

    2017-05-01

    Large-amplitude collar wave covering formation signals is still a tough problem in acoustic logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurements. In this study, we investigate the propagation and energy radiation characteristics of the monopole collar wave and the effects of grooves on reducing the interference to formation waves by finite-difference calculations. We found that the collar wave radiates significant energy into the formation by comparing the waveforms between a collar within an infinite fluid, and the acoustic LWD in different formations with either an intact or a truncated collar. The collar wave recorded on the outer surface of the collar consists of the outward-radiated energy direct from the collar (direct collar wave) and that reflected back from the borehole wall (reflected collar wave). All these indicate that the significant effects of the borehole-formation structure on collar wave were underestimated in previous studies. From the simulations of acoustic LWD with a grooved collar, we found that grooves broaden the frequency region of low collar-wave excitation and attenuate most of the energy of the interference waves by multireflections. However, grooves extend the duration of the collar wave and convert part of the collar-wave energy originally kept in the collar into long-duration Stoneley wave. Interior grooves are preferable to exterior ones because both the low-frequency and the high-frequency parts of the collar wave can be reduced and the converted inner Stoneley wave is relatively difficult to be recorded on the outer surface of the collar. Deeper grooves weaken the collar wave more greatly, but they result in larger converted Stoneley wave especially for the exterior ones. The interference waves, not only the direct collar wave but also the reflected collar wave and the converted Stoneley waves, should be overall considered for tool design.

  7. Analytical solution of electromagnetic field generated by induction logging tool in a fan-ring slot of drill collar while drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the structural characteristic of metal drill collar for induction logging while drilling, we have given the analytical formulae of lengthways fields Ez and Hz when the tool is located in a fan-ring shaped slot of drill collar by the boundary conditions of electromagnetic field, and derived the other components of electromagnetic field in and out the fan-ring slot from Ez and Hz. In the other intervals of formation, where the drill collar is a solid cylinder, the analytical formulae of field are educed through the method of variable coefficient. The total analytical solutions of field in whole space have been obtained. With the help of the analytical formulae, we have also given numerical examples and analyzed the distributive characteristic of electromagnetic field. From the computational results we find that the secondary scattering field Hz is in a linear relation with the conductivity of stratum. The characteristic of field is very useful for induction logging while drilling, which can be used to measure and analyze the logging responses of the stratum conductivity. This paper sets up a theoretical foundation for us to study the distrbutions of field and to direct the design of logging instruments.

  8. Mathematical Model and Simulation of a Pneumatic Apparatus for In-Drilling Alignment of an Inertial Navigation Unit during Horizontal Well Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Djurkov, Alexander; Cloutier, Justin; Mintchev, Martin P.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional methods in horizontal drilling processes incorporate magnetic surveying techniques for determining the position and orientation of the bottom-hole assembly (BHA). Such means result in an increased weight of the drilling assembly, higher cost due to the use of non-magnetic collars necessary for the shielding of the magnetometers, and significant errors in the position of the drilling bit. A fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) based inertial navigation system (INS) has been pro...

  9. 易钻浮箍浮鞋的研制及应用%Development and application of easily drilled float collar or float shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜向东; 朱和明; 孙文俊

    2012-01-01

    As an important indicator for the performance of the float collars and the float shoes, Drillability affects the cycle time and cost of drilling operations directly, as a result, impact on the rate of penetration of the drilling machine. In order to solve the drillability difficulties domestically, and to satisfy the urgent needs for the drilling speed improving, a set of novel easily drilled float collar and float shoe were developed. By developing the back-pressure valve with high molecular polymer material and the early-strength concrete with micro-expansion, the drillability and reliability of the float collar and float shoe were greatly improved. The easily drilled float collar and float shoe were applied in fields at home and abroad after ground performance testing, which fully verified the safety and reliability as well as the excellent drillablility performance.%针对国内面临的浮箍浮鞋钻除困难的问题及当前对钻井提速的迫切需求,研制了新型易钻浮箍浮鞋.通过开发高分子材料回压阀及采用早强微膨胀抗渗混凝土填充,极大提高了浮箍浮鞋的可钻性和可靠性.易钻浮箍浮鞋在完成地面性能实验评价后进行了工业化推广应用,取得了良好的应用效果,验证了该型浮箍浮鞋的安全可靠性及优良的可钻除性能.

  10. 超级13Cr 油钻杆与4145H 钻铤的电偶腐蚀测试%Galvanic corrosion test on super 13Cr oil drill pipe and 4145H drill collar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春生; 曾德智; 施太和; 蔡光林; 张明辉; 陶赟

    2015-01-01

    With the galvanic corrosion problem in threaded connection of super 13Cr oil drill pipe and 4145H drill collar of nitrogen drilling and completion integration string in tight gas reservoir,threaded connection galvanic corrosion specimens of super 13Cr stainless steel and 4145H carbon steel were designed by simulating the practical engineering string structure.The high tempera-ture and high pressure (HTHP)corrosion test was conducted in the HTHP autoclave,where the simulated environment includes CO2 partial pressure of 1.75 MPa,total pressure of 35 MPa,and temperature of 90 ℃ and 110 ℃.Through corrosion weight loss,SEM and EDS analysis,galvanic corrosion characteristics were studied.The results show that,under the simulated envi-ronment,there is no obvious corrosion characteristics in super 13Cr steel after coupling corrosion.While in the junction,the cor-rosion of 4145H steel is accelerated due to the potential difference and gap.At 110 ℃,the corrosion rate of 4145H steel in the gas phase was 0.181 1 mm/a.Because of the large drill collar wall thickness and wide corrosion allowance,4145H carbon steel drill collar which has a good economic applicability can meet production demands.The research results have been applied in the design of nitrogen drilling and completion string in Tarim tight gas reservoir.%针对致密性气藏氮气钻完井一体化管柱中超级13Cr 油钻杆和4145H 钻铤螺纹连接的电偶腐蚀问题,模拟工程实际管柱结构,设计出超级13Cr 不锈钢和4145H 碳钢的螺纹连接电偶腐蚀试样,利用高温高压釜模拟井下腐蚀工况,在 CO2分压为1.75 MPa,总压为35 MPa,温度分别为90℃和110℃条件下进行了高温高压腐蚀测试。通过腐蚀失重、扫描电镜(SEM)和EDS 分析测试,得出了模拟井底工况下13Cr 油钻杆材质和4145H 钻铤材质螺纹连接后的电偶腐蚀情况。实验结果表明:模拟工况下,超级13Cr 和4145H 偶合腐蚀后,超级13Cr

  11. 30 CFR 56.7056 - Collaring in bootlegs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7056 Collaring in bootlegs. Holes shall not be collared in bootlegs. Rotary...

  12. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force

  13. 30 CFR 57.7056 - Collaring in bootlegs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7056 Collaring in bootlegs. Holes shall not...

  14. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  15. Collaring of Po Superconducting Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows the placing of a stack of stainless steel collars around the superconducting coils.Pre-assembled collar stacks were placed under and on top of the coils,the collars interleaving as comb teeth. During the following collaring operation of compression under a press the collars were locked together by means of side wedges. See also photos 8211532X, 7903168

  16. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  17. 76 FR 11757 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... unfinished drill collars (including all drill collar green tubes) and unfinished drill pipe (including drill pipe green tubes, which are tubes meeting the following description: seamless tubes with an outer... release any bond or other security posted and refund any cash deposit of estimated antidumping duties made...

  18. 76 FR 11758 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... chemistry of the steel (i.e., carbon, stainless steel, or other alloy steel), and without regard to length or outer diameter. Also included are unfinished drill collars (including all drill collar green tubes) and unfinished drill pipe (including drill pipe green tubes, which are tubes meeting the...

  19. The vein collar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect...

  20. 78 FR 59972 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... suppliers of Chinese product in the U.S. market has evolved and grown over the period in ways that indicate further expansion is imminent,' and the related conclusion that `the fact that suppliers of Chinese... at the start of the POI and that, during the POI, the participation of Chinese suppliers in the...

  1. Offshoring White-Collar Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is twofold: to explain why white-collar service work in manufacturing firms is increasingly subject to offshoring and to understand the effects of this process on work integration mechanisms. The empirical part of the study is based on two case studies of Danish...... manufacturers. First, the chapter finds that drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring, that is, cost minimisation and resource seeking. Second, due to the interdependence of white-collar tasks with the rest...... of the organisation, our results suggest that white-collar offshoring in manufacturing firms poses higher requirements to the organisational configuration and capabilities compared with blue-collar work. We conceptualise the effects of white-collar work offshoring in a framework relating white-collar work...

  2. Offshoring White-Collar Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is twofold: to explain why white-collar service work in manufacturing firms is increasingly subject to offshoring and to understand the effects of this process on work integration mechanisms. The empirical part of the study is based on two case studies of Danish...... manufacturers. First, the chapter finds that drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring, that is, cost minimisation and resource seeking. Second, due to the interdependence of white-collar tasks with the rest...... of the organisation, our results suggest that white-collar offshoring in manufacturing firms poses higher requirements to the organisational configuration and capabilities compared with blue-collar work. We conceptualise the effects of white-collar work offshoring in a framework relating white-collar work...

  3. Minimizing the scattering of a nonmagnetic cloak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    Nonmagnetic cloak offers a feasible way to achieve invisibility at optical frequencies using materials with only electric responses. In this letter, we suggest an approximation of the ideal nonmagnetic cloak and quantitatively study its electromagnetic characteristics using a full-wave scattering...

  4. Rigorous analysis of non-magnetic cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    Nonmagnetic cloak offers a feasible way to achieve invisibility at optical frequencies using materials with only electric responses. In this letter, we suggest an approximation of the ideal nonmagnetic cloak and quantitatively study its electromagnetic characteristics using a full-wave scattering...

  5. The blue-collar brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    .... This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body...

  6. A Novel Idea for Coil Collar Structures in Accelerator Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P

    2002-01-01

    The dipoles for several different machines (LHC, SSC, HERA) were designed using non-magnetic metallic collars to contain the superconducting coils. The coils are of two types, main and floating. This paper describes a structure with combined steel and plastic collars. Since the floating collars do not give an important contribution to the global rigidity of the dipole we propose to suppress them. The plastic collars are just fillers to limit the helium contained in the cold mass. Some data about thermoplastic materials to be possibly used for the collars are given and some estimations of mass and cost of this configuration are made. Finally the results of the tests of a 1-m-long twin aperture dipole with mixed steel-plastic collars are shortly described. The replacement of expensive alloys by high performance plastic in non-structural components can be a cost-effective solution in view of future projects where superconducting magnets are involved and contained costs are a key issue.

  7. 78 FR 20615 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... International Trade Administration Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on drill pipe from the People's Republic of China (PRC...-4793. Scope of the Order The scope of the order consists of steel drill pipe and steel drill collars...

  8. 76 FR 50173 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-circumvention Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... green tube by rotary piercing billet in an integrated or electric furnace, and the forming of tool... treated and upset green tube, minus the tool joint. See Circumvention Request at 3. \\4\\ See the... diameter. Also included are unfinished drill collars (including all drill collar green tubes)...

  9. The effect of plasma electrode collar structure on the performance of the JYFL 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivanen, V., E-mail: ville.toivanen@jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.

    2013-10-21

    The influence of a so-called collar structure on the performance of the JYFL 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been studied experimentally at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The collar is a cylindrical structure extruding inwards from the plasma electrode. The collar length was varied between 5 and 60 mm. For some ion species a moderate performance improvement was achieved in terms of extracted beam current and transverse emittance up to 30 mm collar length. Longer collars resulted in a substantial performance decrease. Different collar materials, i.e. nonmagnetic stainless steel, aluminum and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and a wide range of ion species for elements ranging from {sup 14}N to {sup 82}Kr were studied. No clear material or ion species dependent behavior was observed. The experiments suggest that the extracted ions originate from a plasma volume which is at a considerable axial distance from the extraction aperture. Furthermore it is concluded that a substantial space exists surrounding the collar that could be utilized for applying novel techniques to boost the performance of ECR ion sources. -- Highlights: • Effects of a so-called collar structure studied with AECR-U type ion source. • Moderate improvement to source performance when collar is not too long. • No clear collar material or ion species dependent behavior is observed. • Results suggest that the extracted ions originate from plasma volume far from extraction. • Results suggest that the space around extraction aperture could be utilized productively.

  10. Evidence of Formation of Superdense Nonmagnetic Cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Nasrin; Singh, Surendra; Satpati, B.; Roy, A.; Basu, S.; Chakraborty, P.; Movva, Hema C. P.; Lauter, V.; Dev, B. N.

    2017-02-01

    Because of the presence of 3d transition metals in the Earth’s core, magnetism of these materials in their dense phases has been a topic of great interest. Theory predicts a dense face-centred-cubic phase of cobalt, which would be nonmagnetic. However, this dense nonmagnetic cobalt has not yet been observed. Recent investigations in thin film polycrystalline materials have shown the formation of compressive stress, which can increase the density of materials. We have discovered the existence of ultrathin superdense nonmagnetic cobalt layers in a polycrystalline cobalt thin film. The densities of these layers are about 1.2–1.4 times the normal density of Co. This has been revealed by X-ray reflectometry experiments, and corroborated by polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) experiments. Transmission electron microscopy provides further evidence. The magnetic depth profile, obtained by PNR, shows that the superdense Co layers near the top of the film and at the film-substrate interface are nonmagnetic. The major part of the Co film has the usual density and magnetic moment. These results indicate the possibility of existence of nonmagnetic Co in the earth’s core under high pressure.

  11. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-01-01

    White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  12. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1010 Collaring holes. (a) Starter steels shall be used when collaring holes with...

  13. Collar nut and thrust ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Guy B.

    1991-01-01

    A collar nut comprises a hollow cylinder having fine interior threads at one end for threadably engaging a pump mechanical seal assembly and an inwardly depending flange at the other end. The flange has an enlarged portion with a groove for receiving an O-ring for sealing against the intrusion of pumpage from the exterior. The enlarged portion engages a thrust ring about the pump shaft for crushing a hard O-ring, such as a graphite O-ring. The hard O-ring seals the interior of the mechanical seal assembly and pump housing against the loss of lubricants or leakage of pumpage. The fine threads of the hollow cylinder provide the mechanical advantage for crushing the hard O-ring evenly and easily with a hand tool from the side of the collar nut rather than by tightening a plurality of bolts from the end and streamlines the exterior surface of the mechanical seal. The collar nut avoids the spatial requirements of bolt heads at the end of a seal and associated bolt head turbulence.

  14. EUVE Observations of Nonmagnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauche, C W

    2001-09-05

    The authors summarize EUVE's contribution to the study of the boundary layer emission of high accretion-rate nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables, especially the dwarf novae SS Cyg, U Gem, VW Hyi, and OY Car in outburst. They discuss the optical and EUV light curves of dwarf nova outbursts, the quasi-coherent oscillations of the EUV flux of SS Cyg, the EUV spectra of dwarf novae, and the future of EUV observations of cataclysmic variables.

  15. The "shirt collar sign" of cervical dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Michael R; Hanfelt, John; Factor, Stewart A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnosis of cervical dystonia (CD) is clinical. We describe a physical examination observation that has been noted in CD patients. There is a tendency for their shirt collars to be shifted to one side. We validated this apparently consistent finding by having blinded evaluators rating the symmetry of the shirt collars in CD and non-cervical dystonia control subjects. A high correlation was found between the physical finding which we call "shirt collar sign" and the diagnosis. "Shirt collar sign" may be a helpful sign in diagnosing CD.

  16. Electrically-Generated Spin Polarization in Non-Magnetic Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0143 Electrically -generated spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductors Vanessa Sih UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 03...SUBTITLE (YIP) - Electrically -generated spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0258 5c...that produced electrically -generated electron spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. Electrically -generated electron spin

  17. Study on the Application of Turndown Collar Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖芳; 尚笑梅

    2001-01-01

    The relation between lining collar and face collar in the collar pattern designed by experiments and theoretical calculation is elucidated. In spite of the same constructions, the collar's shape and the fabric's thickness influence on the pattern of lining collar and the face collar, especially on the back center of the Iining and the two collar angles. The thicker the fabric, the more, with a proportional relation, the total variation. It is supposed that this work has made some contribution to the collar pattern design.

  18. Study on the Application of Standing Collar Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖芳; 尚笑梅

    2001-01-01

    The relations between the lining collar and the face collar in pattern design of standing collar by experiments and theoretical calculation is elucidated. The collar's shape and the fabric thickness, although with the same construction, influence the lining collar and the face collar, especially the back center of the lining and the two collar angles. With a proportional relation, the thicker the fabric is, the more the total variation is. It is supposed to have some practical value to the collar pattern design, as well as to the fashion CAD.

  19. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  20. Gold-Collar Workers. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    The gold-collar worker has problem-solving abilities, creativity, talent, and intelligence; performs non-repetitive and complex work difficult to evaluate; and prefers self management. Gold-collar information technology workers learn continually from experience; recognize the synergy of teams; can demonstrate leadership; and are strategic thinkers…

  1. Collar stud abscess an interesting case report

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Kameshwaran Punniyakodi

    2012-01-01

    Cervical Lymphadenopathy with collar stud abscess of tuberculous etiology is uncommon nowadays. This case is being reported for clinical interest and for the purpose of documentation.Introduction Tubercular Lymphadenopathy is a common extra pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis.Collar stud abscess are rarely seen in OPD nowadays. Tuberculosis remains a problem throughout the world and is still a common cause of cervical lymphadenopathy.

  2. UXC55 Non-Magnetic Robot

    CERN Document Server

    Najjar, Tony

    2017-01-01

    As part of the collaboration between CMS and the Lebanese American University, we are looking into building a non-magnetic inspection rover capable of roaming around UXC55 and specifically under the detector. The robot should be specifically tailored and engineered to cope with the strong magnetic field in the cavern (300 G on average with peaks up to 1500 G) as well as other constraints such as flammability and geometry. Moreover, we are also taking part in the development of the instrumentation and wireless communication of the rover. The biggest challenge in setting up a non-magnetic rover lies in the actuation mechanism, in other words, getting it to move; motors are rotary actuators that rely on the concept of a rotor “trying to catch up” to a rotating magnetic field. We quickly realize the complication with using this popular technology; the strong field created by the CMS magnet greatly interferes with the motor, rendering it utterly stalled. Our approach, on the other hand, consists of using compl...

  3. Use of cervical collar after whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak-Wójtowicz, Anna; Stolarczyk, Artur; Deszczyński, Jarosław Michał; Materek, Magdalena; Pietras, Marta; Bażant, Katarzyna

    2014-08-08

    Whiplash injuries, also known as neck sprains and strains, are currently some of the most common injuries of the cervical spine. Mechanism of injury is still controversial and current treatment methods do not provide satisfactory results. In this article we present QTF classification of related disorders, epidemiological data and treatment methods. We described basic principles of using a soft collar, goals and effects of collar use and potential complications ensuing from immobilization. Authors reviewed publications comparing the effects of collar use with other methods of treatment and physiotherapy following whiplash injury.

  4. Linguistic Diversity in Blue‐Collar Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte; Kraft, Kamilla

    In this paper we examine the management of linguistic diversity in blue‐collar workplaces and its implications. The blue‐collar context is somewhat neglected in studies of globalisation and its consequences for the workplace. Hence, our focus here is on blue‐collar workplaces in the context of th...... now."Harvard Business Review 90(5): 116–124........Kraft, Kamilla and Dorte Lønsmann. Forthcoming. A language ideological landscape: The complex map in international companies in Denmark. English in Business and Commerce: Interactions and Policies. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Neeley, Tsedal. 2012. Global business speaks English: Why you need a language strategy...

  5. Expert System for 3D Collar Intelligent Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; GENG Zhao-feng

    2004-01-01

    A method to set up 3D collar prototype is developed in this paper by using the technique of cubic spline and bicubic surface patch. Then the relationship between the parameters of 3D collar prototype and different collar styles are studied. Based on the relationship, we can develop some algorithms of transferring style requirements to the parameters value of the collar prototype, and obtain some generation rules for the design of 3D collar style. As such, the knowledge base can be constructed, and the intelligent design system of 3D collar style is built. Using the system, various 3D collar styles can be designed automatically to satisfy various style requirements.

  6. Riserless drilling (managed pressure drilling)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Ahsan

    2012-01-01

    There are several problems which an oil and gas industry is facing. These problems can be solved by riserless drilling method which comes under managed pressure drilling umbrella. The most important problem is increasing number of casing strings to complete a well and to control a well in limited pressure profile. A well model was developed and both conventional and riserless drilling approaches were applied to see how many casings will be needed to complete a same well with these approach...

  7. COLLAR STUD ABSCESS AN INTERESTING CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Lymphadenopathy with collar stud abscess of tuberculous etiology is uncommon nowadays. This case is being reported for clinical interest and for the purpose of documentation.Introduction Tubercular Lymphadenopathy is a common extra pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis.Collar stud abscess are rarely seen in OPD nowadays. Tuberculosis remains a problem throughout the world and is still a common cause of cervical lymphadenopathy.

  8. Drilling reorganizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  9. Self drilling rock bolt technology - development of self drilling rock bolt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Gray [Ground Support Services (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    A new Self Drilling Rock Bolt (SDRB) system has been developed which uses a pumpable resin system for full column resin encapsulation for immediate roof and rib support. A new drilling and injection system has also been developed to enable fast and efficient bolt installation. This new SDRB provides higher tensile strength than conventional solid bolts, and also provides a load transfer capacity that is almost double that of conventional bolts. This new SDRB uses low viscosity pumpable resin to ensure full encapsulation right down to the collar.

  10. 渤海油田低效井侧钻技术应用前景分析%Application Prospect of Sidetrack Drilling Technology for Inefficient Wells in Bohai Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓鹏; 韩耀图

    2015-01-01

    渤海油田目前低效井越来越多.新钻调整井或治理低效井面临着成本高、手段单一等难题.针对此问题,通过分析渤海油田稳产现状、剩余油分布规律,提出了低效井侧钻的必要性.根据渤海油田钻完井技术水平,提出了利用平台现有修井机进行低效井侧钻中短半径井眼的低成本侧钻思路,分析了钻完井方案可行性,评估了修井机作业能力.研究结果显示,渤海常规的φ152.4mm钻头+动力钻具+随钻测井工具(LWD+MWD)+非磁钻铤+震击器+钻杆的钻具组合可实现10°/30m以下的造斜率要求.优化的侧钻小井眼的井身结构和完井防砂技术方案适用于渤海油田的侧钻井作业.目前海洋修井机从提升能力、最大扭矩、水力清洁等方面均能满足侧钻井要求,海上平台现有修井机进行低效井中短半径井眼的侧钻作业在渤海油田具有可行性.结合具体实例进行了低效井侧钻技术应用经济效益评估,侧钻中短半径井眼技术及优化管理措施可大幅度降低钻井成本,提高经济效益.%There are more and more low-production wells in Bohai Oilfield. At present, drilling adjustment wells or admin-istering inefficient wells are faced with such problems as high cost and less means. For this, we analyzed production status and residual oil distribution of the Oilfield, and found it necessary to use sidetrack drilling technology for inefficient well drilling. According to the drilling and completion technology, we proposed to use workover rig for sidetracking of middle-short radius wells, analyzed the feasibility of drilling and completion programs, and evaluated the marine workover rig ca-pacity. It was shown that the conventional drilling assembly of φ152.4mm drill bit+motor+logging while drilling tool ( LWD+MWD) +non-magnetic drill collar+jar+drill pipe could achieve the build-up rate below 10°/30m. The optimized well-bore configuration of sidetracking slim hole and

  11. Boron-Coated Straw Collar for Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design and optimize, in simulation space, an active neutron coincidence counter (or collar) using boron-coated straws (BCSs) as a non-3He replacement to the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL). UNCL has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) since the 1980s to verify the 235U content in fresh light water reactor fuel assemblies for safeguards purposes. This report documents the design and optimization of the BCS collar.

  12. How non-magnetic are "non-magnetic" Herbig Ae/Be stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, G A; Catala, C; Bagnulo, S; Landstreet, J D; Flood, J; Böhm, T; Bouret, J -C; Donati, J -F; Folsom, C P; Grunhut, J; Silvester, J

    2007-01-01

    Our recent discovery of magnetic fields in a small number of Herbig Ae/Be stars has required that we survey a much larger sample of stars. From our FORS1 and ESPaDOnS surveys, we have acquired about 125 observations of some 70 stars in which no magnetic fields are detected. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we have performed statistical comparisons of the observed longitudinal fields and LSD Stokes V profiles of these apparently non-magnetic stars with a variety of field models. This has allowed us to derive general upper limits on the presence of dipolar fields in the sample, and to place realistic upper limits on undetected dipole fields which may be present in individual stars. This paper briefly reports the results of the statistical modeling, as well as field upper limits for individual stars of particular interest.

  13. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  14. Laser Drilling Practical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces laser drilling processes including modelling, quality assessment of drilled holes, and laser drilling applications. It provides insights into the laser drilling process and the relation among the drilling parameters pertinent to improved end product quality. This book is written for engineers and scientists working on laser machining, particularly laser drilling.

  15. Bucket drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezverkhiy, V.M.; Nabokov, I.M.; Podoksik, D.Z.; Sadovskiy, S.S.; Shanyukevich, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The bucket drill including a cylindrical housing with bottom, ground intake windows and cutting knives is hinged to the housing, the mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives including rods connected by the cutter knives, and drive shaft is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the effectiveness of drilling by automatic change in the angle of cutting depending on the strength of the drillable rock, the drill is equipped with elastic elements and cap with annular slits in which there are elastic elements. The mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives is equipped with levers hinged to the housing, pins with shaft and rocker arm. The rods are made with a slit and from one end are rigidly connected to the cutting knives, and from the other end to the levers by means of pins which are arranged in slits of the rod with the possibility of movement. The upper ends of the levers are installed with the possibility of movement in the pins whose shafts are arranged with the possibility of rotation in the rocker arm rigidly connected to the drive shaft. The drive shaft is equipped with cantilevers installed in the cap with the possibility of rotation and interaction with the elastic elements.

  16. White-Collar Crimes and Financial Corruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ŞENTÜRK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crime, defined as act which is contrary to the law, creates negative influence in the society both economically and spiritually. There are various factors like professional experience as well as biological, psychological and sociological ones that make individuals turn to crime. Edwin Sutherland claim that life experiences and some facts learned from the environment account for occupational crimes in his study on the theory of crime in 1939. White-collar crime, which is perhaps the most important of types of crime in terms of havoc and committed by the superior contrary to common belief, has much more influence than conventional crime. This crime, which inflict significant financial loses and psychological collapse on states, communities, businesses and people, are committed by well-respected professionals in their business. In this study, white collar crimes are examined with conceptual view and detailed. Besides, this study explain this type of crime is so forceful, by giving remarkable examples on economic losses.

  17. Research on no Dig Directional Drilling Pipeline Laying Technique——The reseach on directional drilling tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuLi; ZhangGuozheng; MaWeiguo; TangShizhong; LiYiliang; GeXindong; GuZhen

    2004-01-01

    The directional crossing drilling works were applied in the West-East gas pipeline(WEGTP) project.The main researehs on the directional crossing drilling include:(1)to analyze the forces applied on the drilling tool and the failure mechanism in onler to obtain the proper configuration of the drilling tool and solve the failure prevention;(2)to analyze the existing mud,to propose a viable mud composition;(3)in respect of mud mixing and environmental protection,to develop a quick evcloning mud hydration and recycling device;(4)to develop a interface picture software for direction controlling measured parameter to improve directional drilling accuracy;(5)tp develop an electronic search software incorporating large amounl of construction specifications and mud compositions,used for construction.In this paper the first one of the above mentioned points is introduced,including existing problems with directional drilling,optimization of the drilling tool,analysis of drill collar fracture failure,research on stress scattering structure of drilling tool thread and thread sticking prevention measures.etc.

  18. LHC collars - 12 million high technology gems

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Some 12 million steel collars will keep the LHC dipole magnet structures rigid. Their production has just begun. A huge job began last week: the high speed manufacturing of twelve million steel collars for the 1250 dipole magnets of the future Large Hadron Collider, LHC. The challenge is not only a matter of quantity: these collars are very high technology components because of the important role they play in the way the collider works. One of the main difficulties with the accelerator is that the magnetic field that keeps particles in orbit must have the same configuration and intensity in all the dipoles. But when the 8.33 tesla magnetic field is on -100.000 times the earth magnetic field - it produces a very strong force that can deform the 'soft' parts of the magnets, such as superconducting coils. The force loading one metre of dipole is almost comparable with the weight of a Boeing 747 - about 400 tonnes - so a huge deformation would occur without a mechanical component to keep the whole structure rigid...

  19. Three-dimensional Simulation and Pattern Making of Collar Using Geometric Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Mingjie(张明杰); Hou Dongyu(侯东昱); Zhou Aiying(周爱英); Yoshio Shimizu

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for computationally simulating collars and drafting patterns. The collar shape was modeled by three-dimensional Bezier patch. Changing the position of consol points of the patch can interactively control the collar shape. Using triangular surface developing method, patterns of various styles of stand collar and separating collar were drafted. As the subsystem of 3D apparel design system, an interactive collar design system is constructed. To inspect the practical usage, we reproduced the collars using these patterns drafted by the interactive collar design system.Comparing with simulated collars, the system demonstrated well and we found it is more reliable and accurate than the method of handwork.

  20. Argentine drilling equipment to go on auction block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-27

    Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) is preparing to sell all state owned drilling rigs and related assets as part of a plan to privatize Argnetina's oil and gas industry. YPF expects to offer the equipment to private companies by summer in a sealed bid auction in Buenos Aires. More than 30 mostly late model U.S. and Romanian rigs rated to 1,800-7,000 m will be included in the sale. Drilling contracts covering all major Argentina exploration areas will be offered with many of the rigs being sold. This paper reports that the YPF sale will include well completion units, drill pipe and collars, large equipment yards, shops, and warehouses, and possibly the largest inventory of fishing tools in South America, says a company helping to organize the sale. YPF will set up a data room in Buenos Aires to provide information about drilling, conditions, rigs and equipment, and other assets.

  1. Occupational contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Veien, Niels K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blue-collar workers have a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis, but epidemiological studies are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To investigate allergic contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers with dermatitis registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. METHODS: A retrospective...... analysis of patch test data from 1471 blue-collar workers and 1471 matched controls tested between 2003 and 2012 was performed. A logistic regression was used to test for associations. RESULTS: The blue-collar workers often had occupational hand dermatitis (p ... observed among blue-collar workers (19.6%) than among controls (23.9%) (p = 0.005). Allergens with a statistically significant association with the occupational group of blue-collar workers were epoxy resins, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, potassium dichromate...

  2. Federal Blue-Collar Employees: A Workforce in Transistion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    should include example, a GAO study of the Mare Island explicit consideration of the needs of the blue-collar downsizing in 1990 noted that the layoff ...setting personnel policies. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBER OF PAGES Federal Government, blue-collar workforce, downsizing , performance managem pg...Federal BIW-Colar Emp£lo .: A Workforn in Transition v contents Downsizing in the Blue-Collar W orkforce

  3. Drilling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevodin, Yu.M.; Kholosha, Ye.G.; Leshchenko, A.G.; Timchenko, A.I.

    1979-01-10

    The invention refers to units designed for extracting minerals by mechanical action on the face by a cutting tool. There is a known drills which includes a pulse device which contains a combustion chamber, cylinder, piston-percussion tool and cutting tool. The combustion chamber and the sub-piston cavity of the cylinder are connected by a channel in which there is a distributor. Its shortcoming is the fact that the pulse device does not guarantee the necessary motion of the actuating mechanism for its velocity and frequency of the shocks on the cutting tool. This reduces the efficiency of the operation and limits the area of application. The purpose of the proposed invention is to improve productivity of the device. This is achieved because the head of the drill is equipped with a 2-piston pulse device which contains 2-combustion chambers, 2 working cylinders, 2 piston percussion instruments, a rod with gas-conducting and connecting channels for interconnection of the sub-piston cavities and combustion chambers of both cylinders. The spent gases of one cylinder are used for closing the combustion chamber of the second cylinder.

  4. Solving the problem of pressure ulcers resulting from cervical collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B

    1996-05-01

    Cervical orthotic devices (cervical collars) are integral to the treatment of patients with suspected or confirmed fracture of the cervical spine. Pressure ulcers can develop under the cervical collar on the occipital protuberance and on the chin due to both prolonged immobilization and the collar construction. A multidisciplinary team at a Northwest Ohio trauma center led an investigation of this problem when a one day study of pressure ulcer prevalence revealed that of 4% of nosocomial pressure ulcers, 2% were attributed to cervical collars. To solve this problem, the team visualized risk factors using a fishbone diagram, investigated by calling manufacturers and other institutions and by searching the literature, developed educational programs on skin care and correct collar fitting, conducted a product trial on a new collar, and continuously monitored the results. The conclusions of the team were that the pressure ulcers were the result of the construction of the previous cervical collars used. The product trial resulted in zero skin breakdown for the 20 patients involved. Changes implemented as a result were an improved skin care regimen, education on proper fitting and appropriate choice of collars, and implementation of the new collar for trauma patients.

  5. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-21

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  6. The Potts model on a Bethe lattice with nonmagnetic impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkin, S. V., E-mail: li15@rambler.ru; Smagin, V. P. [Vladivistok State University of Economics and Service (VSUES) (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    We have obtained a solution for the Potts model on a Bethe lattice with mobile nonmagnetic impurities. A method is proposed for constructing a “pseudochaotic” impurity distribution by a vanishing correlation in the arrangement of impurity atoms for the nearest sites. For a pseudochaotic impurity distribution, we obtained the phase-transition temperature, magnetization, and spontaneous magnetization jumps at the phase-transition temperature.

  7. Orbivirus infections in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Galinari, Grazielle C F; Cortez, Adriana; Paula, Cátia D; Lobato, Zélia I P; Heinemann, Marcos B

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed 49 free-living collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) in Brazil for antibodies against bluetongue virus (BTV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). Antibodies against BTV were detected in 19/49 (39%) samples. All samples were negative for PCV2. The importance of antibodies to BTV in collared peccaries remains to be determined.

  8. OBSTACLES TO BLUE-COLLAR PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONDON, JACK; WENKERT, ROBERT

    WITH THE INCREASING LEISURE TIME OF BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS, CONCERN IS GROWING OVER THEIR LOW PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MYTHS ABOUT BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS WHICH STAND IN THEIR WAY INCLUDE--LOWER CLASS APATHY, INCAPABILITY OF SUSTAINED INTELLECTUAL EFFORT, AND LACK OF APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF EDUCATION. OBSTACLES INHERING IN SOCIAL…

  9. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzis, Arnis [Salt Lake City, UT; Black, Alan D [Coral Springs, FL; Green, Sidney J [Salt Lake City, UT; Robertson, Homer A [West Jordan, UT; Bland, Ronald G [Houston, TX; Curry, David Alexander [The Woodlands, TX; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  10. [Parameters influencing the preclinical application of cervical collars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinest, M; Goller, S; Rauch, G; Gliwitzky, B; Frank, C; Matschke, S; Wölfl, C G; Münzberg, M

    2016-06-29

    The application of cervical collars is a standard procedure in emergency care of trauma patients. It is often observed that the application of cervical collars is performed incorrectly, which may lead to reduced immobilization of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to analyze the practical skills of professional emergency care providers concerning the application of cervical collars. Emergency care professionals (n = 104) were asked to apply a cervical collar to a training doll. Each performance step was assessed separately. Furthermore, personal and occupational data of all study participants were collected using a questionnaire. The study participants included professional rescue personnel and emergency physicians. The average occupational experience of all study participants in out-of-hospital emergency care was 11.1 ± 8.9 years. Most participants had already received training on trauma care (61 %) and felt "very confident" in handling a cervical collar (84 %). The application of the cervical collar was performed correctly in 11 % of the performances. The most common error was incorrect size adjustment of the cervical collar (66 %). No association was found between the correct application of the cervical collar and possible parameters of influence, such as working experience in emergency care or participation in trauma courses. Despite pronounced subjective confidence regarding the application of cervical collars, this study shows that there are general deficits in the practical skills of applying cervical collars. Therefore, a critical assessment of the current training contents on the subject of trauma care must be demanded.

  11. Follow the drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch-Roy, O. [Dando Drilling International (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The paper discusses modern drilling techniques with which Dando Drilling has been involved. It describes equipment supplied to opencast coal operations in Kalimantan, Borneo. These include polycrystalline diamond drill bits, flushing media, rig drilling controls and other specialised equipment. 3 photos.

  12. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-retrievable tools and a drill-lock assembly, permitting bit and BHA changes, coring, electrical logging and even directional or horizontal drilling. Once the casing point is reached, the casing is cemented in place without tripping pipe.

  13. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-01-01

    Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-re...

  14. Cervical collar-related pressure ulcers in trauma patients in intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, H.W.; Schoonhoven, L.; Galer, A.A.; Shortridge-Baggett, L.L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The application of a cervical collar (C-collar) in trauma patients can be life-saving. Previous studies, however, describe development of pressure ulcers related to C-collars. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare collar-related pressure ulcers (CRPUs) occurring in trauma patients admi

  15. Cervical collar-related pressure ulcers in trauma patients in intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, H.W.; Schoonhoven, L.; Galer, A.A.; Shortridge-Baggett, L.L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The application of a cervical collar (C-collar) in trauma patients can be life-saving. Previous studies, however, describe development of pressure ulcers related to C-collars. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare collar-related pressure ulcers (CRPUs) occurring in trauma patients

  16. Nuclear conversion theory: molecular hydrogen in non-magnetic insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilisca, Ernest; Ghiglieno, Filippo

    2016-09-01

    The hydrogen conversion patterns on non-magnetic solids sensitively depend upon the degree of singlet/triplet mixing in the intermediates of the catalytic reaction. Three main `symmetry-breaking' interactions are brought together. In a typical channel, the electron spin-orbit (SO) couplings introduce some magnetic excitations in the non-magnetic solid ground state. The electron spin is exchanged with a molecular one by the electric molecule-solid electron repulsion, mixing the bonding and antibonding states and affecting the molecule rotation. Finally, the magnetic hyperfine contact transfers the electron spin angular momentum to the nuclei. Two families of channels are considered and a simple criterion based on the SO coupling strength is proposed to select the most efficient one. The denoted `electronic' conversion path involves an emission of excitons that propagate and disintegrate in the bulk. In the other denoted `nuclear', the excited electron states are transients of a loop, and the electron system returns to its fundamental ground state. The described model enlarges previous studies by extending the electron basis to charge-transfer states and `continui' of band states, and focuses on the broadening of the antibonding molecular excited state by the solid conduction band that provides efficient tunnelling paths for the hydrogen conversion. After working out the general conversion algebra, the conversion rates of hydrogen on insulating and semiconductor solids are related to a few molecule-solid parameters (gap width, ionization and affinity potentials) and compared with experimental measures.

  17. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  18. Introduction to drilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Malcom

    1989-12-01

    Terrestrial drilling technology is reviewed. The general requirements for a drilling system are given and conventional drilling techniques (rotary drag-bit, rotary roller-bit, percussive, rotary percussive) are described. Unconventional techniques for penetrating solids are outlined, including thermal drilling (spalling or melting), projectile penetration, high pressure liquid jets, explosive jets, erosion by projectile streams, and chemical penetration. Special attention is given to drilling in ice and frozen soils, performance data are given, including values for penetration rate and specific energy consumption. The principles, theory and equipment relating to each drilling technique are indicated by means of diagrams.

  19. 1:100k Digital Raster Graphic - Collars Removed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — A digital raster graphic (DRG) is a scanned image of an U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard series topographic map, including all map collar information. The...

  20. MONEY LAUNDERING: RING AROUND THE WHITE COLLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In mine study I will deal with money laundering as a leading factor in white-collar criminality. The purpose of the present study and the guiding line in this article is to legislative upgrade of white-collar criminality fighting that might be of great importance as we intend to plan the policy of reduction of money Laundering criminality in Israel and Moldova. In order to deal with mine research subject I will express the lookout which I have conducted over a period three years and have included public sector tenders, with the CFE (Collection for the Environment Recycling Corporation in Israel. It has been found white-collar criminals are usually conventional people who deal with rises or opportunity that leads them to transgress the border temporarily and perpetrate a crime, and it is likely that they would be affected strongly by the punishment process. Therefore the outcome of the study is to produce the necessary steps to reduce the phenomenon of money Laundering crime in Israel and the Republic of Moldova. In order to obtain this purposes and the author has performed some new steps to upgrade and supplement the Law with subjects as: Punishment Origin offences Entities obligated to report, Expanding of the duties of Money Laundering Prohibition Authority as a regulator and with authority to assign fines, etc. Those practical frameworks are necessary steps to reduce the phenomenon of Money Laundering in Israel and the Republic of Moldova by constitutional - legal standpoints.SPĂLAREA BANILOR CA INFRACŢIUNE A GULERELOR ALBEÎn studiul efectuat se demonstrează că spălarea de bani constituie factorul principal al criminalităţii gulerelor albe. Scopul propus în acest articol este de a realiza o analiză complexă a propunerilor legislative îndreptate spre lupta cu cri-minalitatea gulerelor albe şi de a propune noi politici menite să reducă criminalitatea gulerelor albe atât în Republica Moldova, cât şi în Israel. Întru a

  1. Why Do We Put Cervical Collars On Conscious Trauma Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Blackham Julian; Benger Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this commentary we argue that fully alert, stable and co-operative trauma patients do not require the application of a semi-rigid cervical collar, even if they are suspected of underlying cervical spine fracture, unless their conscious level deteriorates or they find the short-term support of a cervical collar helpful. Despite the historical and cultural barriers that exist, the potential benefits are such that this hypothesis merits rigorous testing in well-designed research trials.

  2. Purpose-built PDC bit successfully drills 7-in liner equipment and formation: An integrated solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puennel, J.G.A.; Huppertz, A.; Huizing, J. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Historically, drilling out the 7-in, liner equipment has been a time consuming operation with a limited success ratio. The success of the operation is highly dependent on the type of drill bit employed. Tungsten carbide mills and mill tooth rock bits required from 7.5 to 11.5 hours respectively to drill the pack-off bushings, landing collar, shoe track and shoe. Rates of penetration dropped dramatically when drilling the float equipment. While conventional PDC bits have drilled the liner equipment successfully (averaging 9.7 hours), severe bit damage invariably prevented them from continuing to drill the formation at cost-effective penetration rates. This paper describes the integrated development and application of an IADC M433 Class PDC bit, which was designed specifically to drill out the 7-in. liner equipment and continue drilling the formation at satisfactory penetration rates. The development was the result of a joint investigation There the operator and bit/liner manufacturers shared their expertise in solving a drilling problem, The heavy-set bit was developed following drill-off tests conducted to investigate the drillability of the 7-in. liner equipment. Key features of the new bit and its application onshore The Netherlands will be presented and analyzed.

  3. The Hans Tausen drill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, excellent results from the GRIP and GISP2 deep drilling projects in Greenland opened up funding for continued ice-coring efforts in Antarctica (EPICA) and Greenland (NorthGRIP). The Glaciology Group of the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, was assigned the task...... of providing drilling capability for these projects, as it had done for the GRIP project. The group decided to further simplify existing deep drill designs for better reliability and ease of handling. The drill design decided upon was successfully tested on Hans Tausen Ice Cap, Peary Land, Greenland, in 1995....... The 5.0 m long Hans Tausen (HT) drill was a prototype for the ~11 m long EPICA and NorthGRIP versions of the drill which were mechanically identical to the HT drill except for a much longer core barrel and chips chamber. These drills could deliver up to 4 m long ice cores after some design improvements...

  4. Proposal for classification of the circumaortic renal collar's morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Tsitouridis, Ioannis; Totlis, Trifon; Levva, Sofia; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, we propose a classification of the different forms of the circumaortic renal collar based on the findings of 319 patients and on a literature review. The patients underwent a CT angiography scan of the abdomen for various diagnostic reasons. The different forms in which the circumaortic renal collar may appear were categorized. The renal collar was observed in eight of the 319 (2.5%) patients. The classification we propose is the following: Type I, one left renal vein splitting into two branches, a preaortic and a retroaortic, draining into the inferior vena cava; Type II, two different left renal veins, the one preaortic and the other retroaortic, draining into the inferior vena cava; and Type III, either anastomoses between the preaortic and retroaortic vein, being multiple or not, or multiple preaortic or retroaortic renal veins without anastomoses. Although the circumaortic renal collar is usually asymptomatic, the knowledge of this variation is useful, mainly before abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery and renal transplantation. Failure to recognize the collar's retroaortic component may lead to hemorrhage and death during retroperitoneal surgery. We believe that our classification contributes to recognize the circumaortic renal collar's morphology both preoperatively and intraoperatively.

  5. Joint Rescue Drill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ships gather for a joint rescue drill at the Waigaoqiao Dock in Shanghai on August 24.A large-scale rescue drill, combining maritime and air forces,was held as part of the ongoing World Maritime Rescue Conference 2011 in the city.During the drill,

  6. Parasites of the collared peccary from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, W M; Low, W A

    1970-01-01

    Results of a survey of the parasites of the collared peccary (Dicotyles tajacu angulatus) in Texas are presented. Three ectoparasites, Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor variabilis, and Pulex porcinus were very common on peccaries from south Texas, but less common or absent in arid west Texas. Sucking lice, Pecaroecus javalii, were common on peccaries from west Texas, but were not found in south Texas. The known range of this louse in Texas is extended into the Big Bend area. Two ticks, Amnblyomma inornatumn and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris, were found infrequently. Five of nine species of endoparasites found in this survey (Dirofilaria acutiuscula, Parabronema pecatriae, Parostertagia heterospiculum, Physocephalus sp., and Texicospirura turki) were prevalent. Three species, D. acutiuscula, Gongylonema baylisi, and Fascioloides magna, are reported from North American peccaries for the first time. The geographic distribution of the large American liver fluke, F. magna, coincided with an area where the parasite is enzootic in white-tailed deer. It is concluded that parasitism was of little importance in population control of peccaries during the period of the study.

  7. Use of cervical collar in temporomandibular dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisani, Mehul R; Pradhan, Leeza; Sagtani, Alok

    2015-06-01

    Dislocation of the temporomandibular joint represents 3 % of all reported dislocated joints. In the last 3 decades many cases of TMJ dislocation have been reported with a wide variety of treatment options ranging from non-surgical conservative approaches to open joint procedures. The question remains whether one method is superior to the others. Conservative treatments are still the option in this part of the continent due to financial constraints and as well as due to availability of skilled manpower. A variety of conservative techniques have been described for reducing dislocations, all of which require 10-14 days of immobilization of the jaw post reduction so as to prevent further episodes of dislocation. Immobilization of the jaw can be done in the form of barrel bandage, barton bandage, head chin cap or maxillomandibular fixation using arch bars. We suggest the use of a cervical collar as a form of post reduction immobilization technique to overcome the inherent disadvantages of conventional forms of immobilization techniques.

  8. Magnetic Nanoparticles in Non-magnetic CNTs and Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayondo, Moses; Seifu, Dereje

    Magnetic nanoparticles were embedded in non-magnetic CNTs and graphene matrix to incorporate all the advantages and the unique properties of CNTs and graphene. Composites of CNTs and graphene with magnetic nanoparticles may offer new opportunities for a wide variety of potential applications such as magnetic data storage, magnetic force microscopy tip, electromagnetic interference shields, thermally conductive films, reinforced polymer composites, transparent electrodes for displays, solar cells, gas sensors, magnetic nanofluids, and magnetically guided drug delivery systems. Magnetic nanoparticles coated CNTs can also be used as an electrode in lithium ion battery to replace graphite because of the higher theoretical capacity. Graphene nanocomposites, coated with magnetic sensitive nanoparticles, have demonstrated enhanced magnetic property. We would like to acknowledge support by NSF-MRI-DMR-1337339.

  9. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail H Collins

    Full Text Available Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS and very high frequency (VHF radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.

  10. Revisiting white collar criminality from a social harm perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Vasilantonopoulou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Social harm approach seems to be the only promising proposal to deal with white collar crimes. By overwhelming the “crime – schema” an end is straightly put to a long lasting “war” of the white-collar crime criminologists, arguing since the late of ‘40s whether white collar crime is a crime or not, while the harmful results from white collar activities follow an uncontrollable trajectory. A second “end” is destined for the stalemate that critical criminology is remained locked since the deconstruction of crime. The critical arguments about the systemic origins of the crimes of powerful loose not only faith but also validity when the proclaiming solutions end up at the same tools and structures with their very cause. Under this prism, social harm approach does not represent the “anti-paradigm” of critical criminology but a new step beyond. White collar crime may be used as a typical example of the allegation that crime lacks any ontological substance while the reality of its social harms may function as stable basis even for seemingly utopian goals.

  11. Colloidal self assembly of non-magnetic particles in magnetic nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Mudra; Patel, Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    Here we present a technique using magnetic nanofluid to induce bidispersed suspension of nonmagnetic particles to assemble into colloidal chain, triangle, rectangle, ring-flower configurations. By changing the amplitude and direction of the magnetic field, we could tune the structure of nonmagnetic particles in magnetic nanofluid. The structures are assembled using magneto static interactions between effectively nonmagnetic particles dispersed in magnetizable magnetic nanofluid. The assembly of complex structures out of simple colloidal building blocks is of practical interest in photonic crystals and DNA biosensors.

  12. Colloidal self assembly of non-magnetic particles in magnetic nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadav, Mudra; Patel, Rajesh, E-mail: rjp@mkbhavuni.edu.in, E-mail: rpat7@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364002 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Here we present a technique using magnetic nanofluid to induce bidispersed suspension of nonmagnetic particles to assemble into colloidal chain, triangle, rectangle, ring-flower configurations. By changing the amplitude and direction of the magnetic field, we could tune the structure of nonmagnetic particles in magnetic nanofluid. The structures are assembled using magneto static interactions between effectively nonmagnetic particles dispersed in magnetizable magnetic nanofluid. The assembly of complex structures out of simple colloidal building blocks is of practical interest in photonic crystals and DNA biosensors.

  13. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E.; Gervais, I. [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y.; Pangarkar, S.; Stibbs, B. [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P. [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E. [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T. [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H. [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P. [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  14. Giant spin Seebeck effect in a non-magnetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, C M; Myers, R C; Johnston-Halperin, E; Heremans, J P

    2012-07-11

    The spin Seebeck effect is observed when a thermal gradient applied to a spin-polarized material leads to a spatially varying transverse spin current in an adjacent non-spin-polarized material, where it gets converted into a measurable voltage. It has been previously observed with a magnitude of microvolts per kelvin in magnetically ordered materials, ferromagnetic metals, semiconductors and insulators. Here we describe a signal in a non-magnetic semiconductor (InSb) that has the hallmarks of being produced by the spin Seebeck effect, but is three orders of magnitude larger (millivolts per kelvin). We refer to the phenomenon that produces it as the giant spin Seebeck effect. Quantizing magnetic fields spin-polarize conduction electrons in semiconductors by means of Zeeman splitting, which spin-orbit coupling amplifies by a factor of ∼25 in InSb. We propose that the giant spin Seebeck effect is mediated by phonon-electron drag, which changes the electrons' momentum and directly modifies the spin-splitting energy through spin-orbit interactions. Owing to the simultaneously strong phonon-electron drag and spin-orbit coupling in InSb, the magnitude of the giant spin Seebeck voltage is comparable to the largest known classical thermopower values.

  15. Quantum anomalous Hall effect in stanene on a nonmagnetic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huisheng; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Jiayong; Zhao, Bao; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Zhongqin

    2016-12-01

    Since the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect was realized in magnetic topological insulators, research on the effect has become a hot topic. The very harsh realizing requirements of the effect in experiments, however, hinder its practical applications. Based on ab initio methods, we find that nonmagnetic Pb I2 films are ideal substrates for the two-dimensional honeycomb stanene. The QAH effect with a pretty large band gap (up to 90 meV) can be achieved in the functionalized stanene /Pb I2 heterostructure. Despite van der Waals interactions in the heterostructure, band inversions are found to be happening between Sn (s and px ,y ) and Pb (px ,y) orbitals, playing a key role in determining the nontrivial topology and the large band gap of the system. Having no magnetic atoms is imperative to triggering the QAH effect. A very stable rudimentary device having QAH effects is proposed based on the Sn /Pb I2 heterostructure. Our results demonstrate that QAH effects can be easily realized in the Sn /Pb I2 heterostructures in experiments.

  16. Drilling cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  17. 76 FR 34978 - Petition Supplement Requesting Cancellation of Propoxur Pet Collar Uses; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... AGENCY Petition Supplement Requesting Cancellation of Propoxur Pet Collar Uses; Notice of Availability... pet collar uses for the pesticide propoxur. The petitioner, NRDC, initially requested these...-methyl Carbamate (NMC) Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) underestimate exposure to propoxur from...

  18. Gendered role communication in marketing blue-collar occupational gear and clothing in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Min, Seoha

    2015-01-01

    ...) for women working in blue-collar occupations. To explore the phenomenon, a content analysis of products and advertising images in seven websites selling blue-collar work clothes and PPE was used...

  19. White-collar crime: corporate and securities and commodities fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increased interest in white-collar crime, forensic psychiatrists are in a key position to study the individual characteristics of offenders. While a comprehensive theory of high-level white-collar crime should consider societal and organizational contributions, there is value in understanding the personal traits that place an individual at high risk for offending. As the impact of the criminal acts of this group has been increasingly felt by larger groups from all socioeconomic strata, there is less willingness by the public to view these crimes as victimless and harmless.

  20. Why Do We Put Cervical Collars On Conscious Trauma Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackham Julian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this commentary we argue that fully alert, stable and co-operative trauma patients do not require the application of a semi-rigid cervical collar, even if they are suspected of underlying cervical spine fracture, unless their conscious level deteriorates or they find the short-term support of a cervical collar helpful. Despite the historical and cultural barriers that exist, the potential benefits are such that this hypothesis merits rigorous testing in well-designed research trials.

  1. Pseudofractures due to Nec-Loc cervical immobilization collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daffner, R.H.; Khoury, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    The plastic rivets attached to the commonly used Nec-Loc cervical immobilization collar produce linear lucencies which often traverse the cervical vertebrae. Linear lucencies in this location often simulate a fracture. In most instances, the complete outline of the object causing the artifact may be identified. However, identification may not be possible in all cases. Radiologists should familiarize themselves with the appearance of the artifact produced by this particular immobilization device so as to avoid the erroneous diagnosis of a cervical fracture. Whenever the diagnosis is in doubt, the collar should be removed and a repeat radiograph should be obtained.

  2. A stiff collar can restrict atlantoaxial instability in rheumatoid cervical spine in selected cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppi, M; Anttila, P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the efficiency of a stiff collar in restricting the instability of anterior atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS). METHODS--Twenty two successive patients with an unstable AAS were studied. Lateral view radiographs were taken of the cervical spine in flexion, extension, and neutral positions without a collar, and in full flexion with a custom made stiff collar. RESULTS--The collar restricted more than 30% of the maximal instability of the AAS in 50% of the patients. These patient...

  3. Horizontal drilling in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidey, P.; Precul, L. [Sproule Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A review of oil and gas production in Ontario was presented with particular reference to drilling activity between 1987 to mid 2002 when 1450 vertical wells were drilled, of which 1100 were for petroleum production and the remainder were for gas storage, observation wells, private gas wells and stratigraphic tests. Of the 1100 vertical wells drilled for petroleum production, 40 per cent became gas wells, 16 per cent became oil wells, 4 per cent became oil and gas wells, and 40 per cent were dry. During the same time period, 133 horizontal wells were also drilled, mostly for petroleum. The most active operator was Talisman Energy, which drilled 101 of the 133 horizontal wells. The remainder were drilled by 12 other companies. Of the horizontal wells, 64 per cent became oil wells, 19 per cent became gas wells, and 17 per cent were dry. This presentation included graphs depicting which oil and gas pools saw vertical or horizontal drilling during the designated time period, and explained how the wells were classified. Both horizontal and vertical well targets were illustrated. Particular reference was made to Talisman Energy's Lake Erie Drilling program which revealed that horizontal wells have an initial production rate that is 5 times that expected from vertical wells. The Hillman Pool case study revealed that the initial rate of the average horizontal well is less than half that of the average vertical well. Horizontal drilling in the Lake Erie Morpeth Gas pool has also been a commercial success. This paper demonstrates that operators have maintained Ontario's oil and gas production at high levels. In 1997 widespread horizontal drilling began taking place in Ontario, and since then, approximately 30 per cent of the wells drilled in the province have been horizontal. 16 figs.

  4. Plasma, magnetic, and electromagnetic measurements at nonmagnetic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.

    The need to explore the magnetospheres of the Earth and the giant planets is widely recognized and is an integral part of our planetary exploration program. The equal need to explore the plasma, magnetic, and electromagnetic environments of the nonmagnetic bodies is not so widely appreciated. The previous, albeit incomplete, magnetic and electric field measurements at Venus, Mars, and comets have proven critical to our understanding of their atmospheres and ionospheres in areas ranging from planetary lightning to solar wind scavenging and accretion. In the cases of Venus and Mars, the ionospheres can provide communication paths over the horizon for low-altitude probes and landers, but we know little about their lower boundaries. The expected varying magnetic fields below these planetary ionospheres penetrates the planetary crusts and can be used to sound the electrical conductivity and the thermal profiles of the interiors. However, we have no knowledge of the levels of such fields, let alone their morphology. Finally, we note that the absence of an atmosphere and an ionosphere does not make an object any less interesting for the purposes of electromagnetic exploration. Even weak remanent magnetism such as that found on the Moon during the Apollo program provides insight into the present and past states of planetary interiors. We have very intriguing data from our space probes during times of both close and distant passages of asteroids that suggest they may have coherent magnetization. If true, this observation will put important constraints on how the asteroids formed and have evolved. Our planetary exploration program must exploit its full range of exploration tools if it is to characterize the bodies of the solar system thoroughly. We should especially take advantage of those techniques that are proven and require low mass, low power, and low telemetry rates to undertake.

  5. Drilling Optimization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash M Bharadwaj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With rapidly growing global demand for energy resources, oil and gas exploration & production companies face mounting pressure to maximize supply and increase the rate of discovery for new energy sources. Increasingly operating in more remote locations and investing heavily in equipment and facilities, companies face greater financial and operational risks than ever before. Optimization of drilling parameters during drilling operations aims to optimize weight on bit, bit rotation speed for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost. Communication and computer technologies are among the most important disciplines which can contribute to drilling optimization. Large amount of data could be piped through different locations on the planet in reliable and time efficient manners.

  6. Distributed downhole drilling network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  7. Drilling Optimization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayaka S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapidly growing global demand for energy resources, oil and gas exploration & production companies face mounting pressure to maximize supply and increase the rate of discovery for new energy sources. Increasingly operating in more remote locations and investing heavily in equipment and facilities, companies face greater financial and operational risks than ever before. Optimization of drilling parameters during drilling operations aims to optimize weight on bit, bit rotation speed for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost. Communication and computer technologies are among the most important disciplines which can contribute to drilling optimization. Large amount of data could be piped through different locations on the planet in reliable and time efficient manners.

  8. Advanced drilling systems study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis (Livesay Consultants, Encintas, CA)

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  9. New insights into the use of magnetic force microscopy to discriminate between magnetic and nonmagnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Cristina S; Quaresma, Pedro; Pereira, Eulalia; Eaton, Peter [Requimte/Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Baptista, Pedro V [CIGMH/Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, FCT-UNL, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, PatrIcia A [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, IST, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1049-100 Lisboa (Portugal); Araujo, Joao Pedro, E-mail: peter.eaton@fc.up.pt [IFIMUP, Rua do Campo Alegre, 678, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-07-30

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a very powerful technique, which can potentially be used to detect and localize the magnetic fields arising from nanoscopic magnetic domains, such as magnetic nanoparticles. However, in order to achieve this, we must be able to use MFM to discriminate between magnetic forces arising from the magnetic nanoparticles and nonmagnetic forces from other particles and sample features. Unfortunately, MFM can show a significant response even for nonmagnetic nanoparticles, giving rise to potentially misleading results. The literature to date lacks evidence for MFM detection of magnetic nanoparticles with nonmagnetic nanoparticles as a control. In this work, we studied magnetite particles of two sizes and with a silica shell, and compared them to nonmagnetic metallic and silica nanoparticles. We found that even on conducting, grounded substrates, significant electrostatic interaction between atomic force microscopy probes and nanoparticles can be detected, causing nonmagnetic signals that might be mistaken for a true MFM response. Nevertheless, we show that MFM can be used to discriminate between magnetic and nonmagnetic nanoparticles by using an electromagnetic shielding technique or by analysis of the phase shift data. On the basis of our experimental evidence we propose a methodology that enables MFM to be reliably used to study unknown samples containing magnetic nanoparticles, and correctly interpret the data obtained.

  10. The Origin of Black Smock and White Collar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesapcioglu, Muhsin; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many empirical studies on the functions of school uniform, studies which focus on the origins of school uniform are neglected. Purpose of this study is to reveal historical origins of black smock and white collar. To achieve this purpose, a qualitative research method was adopted. As a result of the research, it was determined…

  11. SEXUAL IMPRINTING IN THE COLLARED DOVE (STREPTOPELIA-DECAOCTO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENCATE, C; HILBERS, J; HALL, M

    1992-01-01

    Although the occurrence of sexual imprinting has been demonstrated for doves, it is less well known how strong this effect is and which factors contribute to it. Therefore we examined whether cross-fostering collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) to white ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) affected l

  12. Filter holder assembly having extended collar spacer ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A filter holder assembly is provided that utilizes a fail-safe regenerator unit with an annular spacer ring having an extended metal collar for containment and positioning of a compliant ceramic gasket used in the assembly. The filter holder assembly is disclosed for use with advanced composite, filament wound, and metal candle filters.

  13. Hydrodynamic analysis of elastic floating collars in random waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Yun-peng; Dong, Guo-hai; Li, Yu-cheng

    2015-06-01

    As the main load-bearing component of fish cages, the floating collar supports the whole cage and undergoes large deformations. In this paper, a mathematical method is developed to study the motions and elastic deformations of elastic floating collars in random waves. The irregular wave is simulated by the random phase method and the statistical approach and Fourier transfer are applied to analyze the elastic response in both time and frequency domains. The governing equations of motions are established by Newton's second law, and the governing equations of deformations are obtained based on curved beam theory and modal superposition method. In order to validate the numerical model of the floating collar attacked by random waves, a series of physical model tests are conducted. Good relationship between numerical simulation and experimental observations is obtained. The numerical results indicate that the transfer function of out-of-plane and in-plane deformations increase with the increasing of wave frequency. In the frequency range between 0.6 Hz and 1.1 Hz, a linear relationship exists between the wave elevations and the deformations. The average phase difference between the wave elevation and out-of-plane deformation is 60° with waves leading and the phase between the wave elevation and in-plane deformation is 10° with waves lagging. In addition, the effect of fish net on the elastic response is analyzed. The results suggest that the deformation of the floating collar with fish net is a little larger than that without net.

  14. Histological organization of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, T S; Silva, A F; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2007-06-01

    Collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) belongs to the Tayassuidae family that is characterized by a dorsal scent gland located in the middle of the hump. It can be found from south-west United States to Argentina. It is a very well-adapted animal that can survive different environments, having a varied diet. Very little morphological information of the animal is available, except that concerning the reproductive tract. This study describes the histological organization of the collared peccary lip. The lip marks the junction between the integument and digestive system. It is lined by skin on the outer surface and mucosa on the inner surface. Skin appendages such as hair follicles and glands are usually found on the outer surface. The collared peccary's lip shows, on the outer surface, simple and sinus hair follicles as well as sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands. No salivary gland is found on the inner surface, and deep in the connective tissue pacinian corpuscles can be found. The connective tissue is rich in collagen and elastic fibres. The collared peccary's lip may be used not only for food prehension but also functions as a sensitive structure giving tactile input to the central nervous system.

  15. Gender Differences in Coping with Involuntary White Collar Job Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Buch, Kimberly

    Corporate restructuring has resulted in involuntary job loss for a significant number of white collar workers. This study investigated gender differences in reaction to involuntary job loss and tested a model of career gorwth through job loss. Former clients, 456 males and 62 females, of a nationwide outplacement firm completed a questionnaire…

  16. Limit analysis of extended reach drilling in South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Deli; Tan Chengjin; Tang Haixiong

    2009-01-01

    Extended reach wells (ERWs), especially horizontal extended reach well with a high HD (horizontal displacement) to TVD (true vertical depth) ratio, represent a frontier technology and challenge the drilling limitations.Oil and gas reservoir in beaches or lakes and offshore can be effectively exploited by using extended reach drilling (ERD) technology.This paper focuses on the difficult technological problems encountered during exploiting the Liuhua 11-1 oil field in the South China Sea, China.Emphasis is on investigating the key subjects including prediction and control of open hole limit extension in offshore ERD, prediction of casing wear and its prevention and torque reduction, φ244.5mm casing running with floating collars to control drag force, and steerable drilling modes.The basic concept of limit extension in ERD is presented and the prediction method for open hole limit extension is given in this paper.A set of advanced drilling mechanics and control technology has been established and its practical results are verified by field cases.All those efforts may be significant for further investigating and practicing ERD limit theory and control technology in the future.

  17. Performance Characteristics of Small Global-Positioning-System Tracking Collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dennis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances have made possible the development of animal-tracking devices based on the global positioning system (GPS that are much smaller than what were available previously. However, potential limitations in size-dependent technologies and differences in patterns of behavior between small and large animals could mean that miniaturized GPS tracking devices may not function as well as their larger counterparts. Here, we evaluate the performance characteristics of 105-g GPS collars suitable for prolonged use on animals weighing as little as 2.5 kg. We tested 9 collars in stationary trials at a single reference site and in field deployments on common brushtail possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula/ , a semi-arboreal, nocturnal marsupial. We found in both trials that individual collars differed in several measures of positional accuracy and precision, yet overall the small collars compared favorably with published results of larger devices in similar habitats. Differences in operational characteristics between the two trials were mainly in the number and spatial configuration of satellites used to calculate position fixes, resulting in an increase in median location error from 9.8 m in the stationary tests to an estimated 14.7 m in the field trials. Most probably, these effects were due to dissimilarities in microhabitat features and variation in the orientation of GPS antennae which occurred when the possums changed their body posture during movement. The collars evaluated in this study promise to be a valuable tool for the study of the ecology, behavior, and conservation of many small-to-medium sized animals.

  18. Men's mobility into management from blue collar and white collar jobs: race differences across the early work-career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George; Maume, David

    2014-07-01

    Within the context of the "particularistic mobility thesis" we examine racial differences in the incidence, and determinants of, as well as timing to, mobility into management across the critical early career years at a refined level, namely, when groups share similar white collar and blue collar jobs. Findings from a Panel Study of Income Dynamics sample of men support theory and indicate that from both job levels a racial hierarchy exists: African Americans have the lowest rate of mobility, reach management through a route that is relatively formal and structured by a traditional range of stratification-based causal factors and take longest to reach management. Whites, in contrast, have the highest mobility rate, reach management through a relatively informal path that is less structured by traditional stratification-based factors, and reach management the quickest, and, across all three issues Latinos occupy an intermediate ground between African Americans and Latinos. Further, as predicted by theory, racial differences, particularly, relative to whites, are greater among those tracked from blue collar jobs than white collar jobs. Discussed are implications of the findings for understanding racial disadvantage in the American labor market across the work-career and on an inter-generational basis.

  19. A comparative study of the effect of soft and hard cervical collars on static postural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Khalkhali Zavieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Aim: Using cervical collars is one of the treatment methods for releaving cervical pain. The effect of limb orthotics on proprioception and postural stability has been suggested. There is not sufficient studies about the effect of cervical collars on static and dynamic stability, and the effect of soft and hard collars have not been compared with one another. The objective of this study is investigating and comparing the immediate effect of soft and hard cervical collars on static postural stability in healthy young subjects. Methods & Materials: In standing position on firm surface with closed eyes, both soft and hard collars decreased the stability and there was not any significant difference among collars. In standing positions on soft surface with closed and opened eyes, using none of the soft and hard collars did not change the stability. This quasi experimental study through repeated measure method has been conducted on 65 healthy young male and female college students. Static stability was evaluated by modified Clinical Test for Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB in conditions without collar and by soft and hard cervical collars and were compared between the conditions. Results: Conclusion: Our results suggest that in static conditions, without vision, both collars decrease the stability in healthy young subjects. So considering the evaluation of stability and prevention of balance disturbance during the collar prescription seems to be necessary.

  20. Dependence of Magnetic Field Quality on Collar Supplier and Dimensions in the Main LHC Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Santoni, C; Todesco, E

    2006-01-01

    In order to keep the electro-magnetic forces and to minimize conductor movements, the superconducting coils of the main Large Hadron Collider dipoles are held in place by means of austenitic steel collars. Two suppliers provide the collars necessary for the whole LHC production, which has now reached more than 800 collared coils. In this paper we first assess if the different collar suppliers origin a noticeable difference in the magnetic field quality measured at room temperature. We then analyze the measurements of the collar dimensions carried out at the manufacturers, comparing them to the geometrical tolerances. Finally we use a magneto-static model to evaluate the expected spread in the field components induced by the actual collar dimensions. These spreads are compared to the magnetic measurements at room temperature over the magnet production in order to identify if the collars, rather than other components or assembly process, can account for the measured magnetic field effects. It has been found tha...

  1. Drilling and well technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milheim, K. [Mining University Leoben Institute for Drilling Technology, (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    Over a billion dollars a year is lost by exploration and production companies drilling wells because of the lack of learn curve management (LMC) practices. This paper presents the importance of the LMC concept, what it is, why LMC has not yet been recognized as a major initiative for improving drilling cost performance. The paper discusses the different types of planning, problems with implementation of plans, the use and misuse of drilling results and data bases, and the lack of post analysis practices. The major point of the paper is to show the massive savings that can be achieved by valuing LMC, learning LMC and successfully implementing LMC. . 2 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Nonpolluting drilling fluid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Mocek, C.J.; Mouton, R.J.

    1983-02-22

    Disclosed is a nonpolluting drilling fluid composition. The composition mixture consisting essentially of a concentrate and any nonpolluting oil. The concentrate consists essentially of diethanolamide, a fatty acid, and a imidazoline/amide mixture.

  3. Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Resource Priorities in Continental Drilling J. J. Hemley 12 Aspects of Continental Crustal Structure and Growth Scott Smithson 13 Deep-Drilling Targets...Time of Workshop Allen F. Agnew Library of Congress Clarence R. Allen California Institute of Technology Orson L. Anderson University of California at...Skinner Yale University Norman H. Sleep Northwestern University Laurence L. Sloss Northwestern University Scott B. Smithson University of Wyoming

  4. Local destruction of superconductivity by non-magnetic impurities in mesoscopic iron-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ji, Min; Schwarz, Tobias; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Yuan, Jie; Pereira, Paulo J; Huang, Ya; Zhang, Gufei; Feng, Hai-Luke; Yuan, Ya-Hua; Hatano, Takeshi; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Yamaura, Kazunari; Wang, Hua-Bing; Wu, Pei-Heng; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji; Vanacken, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2015-07-03

    The determination of the pairing symmetry is one of the most crucial issues for the iron-based superconductors, for which various scenarios are discussed controversially. Non-magnetic impurity substitution is one of the most promising approaches to address the issue, because the pair-breaking mechanism from the non-magnetic impurities should be different for various models. Previous substitution experiments demonstrated that the non-magnetic zinc can suppress the superconductivity of various iron-based superconductors. Here we demonstrate the local destruction of superconductivity by non-magnetic zinc impurities in Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 by exploring phase-slip phenomena in a mesoscopic structure with 119 × 102 nm(2) cross-section. The impurities suppress superconductivity in a three-dimensional 'Swiss cheese'-like pattern with in-plane and out-of-plane characteristic lengths slightly below ∼1.34 nm. This causes the superconducting order parameter to vary along abundant narrow channels with effective cross-section of a few square nanometres. The local destruction of superconductivity can be related to Cooper pair breaking by non-magnetic impurities.

  5. Paramagnetism shielding in drilling fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    In drilling operations, drilling fluid containing magnetic materials is used when drilling a well. The materials can significantly shield the Earth’s magnetic field as measured by magnetic sensors inside the drilling strings. The magnetic property of the drilling fluid is one of the substantial error sources for the determination of magnetic azimuth for wellbores. Both the weight material, cuttings, clay and other formation material plus metal filings from the tubular wear m...

  6. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalev, Artem Vladimirovich; Ryabchikov, Sergey Yakovlevich; Isaev, Evgeniy Dmitrievich; Ulyanova, Oksana Sergeevna

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling t...

  7. MINIMALLY INVASIVE LOW-COLLAR INCISION IN THYROID LOBECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝国; 王成学; 张乃嵩

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report the development of a technique for minimally invasive thyroid lobectomy. Method: The procedure was accepted by 200 patients with a nodule of the lobe of the thyroid. We performed hemithyroidectomys through a 2-4 cm low-collar horizontal skin incision by conventional instrumentation. Results: The recurrent laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands were easily identified and preserved. The amount of bleeding ranged from 5 to 50 ml (mean 15 ml). Mean Operation time was 52.2 minutes (ranged 32 to 80 minutes). No complication occurred. Mean postoperative stay was 5.5 days (ranged 4 to 7 days). The incision provided excellent cometic results because the small and lower incisions were completely hidden by clothing collar. Conclusion: The above technique is feasible, safe, minimally invasive, less time and cost consuming and cosmetical.

  8. Generalizing a study of a rotating rod carrying a collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, I [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 21-939, Mexico 04000 D.F. (Mexico); Del Valle, G; Hernandez, M G [Area de Fisica, Division de Ciencias Basicas e IngenierIa, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Apartado Postal 21-939, Mexico 04000 D.F. (Mexico); Jimenez, J L, E-mail: jlj@xanum.uam.m [Departamento de Fisica, Division de Ciencias Basicas e IngenierIa, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 21-939, Mexico 04000 D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The present work is a generalization of the work of Ribberfors and Reitz (2000 Eur. J. Phys. 21 151-7). These authors study a system consisting of a collar that is restricted to move in a path defined by a rod of some prescribed form which passes through the collar. We generalize the analysis of this system by means of canonical treatment. We show in this way that this excellent example can also be used in advanced courses on mechanics to show the power of the methods of analytical mechanics. We have that the present treatment of this example will be useful for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for the teachers of these courses on classical mechanics. (letters and comments)

  9. An electromyographic analysis of an ergonomic intervention with the jackleg drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, S A; Marras, W S

    1990-06-01

    The jackleg drill is involved in more accidents than any other hand tool used in the underground metal/non-metal mining industries. A significant portion of these accidents are exertion injuries to the trunk. The experiments described in this paper were developed as a result of previous task and biomechanical analyses evaluating the operation of the jackleg drill. A simulated mine was developed where subjects were asked to perform transporting, positioning and removal tasks with and without an additional handle mounted on top of the drill casing. In addition, the positioning, collaring and removal tasks were conducted at three hole heights representative of those found underground. EMG results, along with predicted compression and shear via biomechanical modelling, indicate that the additional handle would need to be presented in conjunction with training in order to be an effective ergonomic aid.

  10. Fix success and accuracy of GPS radio collars in old-growth temperate coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager-Fradkin, Kimberly A.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Hoffman, Robert L.; Happe, P.; Beecham, J.; Wright, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry is used extensively to study animal distribution and resource selection patterns but is susceptible to biases resulting from data omission and spatial inaccuracies. These data errors may cause misinterpretation of wildlife habitat selection or spatial use patterns. We used both stationary test collars and collared free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) to quantify systemic data loss and location error of GPS telemetry in mountainous, old-growth temperate forests of Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. We developed predictive models of environmental factors that influence the probability of obtaining GPS locations and evaluated the ability of weighting factors derived from these models to mitigate data omission biases from collared bears. We also examined the effects of microhabitat on collar fix success rate and examined collar accuracy as related to elevation changes between successive fixes. The probability of collars successfully obtaining location fixes was positively associated with elevation and unobstructed satellite view and was negatively affected by the interaction of overstory canopy and satellite view. Test collars were 33% more successful at acquiring fixes than those on bears. Fix success rates of collared bears varied seasonally and diurnally. Application of weighting factors to individual collared bear fixes recouped only 6% of lost data and failed to reduce seasonal or diurnal variation in fix success, suggesting that variables not included in our model contributed to data loss. Test collars placed to mimic bear bedding sites received 16% fewer fixes than randomly placed collars, indicating that microhabitat selection may contribute to data loss for wildlife equipped with GPS collars. Horizontal collar errors of >800 m occurred when elevation changes between successive fixes were >400 m. We conclude that significant limitations remain in accounting for data loss and error inherent in using

  11. Application on drilling parameter monitor in drilling engineering monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu DIAO; Zhenbao LING; Wenjing LIANG

    2008-01-01

    The drilling parameter monitor is an important tool in drilling engineering applied to monitoring drilling process, carrying out scientific analysis and decision-making. Based on discussing the present development situation of the domestic and foreign drilling machine parameter monitors, the metering scheme for vehicle-loaded drilling parameter monitor was designed. By using detection system for MSP430 single-chip microcomputer (SCM) in combination with peripheral circuit such as sensors, the drilling-rig control system was obtained to detect, and for every parameter in real-time display in order to keep operating the drilling rig status. The experiment shows that the drilling parameter monitor reaches design requirements and can be applied to drilling engineering monitoring, which has characters such as simple structure, high credibility and low cost.

  12. Habitat Selection and Activity Pattern of GPS Collared Sumateran Tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Priatna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although translocation has been used in mitigating human-carnivore conflict for decades, few studies have been conducted on the behavioral ecology of released animals. Such information is necessary in the context of sustainable forest management. In this study we determine the type of land cover used as main habitat and examine the activity pattern of translocated tigers. Between 2008 and 2010 we captured six conflict tigers and translocated them 74-1,350 km from their capture sites in Sumatera. All tigers were fitted with global positioning system (GPS collars. The collars were set to fix 24-48 location coordinates per day.  All translocated tigers showed a preference for a certain habitat type within their new home range, and tended to select the majority of natural land cover type within the landscape as their main habitat, but the availability of natural forest habitat within the landscape remains essensial for their survival. The activity of male translocated tigers differed significantly between the six time intervals of 24 hours, and their most active periods were in the afternoon (14:00-18:00 hours and in the evening (18:00-22:00 hours. Despite being preliminary, the findings of this study-which was the first such study conducted in Sumatera-highlight the conservation value of tiger translocation and provide valuable information for improving future management of conflict tigers.Keywords: activity pattern, GPS collars, habitat selection, sumateran tiger, translocation

  13. Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary, Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Diva Anelie; de Garcia, Sylvia Cristina Garcia; Ferreira, Maria Auxiliadora Pantoja; da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2012-03-01

    The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was-to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin's solution and sectioned into 7 microm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (pcollared peccary.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A MUD-PULSE HIGH-TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT-WHILE-DRILLING (MWD) SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Greg Deskins; William Motion; Jay Martin

    2002-01-01

    The overall program objective is to develop a mud-pulse measurement-while-drilling (MWD) tool for oil and gas drilling operations that can be used where downhole temperatures are as high as 195 C (383 F). The work was planned to be completed in two phases: Phase I and an optional Phase II. The objectives of Phase I were first to identify critical components of existing MWD systems that can or cannot operate at 195 C. For components not able to meet the higher standard, one of several strategies was pursued: (1) locate high-temperature replacement components, (2) develop new designs that eliminate the unavailable components, or (3) use cooling to keep components at acceptable operating temperatures (under 195 C). New designs and components were then tested under high temperatures in the laboratory. The final goal of Phase I was to assemble two high-temperature MWD prototype tools and test each in at least one low-temperature well to verify total system performance. Phase II was also envisioned as part of this development. Its objective would be to test the two new high-temperature MWD prototype tools in wells being drilled in the United States where the bottom-hole temperatures were 195 C (or the highest temperatures attainable). The high-temperature MWD tool is designed to send directional and formation data to the surface via mud pulses, to aid in the drilling of guided wellbores. The modules that comprise the tool are housed in sealed barrels that protect the electronics from exposure to down-hole fluids and pressures. These pressure barrels are hung inside a non-magnetic collar located above the drilling assembly. A number of significant accomplishments were achieved during the course of the Phase I project, including: (1) Tested two MWD strings for function in an oven at 195 C; (2) Conducted field test of prototype 195 C MWD tool (at well temperatures up to 140-180 C); (3) Tested ELCON hybrid chip with processor, clock, and memory in a custom package for 700

  15. Improvement of microwave magnetic properties by inserting nonmagnetic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoting; An, Chao; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Chunlong; Shi, Gang; Wang, Jinguo; Hou, Zhaoyang; Xi, Li

    2017-01-01

    Co/NM (nonmagnetic Ag and SiO2)/Co sandwich structure films with different thicknesses of NM were fabricated on Si(111) substrate via oblique radio frequency sputtering. With increasing thickness of nonmagnetic Ag (tAg), in-plane magnetic anisotropy field Hk initially increased from 100 Oe of tAg = 0 nm to 220 Oe of tAg = 1.5 nm, and then decreased when tAg > 1.5 nm. Resonance frequency showed the same tendency with maximum 5.2 GHz when tAg = 1.5 nm. Damp factor increased from 0.02 for tAg = 0-0.08 for tAg = 2.0 nm. The same result was observed in inserting oxide nonmagnetic SiO2 layer. This can be attributed to the competition between interface energy and exchange coupling energy.

  16. Magnetofluidic concentration and separation of non-magnetic particles using two magnet arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Majid; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-07-01

    The present paper reports the use of diluted ferrofluid and two arrays of permanent magnets for the size-selective concentration of non-magnetic particles. The micro magnetofluidic device consists of a straight channels sandwiched between two arrays of permanent magnets. The permanent magnets create multiple capture zones with minimum magnetic field strength along the channel. The complex interaction between magnetic forces and hydrodynamic force allows the device to operate in different regimes suitable for concentration of non-magnetic particles with small difference in size. Our experimental results show that non-magnetic particles with diameters of 3.1 μm and 4.8 μm can be discriminated and separated with this method. The results from this study could be used as a guide for the design of size-sensitive separation devices for particle and cell based on negative magnetophoresis.

  17. Simulation of magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetic Barkhausen noise of α-iron containing nonmagnetic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic hysteresis loops and Barkhausen noise of a single α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated to investigate into the magnetic hardening due to Cu-rich precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV steels. Phase field method basing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation is used for this simulation. The results show that the presence of the nonmagnetic particle could result in magnetic hardening by making the nucleation of reversed domains difficult. The coercive field is found to increase, while the intensity of Barkhausen noise voltage is decreased when the nonmagnetic particle is introduced. Simulations demonstrate the impact of nucleation field of reversed domains on the magnetization reversal behavior and the magnetic properties.

  18. Simulation of magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetic Barkhausen noise of α-iron containing nonmagnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei, E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China); Xu, Ben [School of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Hu, Shenyang; Li, Yulan [Energy Materials Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The magnetic hysteresis loops and Barkhausen noise of a single α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated to investigate into the magnetic hardening due to Cu-rich precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Phase field method basing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is used for this simulation. The results show that the presence of the nonmagnetic particle could result in magnetic hardening by making the nucleation of reversed domains difficult. The coercive field is found to increase, while the intensity of Barkhausen noise voltage is decreased when the nonmagnetic particle is introduced. Simulations demonstrate the impact of nucleation field of reversed domains on the magnetization reversal behavior and the magnetic properties.

  19. Removal of a giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body using micro alligator forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shenzhi; Wan, Guangming; Li, Xiujuan; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Zhu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    To introduce a new method for removal of a giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body using micro alligator forceps. Eleven patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy. The micro alligator forceps were used to grasp and extract the giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body through a sclerocorneal tunnel. All patients underwent surgical removal of the intraocular foreign body successfully without any intraoperative complications. The alligator forceps were operational in the intraocular environment and effective in surgical maneuvers. There was no accidental slippage during the procedures. Micro alligator forceps are a feasible option for removal of giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body during vitreoretinal surgery and offer advances in terms of operating stability and surgical safety. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Technology and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. G. Cai; X. N. Wang

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 What is Horizontal Directional Drilling? Horizontal Directional Drilling, accurately steered drilling, has become state -of- the -art drilling technique in the world. Specially- designed directionsteerable corebarrel and accurate direction measurement tool are available for the use together with wire line core drilling machine. That makes it feasible to extract cores and to measure the drill travel line &length while drilling in a curve.

  1. Evacuation drill at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont-Sagorin and Christoph Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    Training personnel, including evacuation guides and shifters, checking procedures, improving collaboration with the CERN Fire Brigade: the first real-life evacuation drill at CMS took place on Friday 3 February from 12p.m. to 3p.m. in the two caverns located at Point 5 of the LHC.   CERN personnel during the evacuation drill at CMS. Evacuation drills are required by law and have to be organized periodically in all areas of CERN, both above and below ground. The last drill at CMS, which took place in June 2007, revealed some desiderata, most notably the need for a public address system. With this equipment in place, it is now possible to broadcast audio messages from the CMS control room to the underground areas.   The CMS Technical Coordination Team and the GLIMOS have focused particularly on preparing collaborators for emergency situations by providing training and organizing regular safety drills with the HSE Unit and the CERN Fire Brigade. This Friday, the practical traini...

  2. Chinese Drilling Crews Active Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ China Great Wall Drilling Company signed a US$5 million contract with Tunis Joint Venture Petroleum Company in late April for drilling five wells in the middle coastal area of Tunis. This is the first time Tunis has invited the tenders from foreign companies for a drilling project. The participants in the bidding include other 11 drilling companies from the United States, Australia, Croatia and other countries. The drilling operation is expected to start from June this year. Founded in 1995, Great Wall Drilling Company is a subsidiary of CNPC International Engineering Company. The drilling company is now operating more than 50 Chinesemade drilling rigs overseas and involved in the drilling projects in 15 countries and regions such as Sudan, Iran, Indonesia, Egypt, Canada, Kazakhstan,Venezuela and other countries. The Tunis project is the 15th one of the company.

  3. Development of a Non-Magnetic Inertial Sensor for Vibration Stabilization in a Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, Josef; Decker, Valentin; Doyle, Eric; Hendrickson, Linda; Himel, Thomas; Markiewicz, Thomas; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC; Chang, Allison; Partridge, Richard; /Brown U.

    2006-09-01

    One of the options for controlling vibration of the final focus magnets in a linear collider is to use active feedback based on accelerometers. While commercial geophysics sensors have noise performance that substantially exceeds the requirements for a linear collider, they are physically large, and cannot operate in the strong magnetic field of the detector. Conventional nonmagnetic sensors have excessive noise for this application. We report on the development of a non-magnetic inertial sensor, and on a novel commercial sensor both of which have demonstrated the required noise levels for this application.

  4. Optimized cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zhenzhong; Feng Yijun; Xu Xiaofei; Zhao Junming; Jiang Tian, E-mail: yjfeng@nju.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

    2011-05-11

    We present optimized design of cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials. Through an optimization procedure based on genetic algorithm, simpler cloak structure and more realizable material parameters can be achieved with better cloak performance than that of an ideal non-magnetic cloak with a reduced set of parameters. We demonstrate that a cloak shell with only five layers of two normal materials can result in an average 20 dB reduction in the scattering width for all directions when covering the inner conducting cylinder with the cloak. The optimized design can substantially simplify the realization of the invisibility cloak, especially in the optical range.

  5. Magnetization Reversal Process of Single Crystal α-Fe Containing a Nonmagnetic Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Tsinghua Univ., Shenzhen (China); Xu, Ben [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Yulan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Qiu-Lin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Tsinghua Univ., Shenzhen (China); Liu, Wei [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Tsinghua Univ., Shenzhen (China)

    2015-09-25

    The magnetization reversal process and hysteresis loops in a single crystal α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated in this work based on the Landau-Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The evolutions of the magnetic domain morphology are studied, and our analyses show that the magnetization reversal process is affected by the interaction between the moving domain wall and the existing nonmagnetic particles. This interaction strongly depends on the size of the particles, and it is found that particles with a particular size contribute the most to magnetic hardening.

  6. Computer monitors drilling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    Computer systems that can monitor over 40 drilling variables, display them graphically, record and transmit the information have been developed separately by two French companies. The systems, Vigigraphic and Visufora, involve the linking of a master computer with various surface and downhole sensors to measure the data on a real-time (as experienced) basis and compute the information. Vigigraphic is able to produce graphic displays grouped on four screens - drilling, tripping, geological and mud data. It computes at least 200 variables from the sensor readings, and it can store over 100 variables. Visufora allows the operator to group the drilling variables as desired. It can monitor and analyze surface and downhole parameters. The system can be linked with MWD tools. Twenty channels of input are assigned to surface values and the remaining 20 channels can be used to monitor downhole instrumentation.

  7. Effect of rigid cervical collar on tracheal intubation using Airtraq®

    OpenAIRE

    Padmaja Durga; Chiranjeevi Yendrapati; Geeta Kaniti; Narmada Padhy; Kiran Kumar Anne; Gopinath Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Cervical spine immobilisation with rigid cervical collar imposes difficulty in intubation. Removal of the anterior part of the collar may jeopardize the safety of the cervical spine. The effect of restricted mouth opening and cervical spine immobilisation that result from the application of rigid cervical collar on intubation using Airtraq ® was evaluated. Methods: Seventy healthy adults with normal airways included in the study were intubated Using Airtraq® with (group C...

  8. The Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  9. Calculation of Longitudinal Vibration of Drill String%钻柱纵向振动的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾礼军

    2012-01-01

    The problem of BHA' s failure is serious. Based on theory study, detailed numerical simulation on properties of the drill string was done in this paper. The results show that the property of axial vibration changes while the string dimension and the length of drill string change. The axial vibration natural frequence changes small while the Drill Collar length increases. Due to the influence of the drilling fluid the natural frequency becomes lower. Analysis shows that drilling fluid damper have a certain positive significance on the drill string security.%钻井过程中钻具失效问题严重.本文在理论分析的基础上,对纵向振动进行了较好的数值分析.研究表明,整体钻柱纵向振动特性受钻柱规格以及长度影响.长度增加,钻柱相应各阶固有频率显著降低.纵向振动还与钻铤的长度有关,当钻铤长度增加时固有频率略有下降.计入钻井液附加质量效应后,钻柱的各阶固有频率显著降低.分析表明,钻井液阻尼对钻柱动力安全性有一定的积极意义.

  10. Drilling comparison in "warm ice" and drill design comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, L.; Motoyama, H.; Wilhelms, F.

    2007-01-01

    at each site, the drilling rate dropped and the drilling teams had to deal with refrozen ice on cutters and drill heads. Drills have different limits and perform differently. In this comparative study, we examine depth, pressure, temperature, pump flow and cutting speed. Finally, we compare a few......For the deep ice-core drilling community, the 2005/06 Antarctic season was an exciting and fruitful one. In three different Antarctic locations, Dome Fuji, EPICA DML and Vostok, deep drillings approached bedrock (the ice-water interface in the case of Vostok), emulating what had previously been...... achieved at NorthGRIP, Greenland, (summer 2003 and 2004) and at EPICA Dome C2, Antarctica (season 2004/05). For the first time in ice-core drilling history, three different types of drill (KEMS, JARE and EPICA) simultaneously reached the depth of 'warm ice' under high pressure. After excellent progress...

  11. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  12. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  13. Drill on Android

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    HES-SO DRILLER est une application de drill disponible sur Cyberlearn qui permet aux utilisateurs d’effectuer des quizz relatifs à la programmation. Le principe étant que les professeurs créent leurs quizz et les étudiants puissent y jouer. Les scores obtenus sont comptabilisés et comparés sur Facebook. Ce projet a pour but d’analyser cette application et de l’adapter afin de l’utiliser sur un client mobile Android sous le nom de Drill on Android.

  14. A beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to nutria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; White, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an approximately 85-g beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to semi-aquatic nutria (Myocastor coypus). Prototype collars were tested on captive nutria and refined during field trials. Central to the design was novel use of the VHF transmitter antenna as a collar. A circular collar was formed by passing the 44-cm antenna cable through a pre-made hole in the transmitter, leaving an approximately 16-cm upright antenna. GPS units were mounted separately via a hole in the base of each unit. For good satellite contact, GPS units (28 g) were maintained at the nape of the neck by counterbalance of the heavier VHF transmitters (50 g) positioned under the neck. To reduce friction, we lined the collar with alternate-sized plastic and, later, more durable nylon beads. The final collar configuration was worn for approximately 1 month deployments with only minor neck abrasion; one collar was worn successfully for 5 months. Foot entanglement remained the greatest risk of injury from the collar. By fitting collars tightly, we reduced the incidence of foot entanglement to 2 of 33 deployments (6%). Successful GPS tracks were acquired on 29 of 33 deployments (88%).

  15. Use and perception of collars for companion cats in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, M; Keown, A J; Farnworth, M J

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the use and utility of collars for companion cats in New Zealand, and to explore public perception of collar use. An online questionnaire was distributed using emails and social media to members of the general public in New Zealand. The questionnaire collected details of respondents, cat ownership status, and responses to a number of questions regarding collar use in cats. A total of 511 responses were collected. Of these, 393/511 (76.9%) reported owning ≥1 cat at the time of the survey, and 141/393 (35.9%) stated that ≥1 of their cats wore collars and 211/393 (53.7%) had ≥1 of their cats micro-chipped. Of the respondents with a pet cat, 351/393 (89.3%) allowed their cats some outdoor access. Respondents mainly used collars for identification and to reduce predation. Reasons for not using collars included cat intolerance of collars, repeated collar loss and concern over collar safety. Differences were found between cat owners and non-owners regarding whether they agreed that cats were important for pest control (43 vs. 25%, pownership and management may be of use to veterinarians to promote responsible pet ownership and to develop national policies and practices to improve cat welfare.

  16. The unusual floatation collar around nauplii of certain parasitic barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Møller, Ole Sten; Rybakov, Alexey V.

    2004-01-01

    Nauplii of the rhizocephalan families Peltogastridae and Lernaeodiscidae carry a torus-shaped collar around the body. It consists of an exceedingly thin cuticle connected to the general body cuticle along a continuous narrow ridge. In nauplii of some species, the collar is very large and its...... of the general body as separate objects. The collar must have a profound influence on the hydrodynamic properties of the nauplius, both when swimming and passively sinking. We therefore consider it as a floatation device, a view supported by the absence of the collar in the rapidly swimming cypris larvae...

  17. Organizational justice is related to heart rate variability in white-collar workers, but not in blue-collar workers-findings from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Raphael M; Bosch, Jos A; van Vianen, Annelies E M; Jarczok, Marc N; Thayer, Julian F; Li, Jian; Schmidt, Burkhard; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    Perceived injustice at work predicts coronary heart disease. Vagal dysregulation represents a potential psychobiological pathway. We examined associations between organizational justice and heart rate variability (HRV) indicators. Grounded in social exchange and psychological contract theory, we tested predictions that these associations are more pronounced among white-collar than among blue-collar workers. Cross-sectional data from 222 blue-collar and 179 white-collar men were used. Interactional and procedural justice were measured by questionnaire. Ambulatory HRV was assessed across 24 h. Standardized regression coefficients (β) were calculated. Among white-collar workers, interactional justice showed positive relationships with 24-h HRV, which were strongest during sleeping time (adjusted βs≥0.26; p values≤0.01). No associations were found for blue-collar workers. A comparable but attenuated pattern was observed for procedural justice. Both dimensions of organizational injustice were associated with lowered HRV among white-collar workers. The impact of justice and possibly its association with health seems to differ by occupational groups.

  18. Non-magnetic negative-refraction systems for terahertz and far-infrared frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseyev, Leonid V; Narimanov, Evgenii E

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that homogeneous naturally-occurring materials can form non-magnetic negative refractive index systems, and present specific realizations of the proposed approach for the THz and far-IR frequencies. The proposed structure operates away from resonance, thereby promising the capacity for low-loss devices.

  19. Nurse Outcomes in Magnet® and Non-Magnet Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lesly A.; McHugh, Matthew D.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2017-01-01

    The important goals of Magnet® hospitals are to create supportive professional nursing care environments. A recently published paper found little difference in work environments between Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine whether work environments, staffing, and nurse outcomes differ between Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals. A secondary analysis of data from a 4-state survey of 26,276 nurses in 567 acute care hospitals to evaluate differences in work environments and nurse outcomes in Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals was conducted. Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments (t = −5.29, P < .001) and more highly educated nurses (t = −2.27, P < .001). Magnet hospital nurses were 18% less likely to be dissatisfied with their job (P < .05) and 13% less likely to report high burnout (P < .05). Magnet hospitals have significantly better work environments than non-Magnet hospitals. The better work environments of Magnet hospitals are associated with lower levels of nurse job dissatisfaction and burnout. PMID:22976894

  20. Magnetism induced by nonmagnetic dopants in zinc-blende SiC: First-principle calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Magnetism induced by the nonmagnetic dopants in the zinc-blende SiC (3C-SiC) is investigated by first-principle calculations. The atoms of the first 20 elements in the periodic table except inert gas are used to replace either Si or C atoms as dopants. We find that some nonmagnetic substitutional dopants (mainly the Group IA, Group IIA, Group IIIB, and Group VIIB elements) prefer the spin-polarized ground states with local magnetic moments. In general, the condition for obtaining the local magnetic moments and the magnetic ground state requires that the dopants are p-type and have large electronegativity difference from the neighboring host atoms. The magnetic moments can be tuned over a range between 1 μ B and 3 μ B by doping with the nonmagnetic elements. The nearest-neighbor exchange couplings J 0 between the local magnetic moments are quite large and the codoping method is proposed to increase the dopant concentration. These imply that the nonmagnetic doping in SiC may exhibit collective magnetism. Moreover, the Group IIA Mg and Ca atoms substituting the preferred Si atoms favor the ferromagnetic ground states with the half-metallic electronic properties, which suggests that Mg or Ca substitutional doping on the Si sites in SiC could be a potential route to fabricating the diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  1. Pulsed remote field eddy current technique applied to non-magnetic flat conductive plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Binfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhanbin

    2013-12-01

    Non-magnetic metal plates are widely used in aviation and industrial applications. The detection of cracks in thick plate structures, such as multilayered structures of aircraft fuselage, has been challenging in nondestructive evaluation societies. The remote field eddy current (RFEC) technique has shown advantages of deep penetration and high sensitivity to deeply buried anomalies. However, the RFEC technique is mainly used to evaluate ferromagnetic tubes. There are many problems that should be fixed before the expansion and application of this technique for the inspection of non-magnetic conductive plates. In this article, the pulsed remote field eddy current (PRFEC) technique for the detection of defects in non-magnetic conducting plates was investigated. First, the principle of the PRFEC technique was analysed, followed by the analysis of the differences between the detection of defects in ferromagnetic and non-magnetic plain structures. Three different models of the PRFEC probe were simulated using ANSYS. The location of the transition zone, defect detection sensitivity and the ability to detect defects in thick plates using three probes were analysed and compared. The simulation results showed that the probe with a ferrite core had the highest detecting ability. The conclusions derived from the simulation study were also validated by conducting experiments.

  2. Magnetic field aligned assembly of nonmagnetic composite dumbbells in nanoparticle-based aqueous ferrofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hayato; Nagao, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kanako; Ishii, Haruyuki; Konno, Mikio

    2015-05-26

    Monodisperse, nonmagnetic, asymmetrical composite dumbbells in a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles (ferrofluid) were aligned by application of an external magnetic field to the ferrofluid. The asymmetrical composite dumbbells were prepared by two-step soap-free emulsion polymerization consisting of the first polymerization to coat spherical silica cores with cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell and the second polymerization to protrude a polystyrene (PSt) lobe from the core-shell particles. A chain structure of nonmagnetic dumbbells oriented to the applied magnetic field was observed at nanoparticle content of 2.0 vol % and field strengths higher than 1.0 mT. A similar chain structure of the dumbbells was observed under application of alternating electric field at strengths higher than 50 V/mm. Parallel and orthogonally combined applications of the electric and magnetic fields were also conducted to examine independence of the electric and magnetic applications as operational factors in the dumbbell assembling. Dumbbell chains stiffer than those in a single application of external field were formed in the parallel combined application of electric and magnetic fields. The orthogonal combination of the different applied fields could form a magnetically aligned chain structure of the nonmagnetic dumbbells oriented to the electric field. The present work experimentally indicated that the employment of inverse magnetorheological effect for nonmagnetic, anisotropic particles can be a useful method for the simultaneous controls over the orientation and the positon of anisotropic particles in their assembling.

  3. Deep Drilling Technology of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Rongfu

    1995-01-01

    @@ Since the drilling of well Songji-6 by the drilling crew No. 32139 in Daqing in 1963,there havebeen some 1600 over 4 000 m deep wells completed till 1993, among which two are above 7 000 m in depth.

  4. Intelligent Detection of Drill Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. I.; Chen, W. Y.; Anatharaman, K. S.

    1998-11-01

    Backpropagation neural networks (BPNs) were used for on-line detection of drill wear. The neural network consisted of three layers: input, hidden, and output. The input vector comprised drill size, feed rate, spindle speed, and eight features obtained by processing the thrust and torque signals. The output was the drill wear state which either usable or failure. Drilling experiments with various drill sizes, feed rates and spindle speeds were carried out. The learning process was performed effectively by utilising backpropagation with smoothing and an activation function slope. The on-line detection of drill wear states using BPNs achieved 100% reliability even when the drill size, feed rate and spindle speed were changed. In other words, the developed on-line drill wear detection systems have very high robustness and hence can be used in very complex production environments, such as flexible manufacturing systems.

  5. Steerable shaft drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigott, C.P. (Pigott Shaft Drilling Ltd., Preston (UK))

    1990-03-01

    The paper outlines the techniques of steerable shaft drilling and gives brief details of the various machines currently available to carry out this task. It summarizes the many potential benefits of using this method, which could lead to more mines having multiple shafts, each serving a specific purpose. 8 figs.

  6. The company man: a case of white-collar crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brottman, Mikita

    2009-06-01

    Insider trading scandals on Wall Street have focused public attention on the abuse of money and power in the service of greed. The analytic situation described in this paper involves a patient who was involved in a major white-collar crime in the 1990s and imprisoned on charges of fraud. Release from prison brought his anxieties about money, work, and masculinity into sharp focus. The paper explores the some of the emotional conflicts and confusion around corporate success and failure, and the particular issues that arise when people identify themselves with the company they work for, something that corporate culture has always encouraged.

  7. Techniques for collecting blood from collared peccaries, Dicotyles tajacu (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Robinson, R M; Grant, W E

    1984-01-01

    Four methods are described for obtaining blood samples from the collared peccary. This animal lacks prominent superficial veins which makes the procedure of taking blood difficult for inexperienced persons. Large volumes of blood (greater than 20 ml) can be obtained easily via anterior vena cava venipuncture. Moderate amounts of blood (less than 20 ml) can be obtained from the orbital sinus. Lesser volumes of blood can be obtained from superficial veins located on the ear and the hind limb. The saphenous vein is distended easily due to its unique location across the cranial face of the tibia.

  8. 45130-Drilling Crew First Enter into the International Drilling Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zhixian; Drilling

    1995-01-01

    @@ 45130-Drilling Crew subordinate to the Fourth Drilling Company of Zhongyuan Petroleum Exploration Bureau, won the two bids of risk exploration drilling projects, respectively for China Ltd. Co. of New Zealand Petroleum Exploration Company worked in the Dongtinghu Basin in 1992 and Amoco Orient Oil Co.worked in the Fuyang area, Anhui Province in November of 1993.According to the two contracts that have been signed, the two drilling wells were successfully completed,all drilling parameters are in accordance with the requirements of both contracts.

  9. Subjective and Objective Cancer Screening Knowledge Among White- and Blue-Collar Chinese Midlife Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2016-08-26

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Chinese, yet little is known about cancer knowledge among this population. The study described the subjective and objective cancer screening knowledge among white- versus blue-collar Chinese midlife adults. A convenient sample of white-collar adults age 40+ years was recruited from government and academic agencies; and blue-collar adults age 40+ years were recruited from manufactory companies in Taiwan. An eight-item cancer screening knowledge test (CSKT) was used to measure objective knowledge and one five-point Likert scale item for assessing subjective (perceived) cancer screening knowledge. A total of 208 white- and 533 blue-collar workers completed the survey during 2008-2011. Mean ages between groups were comparable (41.1 versus 46.3 years), as well as family cancer history (41.5 %). About 76 % of the white-collar and 43 % of the blue-collar adults had college education. The mean score of the CSKT was lower in the blue-collar versus white-collar workers, 5.4 (SD = 1.76) versus 6.1 (SD = 1.40), indicating on average, 68 versus 76 % of the participants answered the cancer knowledge correctly. The subjective knowledge levels were, however, higher among the blue-collar workers (mean rating of 3.22 versus 2.78). The CSKT showed a good mix of relatively easy and moderately difficult items in both groups. Study showed that overall cancer screening knowledge was low among Chinese midlife adults. Although blue-collar workers scored lower on CSKT, the perceived knowledge level was higher. Results also suggest attention to communicating cancer screening information among Chinese blue-collar midlife workers in particular.

  10. FY 79 Lava Lake Drilling Program: results of drilling experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, R.R.; Striker, R.P.; Curlee, R.M.

    1979-12-01

    A drilling program was conducted in December 1978 and January and February 1979 to continue the characterization of the solid and liquid rock components of the Kilauea Iki lava lake. Six holes were drilled from the surface and two previously drilled holes were reentered and deepened for the purposes of measuring downhole temperature profiles, recovering samples of solid, plastic, and molten rock, measuring crust permeability, and determining the performance of conventional and special drilling techniques. Conventional HQ-size (3.78 inches diameter) core drilling equipment using water for cooling and cuttings removal was used to successfully drill during initial entry into 1052/sup 0/C formations. Conventional drilling in reentering flow-back rock was less reliable. The specially designed water jet-augmented drag bit or water jet-augmented core bit was needed to drill reliably into the plastic flow-back rock and through liquid rock veins. This document contains the drill performance data which were recorded during drilling in the crust and the plastic and molten rock zones using both conventional and special drilling procedures and equipment.

  11. Method of drilling with magnetorheological fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A method of drilling a bore hole into a stratum, wherein via the drill hole drilling fluid is introduced and fed to the drill head. In order to avoid dilution or leak-off of the drilling fluid the same is in accordance with the invention a magnetorheological drilling fluid, and when an undesirable p

  12. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  13. Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

    2014-04-01

    Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Novel magnetic half-metallic materials based on ionic insulators doped with nonmagnetic impurities: MgO + B, C, N Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, V. V.; Shein, I. R.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

    2007-07-01

    It is established that magnesium oxide (a nonmagnetic ionic insulator) exhibits a transition to the state of a magnetic half-metal upon the introduction of nonmagnetic impurities (boron, carbon, or nitrogen) into the crystal lattice. The possibility of obtaining novel magnetic materials for spintronics by doping ionic insulators with nonmagnetic impurities is discussed.

  15. Career and Technical Education: Pursuing a Pipeline for the New Green-Collar Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Sally E.; Kozlowski, Patti; Peach, Peggy; Varela, Erika

    2009-01-01

    As the white- and blue-collar jobs are thinning because of the economic downturn, the economy is being rejuvenated by a new color of collar jobs--green. Green jobs encompass a range of skills, educational backgrounds and occupational profiles. The green industry has been recognized as a high-growth workforce sector because of the demand for…

  16. Does patency after a vein collar and PTFE-bypass depend on sex and age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect...

  17. The Accumulation of Educational Capital among Young Blue-Collar Workers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on young blue-collar workers in Russia indicates that a large percentage of them continue to improve their educational qualifications during the first five years of employment, but that it declines after that time. The two most frequent reasons for upgrading their skills are a desire to leave blue-collar employment, and to increase the…

  18. 78 FR 23592 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation AGENCY: U.S... certain electronic bark control collars by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 5....usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic...

  19. Determining the Specific Status of Korean Collared Scops Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jee Hong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The collared scops owl that occurs in Korea is a protected species but its exact specific status has been questioned. To resolve the species status, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted using two fragments of mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome b (cyt b, 891 bp and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2, 627 bp genes. Phylogenetic trees of cyt b revealed that all Korean specimens formed a monophyletic group with Japanese scops owl Otus semitorques with very low sequence divergence (d=0.008. We obtained a similar ND2 tree as well (d=0.003; however, the genetic distance between Korean individuals and O. lempiji from GenBank (AJ004026-7, EU348987, and EU601036 was very high and sufficient enough to separate them as species (cyt b, d=0.118; ND2, d=0.113. We also found that Korean species showed high differentiation from O. bakkamoena (AJ004018-20 and EU601034; cyt b, d=0.106; ND2, d=0.113 and O. lettia (EU601109 and EU601033, cyt b, d=0.110; ND2, d=0.117 as well. Therefore, we suggest that the Korean collared scops owl should be designated as Otus semitorques.

  20. Collarín para soportes metálicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Miguel, J. L.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available In architectural works, structural calculations are usually few and simple, they mostly corroborate what is already known. Calculations are made for the most part with the purpose of exploring solutions. When working in a specific case operations ought to be framed in the practical understanding, with predictable values and tabulated solutions, with no surprises. To write numbers and trust them blindly, is like a reckless appointment, something that should not be done in structures. This article shows how to use the structural knowledge in order to explore a specific solution: a collar for metal supports.

    En las obras de arquitectura los cálculos estructurales suelen ser pocos y sencillos, más bien para corroborar algo que se sabía de antemano. Los números se hacen, en su mayor parte, para explorar soluciones; cuando se trabaja en un caso particular debe operarse en un marco conocido, con valores predictables y soluciones tabuladas, sin sorpresas. Hacer números para fiarse a pies juntillas de ellos, es como una cita a ciegas, algo no recomendable en estructuras. Este artículo muestra cómo usar los conocimientos estructurales para explorar una solución: la de un collarín para soportes metálicos.

  1. Extramedullary plasmacytoma in a captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberio G. Olinda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An extramedullary plasmacytoma case in a captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu is reported. The animal, a female aging three years old, had a medical history of diffusely distributed skin and mucocutaneous junction lesions, associated with swollen lymph nodes. Clinical examination and complementary exams (complete blood count, biochemical analysis, skin scraping to search mites and fungal culture were performed. Thirty days after examination, the animal died. At necropsy, multiple consistent nodules, aseptic pustules and swollen lymph nodes were found. On histological exams of the skin and oral mucosa, we observed a large number of round cells forming masses organized in nests, sheets, and cords of cells in a well-vascularized fibrovascular tissue. Neoplastic plasma cells infiltrated between the fibers and the lamina propria of smooth muscle. Spaces among the cell masses were filled with some eosinophil and fluid. Most of the cells were well differentiated, presenting a perinuclear clear zone. In some points, the cells were pleomorphic. The plasma cells presented eccentric, basophilic and spherical nuclei, showing a dense to organized chromatin with distinct nucleoli. Binucleate cells were observed, but multinucleated giant cells were rare. Oral mucosa and lymph nodes tested by immunohistochemical analyses were positive for Mb-1, with a multifocal distribution. In regard to Bcl-2, the neoplastic cells were intermittent weakly positive. So, an extramedullary plasmacytoma was diagnosed in the collared peccary considering the location, the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.

  2. Social structure of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu): does relatedness matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Cibele; Izar, Patrícia; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Bussab, Vera S R

    2014-11-01

    Relatedness is considered an important factor in shaping social structure as the association among kin might facilitate cooperation via inclusive fitness benefits. We addressed here the influence of relatedness on the social structure of a Neotropical ungulate, the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu). As peccaries are highly social and cooperative, live in stable cohesive herds and show certain degree of female philopatry and high mean relatedness within herds, we hypothesized that kin would be spatially closer and display more amicable and less agonistic interactions than non-kin. We recorded spatial association patterns and rates of interactions of two captive groups. Pairwise relatedness was calculated based on microsatellite data. As predicted, we found that kin were spatially closer than non-kin, which suggests that relatedness is a good predictor of spatial association in peccaries. However, relatedness did not predict the rates of social interactions. Although our results indirectly indicate some role of sex, age and familiarity, further studies are needed to clarify the factors that shape the rates of interactions in collared peccaries. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.

  3. Referred pain from myofascial trigger points in head, neck, shoulder, and arm muscles reproduces pain symptoms in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gröbli, Christian; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fischer, Christine Stebler; Boesch, Daniel; Froidevaux, Philippe; Stocker, Lilian; Weissmann, Richard; González-Iglesias, Javier

    2012-07-01

    To describe the prevalence and referred pain area of trigger points (TrPs) in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers, and to analyze if the referred pain pattern elicited from TrPs completely reproduces the overall spontaneous pain pattern. Sixteen (62% women) blue-collar and 19 (75% women) white-collar workers were included in this study. TrPs in the temporalis, masseter, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, oblique capitis inferior, levator scapulae, scalene, pectoralis major, deltoid, infraspinatus, extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus, extensor digitorum communis, and supinator muscles were examined bilaterally (hyper-sensible tender spot within a palpable taut band, local twitch response with snapping palpation, and elicited referred pain pattern with palpation) by experienced assessors blinded to the participants' condition. TrPs were considered active when the local and referred pain reproduced any symptom and the patient recognized the pain as familiar. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomic maps, digitized, and measured. Blue-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 3) active and 10 (SD: 5) latent TrPs, whereas white-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 4) active and 11 (SD: 6) latent TrPs (P>0.548). No significant differences in the distribution of active and latent TrPs in the analyzed muscles between groups were found. Active TrPs in the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, levator scapulae, and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles were the most prevalent in both groups. Significant differences in referred pain areas between muscles (Pmuscles showed the largest referred pain areas (Pmuscles showed the smallest (Pmuscle TrPs in blue-collar and white-collar workers.

  4. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  5. Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary: Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Anelie Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin’s solution and sectioned into 7μm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (pLa sustentabilidad y la producción de pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu han sido estudiados en los últimos años, sin embargo, más información sobre su reproducción es necesaria para el éxito de los sistemas de crianza . La comprensión de los aspectos relacionados con la foliculogénesis contribuirá con la aplicación de biotécnicas de reproducción, las cuales son útiles en la preservación y la producción de la vida silvestre. El objetivo de este estudio fue obtener datos sobre la población folicular del ovario de pecarí de collar. En relación con la población folicular en el ovario derecho, los valores de los folículos primordiales y primarios fueron similares, pero se observó que había una diferencia significativa (p<0.05 con el secundario. En el ovario izquierdo, la fase folicular presentó diferencias significativas (p<0

  6. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  7. Offset drilling obligations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J. [Kanuka Thuringer, Regina, SK (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    A review of the `offset well` clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Telescopic drilling rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, I.L.; Berezov, S.I.; Gavrilov, G.A.; Goykhman, Ya.A.; Makushkin, D.O.; Rachev, M.P.; Voynich, L.K.

    1981-09-07

    The telescopic drilling rod includes an inner section of the rod, in whose center cable has been passed and is attached a bearing assembly connecting it to the winch, outer section of rod along which there is pipeline connecting the working cavity formed by the inner section of rod and the housing, installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, with cavity formed by framework of the guide swivel and end piece and connected to the hydraulic system of the machine by pipeline, as well as clamping elements. In order to drill wells to a depth greater than the length of the outer sectrion of the rod, the latter jointly with the inner section of rod is lowered into the extreme lower position until swivel rests on the feed mechanism. With further slipping of cable and the absence of pressure in the hydraulic system, clamping elements do not have an effect on the inner section of rod. It has the opportunity to freely move along the outer section of rod downwards to the face. When pressure is supplied on pipeline into cavity and further through pipeline into working cavity, the inner section of rod is clamped with feed of the outer section in the process of drilling, both sections move jointly. Because of the link between working cavity of sleeve installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, and the hydraulic system of the machine through the swivel cavity, it is possible to fix the drilling rod in any mutual axial position of the section.

  9. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  10. Application of Cervical Collars - An Analysis of Practical Skills of Professional Emergency Medical Care Providers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kreinest

    Full Text Available The application of a cervical collar is a standard procedure in trauma patients in emergency medicine. It is often observed that cervical collars are applied incorrectly, resulting in reduced immobilization of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to analyze the practical skills of trained professional rescue personnel concerning the application of cervical collars.Within emergency medical conferences, n = 104 voluntary test subjects were asked to apply a cervical collar to a training doll, wherein each step that was performed received an evaluation. Furthermore, personal and occupational data of all study participants were collected using a questionnaire.The test subjects included professional rescue personnel (80.8% and emergency physicians (12.5%. The average occupational experience of all study participants in pre-clinical emergency care was 11.1±8.9 years. Most study participants had already attended a certified training on trauma care (61% and felt "very confident" in handling a cervical collar (84%. 11% applied the cervical collar to the training doll without errors. The most common error consisted of incorrect adjustment of the size of the cervical collar (66%. No association was found between the correct application of the cervical collar and the occupational group of the test subjects (trained rescue personnel vs. emergency physicians or the participation in certified trauma courses.Despite pronounced subjective confidence regarding the application of cervical collars, this study allows the conclusion that there are general deficits in practical skills when cervical collars are applied. A critical assessment of the current training contents on the subject of trauma care must, therefore, be demanded.

  11. Application of Cervical Collars – An Analysis of Practical Skills of Professional Emergency Medical Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinest, Michael; Goller, Sarah; Rauch, Geraldine; Frank, Christian; Gliwitzky, Bernhard; Wölfl, Christoph G.; Matschke, Stefan; Münzberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective The application of a cervical collar is a standard procedure in trauma patients in emergency medicine. It is often observed that cervical collars are applied incorrectly, resulting in reduced immobilization of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to analyze the practical skills of trained professional rescue personnel concerning the application of cervical collars. Material and Methods Within emergency medical conferences, n = 104 voluntary test subjects were asked to apply a cervical collar to a training doll, wherein each step that was performed received an evaluation. Furthermore, personal and occupational data of all study participants were collected using a questionnaire. Results The test subjects included professional rescue personnel (80.8%) and emergency physicians (12.5%). The average occupational experience of all study participants in pre-clinical emergency care was 11.1±8.9 years. Most study participants had already attended a certified training on trauma care (61%) and felt "very confident" in handling a cervical collar (84%). 11% applied the cervical collar to the training doll without errors. The most common error consisted of incorrect adjustment of the size of the cervical collar (66%). No association was found between the correct application of the cervical collar and the occupational group of the test subjects (trained rescue personnel vs. emergency physicians) or the participation in certified trauma courses. Conclusion Despite pronounced subjective confidence regarding the application of cervical collars, this study allows the conclusion that there are general deficits in practical skills when cervical collars are applied. A critical assessment of the current training contents on the subject of trauma care must, therefore, be demanded. PMID:26587650

  12. Decent Work in the Chinese Apparel Industry: Comparative Analysis of Blue-Collar and White-Collar Garment Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Addressing labor issues in the apparel industry is significantly important due to customers’ increasing awareness of poor working conditions and growing labor crises in apparel production locations worldwide. Decent work is a key element to achieving fair and harmonious employment, but is not always evident in global apparel production networks. This study examines the working conditions in China’s garment manufacturing industry, which employs more than 10 million workers. A survey was administered to 313 blue-collar workers and 228 white-collar workers on issues related to decent work, including workers’ concerns, satisfaction levels and attitudes towards decent work. Regression analysis showed that workers’ attitudes are significantly related to age, education level, service length and monthly wage. Gap analysis revealed poor understanding of decent work and low satisfaction with primary indicators of decent work. However, results suggest that workers increasingly value soft factors and the overall work experience, not only financial benefits. Cluster analysis identified four clusters of workers. This study contributes to understanding garment worker perceptions of decent work and provides implications for the operationalization of decent work in China’s garment manufacturing industry.

  13. Nonmagnetic rigid and flexible outer sheath with pneumatic interlocking mechanism for minimally invasive surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiromasa; Zuo, Siyang; Masamune, Ken; Liao, Hongen; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2009-01-01

    We developed a nonmagnetic rigid and flexible outer sheath with pneumatic interlocking mechanism using flexible toothed links and a wire-driven bending distal end. The outer sheath can be switched between rigid and flexible modes easily depending on surgical scenes, and the angle of its distal end can be controlled by three nylon wires. All components of flexible parts are made of MRI-compatible nonmagnetic plastics. We manufactured the device with 300-mm long, 16-mm outer diameter, 7-mm inner diameter and 90-mm bending distal end. Holding power of the device in rigid mode was maximum 3.6 N, which was sufficient for surgical tasks in body cavity. In vivo experiment using a swine, our device performed smooth insertion of a flexible endoscope and a biopsy forceps into reverse side of the liver, intestines and spleen with a curved path. In conclusion, our device shows availability of secure approach of surgical instruments into deep cavity.

  14. Designing the coordinate transformation function for non-magnetic invisibility cloaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiaofei; Feng Yijun; Zhao Lin; Jiang Tian [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Lu Chunhua; Xu Zhongzi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, 210009 (China)], E-mail: yjfeng@nju.edu.cn

    2008-11-07

    An optical invisibility cloak based on a transformation approach has recently been proposed by a reduced set of material properties due to their easier implementation in reality and little need for an inhomogeneous permeability distribution, but the drawback of undesired scattering caused by the impedance mismatching at the outer boundary is unavoidable in such a cloak. By properly designing the coordinate transformation function to ensure impedance matching at the outer surface, we show that the performance of a nonmagnetic cylindrical cloak could be improved with minimized scattering fields. Using either a single high order power function or an optimized piecewise continuous power function, a cylindrical non-magnetic cloak has been designed with nearly perfect cloaking performance, which is better than those generated with a linear or a quadratic function. Due to the monotonicity of the designed power functions, the resulting cloak has no restriction on the size of the cloaking shell, therefore is suitable for both thick and thin cloaking structures.

  15. Magnetic-Field-Modulated Resonant Tunneling in Ferromagnetic-Insulator-Nonmagnetic Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Dery, Hanan

    2014-07-01

    We present a theory for resonance-tunneling magnetoresistance (MR) in ferromagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic junctions. The theory sheds light on many of the recent electrical spin injection experiments, suggesting that this MR effect rather than spin accumulation in the nonmagnetic channel corresponds to the electrically detected signal. We quantify the dependence of the tunnel current on the magnetic field by quantum rate equations derived from the Anderson impurity model, with the important addition of impurity spin interactions. Considering the on-site Coulomb correlation, the MR effect is caused by competition between the field, spin interactions, and coupling to the magnetic lead. By extending the theory, we present a basis for operation of novel nanometer-size memories.

  16. Thermal spin current and spin accumulation at ferromagnetic insulator/nonmagnetic metal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. H.; Wang, X. S.; Wang, X. R.

    2016-07-01

    Spin current injection and spin accumulation near a ferromagnetic insulator (FI)/nonmagnetic metal (NM) bilayer film under a thermal gradient is investigated theoretically. By using the Fermi golden rule and the Boltzmann equations, we find that FI and NM can exchange spins via interfacial electron-magnon scattering because of the imbalance between magnon emission and absorption caused by either the deviation of the magnon number from the equilibrium Bose-Einstein distribution or the difference in magnon temperature and electron temperature. A temperature gradient in FI and/or a temperature difference across the FI/NM interface generates a spin current which carries angular momenta parallel to the magnetization of FI from the hotter side to the colder one. Interestingly, the spin current induced by a temperature gradient in NM is negligibly small due to the nonmagnetic nature of the nonequilibrium electron distributions. The results agree well with all existing experiments.

  17. Radiation-Suppressed plasmonic open resonators designed by nonmagnetic transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyi; Wang, Xingjue; Yu, Tianyuan; Sun, Handong; Zhang, Baile

    2012-01-01

    How to confine light energy associated with surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a physical space with minimal radiation loss whereas creating maximum interacting section with surrounding environment is of particular interest in plasmonic optics. By virtue of transformation optics, we propose a design method of forming a polygonal surface-plasmonic resonator in fully open structures by applying the nonmagnetic affine transformation optics strategy. The radiation loss can be suppressed because SPPs that propagate in the designed open structures will be deceived as if they were propagating on a flat metal/dielectric interface without radiation. Because of the nonmagnetic nature of the transformation strategy, this design can be implemented with dielectric materials available in nature. An experimentally verifiable model is subsequently proposed for future experimental demonstration. Our design may find potential applications in omnidirectional sensing, light harvesting, energy storage and plasmonic lasing. PMID:23136641

  18. Enhanced spin-torque in double tunnel junctions using a nonmagnetic-metal spacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. H.; Cheng, Y. H.; Ko, C. W.; Hsueh, W. J., E-mail: hsuehwj@ntu.edu.tw [Nanomagnetism Group, Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10660, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-12

    This study proposes an enhancement in the spin-transfer torque of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) designed with double-barrier layer structure using a nonmagnetic metal spacer, as a replacement for the ferromagnetic material, which is traditionally used in these double-barrier stacks. Our calculation results show that the spin-transfer torque and charge current density of the proposed double-barrier MTJ can be as much as two orders of magnitude larger than the traditional double-barrier one. In other words, the proposed double-barrier MTJ has a spin-transfer torque that is three orders larger than that of the single-barrier stack. This improvement may be attributed to the quantum-well states that are formed in the nonmagnetic metal spacer and the resonant tunneling mechanism that exists throughout the system.

  19. Spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Fan Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. We find that the periodic DMS/NB superlattices can achieve 100% spin filtering over a dramatically broader range of incident energies than the diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor (DMS/S case studied previously. And the positions and widths of spin-filtering bands can be manipulated effectively by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system or the strength of external magnetic field. Such a compelling filtering feature stems from the introduction of nonmagnetic barrier and the spin-dependent giant Zeeman effect induced by the external magnetic field. We also find that the external electric field can exert a significant influence on the spin-polarized transport through the DMS/NB superlattices.

  20. Spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoy66@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Zhu, Rui [Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-07-15

    We propose a spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. We find that the periodic DMS/NB superlattices can achieve 100% spin filtering over a dramatically broader range of incident energies than the diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor (DMS/S) case studied previously. And the positions and widths of spin-filtering bands can be manipulated effectively by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system or the strength of external magnetic field. Such a compelling filtering feature stems from the introduction of nonmagnetic barrier and the spin-dependent giant Zeeman effect induced by the external magnetic field. We also find that the external electric field can exert a significant influence on the spin-polarized transport through the DMS/NB superlattices.

  1. Hidden spin polarization in nonmagnetic centrosymmetric BaNiS2 crystal: Signatures from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławińska, Jagoda; Narayan, Awadhesh; Picozzi, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The recent discovery of hidden spin polarization emerging in bulk electronic states of specific nonmagnetic crystals is a fascinating phenomenon, though hardly explored yet. Here, we study from a theoretical perspective nonmagnetic BaNiS2, recently suggested to exhibit a giant Rashba-like spin-orbit splitting of the bulk bands, despite the absence of heavy elements. We employ density functional theory and Green's functions calculations to reveal the exact spin textures of both bulk and surface. We predict unambiguous signatures of spin-polarized electronic states at the surface, which reflect the bulk Rashba splitting and which could be experimentally measured with sufficient resolution: this would constitute a clear report of a bulk-Rashba-induced spin splitting at the surface of centrosymmetric crystals.

  2. Temperature profile along an induction heated, moving non-magnetic charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januszkiewicz, K.

    1984-01-01

    Induction heating system, comprising three sections of a heating coil connected in series and supplied from one source, will be discussed. The charge to be heated is a non-magnetic pipe moving with steady speed. The heating coil is water cooled. Digital methods are used to compute temperature variations along the charge from start up to steady state temperature and also to determine power development in the heating circuit. Cooling zones between the heating coil sections are taken into account.

  3. Simulation of Electron Beam Dynamics in a Nonmagnetized High-Current Vacuum Diode

    CERN Document Server

    Anishchenko, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The electron beam dynamics in a nonmagnetized high-current vacuum diode is analyzed for different cathode-anode gap geometries. The conditions enabling to achieve the minimal {initial} momentum spread in the electron beam are found out. A drastic rise of current density in a vacuum diode with a ring-type cathode is described. The effect is shown to be caused by electrostatic repulsion.

  4. Importance of drill string assembly swivel in horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Tasak

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A part of the drill string – the swivel (rotational connector – accomplishes an important task in the horizontal drilling. Its malfunctioning makes it impossible to draw in ( install large diameter and length pipelines. The causes of the connector break-down during the horizontal drilling are investigated in the paper. The drilling has been made for twenty inches gas pipeline installation during reaming operations. A trouble was encountered making good work conditions of a system consisting of the drilling machine drill string reamer swivel tube shield of Cardan joint and the gas pipeline 500 m long. In this case, the swivel brokes down and the planned operation was not finished. The assessment of improper drilling conditions, selection of operation system components, and drilling parameters and the insufficient technological supervising have created an excessive risk of failure. A proper application of technical analysis would considerably decrease the hazard of failure which cause large costs, delays and decrease of confidence to the drilling contractor and pipeline installation.

  5. The space density and X-ray luminosity function of non-magnetic cataclysmic variables

    CERN Document Server

    Pretorius, Magaretha L

    2011-01-01

    We combine two complete, X-ray flux-limited surveys, the ROSAT Bright Survey (RBS) and the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) survey, to measure the space density (\\rho) and X-ray luminosity function (\\Phi) of non-magnetic CVs. The combined survey has a flux limit of F_X \\ga 1.1 \\times 10^{-12} erg cm^{-2}s^{-1} over most of its solid angle of just over 2\\pi, but is as deep as \\simeq 10^{-14} erg cm^{-2}s^{-1} over a small area. The CV sample that we construct from these two surveys contains 20 non-magnetic systems. We carefully include all sources of statistical error in calculating \\rho and \\Phi by using Monte Carlo simulations; the most important uncertainty proves to be the often large errors in distances estimates. If we assume that the 20 CVs in the combined RBS and NEP survey sample are representative of the intrinsic population, the space density of non-magnetic CVs is 4^{+6}_{-2} \\times 10^{-6} pc^{-3}. We discuss the difficulty in measuring \\Phi in some detail---in order to account for biases in the me...

  6. Valley and spin resonant tunneling current in ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic silicene junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Hajati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the transport properties in a ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic (FNF silicene junction in which an electrostatic gate potential, U, is attached to the nonmagnetic region. We show that the electrostatic gate potential U is a useful probe to control the band structure, quasi-bound states in the nonmagnetic barrier as well as the transport properties of the FNF silicene junction. In particular, by introducing the electrostatic gate potential, both the spin and valley conductances of the junction show an oscillatory behavior. The amplitude and frequency of such oscillations can be controlled by U. As an important result, we found that by increasing U, the second characteristic of the Klein tunneling is satisfied as a result of the quasiparticles chirality which can penetrate through a potential barrier. Moreover, it is found that for special values of U, the junction shows a gap in the spin and valley-resolve conductance and the amplitude of this gap is only controlled by the on-site potential difference, Δz. Our findings of high controllability of the spin and valley transport in such a FNF silicene junction may improve the performance of nano-electronics and spintronics devices.

  7. Drilling successful from ROV Ventana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakes, Debra S.; McFarlane, James A. R.; Holloway, G. Leon; Greene, H. Gary

    Cores of granite and deformed sediment from the walls of Monterey Canyon were successfully recovered from December 30 to 31, 1992, by Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Ventana using a small-diameter, double-barrel drill with a diamond bit. This HSTR (Holloway-Stakes-Tengdin-Rajcula) drill was developed to drill cores horizontally from sulfide/sulfate walls of active black smokers. The drill was first successfully used by the submersible Alvin in October 1991 to drill into massive sulfide chimneys, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Eos, June 30, 1992, p. 273), and it was subsequently used with equal success on the chalcopyrite-rich chimneys from 21°N and 9°N on the East Pacific Rise. The recent December dives, however, marked the first time that drilling has ever been attempted from the smaller ROV and the first time coring into the harder igneous rock substrate has been attempted.

  8. Female ornamentation and territorial conflicts in collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Gergely; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2008-10-01

    Female ornaments in species with conventional sex roles often indicate individual quality, but the evolutionary forces maintaining them are less clear. Sexual competition for breeding opportunities may represent an important role for female signals, especially in polygynous species, but there is little experimental evidence for this. The wing patch size (WPS) of female collared flycatchers indicates age and body condition and predicts social mating patterns. We challenged nest-building females with decoy females of varying WPS and found that the aggressive response of residents increased with decoy WPS, suggesting a role for this female ornament in territorial competition. Our results explain why female WPS predicts territorial distances when mated to a polygynous male and indicate that the role of WPS in female competitive interactions is similar to that in males of the same population.

  9. Serum chemistry of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Grant, W E

    1984-04-01

    Values of serum biochemistry were obtained for 33 adult (16 male and 17 female) and six juvenile (four male and two female) collared peccaries collected by trapping and drugging animals from southern Texas during the period July through September 1982. Only cholesterol and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations differed significantly with respect to sex. Juvenile peccaries had significantly lower concentrations of total protein and globulins, but had higher concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and calcium, and a higher albumin/globulin ratio than did adults. Effects of method of capture on biochemical attributes of serum from five gunshot and nine trapped adult peccaries collected from a single herd during March 1983 also were examined. Trapped peccaries had significantly higher levels of serum urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, glucose, and chloride concentrations. Levels of uric acid, calcium, and potassium were significantly lower among the trapped animals.

  10. Magnetoresistance generated from charge-spin conversion by anomalous Hall effect in metallic ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical formulation of magnetoresistance effect in a metallic ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayer originated from the charge-spin conversion by the anomalous Hall effect is presented. Analytical expressions of the longitudinal and transverse resistivities in both nonmagnet and ferromagnet are obtained by solving the spin diffusion equation. The magnetoresistance generated from charge-spin conversion purely caused by the anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnet is found to be proportional to the square of the spin polarizations in the ferromagnet and has fixed sign. We also find additional magnetoresistances in both nonmagnet and ferromagnet arising from the mixing of the spin Hall and anomalous Hall effects. The sign of this mixing resistance depends on those of the spin Hall angle in the nonmagnet and the spin polarizations of the ferromagnet.

  11. Gastrostomy with peritoneal collar versus percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, C; Branescu, C; Savlovschi, C; El-Khatib, A; Pantu, H; Nica, A; Dascalu, A M; Masoumeh, B; Tudor, A S; Oprescu, S M; Serban, D

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The present study aimed to perform a medico-surgical comparative analysis of the 2 most widely used techniques: gastrostomy with peritoneal collar versus percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, based on the vast clinical experience in an Upper Digestive Surgery Clinic. Materials and method. A retrospective study was carried out between January 2010 and January 2015 on the patients admitted for a surgical solution for feeding. The indications, preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Results. Out of the 94 cases admitted for a surgical solution for feeding, 67 underwent gastrostomy with peritoneal collar (GPC) and in 27 cases percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was performed. The indications for GPC were benign or malign causes of dysphagia, the most frequent being malign tumors of tongue, pharynx and larynx (47.76%), advanced inoperable esophageal or eso-cardiac cancers (26,86%), post-caustic esophageal stenosis (10.44%). PEG was performed in patients with functional difficulties of swallowing: sequelae of cerebral vascular accidents (44.44%), low Glasgow Coma Scale Score (29.62%) of different etiologies, Parkinson disease (18.51%) advanced dementia (7.4%), early nasopharyngeal cancer (2 cases). The intraoperatory and postoperatory complications were few and of minor importance in both techniques, but PEG allowed an immediate retake of alimentation (vs. at least 48 hours wait in GPC), with less gastric stasis, biliary reflux and aspiration related respiratory problems. Conclusions. Both techniques are easy and safe to perform, but an appropriate selection is required according to the cause of the swallowing difficulty. In cases with permeable digestive tube, PEG may be an excellent minimally invasive solution, but the costs and availability of the PEG kit and prehydrolyzed nutritive solution, as well as the co-existence of an upper digestive endoscopy service were limitations that had to be taken into account.

  12. Effect of Metal Collar on Marginal Distortion of Base Metal Crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grami Panah F

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that noble alloys require metal collar to resist distortion when subjected to"nrepeat firing cycle of porcelain. Metal collar is undesirable due to esthetic concerns. Since base metal"nalloys have superior physical properties, it seems that metal collar would not be necessary for obtaining"nbetter marginal adaptation of base metal crowns. The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of"nmetal collar on marginal distortion of base metal- ceramic crowns, Twenty base metal copings were"nconstructed and divided into two groups with and without collars. After surface preparation, porcelain"nwas applied onto the surface of specimens. Marginal gap was measured by scanning electron microscope"nduring three stages of crown fabrication: before degassing, after degassing and after glazing. The mean"nmeasurements in collarless group were; 21.4±13.4, 2I.4±14.9 and 21.9±11.9 u_m, respectively, and in-"ngroup with collar; 24.7±11.4, 24.0±! 1.5 and 26.6±11.7 urn, respectively. Two- way ANOVA revealed"nno significant difference in the mean values between two groups and among different stages of crown"nfabrication. The results of this study showed that base metal alloys did not distort during crown"nfabrication and metal collar had no effect on the amount of marginal opening (gap.

  13. Effect of hair and clothing on neck immobilization using a cervical collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Fong-Gong; Tsai, Shu-Hui; Wang, Chun-Hsiang; Stern, Susan A

    2005-05-01

    An important step during spine immobilization is application of a cervical collar. Clothing or hair covering the neck may impinge on this process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clothing and hair covering the neck on immobilization using a cervical collar. Study participants were 18 female volunteers with long hair aged 20 to 28 years. Cervical range of motion (ROM) was tested in 6 directions (flexion, extension, right and left lateral bending, right and left axial rotation) using a cervical ROM (CROM) device. After measuring unrestricted ROM (no cervical collar), a 1-piece rigid cervical collar was placed the neck (1) covered by hair and clothing; (2) covered by clothing; (3) covered by hair; or (4) uncovered. Range of motion was retested under all 4 conditions. Data were compared using crossover-design analysis of variance (Pcervical collar placement under all conditions. Unrestricted ROM in all directions ranged from 41.50 degrees (7.25 degrees) to 70.76 degrees (15.4 degrees). In contrast, ROM with a cervical collar under the 4 conditions in all directions ranged from 10.80 degrees (5.10 degrees) to 18.81 degrees (7.37 degrees). We were unable to detect any significant differences in ROM between the 4 conditions. Our data suggest that long hair and clothing, which cover the neck, do not alter the effectiveness of cervical collar immobilization as measured by the cervical ROM device.

  14. Value of a rigid collar in addition to head blocks: a proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, M

    2012-02-01

    All trauma patients with a cervical spinal column injury or with a mechanism of injury with the potential to cause cervical spinal injury should be immobilised until a spinal injury is excluded. Immobilisation of the entire patient with a rigid cervical collar, backboard, head blocks with tape or straps is recommended by the Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines. However there is insufficient evidence to support these guidelines. To analyse the effects on the range of motion of the addition of a rigid collar to head blocks strapped on a backboard. The active range of motion of the cervical spine was determined by computerised digital dual inclinometry, in 10 healthy volunteers with a rigid collar, head blocks strapped on a padded spine board and a combination of both. Maximal opening of the mouth with all types of immobiliser in place was also measured. The addition of a rigid collar to head blocks strapped on a spine board did not result in extra immobilisation of the cervical spine. Opening of the mouth was significantly reduced in patients with a rigid collar. Based on this proof of principle study and other previous evidence of adverse effects of rigid collars, the addition of a rigid collar to head blocks is considered unnecessary and potentially dangerous. Therefore the use of this combination of cervical spine immobilisers must be reconsidered.

  15. An innovative drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nees, J.; Dickinson, E.; Dickinson, W.; Dykstra, H.

    1991-05-01

    The principal project objectives were the following: To demonstrate the capability of the Ultrashort Radius Radial System to drill and complete multiple horizontal radials in a heavy oil formation which had a production history of thermal operations. To study the effects that horizontal radials have on steam placement at specific elevations and on reducing gravity override. To demonstrate that horizontal radials could be utilized for cyclic production, i.e. for purposes of oil production as well as for steam injection. Each of these objectives was successfully achieved in the project. Early production results indicate that radials positively influenced cyclic performance. This report documents those results. 15 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Phylogenetic divisions among Collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) detected using mitochondrial and nuclear sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Morales, Socorro; Bernal, Jaime Eduardo; Moran, Chris

    2006-10-01

    The Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) is one of the three extant recognised species of the family Tayassuidae, living in the Americas. To understand phylogenetic relationships among Collared peccaries, the entire mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b as well as partial nuclear GPIP and PRE-1 P27, PRE-1 P642 and TYR sequences from specimens from Colombia, Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, United States and Australian zoo animals of unknown origin were analysed. Separate and combined analyses of the mitochondrial sequences provided good resolution of Collared peccary relationships. Nuclear sequences were partially informative when combined sequence analyses were performed. Maximum Likelihood analyses of mitochondrial sequences showed that Collared peccaries clustered in two major clades, representing North-Central American and South American specimens. Collared peccaries from Colombia are paraphyletic. Statistical Parsimony analysis of combined nuclear sequences showed a distribution of DNA variants consistent with mitochondrial sequence analyses. However, there is an uncoupling of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence variation in two specimens from Colombia. The present study suggests the recent contact of isolated populations within Colombia and possible mitochondrial introgression between the North/Central clade and the South clade. Pairwise genetic distances comparison of mitochondrial sequences show that divergence between the two major clades of the Collared peccary was higher and comparable respectively with that within and between the other two recognised peccary species. Divergence between the two major clades of the Collared peccary was also higher than that observed within and even between recognised species of the Suidae family. The divergence within the major clades of the Collared peccary showed comparable values with those observed within the other two species of Tayassuidae and within six species of Suidae. The results show that the geographically

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2004-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2004 through June 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 4Q 2004 or later. Smith International's hammer was tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek re-tested the ''optimized'' fluid hammer provided by Smith International during April 2004. Many improvements in mud hammer rates of penetration were noted over Phase 1 benchmark testing from November 2002. (2) Shell Exploration and Production in The Hague was briefed on various drilling performance projects including Task 8 ''Cutter Impact Testing''. Shell interest and willingness to assist in the test matrix as an Industry Advisor is appreciated. (3) TerraTek participated in a DOE/NETL Review meeting at Morgantown on April 15, 2004. The discussions were very helpful and a program related to the Mud Hammer optimization project was noted--Terralog modeling work on percussion tools. (4) Terralog's Dr. Gang Han witnessed some of the full-scale optimization testing of the Smith International hammer in order to familiarize him with downhole tools. TerraTek recommends that modeling first start with single cutters/inserts and progress in complexity. (5) The final equipment problem on the impact testing task was resolved through the acquisition of a high data rate laser based displacement instrument. (6) TerraTek provided Novatek much engineering support for the future re-testing of their optimized tool. Work was conducted on slip ring [electrical] specifications and tool collar sealing in the

  18. Manufacturing Gender Inequality in the New Economy: High School Training for Work in Blue-Collar Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, April; Bosky, Amanda; Muller, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Tensions between the demands of the knowledge-based economy and remaining, blue-collar jobs underlie renewed debates about whether schools should emphasize career and technical training or college-preparatory curricula. We add a gendered lens to this issue, given the male-dominated nature of blue-collar jobs and women's greater returns to college. Using the ELS:2002, this study exploits spatial variation in school curricula and jobs to investigate local dynamics that shape gender stratification. Results suggest a link between high school training and jobs in blue-collar communities that structures patterns of gender inequality into early adulthood. Although high school training in blue-collar communities reduced both men's and women's odds of four-year college enrollment, it had gender-divergent labor market consequences. Men in blue-collar communities took more blue-collar courses, had higher rates of blue-collar employment, and earned similar wages relative to otherwise comparable men from non-blue-collar communities. Women were less likely to work and to be employed in professional occupations, and they suffered severe wage penalties relative to their male peers and women from non-blue-collar communities. These relationships were due partly to high schools in blue-collar communities offering more blue-collar and fewer advanced college-preparatory courses. This curricular tradeoff may benefit men, but it appears to disadvantage women.

  19. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  20. Recent R&D in Drilling Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zuchen; Huang Zhiqian

    1997-01-01

    @@ Situation for Drilling Equipment Technical performance of drilling equipment and perfection of supporting systems hold the key to drilling safety, technical procedure development and drilling cost. In the end of the 1980s, the stituation for drilling equipment was not optimistic in China because of poor technical performance, low-level supporting system and scarcity of electric-driven rigs.

  1. The development and validation of a job crafting measure for use with blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Job crafting describes a set of proactive behaviours in which employees may engage to shape their work in order to minimize hindering job demands and maximize resources and challenging demands. Such behaviours may be particularly important among blue-collar workers whose jobs...... are characterized by poor working conditions and low well-being. We present the development and adaptation of a job crafting measure that may be used among blue-collar workers, based on an existing scale by Tims, Bakker, and Derks (2012) that was not specifically developed for blue-collar workers. We test...

  2. Great Progress of Drilling Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kexiang

    1994-01-01

    @@ A great progress has been made in drilling technology in China from 1986 to 1990 by popularizing research achievements and emphasizing high economic efficiency of exploration and development, high quality of drilling engineering, high drilling rate and formation damage prevention.

  3. Advances in core drilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, G.

    Some notable technical advances in drill design were reported at the meeting, held in Canada August 30-September 1, 1982, at the University of Calgary. Chief amongst these was a battery powered, computer assisted electromechanical core drill which has recently been used by the Danes in Greenland to continuously core to the base of the ice sheet at 2038 m. This is the deepest coring operation so far on the Greenland ice sheet. (The record for deep glacier drilling is held by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory for the continuous coring through 2164 m of ice to bedrock at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in 1968). In early 1982, a current Soviet core drilling operation was reported to be at a depth of 2000 m at Vostok station, Antarctica, where the total ice thickness is about 4000 m; the goal of core drilling the entire ice thickness there could be achieved before the end of 1983.

  4. DRILL BITS FOR HORIZONTAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Macini

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the importance of the correct drill bit application in horizontal wells. Afler the analysis of the peculiarities of horizontal wells and drainholes drilling techniques, advantages and disadvantages of the application of both roller cone and fixed cutters drill bits have been discussed. Also, a review of the potential specific featuries useful for a correct drill bit selection in horizontal small diameter holes has been highlighted. Drill bits for these special applications, whose importance is quickly increasing nowadays, should be characterised by a design capable to deliver a good penetration rate low WOB, and, at the same time, be able to withstand high RPM without premature cutting structure failure and undergauge. Formation properties will also determine the cutting structure type and the eventual specific features for additional gauge and shoulder protection.

  5. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  6. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handcock, Rebecca N; Swain, Dave L; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J; Patison, Kym P; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    ...). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor...

  7. Part 4: GPS Telemetry Detection Rates (GPS Test Collar Sites), GCS NAD 83 (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bias correction in GPS telemetry data-sets requires a strong understanding of the mechanisms that result in missing data. We tested wildlife GPS collars in a variety...

  8. Part 2: GPS Telemetry Detection Rates (Northern Arizona GPS Test Collar Data), GCS NAD 83 (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bias correction in GPS telemetry data-sets requires a strong understanding of the mechanisms that result in missing data. We tested wildlife GPS collars in a variety...

  9. Augmenting the osseointegration of endoprostheses using laser-sintered porous collars: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Coathup, M; Chimutengwende-Gordon, M; Aston, W; Briggs, T; Blunn, G

    2017-02-01

    Massive endoprostheses rely on extra-cortical bone bridging (ECBB) to enhance fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of selective laser sintered (SLS) porous collars in augmenting the osseointegration of these prostheses. The two novel designs of porous SLS collars, one with small pores (Ø700 μm, SP) and one with large pores (Ø1500 μm, LP), were compared in an ovine tibial diaphyseal model. Osseointegration of these collars was compared with that of a clinically used solid, grooved design (G). At six months post-operatively, the ovine tibias were retrieved and underwent radiological and histological analysis. Porous collars provided a significantly greater surface (p direct ingrowth of more bone and are better than current designs which rely on surface ongrowth and ECBB. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:276-82. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. When should a cervical collar be used to treat neck pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzin, Stefan; Isaac, Zacharia; Walker, Joseph; Abd, Omar El; Baima, Jennifer

    2008-06-01

    Neck pain is one of the most prevalent and costly health problems in the United States. It remains a complex, subjective experience with a variety of musculoskeletal causes. Although, cervical collars are a seemingly benign intervention, they can have adverse effects, especially when used for longer periods of time. It is feared that a long period of immobilization, can result in atrophy-related secondary damage. Many physicians cite anecdotal evidence of their clinical utility and soft cervical collars are often prescribed by convention for patients complaining of neck pain. The use of cervical collars to treat neck pain is an area of controversy. This review article examines the current evidence and studies related to recommending cervical collars for neck pain of a variety of etiologies.

  11. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  12. Automatic evaluation of drilling fluid properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is structured in two main parts. First part covers the fundamental role of drilling fluid in the drilling process. It provides a description of the mud circulating system for conventional drilling operations, outlines the basic composition of drilling fluids, and describes the main functions and properties of drilling fluids. Furthermore it describes the current testing procedures and equipment and illustrates how testing is used in the evaluation of drilling fluid ...

  13. Dual gradient drilling - simulations during connection operations

    OpenAIRE

    Time, André

    2014-01-01

    As oilfields are ageing and depleting, operators are forced to start searching for oil in more hostile environments. These new environments can introduce new drilling challenges. Prospects like ultra deep water reservoirs and depleted offshore reservoirs are difficult to drill with conventional drilling. This has lead the industry to developing the Dual Gradient Drilling (DGD) system. DGD is an unconventional drilling method and it is classified as a Managed Pressure Drilling ...

  14. Serologic survey for antibodies to canine distemper virus in collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) populations in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Ted H; Heffelfinger, James R; Olding, Ronald J; Wesche, Shannon Lynn; Reggiardo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    In 1989, a disease outbreak was observed among collared peccaries (javelina, Tayassu tajacu) in southern Arizona (USA) and canine distemper virus (CDV) was isolated from affected animals. Subsequently, 364 sera were collected from hunter-harvested javelina over a 4 yr period (1993-96) and were tested for antibody to CDV. Neutralizing antibody to CDV was detected in 58% of the serum samples suggesting that CDV infection is probably enzootic in the collared peccary populations of southern Arizona.

  15. Nuclear and mitochondrial evolutionary analyses of Collared, White-lipped, and Chacoan peccaries (Tayassuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The three extant peccary species, the Chacoan (Catagonus wagneri), the White-lipped (Tayassu pecari) and the Collared (Pecari tajacu), are morphologically and chromosomally distinct and confined to the New World. There is ongoing paleontological, cytogenetic, and molecular debate about phylogenetic relationships among them. To contribute to the understanding of Tayassuidae phylogeny, three mitochondrial (control region, cytochrome b, and 12S rRNA) and five nuclear (K-casein, thyrotropin, tyrosinase, and swine short interspersed nuclear elements PRE-1 P27 and P642) peccary DNA fragments were amplified, cloned and sequenced from Chacoan, White-lipped, and Collared peccaries. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum likelihood and neighbor joining methods. K-casein, thyrotropin, and tyrosinase sequences did not resolve the phylogeny, while control region, cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, and PRE-1 P27 and P642 sequences were more informative in deciphering phylogenetic relationships. When pig and warthog were used as an outgroup, Chacoan and White-lipped peccaries clustered distinct from Collared peccaries. Furthermore, control region and cytochrome b sequence variation within Collared peccaries was as extreme as that between White-lipped and Chacoan peccaries, supporting subspecific and possibly even specific variation within the widely distributed Collared peccary. This study supports the existence of two independent genera within the Tayassuidae family consisting of Collared and Chacoan/White-lipped peccaries, in contrast with classical morphological taxonomy which clusters White-lipped and Collared peccaries in the genus Tayassu or which alternatively clusters the Collared peccary in the genus Dicotyles as a related sister clade of the Chacoan peccary (genus Catagonus).

  16. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  17. A Comperative Study on Perceptions and Reactions of Workers: A Resear ch on Blue and White Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Ateş

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine perception of inequality and types of reaction of white and blue collar workers. The research was conducted over 120 white collar and 159 blue collar workers in an academic institution. It was determined with correlation analysis whether there is a relation between perception of inequality and reaction towards it for two groups. A significant and positive relation has been found between inequality perceptions and reaction towards inequality of blue collar workers. No significant relation has been found for white collar workers. Factor analysis was used to determine the dimensions of inequality perceptions andreactions towards inequality of blue and white collar workers. Results show that inequality perceptions and types of reactions towards inequality differ in terms of dimensions. Equity perceptions of blue collar workers are mostly based on comparisons with colleagues and nepotist behavior of their managers. White collar workers show sensitivity to the issues like salary, promotion and status. Blue collar workers prefer to report or to persuade their managers when they face with inequality. White collar workers decide to show their reactions by using more political methods.

  18. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  19. [Disability by cervical sprain I and II and the use of neck collar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sousa, Martha Guadalupe; Sánchez-Avendaño, María Eugenia; Solís-Rodríguez, Annel; Yáñez-Estrada, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la incidencia del esguince cervical ocasiona altos costos en atención médica, incapacidades y ausencias laborales. El objetivo fue demostrar que los días de incapacidad por esguince cervical grados I y II son menores sin el uso de collarín. Métodos: estudio transversal en 100 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta de urgencias por esguince cervical grados I y II. Se evaluó el uso de collarín y los días de incapacidad laboral. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva para el análisis estadístico. Resultados: fueron tratados con collarín más antiinflamatorio 68 % de los pacientes y 32 %, solamente con antiinflamatorio; 86 % requirió incapacidad laboral, con 11.75 días en promedio. De los pacientes incapacitados, 74.4 % utilizó collarín; de los 14 pacientes que no requirieron incapacidad, 28.6 % utilizó collarín (χ(2) = 11.63, p < 0.001). Conclusiones: los días de incapacidad y recuperación fueron menores en los pacientes que no utilizaron collarín.

  20. Non-magnetic simplified cylindrical cloak with suppressed zero-th order scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Wei; Qiu, Min

    2008-01-01

    A new type of simplified cloaks with matched exterior boundaries is proposed. The cloak uses non-magnetic material for the TM polarization and can function with a relatively thin thickness. It is shown that the $zero^{th}$ order scattering of such cloak is dominant among all cylindrical scattering terms. A gap is added at the cloak's inner surface to eliminate the zero-th order scattering, through the mechanism of scattering resonance. The reduction in scattering is relatively smooth, indicating that the proposed scattering reduction method has good tolerance to perturbations. Numerical simulations also confirm that the proposed structure has very low scattering.

  1. Few-layer graphene shells and nonmagnetic encapsulates: a versatile and nontoxic carbon nanomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Mendes, Rafael G; Hirsch, Cordula; Jähne, Carsten; Lohe, Martin R; Grothe, Julia; Kaskel, Stefan; Fu, Lei; Klingeler, Rüdiger; Eckert, Jürgen; Wick, Peter; Rümmeli, Mark H

    2013-12-23

    In this work a simple and scalable approach to coat nonmagnetic nanoparticles with few-layer graphene is presented. In addition, the easy processing of such nanoparticles to remove their core, leaving only the 3D graphene nanoshell, is demonstrated. The samples are comprehensively characterized, as are their versatility in terms of functionalization and as a material for electrochemical storage. Indeed, these 3D graphene nanostructures are easily functionalized much as is found with carbon nanotubes and planar graphene. Electrochemical investigations indicate these nanostructures are promising for stable long-life battery applications. Finally, initial toxicological investigations suggest no acute health risk from these 3D graphene nanostructures.

  2. Magnetism of Rare-Earth Compounds with Non-Magnetic Crystal-Field Ground Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-Sen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Among rare-earth compounds, there are many materials having non-magnetic crystal-field (CF) ground levels.To understand their magnetic behaviour at low temperatures, we study the effects of the CF levels and the Heisenberg-like coupling on the magnetic process of such a crystalline with mean-field and CF theory. It is found that the material can be magnetically ordered if the Heisenberg exchange is sufficiently strong. Additionally we obtain a condition for initial magnetic ordering, and derive a formula for estimating the Curie temperature if the ordering occurs.

  3. Spin-current-induced magnetoresistance in trilayer structure with nonmagnetic metallic interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Ryo; Sato, Koji; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    We have theoretically investigated the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) and Rashba–Edelstein magnetoresistance (REMR), mediated by spin currents, in a ferrimagnetic insulator/nonmagnetic metal/heavy metal system in the diffusive regime. The magnitude of both SMR and REMR decreases with increasing thickness of the interlayer because of the current shunting effect and the reduction in spin accumulation across the interlayer. The latter contribution is due to driving a spin current and persists even in the absence of spin relaxation, which is essential for understanding the magnetoresistance ratio in trilayer structures.

  4. Position feedback control of a nonmagnetic body levitated in magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H; Nam, Y J; Park, M K [Graduate School, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Yamane, R [Kokushikan University, Tokyo 154-8515 (Japan)], E-mail: magooro@pusan.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the position feedback control of a magnetic fluid actuator which is characterized by the passive levitation of a nonmagnetic body immersed in a magnetic fluid under magnetic fields. First of all, the magnetic fluid actuator is designed based on the ferrohydrostatic relation. After manufacturing the actuator, its static and dynamic characteristics are investigated experimentally. With the aid of the dynamic governing relation obtained experimentally and the proportional-derivative controller, the position tracking control of the actuator is carried out both theoretically and experimentally. As a result, the applicability of the proposed magnetic fluid actuator to various engineering devices is verified.

  5. The space density and X-ray luminosity function of non-magnetic cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Magaretha L.; Knigge, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We combine two complete, X-ray flux-limited surveys, the ROSAT Bright Survey (RBS) and the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) survey, to measure the space density (ρ) and X-ray luminosity function (Φ) of non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs). The combined survey has a flux limit of FX≳ 1.1 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 over most of its solid angle of just over ?, but is as deep as ≃10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 over a small area. The CV sample that we construct from these two surveys contains 20 non-magnetic systems. We carefully include all sources of statistical error in calculating ρ and Φ by using Monte Carlo simulations; the most important uncertainty proves to be the often large errors in distances estimates. If we assume that the 20 CVs in the combined RBS and NEP survey sample are representative of the intrinsic population, the space density of non-magnetic CVs is ?. We discuss the difficulty in measuring Φ in some detail - in order to account for biases in the measurement, we have to adopt a functional form for Φ. Assuming that the X-ray luminosity function of non-magnetic CVs is a truncated power law, we constrain the power-law index to -0.80 ± 0.05. It seems likely that the two surveys have failed to detect a large, faint population of short-period CVs, and that the true space density may well be a factor of 2 or 3 larger than what we have measured; this is possible, even if we only allow for undetected CVs to have X-ray luminosities in the narrow range 28.7 log(LX/erg s-1) < 29.7. However, ρ as high as 2 × 10-4 pc-3 would require that the majority of CVs has X-ray luminosities below LX= 4 × 1028 erg s-1 in the 0.5-2.0 keV band.

  6. Induction heating of rotating nonmagnetic billet in magnetic field produced by high-parameter permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Doležel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An advanced way of induction heating of nonmagnetic billets is discussed and modeled. The billet rotates in a stationary magnetic field produced by unmoving high-parameter permanent magnets fixed on magnetic circuit of an appropriate shape. The mathematical model of the problem consisting of two coupled partial differential equations is solved numerically, in the monolithic formulation. Computations are carried out using our own code Agros2D based on a fully adaptive higher-order finite element method. The most important results are verified experimentally on our own laboratory device.

  7. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  8. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  9. Martian dreaming: The red-hot search for evidence of life on other planets could spur revolutionary new drilling techniques for Planet Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2004-02-01

    The challenge of proving the existence of water, hence the possibility of life, on Mars, the development of lightweight, compact technology to do the necessary drilling and the potential impact that development of that technology may have on drilling technology on Earth, is discussed. One of the most advanced of the projects designed to look deeper into the Martian surface is a joint NASA-Baker Hughes development of a fully automated bottomhole assembly attached by cable that drills fluidless and at low power levels. The device is designed to operate without a drillstring; it acquires a core, hauls it up the cable and goes down again. At least in theory, the cable could be extended more or less indefinitely. The drill is planned to be field-tested in the Canadian High Arctic. Automation of the equipment that will be able to deal with the wide variety of situations that challenge even the best human operators, will be the most likely legacy of the program that could have the potential to make useful contributions to the exploration industry. Various other projects, such as laser drilling, and drilling with Kevlar coiled tubing containing geophysical sensors embedded in the drill collars, are underway at the Colorado School of Mines. Honeybee Robotics has developed a prototype one-metre drill, that is capable of taking core samples and transfer them to a spectrometer. They are also developing the unique Inchworm deep drilling system that will be capable to burrow several kilometres below the surface. Among these experimental projects the Inchworm system in particular is seen as having the greatest potential for application in the oil and gas industry. An all-Canadian mission to Mars scheduled for 2011 that could leverage Canadian mining industry drilling technology to drill for rock samples is also reported.

  10. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  11. Development and testing of a high-pressure downhole pump for jet-assist drilling. Topical report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The goal of jet-assisted drilling is to increase the rate of penetration (ROP) in deeper gas and oil wells, where the rocks become harder and more difficult to drill. Increasing the ROP can result in fewer drilling days, and therefore, lower drilling cost. In late 1993, FlowDril and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) began a three-year development of a down hole pump (DHP{reg_sign}) capable of producing 30,000 psi out pressure to provide the high-pressure flow for high-pressure jet-assist of the drill bit. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Morgantown, WV (DOE-Morgantown) field office, joined with GRI and FlowDril to develop and test a second prototype designed for drilling in 7-7/8 inch holes. This project, {open_quotes}Development and Testing of a High-Pressure Down Hole Pump for Jet-Assist Drilling,{close_quotes} is for the development and testing of the second prototype. It was planned in two phases. Phase I included an update of a market analysis, a design, fabrication, and an initial laboratory test of the second prototype. Phase II is continued iterative laboratory and field developmental testing. This report summarizes the results of Phase II. In the downhole pump approach shown in the following figure, conventional drill pipe and drill collars are used, with the DHP as the last component of the bottom hole assembly next to the bit. The DHP is a reciprocating double ended, intensifier style positive displacement, high-pressure pump. The drive fluid and the high-pressure output fluid are both derived from the same source, the abrasive drilling mud pumped downhole through the drill string. Approximately seven percent of the stream is pressurized to 30,000 psi and directed through a high-pressure nozzle on the drill bit to produce the high speed jet and assist the mechanical action of the bit to make it drill faster.

  12. The Effects of Fin Collar Form on Heat Transfer Performance of Cross Fin-tube Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Koutaro; Miyara, Akio; Nagai, Yuma; Sasaki, Naoe; Mizuta, Yoshihiko

    A numerical study has been conducted to investigate effects of fin collar form of cross fin-tube heat exchangers on heat transfer performance. Two adjacent fin collars and a copper tube form a triangular space during the making process. And also end of the fin collar protrudes into air-side. The protruded end and triangular space affect on air-side heat convection and thermal resistance between the tube and fin collars, respectively. The increase in triangular space increases non-contact surface area between tube and fin collar, which affects to decrease heat transfer rate. The protruded end disturbs air-side flow and expands the surface of the fin collar. As a result of these two effects, heat transfer rate from the heat transfer tube increases. However, protruded end increases pressure loss of air-side.

  13. Anomalous Localized Resonance Phenomena in the Nonmagnetic, Finite-Frequency Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Onofrei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of anomalous localized resonance (ALR is observed at the interface between materials with positive and negative material parameters and is characterized by the fact that when a given source is placed near the interface, the electric and magnetic fields start to have very fast and large oscillations around the interface as the absorption in the materials becomes very small while they remain smooth and regular away from the interface. In this paper, we discuss the phenomenon of anomalous localized resonance (ALR in the context of an infinite slab of homogeneous, nonmagnetic material (μ=1 with permittivity ϵs=-1-iδ for some small loss δ≪1 surrounded by positive, nonmagnetic, homogeneous media. We explicitly characterize the limit value of the product between frequency and the width of slab beyond which the ALR phenomenon does not occur and analyze the situation when the phenomenon is observed. In addition, we also construct sources for which the ALR phenomenon never appears.

  14. Quantifying absolute spin polarization with non-magnetic contacts in FM/ n-GaAs heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Chad; Wienkes, Lee; Christie, Kevin; Patel, Sahil; Palmstrøm, Chris; Crowell, Paul

    2014-03-01

    We report on a novel method of quantifying spin accumulation in Co2MnSi/ n-GaAs and Fe/ n-GaAs heterostructures using a non-magnetic probe. The presence of a non-equilibrium spin polarization generates a large electrostatic potential shift relative to the equilibrium state. This is due to the combination of (1) the parabolic (non-constant) density of states and (2) the population imbalance between the two spin sub-bands. We observe this shift as a Hanle effect in a non-local, non-magnetic semiconducting contact. Since this signal depends only on experimentally accessible parameters of the bulk semiconductor, its magnitude may be used to quantify the injected spin polarization in absolute terms. By comparison with the (smaller) spin-valve signal observed with a second ferromagnetic contact, we demonstrate that this electrostatic shift scales quadratically with spin polarization, dephases in the presence of both applied and hyperfine fields, and is observable to higher temperatures than traditional non-local measurements. Quantitative modeling allows extraction of absolute polarizations in excess of 50 % at low temperatures, and further indicates that this contribution constitutes a large fraction of the three-terminal signal observed in these devices. Supported by NSF DMR-1104951; by STARnet, a SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA; and by the NSF MRSEC program.

  15. Kramers non-magnetic superconductivity in LnNiAsO superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuke; Luo, Yongkang; Li, Lin; Chen, Bin; Xu, Xiaofeng; Dai, Jianhui; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Li; Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Zhu-an

    2014-10-22

    We investigated a series of nickel-based oxyarsenides LnNiAsO (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) compounds. CeNiAsO undergoes two successive anti-ferromagnetic transitions at TN1=9.3 K and TN2=7.3 K; SmNiAsO becomes an anti-ferromagnet below TN≃3.5 K; NdNiAsO keeps paramagnetic down to 2 K but orders anti-ferromagnetically below TN≃1.3 K. Superconductivity was observed only in Kramers non-magnetic LaNiAsO and PrNiAsO with Tc=2.7 K and 0.93 K, respectively. The superconductivity of PrNiAsO is further studied by upper critical field and specific heat measurements, which reveal that PrNiAsO is a weakly coupled Kramers non-magnetic superconductor. Our work confirms that the nickel-based oxyarsenide superconductors are substantially different in mechanism to iron-based ones, and are likely to be described by the conventional superconductivity theory.

  16. Magnetism at the Interface of Magnetic Oxide and Nonmagnetic Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Avijit; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2017-03-28

    Engineering interfaces specifically in quantum dot (QD) heterostructures provide several prospects for developing multifunctional building block materials. Precise control over internal structure by chemical synthesis offers a combination of different properties in QDs and allows us to study their fundamental properties, depending on their structure. Herein, we studied the interface of magnetic/nonmagnetic Fe3O4/CdS QD heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate the decrease in the size of the magnetic core due to annealing at high temperature by the decrease in saturation magnetization and blocking temperature. Furthermore, surprisingly, in a prominently optically active and magnetically inactive material such as CdS, we observe the presence of substantial exchange bias in spite of the nonmagnetic nature of CdS QDs. The presence of exchange bias was proven by the increase in magnetic anisotropy as well as the presence of exchange bias field (HE) during the field-cooled magnetic measurements. This exchange coupling was eventually traced to the in situ formation of a thin antiferromagnetic FeS layer at the interface. This is verified by the study of Fe local structure using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, demonstrating the importance of interface engineering in QDs.

  17. Component masses of young, wide, non-magnetic white dwarf binaries in the SDSS DR7

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, R B; Parker, Q A; Casewell, S L; Lodieu, N; Burleigh, M R; Lawrie, K A; Kulebi, B; Koester, D; Holland, B R

    2014-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic component analysis of 18 candidate young, wide, non-magnetic, double-degenerate binaries identified from a search of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (DR7). All but two pairings are likely to be physical systems. We show SDSS J084952.47+471247.7 + SDSS J084952.87+471249.4 to be a wide DA+DB binary, only the second identified to date. Combining our measurements for the components of 16 new binaries with results for three similar, previously known systems within the DR7, we have constructed a mass distribution for the largest sample to date (38) of white dwarfs in young, wide, non-magnetic, double-degenerate pairings. This is broadly similar in form to that of the isolated field population with a substantial peak around M~0.6 Msun. We identify an excess of ultra-massive white dwarfs and attribute this to the primordial separation distribution of their progenitor systems peaking at relatively larger values and the greater expansion of their binary orbits during the final sta...

  18. Non-magnetic impurity effects in LiFeAs studied by STM/STS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaguri, T.; Khim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Bumsung; Kim, Kee Hoon; Kitagawa, K.; Matsubayashi, K.; Mazaki, Y.; Uwatoko, Y.; Takigawa, M.; Takagi, H.

    2012-02-01

    Detecting the possible sign reversal of the superconducting gap in iron-based superconductors is highly non-trivial. Here we use non-magnetic impurity as a sign indicator. If the sign of the superconducting gap is positive everywhere in momentum space, in-gap bound state should not be observed near the impurity site unless it is magnetic. On the other hand, if there is a sign-reversal in the gap, even non-magnetic impurity may create in-gap bound state [1]. We performed STM/STS experiments on self-flux and Sn-flux grown LiFeAs crystals and examined the effects of Sn impurity. In STM images of Sn-flux grown samples, we found a ring-like object which may represent Sn. Tunneling spectrum taken at this defect site exhibits in-gap bound state. Together with flat-bottom superconducting gap observed far from the defects, sign-reversing s-wave gap is the most plausible gap structure in LiFeAs. [1] T. Kariyado and M. Ogata, JPSJ 79, 083704 (2010).

  19. The control of ticks, fleas and lice on dogs by means of a Sendran--impregnated collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G

    1976-03-01

    Plastic collars impregnated with 9,4% Sendran effectively controlled adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus for a period of 49 days and immature ticks for a period possibly in excess of 70 days when fitted to four dogs. Four uncollared dogs served as controls. Although flea burdens were extremely low the collars were apparently effective for a period in excess of 70 days. A medicated collar killed all the ticks, fleas and lice on a severely parasited dog within a period of 48 hours.

  20. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Cheng Chang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  1. Drilling a borehole for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Boreholes were drilled along the earlier proposed line of the LEP tunnel under the Jura to find out the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction of the LEP tunnel (Annual Report 1981 p. 106, Fig. 10).

  2. Drilling Damage in Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Miguel P. Durão

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced laminates have widened their use from aerospace to domestic appliances, and new possibilities for their usage emerge almost daily. In many of the possible applications, the laminates need to be drilled for assembly purposes. It is known that a drilling process that reduces the drill thrust force can decrease the risk of delamination. In this work, damage assessment methods based on data extracted from radiographic images are compared and correlated with mechanical test results—bearing test and delamination onset test—and analytical models. The results demonstrate the importance of an adequate selection of drilling tools and machining parameters to extend the life cycle of these laminates as a consequence of enhanced reliability.

  3. Horizontal drilling activity in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.

    1997-04-01

    An update of horizontal well drilling in Manitoba was provided. Manitoba`s productive formations are: (1) the Bakken Formation, (2) the Lodgepole Formation, (3) the Mission Canyon Formation, (4) the Amaranth Formation, and (5) the Melita Formation. A total of 28 exploratory wells and 29 development wells, including 11 horizontal wells were drilled in 1996. The 11 horizontal wells accounted for 30 per cent of the drilling meterage. The leading drillers for horizontal wells in Manitoba are Tundra Oil and Gas, Chevron, Anderson and HCO. Production from horizontal wells in 1996 totaled 310 cubic meter per day. To date, no horizontal wells have been drilled in the Bakken Formation. The least successful horizontal well application has been in the Lodgepole Formation. A summary of horizontal well production was provided for each Formation. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Unit for cleaning drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosh, M.M.; Dera, Ya.I.; Fesenko, M.M.; Makedonov, N.I.; Surkov, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    A design is proposed for a unit for cleaning drilling muds which includes a settling tank with input sleeve and a sleeve of the purified mud and hydrocyclones. In order to improve the effectiveness of the degree of purification, the unit is equipped with an ejector and sludge filter arranged under the settling tank in the form of a grid installed in the upper part of the settling tank and connected to the sleeve of purified mud, while the inlet sleeve is arranged tangentially. The proposed unit can operate during drilling with the use of muds on water and carbon bases. As a result of its use, the degree of purification of the drilling mud reaches 30-35%; there is an increase in mechanical drilling rate, the service life of the sand-separator and the silt separators and decrease in wear of the pump equipment.

  5. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  6. 毛衫领部设计分析%Design Analysis of Sweater Collar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕蕊

    2015-01-01

    随着毛衫向外穿的方向发展,领部作为穿着者头部与毛衫整体的过渡部分,其流行性设计已成为毛衫时尚化与个性化设计的重要环节之一. 通过对2016—2017年秋冬季针织毛衫产品流行趋势的分析,本文在总结男款毛衫、女款毛衫时尚领部设计的基础上,重点以领型设计、领部组织结构选择和领圈加工工艺等展开分析. 指出,圆领、V领、翻领等经典领型在毛衫中依然有所应用,适合秋冬季的漏斗领、带有垂坠感的领型尤其值得设计师关注.%As the sweater outside wear trends continue to strengthen, the fashion design of collar is an impor-tant part of the fashion and personalization sweaters, because the collar is a transition between the wearer's head and upper part of the body. Through analyzing the 2016-2017 autumn and winter knitted sweater fashion trends, and summarizing men's and women's sweaters basis collar fashion design, the paper introduces the fashion design, knitting structure choosing and fabrication process of the collar. It points out that round neck, V-neck, and other classic lapel collar still appear in the sweater, while for autumn and winter funnel collar, collar with drape should be deserved much more attention.

  7. Effect of rigid cervical collar on tracheal intubation using Airtraq®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja Durga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cervical spine immobilisation with rigid cervical collar imposes difficulty in intubation. Removal of the anterior part of the collar may jeopardize the safety of the cervical spine. The effect of restricted mouth opening and cervical spine immobilisation that result from the application of rigid cervical collar on intubation using Airtraq ® was evaluated. Methods: Seventy healthy adults with normal airways included in the study were intubated Using Airtraq® with (group C and without rigid cervical collar (group NC. The ease of insertion of Airtraq ® into the oral cavity, intubation time, intubation difficulty score (IDS were compared using Wilcoxon sign ranked test and McNemar test, using SPSS version 13. Results: Intubation using Airtraq ® was successful in the presence of the cervical collar in 96% which was comparable to group without collar (P = 0.24. The restriction of mouth opening resulted in mild difficulty in insertion of Airtraq ® . The median Likert scale for insertion was - 1 in the group C and + 1 in group NC (P < 0.001. The intubation time was longer in group C (30 ± 14.3 s vs. 26.9 ± 14.8 s compared to group NC. The need for adjusting manoeuvres was 18.5% in group C versus 6.2% in group NC (P = 0.003 and bougie was required in 12 (18.5% and 4 (6.2% patients in group C and NC, respectively, to facilitate intubation (P = 0.02. The modified IDS score was higher in group C but there was no difference in the number of patients with IDS < 2. Conclusion: Tracheal intubation using Airtraq ® in the presence of rigid cervical collar has equivalent success rate, acceptable difficulty in insertion and mild increase in IDS.

  8. Effect of Cervical Collar Removal on the Fracture Load of Anterior Zirconia Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernanda; Cardoso, Mayra; de Melo, Renata Marques; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Souza, Rodrigo Oa

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the extension of collar and fatigue cycling on the fracture load of anterior zirconia crowns. A total of 60 anterior full-crown preparations (central incisor) were machined in glass fiber-filled epoxy resin. Zirconia copings were designed and milled using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (thickness: buccal = 0.62 mm, lingual = 0.65 mm, incisal = 0.72 mm). The cervical collars (occlusogingival height = 0.8 mm, buccolingual width = 1.0 mm) were totally or partially (buccal face) removed for modified copings. They were randomly allocated to six groups according to the type of cervical collar design and the presence (or not) of fatigue cycling (n = 10). The veneering ceramic layer was pressed, and the crowns were cemented with resin cement. The samples were tested until fracture in a universal testing machine and analyzed by stereomicroscopy. Data were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (5%). Removal of the cervical collar significantly affected the fracture strength of zirconia crowns (P = .000), whereas fatigue cycling did not (P = .428). The mean failure load was lower in the groups with no collar. The most frequent failure modes were cracking of the veneer porcelain in collarless crowns and catastrophic failure in the others. The authors concluded that removal of the vestibular collar of zirconia copings in anterior crowns does not reduce the fracture load of the crowns. However, removal of the entire collar reduces the fracture load and cannot be recommended.

  9. Geothermal drill pipe corrosion test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

    1980-12-01

    Plans are presented for conducting a field test of drill pipe corrosion, comparing air and nitrogen as drilling fluids. This test will provide data for evaluating the potential of reducing geothermal well drilling costs by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control costs. The 10-day test will take place during fall 1980 at the Baca Location in Sandoval County, New Mexico.

  10. Invariance of the magnetic behavior and AMI in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Gamino, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vázquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bohn, F., E-mail: felipebohn@fisica.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the quasi-static magnetic, magnetotransport, and dynamic magnetic properties in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacer layers. We observe that the nature of the non-magnetic metallic spacer material does not have significant influence on the overall biphase magnetic behavior, and, consequently, on the magnetotransport and dynamic magnetic responses. We focus on the magnetoimpedance effect and verify that the films present asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect. Moreover, we explore the possibility of tuning the linear region of the magnetoimpedance curves around zero magnetic field by varying the probe current frequency in order to achieve higher sensitivity values. The invariance of the magnetic behavior and the asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers place them as promising candidates for probe element and open possibilities to the development of lower-cost high sensitivity linear magnetic field sensor devices.

  11. Invariance of the magnetic behavior and AMI in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E. F.; Gamino, M.; Andrade, A. M. H. de; Vázquez, M.; Correa, M. A.; Bohn, F.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the quasi-static magnetic, magnetotransport, and dynamic magnetic properties in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacer layers. We observe that the nature of the non-magnetic metallic spacer material does not have significant influence on the overall biphase magnetic behavior, and, consequently, on the magnetotransport and dynamic magnetic responses. We focus on the magnetoimpedance effect and verify that the films present asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect. Moreover, we explore the possibility of tuning the linear region of the magnetoimpedance curves around zero magnetic field by varying the probe current frequency in order to achieve higher sensitivity values. The invariance of the magnetic behavior and the asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers place them as promising candidates for probe element and open possibilities to the development of lower-cost high sensitivity linear magnetic field sensor devices.

  12. Development of CNPC's Drilling Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qingli; Qin Wengui; Zheng Yi

    2011-01-01

    @@ With further exploration and development of oil and gas fields both at home and abroad, complicated geological conditions, poor quality of reserves and abominable working environment, drilling business, the largest of upstream petroleum industry in terms of total investment and scale, is facing new challenges.China National Petroleum Corporation (hereinafter referred to as CNPC) is in urgent need of transforming development patterns of drilling, so as to enhance competitiveness, improve production efficiency, and increase economic profits.

  13. Drilling of bone: a robust automatic method for the detection of drill bit break-through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, F R; Bouazza-Marouf, K

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to devise a robust detection method for drill bit break-through when drilling into long bones using an automated drilling system that is associated with mechatronic assisted surgery. This investigation looks into the effects of system compliance and inherent drilling force fluctuation on the profiles of drilling force, drilling force, drilling between successive samples and drill bit rotational speed. It is shown that these effects have significant influences on the bone drilling related profiles and thus on the detection of drill bit break-through. A robust method, based on a Kalman filter, has been proposed. Using a modified Kalman filter, it is possible to convert the profiles of drilling force difference between successive samples and/or the drill bit rotational speed into easily recognizable and more consistent profiles, allowing a robust and repeatable detection of drill bit break-through.

  14. The efficacy of collars impregnated with flumethrin and propoxur against experimental infestations of adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of 2 sets of collars (Kiltix(R Collar, Bayer AG, containing different plasticisers and impregnated with the acaricides flumethrin (2.25 % and propoxur (10 %, was compared against adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus on experimentally infested, kennelled dogs. Thirty individually penned dogs were infested with 25 male and 25 female, unfed R. sanguineus. On the following day they were allocated to 3 groups of 10 dogs each on the magnitude of their tick burdens. Two days after infestation, medicated collars containing 1 of the plasticisers were fitted to 10 of the dogs and similar collars containing the other plasticiser were fitted to 10 others. The remaining 10 dogs were the untreated controls. Seven and 28 days after having fitted the collars, all dogs were re-infested with 50 unfed adult ticks of both sexes, and again at approximately 28-day intervals up to the 5th month, and then at approximately 14-day intervals during the 6th month. Efficacy was determined by comparing the mean number of live, attached ticks on the untreated control group with those on the collared dogs 2 days after each re-infestation. Immediate efficacy of the collars (Day +2 was > 95 %, and residual efficacy was > 98% up to and including Day +114, and > 93 % up to Day +170 on both groups of collared dogs. The mean tick counts on the 2 groups of collared dogs did not differ significantly (P < 0.0001 for any of the assessment days.

  15. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Oliver, M.S.; Gray, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    The cost-sharing contract between the US Department of Energy and Smith International provides the funding to further develop this concept into two complete steerable percussion air drilling system prototypes, each integrated with a navigation tool (wireline steering tool), a bend sub, stabilizing devices, and to conduct laboratory and field testing necessary to prepare the system for commercial realization. Such a system would make available for the first time the ability to penetrate earthen formations by the percussion method, using compressed air as the drilling fluid, and at the same time allow the directional control and steering of the drill bit. While the drill string is not rotating (slide mode), one can orient to build angle in the desired direction at a predictable rate. This build rate can be in the range of 1--20 degrees per one hundred feet and proceeds until the desired inclination or direction has been obtained. The drill pipe is then set in rotation, nullifying the effect of the bend angle, and causes the assembly to drill straight. The sliding procedure can be repeated as often as corrections for hole`s inclination or direction are needed.

  16. Biological effects of drilling wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranford, P. J. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    An argument is made for the point of view that economic realities require that a sustainable fishery must co-exist with the offshore petroleum industry, and therefore to sustain the fishery comprehensive studies are needed to identify and minimize the impact of operational drilling wastes on fishery resources. Moreover, laboratory and field studies indicate that operational drilling platforms impact on fisheries at great distances, therefore studies should not be limited to the immediate vicinity of drilling sites. Studies on long-term exposure of resident organisms to low level contaminants and the chronic lethal and sublethal biological effects of production drilling wastes must be conducted under environmentally relevant conditions to ensure the validity of the results. Studies at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography on sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) shows them to be highly sensitive to impacts from drilling wastes. Results of these studies, integrated with toxicity data and information on the distribution and transport of drilling wastes have been used by regulatory agencies and industrial interests to develop scientifically sound and justifiable regulations. They also led to the development of practical, sensitive and cost-effective technologies that use resident resource species to detect environmental impacts at offshore production sites. 1 fig.

  17. Contamination Control for Scientific Drilling Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallmeyer, J

    2017-01-01

    Drilling is an integral part of subsurface exploration. Because almost all drilling operations require the use of a drill fluid, contamination by infiltration of drill fluid into the recovered core material cannot be avoided. Because it is impossible to maintain sterile conditions during drilling the drill fluid will contain surface microbes and other contaminants. As contamination cannot be avoided, it has to be tracked to identify those parts of the drill core that were not infiltrated by the drill fluid. This is done by the addition of tracer compounds. A great variety of tracers is available, and the choice depends on many factors. This review will first explain the basic principles of drilling before presenting the most common tracers and discussing their strengths and weaknesses. The final part of this review presents a number of key questions that have to be addressed in order to find the right tracer for a particular drilling operation.

  18. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William E. (Durham, CT); Perry, Carl A. (Middletown, CT); Wassell, Mark E. (Kingwood, TX); Barbely, Jason R. (Middletown, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  19. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  20. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  1. Advancement on Drilling Technology in Petroleum Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Akpedeye, Kelvin Uruemu

    2011-01-01

    Since the birth of petroleum business, in the mid-19th century, cable tool and rotary drilling have been the only two techniques applied in the drilling phase till date. Although the rotary drilling technique has proved very successful, applying laser technology in this drilling; which is a newer technology that is already at hand, has the potential of displacing both techniques from operation. Cable tool drilling is the first of these techniques. Hole boring is achieved by repeatedly lif...

  2. Motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during the application and removal of cervical immobilization collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Conrad, Bryan; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-06-01

    Many studies have compared the restriction of motion that immobilization collars provide to the injured victim. No previous investigation has assessed the amount of motion that is generated during the fitting and removal process. The purpose of this study was to compare the three-dimensional motion generated when one-piece and two-piece cervical collars are applied and removed from cadavers intact and with unstable cervical spine injuries. Five fresh, lightly embalmed cadavers were tested three times each with either a one-piece or two-piece cervical collar in the supine position. Testing was performed in the intact state, following creation of a global ligamentous instability at C5-C6. The amount of angular motion resulting from the collar application and removal was measured using a Fastrak, three-dimensional, electromagnetic motion analysis device (Polhemus Inc., Colchester, VT). The measurements recorded in this investigation included maximum values for flexion/extension, axial rotation, medial/lateral flexion, anterior/posterior displacement, axial distraction, and medial/lateral displacement at the level of instability. There was statistically more motion observed with application or removal of either collar following the creation of a global instability. During application, there was a statistically significant difference in flexion/extension between the one-piece (1.8 degrees) and two-piece (2.6 degrees) collars, p = 0.009. There was also a statistically significant difference in anterior/posterior translation between the one-piece (3.6 mm) and two-piece (3.4 mm) collars, p = 0.015. The maximum angulation and displacement during the application of either collar was 3.4 degrees and 4.4 mm. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the one-piece and two-piece collars during the removal process. The maximum angulation and displacement during removal of either collar type was 1.6 degrees and 2.9 mm. There were statistically significant

  3. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  4. Trapping and displacement of liquid collars and plugs in rough-walled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver E.

    2017-09-01

    A liquid film wetting the interior of a long circular cylinder redistributes under the action of surface tension to form annular collars or occlusive plugs. These equilibrium structures are invariant under axial translation within a perfectly smooth uniform tube and therefore can be displaced axially by very weak external forcing. We consider how this degeneracy is disrupted when the tube wall is rough, and determine threshold conditions under which collars or plugs resist displacement under forcing. Wall roughness is modeled as a nonaxisymmetric Gaussian random field of prescribed correlation length and small variance, mimicking some of the geometric irregularities inherent in applications such as lung airways. The thin film coating this surface is modeled using lubrication theory. When the roughness is weak, we show how the locations of equilibrium collars and plugs can be identified in terms of the azimuthally averaged tube radius; we derive conditions specifying equilibrium collar locations under an externally imposed shear flow, and plug locations under an imposed pressure gradient. We use these results to determine the probability of external forcing being sufficient to displace a collar or plug from a rough-walled tube, when the tube roughness is defined only in statistical terms.

  5. [Investigation of the compliance of cervical collar therapy in 73 patients with Hirayama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y; Qin, W; Sun, Q L; Fan, D S

    2016-11-22

    Objective: To summarize the therapeutic approaches of patients with Hirayama disease and investigate the patient's compliance to cervical collar therapy and its influencing factors. Methods: This was a retrospectively study.The clinical data of 73 patients was collected from Peking university 3(rd) hospital between 2010 and 2014. Results: (1)Of the 73 patients, 10 patients received surgery, 36 patients received collar therapy , and 27 patients received other conservative therapy at first visit.(2)The mean collar wearing time was from 0.3 to 36 months (means was 7±11 months). 28 patients (77.8%) wore less than 6 months, only 8 patients (22.2%) wore for more than 1 year. (3)The influencing factors were affecting appearance (33.3%), inconvenience to work (22.2%), surgical treatment performed after the exacerbation of symptoms(14.3%), illness stabilization (9.5%), choosing other conservative therapy (9.5%), personally feeling not seriously (8%) and discomfort while wearing (3.2%). (4)The patients with younger age of onset and treatment were more likely to choose neck care, while patients with older age of onset and treatment tended to choose more conservative treatment(Pcervical collar to minimize neck flexion can prevent progressive muscular weakness in the early stages of the disease. But from our study, the compliance to cervical collar therapy is unsatisfactory.Multiple factors influence the compliance.Education for patients must be enhanced, and other methods to promote the therapeutic compliance should also be developed.

  6. Magnetic reversal in iron thin films interspersed with non-magnetic pinning sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nau, Stefan; Wiedwald, Ulf; Wiedemann, Stefan; Plettl, Alfred; Ziemann, Paul [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Magnetic switching of continuous iron thin films is tailored by structuring a periodic array of nonmagnetic holes acting as pinning centers for domain walls. Contrary to common lithographically prepared antidots, nanostructures are prepared by deposition of densely packed monolayers of polystyrene (PS) spheres on silicon and silicon nitride substrates. Isotropic plasma etching leads to adjustable PS diameters between 20% and 80% of the initial value while conserving the particle spacing. The influence on the magnetic reversal process is studied as a function of diameter and distance of the PS spheres. Iron films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition. Antidot arrays of 100 nm period lead to up to 15 times increased in-plane coercive fields at 300 K, depending on dot diameters and film thicknesses. The magnetic reversal is imaged by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy accompanied by micromagnetic simulations in order to understand domain nucleation and propagation in varying external fields.

  7. Increasing energy relaxation time of superconducting qubits with nonmagnetic infrared filter and shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhao, Liu; Mengmeng, Li; Dong, Lan; Guangming, Xue; Xinsheng, Tan; Haifeng, Yu; Yang, Yu

    2016-05-01

    One of the primary origins of the energy relaxation in superconducting qubits is the quasiparticle loss. The quasiparticles can be excited remarkably by infrared radiation. In order to minimize the density of quasiparticle and increase the qubit relaxation time, we design and fabricate the infrared filter and shield for superconducting qubits. In comparison with previous filters and shields, a nonmagnetic dielectric is used as the infrared absorbing material, greatly suppressing the background magnetic fluctuations. The filters can be made to impedance-match with other microwave devices. Using the as-fabricated infrared filter and shield, we increased the relaxation time of a transmon qubit from 519 ns to 1125 ns. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91321310, 11274156, 11474152, 11474153, 61521001, and 11504165) and the State Key Program for Basic Research of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB922104 and 2011CBA00205).

  8. Theoretical study of optical conductivity of graphene with magnetic and nonmagnetic adatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Muhammad Aziz; Siregar, Syahril; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2014-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of the optical conductivity of graphene with magnetic and nonmagnetic adatoms. First, by introducing an alternating potential in a pure graphene, we demonstrate a gap formation in the density of states and the corresponding optical conductivity. We highlight the distinction between such a gap formation and the so-called Pauli blocking effect. Next, we apply this idea to graphene with adatoms by introducing magnetic interactions between the carrier spins and the spins of the adatoms. Exploring various possible ground-state spin configurations of the adatoms, we find that the antiferromagnetic configuration yields the lowest total electronic energy and is the only configuration that forms a gap. Furthermore, we analyze four different circumstances leading to similar gaplike structures and propose a means to interpret the magneticity and the possible orderings of the adatoms on graphene solely from the optical conductivity data. We apply this analysis to the recently reported experimental data of oxygenated graphene.

  9. Spin-dependent tunneling time in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoy66@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the tunneling time (dwell time) in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. It is found that spin-dependent resonant bands form in the spectra of dwell time, which can be effectively manipulated by not only the external magnetic field but also the geometric parameters of the system. Moreover, an intuitive semiclassical delay is defined to illustrate the behavior of the dwell time, and the former one is shown to be the result of “smoothing out” the latter one. We also find that the dwell time in diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor superlattices behaves surprisingly different from the DMS/NB case, especially for spin-down electrons.

  10. Spin-Selective Electron Quantum Transport in Nonmagnetic MgZnO/ZnO Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryenko, D; Falson, J; Bahramy, M S; Dmitriev, I A; Kozuka, Y; Tsukazaki, A; Kawasaki, M

    2015-11-06

    We report magnetotransport measurements on a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system at the nonmagnetic MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface showing distinct behavior for electrons with spin-up and spin-down orientations. The low-field Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations manifest alternating resistance peak heights which can be attributed to distinct scattering rates for different spin orientations. The tilt-field measurements at a half-integer filling factor reveal that the majority spins show usual diffusive behavior, i.e., peaks with the magnitude proportional to the index of the Landau level at the Fermi energy. By contrast, the minority spins develop "plateaus" with the magnitude of dissipative resistivity that is fairly independent of the Landau level index and is of the order of the zero-field resistivity.

  11. Spin-orbit-induced longitudinal spin-polarized currents in nonmagnetic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, S.; Seemann, M.; Chadova, K.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.

    2015-07-01

    For certain nonmagnetic solids with low symmetry the occurrence of spin-polarized longitudinal currents is predicted. These arise due to an interplay of spin-orbit interaction and the particular crystal symmetry. This result is derived using a group-theoretical scheme that allows investigating the symmetry properties of any linear response tensor relevant to the field of spintronics. For the spin conductivity tensor it is shown that only the magnetic Laue group has to be considered in this context. Within the introduced general scheme also the spin Hall and additional related transverse effects emerge without making reference to the two-current model. Numerical studies confirm these findings and demonstrate for (Au1-xPtx)4Sc that the longitudinal spin conductivity may be on the same order of magnitude as the conventional transverse one. The presented formalism only relies on the magnetic space group and therefore is universally applicable to any type of magnetic order.

  12. Affine nonmagnetic transformation optics and its application to a practical bending adapter design

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hongyi; Yu, Tianyuan; Barbastathis, George; Sun, Handong

    2011-01-01

    One of the bottlenecks that limit the transition of transformation-optics devices from concepts to practical use is the nonunit magnetic permeability generally required from a mathematical transformation. Simple renormalization of permeability, as used in many previous designs and experiments, introduces impedance mismatch and thus degrades the functional photonic performance. Here we propose an area-preserving affine coordinate transformation as a general method to solve this problem. Ideal transformation-optics functions can be preserved while nonmagnetism is achieved. As a specific example, we illustrate how to apply this affine method into the design of a two-dimensional electromagnetic beam bending adapter. Concerns related to fabrication, such as anisotropy degree and bending angles, are fully discussed. Our study is a significant step toward practical use of ideal transformation optics devices that can be implemented directly with existing dielectric materials.

  13. Ferromagnetic/Nonmagnetic Nanostructures for the Electrical Measurement of the Spin Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Tuong; Vila, Laurent; Zahnd, Gilles; Marty, Alain; Savero-Torres, Williams; Jamet, Matthieu; Attané, Jean-Philippe

    2016-11-09

    Spin-orbitronics is based on the ability of spin-orbit interactions to achieve the conversion between charge currents and pure spin currents. As the precise evaluation of the conversion efficiency becomes a crucial issue, the need for straightforward ways to observe this conversion has emerged as one of the main challenges in spintronics. Here, we propose a simple device, akin to the ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayers used in most spin-orbit torques experiments, and consisting of a spin Hall effect wire connected to two transverse ferromagnetic electrodes. We show that this system allows probing electrically the direct and inverse conversion in a spin Hall effect system and measuring both the spin Hall angle and the spin diffusion length. By applying this method to several spin Hall effect materials (Pt, Pd, Au, Ta, W), we show that it represents a promising tool for the metrology of spin-orbit materials.

  14. Pseudo-hcp nonmagnetic intermediate layer for granular media with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Saito, Shin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Itagaki, Norikazu [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Takahashi, Migaku [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2008-01-07

    Materials with the hexagonal close-packed structure (hcp) and the face-centred-cubic structure with stacking faults (pseudo-hcp) are examined for the nonmagnetic intermediate layer (NMIL) in order to suppress variant growth of magnetic grains for granular-type perpendicular recording media. Judging from the analysis of the epitaxial growth of Co-based magnetic grains, it has been found that a lattice misfit between NMIL and magnetic grain of less than 6% and a spreading coefficient of wettability of magnetic grain on NMIL of greater than 0.3 J m{sup -3} are required for the recording layer to have high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy. (fast track communication)

  15. Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2014-11-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  16. Drilling Force and Temperature of Bone under Dry and Physiological Drilling Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Linlin; WANG Chengyong; JIANG Min; HE Huiyu; SONG Yuexian; CHEN Hanyuan; SHEN Jingnan; ZHANG Jiayong

    2014-01-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  17. Non-magnetic photospheric bright points in 3D simulations of the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, F.; Steiner, O.; Freytag, B.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Small-scale bright features in the photosphere of the Sun, such as faculae or G-band bright points, appear in connection with small-scale magnetic flux concentrations. Aims: Here we report on a new class of photospheric bright points that are free of magnetic fields. So far, these are visible in numerical simulations only. We explore conditions required for their observational detection. Methods: Numerical radiation (magneto-)hydrodynamic simulations of the near-surface layers of the Sun were carried out. The magnetic field-free simulations show tiny bright points, reminiscent of magnetic bright points, only smaller. A simple toy model for these non-magnetic bright points (nMBPs) was established that serves as a base for the development of an algorithm for their automatic detection. Basic physical properties of 357 detected nMBPs were extracted and statistically evaluated. We produced synthetic intensity maps that mimic observations with various solar telescopes to obtain hints on their detectability. Results: The nMBPs of the simulations show a mean bolometric intensity contrast with respect to their intergranular surroundings of approximately 20%, a size of 60-80 km, and the isosurface of optical depth unity is at their location depressed by 80-100 km. They are caused by swirling downdrafts that provide, by means of the centripetal force, the necessary pressure gradient for the formation of a funnel of reduced mass density that reaches from the subsurface layers into the photosphere. Similar, frequently occurring funnels that do not reach into the photosphere, do not produce bright points. Conclusions: Non-magnetic bright points are the observable manifestation of vertically extending vortices (vortex tubes) in the photosphere. The resolving power of 4-m-class telescopes, such as the DKIST, is needed for an unambiguous detection of them. The movie associated to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  18. White-collar workers' self-reported physical symptoms associated with using computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our work was to study the physical symptoms of upper- and lower-level white-collar workers using a questionnaire. The study was cross-sectional with a questionnaire posted to 15 000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) included 970 upper- and 1150 lower-level white-collar workers. In the upper- and lower-level white-collar worker groups, 45.7 and 56.0%, respectively, had experienced pain, numbness and aches in the neck either pretty often or more frequently. When comparing daily computer users and nonusers, there were significant differences in pain, numbness and aches in the neck or in the shoulders. In addition, age and gender influenced some physical symptoms. In the future, it is essential to take into account that working with computers can be especially associated with physical symptoms in the neck and in the shoulders when workers use computers daily.

  19. Postmortem findings in collared peccaries raised in captivity in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael S. Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is a retrospective examination of diseases in collared peccaries that were diagnosed by the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido. Necropsy and histological examination were performed from 2005 to 2010. Of the 50 necropsied collared peccaries, 24% died due to restraint and capture myopathy; 18% died from trauma; and the remainder was diagnosed with splenic hemangioma (6%, enterolithiasis (6%, gastritis (6%, gastric ulcer (4%, intestinal volvulus (4%, gastric volvulus (2%, mammary carcinoma (2%, polycystic kidney disease (2%, pyometra (2%, and suppurative bronchopneumonia (2%. Twelve animals remained undiagnosed, seven of which (14% were in advanced autolytic condition and five of which (10% had no gross or microscopic lesions that were compatible with disease. This paper describes illnesses that have not been reported in the collared peccary, focusing on their clinical and pathological aspects.

  20. Habitat use by Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata) in a Cerrado in southeastern Brazil: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegae, M F; Levy, G; Freitas, S R

    2012-11-01

    The Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata) is a small insectivore endemic to the Cerrado. We examine the habitat use of this bird in a preserved Cerrado area in southeastern Brazil. Despite its occurrence in grassland with shrubs, the species used these areas less frequently than expected. The Collared Crescentchest mainly used areas of campo cerrado, but it was not recorded in a disturbed one. The common occurrence of exotic grass (U. decumbens) and cattle grazing may have brought about factors for its occurrence. However, the preference for native grasses may indicate an adverse indirect relationship against its occurence as there is competition between native and exotic grasses in the Cerrado. The presence of the Collared Crescentchest included the highest density of tall shrubs (>1 m) and native grasses. Conservation of the species should involve preserved areas of campo cerrado with a dominance of native grasses and tall shrubs.

  1. Habitat use by Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata in a Cerrado in southeastern Brazil: implications for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF. Kanegae

    Full Text Available The Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata is a small insectivore endemic to the Cerrado. We examine the habitat use of this bird in a preserved Cerrado area in southeastern Brazil. Despite its occurrence in grassland with shrubs, the species used these areas less frequently than expected. The Collared Crescentchest mainly used areas of campo cerrado, but it was not recorded in a disturbed one. The common occurrence of exotic grass (U. decumbens and cattle grazing may have brought about factors for its occurrence. However, the preference for native grasses may indicate an adverse indirect relationship against its occurence as there is competition between native and exotic grasses in the Cerrado. The presence of the Collared Crescentchest included the highest density of tall shrubs (>1 m and native grasses. Conservation of the species should involve preserved areas of campo cerrado with a dominance of native grasses and tall shrubs.

  2. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded.

  3. DAME: planetary-prototype drilling automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B; Cannon, H; Branson, M; Hanagud, S; Paulsen, G

    2008-06-01

    We describe results from the Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, including those of the summer 2006 tests from an Arctic analog site. The drill hardware is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill by Honeybee Robotics. DAME has developed diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The DAME drill automation tested from 2004 through 2006 included adaptively controlled drilling operations and the downhole diagnosis of drilling faults. It also included dynamic recovery capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions were discovered. DAME has developed and tested drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during its Arctic field testing campaigns at a Mars analog site.

  4. Ontogeny of the collar cord: neurulation in the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Sabrina; Stach, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The chordate body plan is characterized by a central notochord, a pharynx perforated by gill pores, and a dorsal central nervous system. Despite progress in recent years, the evolutionary origin of each of theses characters remains controversial. In the case of the nervous system, two contradictory hypotheses exist. In the first, the chordate nervous system is derived directly from a diffuse nerve net; whereas, the second proposes that a centralized nervous system is found in hemichordates and, therefore, predates chordate evolution. Here, we document the ontogeny of the collar cord of the enteropneust Saccoglossus kowalevskii using transmission electron microscopy and 3D-reconstruction based on completely serially sectioned stages. We demonstrate that the collar cord develops from a middorsal neural plate that is closed in a posterior to anterior direction. Transversely oriented ependymal cells possessing myofilaments mediate this morphogenetic process and surround the remnants of the neural canal in juveniles. A mid-dorsal glandular complex is present in the collar. The collar cord in juveniles is clearly separated into a dorsal saddle-like region of somata and a ventral neuropil. We characterize two cell types in the somata region, giant neurons and ependymal cells. Giant neurons connect via a peculiar cell junction that seems to function in intercellular communication. Synaptic junctions containing different vesicle types are present in the neuropil. These findings support the hypotheses that the collar cord constitutes a centralized element of the nervous system and that the morphogenetic process in the ontogeny of the collar cord is homologous to neurulation in chordates. Moreover, we suggest that these similarities are indicative of a close phylogenetic relationship between enteropneusts and chordates.

  5. Assessing transferable residues from intermittent exposure to flea control collars containing the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Boone, J Scott; Davis, M Keith; Moran, John E; Tyler, John W

    2007-11-01

    Children can be exposed to pesticides from numerous residential sources such as carpet, house dust, toys and clothing from treated homes, and flea control remedies on pets. In the present studies, 48 pet dogs (24 in each of two studies) of different breeds and weights were treated with over-the-counter flea collars containing chlorpyrifos (CP), an organophosphorus insecticide. Transferable insecticide residues were quantified on cotton gloves used to rub the dogs for 5 min and on cotton tee shirts worn by a child (Study 2 only). First morning urine samples were also obtained from adults and children in both studies for metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) quantification. Blood samples were obtained from treated dogs in Study 1 and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was monitored. Transferable residues on gloves for all compounds were highest near the neck of the dogs and were lowest in areas most distant from the neck. Rubbing samples (over the collar) at two weeks post-collar application contained 447+/-57 microg CP/glove while samples from the fur of the back contained 8+/-2 microg CP/glove. In Study 2, cotton tee shirts worn by children at 15 days post-collar application for 4 h showed CP levels of 134+/-66 ng/g shirt. There were significant differences between adults and children in the levels of urinary metabolites with children generally having higher urinary levels of metabolites than adults (grand mean+/-SE; 11.6+/-1.1 and 7.9+/-0.74 ng/mg creatinine for children and adults, respectively, compared to 9.4+/-0.8 and 6.9+/-0.5 ng/mg creatinine before collar placement). Therefore, there was little evidence that the use of this flea collar contributed to enhanced CP exposure of either children or adults.

  6. Effect of nonmagnetic substituents Mg and Zn on the phase competition in the multiferroic antiferromagnet MnWO4

    OpenAIRE

    Meddar, Lynda; Josse, Michael; Deniard, Philippe; La, Carole; André, Gilles; Damay, Françoise; Petricek, Vaclav; Jobic, Stéphane; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Maglione, Mario; Payen, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The effects of substituting nonmagnetic Mg2+ and Zn2+ ions for the Mn2+ (S = 5/2) ions on the structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of the multiferroic frustrated antiferromagnet MnWO4 were investigated. Polycrystalline samples of Mn1-xMgxWO4 and Mn1-xZnxWO4 (0

  7. Giant magneto-optical response in non-magnetic semiconductor BiTeI driven by bulk Rashba spin splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Demkó, L.; Schober, G. A. H.; Kocsis, V.; Bahramy, M.S.; Murakawa, H.; Lee, J. S.; Kézsmárki, I.; Arita, R.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We study the magneto-optical (MO) response of polar semiconductor BiTeI with giant bulk Rashba spin splitting at various carrier densities. Despite being non-magnetic, the material is found to yield a huge MO activity in the infrared region under moderate magnetic fields (

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nonmagnetic Fe-25Mn-xCu-C steels by super solidus liquid phase sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shanquan; Xiao, Zhiyu; Wang, Jun; Yang, Shuo; Guan, Hangjian; Zhu, Quanli

    2016-11-01

    In this work, nonmagnetic steels Fe-25Mn-xCu-C were prepared by high manganese pre-alloyed steel powders through powder metallurgy (PM) technique. Four types of steels specimen were created to investigate the microstructure evolving with sintering process, mechanical properties and magnetic properties. The microstructures, fracture surfaces, phase constitutions and mechanical properties of Fe-25Mn-xCu-C were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and tensile strength test. The results showed that super solidus liquid-phase sintering (SLPS) phenomenon was conclusively verified, for the first time, in the Fe-Mn pre-alloyed powders: Liquids generated by SLPS process from pre-alloyed powders could improve the binding condition between the particles and enhance the densification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiment and physical property measurement system (PPMS) measurement verified the nonmagnetic properties of steels with single austenite phase. It is confirmed that mechanical properties are intensively influenced by the characteristic and quantity of liquids between the matrix particles. The fracture mechanism of the steel is dominated by intergranular decohesion mode. The preliminary study found this kind of new non-magnetic steel exhibits relatively high density. With the efficiency in fabricating and the non-magnetic property, this work foresees good prospects for application in the steel components manufacturing industry.

  9. Fabrication of a Textured Non-Magnetic Ni-12at.%V Alloy Substrate for Coated Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, M. M.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Suo, H. L.;

    2011-01-01

    Ni-12at.%V alloy is a promising candidate for non-magnetic cube textured metallic substrates used for high temperature coated conductors. In this work, a textured Ni-12at.%V substrate has been fabricated by powder metallurgy route. After cold rolling and recrystallization annealing, a cube texture...

  10. Inflammatory reaction to fabric collars from percutaneous antennas attached to intracoelomic radio transmitters implanted in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D.M.; Burek, K.A.; Esler, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In wild birds implanted intracoelomically with radio transmitters, a synthetic fabric collar placed around the base of a percutaneous antenna is believed to function as a barrier to contamination of the coelom. We examined 13 fabric collars recovered from percutaneous antennas of radio transmitters implanted intracoelomically in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) 12 months earlier. Both the transmitters and antenna collars were encapsulated in fibrous connective tissue, with adhesions to internal organs. Histologically, bacteria were evident at the fabric-plastic interface in 8 of 10 collars examined in cross section and along the length of the collar in 3 collars examined longitudinally. Bacteria were confined within the fibrotic sheath surrounding the transmitter and the antenna collar in all birds. No evidence of chronic systemic effects secondary to implantation was present on hematologic or serum biochemical testing. These findings indicate that antenna collars do not prevent the entry of bacteria along the percutaneous antenna but may help stabilize the antenna and minimize coelomic contamination. We conclude that radio transmitters implanted into the coelom of harlequin ducks do not appear to cause significant health problems for at least 1 year after implantation.

  11. Use of an Electron Beam Melting Manufactured Titanium Collared Cementless Femoral Stem to Resist Subsidence After Canine Total Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, William D; Doyle, Nancy D

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of a collared electron beam melting (EBM)-manufactured titanium cementless femoral stem on implant subsidence after total hip replacement (THR). Prospective study Dogs (n = 26); 33 THR. Records were maintained on the first 110 consecutive THR using an EBM collared femoral stem. Radiographs on the first 33 THR that had 6-months follow-up were evaluated for implant subsidence. These results were compared to 27 dogs with subsidence after THR with a Co Cr collarless stem. Dogs that had EBM collared stem THR had a mean body weight of 35.4 kg, body condition score (BCS) of 6.21, and mean canal flare index (CFI) of 1.56. EBM stem sizes used (number implanted) were #7 (13), #8 (10), #9 (8), and #10 (2). Subsidence of collared stems did not occur if the collar was in contact with cortical bone during surgery. Subsidence of 1-3 mm occurred closing a gap between the collar and bone if contact was not made during surgery, but subsidence stopped once contact was made. No major complications directly related to the EBM collared stem were encountered. A collar on a cementless femoral stem in contact with cortical bone resists subsidence. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. A Correlation Study between Geometry of Collared Coils and Normal Quadrupole Multipole in the Main LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Berthollon-Vitte, S; Glaude, D; Vanenkov, I

    2006-01-01

    The quality control implemented at all LHC dipole assemblers includes precise mechanical measurements of the geometry of collared coils. A cross-analysis performed between mechanical and magnetic measurements data shows a correlation between collared coils outer dimensions and the normal quadrupole multipole (b2) for one dipole assembler. The profile geometry of the single collars - as determined from 3D measurements at the collar suppliers and CERN - could not account alone for the significant left – right aperture asymmetry observed. This triggered a deeper investigation on different elements of the geometry of single collars. The results of this work show that the relative positioning of the collaring holes, allowing a small bending deformation of collars under the effect of coil pre-stress, is an important effect that generates a b2 multipole at the limit of specification. The study has deepened the understanding of the factors affecting collared coil geometry and field quality. The precision of 3D m...

  13. Necrotic enteritis in collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marco Antônio Galvão; Santos, Polyana Silva; Nogueira, Selene Siqueira da Cunha; Lessa, Fabiana; Almeida, Valter dos Anjos; Leça-Júnior, Nilo Fernandes; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens type C was diagnosed in captive collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries housed in the Laboratory of Applied Ethology of Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz located in Ilhéus, State of Bahia, Brazil. Four collared peccaries and three white-lipped peccaries, all juveniles (25-105 days old), were affected. For all affected animals, lethargy and inappetance were followed by sudden death within 24 hours. Histopathology of intestinal wall, culture of C. perfringens type C, and the identification of beta-toxin from intestinal content confirmed the diagnosis.

  14. Centrifugal Casting of High Speed Steel/Nodular Cast Iron Compound Roll Collar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The centrifugal casting of compound HSS/nodular cast iron roll collar was studied, and the factors affecting transition zone quality were analyzed. The pouring temperature and interval in pouring are the main factors affecting transition zone quality. By controlling process parameter and flux adding during casting, high quality roll collar was obtained. The cause, why in the casting of HSS part, segregation appears easily, was analyzed and the countermeasure eliminating segregation was put forward, the measure eliminating heat treatment crackling was also put forward.

  15. Geology of the USW SD-7 drill hole Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engstrom, D.A. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The USW SD-7 drill hole is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study 8.3.1.4.3.1, also known as the Systematic Drilling Program, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Yucca Mountain site has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-7 drill hole is located near the southern end of the potential repository area and immediately to the west of the Main Test Level drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility. The hole is not far from the junction of the Main Test Level drift and the proposed South Ramp decline. Drill hole USW SD-7 is 2675.1 ft (815.3 m) deep, and the core recovered nearly complete sections of ash-flow tuffs belonging to the lower half of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, and the Topopah Spring Tuff, all of which are part of the Miocene Paintbrush Group. Core was recovered from much of the underlying Calico Hills Formation, and core was virtually continuous in the Prow Pass Tuff and the Bullfrog Tuff. The SD-7 drill hole penetrated the top several tens of feet into the Tram Tuff, which underlies the Prow Pass and Bullfrog Tuffs. These latter three units are all formations of the Crater Flat Group, The drill hole was collared in welded materials assigned to the crystal-poor middle nonlithophysal zone of the Tiva Canyon Tuff; approximately 280 ft (85 m) of this ash-flow sheet was penetrated by the hole. The Yucca Mountain Tuff appears to be missing from the section at the USW SD-7 location, and the Pah Canyon Tuff is only 14.5 ft thick. The Pah Canyon Tuff was not recovered in core because of drilling difficulties, suggesting that the unit is entirely nonwelded. The presence of this unit is inferred through interpretation of down-hole geophysical logs.

  16. Geology of the USW SD-7 drill hole Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engstrom, D.A. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The USW SD-7 drill hole is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study 8.3.1.4.3.1, also known as the Systematic Drilling Program, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Yucca Mountain site has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-7 drill hole is located near the southern end of the potential repository area and immediately to the west of the Main Test Level drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility. The hole is not far from the junction of the Main Test Level drift and the proposed South Ramp decline. Drill hole USW SD-7 is 2675.1 ft (815.3 m) deep, and the core recovered nearly complete sections of ash-flow tuffs belonging to the lower half of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, and the Topopah Spring Tuff, all of which are part of the Miocene Paintbrush Group. Core was recovered from much of the underlying Calico Hills Formation, and core was virtually continuous in the Prow Pass Tuff and the Bullfrog Tuff. The SD-7 drill hole penetrated the top several tens of feet into the Tram Tuff, which underlies the Prow Pass and Bullfrog Tuffs. These latter three units are all formations of the Crater Flat Group, The drill hole was collared in welded materials assigned to the crystal-poor middle nonlithophysal zone of the Tiva Canyon Tuff; approximately 280 ft (85 m) of this ash-flow sheet was penetrated by the hole. The Yucca Mountain Tuff appears to be missing from the section at the USW SD-7 location, and the Pah Canyon Tuff is only 14.5 ft thick. The Pah Canyon Tuff was not recovered in core because of drilling difficulties, suggesting that the unit is entirely nonwelded. The presence of this unit is inferred through interpretation of down-hole geophysical logs.

  17. Number & operations task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are problems involving place value, fractions, addition, subtraction and using money. The combined task & drill sheets offer spac

  18. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  19. Drilling Systems for Extraterrestrial Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Brennan, M.; Briggs, G.; Cooper, G.; Davis, K.; Dolgin, B.; Glaser, D.; Glass, B.; Gorevan, S.; Guerrero, J.; McKay, C.; Paulsen, G.; Stanley, S.; Stoker, C.

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  20. Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

    2001-05-01

    Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

  1. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  2. The effect on patency of type, shape and volume of a vein collar used at the distal anastomis of PTFE-bypass to arteries below-knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect on patency rate of different types of vein collar (Miller's original or St Mary's boot), different length/height shapes of vein collar, and different vein collar volumes at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-bypass grafts to below-knee arteries in patients...

  3. HIGH THROUGHPUT DRILLING OF TITANIUM ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; SHIH Albert Jau-Min

    2007-01-01

    The experiments of high throughput drilling of Ti-6Al-4V at 183 m/min cutting speed and 156 mm3/s material removal rate using a 4 mm diameter WC-Co spiral point drill are conducted. At this material removal rate, it took only 0.57 s to drill a hole in a 6.35 mm thick Ti plate. Supplying the cutting fluid via through-the-drill holes and the balance of cutting speed and feed have proven to be critical for drill life. An inverse heat transfer model is developed to predict the heat flux and the drill temperature distribution in drilling. A three-dimensional finite element modeling of drilling is conducted to predict the thrust force and torque. Experimental result demonstrates that, using proper machining process parameters, tool geometry, and fine-grained WC-Co tool material, the high throughput machining of Ti alloy is technically feasible.

  4. CNPC Exports Drilling Equipment to United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Petroleum Machinery Plant(BPM) of CNPC and Rowan Drilling Company Inc, one of the most powerful drilling service and driller manufacturing companies in the United States signed a petroleum equipment contract on December 9 in Beijing.

  5. Progress Made in Drilling Workers Training Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guozheng; Zhao Zhangbin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Great Wall Drilling Workers Training Centre in North China Petroleum Workers College is specialized in training oil drilling technicians for China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), who will undertake the international contract and recontract.

  6. Zhongyuan Offers Drilling Service for Microbes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhiyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ No. 1 Drilling Company of Zhongyuan Petroleum Exploration Bureau and US-based Microbes Inc.signed a drilling engineering contract for six wells in Jilin Oil Field worth more than 11 million yuan in mid-October 2001.

  7. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  8. Pregnancy following laparoscopy ovarian drilling for clomiphene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She achieved pregnancy following Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling at the Assisted ... Conception following ovarian drilling. Omokanye .... advocated as this will drastically reduce the time to achieve ... laparoscopic laser diathermy in polycystic.

  9. Drilling azimuth gamma embedded design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded drilling azimuth gamma design, the use of radioactive measuring principle embedded gamma measurement while drilling a short section analysis. Monte Carlo method, in response to the density of horizontal well logging numerical simulation of 16 orientation, the orientation of horizontal well analysed, calliper, bed boundary location, space, different formation density, formation thickness, and other factors inclined strata dip the impact by simulating 137Cs sources under different formation conditions of the gamma distribution, to determine the orientation of drilling density tool can detect window size and space, draw depth of the logging methods. The data 360° azimuth imaging, image processing method to obtain graph, display density of the formation, dip and strata thickness and other parameters, the logging methods obtain real-time geo-steering. To establish a theoretical basis for the orientation density logging while drilling method implementation and application of numerical simulation in-depth study of the MWD azimuth and density log response factors of horizontal wells.

  10. Phonetics drills in oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮继伟

    2014-01-01

    Phonetics teaching is one of the important parts of English teaching .To improve the students’ pronunciation in oral English ,the paper indicates the relation between English phonetics and oral English, the problems of speech sounds, and the methods of phonetic drills.

  11. Phonetics drills in oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮继伟

    2014-01-01

    Phonetics teaching is one of the important parts of English teaching.To improve the students’pronunciation in oral English,the paper indicates the relation between English phonetics and oral English,the problems of speech sounds,and the methods of phonetic drills.

  12. Facility for testing ice drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Delahunty, Chris; Goodge, John W.; Severinghaus, Jeffery P.

    2017-05-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) is designed for subsurface scientific investigations in Antarctica. Its objectives are to drill rapidly through ice, to core samples of the transition zone and bedrock, and to leave behind a borehole observatory. These objectives required the engineering and fabrication of an entirely new drilling system that included a modified mining-style coring rig, a unique fluid circulation system, a rod skid, a power unit, and a workshop with areas for the storage of supplies and consumables. An important milestone in fabrication of the RAID was the construction of a North American Test (NAT) facility where we were able to test drilling and fluid processing functions in an environment that is as close as possible to that expected in Antarctica. Our criteria for site selection was that the area should be cold during the winter months, be located in an area of low heat flow, and be at relatively high elevation. We selected a site for the facility near Bear Lake, Utah, USA. The general design of the NAT well (NAT-1) started with a 27.3 cm (10.75 in.) outer casing cemented in a 152 m deep hole. Within that casing, we hung a 14 cm (5.5 in.) casing string, and, within that casing, a column of ice was formed. The annulus between the 14 and 27.3 cm casings provided the path for circulation of a refrigerant. After in-depth study, we chose to use liquid CO2 to cool the hole. In order to minimize the likelihood of the casing splitting due to the volume increase associated with freezing water, the hole was first cooled and then ice was formed in increments from the bottom upward. First, ice cubes were placed in the inner liner and then water was added. Using this method, a column of ice was incrementally prepared for drilling tests. The drilling tests successfully demonstrated the functioning of the RAID system. Reproducing such a facility for testing of other ice drilling systems could be advantageous to other research programs in the future.

  13. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  14. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  15. Analysis of the collar-whisker structure of temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Neve, Horst; Brøndsted, Lone;

    2006-01-01

    Proteins homologous to the protein NPS (neck passage structure) are widespread among lactococcal phages. We investigated the hypothesis that NPS is involved in the infection of phage TP901-1 by analysis of an NPS mutant. NPS was determined to form a collar-whisker complex but was shown to be none...

  16. White Collar Work: Career Ambitions of Fiji Final Year School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilan, Pam; Cavu, Paula; Tagicakiverata, Isimeli; Hazelman, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The career ambitions of 1012 pupils in the final years of secondary schooling in Fiji were surveyed. The range of careers they nominated was very narrow, with teaching, nursing and other white collar work in the majority of responses. This stands in somewhat stark contrast to projected labour force needs, and the current serious shortage of…

  17. The Association between Training and Organizational Commitment among White-Collar Workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Kamarul Zaman; Bakar, Raida Abu

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 204 of 300 Malaysian white-collar workers were analyzed for the association between training variables (availability of support, benefits, motivation, environment) and four types of organizational commitment. All training variables were significantly correlated with affective, normative, and overall commitment. Availability of…

  18. The Association between Training and Organizational Commitment among White-Collar Workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Kamarul Zaman; Bakar, Raida Abu

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 204 of 300 Malaysian white-collar workers were analyzed for the association between training variables (availability of support, benefits, motivation, environment) and four types of organizational commitment. All training variables were significantly correlated with affective, normative, and overall commitment. Availability of…

  19. An Examination of Blue- versus White-Collar Workers' Conceptualizations of Job Satisfaction Facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoxiao; Kaplan, Seth; Dalal, Reeshad S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which blue- versus white-collar workers differentially conceptualize various job facets, namely the work itself, co-workers, supervisors, and pay. To examine these potential differences, we conducted a series of analyses on job satisfaction ratings from two samples of university workers. Consistent with the study…

  20. Job demands and health complaints in white and blue collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, K. J.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: General health in the working population is thought to depend on working conditions. Objective: This survey studied job demands and health complaints in working white and blue collar employees. We expect physical and psychological job demands to be differentially distributed among white

  1. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  2. White-Collar Crime and the Law: An Annotated Bibliography. Teaching Resource Bulletin No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Robert

    This annotated bibliography of materials concerning white collar crime is directed at undergraduate students and instructors. Materials are organized into eight subject headings: (1) theoretical statements; (2) data sources; (3) financial institutions fraud; (4) environmental crimes; (5) workplace safety; (6) computer crimes; (7) miscellaneous…

  3. A new member of the greater double-collared sunbird complex (Passeriformes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowie, Rauri C K; Fjeldså, Jon; Kiure, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    We document the discovery of the first population of greater double-collared sunbird (Cinnyris afer complex) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. We assessed phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic rank based on mtDNA sequence data, nine microsatellite loci and morphology. This new taxon,...

  4. Mind over matter: exploring job stress among female blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Blake, C Shannon; Tucker, Pattie J; Liburd, Leandris

    2006-12-01

    Although overall health has been defined holistically as the integration of a person's optimal mental, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual well-being, a mental health focus remains on the fringe of many public health efforts. This report describes recent efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to explore job stress among female blue-collar workers. Using a more holistic approach to understand its impact on blue-collar women's overall health, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was used to assess optimal human performance. Attempting to encapsulate how overall health affects one's ability to participate and fulfill daily personal/professional tasks, HRQOL yields a broader understanding of the interaction between psychological well-being (mind) and physical functioning (matter). Embedding CDC HRQOL-4 measures into a questionnaire used as part of a larger mixed methods project, blue-collar women responded to questions about their health, including both mental and physical. For these female workers, mental health appeared to be of greater consequence, which could be interpreted as mind being more significant than matter. This paper highlights the findings related to HRQOL issues experienced by these female blue-collar workers and summarizes recommendations for effective individual and organizational approaches to address job stress.

  5. Pseudocyst and a Collar Stud Abscess: New Face of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Meconium pseudocyst formation secondary to antenatal perforation is well described. We present a preterm infant who had intra-abdominal pseudocyst formation following postnatal intestinal perforation secondary to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC and secondarily leading to extra-abdominal collar stud abscess. This is new face of NEC and this presentation has not been reported earlier.

  6. Pseudocyst and a Collar Stud Abscess: New Face of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hemant; Patel, Ramnik; Patwardhan, Nitin; More, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Meconium pseudocyst formation secondary to antenatal perforation is well described. We present a preterm infant who had intra-abdominal pseudocyst formation following postnatal intestinal perforation secondary to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and secondarily leading to extra-abdominal collar stud abscess. This is new face of NEC and this presentation has not been reported earlier. PMID:26023517

  7. Value of a rigid collar in addition to head blocks: a proof of principle study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: All trauma patients with a cervical spinal column injury or with a mechanism of injury with the potential to cause cervical spinal injury should be immobilised until a spinal injury is excluded. Immobilisation of the entire patient with a rigid cervical collar, backboard, head blocks wit

  8. Job demands and health complaints in white and blue collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, K. J.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: General health in the working population is thought to depend on working conditions. Objective: This survey studied job demands and health complaints in working white and blue collar employees. We expect physical and psychological job demands to be differentially distributed among white

  9. Collar Osteophytes Mimicking Osteonecrosis in Planar Bone Scintigraphy and Usefulness of SPECT/CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jr-Jian; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Wan-Yu

    2017-03-01

    The use of prednisolone is one major risk factor for osteonecrosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Bone scintigraphy can be a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis. We present a case who had collar osteophytes at the bilateral femoral heads, which mimicked osteonecrosis in the planar bone scintigram. An SPECT/CT scan avoided this pitfall and increased the diagnostic accuracy for osteonecrosis.

  10. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  11. Are temporal patterns of sitting associated with obesity among blue-collar workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Hallman, David M; Mathiassen, Svend Erik;

    2016-01-01

    (BMI), waist circumference and fat percentage), independently from moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total sitting time among blue-collar workers. METHODS: Workers (n = 205) wore Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the thigh and trunk for 1-4 working days. Using the validated Acti4 software...

  12. Burnout and work engagement of South African blue-collar workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale that measures burnout and work engagement of blue-collar workers; (2) to test the .... Evaluating the psychological work-related well-being of employees in this industry could ensure better safety behaviour (Paul & Maiti 2007). ... of reduced effectiveness, decreased motivation, and the development of dysfunctional.

  13. Transitional cell carcinoma metastatic to the eye in a collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Christina; Stanley, Robin; Lynch, Michael

    2002-09-01

    A 15-year-old female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) was presented for ophthalmic examination following sudden onset of blindness. Bilateral retinal detachment was diagnosed, neoplasia suspected, and euthanasia performed. Widespread tumor dissemination was apparent at autopsy, and transitional cell carcinoma was diagnosed histologically. The tumor was identified as arising from the ovary. Epidemiologic features of this case are discussed.

  14. Cervical collar or physiotherapy versus wait and see policy for recent onset cervical radiculopathy: randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuijper (Barbara); J.T. Tans; A. Beelen (Anita); F. Nollet (Frans); M. de Visser (Marianne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with collar or physiotherapy compared with a wait and see policy in recent onset cervical radiculopathy. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Neurology outpatient clinics in three Dutch hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 205 patients w

  15. Measuring neck collar loss of Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Frederiksen, Morten; Madsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The ability to estimate mark loss of ringed animals is important to assess demographic parameters from mark-recapture studies correctly. Based on 23 years of neck collar recovery data from the Svalbard breeding population of Pink-footed Geese, we estimate an overall average annual loss rate of 3...

  16. Value of a rigid collar in addition to head blocks: a proof of principle study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: All trauma patients with a cervical spinal column injury or with a mechanism of injury with the potential to cause cervical spinal injury should be immobilised until a spinal injury is excluded. Immobilisation of the entire patient with a rigid cervical collar, backboard, head blocks wit

  17. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  18. Jet Drilling and Optimizing Parameter Drilling Technology in Shengli Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yue; Peng Junsheng

    1996-01-01

    @@ In Shengli oilfield, remarkable achievements have been obtained in research and tests on the technologies of jet drilling and optimizing parameter drilling, extensive applications of the technologies have greatly improved drilling speed and sharply decreased drilling time and costs, thus achieving excellent social and economic benefits.

  19. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  20. Direction of drilling wells. Wiercenie otworow kierunkowych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, L.

    1980-01-01

    In the example of the most widespread drilling of vertical wells, an examination is made of the mining-geological and technical-technological reasons and methods for evaluating the amount of their twisting. Methods are presented for stabilizing the drilling shaft, features of drilling vertical wells by turbodrills and groups of wells for freezing rocks. Characteristics are presented for the features of directional drilling, model profiles of directed wells, drilling of wells with assigned deviation of the face from the vertical axis. Possibilities are indicated for controlling the trajectory of movement of the face of the well with the rotary method of drilling, in particular, with the use of a deviating wedge, cement plug, etc., methods of drilling inclined wells on cased and uncased sections. Features are examined of creating and controlling the inclination of a well with the use of turbodrills of different design, technology of drilling and casing of multiple-face wells, drilling of a fan of wells from one position of the drilling unit, for example, with unfavorable relief of the earth's surface and drilling of offshore wells by using floating drilling units.

  1. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  2. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71... drilling. In accordance with an approved exploration plan or development and production plan, a lease may be maintained in force by directional wells drilled under the leased area from surface locations...

  3. Diamond Drilling Specification Manual and Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication presents the standards required of a person practicing diamond drilling in western Canada and provides an outline for teaching the skills and knowledge. It is divided into two parts. The Diamond Drilling Specification Manual establishes the levels of skill and knowledge required in the four certified levels of diamond drilling.…

  4. China Drills Its First "Earth Hole"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qingwen

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 4, 2001, drilling of Kezuan-1 Well, the first continental scientific exploration well in China, was officially kicked off in Donghai County,Jiangsu Province. About 1000 people including high-ranking governmental officials and famous experts attended the drilling ceremony. Vice Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Wan Guoquan pressed the button to start drilling of the exploration well.

  5. Assessing intermittent pesticide exposure from flea control collars containing the organophosphorus insecticide tetrachlorvinphos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M Keith; Boone, J Scott; Moran, John E; Tyler, John W; Chambers, Janice E

    2008-11-01

    Fleas are a persistent problem for pets that require implementation of control measures. Consequently, pesticide use by homeowners for flea control is common and may increase pesticide exposure for adults and children. Fifty-five pet dogs (23 in study 1; 22 in study 2) of different breeds and weights were treated with over-the-counter flea collars containing tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP). During study 1, fur of treated dogs was monitored for transferable TCVP residues using cotton gloves to pet the dogs during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was also measured in treated dogs. Average amounts of TCVP transferred from the fur of the neck (rubbing over the collar) and from the back to gloves at 3 days post-collar application were 23,700+/-2100 and 260+/-50 microg/glove, respectively. No inhibition of plasma ChE was observed. During study 2, transferable TCVP residues to cotton gloves were monitored during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Transferable residues were also monitored on cotton tee shirts worn by children and in the first morning urine samples obtained from adults and children. Average amounts of TCVP transferred to gloves at 5 days post-collar application from the neck (over the collar) and from the back were 22,400+/-2900 and 80+/-20 microg/glove, respectively. Tee shirts worn by children on days 7-11 contained 1.8+/-0.8 microg TCVP/g shirt. No significant differences were observed between adults and children in urinary 2,4,5-trichloromandelic acid (TCMA) levels; however, all TCMA residues (adults and children) were significantly greater than pretreatment concentrations (alpha=0.05). The lack of ChE inhibition in dogs and the low acute toxicity level of TCVP (rat oral LD(50) of 4-5 g/kg) strongly suggest that TCVP is rapidly detoxified and excreted and therefore poses a very low toxicological risk, despite these high residues.

  6. Ergonomic assessment of enhanced protection under body armour combat shirt neck collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Granger, C J; Pearkes, T D; Clasper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Combat neck injury due to explosively propelled fragments is a significant cause of mortality and long-term morbidity in UK soldiers deployed on current operations. Reinforcing the collar of the existing under body armour combat shirt (UBACS) has been suggested as a potential method for reducing the incidence of combat neck injury. 20 soldiers serving in Afghanistan objectively compared three designs of enhanced protection UBACS (EP-UBACS) using 10 representative military tasks against a baseline of a standard UBACS. Each EP-UBACS design was trialled using three constituent materials: two layers of para-aramid felt, one layer of ultra high molecule weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) felt or two layers of a silk fabric. Subjective assessment of these nine configurations in terms of comfort, heat dissipation and overall acceptability were compared with the standard UBACS using a χ² test. All military tasks could be performed with all nine configurations of EP-UBACS. Although silk was the most comfortable material, it was not functionally practical in any of the three designs. Crossover collars incorporating UHMWPE or para-aramid were the only two of the nine configurations to demonstrate similar user acceptability to a standard UBACS. The EP-UBACS has the potential to provide neck protection without reducing performance incorporating materials analogous to either of the felts assessed in this study. The collar should provide stand-off from the skin to improve heat dissipation and comfort, which can be maximised by changing the current UBACS collar shape to one that crosses over at the front. Should a zip be desired, it should be moved to one side of the midline to reduce rubbing on the chin and be covered with ballistic protective material. Additional semi-circles of silk beneath the collar at the front and back would improve protection without affecting comfort.

  7. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalev, Artem Vladimirovich; Isaev, Evgeniy Dmitrievich; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, Oksana Sergeevna

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the surve...

  8. REDUCTION OF AN ADVERSE IMPACT DURING WELL DRILLING BY MEANS OF DRILLING WASTE USAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Sergeevich Kuznetsov; Igor Konstantinovich Suprun

    2017-01-01

    The problem of drilling waste utilisation is assumed to be resolved through the implementation of the complex of environment protection production engineering measures. This includes, firstly, the usage in the process of well drilling of drilling mud on the basis of water-soluble biodegradable polymers and a four-stage drilling mud refining system. Secondly, the usage of the well site construction with trenching for allocation of expressed bore mud and a temporary ground tank for drilling was...

  9. REDUCTION OF AN ADVERSE IMPACT DURING WELL DRILLING BY MEANS OF DRILLING WASTE USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sergeevich Kuznetsov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of drilling waste utilisation is assumed to be resolved through the implementation of the complex of environment protection production engineering measures. This includes, firstly, the usage in the process of well drilling of drilling mud on the basis of water-soluble biodegradable polymers and a four-stage drilling mud refining system. Secondly, the usage of the well site construction with trenching for allocation of expressed bore mud and a temporary ground tank for drilling waste water.

  10. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a

  11. Enhancing current-induced torques by abutting additional spin polarizer layer to nonmagnetic metal layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Gyungchoon; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Young Keun

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the switching of a perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnet (FM) by injecting an in-plane current into an attached non-magnet (NM) has become of emerging technological interest. This magnetization switching is attributed to the spin-orbit torque (SOT) originating from the strong spin-orbit coupling of the NM layer. However, the switching efficiency of the NM/FM structure itself may be insufficient for practical use, as for example, in spin transfer torque (STT)-based magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here we investigate spin torque in an NM/FM structure with an additional spin polarizer (SP) layer abutted to the NM layer. In addition to the SOT contribution, a spin-polarized current from the SP layer creates an extra spin chemical potential difference at the NM/FM interface and gives rise to a STT on the FM layer. We show that, using typical parameters including device width, thickness, spin diffusion length, and the spin Hall angle, the spin torque from the SP layer can be much larger than that from the spin Hall effect (SHE) of the NM.

  12. Spin filtering and switching action in a diamond network with magnetic-nonmagnetic atomic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Biplab; Dutta, Paramita

    2016-09-01

    We propose a simple model quantum network consisting of diamond-shaped plaquettes with deterministic distribution of magnetic and non-magnetic atoms in presence of a uniform external magnetic flux in each plaquette and predict that such a simple model can be a prospective candidate for spin filter as well as flux driven spintronic switch. The orientations and the amplitudes of the substrate magnetic moments play a crucial role in the energy band engineering of the two spin channels which essentially gives us a control over the spin transmission leading to a spin filtering effect. The externally tunable magnetic flux plays an important role in inducing a switch on-switch off effect for both the spin states indicating the behavior like a spintronic switch. Even a correlated disorder configuration in the on-site potentials and in the magnetic moments may lead to disorder-induced spin filtering phenomenon where one of the spin channel gets entirely blocked leaving the other one transmitting over the entire allowed energy regime. All these features are established by evaluating the density of states and the two terminal transmission probabilities using the transfer-matrix formalism within a tight-binding framework. Experimental realization of our theoretical study may be helpful in designing new spintronic devices.

  13. Chelating capture and magnetic removal of non-magnetic heavy metal substances from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liren; Song, Jiqing; Bai, Wenbo; Wang, Shengping; Zeng, Ming; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yang; Li, Haifeng; Lu, Haiwei

    2016-02-01

    A soil remediation method based on magnetic beneficiation is reported. A new magnetic solid chelator powder, FS@IDA (core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles coated with iminodiacetic acid chelators), was used as a reactive magnetic carrier to selectively capture non-magnetic heavy metals in soil by chelation and removal by magnetic separation. FS@IDA was prepared via inorganic-organic and organic synthesis reactions that generated chelating groups on the surface of magnetic, multi-core, core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 (FS) nanoparticles. These reactions used a silane coupling agent and sodium chloroacetate. The results show that FS@IDA could chelate the heavy metal component of Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni carbonates, lead sulfate and lead chloride in water-insoluble salt systems. The resulting FS@IDA-Cd and FS@IDA-Pb chelates could be magnetically separated, resulting in removal rates of approximately 84.9% and 72.2% for Cd and Pb, respectively. FS@IDA could not remove the residual heavy metals and those bound to organic matter in the soil. FS@IDA did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the soil, and it allowed for fast chelating capture, simple magnetic separation and facilitated heavy metal elution. FS@IDA could also be easily prepared and reprocessed.

  14. Induced magnetization spiral in a nonmagnetic metal sandwiched between two ferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathon, J.; Umerski, A.; Villeret, Murielle E-mail: m.a.villeret@city.ac.uk; Muniz, R.B.; Edwards, D.M

    2000-07-01

    Calculation of the magnetic moment induced in a non-magnetic metal, sandwiched between two ferromagnets with magnetizations at an arbitrary angle, is reported. It is found that the induced magnetization rotates along a complex three-dimensional spiral and can undergo many complete 360 deg. rotations. A simple free-electron model is used to derive an analytic formula for the twist angle phi inside the spacer. This demonstrates that, contrary to the behavior of magnetization inside a domain wall in a ferromagnet, phi varies non-uniformly inside the spacer and exhibits plateaus of almost constant rotation separated by regions of sharp rotations by large angles. The calculation is extended to the case of a realistic Co/Cu/Co(0 0 1) trilayer described by s, p, d tight-binding bands fitted to an ab initio band structure. An analytic formula for the components of the induced moment (and hence, for phi) is derived using the stationary phase approximation. Its validity is tested against a fully numerical calculation using the same band structure. The formula shows that the components of the induced magnetization each oscillate with a predominant short period determined by the Cu Fermi surface neck extrema. The twist angle again displays the same remarkable behavior as in the free-electron model and depends in an intricate manner on geometrical properties of the spacer Fermi surface as well as on the degree of confinement of carriers in the spacer quantum well.

  15. Room temperature ferromagnetism in liquid-phase pulsed laser ablation synthesized nanoparticles of nonmagnetic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. C., E-mail: subhash.laserlab@gmail.com; Gopal, R. [Laser Spectroscopy and Nanomaterials Lab, Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Kotnala, R. K. [Magnetic Standardization Division, National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi (India)

    2015-08-14

    Intrinsic Room Temperature Ferromagnetism (RTF) has been observed in undoped/uncapped zinc oxide and titanium dioxide spherical nanoparticles (NPs) obtained by a purely green approach of liquid phase pulsed laser ablation of corresponding metal targets in pure water. Saturation magnetization values observed for zinc oxide (average size, 9 ± 1.2 nm) and titanium dioxide (average size, 4.4 ± 0.3 nm) NPs are 62.37 and 42.17 memu/g, respectively, which are several orders of magnitude larger than those of previous reports. In contrast to the previous works, no postprocessing treatments or surface modification is required to induce ferromagnetism in the case of present communication. The most important result, related to the field of intrinsic ferromagnetism in nonmagnetic materials, is the observation of size dependent ferromagnetism. Degree of ferromagnetism in titanium dioxide increases with the increase in particle size, while it is reverse for zinc oxide. Surface and volume defects play significant roles for the origin of RTF in zinc oxide and titanium dioxide NPs, respectively. Single ionized oxygen and neutral zinc vacancies in zinc oxide and oxygen and neutral/ionized titanium vacancies in titanium dioxide are considered as predominant defect centres responsible for observed ferromagnetism. It is expected that origin of ferromagnetism is a consequence of exchange interactions between localized electron spin moments resulting from point defects.

  16. Induced magnetization spiral in a nonmagnetic metal sandwiched between two ferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mathon, J; Villeret, M; Muniz, R B; Edwards, D M

    2000-01-01

    Calculation of the magnetic moment induced in a non-magnetic metal, sandwiched between two ferromagnets with magnetizations at an arbitrary angle, is reported. It is found that the induced magnetization rotates along a complex three-dimensional spiral and can undergo many complete 360 deg. rotations. A simple free-electron model is used to derive an analytic formula for the twist angle phi inside the spacer. This demonstrates that, contrary to the behavior of magnetization inside a domain wall in a ferromagnet, phi varies non-uniformly inside the spacer and exhibits plateaus of almost constant rotation separated by regions of sharp rotations by large angles. The calculation is extended to the case of a realistic Co/Cu/Co(0 0 1) trilayer described by s, p, d tight-binding bands fitted to an ab initio band structure. An analytic formula for the components of the induced moment (and hence, for phi) is derived using the stationary phase approximation. Its validity is tested against a fully numerical calculation u...

  17. Magnetic and nonmagnetic doping dependence of the conducting surface states in Sm B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B. Y.; Min, Chul-Hee; Lee, S. S.; Song, M. S.; Cho, K. K.; Cho, B. K.

    2016-10-01

    Kondo insulator Sm B6 has attracted attention because it can realize new topological phenomena driven by the interplay between strong correlation effect and topology. However, its topological nature is still under debate. To examine the topological aspect, we demonstrate the nonmagnetic La and magnetic Ce doping dependence of the resistance of Sm B6 . Moreover, the resistance ratios of different thicknesses are analyzed to confirm the surface contribution. Lightly doped La samples show a purely conducting surface region at low temperature, whereas the lightly doped Ce samples do not have any conducting region at low temperature. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the electrical transport data of S m1 -xL axB6 (0.0 ≤x ≤1.0 ), an electronic phase diagram was found, composed of four regions: region I (0.0 ≤x ≤0.06 ), II (0.1 ≤x ≤0.15 ), III (x ≈0.2 ) , and IV (0.25 ≤x ≤1.0 ). Region I is characterized by the presence of conducting surface states, region II is characterized by the insulating phase due to the d -f hybridization gap without the conducting surface state, region III is characterized by the disappearance of the d -f hybridization gap and the existence of valence fluctuation, and region IV is a typical metallic state.

  18. Controlling magnetism on metal surfaces with non-magnetic means: electric fields and surface charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovko, Oleg O; Ruiz-Díaz, Pedro; Dasa, Tamene R; Stepanyuk, Valeri S

    2014-03-01

    We review the state of the art of surface magnetic property control with non-magnetic means, concentrating on metallic surfaces and techniques such as charge-doping or external electric field (EEF) application. Magneto-electric coupling via EEF-based charge manipulation is discussed as a way to tailor single adatom spins, exchange interaction between adsorbates or anisotropies of layered systems. The mechanisms of paramagnetic and spin-dependent electric field screening and the effect thereof on surface magnetism are discussed in the framework of theoretical and experimental studies. The possibility to enhance the effect of EEF by immersing the target system into an electrolyte or ionic liquid is discussed by the example of substitutional impurities and metallic alloy multilayers. A similar physics is pointed out for the case of charge traps, metallic systems decoupled from a bulk electron bath. In that case the charging provides the charge carrier density changes necessary to affect the magnetic moments and anisotropies in the system. Finally, the option of using quasi-free electrons rather than localized atomic spins for surface magnetism control is discussed with the example of Shockley-type metallic surface states confined to magnetic nanoislands.

  19. Physics of Nonmagnetic Relativistic Thermal Plasmas. Ph.D. Thesis - Calif. Univ., San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed treatment of the kinematics of relativistic systems of particles and photons is presented. In the case of a relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of particles, the reaction rate and luminosity are written as single integrals over the invariant cross section, and the production spectrum is written as a double integral over the cross section differential in the energy of the produced particles (or photons) in the center-of-momentum system of two colliding particles. The results are applied to the calculation of the annihilation spectrum of a thermal electron-positron plasma, confirming previous numerical and analytic results. Relativistic thermal electron-ion and electron-electron bremsstrahlung are calculated exactly to lowest order, and relativistic thermal electron-positron bremsstrahlung is calculated in an approximate fashion. An approximate treatment of relativistic Comptonization is developed. The question of thermalization of a relativistic plasma is considered. A formula for the energy loss or exchange rate from the interaction of two relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann plasmas at different temperatures is derived. Application to a stable, uniform, nonmagnetic relativistic thermal plasma is made. Comparison is made with other studies.

  20. Degradation of topological surface state by nonmagnetic S doping in SrxBi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Gu, Juanjuan; Tan, Min; Wang, Qinglong; Ji, Ping; Hu, Xueyou

    2017-01-01

    Research on possible topological superconductivity has grown rapidly over the past several years, from fundamental studies to the development of next generation technologies. Recently, it has been reported that the SrxBi2Se3 exhibits superconductivity with topological surface state, making this compound a promising candidate for investigating possible topological superconductivity. However, whether or not the topological surface state is robust against impurities is not clear in this system. Here we report a detailed investigation on the lattice structure, electronic and magnetic properties, as well as the topological superconducting properties of SrxBi2Se3−ySy samples. It is found that the superconducting transition temperature keeps nearly unchanged in all samples, despite of a gradual decrease of the superconducting shielding volume fraction with increasing S doping content. Meanwhile, the Shubnikov-de Hass oscillation results of the SrxBi2Se3−ySy samples reveal that the topological surface states are destroyed in S doped samples, suggesting the topological character is degraded by nonmagnetic dopants. PMID:28358021

  1. SQUID magnetometer using sensitivity correction signal for non-magnetic metal contaminants detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Toshifumi; Ohashi, Masaharu; Sakuta, Ken

    2016-11-01

    Measurement methods with SQUID can accurately detect small magnetic metal contaminants based on their magnetic remanence. But, a high-frequency excitation is necessary to detect nonmagnetic metals, on the base of contrasts in electric conductivity. In this work, an open loop technique is introduced to facilitate this. The SQUID is negative feedback controlled (flux locked loop (FLL) operation) for the low frequency range, which includes significant noise due to the movement of the magnetic body or the change of the ambient magnetic field composed of the geomagnetic field and technical signals, and it operates in an open loop configuration for the high frequency range. When using the open loop technique, negative feedback is not applied to the high frequency range. Consequently, the V-Φ characteristic changes due to various causes, which leads to variations in the conversion factor between the SQUID output voltage and the magnetic field. In this study, conversion techniques for the magnetic field for open loop operation of SQUID in the high frequency range are examined.

  2. Direct X-Ray Imaging of Transient Spin Accumulation near a Ferromagnet/Nonmagnet Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Kukreja, Roopali; Bonetti, Stefano; Backes, Dirk; Kent, Andrew; Katine, Jordan; Durr, Hermann; Ohldag, Hendrik; Stohr, Joachim

    2015-03-01

    The physics of spin transport across a ferromagnet/nonmagnet interface is not well understood, even though such interfaces are common in spintronic devices. We use time-resolved x-ray spectro-microscopy to directly image transient spin accumulation in a Cu film caused by an injected spin current from an adjacent Co film. The measurement uses element-specific, circularly polarized x-rays detected via a scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) in conjunction with 1.28MHz temporal modulation for remarkably increased x-ray sensitivity to spin signals. The transient moments per atom within the spin diffusion length from the interface were measured to be 8 x 10-5μB per Cu atom and 1.5 x 10-4μB per Co atom. The transient spin signal in Cu is found to be confined to states at the Fermi level, as expected, but we also observe a second peak of the same spin polarization in the spin accumulation signal that is 0.7eV higher than Fermi. The transient moments in the 28nm thick Cu layer exhibit the same spin sign as both the hybridization-induced static spins in Cu at the Cu/Co interface and the spins in the Co film. In contrast, the transient moments in the Co layer have the opposite sign, consistent with magnetization depleting from the Co polarizing layer.

  3. Improved Hardfacing for Drill Bits and Drilling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Albert; Sreshta, Harry; Qiu, Bao He

    2011-01-01

    New flame spray hardfacing, DSH (DuraShell® Steel Hardfacing, US patent pending), was developed to improve thermal conductivity, abrasion wear, and erosion resistance for subterranean drilling application. The materials consisted of spherical cast WC/W2C and Ni-Si-B alloy powders. The hardfacing compositions were tailored for various processes such as flame spray and laser cladding. Typically, the hardfacing comprised hard tungsten carbide particles being uniformly distributed in a tough Ni-alloy matrix. The hardness of WC/W2C exceeded 2300 Hv.3 and that of Ni-alloy matrix varied from about 400 to 700 Hv.3. High- and low-stress abrasion resistances of these hardfacing materials were characterized and compared to the conventional hard coatings of cast WC/W2C and Ni-Cr-Si-B-Fe. The increase in thermal, wear, and erosion resistances of the hardfacing improved the durability of PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) steel body bit and drilling tools and their cost-effective performance. Several case studies of DSH hardfacings on drill bits were described.

  4. Approximately-Balanced Drilling in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Bairu; Zheng Xiuhua; Li Guoqing; Tian Tuo

    2004-01-01

    The Daqing oilfield is a multilayered heterogeneous oil field where the pressure are different in the same vertical profile causing many troubles to the adjustment well drillings. The approximately-balanced drilling technique has been developed and proved to be efficient and successful in Daqing oilfield. This paper discusses the application of approximately-balanced drilling technique under the condition of multilayered pressure in Daqing oilfield, including the prediction of formation pressure, the pressure discharge technique for the drilling well and the control of the density of drilling fluid.

  5. Measurement of the nonmagnetic coating thickness of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles by controlled magnetization magnetic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, L.; Passeri, D.; Scaramuzzo, F. A.; Di Iorio, D.; Barteri, M.; Mantovani, D.; Rossi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent an interesting tool for several biomedical applications. In order to improve the dispersion stability, the biocompatibility and bio-functionality, MNPs need to be coated with non-magnetic films. The optimization of these systems requires the deep characterization not only of the magnetic core, but also of the coating features. Beside the chemical and physical properties of the coating, its thickness is another important property which can influence the size, the shape and the overall magnetic behavior of the NPs system. In this work we propose a possible method to measure the thickness of the non-magnetic coating of core-shell MNPs through the use of controlled magnetization-magnetic force microscopy (CM-MFM). A preliminary study on the applicability of the proposed method has been performed on Fe3O4 NPs coated with a Cu film.

  6. The Effect of Nonmagnetic Impurities on Phase-Transition Kinetics and Correlation Effects in a Quasi-1D Ising Nanomagnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabunina, E. V.; Spirin, D. V.; Popov, A. A.; Udodov, V. N.; Potekaev, A. I.

    2013-05-01

    Using a Monte Carlo simulation, the effect of external field, temperature, system's dimensions and interaction of non-nearest neighbors on the relaxation time and critical indices of an antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition is investigated taking into account nonmagnetic impurities within a modified, onedimensional, nanosized Ising model. It is shown that the non-equilibrium processes taking place in the magnetic material could be classified as fast and slow, whose velocities differ by more than a thousand times. In the case of fast processes, metastable (including ferromagnetic) states (observed experimentally) are the first to form, while in the case of slow processes the system transits into a stable state. The behavior of the dynamic critical exponent ( z) and static correlation-length critical exponent ( ν) is revealed for the model of a 1D ferromagnetic for the case of arbitrary concentrations of nonmagnetic impurities.

  7. Development of non-magnetic high manganese cryogenic steel for the construction of LHC project's superconducting magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Y; Kakihara, S; Shiraishi, M; Morito, N; Nohara, K

    2002-01-01

    High manganese steel (KHMN30L) as a cryogenic nonmagnetic material has been developed by Kawasaki Steel Corporation, which is designed for structural material for superconducting magnet in particle accelerator system. This steel satisfies the following requirements for the present use. 1) Low magnetic permeability: its relative magnetic permeability is lower than 1.002 throughout the range between 1.9 K and room temperature, and shows little temperature dependency which is the result of the highly elevated Neel temperature controlled by alloying composition design. 2) Low thermal expansion: its integrated contraction from room temperature to 4.2 K is as small as 0.18%. 3) Appropriate mechanical properties: yield strength and tensile strength can be adjusted to the desirable value by the manufacturing process condition without deteriorating physical properties. With these excellent properties, this steel is being supplied for nonmagnetic lamination of the cold mass of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) supercondu...

  8. Long hole waterjet drilling for gas drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Stockwell; M. Gledhill; S. Hildebrand; S. Adam; Tim Meyer [CMTE (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    In-seam drilling for gas drainage is now an essential part of operations at many Australian underground coalmines. The objective of this project is to develop and trial a new drilling method for the accurate and efficient installation of long inseam boreholes (>1000 metres). This involves the integration of pure water-jet drilling technology (i.e. not water-jet assisted rotary drilling) developed by CMTE with conventional directional drilling technology. The system was similar to conventional directional drilling methods, but instead of relying on a down-hole-motor (DHM) rotating a mechanical drill bit for cutting, high pressure water-jets were used. The testing of the system did not achieve the full objectives set down in the project plan. A borehole greater than 1000 metres was not achieved. The first trial site had coal that was weathered, oxidized and dry. These conditions significantly affected the ability of the drilling tool to stay 'in-seam'. Due to the poor conditions at the first trial, many experimental objectives were forwarded to the second field trial. In the second trial drilling difficulties were experienced, this was due to the interaction between the confinement of the borehole and the dimensions of the down hole drilling assembly. This ultimately reduced the productivity of the system and the distance that could be drilled within the specified trial periods. Testing in the first field trial did not show any indication that the system would have this difficulty.

  9. Modeling and experimentation of bone drilling forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuEun; Gozen, B Arda; Ozdoganlar, O Burak

    2012-04-05

    Prediction and control of bone drilling forces are critical to the success of many orthopaedic operations. Uncontrolled and large forces can cause drill-bit breakage, drill breakthrough, excessive heat generation, and mechanical damage to the bone. This paper presents a mechanistic model for prediction of thrust forces and torques experienced during bone drilling. The model incorporates the radially varying drill-bit geometry and cutting conditions analytically, while capturing the material and friction properties empirically through a specific energy formulation. The forces from the chisel edge are modeled by considering the indentation process that occurs in the vicinity of the drill-bit axis. A procedure is outlined to calibrate the specific energies, where only a small number of calibration experiments are required for a wide range of drilling conditions and drill-bit geometry. The calibration parameters for the cortical portions of bovine tibia are identified through drilling tests. Subsequently, a series of validation tests are conducted under different feed rates and spindle speeds. The thrust forces and torques were observed to vary considerably between bones from different animals. The forces from the model were seen to match well with those from the experimentation within the inherent variations from the bone characteristics. The model can be used to select favorable drilling conditions, to assist in robotic surgeries, and to design optimal orthopaedic drill bits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FY 1983 Funding for ocean drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Proposed funding for scientific ocean drilling within the National Science Foundation (NSF) in fiscal 1983 totals $14 million, $6 million less than the current fiscal 1982 plan and about half of the original FY 1982 budget request of $26 million. However, there is more to these numbers than simple subtraction: Additional funding for scientific ocean drilling programs is on hold while decisions are being made about a future drilling program called Advanced Ocean Drilling (AOD).With the demise of the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP) when industry withdrew its support (Eos, October 20, 1981, p. 705) and with the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) long ago scheduled to end in fiscal 1983, the future for scientific ocean drilling within NSF was uncertain. To steer ocean drilling toward scientific objectives for the decade, the Conference on Scientific Ocean Drilling (COSOD) (Eos, December 22, 1981, p. 1197) examined four ocean drilling options and decided that the Glomar Explorer, converted to the current capabilities of the DSDP mainstay Glomar Challenger (i.e., without riser and well-control technologies), would meet scientific objectives through the decade. In December, the National Research Council's Committee on Ocean Margin Drilling came to the identical conclusion in its interim report. Both of these decisions were based solely on scientific merit and did not consider costs.

  11. Heliportable drilling in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argue, F. [Academy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Korach, D. [Nabors Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); Read, M. [Nabors Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The access season for conventional ice roads has been reduced. Therefore, efficient drilling programs are required for a short winter drilling, and long wells are not able to compete in one season. Heliportable drilling provides non-ice access. This presentation outlined the merits of heliportable drilling in the twenty-first century. Conventional heliportable drilling was discussed and several images of current and past heliportable drilling rigs were presented. New technologies were also illustrated and discussed, with particular reference to the Mi26T enabler, a Russian super heavy lift helicopter, leased to Airborne Energy Solutions. Operating data for the Mi26T was also presented and the heli-drill system was explained. Several twenty-first century heli-rigs were also illustrated and described, including rig 119H, rig 103AC, rig 106E, rig 99AC, and rig 105E. Last, the presentation identified the next steps for heli-rigs. tabs., figs.

  12. Design of Matched Zero-Index Metamaterials Using Non-Magnetic Inclusions in Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Media

    OpenAIRE

    Silveirinha, Mario; Engheta, Nader

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we study the electrodynamics of metamaterials that consist of resonant non-magnetic inclusions embedded in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) host medium. It is shown that the inclusions can be designed in such a way that both the effective permittivity and permeability of the composite structure are simultaneously zero. Two different metamaterial configurations are studied and analyzed in detail. For a particular class of problems, it is analytically proven that such matched zero-index...

  13. AN INVESTIGATION ON SOFT MAGNETIC AND NON-MAGNETIC MATERIALS UNDER LOW FREQUENCY FOR BIOMEDICAL SENSOR APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheroz Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In consequence of the recent development of magnetic sensors in biomedical sector, the investigation of magneticmaterials has been a contributing factor in application stage. This paper proposes a novel technique to investigate materials by obtaining unique distinctive impedance peaks with unique impedance values. A magneto-inductive sensoris used to measure the induction of magnetic and non-magnetic impedance peaks related to the change in permeability, thus characterizing the materials under low frequency.

  14. INDUCTION HEATING OF NON-MAGNETIC SHEET METALS IN THE FIELD OF A FLAT CIRCULAR MULTITURN SOLENOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Batygin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of electromagnetic processes in the system for induction heating presented by a flat circular multiturn solenoid positioned above a plane of thin sheet non-magnetic metal has been conducted. The calculated dependences for the current induced in a metal sheet blank and ratio of transformation determined have been obtained. The maximal value of the transformation ratio with regard to spreading the eddy-currents over the whole area of the sheet metal has been determined.

  15. Cu, Pu and Fe high T{sub c} superconductors: Spin holes in anti-ferromagnetic clusters form nonmagnetic bipolarons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, Peter, E-mail: wachter@solid.phys.ethz.c [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    The new iron based high T{sub c} superconductors with T{sub c} up to 55 K have stirred new interest in this field. It is consensus that the BCS mechanism is not able to explain the high T{sub c}'s. In the following we propose that spin holes in anti-ferromagnetic clusters combine to make nonmagnetic bipolarons, which can condense and lead to superconductivity.

  16. Downhole drilling motors: technical review. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.; McDonald, W.J.; Nixon, J.D.; Matson, L.W.

    1977-08-01

    Dyna-Drills and turbodrills are used primarily for directional drilling where it is critical that the drillpipe not be rotated. These tools are not widely used for straight-hole drilling because of problems with bearing failures, low power outputs, low bit pressures, and high rotary speeds. The high rotary speeds produce bit bearing failures in 10 to 15 h, compared to 100 to 200 h life at lower rotary speeds. The technology now exists to develop reliable high-torque motors which will operate roller bits at speeds of 150 to 250 RPM and diamond bits at speeds of 400 to 800 RPM for periods of 100 to 200 hours. Sealed bearing assemblies which allow the bearings to operate in lubricant are being developed. These improved bearings allow bits to operate at the high bit weights needed for optimum drilling. Improved drilling motors can reduce drilling costs to significantly increase the number of wells drilled per drilling rig per year. Now, this is increasingly important because of the drilling rig shortage developing in this country. At least ten companies are working on the development of improved drilling motors and it is likely that several of these new motors will become commercially available within the next 2 to 3 years. Several companies are working on the development of improved high speed roller bits for use on drilling motors. The development of these high speed bits should significantly increase the use of drilling motors since bit bearing failures are a major problem when drilling with motors. The development of reliable, high-speed STRATAPAX bits should also increase motor useage since these bits drilling most effectively at rotary speeds of 300 to 500 RPM.

  17. Reducing temperature elevation of robotic bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Arne; Wandel, Jasmin; Zysset, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    This research work aims at reducing temperature elevation of bone drilling. An extensive experimental study was conducted which focused on the investigation of three main measures to reduce the temperature elevation as used in industry: irrigation, interval drilling and drill bit designs. Different external irrigation rates (0 ml/min, 15 ml/min, 30 ml/min), continuously drilled interval lengths (2 mm, 1 mm, 0.5 mm) as well as two drill bit designs were tested. A custom single flute drill bit was designed with a higher rake angle and smaller chisel edge to generate less heat compared to a standard surgical drill bit. A new experimental setup was developed to measure drilling forces and torques as well as the 2D temperature field at any depth using a high resolution thermal camera. The results show that external irrigation is a main factor to reduce temperature elevation due not primarily to its effect on cooling but rather due to the prevention of drill bit clogging. During drilling, the build up of bone material in the drill bit flutes result in excessive temperatures due to an increase in thrust forces and torques. Drilling in intervals allows the removal of bone chips and cleaning of flutes when the drill bit is extracted as well as cooling of the bone in-between intervals which limits the accumulation of heat. However, reducing the length of the drilled interval was found only to be beneficial for temperature reduction using the newly designed drill bit due to the improved cutting geometry. To evaluate possible tissue damage caused by the generated heat increase, cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM43) were calculated and it was found that the combination of small interval length (0.5 mm), high irrigation rate (30 ml/min) and the newly designed drill bit was the only parameter combination which allowed drilling below the time-thermal threshold for tissue damage. In conclusion, an optimized drilling method has been found which might also enable drilling in more

  18. Device for purifying drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, V.T.; Dorosh, M.M.; Khariv, I.Yu.; Makedonov, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    A device is proposed for purifying drilling mud which includes a dynamic filter made in the form of a spiral-shaped tube with input and output sleeves, and a container for purified solution with outlet sleeve. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to simplify the design, the spiral-shaped tube is perforated from the inside and is installed in the container for the purified solution.

  19. Modeling of Drilling Forces Based on Twist Drill Point Angles Using Multigene Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myong-Il Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model was developed for predicting the influence of the drill point angles on the cutting forces in drilling with the twist drills, which was used to optimize those angles for reducing drilling forces. The approach was based on multigene genetic programming, for the training data, the grinding tests of twist drill were firstly conducted for the different drill point angles in Biglide parallel machine, and then drilling tests were performed on carbon fiber reinforced plastics using the grinded drills. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was verified through comparing with published data. It was found that the proposed model agreed well with the experimental data and was useful for improving the performance of twist drill.

  20. Design and testing of piezo motors for non-magnetic and/or fine positioning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, M. F.; Le Letty, R.; Seiler, R.; Coste, P.

    2005-07-01

    Piezoelectric motors offer several outstanding characteristics that may be very interesting for new scientific instruments in space applications. Piezo motors use a combination of electro-mechanical and frictional forces for generating a progressive motion; they are well suited for positioning applications because they exhibit a large force at rest without any power supply, and they often do not require any reduction gear. They are increasingly used in optical applications. Using piezo motors in space applications may become more and more relevant because of the continuous trend towards adaptive optics in future scientific payloads. In general, piezoelectric actuators are more and more used in space. Piezoelectric motors exhibit a number of advantages compared to conventional electromagnetic (stepping) motors, e.g. superior force/mass ratio, improved direct drive capability, no power supply to maintain a position, feasibility of a fully non-magnetic motor design. In this context, two complementary concepts have been designed and evaluated in the frame of ESA funded research and development activities: a resonant concept, called Rotary Piezo Actuator (RPA), a quasi-static concept, called Rotary Piezo Motor for High Precision Pointing (RPMHPP). The developed Rotary Piezo Actuator (RPA) is based on a Ultrasonic Piezo Drive (UPD) unit that drives a friction ring on the rotor part supported by a ball bearing assembly. This new motorization principle offers excellent motion dynamics and positioning accuracy combined with a high un-powered torque at standstill, and it does not rely on any magnetic features. A rotary piezo motor compliant with the requirements of a reference space application has been designed and tested. The technology remains challenging to be mastered, since the interdisciplinary aspects of the concept include, among others, drive electronics and controller design, piezo-electricity, contact mechanics and tribology. The conceptual design has lead to a

  1. Automatic detection of reservoir influx in conventional drilling, managed pressure drilling and dual gradient drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersen, Sigmund

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir influxes, or kicks, are well control incidents with the potential of severe consequences to health, safety and the environment, as well as economics. Although the main focus will always be to prevent such incidents from happening, drilling crew will also need to be able to spot reservoir influx as quickly as possible. This thesis presents a method for automated detection of reservoir influx or losses based on simulations of the surface circulation system. Theoretical background...

  2. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the survey of methods ensuring an optimal off-bottom and a drill bit distance. The analysis of methods shows that the issue is topical and requires further research.

  3. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) movements and behavior around a kill site and implications for GPS collar studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars are increasingly used to estimate Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates. In interpreting results from this technology, researchers make various assumptions about wolf behavior around kills, yet no detailed description of this behavior has been published. This article describes the behavior of six wolves in an area of constant daylight during 30 hours, from when the pack killed a Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) calf and yearling on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, to when they abandoned the kill remains. Although this is only a single incident, it demonstrates one possible scenario of pack behavior around a kill. Combined with the literature, this observation supports placing a radio-collar on the breeding male to maximize finding kills via GPS collars and qualifying results depending on whatever other information is available about the collared wolf's pack.

  4. Offshoring White-Collar Work: An Explorative Investigation of the Processes and Mechanisms in Two Danish Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Larsen, Marcus Møller; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum;

    2010-01-01

    The globalisation of standardised manufacturing operations based predominantly on blue-collar work began some decades ago. However, the recent developments in offshoring also include the spread of the phenomenon to new occupational areas based on knowledge-intensive white-collar work. The purpose...... of this paper is two folded: to explain why knowledge-intensive service work in manufacturing firms is increasingly subject to offshoring and to understand the effects of this process on integration mechanisms for the firms involved. The empirical part of the study is based on two qualitative case studies...... of Danish manufacturers, and on the basis of these, we first argue that the drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring. However, the existing offshoring and outsourcing frameworks do not necessarily adequately address...

  5. Effect of stellar wind induced magnetic fields on planetary obstacles of non-magnetized hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkaev, N. V.; Odert, P.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Mezentsev, A. V.; Johnstone, C. P.; Kubyshkina, D. I.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Khodachenko, M. L.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the interaction between the magnetized stellar wind plasma and the partially ionized hydrodynamic hydrogen outflow from the escaping upper atmosphere of non-magnetized or weakly magnetized hot Jupiters. We use the well-studied hot Jupiter HD 209458b as an example for similar exoplanets, assuming a negligible intrinsic magnetic moment. For this planet, the stellar wind plasma interaction forms an obstacle in the planet's upper atmosphere, in which the position of the magnetopause is determined by the condition of pressure balance between the stellar wind and the expanded atmosphere, heated by the stellar extreme ultraviolet radiation. We show that the neutral atmospheric atoms penetrate into the region dominated by the stellar wind, where they are ionized by photoionization and charge exchange, and then mixed with the stellar wind flow. Using a 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, we show that an induced magnetic field forms in front of the planetary obstacle, which appears to be much stronger compared to those produced by the solar wind interaction with Venus and Mars. Depending on the stellar wind parameters, because of the induced magnetic field, the planetary obstacle can move up to ≈0.5-1 planetary radii closer to the planet. Finally, we discuss how estimations of the intrinsic magnetic moment of hot Jupiters can be inferred by coupling hydrodynamic upper planetary atmosphere and MHD stellar wind interaction models together with UV observations. In particular, we find that HD 209458b should likely have an intrinsic magnetic moment of 10-20 per cent that of Jupiter.

  6. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Corke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs. We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  7. A dielectric logging tool with insulated collar for formation fluid detection around borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Kang; Kong, Fan-Min; Zhao, Jia

    2015-08-01

    A dielectric tool with insulated collar for analyzing fluid saturation outside a borehole was introduced. The UWB (ultra-wideband) antenna mounted on the tool was optimized to launch a transient pulse. The broadband evaluation method provided more advantages when compared with traditional dielectric tools. The EM (electromagnetic) power distribution outside the borehole was studied, and it was shown that energy was propagated in two modes. Furthermore, the mechanism of the modes was discussed. In order to increase this tools' investigation depth, a novel insulated collar was introduced. In addition, operation in difference formations was discussed and this tool proved to be able to efficiently launch lateral EM waves. Response voltages indicated that the proposed scheme was able to evaluate the fluid saturation of reservoir formations and dielectric dispersion properties. It may be used as an alternative tool for imaging logging applications.

  8. Indices for physiological assessment of nutritional condition in pregnant collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Grant, W E

    1988-07-01

    Hematological and serum biochemical responses to two levels of dietary energy (high energy [HE], 3300 kcal digestible energy [DE]/kg; moderate energy [ME], 2300 kcal DE/kg) and protein (high protein [HP], 16.0% crude protein; moderate protein [MP], 8.4% crude protein) during gestation in 15 collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) were examined. Dietary energy and protein levels influenced body weight gain during gestation. Red blood cell counts and lymphocyte concentrations were higher and neutrophil concentrations were lower among females fed an HP diet compared to those fed an MP diet. Alkaline phosphatase and alpha-2 globulin concentrations were higher among females fed an MP diet. Aspartate aminotransferase and cholesterol concentrations were higher and calcium and thyroxine concentrations were lower among females fed ME diets compared to those fed HE diets. These results suggest that physiological indices used in combination with morphological measurements can be useful in assessing collared peccary nutritional health during gestation.

  9. Endocrine and metabolic responses of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) to immobilization with ketamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, E C; Lochmiller, R L; Amoss, M S; Grant, W E

    1985-10-01

    Serial physiological responses were examined for 150 min from captive collared peccaries during immobilization with ketamine hydrochloride. Rectal temperatures decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) during anesthesia. Serum concentrations of total proteins, albumin, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and calcium declined significantly (P less than 0.05) during the first 45 min post-immobilization before stabilizing. Concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in sera showed similar but nonsignificant (P greater than 0.05) trends. Inorganic phosphorus and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations increased significantly (P less than 0.05) throughout the trial. Concentrations of serum glucose and glucocorticoid during the immobilization period were highly variable between individuals. Serum electrolytes, urea nitrogen, creatinine, gammaglutamyl transferase and progesterone were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) affected by immobilization. Elevations in serum testosterone were noted. Results indicated appropriate sampling times relative to immobilization for assay of particular serum biochemicals and steroid hormones during investigations of the physiology of the collared peccary.

  10. FORTY PLUS CLUBS AND WHITE-COLLAR MANHOOD DURING THE GREAT DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Wood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As scholars of gender and labor have argued, chronic unemployment during the Great Depression precipitated a “crisis” of masculinity, compelling men to turn towards new industrial unions and the New Deal as ways to affirm work, breadwinning, and patriarchy as bases for manhood. But did all men experience this crisis? During the late 1930s, white-collar men organized groups called “Forty Plus Clubs” in response to their worries about joblessness and manhood. The clubs made it possible for unemployed executives to find new jobs, while at the same time recreating the male-dominated culture of the white-collar office. For male executives, Forty Plus Clubs precluded the Depression-era crisis of manhood, challenging the idea that the absence ofpaid employment was synonymous with the loss of masculinity.

  11. Predicted Geology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Phase II Drilling Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-20

    Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley (PM-OV) Phase II drilling will occur within an area that encompasses approximately 117 square kilometers (45 square miles) near the center of the Phase I PM-OV hydrostratigraphic framework model area. The majority of the investigation area lies within dissected volcanic terrain between Pahute Mesa on the north and Timber Mountain on the south. This area consists of a complex distribution of volcanic tuff and lava of generally rhyolitic composition erupted from nearby calderas and related vents. Several large buried volcanic structural features control the distribution of volcanic units in the investigation area. The Area 20 caldera, including its structural margin and associated caldera collapse collar, underlies the northeastern portion of the investigation area. The southern half of the investigation area lies within the northwestern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex, including portions of the caldera moat and resurgent dome. Another significant structural feature in the area is the west-northwest-trending Northern Timber Mountain moat structural zone, which bisects the northern portion of the investigation area and forms a structural bench. The proposed wells of the UGTA Phase II drilling initiative can be grouped into four generalized volcanic structural domains based on the stratigraphic distribution and structural position of the volcanic rocks in the upper 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) of the crust, a depth that represents the approximate planned total depths of the proposed wells.

  12. New optimized drill pipe size for deep-water, extended reach and ultra-deep drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellison, Michael J.; Delgado, Ivanni [Grant Prideco, Inc., Hoston, TX (United States); Falcao, Jose Luiz; Sato, Ademar Takashi [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moura, Carlos Amsler [Comercial Perfuradora Delba Baiana Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A new drill pipe size, 5-7/8 in. OD, represents enabling technology for Extended Reach Drilling (ERD), deep water and other deep well applications. Most world-class ERD and deep water wells have traditionally been drilled with 5-1/2 in. drill pipe or a combination of 6-5/8 in. and 5-1/2 in. drill pipe. The hydraulic performance of 5-1/2 in. drill pipe can be a major limitation in substantial ERD and deep water wells resulting in poor cuttings removal, slower penetration rates, diminished control over well trajectory and more tendency for drill pipe sticking. The 5-7/8 in. drill pipe provides a significant improvement in hydraulic efficiency compared to 5-1/2 in. drill pipe and does not suffer from the disadvantages associated with use of 6-5/8 in. drill pipe. It represents a drill pipe assembly that is optimized dimensionally and on a performance basis for casing and bit programs that are commonly used for ERD, deep water and ultra-deep wells. The paper discusses the engineering philosophy behind 5-7/8 in. drill pipe, the design challenges associated with development of the product and reviews the features and capabilities of the second-generation double-shoulder connection. The paper provides drilling case history information on significant projects where the pipe has been used and details results achieved with the pipe. (author)

  13. Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Prashant P.; Gupta, Tripti; Schwager, Evelyn E; Wheeler, Ward C.; Cassandra G Extavour

    2014-01-01

    Background The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Droso...

  14. Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Prashant P.; Gupta, Tripti; Schwager, Evelyn E; Wheeler, Ward C.; Cassandra G Extavour

    2014-01-01

    Background: The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Dros...

  15. Case Report: Nonoperative Treatment of an Unstable Jefferson Fracture Using a Cervical Collar

    OpenAIRE

    Haus, Brian M.; Harris, Mitchel B.

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of unstable burst fractures of the atlas (Jefferson fractures) is controversial. Unstable Jefferson fractures have been managed successfully with either immobilization, typically halo traction or halo vest, or surgery. We report a patient with an unstable Jefferson fracture treated nonoperatively with a cervical collar, frequent clinical examinations, and flexion-extension radiographs. Twelve months after treatment, the patient achieved painless union of his fracture. The succes...

  16. When Should a Cervical Collar be Used to Treat Neck Pain?

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Neck pain is one of the most prevalent and costly health problems in the United States. It remains a complex, subjective experience with a variety of musculoskeletal causes. Although, cervical collars are a seemingly benign intervention, they can have adverse effects, especially when used for longer periods of time. It is feared that a long period of immobilization, can result in atrophy-related secondary damage. Many physicians cite anecdotal evidence of their clinical utility and soft cervi...

  17. Urea concentration in collared peccary milk as an indicator of protein nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E; Varner, L W

    1987-07-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (UN) concentration was examined as a possible index to protein-energy intake in female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). Captive adults were bred and assigned to one of four experimental diets through gestation and lactation. Females fed a high protein diet produced milk with UN concentrations exceeding those of low-protein-fed females. A low energy intake tended to elevate UN concentrations in milk.

  18. Occupational Stress And Job Satisfaction In White- And Blue-Collar Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Nydegger

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between job satisfaction and stress has been examined in numerous settings. In the present study, a two-part occupational stress survey was given to140 subjects in white- and blue-collar occupations. Twelve possible stressor variables divided into three levels of stress: independent; group; and organizational were analyzed. A factorial ANOVA analysis was conducted, and revealed that there was a significant main effect result for types of stress experienced by the workers in t...

  19. 服装三维衣领结构模型%The 3D Collar Model System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽君; 吴巧英; 张文斌

    2011-01-01

    从人体工效学角度出发,通过对人体颈部的试验测量和衣领模型的理论研究,提出一种根据个体颈部特征尺寸自动生成三维衣领模型的方法,运用VC++和OpenGL开发服装三维衣领结构模型系统,实现三维衣领模型到二维样版的计算机自动生成.该系统可设计出更符合个体颈部形态的衣领,探索出一条实现电子化量身定制服装的可行之路.%Started from ergonomics, through a study on the neck measurement experiment and the theory of collar model, a new approach was developed which could make 3D collar model based on the measurements of one's individual neck, then the 3D collar model system was built by VC+ + and OpenGL, which realized the transformation from 3D collar model to 2D collar pattern by computer. It makes collar fitter and better to meet the individual neck characteristic, explores a road to the final realization of eMTM (electronic Made to Measure) clothing.

  20. The effect of a cervical collar on the seal pressure of the LMA Supreme™: a prospective, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, V; Spitzner, T; Schwandner, T; Mann, S T W; Müller, M; Ahlbrandt, J; Weigand, M A; Röhrig, R

    2012-11-01

    For personnel inexperienced in airway management, supraglottic airway devices may be the first choice in an emergency. Changing head position is known to reduce the seal pressure of a laryngeal mask airway. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of a cervical collar improves the stability of airways secured with the LMA Supreme™ (The Laryngeal Mask Company Limited, Mahé, Seychelles). In this crossover trial, the primary endpoint was the difference in the seal pressure of the LMA Supreme in anaesthetised patients in maximum passive extension of the neck, with and without a cervical collar. The median (IQR [range]) seal pressure was 18 (13.8-22.1 [0-30]) cmH(2) O in maximum passive extension without a cervical collar. With a cervical collar in place, the seal pressure increased to 28 (22.8-30 [17-30]) cmH(2) O (pcervical collar in place (pcervical collar stabilises the airway with an LMA Supreme in place and we recommend this combination for (pre-hospital) emergency cases.

  1. The Need for Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Susan E.; deMenocal, Peter B.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Saffer, Demian

    2011-03-01

    Mark Twain once said, “I was seldom able to see an opportunity until it had ceased to be one.” The scientific community could soon miss an opportunity in ocean drilling. A recent article in Eos by D. K. Smith et al. (Ocean drilling: Forty years of international collaboration, Eos, 91(43), 393-394, 2010) summarized the history of scientific ocean drilling and presented an overview of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) as it currently operates. IODP will end in 2013, and an ambitious science plan is being developed to launch a new drilling program. Some people have asked, Given the program's past successes, why do we need more scientific ocean drilling?

  2. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  3. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  4. Factors related to participatory employee advisory boards in small, blue-collar worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Beti; Hannon, Peggy A; Bishop, Sonia K; West, Briana E; Peterson, Amber K; Beresford, Shirley A A

    2005-01-01

    To identify factors related to formation, participation, and characteristics of employee advisory boards (EABs) in blue-collar worksites. This study used a nonexperimental qualitative design to assess EAB formation, activity, and enthusiasm levels and examined those factors relative to employee participation in worksite-wide health promotion activities. Twenty-two blue-collar worksites with a total of 113 EAB members in the greater Seattle area. Individuals who agreed to serve on EABs in the intervention worksites. Participants received training in involving employees in the 5-A-Day project intervention activities. Measures include type of worksite, number of EAB members, method of EAB recruitment, and variables describing EAB functioning, including attendance at meetings, assistance at project activities, and level of enthusiasm. All worksites formed EABs. There was no association between the way the EAB was formed and subsequent EAB attendance at meetings, participation in project activities, representativeness of the EAB, or level of EAB enthusiasm. Enthusiasm of the EAB was associated with employee participation, and EABs with a higher level of enthusiasm showed more participation by employees than worksites with less enthusiastic EABs. It is possible to develop participatory structures in small, blue-collar worksites. More information is needed about factors related to levels of enthusiasm of EABs.

  5. Collar Option Model for Managing the Cost Overrun Caused by Change Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyo Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective change order management is very important in maintaining the financial sustainability of various stakeholders related to construction projects by minimizing cost overruns. In this study, we propose a zero-cost risk management approach based on the collar option model in order to control for the loss caused by change orders, the main cause of cost overruns in construction projects. We apply this model to actual projects for empirical analysis. The analysis, based on 237 projects, indicates that insurance buyers benefit from the collar option model in 46% of the cases, while insurance sellers do so in 53% of the cases. In most cases, the insurance buyer is the owner. According to the model, the owner experiences a loss when the cost overrun caused by change orders is lower than what was expected. In such cases, it is appropriate to conclude that the loss is not caused by the collar option model, but by the absence of additional revenue. However, the insurance seller suffers a loss if the cost overrun is higher than the strike price of the call option. Thus, the insurance seller needs to have expertise in construction management.

  6. Estrous synchronization in captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) using a prostaglandin F2α analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Keilla Moreira; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; Campos, Lívia Batista; Silva, Andréia Maria da; Castelo, Thibério de Souza; Ricarte, Aracely Rafaelle Fernandes; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    We verify the efficiency of a protocol for estrus synchronization in captive female collared peccaries (Pecaricari tajacu) using the prostaglandin analog D-cloprostenol. Five adult female collared peccaries received an intramuscular administration of 60 µg D-cloprostenol, which procedure was repeated after a 9-day interval. For 10 days after second the D-cloprostenol administration, females were monitored for changes in external genitalia, ovarian ultrasonography, vaginal cytology and reproductive hormonal dosage. As a result, four females synchronized their estrous at 9.5 ± 0.5 days after the second administration of the prostaglandin analog. Such females showed external signs of estrus, including vulvar opening, hyperemic vaginal mucosa, and vaginal mucus, concomitant with an increase in the proportion of superficial cells (52.2 ± 9.9%) verified through vaginal cytology. An estrogen peak of 22.7 ± 3.4 pg/ml was detected by hormonal dosage, and the presence of anechoic follicles measuring 0.29 ± 0.05 × 0.32 ± 0.07 mm were detected in the ovary by ultrasonography. Given these findings, we suggest that D-cloprostenol may be effective for use in estrus synchronization in collared peccaries.

  7. Testing the level of social desirability during job interview on white-collar profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek ePreiss

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N=636. It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency towards social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984. Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected.

  8. Charge collection characteristics of Frisch collar CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Mark J. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: harrison@ksu.edu; Kargar, Alireza; McGregor, Douglas S. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2007-08-21

    A collimated {sup 198}Au source was used to determine the charge collection efficiency (CCE) at several locations along the length of a 3.4x3.4x5.5 mm{sup 3} CdZnTe bar detector, both in planar configuration and with Frisch collars of varying length. For each configuration, a 0.50-mm-long region spanning the width of the device was irradiated with 411-keV gamma rays produced by a neutron-activated gold foil. Irradiation began at the cathode and stepped in 0.50-mm steps toward the anode, with a spectrum being collected at each location. By observing the channel location of the full-energy peak in each collected spectrum, an average CCE was determined for each irradiated region. The CCE was found to vary nearly linearly along the length of the device in the planar configuration, starting at a peak value of 89% and dropping to a minimum measured value of 26% near the anode. The addition of a Frisch collar covering the entire length of the crystal greatly altered the CCE profile, which remained near 87% for approximately two-thirds of the length, then sharply dropped near the anode. Results were confirmed by theoretical models. Further CCE mapping was also completed for devices with Frisch collars of various lengths. Those results are reported as well.

  9. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected.

  10. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p<0.01. Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss.

  11. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p < 0.01). Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss. PMID:27493957

  12. Reproductive performance of captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in the eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Da Silva, Jurupytan Viana; Jori, Ferran; López-Béjar, Manel

    2007-11-01

    This study analyses reproductive parameters resulting from 74 parturitions in a population of captive collared peccaries in the eastern Amazon (Belém, State of Pará, Brazil) during a 65-month survey. Parturitions were homogeneously distributed throughout the year. The average litter size was 1.85 newborns per parturition. Collared peccary females had a newborn sex ratio of 52.6% females and 47.4% males. The mean age at first parturition was 639, although, the earliest first parturition occurred at age of 381 days. Estimated parturition-conception interval was 58 days. Mean farrowing interval was 196 days and mean production was 1.03 litters and 1.86 newborns per year per female. Mortality rate in newborns less than 2 months old was 26.9% of the total newborn population. Most identified causes of death were abandonment by the mother (22.2%) and trauma due to aggression (13.9%). Newborn deaths occurred mainly during the first two days of life. This study suggests that the collared peccary possesses interesting reproductive parameters for its introduction in captive breeding programmes in the Amazon region.

  13. Integrating ultrasonography within the reproductive management of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; López-Gatius, Fernando; López-Béjar, Manel

    2005-04-15

    Ultrasound imaging has been used to elucidate certain aspects of the reproductive biology of wild or endangered species. However, to our knowledge, this tool has not been used for reproductive monitoring of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu). In this study, real-time ultrasonography was used in 16 collared peccary females to diagnose early pregnancy status and predict gestational age. Based on the detection of an embryo, the earliest pregnancy diagnosis was made on Day 18 after mating, with the mean time needed for diagnosis being 22 days. Overall accuracies on Days 22, 26 and 28 were 56, 93, and 100%, respectively. On Days 26 and 28, all pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnoses, respectively, were correct. The fetal measurements that best correlated with gestational age were crown-rump-length (CRL) and the length and diameter of the thorax. CRL was considered the most practical measurement because, contrary to thoracic fetometry, it could be determined when the embryo was first detected. Our findings revealed real-time ultrasound scanning to be a very accurate method for early pregnancy diagnosis and prediction of gestational age in the collared peccary.

  14. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M; Sato, Tatiana; Kristiansen, Jesper; Gupta, Nidhi; Skotte, Jørgen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-11-19

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4) years). Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart) was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p 0.05). In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  15. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.

  16. Reliability-Growth of Triplex Drilling Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yu; ZhaoZhong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction to triplex pump The triplex pump widely used in oilfields is composed of power end assembly, fluid end assembly, piston-liner spraying system, lubrication system and charging system.The pump delivers mud into oil well. Through nozzles of drilling bit, the mud inside the drilling shaft comes to the annular space between drilling shaft and casing string and then returns to surface.

  17. Data analytics for drilling operational states classifications

    OpenAIRE

    Veres, Galina; Sabeur, Zoheir

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides benchmarks for the identification of best performance classifiers for the detection of operational states in industrial drilling operations. Multiple scenarios for the detection of the operational states are tested on a rig with various drilling wells. Drilling data are extremely challenging due to their non-linear and stochastic natures, notwithstanding the embedded noise in them and unbalancing. Nevertheless, there is a possibility to deploy robust classifiers to overcom...

  18. General Considerations for Drill System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    meltwater can bu absorbed and refrozen in the adjacent snow. A similar principle has been suggested for disposal of melted rock produced by thermal...This last item can become very serious if the drill is immersed in meltwater . Ileat losses at the drill head are not easy to estimate in simple...Phlslberth, K. (in pr is) The thermal probe deep drilling method by E016 in 1968 at Station jul-Joaet. Central Greenland , Proceedings of icr Core

  19. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  20. Approved Applications for Permit to Drill - Not Drilled: As of Sept. 30, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of applications for permit to drill (APDs) by state that had not been drilled as of Sept. 30, 2011. Oil and gas operators may...

  1. IMPACT OF DRILLING WASTE ON HYDROBIONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to determine and make an analysis of the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and other metals in the waste drilling: drill cuttings (DC and mud (DM, collected in the area of drilling, to assess and forecast the state of biological resources of natural sea water.Methods. Experimental studies of DC and DM showed the petroleum hydrocarbons content, the concentration of which varies depending on the timing of exposure. By quantitative and qualitative indicators, the metal content in the drill cuttings and mud is nonequivalent and this depends on the structure and hardness achieved during drilling the rocks as well as on the degree of contamination with metals.Results. The concentration level of petroleum hydrocarbons and other metals in the drilling waste (drill cuttings and mud imposes a major problem associated with the conservation of biological resources of the Caspian Sea.Main conclusions. Environmental effects from the discharges of drilling waste on the high seas can be detected only during drilling operations and in close proximity (typically up to 200-500 m from the discharge point. Persistent damages in communities and ecosystems occur only at long exposures and are adaptive in nature.

  2. Steerable system adds precision to Gulf drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschwale, H.; Ridley, R.

    1988-05-02

    A well bore intersection was achieved ahead of schedule with a steerable drilling system in the Gulf of Mexico. A computer-generated proximity survey comparing the directional surveys of the initial and replacement wells, confirmed that the wells were within 1 ft. of each other near the planned intersection depth of 8,890 ft. All objectives for the 9,050-ft. replacement well were accomplished 4 days ahead of schedule. This operation illustrates the effectiveness of the steerable drilling system for obtaining better directional control, increased drilling efficiently, and reduced overall drilling time. This article explains how the project was completed.

  3. Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  4. Drilling of polymer-matrix composites

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaraj, Vijayan; Davim, J Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric composites are recognised as good candidates for structural components due to their inherent properties. However, they present several kinds of damages while creating holes for assembly. Delamination is considered the most serious damage since it reduces service life of the component. Thrust and delamination can be controlled by proper drill point geometry. Drilling at high speed is also a current requirement of the aerospace industry. This book focus on drilling of polymer matrix composites for aerospace and defence applications. The book presents introduction to machining of polymer composites and discusses drilling as a processing of composites.

  5. Optimization of Orthopaedic Drilling: A Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Kumar Pandey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone drilling is a common procedure to prepare an implant site during orthopaedic surgery. An increase in temperature during such a procedure can result in thermal ostenecrosis which may delay healing or reduce the stability of the fixation. Therefore it is important to minimize the thermal invasion of bone during drilling. The Taguchi method has been applied to investigate the optimal combination of drill diameter, feed rate and spindle speed in dry drilling of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA for minimizing the temperature produced.

  6. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  7. Simulations of a PSD Plastic Neutron Collar for Assaying Fresh Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausladen, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newby, Jason [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The potential performance of a notional active coincidence collar for assaying uranium fuel based on segmented detectors constructed from the new PSD plastic fast organic scintillator with pulse shape discrimination capability was investigated in simulation. Like the International Atomic Energy Agency s present Uranium Neutron Collar for LEU (UNCL), the PSD plastic collar would also function by stimulating fission in the 235U content of the fuel with a moderated 241Am/Li neutron source and detecting instances of induced fission via neutron coincidence counting. In contrast to the moderated detectors of the UNCL, the fast time scale of detection in the scintillator eliminates statistical errors due to accidental coincidences that limit the performance of the UNCL. However, the potential to detect a single neutron multiple times historically has been one of the properties of organic scintillator detectors that has prevented their adoption for international safeguards applications. Consequently, as part of the analysis of simulated data, a method was developed by which true neutron-neutron coincidences can be distinguished from inter-detector scatter that takes advantage of the position and timing resolution of segmented detectors. Then, the performance of the notional simulated coincidence collar was evaluated for assaying a variety of fresh fuels, including some containing burnable poisons and partial defects. In these simulations, particular attention was paid to the analysis of fast mode measurements. In fast mode, a Cd liner is placed inside the collar to shield the fuel from the interrogating source and detector moderators, thereby eliminating the thermal neutron flux that is most sensitive to the presence of burnable poisons that are ubiquitous in modern nuclear fuels. The simulations indicate that the predicted precision of fast mode measurements is similar to what can be achieved by the present UNCL in thermal mode. For example, the statistical accuracy of a

  8. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Methods Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10 were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal, 6 h (repellent and 48 h (sustained after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo, and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro, above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis. Repellent (6 h efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus. Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water. The

  9. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-06-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

  10. Kinematic equations to grind a helical drill point on a virtual axis drill sharpener

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈五一; 陈鼎昌

    2000-01-01

    The basic structure of a virtual axis drill grinder is presented in terms of the spatial vectors and thegrinding parameters calculated according to the geometry of a helical drill point. The kinematic equations for sharpening the drills on the virtual axis grinder are deduced using the grinding parameters via vector-matrix txansformation.

  11. Biological treatment of drilling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, F.H.; Seris, J.L.; Martignon, A.P.

    1995-12-01

    Off shore operators are now faced with more stringent forthcoming regulations regarding waste discharge. Several aspects are to be taken into account when considering waste disposal in the sea; among them, the total amount of COD and the toxicity. While, in many regards, the problem caused by the processing fluids toxicity has been addressed, the elimination of residual COD from the waste is yet to be solved. Biodegradation of drilling waste is one of the major routes taken by third party contracters to address the reduction of COD in sea-discharged cuttings. This report describes a technique specifically developed to enhance drilling waste biodegradation under selected conditions. The suggested treatment involved biological catalysts used in conjunction with or prior to the biodegradation. We demonstrated that the considered environment-compatible substitute for oil-based mud could be more efficiently biodegraded if an enzymatic pretreatment was carried out prior to or during the actual biodegradation. The biodegradation rate, expressed as CO{sub 2} envolvement, was significantly higher in lipase-treated cultures. In addition, we demonstrated that this treatment was applicable to substrates in emulsion, suspension, or adsorbed on solid.

  12. HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

    2008-03-31

    Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole

  13. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2007-02-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute- GRI) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). When compared to its competitors; the HPFL represents a technology that is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. Work performed under this contract included design and implementation of laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of high power laser energy on a variety of rock types. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation or side tracking prototype tool. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on laser/rock interaction under confining pressure as would be the case for all drilling and completion operations. As such, the results would be applicable to drilling, perforation, and

  14. Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.A.; Rubin, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    When downhole contact between the BHA and formation was optimum, as it was during rotation, high signal levels were experienced. Survey data acquired at the connections, when the BHA was totally at rest, is excellent. GEC intends modifying the system to optimize operations consistent with these disparate factors. A Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF) of 89.9 hours appears reasonable from the data. It is not possible to infer an MTBF figure from this test. It is quite obvious, however, that the system reliability performance has been significantly improved since FT {number_sign}5 was performed almost two years earlier. Based on the above results, GEC concludes that it is certainly feasible to attain 100 hours MTBF, for the Model 27, in any and all situations, and hence to provide a reliable MWD for air-drilling.

  15. Dilution Effects on Two-Dimensional Heisenberg Antiferromagnets with Non-Magnetic Spin-Gapped Ground State

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuda, Chitoshi; Todo, Synge; Matsumoto, Munehisa; Takayama, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    Dilution effects on spin-1/2 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with a non-magnetic spin-gapped ground state are studied by means of the qunatum Monte Carlo simulation. In the site-diluted system, an antiferromagnetic long-range order (AF-LRO) is induced at an infinitesimal concentration of dilution due to an effective coupling $\\tilde{J}_{mn}$ between induced magnetic moments. In the bond-diluted case, on the other hand, the AF-LRO is not induced up to a certain concentration of dilution du...

  16. Enhancement of thermal spin transfer torque by double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with a nonmagnetic metal spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.; Tseng, P.; Yang, Y. Y.; Hsueh, W. J.

    2017-01-01

    Enhancement of thermal spin transfer torque in a double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal spacer is proposed in this study. The results indicate that, given the same temperature difference, thermal spin transfer torque and charge current density for the proposed double barrier magnetic tunnel junction configuration can be approximately twice as much as that of the traditional single-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. This enhancement can be attributed to the resonant tunneling mechanism in the double-barrier structure.

  17. Influence of Non-Magnetic Substitutional Atoms on Spontaneous Moment and Curie Temperature of Ce2Co17 Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of Ce2Co17-xMx(M=Ga,Al and Si) compounds for M concentrations up to x=5 were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The experimental results show that the Curie temperatures and Co spontaneous magnetization decrease significantly with increasing the addition of non-magnetic substitutional atoms, and that Si which has a minimum solid solubility in Ce2Co17 causes a largest reduction of Curie temperature, spontaneous magnetization and moment per Co atom compared with Ga and Al.

  18. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2004-09-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser compares with other lasers used in past experimental work, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. Variables investigated include laser power, beam intensity, external purging of cut materials, sample orientation, beam duration, beam shape, and beam frequency. The investigation also studied the thermal effects on the two sample rock types and their methods of destruction: spallation for sandstone, and thermal dissociation for limestone. Optimal operating conditions were identified for each rock type and condition. As a result of this experimental work, the HPFL has demonstrated a better capability of cutting and drilling limestone and sandstone when compared with other military and industrial lasers previously tested. Consideration should be given to the HPFL as the leading candidate for near term remote high power laser applications for well construction and completion.

  19. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling

  20. Foam drilling in natural gas hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Na

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of foam drilling in natural gas hydrate is prediction of characteristic parameters of bottom hole. The simulation shows that when the well depth increases, the foam mass number reduces and the pressure increases. At the same depth, pressure in drill string is always higher than annulus. The research findings provide theoretical basis for safety control.

  1. Number & operations drill sheets : grades PK-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2010-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Each drill sheet contains warm-up and timed drill activities for the student to practice number & operations concepts.

  2. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  6. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and...

  8. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  9. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  10. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  11. Status Report A Review of Slimhole Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Tao; Carroll, Herbert B.

    1994-09-01

    This 1994 report reviews the various applications of slimhole technology including for exploration in remote areas, low-cost development wells, reentering existing wells, and horizontal and multilateral drilling. Advantages of slimholes to regular holes are presented. Limitations and disadvantages of slimholes are also discussed. In 1994, slimhole drilling was still an ongoing development technology. (DJE 2005)

  12. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1007 Drilling; general. (a) Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be...

  13. Straight hole drilling machines for coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, VV; Kokoulin, DI; Alekseev, SE; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-02-01

    The authors prove the demand for drilling machines capable of making long straight holes in rocks with the strength up to 120 MPa. The paper describes the designed, manufactured and tested down-the-hole hammers for rotary–percussion drilling of long straight directional holes. The hammers have been delivered to Berezovskaya Mine for further trial and commercial operation.

  14. Neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Lin, Hsin-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Yo; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system that provides assistance throughout the complete bone drilling process. The system comprised neurosurgical robotic arm navigation combining robotic and surgical navigation, 3D medical imaging based surgical planning that could identify lesion location and plan the surgical path on 3D images, and automatic bone drilling control that would stop drilling when the bone was to be drilled-through. Three kinds of experiment were designed. The average positioning error deduced from 3D images of the robotic arm was 0.502 ± 0.069 mm. The correlation between automatically and manually planned paths was 0.975. The average distance error between automatically planned paths and risky zones was 0.279 ± 0.401 mm. The drilling auto-stopping algorithm had 0.00% unstopped cases (26.32% in control group 1) and 70.53% non-drilled-through cases (8.42% and 4.21% in control groups 1 and 2). The system may be useful for neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Basic Land Drills for Swimming Stroke Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Teaching swimming strokes can be a challenging task in physical education. The purpose of the article is to introduce 12 on land drills that can be utilized to facilitate the learning of swimming strokes, including elementary back stroke, sidestroke, front crawl, back stroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. Each drill consists of four components…

  16. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  17. Initial report on drilling into seismogenic zones of M2.0 - M5.5 earthquakes from deep South African gold mines (DSeis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Durrheim, Raymond; Yabe, Yasuo; Ito, Takatoshi; van Aswegen, Gerrie; Grobbelaar, Michelle; Funato, Akio; Ishida, Akimasa; Ogasawara, Hiroyuki; Mngadi, Siyanda; Manzi, Musa; Ziegler, Martin; Ward, Tony; Moyer, Pamela; Boettcher, Margaret; Ellsworth, Bill; Liebenberg, Bennie; Wechsler, Neta; Onstott, Tullis; Berset, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) approved our proposal (Ogasawara et al., EGU 2016) to drill into and around seismogenic zones where critically stressed faults initiated ruptures at depth. The drilling targets include four ruptures equivalent to M2.0, 2.8, 3.5, and 5.5 that dynamically and quasi-statically evolved in 2.9 Ga hard rock in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. Major advantages of our drilling locations are the large quantity and high-quality of existing data from dense seismic arrays both on surface and near-field underground in three deep South African gold mines. Additionally, the great depths (1.0 to 3.3 km from surface) to collar holes reduce drilling costs significantly and enable a larger number of holes to be drilled. Flexibility in drilling direction will also allow us to minimize damage in borehole or drilled cores. With the ICDP funds, we will conduct full-core drilling of 16 holes with drilling ranges from 50 to 750 m to recover both materials and fractures in and around the seismogenic zones, followed by core and borehole logging. Additional in-hole monitoring at close proximity will be supported by co-mingled funds and will follow the ICDP drilling. Expected magnitudes of maximum shear stress are several tens of MPa. We have established an overcoring procedure to measure 3D-stress state for adverse underground working conditions so as not to interfere with mining operations. This procedure was optimized based on the Compact Conic-ended Borehole Overcoring (CCBO) technique (ISRM suggested; Sugawara and Obara, 1999). Funato and Ito (2016 IJRMMS) developed a diametrical core deformation analysis (DCDA) method to measure differential stress using only drilled core by assuming diametrical change with roll angles caused by elastic in-axisymmetrical expansion during drilling. A gold mine has already drilled a hole to intersect the hypocenter of a 2016 M3.5 earthquake and carried out the CCBO stress measurement in

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of different shapes of collars on the reduction of scour around a single bridge pier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Jahangirzadeh

    Full Text Available The scour phenomenon around bridge piers causes great quantities of damages annually all over the world. Collars are considered as one of the substantial methods for reducing the depth and volume of scour around bridge piers. In this study, the experimental and numerical methods are used to investigate two different shapes of collars, i.e, rectangular and circular, in terms of reducing scour around a single bridge pier. The experiments were conducted in hydraulic laboratory at university of Malaya. The scour around the bridge pier and collars was simulated numerically using a three-dimensional, CFD model namely SSIIM 2.0, to verify the application of the model. The results indicated that although, both types of collars provides a considerable decrease in the depth of the scour, the rectangular collar, decreases scour depth around the pier by 79 percent, and has better performance compared to the circular collar. Furthermore, it was observed that using collars under the stream's bed, resulted in the most reduction in the scour depth around the pier. The results also show the SSIIM 2.0 model could simulate the scour phenomenon around a single bridge pier and collars with sufficient accuracy. Using the experimental and numerical results, two new equations were developed to predict the scour depth around a bridge pier exposed to circular and rectangular collars.

  19. Heat Generation During Bone Drilling: A Comparison Between Industrial and Orthopaedic Drill Bits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher; Inceoglu, Serkan; Juma, David; Zuckerman, Lee

    2017-02-01

    Cortical bone drilling for preparation of screw placement is common in multiple surgical fields. The heat generated while drilling may reach thresholds high enough to cause osteonecrosis. This can compromise implant stability. Orthopaedic drill bits are several orders more expensive than their similarly sized, publicly available industrial counterparts. We hypothesize that an industrial bit will generate less heat during drilling, and the bits will not generate more heat after multiple cortical passes. We compared 4 4.0 mm orthopaedic and 1 3.97 mm industrial drill bits. Three types of each bit were drilled into porcine femoral cortices 20 times. The temperature of the bone was measured with thermocouple transducers. The heat generated during the first 5 drill cycles for each bit was compared to the last 5 cycles. These data were analyzed with analysis of covariance. The industrial drill bit generated the smallest mean increase in temperature (2.8 ± 0.29°C) P industrial bit generated less heat during drilling than its orthopaedic counterparts. The bits maintained their performance after 20 drill cycles. Consideration should be given by manufacturers to design differences that may contribute to a more efficient cutting bit. Further investigation into the reuse of these drill bits may be warranted, as our data suggest their efficiency is maintained after multiple uses.

  20. Communication adapter for use with a drilling component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Hall; Jr.; H. Tracy; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael

    2007-04-03

    A communication adapter is disclosed that provides for removable attachment to a drilling component when the drilling component is not actively drilling and for communication with an integrated transmission system in the drilling component. The communication adapter comprises a data transmission coupler that facilitates communication between the drilling component and the adapter, a mechanical coupler that facilitates removable attachment of the adapter to the drilling component, and a data interface.

  1. Peculiarities of carbon fiber drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Yu. Melentiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available At polymeric composite materials (PCM machining we face a number of specific features. The research refers to PCMs classification, exposing an overview of known specific features described in the latest advances and techniques to improve the quality and efficiency in PCM processing. To study the carbon fiber drilling a preliminary experiment has been conducted, which essential parameters and issues have been described with respective data Tables and numerous images. The holes surface quality and edges dimensional accuracy have been compared for samples obtained using a blade and a diamond tool; established is the instrument blade material impact on the edges’ precision parameters. Confirmed are the typical and revealed some new types of imperfections and their occurrence conditions. The problem of rapid clogging and related diamond tool clogging problem are identified. Some promising ways of processing of carbon fiber are offered.

  2. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  3. AIR AND GAS DRILLING SUCCEEDED IN NORTHEASTERN SICHUAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Tingyong

    2006-01-01

    @@ On January 21, 2006, air and gas deep well drilling test was successfully carried out in the Sinopec southern exploration area. Lingering problems pestering deep well drillings in the southern marine facies area like low drilling rate and prolonged drilling periods were well resolved: average drilling rate of conventional drilling is about 1.4 meters per hour with drilling period (above Xujiahe Formation) of about 130 days, whereas it took only 22 days to complete the same task by air and gas drilling, with penetration rate increased more than eightfold.

  4. Comparative experiments of gas drainage in different types of drillings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-wu; WEI Shan-yang; WANG Chuan; GAO Tian-bao; FU Yu-kai

    2012-01-01

    Gas drainage effect is the utmost important factor for mining speed and mining safety.It has great meaning to study the effect of gas drainage.Comparative experiment of gas drainage in different types of drillings shows that the initial rate of gas natural emission by hydraulic loosed cross drilling is 1.5 times more than that of parallel drilling,and the drilling gas attenuation coefficients reduces to 0.78 times,the effect of gas drainage is good.The ultimate quantity of gas drainage of parallel drilling,cross drilling,hydraulic loosed cross drilling are 859.1,1 323.5 and 1 833.6 m3/100 m.The results of the measurement through these three kinds of drillings of 100 meters drilling is considered as following:cross drilling is 1.54 times more than that of parallel drillings,hydraulic loosed cross drilling are 2.13 times more than parallel drilling.The drainage rate of parallel drilling,cross drilling and hydraulic loosed cross drilling reached 10% to 15% in 3 months with the pre-draining time.Among these,the drainage effect of hydraulic loosed cross drilling increased by 46% than that of parallel drilling in three months.

  5. Non-Magnetic, Tough, Corrosion- and Wear-Resistant Knives From Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Douglas C.; Potter, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Quality knives are typically fabricated from high-strength steel alloys. Depending on the application, there are different requirements for mechanical and physical properties that cause problems for steel alloys. For example, diver's knives are generally used in salt water, which causes rust in steel knives. Titanium diver's knives are a popular alternative due to their salt water corrosion resistance, but are too soft to maintain a sharp cutting edge. Steel knives are also magnetic, which is undesirable for military applications where the knives are used as a tactical tool for diffusing magnetic mines. Steel is also significantly denser than titanium (8 g/cu cm vs. 4.5 g/cu cm), which results in heavier knives for the same size. Steel is hard and wear-resistant, compared with titanium, and can keep a sharp edge during service. A major drawback of both steel and titanium knives is that they must be ground or machined into the final knife shape from a billet. Since most knives have a mirrored surface and a complex shape, manufacturing them is complex. It would be more desirable if the knife could be cast into a net or near-net shape in a single step. The solution to the deficiencies of titanium, steel, and ceramic knives is to fabricate them using bulk metallic glasses (or composites). These alloys can be cast into net or near-net shaped knives with a combination of properties that exceed both titanium and steel. A commercially viable BMG (bulk metallic glass) or composite knife is one that exhibits one or all of the following properties: It is based on titanium, has a self-sharpening edge, can retain an edge during service, is hard, is non-magnetic, is corrosion-resistant against a variety of corrosive environments, is tough (to allow for prying), can be cast into a net-shape with a mirror finish and a complex shape, has excellent wear resistance, and is low-density. These properties can be achieved in BMG and composites through alloy chemistry and processing. For

  6. Investigations of the effect of nonmagnetic Ca substitution for magnetic Dy on spin-freezing in Dy₂Ti₂O₇.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, V K; Tennant, D A; Lake, B

    2015-11-01

    Physical properties of partially Ca substituted hole-doped Dy2Ti2O7 have been investigated by ac magnetic susceptibility χ(ac)(T), dc magnetic susceptibility χ(T), isothermal magnetization M(H) and heat capacity C(p)(T) measurements on Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7. The spin-ice system Dy2Ti2O7 exhibits a spin-glass type freezing behavior near 16 K. Our frequency dependent χ(ac)(T) data of Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7 show that the spin-freezing behavior is significantly influenced by Ca substitution. The effect of partial nonmagnetic Ca(2+) substitution for magnetic Dy(3+) is similar to the previous study on nonmagnetic isovalent Y(3+) substituted Dy(2-x)Y(x) Ti2O7 (for low levels of dilution), however the suppression of spin-freezing behavior is substantially stronger for Ca than Y. The Cole-Cole plot analysis reveals semicircular character and a single relaxation mode in Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7 as for Dy2Ti2O7. No noticeable change in the insulating behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 results from the holes produced by 10% Ca(2+) substitution for Dy(3+) ions.

  7. Component masses of young, wide, non-magnetic white dwarf binaries in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, R. B.; Dobbie, P. D.; Parker, Q. A.; Casewell, S. L.; Lodieu, N.; Burleigh, M. R.; Lawrie, K. A.; Külebi, B.; Koester, D.; Holland, B. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present a spectroscopic component analysis of 18 candidate young, wide, non-magnetic, double-degenerate binaries identified from a search of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (DR7). All but two pairings are likely to be physical systems. We show SDSS J084952.47+471247.7 + SDSS J084952.87+471249.4 to be a wide DA + DB binary, only the second identified to date. Combining our measurements for the components of 16 new binaries with results for three similar, previously known systems within the DR7, we have constructed a mass distribution for the largest sample to date (38) of white dwarfs in young, wide, non-magnetic, double-degenerate pairings. This is broadly similar in form to that of the isolated field population with a substantial peak around M ˜ 0.6 M⊙. We identify an excess of ultramassive white dwarfs and attribute this to the primordial separation distribution of their progenitor systems peaking at relatively larger values and the greater expansion of their binary orbits during the final stages of stellar evolution. We exploit this mass distribution to probe the origins of unusual types of degenerates, confirming a mild preference for the progenitor systems of high-field-magnetic white dwarfs, at least within these binaries, to be associated with early-type stars. Additionally, we consider the 19 systems in the context of the stellar initial mass-final mass relation. None appear to be strongly discordant with current understanding of this relationship.

  8. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger

  9. Growth curve of female collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu raised in captivity in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.V. Garnero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to determine the most suitable nonlinear model to describe the growth of female collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu. The monthly records of the weight of 10 captive female collared peccaries over a period of two years in the Brazilian Amazon Region were used. The growth models used were the Von Bertalanffy, Brody, Gompertz and Logistic. The parameters were estimated by using the NLIN procedure from the SAS application. The criteria used to verify the adjustment of the models were: asymptotic standard deviation (ASD; coefficient of determination (R²; average absolute residual deviation (ARD and the asymptotic rate (AR. The Brody model and the Logistic model estimated the highest (19.44kg and the lowest (19.18kg asymptotic weight (A, indicating the lowest (0.0070kg/day and the highest (0.0121kg/day maturation rate (K. These results and the coefficients of phenotypic correlation that varied from -0.75 and -0.47 confirmed the antagonistic nature between these parameters. The Brody model estimated the lower value for ARD, a limiting factor for describing the lowest value for AR through this model. The Brody model showed the best adjustment for AR, although the other models also showed a suitable adjustment to the weight data of said species/gender. Based on the AR obtained in this work, the Brody model is recommended for adjusting the growth curve of the female collared peccaries. Depending on the estimated values, especially for K, this trait can be included in a selection index.

  10. Estrus cycle monitoring of captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu in semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilla M. Maia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Collared peccaries (Peccary tajacu are among the most hunted species in Latin America due the appreciation of their pelt and meat. In order to optimize breeding management of captive born collared peccaries in semiarid conditions, the objective was to describe and correlate the changes in the ovarian ultrasonographic pattern, hormonal profile, vulvar appearance, and vaginal cytology during the estrus cycle in this species. During 45 days, females (n=4 were subjected each three days to blood collection destined to hormonal dosage by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. In the same occasions, evaluation of external genitalia, ovarian ultrasonography and vaginal cytology were conducted. Results are presented as means and standard deviations. According to hormonal dosage, six estrous cycles were identified as lasting 21.0 ± 5.7 days, being on average 6 days for the estrogenic phase and 15 days for the progesterone phase. Estrogen presented mean peak values of 55.6 ± 20.5 pg/mL. During the luteal phase, the high values for progesterone were 35.3 ± 4.4 ng/mL. The presence of vaginal mucus, a reddish vaginal mucosa and the separation of the vulvar lips were verified in all animals during the estrogenic peak. Through ultrasonography, ovarian follicles measuring 0.2±0.1 cm were visualized during the estrogen peak. Corpora lutea presented hyperechoic regions measuring 0.4±0.2 cm identified during luteal phase. No significant differences (P>0.05 between proportions of vaginal epithelial cells were identified when comparing estrogenic and progesterone phases. In conclusion, female collared peccaries, captive born in semiarid conditions, have an estral cycle that lasts 21.0±5.7 days, with estrous signs characterized by vulvar lips edema and hyperemic vaginal mucosa, coinciding with developed follicles and high estrogen levels.

  11. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Lars

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective

  12. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hallman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4 years. Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+ worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p < 0.05 with time and frequency domain HRV indices. Sitting-time explained up to 6% of the variance in HRV, independent of the covariates. Leisure-time sitting was not significantly associated with any HRV indices (p > 0.05. In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  13. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects of collared peccary and white-lipped peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, T.C.; Dantzer, Vibeke; Jones, C.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines middle and late gestational placentae from 13 Tayassu tajacu (collared peccary) and 3 Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), which are Artiodactyla belonging to the Family Tayassuidae. The chorionic sac of Tayassu species is diffuse and chorioallantoic. These epitheliochorial...... a placental barrier 3 µm or less thick. The columnar uterine glandular epithelium has a subpopulation of granules staining with Perl's Prussion blue reaction, suggesting iron secretion. In areolar areas, the trophoblast cells show apical microvilli, a basophilic cytoplasm with electron-dense intracellular...

  14. Pattern of Smoking Habit among Greek Blue and White Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking in a Greek working population. A questionnaire regarding smoking habit was collected from 1,005 out of 1,200 blue and white-collar employees (response rate: 84%. The overall smoking prevalence was 48.4% and did not differ by sex, age, education, and occupation. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 25.54, with no difference observed by occupation. The above-mentioned findings, if confirmed by further research, are alarming and inconsistent with the prevalent pattern of smoking habits in the West.

  15. Automated Shirt Collar Manufacturing. Volume 3. Sewing Head Control for High Speed Stitch Contour Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-23

    topstitching unit ......... 8 1.5 Stitching machines that move the sewing head rather than the fabric assembly ............... 10 1.6 The Necchi UAN...points in an EPROM chip. The Necchi UAN 2684 in Figure 1.5b also moves the sewing head rather than the fabric assembly. This stitcher is 10 h f gedcant...ft evr ndqexbte (a) The Adler 973-S-204-3 automatic collar runstitching machine. (b) The Necchi UAN 2684 stitching machine. Figure 1.5 Stitching

  16. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF COLLARED PECCARY ( Dicotyles tajacu angulatus ) WITH SWINE KIDNEY WORM ( Stephanurus dentatus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, G M; Davis, D S; Robinson, R M; Galvin, T J

    1977-10-01

    Two captive-born juvenile collared peccaries ( Dicotyles tajacu angulatus ) were given 3000 infective larvae of Stephanurus dentatus per os. One peccary harbored viable S. dentatus sub-adults in the liver 50 days post-infection. The other peccary had no larvae but did have diffuse fibrotic hepatic lesions and bile duct hyperplasia 213 days post-infection; however, the lesions may have been partially due to a concurrent Ascaris suum infection. A domestic pig ( Sus scrofa domesticus ) infected as a control was severely but non-patently parasitized 170 days postinfection.

  17. Unintentional strangulation by a cervical collar after attempted suicide by hanging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Palud, Aurore; Favory, Raphael; Mathieu, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    We report the case of a young man who attempted suicide by hanging and whose neurological status deteriorated until the cervical collar, that had been correctly placed by the prehospital team, was removed. We discuss the physiopathological mechanisms leading to death in hanging that is, a blockage of the blood stream to the brain leading to vasogenic and cytotoxic cerebral edema rather than asphyxia or spinal fracture. Our case supports the early removal of neck stabilization devices that can dangerously harm the patient after an attempted suicide by hanging, by increasing intracerebral pressure.

  18. Erwinia amylovora – the Causal Agent of Root Collar Necrosis of Apple Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Veljko Gavrilović; Svetlana Milijašević; Biljana Todorović; Svetlana Živković; Nenad Trkulja

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale outbreak of fire blight symptoms caused by Erwinia amylovora was recorded in pome fruit trees during 2007. In addition to fruit necrosis and shoot blight as the typical disease symptoms, dark purple necrosis was observed in the root collar area girdling the trunk just above the ground and thus withering the whole apple tree. Since similar symptoms on apple trees could be caused by E. amylovora or one of several phytopathogenic fungi of the genera Phomopsis and Phytophthora, an i...

  19. First detection of Arcobacter sp. in Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Delogu, Mauro; Giacometti, Federica; Stancampiano, Laura; Grilli, Ester; Guarniero, Ilaria; Serraino, Andrea

    2014-12-29

    Data about the presence of Arcobacter in wild birds are currently lacking. In this study cloacal swabs from 95 collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto), submitted to the Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (Bologna, Italy) between 2011 and 2013 from various urban and suburban areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), were tested for the presence of Arcobacter sp. by a rRNA 23S nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Eighteen out of 95 (19%) samples showed the expected PCR product. Further cultural and molecular studies are needed to assess the Arcobacter prevalence in wild birds and elucidate their potential epidemiological role as source of animal and human infections.

  20. Short communication. First detection of Arcobacter sp. in Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Di Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Data about the presence of Arcobacter in wild birds are currently lacking. In this study cloacal swabs from 95 collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto, submitted to the Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (Bologna, Italy between 2011 and 2013 from various urban and suburban areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy, were tested for the presence of Arcobacter sp. by a rRNA 23S nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Eighteen out of 95 (19% samples showed the expected PCR product. Further cultural and molecular studies are needed to assess the Arcobacter prevalence in wild birds and elucidate their potential epidemiological role as source of animal and human infections.