WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlocal spin observables

  1. Unsharp spin observables, non-locality and Fry, Walther and Li ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spin values of particles continue to have the normal integer or half integer values in operational quantum physics. .... The net effect of unsharp observables is twofold. The use of .... terms of physically realizable experiment. Essentially, the ...

  2. Current-based detection of nonlocal spin transport in graphene for spin-based logic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hua; Zhu, Tiancong; Luo, Yunqiu Kelly; Amamou, Walid; Kawakami, Roland K.

    2014-05-01

    Graphene has been proposed for novel spintronic devices due to its robust and efficient spin transport properties at room temperature. Some of the most promising proposals require current-based readout for integration purposes, but the current-based detection of spin accumulation has not yet been developed. In this work, we demonstrate current-based detection of spin transport in graphene using a modified nonlocal geometry. By adding a variable shunt resistor in parallel to the nonlocal voltmeter, we are able to systematically cross over from the conventional voltage-based detection to current-based detection. As the shunt resistor is reduced, the output current from the spin accumulation increases as the shunt resistance drops below a characteristic value R*. We analyze this behavior using a one-dimensional drift-diffusion model, which accounts well for the observed behavior. These results provide the experimental and theoretical foundation for current-based detection of nonlocal spin transport.

  3. Quantum Nonlocality with Spins in Diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we experimentally investigate quantum nonlocality: entangled states of spatially separated objects. Entanglement is one of the most striking consequences of the quantum formalism developed in the 1920's; the predicted outcomes of independent measurements on entangled objects reveal

  4. Nonlocal magnon spin transport in yttrium iron garnet with tantalum and platinum spin injection/detection electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Cornelissen, L. J.; Shan, J.; van Wees, B. J.; Kuschel, T.

    2018-06-01

    We study the magnon spin transport in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) in a nonlocal experiment and compare the magnon spin excitation and detection for the heavy metal paramagnetic electrodes platinum (Pt|YIG|Pt) and tantalum (Ta|YIG|Ta). The electrical injection and detection processes rely on the (inverse) spin Hall effect in the heavy metals and the conversion between the electron spin and magnon spin at the heavy metal|YIG interface. Pt and Ta possess opposite signs of the spin Hall angle. Furthermore, their heterostructures with YIG have different interface properties, i.e. spin mixing conductances. By varying the distance between injector and detector, the magnon spin transport is studied. Using a circuit model based on the diffusion-relaxation transport theory, a similar magnon relaxation length of  ∼10 μm was extracted from both Pt and Ta devices. By changing the injector and detector material from Pt to Ta, the influence of interface properties on the magnon spin transport has been observed. For Ta devices on YIG the spin mixing conductance is reduced compared with Pt devices, which is quantitatively consistent when comparing the dependence of the nonlocal signal on the injector-detector distance with the prediction from the circuit model.

  5. Aging effect of spin accumulation in non-local spin valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Bing; Zhang, Ziyu; Chen, Xiaobing; Zhang, Xiaohan; Pan, Jiahui; Ma, Jiajun; Li, Juan; Wang, Zhicheng; Wang, Le; Xu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • First time to reveal the whole temporal evolution life of spintronics devices. • The gradual oxidation of the junctions’ areas and that of the channel are confirmed to be the predominant factors to determine the temporal evolution. • Physically, the temporal evolution can be evaluated by theories of S. Takahashi and A. Fert. • This study may offer some useful advice for the design and protection of future industrial spintronics devices. - Abstract: A temporal evolution of spin accumulation of Co/MgO/Ag spin valves have been studied by using the nonlocal spin detection technique over almost a 3-month period in the ambient environment after the fabrication of the devices. Three different stages of the spin accumulation are first observed due to aging effect. The aging effect comes from two contributions–the gradual oxidation of the Ag/MgO and MgO/Co interfaces at the junctions’ areas which arises from the annealing process and the oxidation of the side surfaces of the Ag channels. The theories of S. Takahashi and A. Fert are introduced to evaluate the different evolution stages of spin accumulation.

  6. Aging effect of spin accumulation in non-local spin valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bing; Zhang, Ziyu; Chen, Xiaobing; Zhang, Xiaohan; Pan, Jiahui; Ma, Jiajun; Li, Juan; Wang, Zhicheng [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Le, E-mail: wangle@ruc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China); Xu, Xiaoguang, E-mail: xgxu@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Yong [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • First time to reveal the whole temporal evolution life of spintronics devices. • The gradual oxidation of the junctions’ areas and that of the channel are confirmed to be the predominant factors to determine the temporal evolution. • Physically, the temporal evolution can be evaluated by theories of S. Takahashi and A. Fert. • This study may offer some useful advice for the design and protection of future industrial spintronics devices. - Abstract: A temporal evolution of spin accumulation of Co/MgO/Ag spin valves have been studied by using the nonlocal spin detection technique over almost a 3-month period in the ambient environment after the fabrication of the devices. Three different stages of the spin accumulation are first observed due to aging effect. The aging effect comes from two contributions–the gradual oxidation of the Ag/MgO and MgO/Co interfaces at the junctions’ areas which arises from the annealing process and the oxidation of the side surfaces of the Ag channels. The theories of S. Takahashi and A. Fert are introduced to evaluate the different evolution stages of spin accumulation.

  7. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris, E-mail: hammel@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  8. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  9. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems

  10. Entanglement, EPR steering, and Bell-nonlocality criteria for multipartite higher-spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q. Y.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    We develop criteria to detect three classes of nonlocality that have been shown by Wiseman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] to be nonequivalent: entanglement, EPR steering, and the failure of local hidden-variable theories. We use the approach of Cavalcanti et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 210405 (2007)] for continuous variables to develop the nonlocality criteria for arbitrary spin observables defined on a discrete Hilbert space. The criteria thus apply to multisite qudits, i.e., systems of fixed dimension d, and take the form of inequalities. We find that the spin moment inequalities that test local hidden variables (Bell inequalities) can be violated for arbitrary d by optimized highly correlated nonmaximally entangled states provided the number of sites N is high enough. On the other hand, the spin inequalities for entanglement are violated and thus detect entanglement for such states, for arbitrary d and N, and with a violation that increases with N. We show that one of the moment entanglement inequalities can detect the entanglement of an arbitrary generalized multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Because they involve the natural observables for atomic systems, the relevant spin-operator correlations should be readily observable in trapped ultracold atomic gases and ion traps.

  11. Exploring nonlocal observables in shock wave collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, Christian; Grumiller, Daniel; Stanzer, Philipp; Stricker, Stefan A. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Schee, Wilke van der [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    We study the time evolution of 2-point functions and entanglement entropy in strongly anisotropic, inhomogeneous and time-dependent N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the large N and large ’t Hooft coupling limit using AdS/CFT. On the gravity side this amounts to calculating the length of geodesics and area of extremal surfaces in the dynamical background of two colliding gravitational shockwaves, which we do numerically. We discriminate between three classes of initial conditions corresponding to wide, intermediate and narrow shocks, and show that they exhibit different phenomenology with respect to the nonlocal observables that we determine. Our results permit to use (holographic) entanglement entropy as an order parameter to distinguish between the two phases of the cross-over from the transparency to the full-stopping scenario in dynamical Yang-Mills plasma formation, which is frequently used as a toy model for heavy ion collisions. The time evolution of entanglement entropy allows to discern four regimes: highly efficient initial growth of entanglement, linear growth, (post) collisional drama and late time (polynomial) fall off. Surprisingly, we found that 2-point functions can be sensitive to the geometry inside the black hole apparent horizon, while we did not find such cases for the entanglement entropy.

  12. Nonlocal magnon spin transport in NiFe2O4 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Juan; Bougiatioti, P; Liang, Lei; Reiss, G; Kuschel, Timo; van Wees, Bart

    2017-01-01

    We report magnon spin transport in nickel ferrite(NiFe2O4, NFO)/platinum (Pt) bilayer systems at room temperature. A nonlocal geometry is employed, where the magnons are excited by the spin Hall effect or by the Joule heating induced spin Seebeck effect at the Pt injector and detected at a certain

  13. Tripartite states' Bell-nonlocality sudden death in an environmental spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Benqiong; Shao Bin; Zou Jian

    2010-01-01

    The tripartite nonlocality is investigated by the extent of violation of the Bell inequality in a three-qubit system coupled to an environmental Ising spin chain. In the weak-coupling region, we show that the tripartite Bell-inequality violations can be fully destroyed in a finite time under decoherence induced by the coupling with the spin environment. In addition, how the environment affects the Bell-nonlocality sudden death is demonstrated.

  14. Nonlocal Andreev reflection and spin current in a three-terminal Aharonov–Bohm interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Peng; Hua-Ling, Yu; Zhi-Guo, Wang

    2009-01-01

    This paper theoretically reports the nonlocal Andreev reflection and spin current in a normal metal-ferromagnetic metal-superconducting Aharonov–Bohm interferometer. It is found that the electronic current and spin current are sensitive to systematic parameters, such as the gate voltage of quantum dots and the external magnetic flux. The electronic current in the normal metal lead results from two competing processes: quasiparticle transmission and nonlocal Andreev reflection. The appearance of zero spin-up electronic current (or spin-down electronic current) signals the existence of nonlocal Andreev reflection, and the presence of zero electronic current results in the appearance of pure spin current. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Certainty relations between local and nonlocal observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R Garcia; Romero, J L; Bjoerk, G; Bourennane, M

    2005-01-01

    We point out that for an arbitrary number of identical particles, each defined on a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension, there exists a whole ladder of relations of complementarity between certain local and nonlocal measurements corresponding to every conceivable grouping of the particles, e.g., the more accurately we can know (by a measurement) some joint property of three qubits (projecting the state onto a tripartite-entangled state), the less accurate some other property, local to the three qubits, becomes. We investigate the relation between these complementarity relations and a similar relation based on interference visibilities. We also show that the complementarity relations are particularly tight for particles defined on prime dimensional Hilbert spaces

  16. Non-local electrical spin injection and detection in germanium at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rortais, F.; Vergnaud, C.; Marty, A.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.; Widiez, J.; Zucchetti, C.; Bottegoni, F.; Jaffrès, H.; George, J.-M.; Jamet, M.

    2017-10-01

    Non-local carrier injection/detection schemes lie at the very foundation of information manipulation in integrated systems. This paradigm consists in controlling with an external signal the channel where charge carriers flow between a "source" and a well separated "drain." The next generation electronics may operate on the spin of carriers in addition to their charge and germanium appears as the best hosting material to develop such a platform for its compatibility with mainstream silicon technology and the predicted long electron spin lifetime at room temperature. In this letter, we demonstrate injection of pure spin currents (i.e., with no associated transport of electric charges) in germanium, combined with non-local spin detection at 10 K and room temperature. For this purpose, we used a lateral spin valve with epitaxially grown magnetic tunnel junctions as spin injector and spin detector. The non-local magnetoresistance signal is clearly visible and reaches ≈15 mΩ at room temperature. The electron spin lifetime and diffusion length are 500 ps and 1 μm, respectively, the spin injection efficiency being as high as 27%. This result paves the way for the realization of full germanium spintronic devices at room temperature.

  17. Controlling measurement-induced nonlocality in the Heisenberg XX model by three-spin interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu-Xia; Sun, Yu-Hang; Li, Zhao

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the well-defined measures of measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN) for thermal states of the transverse field XX model, with the addition of three-spin interaction terms being introduced. The results showed that the MINs are very sensitive to system parameters of the chain. The three-spin interactions can serve as flexible parameters for enhancing MINs of the boundary spins, and the maximum enhancement achievable by varying strengths of the three-spin interactions are different for the chain with different number of spins.

  18. Effective suppression of thermoelectric voltage in nonlocal spin-valve measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariki, Taisei; Nomura, Tatsuya; Ohnishi, Kohei; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate that the background signal in the nonlocal spin-valve measurement can be sufficiently suppressed by optimizing the electrode design of the lateral spin valve. A relatively long length scale of heat propagation produces spin-independent thermoelectric signals under the combination of the Peltier and Seebeck effects. These unfavorable signals can be reduced by mixing the Peltier effects in two transparent ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic junctions. Proper understanding of the contribution from the heat current in no spin-current area is a key for effective reduction of the spin-independent background signal.

  19. On the non-local obstruction to interacting higher spins in flat space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taronna, Massimo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-05-04

    Owing to a renewed interest in flat space higher spin gauge theories, in this note we provide further details and clarifications on the results presented in arXiv:1107.5843 and arXiv: 1209.5755, which investigated their locality properties. Focusing, for simplicity, on quartic couplings with one of the external legs having non-zero integer spin (which can be considered as a prototype for Weinberg-type arguments), we review the appearance of 1/◻ non-localities. In particular, we emphasise that it appears to be not possible to eliminate all of the aforementioned non-localities in the general quartic Noether procedure solution with a judicious choice of coupling constants and spectrum. We also discuss the light-cone gauge fixing in d=4, and argue that the non-local obstruction discussed in the covariant language cannot be avoided using light-cone gauge formalism.

  20. Interplay of Peltier and Seebeck Effects in Nanoscale Nonlocal Spin Valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F. L.; Slachter, A.; Adam, J-P; van Wees, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the role of thermoelectric effects in nanoscale nonlocal spin valve devices. A finite element thermoelectric model is developed to calculate the generated Seebeck voltages due to Peltier and Joule heating in the devices. By measuring the first, second, and third

  1. Criteria for accurate determination of the magnon relaxation length from the nonlocal spin Seebeck effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Juan; Cornelissen, Ludo Johannes; Liu, Jing; Ben Youssef, J.; Liang, Lei; van Wees, Bart

    2017-01-01

    The nonlocal transport of thermally generated magnons not only unveils the underlying mechanism of the spin Seebeck effect, but also allows for the extraction of the magnon relaxation length (λm) in a magnetic material, the average distance over which thermal magnons can propagate. In this study, we

  2. Non-local ground-state functional for quantum spin chains with translational broken symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libero, Valter L.; Penteado, Poliana H.; Veiga, Rodrigo S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Thanks to the development and use of new materials with special doping, it becomes relevant the study of Heisenberg spin-chains with broken translational symmetry, induced for instance by finite-size effects, bond defects or by impurity spin in the chain. The exact numerical results demands huge computational efforts, due to the size of the Hilbert space involved and the lack of symmetry to exploit. Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been considered a simple alternative to obtain ground-state properties for such systems. Usually, DFT starts with a uniform system to build the correlation energy and after implement a local approximation to construct local functionals. Based on our prove of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem for Heisenberg models, and in order to describe more realistic models, we have recently developed a non-local exchange functional for the ground-state energy of quantum-spin chains. A alternating-bond chain is used to obtain the correlation energy and a local unit-cell approximation - LUCA, is defined in the context of DFT. The alternating chain is a good starting point to construct functionals since it is intrinsically non-homogeneous, therefore instead of the usual local approximation (like LDA for electronic systems) we need to introduce an approximation based upon a unit cell concept, that renders a non-local functional in the bond exchange interaction. The agreement with exact numerical data (obtained only for small chains, although the functional can be applied for chains with arbitrary size) is significantly better than in our previous local formulation, even for chains with several ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic bond defects. These results encourage us to extend the concept of LUCA for chains with alternating-spin magnitudes. We also have constructed a non-local functional based on an alternating-spin chain, instead of a local alternating-bond, using spin-wave-theory. Because of its non-local nature, this functional is expected to

  3. Non-local ground-state functional for quantum spin chains with translational broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libero, Valter L.; Penteado, Poliana H.; Veiga, Rodrigo S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. Thanks to the development and use of new materials with special doping, it becomes relevant the study of Heisenberg spin-chains with broken translational symmetry, induced for instance by finite-size effects, bond defects or by impurity spin in the chain. The exact numerical results demands huge computational efforts, due to the size of the Hilbert space involved and the lack of symmetry to exploit. Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been considered a simple alternative to obtain ground-state properties for such systems. Usually, DFT starts with a uniform system to build the correlation energy and after implement a local approximation to construct local functionals. Based on our prove of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem for Heisenberg models, and in order to describe more realistic models, we have recently developed a non-local exchange functional for the ground-state energy of quantum-spin chains. A alternating-bond chain is used to obtain the correlation energy and a local unit-cell approximation - LUCA, is defined in the context of DFT. The alternating chain is a good starting point to construct functionals since it is intrinsically non-homogeneous, therefore instead of the usual local approximation (like LDA for electronic systems) we need to introduce an approximation based upon a unit cell concept, that renders a non-local functional in the bond exchange interaction. The agreement with exact numerical data (obtained only for small chains, although the functional can be applied for chains with arbitrary size) is significantly better than in our previous local formulation, even for chains with several ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic bond defects. These results encourage us to extend the concept of LUCA for chains with alternating-spin magnitudes. We also have constructed a non-local functional based on an alternating-spin chain, instead of a local alternating-bond, using spin-wave-theory. Because of its non-local nature, this functional is expected to

  4. Penetration depth and nonlocal manipulation of quantum spin hall edge states in chiral honeycomb nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Uddin, Salah; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jiansheng; Liu, Jun-Feng

    2017-08-08

    We have studied numerically the penetration depth of quantum spin hall edge states in chiral honeycomb nanoribbons based on the Green's function method. The changing of edge orientation from armchair to zigzag direction decreases the penetration depth drastically. The penetration depth is used to estimate the gap opened for the finite-size effect. Beside this, we also proposed a nonlocal transistor based on the zigzag-like chiral ribbons in which the current is carried at one edge and the manipulation is by the edge magnetization at the other edge. The difficulty that the edge magnetization is unstable in the presence of a ballistic current can be removed by this nonlocal manipulation.

  5. Nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...

  6. Observation of the spin Nernst effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Wimmer, S.; Althammer, M.; Wimmer, T.; Schlitz, R.; Geprägs, S.; Huebl, H.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.; Bauer, G. E. W.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

    2017-10-01

    The observation of the spin Hall effect triggered intense research on pure spin current transport. With the spin Hall effect, the spin Seebeck effect and the spin Peltier effect already observed, our picture of pure spin current transport is almost complete. The only missing piece is the spin Nernst (-Ettingshausen) effect, which so far has been discussed only on theoretical grounds. Here, we report the observation of the spin Nernst effect. By applying a longitudinal temperature gradient, we generate a pure transverse spin current in a Pt thin film. For readout, we exploit the magnetization-orientation-dependent spin transfer to an adjacent yttrium iron garnet layer, converting the spin Nernst current in Pt into a controlled change of the longitudinal and transverse thermopower voltage. Our experiments show that the spin Nernst and the spin Hall effect in Pt are of comparable magnitude, but differ in sign, as corroborated by first-principles calculations.

  7. Observation of multi-channel non-local transport in J-TEXT plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuejiang; Chen, Zhongyong; Yang, Zhoujun; Shi, Peng; Zhao, Kaijun; Diamond, Patrick H.; Kwon, JaeMin; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Hao; Pan, Xiaoming; Cheng, Zhifeng; Chen, Zhiping; Yang, SeongMoo; Zhang, Chi; Li, Da; Dong, Yunbo; Wang, Lu; Ding, YongHua; Liang, Yunfeng; Hahn, SangHee; Jhang, HoGun; Na, Yong-Su

    2018-04-01

    In cold pulse experiments in J-TEXT, not only are rapid electron temperature increases in the core observed, but also steep rises in the inner density are found. Moreover, some evidence of acceleration of the core toroidal rotation is also observed during the non-local transport process of electron temperature. These new findings of cold pulse experiments in J-TEXT suggest that turbulence spreading is a possible mechanism for the non-local transport dynamics.

  8. Study of quantum spin correlations of relativistic electron pairs - Testing nonlocality of relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, K.; Rozpędzik, D.; Zejma, J.; Caban, P.; Rembieliński, J.; Włodarczyk, M.; Ciborowski, J.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass

  9. Nonlocal Coulomb interaction in the two-dimensional spin-1/2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741 235, India. ∗. Corresponding author. .... The inclusion of nonlocal Coulomb interaction with t = −1 leads .... The authors are thankful to the University of Kalyani, India, for financial help.

  10. High PT electronuclear reactions and spin observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The main arguments of the following topics are reviewed: the high transverse momentum exclusive reactions, the determination of various spin observables and the production of different flavours in reactions induced by real and virtual photons

  11. Nonlocally sensing the magnetic states of nanoscale antiferromagnets with an atomic spin sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shichao; Malavolti, Luigi; Burgess, Jacob A J; Droghetti, Andrea; Rubio, Angel; Loth, Sebastian

    2017-05-01

    The ability to sense the magnetic state of individual magnetic nano-objects is a key capability for powerful applications ranging from readout of ultradense magnetic memory to the measurement of spins in complex structures with nanometer precision. Magnetic nano-objects require extremely sensitive sensors and detection methods. We create an atomic spin sensor consisting of three Fe atoms and show that it can detect nanoscale antiferromagnets through minute, surface-mediated magnetic interaction. Coupling, even to an object with no net spin and having vanishing dipolar stray field, modifies the transition matrix element between two spin states of the Fe atom-based spin sensor that changes the sensor's spin relaxation time. The sensor can detect nanoscale antiferromagnets at up to a 3-nm distance and achieves an energy resolution of 10 μeV, surpassing the thermal limit of conventional scanning probe spectroscopy. This scheme permits simultaneous sensing of multiple antiferromagnets with a single-spin sensor integrated onto the surface.

  12. Nonlocally sensing the magnetic states of nanoscale antiferromagnets with an atomic spin sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shichao; Malavolti, Luigi; Burgess, Jacob A. J.; Droghetti, Andrea; Rubio, Angel; Loth, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The ability to sense the magnetic state of individual magnetic nano-objects is a key capability for powerful applications ranging from readout of ultradense magnetic memory to the measurement of spins in complex structures with nanometer precision. Magnetic nano-objects require extremely sensitive sensors and detection methods. We create an atomic spin sensor consisting of three Fe atoms and show that it can detect nanoscale antiferromagnets through minute, surface-mediated magnetic interaction. Coupling, even to an object with no net spin and having vanishing dipolar stray field, modifies the transition matrix element between two spin states of the Fe atom–based spin sensor that changes the sensor’s spin relaxation time. The sensor can detect nanoscale antiferromagnets at up to a 3-nm distance and achieves an energy resolution of 10 μeV, surpassing the thermal limit of conventional scanning probe spectroscopy. This scheme permits simultaneous sensing of multiple antiferromagnets with a single-spin sensor integrated onto the surface. PMID:28560346

  13. Optical Observation of Plasnionic Nonlocal Effects in a 2D Superlattice of Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Ferrari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    in single ultrasmall silver nanopartides have been experimentally observed in single-particle spectroscopy enabled by the unprecedented high spatial resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). However, the unambig-optical observation of such new effects in gold nanopartides has yet not been...... reported, due to the extremely weak scattering and the obscuring fingerprint of strong interband transitions. Here we present a nanosystem, a superlattice monolayer formed by sub-10 nm gold nanopartides. Plasmon resonances are spectrally well-separated from interband transitions, while exhibiting clearly...... distinguishable blue-shifts compared to predictions by the classical local-response model. Our far-field spectroscopy was performed by a standard optical transmission and reflection setup, and the results agreed excellently with the hydrodynamic nonlocal model, opening a simple and Widely accessible way...

  14. Observation of the Spin Peltier Effect for Magnetic Insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipse, J.; Dejene, F.K.; Wagenaar, D.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Ben Youssef, J.; Van Wees, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the observation of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG), i.e., a heat current generated by a spin current flowing through a platinum (Pt)|YIG interface. The effect can be explained by the spin transfer torque that transforms the spin

  15. Soliton-induced nonlocal resonances observed through high-intensity tunable spectrally compressed second-harmonic peaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data of femtosecond thick-crystal second-harmonic generation show that when tuning away from phase matching, a dominating narrow spectral peak appears in the second harmonic that can be tuned over hundreds of nanometers by changing the phase-mismatch parameter. Traditional theory...... and the nonlocal theory indirectly proves that we have observed a soliton-induced nonlocal resonance. The soliton exists in the self-defocusing regime of the cascaded nonlinear interaction and in the normal dispersion regime of the crystal, and needs high input intensities to become excited....

  16. Effect of the interface resistance in non-local Hanle measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villamor, Estitxu; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Fèlix

    2015-01-01

    We use lateral spin valves with varying interface resistance to measure non-local Hanle effect in order to extract the spin-diffusion length of the non-magnetic channel. A general expression that describes spin injection and transport, taking into account the influence of the interface resistance, is used to fit our results. Whereas the fitted spin-diffusion length value is in agreement with the one obtained from standard non-local measurements in the case of a finite interface resistance, in the case of transparent contacts a clear disagreement is observed. The use of a corrected expression, recently proposed to account for the anisotropy of the spin absorption at the ferromagnetic electrodes, still yields a deviation of the fitted spin-diffusion length which increases for shorter channel distances. This deviation shows how sensitive the non-local Hanle fittings are, evidencing the complexity of obtaining spin transport information from such type of measurements

  17. Observation of the Spin Nernst Effect in Platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goennenwein, Sebastian

    Thermoelectric effects - arising from the interplay between thermal and charge transport phenomena - have been extensively studied and are considered well established. Upon taking into account the spin degree of freedom, however, qualitatively new phenomena arise. A prototype example for these so-called magneto-thermoelectric or spin-caloritronic effects is the spin Seebeck effect, in which a thermal gradient drives a pure spin current. In contrast to their thermoelectric counterparts, not all the spin-caloritronic effects predicted from theory have yet been observed in experiment. One of these `missing' phenomena is the spin Nernst effect, in which a thermal gradient gives rise to a transverse pure spin current. We have observed the spin Nernst effect in yttrium iron garnet/platinum (YIG/Pt) thin film bilayers. Upon applying a thermal gradient within the YIG/Pt bilayer plane, a pure spin current flows in the direction orthogonal to the thermal drive. We detect this spin current as a thermopower voltage, generated via magnetization-orientation dependent spin transfer into the adjacent YIG layer. Our data shows that the spin Nernst and the spin Hall effect in in Pt have different sign, but comparable magnitude, in agreement with first-principles calculations. Financial support via Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Priority Programme SPP 1538 Spin-Caloric Transport is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Chaotic spin exchange: is the spin non-flip rate observable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, Masayoshi

    1994-01-01

    If spin exchange is of the Poisson nature, that is, if the time distribution of collisions obeys an exponential distribution function and the collision process is random, the muon spin depolarization is determined only by the spin flip rate regardless of the spin non-flip rate. In this work, spin exchange is discussed in the case of chaotic spin exchange, where the distribution of collision time sequences, generated by a deterministic equation, is exponential but not random (deterministic chaos). Even though this process has the same time distribution as a Poisson process, the muon polarization is affected by the spin non-flip rate. Having an exponential time distribution function is not a sufficient condition for the non-observation of the spin non-flip rate and it is essential that the process is also random. (orig.)

  19. Direct observation of the spin-dependent Peltier effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, J; Bakker, F L; Slachter, A; Dejene, F K; van Wees, B J

    2012-02-05

    The Peltier coefficient describes the amount of heat that is carried by an electrical current when it passes through a material. When two materials with different Peltier coefficients are placed in contact with one another, the Peltier effect causes a net flow of heat either towards or away from the interface between them. Spintronics describes the transport of electric charge and spin angular momentum by separate spin-up and spin-down channels in a device. The observation that spin-up and spin-down charge transport channels are able to transport heat independently of each other has raised the possibility that spin currents could be used to heat or cool the interface between materials with different spin-dependent Peltier coefficients. Here, we report the direct observation of the heating and cooling of such an interface by a spin current. We demonstrate this spin-dependent Peltier effect in a spin-valve pillar structure that consists of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-ferromagnetic metal. Using a three-dimensional finite-element model, we extract spin-dependent Peltier coefficients in the range -0.9 to -1.3 mV for permalloy. The magnetic control of heat flow could prove useful for the cooling of nanoscale electronic components or devices.

  20. International Conference on Spin Observables of Nuclear Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Charles; Walker, George; Spin Observables of Nuclear Probes

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings of the "International Conference on Spin Observables of Nuclear Probes" are presented in this volume. This conference was held in Telluride, Colorado, March 14 -17, 1988, and was the fourth in the Telluride series of nuclear physics conferences. A continuing theme in the Telluride conference series has been the complementarity of various intermediate-energy projectiles for elucidating the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear structure. Earlier conferences have contributed significantly to an understanding of spin currents in nuclei, in particular the distribution of Gamow-Teller strength using charge-exchange reactions. The previous conference on "Antinucleon and Nucleon Nucleus Interactions" compared nuclear information from tra­ tional probes to recent results from antinucleon reactions. The 1988 conference on Spin Observables of Nuclear Probes, put special emphasis on spin observables and brought together experts using spin information to probe nuclear structure. Spin observabl...

  1. Observation of the spin Peltier effect for magnetic insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, J; Dejene, F K; Wagenaar, D; Bauer, G E W; Ben Youssef, J; van Wees, B J

    2014-07-11

    We report the observation of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG), i.e., a heat current generated by a spin current flowing through a platinum (Pt)|YIG interface. The effect can be explained by the spin transfer torque that transforms the spin current in the Pt into a magnon current in the YIG. Via magnon-phonon interactions the magnetic fluctuations modulate the phonon temperature that is detected by a thermopile close to the interface. By finite-element modeling we verify the reciprocity between the spin Peltier and spin Seebeck effect. The observed strong coupling between thermal magnons and phonons in YIG is attractive for nanoscale cooling techniques.

  2. Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Faizal, Mir; Nunes, Rafael C

    2017-01-01

    Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + [Formula: see text] observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction.

  3. Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2017-09-15

    Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + H{sub 0} observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction. (orig.)

  4. Observation of spin superfluidity: YIG magnetic films and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonin, Edouard

    2018-03-01

    From topology of the order parameter of the magnon condensate observed in yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) magnetic films one must not expect energetic barriers making spin supercurrents metastable. But we show that some barriers of dynamical origin are possible nevertheless until the gradient of the phase (angle of spin precession) does not exceed the critical value (analog of the Landau critical velocity in superfluids). On the other hand, recently published claims of experimental detection of spin superfluidity in YIG films and antiferromagnets are not justified, and spin superfluidity in magnetically ordered solids has not yet been experimentally confirmed.

  5. Nonlocal ultrafast magnetization dynamics in the high fluence limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, K.C.; Malinowski, G.; Dalla Longa, F.; Koopmans, B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to explain a number of recent experimental observations of laser-induced femtosecond demagnetization in the large fluence limit, we discuss the consequences of a recently proposed nonlocal approach. A microscopic description of spin flip scattering is implemented in an effective three

  6. Conceptual Nonlocality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Grandy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocality is a puzzling issue in modern physics. I propose that, aside from the experimental determination of nonlocality, the concept of atomistic lightmdash;discrete, self-bounded photonsmdash;breaks down toward something like nonlocality when subjected to philosophical scrutiny. Louis de Broglie made a similar argument regarding the material atom: the concept of the classical atom, when interrogated, collapses upon itself to offer a glimpse of wave-particle duality. Light atoms or photons, I argue, similarly collapse toward the contradictory possibility of nonlocality.

  7. Observation of transverse spin Nernst magnetoresistance induced by thermal spin current in ferromagnet/non-magnet bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Jun; Jeon, Chul-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Guk; Lee, Jae Wook; Surabhi, Srivathsava; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Park, Byong-Guk

    2017-11-09

    Electric generation of spin current via spin Hall effect is of great interest as it allows an efficient manipulation of magnetization in spintronic devices. Theoretically, pure spin current can be also created by a temperature gradient, which is known as spin Nernst effect. Here, we report spin Nernst effect-induced transverse magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/non-magnetic heavy metal bilayers. We observe that the magnitude of transverse magnetoresistance in the bilayers is significantly modified by heavy metal and its thickness. This strong dependence of transverse magnetoresistance on heavy metal evidences the generation of thermally induced pure spin current in heavy metal. Our analysis shows that spin Nernst angles of W and Pt have the opposite sign to their spin Hall angles. Moreover, our estimate implies that the magnitude of spin Nernst angle would be comparable to that of spin Hall angle, suggesting an efficient generation of spin current by the spin Nernst effect.

  8. Observational signature of high spin at the Event Horizon Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Strominger, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    We analytically compute the observational appearance of an isotropically emitting point source on a circular, equatorial orbit near the horizon of a rapidly spinning black hole. The primary image moves on a vertical line segment, in contrast to the primarily horizontal motion of the spinless case. Secondary images, also on the vertical line, display a rich caustic structure. If detected, this unique signature could serve as a `smoking gun' for a high spin black hole in nature.

  9. Spin transport and relaxation in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; McCreary, K.M.; Pi, K.; Wang, W.H.; Li Yan; Wen, H.; Chen, J.R.; Kawakami, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent work on spin injection, transport and relaxation in graphene. The spin injection and transport in single layer graphene (SLG) were investigated using nonlocal magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. Spin injection was performed using either transparent contacts (Co/SLG) or tunneling contacts (Co/MgO/SLG). With tunneling contacts, the nonlocal MR was increased by a factor of ∼1000 and the spin injection/detection efficiency was greatly enhanced from ∼1% (transparent contacts) to ∼30%. Spin relaxation was investigated on graphene spin valves using nonlocal Hanle measurements. For transparent contacts, the spin lifetime was in the range of 50-100 ps. The effects of surface chemical doping showed that for spin lifetimes in the order of 100 ps, charged impurity scattering (Au) was not the dominant mechanism for spin relaxation. While using tunneling contacts to suppress the contact-induced spin relaxation, we observed the spin lifetimes as long as 771 ps at room temperature, 1.2 ns at 4 K in SLG, and 6.2 ns at 20 K in bilayer graphene (BLG). Furthermore, contrasting spin relaxation behaviors were observed in SLG and BLG. We found that Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation dominated in SLG at low temperatures whereas Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation dominated in BLG at low temperatures. Gate tunable spin transport was studied using the SLG property of gate tunable conductivity and incorporating different types of contacts (transparent and tunneling contacts). Consistent with theoretical predictions, the nonlocal MR was proportional to the SLG conductivity for transparent contacts and varied inversely with the SLG conductivity for tunneling contacts. Finally, bipolar spin transport in SLG was studied and an electron-hole asymmetry was observed for SLG spin valves with transparent contacts, in which nonlocal MR was roughly independent of DC bias current for electrons, but varied significantly with DC bias current for holes. These results are very important for

  10. Charge and spin transport in mesoscopic superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Wolf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-equilibrium charge transport in superconductors has been investigated intensely in the 1970s and 1980s, mostly in the vicinity of the critical temperature. Much less attention has been paid to low temperatures and the role of the quasiparticle spin.Results: We report here on nonlocal transport in superconductor hybrid structures at very low temperatures. By comparing the nonlocal conductance obtained by using ferromagnetic and normal-metal detectors, we discriminate charge and spin degrees of freedom. We observe spin injection and long-range transport of pure, chargeless spin currents in the regime of large Zeeman splitting. We elucidate charge and spin transport by comparison to theoretical models.Conclusion: The observed long-range chargeless spin transport opens a new path to manipulate and utilize the quasiparticle spin in superconductor nanostructures.

  11. Observation of high spin levels in Cs from Ba decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 1157–1162. Observation of high spin levels in. 131. Cs from. 131. Ba decay. M SAINATH, DWARAKA RANI RAO*, K VENKATARAMANIAH and P C SOOD. Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam 515 134, India. £Permanent address: Department of Physics, ...

  12. Observation of Spin Flips with a Single Trapped Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, S.; Blaum, K.; Kracke, H.; Mooser, A.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Spin transitions of an isolated trapped proton are observed for the first time. The spin quantum jumps are detected via the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect which is used in an experiment with a single proton stored in a cryogenic Penning trap. This opens the way for a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton and a new test of the matter-antimatter symmetry in the baryon sector. This method can also be applied to other light atomic nuclei.

  13. Multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Mafalda L.; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Scarani, Valerio; Acin, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We present a general method for characterizing the quantum correlations obtained after local measurements on multipartite systems. Sufficient conditions for a quantum system to be fully nonlocal according to a given partition, as well as being (genuinely) multipartite fully nonlocal, are derived. These conditions allow us to identify all completely connected graph states as multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states. Moreover, we show that this feature can also be observed in mixed states: the tensor product of five copies of the Smolin state, a biseparable and bound entangled state, is multipartite fully nonlocal.

  14. Non-locality of non-Abelian anyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennen, G K; Iblisdir, S; Pachos, J K; Slingerland, J K

    2009-01-01

    Entangled states of quantum systems can give rise to measurement correlations of separated observers that cannot be described by local hidden variable theories. Usually, it is assumed that entanglement between particles is generated due to some distance-dependent interaction. Yet anyonic particles in two dimensions have a nontrivial interaction that is purely topological in nature. In other words, it does not depend on the distance between two particles, but rather on their exchange history. The information encoded in anyons is inherently non-local even in the single subsystem level making the treatment of anyons non-conventional. We describe a protocol to reveal the non-locality of anyons in terms of correlations in the outcomes of measurements in two separated regions. This gives a clear operational measure of non-locality for anyonic states and it opens up the possibility to test Bell inequalities in quantum Hall liquids or spin lattices.

  15. Non-locality of non-Abelian anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, G. K.; Iblisdir, S.; Pachos, J. K.; Slingerland, J. K.

    2009-10-01

    Entangled states of quantum systems can give rise to measurement correlations of separated observers that cannot be described by local hidden variable theories. Usually, it is assumed that entanglement between particles is generated due to some distance-dependent interaction. Yet anyonic particles in two dimensions have a nontrivial interaction that is purely topological in nature. In other words, it does not depend on the distance between two particles, but rather on their exchange history. The information encoded in anyons is inherently non-local even in the single subsystem level making the treatment of anyons non-conventional. We describe a protocol to reveal the non-locality of anyons in terms of correlations in the outcomes of measurements in two separated regions. This gives a clear operational measure of non-locality for anyonic states and it opens up the possibility to test Bell inequalities in quantum Hall liquids or spin lattices.

  16. Local spin valve effect in lateral (Ga,MnAs/GaAs spin Esaki diode devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ciorga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We report here on a local spin valve effect observed unambiguously in lateral all-semiconductor all-electrical spin injection devices, employing p+ −(Ga,MnAs/n+ −GaAs Esaki diode structures as spin aligning contacts. We discuss the observed local spin-valve signal as a result of the interplay between spin-transport-related contribution and the tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance of the magnetic contacts. The magnitude of the spin-related magnetoresistance change is equal to 30 Ω which is twice the magnitude of the measured non-local signal.

  17. Phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes probed by non-local observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong [Chongqing Jiaotong University, School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Liu, Xian-Ming [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hubei University for Nationalities, Center for Theoretical Physics, School of Sciences, Enshi, Hubei (China); Li, Li-Fang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    With the non-local observables such as two point correlation function and holographic entanglement entropy, we probe the phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes. For the case bQ > 0.5, where b is the Born-Infeld parameter and Q is the charge of the black hole, the phase structure is found to be similar to that of the Van der Waals phase transition, namely the black hole undergoes a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition before it reaches a stable phase. While for the case bQ < 0.5, a new phase branch emerges besides the Van der Waals phase transition. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked, and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All these results are found to be the same as that observed in the entropy-temperature plane. (orig.)

  18. Medium effects on spin observables of proton knockout reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krein, G.; Maris, T.A.J.; Rodrigues, B.B.; Veit, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    Medium modifications of the properties of bound nucleons and mesons are investigated by means of medium energy quasi free proton knockout reactions with polarized incident protons. The sensitivity of the spin observables of these reactions to modifications of the nucleon and meson properties is studied using the Bonn one-boson exchange model of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. A method proposed to extract the pp analysing power in medium from the (p, 2 p) asymmetries indicates a reduction of this quantity compared to its free space value. This reduction is linked to modifications of masses and coupling constants of the nucleons and mesons in the nucleus. The implications of these modifications for another spin observable to be measured in the future are discussed. (author). 39 refs, 9 figs

  19. Medium effects on spin observables of proton knockout reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, G [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maris, T A.J.; Rodrigues, B B; Veit, E A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1994-07-01

    Medium modifications of the properties of bound nucleons and mesons are investigated by means of medium energy quasi free proton knockout reactions with polarized incident protons. The sensitivity of the spin observables of these reactions to modifications of the nucleon and meson properties is studied using the Bonn one-boson exchange model of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. A method proposed to extract the pp analysing power in medium from the (p, 2 p) asymmetries indicates a reduction of this quantity compared to its free space value. This reduction is linked to modifications of masses and coupling constants of the nucleons and mesons in the nucleus. The implications of these modifications for another spin observable to be measured in the future are discussed. (author). 39 refs, 9 figs.

  20. Observation of wave generation and non-local perturbations in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in thermodynamics of lower atmosphere have the potential to trigger a spectrum of ..... exchange of trace constituents: The water vapor puzzle;. Terra Scientific ... Limb Sounder observations of gravity waves in the strato- sphere: A climatology ...

  1. Large spin current injection in nano-pillar-based lateral spin valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Tatsuya [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Ohnishi, Kohei; Kimura, Takashi, E-mail: t-kimu@phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Research Center for Quantum Nano-Spin Sciences, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-08-26

    We have investigated the influence of the injection of a large pure spin current on a magnetization process of a non-locally located ferromagnetic dot in nano-pillar-based lateral spin valves. Here, we prepared two kinds of the nano-pillar-type lateral spin valve based on Py nanodots and CoFeAl nanodots fabricated on a Cu film. In the Py/Cu lateral spin valve, although any significant change of the magnetization process of the Py nanodot has not been observed at room temperature. The magnetization reversal process is found to be modified by injecting a large pure spin current at 77 K. Switching the magnetization by the nonlocal spin injection has also been demonstrated at 77 K. In the CoFeAl/Cu lateral spin valve, a room temperature spin valve signal was strongly enhanced from the Py/Cu lateral spin valve because of the highly spin-polarized CoFeAl electrodes. The room temperature nonlocal switching has been demonstrated in the CoFeAl/Cu lateral spin valve.

  2. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolovsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics

  3. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolovsky, M

    2003-09-15

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics.

  4. Hyper- and hybrid nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanna; Gessner, Manuel; Li, Weidong; Smerzi, Augusto

    2018-02-01

    The controlled generation and identification of quantum correlations, usually encoded in either qubits or continuous degrees of freedom, builds the foundation of quantum information science. Recently, more sophisticated approaches, involving a combination of two distinct degrees of freedom, have been proposed to improve on the traditional strategies. Hyperentanglement describes simultaneous entanglement in more than one distinct degree of freedom, whereas hybrid entanglement refers to entanglement shared between a discrete and a continuous degree of freedom. In this work we propose a scheme that allows us to combine the two approaches, and to extend them to the strongest form of quantum correlations. Specifically, we show how two identical, initially separated particles can be manipulated to produce Bell nonlocality among their spins, among their momenta, as well as across their spins and momenta. We discuss possible experimental realizations with atomic and photonic systems.

  5. Observation of high spin states in 117Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Yuan, G.J.; Li, G.S.; Yang, C.X.; Luo, W.D.; Chen, Y.S.

    1995-01-01

    High spin states of 117 Xe have been investigated by means of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy using the reaction 92 Mo( 28 Si, 2pn) at beam energies of 100 to 120 MeV. The previously known νh 11/2 bands are confirmed and the νg 7/2 favored-signature band is extended up to 47/2 + , in which two band crossings are observed at hω=0.33 and 0.44 MeV, respectively. Two new positive-parity bands have been established, one of which is most likely the νg 7/2 unfavored-signature band. A new transition cascade with irregular level spacings is also observed. (orig.)

  6. Spin Observables in h Meson Photoproduction on the Proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Ross [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-05-01

    A series of experiments using a polarized beam incident on a polarized frozen spin target (FROST) was conducted at Jefferson Lab in 2010. Results presented here were taken during the second running period with the FROST target using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) detector at Jefferson Lab, which used transversely-polarized protons in a butanol target and a circularly-polarized incident tagged photon beam with energies between 0:62 and 2:93 GeV. Data are presented for the F and T polarization observables for n meson photoproduction on the proton from W = 1:55 GeV to 1:80 GeV. The data presented here will improve the world database and refine theoretical approaches of nucleon structure.

  7. Observation of Spin Polarons in a Tunable Fermi Liquid of Ultracold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierlein, Martin

    2009-05-01

    We have observed spin polarons, dressed spin down impurities in a spin up Fermi sea of ultracold atoms via tomographic RF spectroscopy. Feshbach resonances allow to freely tune the interactions between the two spin states involved. A single spin down atom immersed in a Fermi sea of spin up atoms can do one of two things: For strong attraction, it can form a molecule with exactly one spin up partner, but for weaker interaction it will spread its attraction and surround itself with a collection of majority atoms. This spin down atom dressed with a spin up cloud constitutes the spin- or Fermi polaron. We have observed a striking spectroscopic signature of this quasi-particle for various interaction strengths, a narrow peak in the spin down spectrum that emerges above a broad background. The spectra allow us to directly measure the polaron energy and the quasi-particle residue Z. The polarons are found to be only weakly interacting with each other, and can thus be identified with the quasi-particles of Landau's Fermi liquid theory. At a critical interaction strength, we observe a transition from spin one-half polarons to spin zero molecules. At this point the Fermi liquid undergoes a phase transition into a superfluid Bose liquid.

  8. Tunneling spin injection into single layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Pi, K; McCreary, K M; Li, Yan; Wong, Jared J I; Swartz, A G; Kawakami, R K

    2010-10-15

    We achieve tunneling spin injection from Co into single layer graphene (SLG) using TiO₂ seeded MgO barriers. A nonlocal magnetoresistance (ΔR(NL)) of 130  Ω is observed at room temperature, which is the largest value observed in any material. Investigating ΔR(NL) vs SLG conductivity from the transparent to the tunneling contact regimes demonstrates the contrasting behaviors predicted by the drift-diffusion theory of spin transport. Furthermore, tunnel barriers reduce the contact-induced spin relaxation and are therefore important for future investigations of spin relaxation in graphene.

  9. Observation of the anisotropic spin-glass transition and transverse spin ordering in pseudo-brookite through muon spin relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, C.; Brabers, V.A.M.; Lichti, R.L.; Denison, A.B.; Cooke, D.W.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Schillaci, M.E.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Dodds, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Zero-field longitudinal muon-spin-relaxation (µSR) experiments have been performed on single crystals of pseudo-brookite (Fe2-xTil+x O 5; x=0.25), an anisotropic spin-glass system. The spinglass temperature (Tg) is determined to be 44.0±0.5K. Above Tg, a distinct exponential muon-spin-relaxation

  10. Magnetic proximity control of spin currents and giant spin accumulation in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simranjeet

    Two dimensional (2D) materials provide a unique platform to explore the full potential of magnetic proximity driven phenomena. We will present the experimental study showing the strong modulation of spin currents in graphene layers by controlling the direction of the exchange field due to the ferromagnetic-insulator (FMI) magnetization in graphene/FMI heterostructures. Owing to clean interfaces, a strong magnetic exchange coupling leads to the experimental observation of complete spin modulation at low externally applied magnetic fields in short graphene channels. We also discover that the graphene spin current can be fully dephased by randomly fluctuating exchange fields. This is manifested as an unusually strong temperature dependence of the non-local spin signals in graphene, which is due to spin relaxation by thermally-induced transverse fluctuations of the FMI magnetization. Additionally, it has been a challenge to grow a smooth, robust and pin-hole free tunnel barriers on graphene, which can withstand large current densities for efficient electrical spin injection. We have experimentally demonstrated giant spin accumulation in graphene lateral spin valves employing SrO tunnel barriers. Nonlocal spin signals, as large as 2 mV, are observed in graphene lateral spin valves at room temperature. This high spin accumulations observed using SrO tunnel barriers puts graphene on the roadmap for exploring the possibility of achieving a non-local magnetization switching due to the spin torque from electrically injected spins. Financial support from ONR (No. N00014-14-1-0350), NSF (No. DMR-1310661), and C-SPIN, one of the six SRC STARnet Centers, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  11. Large spin accumulation due to spin-charge coupling across a break-junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuhan; Zou, Han; Chui, Siu-Tat; Ji, Yi

    2013-03-01

    We investigate large spin signals in break-junction nonlocal spin valves (NLSV). The break-junction is a nanometer-sized vacuum tunneling gap between the spin detector and the nonmagnetic channel, formed by electro-static discharge. The spin signals can be either inverted or non-inverted and the magnitudes are much larger than those of standard NLSV. Spin signals with high percentage values (10% - 0%) have been observed. When the frequency of the a.c. modulation is varied, the absolute magnitudes of signals remain the same although the percentage values change. These observations affirm the nonlocal nature of the measurements and rule out local magnetoresistive effects. Owing to the spin-charge coupling across the break-junction, the spin accumulation in a ferromagnet splits into two terms. One term decays on the charge screening length (0.1 nm) and the other decays on the spin diffusion length (10 nm nm). The magnitude of the former is proportional to the resistance of the junction. Therefore a highly resistive break-junction leads to a large spin accumulation and thereby a large spin signal. The signs of the spin signal are determined by the relationship between spin-dependent conductivities, diffusion constants, and density of states of the ferromagnet. This work was supported by US DOE grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46374.

  12. Observation of spin-wave dispersion in Nd-Fe-B magnets using neutron Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Inami, N.; Saito, K.; Takeichi, Y.; Kawana, D.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Manabe, A.; Kato, A.; Kaneko, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The low-energy spin-wave dispersion in polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets was observed using neutron Brillouin scattering (NBS). Low-energy spin-wave excitations for the lowest acoustic spin-wave mode were clearly observed. From the spin-wave dispersion, we were able to determine the spin-wave stiffness constant D sw (100.0 ± 4.9 meV.Å 2 ) and the exchange stiffness constant A (6.6 ± 0.3 pJ/m)

  13. Observables and Microcospic Entropy of Higher Spin Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compère, G.; Jottar, J.I.; Song, W.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of recently proposed holographic dualities between higher spin theories in AdS3 and (1 + 1)-dimensional CFTs with W symmetry algebras, we revisit the definition of higher spin black hole thermodynamics and the dictionary between bulk fields and dual CFT operators. We build a canonical

  14. Direct observation of magnon fractionalization in the quantum spin ladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thielemann, B.; Rüegg, C.; Rønnow, H.M.; Läuchli, A.M.; Caux, J.S.; Normand, B.; Biner, D.; Krämer, K.W.; Güdel, H.U.; Stahn, J.; Habicht, K.; Kiefer, K.; Boehm, M.; McMorrow, D.F.; Mesot, J.

    2009-01-01

    We measure by inelastic neutron scattering the spin excitation spectra as a function of applied magnetic field in the quantum spin-ladder material (C5H12N)2CuBr4. Discrete magnon modes at low fields in the quantum disordered phase and at high fields in the saturated phase contrast sharply with a

  15. Observation of Spin Hall Effect in Photon Tunneling via Weak Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinxing; Ling, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhiyou; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2014-01-01

    Photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) manifesting itself as spin-dependent splitting escapes detection in previous photon tunneling experiments due to the fact that the induced beam centroid shift is restricted to a fraction of wavelength. In this work, we report on the first observation of this tiny effect in photon tunneling via weak measurements based on preselection and postselection technique on the spin states. We find that the spin-dependent splitting is even larger than the potential barrier thickness when spin-polarized photons tunneling through a potential barrier. This photonic SHE is attributed to spin-redirection Berry phase which can be described as a consequence of the spin-orbit coupling. These findings provide new insight into photon tunneling effect and thereby offer the possibility of developing spin-based nanophotonic applications. PMID:25487043

  16. Observation of spin Hall effect in photon tunneling via weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinxing; Ling, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhiyou; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2014-12-09

    Photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) manifesting itself as spin-dependent splitting escapes detection in previous photon tunneling experiments due to the fact that the induced beam centroid shift is restricted to a fraction of wavelength. In this work, we report on the first observation of this tiny effect in photon tunneling via weak measurements based on preselection and postselection technique on the spin states. We find that the spin-dependent splitting is even larger than the potential barrier thickness when spin-polarized photons tunneling through a potential barrier. This photonic SHE is attributed to spin-redirection Berry phase which can be described as a consequence of the spin-orbit coupling. These findings provide new insight into photon tunneling effect and thereby offer the possibility of developing spin-based nanophotonic applications.

  17. Observation of Spin-Polarons in a strongly interacting Fermi liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierlein, Martin

    2009-03-01

    We have observed spin-polarons in a highly imbalanced mixture of fermionic atoms using tomographic RF spectroscopy. Feshbach resonances allow to freely tune the interactions between the two spin states involved. A single spin down atom immersed in a Fermi sea of spin up atoms can do one of two things: For strong attraction, it can form a molecule with exactly one spin up partner, but for weaker interaction it will spread its attraction and surround itself with a collection of majority atoms. This spin down atom ``dressed'' with a spin up cloud constitutes the spin-polaron. We have observed a striking spectroscopic signature of this quasi-particle for various interaction strengths, a narrow peak in the spin down spectrum that emerges above a broad background. The narrow width signals a long lifetime of the spin-polaron, much longer than the collision rate with spin up atoms, as it must be for a proper quasi-particle. The peak position allows to directly measure the polaron energy. The broad pedestal at high energies reveals physics at short distances and is thus ``molecule-like'': It is exactly matched by the spin up spectra. The comparison with the area under the polaron peak allows to directly obtain the quasi-particle weight Z. We observe a smooth transition from polarons to molecules. At a critical interaction strength of 1/kFa = 0.7, the polaron peak vanishes and spin up and spin down spectra exactly match, signalling the formation of molecules. This is the same critical interaction strength found earlier to separate a normal Fermi mixture from a superfluid molecular Bose-Einstein condensate. The spin-polarons determine the low-temperature phase diagram of imbalanced Fermi mixtures. In principle, polarons can interact with each other and should, at low enough temperatures, form a superfluid of p-wave pairs. We will present a first indication for interactions between polarons.

  18. Spin observables in proton-neutron scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.

    1986-05-01

    A summary of np elastic scattering spin measurements at intermediate energy is given. Preliminary results from a LAMPF experiment to measure free neutron-proton elastic scattering spin-spin correlation parameters are presented. A longitudinally polarized proton target was used. These measurements are part of a program to determine the neutron-proton amplitudes in a model independent fashion at 500, 650, and 800 MeV. Some new proton-proton total cross sections in pure helicity states (Δσ/sub L/(pp)) near 3 GeV/c are also given. 37 refs., 2 figs

  19. Observing Mergers of Non-Spinning Black-Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Boggs, William D.; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black-hole coalescence for generic binaries. The state of the art has advanced well beyond the equal-mass case into the unequal-mass and spinning regions of parameter space. We present a study of the nonspinning portion of parameter space, primarily using an analytic waveform model tuned to available numerical data, with an emphasis on observational implications. We investigate the impact of varied m8BS ratio on merger signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for several detectors, and compare our results with expectations from the test-mass limit. We note a striking similarity of the waveform phasing of the merger waveform across the available mass ratios. Motivated by this, we calculate the match between our equal-mass and 4:1 mass-ratio waveforms during the merger as a function of location on the source sky, using a new formalism for the match that accounts for higher harmonics. This is an indicator of the amount of degeneracy in mass ratio for mergers of moderate mass ratio systems.

  20. Observations of high spin states in {sup 179}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Blumenthal, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    As part of a current study on the properties of the {pi} i{sub 13/2} intruder state in the A = 175-190 region, we conducted an experiment at ATLAS to observe high spin states in {sup 179}Au utilizing the reaction {sup 144}Sm({sup 40}Ar,p4n) at beam energies of 207 MeV and 215 MeV. To aid in the identification of {sup 179}Au, and to filter out the large amount of events from fission by-products, the Fragment Mass Analyzer was utilized in conjunction with ten Compton-suppression germanium detectors. In total, 11 x 10{sup 6} {gamma}-{gamma} and 4 x 10{sup 5} {gamma}-recoil events were collected. By comparing {gamma}-rays in coincidence with an A = 179 recoil mass gate and {gamma}-rays in coincidence with Au K{alpha} and K{beta} X-rays, ten {gamma}-rays were identified as belonging to {sup 179}Au. Based on {gamma}-ray coincidence relationships and on comparisons with neighboring odd-A Au nuclei, we constructed a tentative level scheme and assigned a rotational-like sequence to the {pi} i{sub 13/2} proton configuration.

  1. Observation of Spin Superfluidity in a Bose Gas Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Eleonora; Bienaimé, Tom; Mordini, Carmelo; Colzi, Giacomo; Qu, Chunlei; Stringari, Sandro; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2018-04-01

    The spin dynamics of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensed binary mixture of sodium atoms is experimentally investigated at finite temperature. In the collisional regime the motion of the thermal component is shown to be damped because of spin drag, while the two condensates exhibit a counterflow oscillation without friction, thereby providing direct evidence for spin superfluidity. Results are also reported in the collisionless regime where the spin components of both the condensate and thermal part oscillate without damping, their relative motion being driven by a mean-field effect. We also measure the static polarizability of the condensed and thermal parts and we find a large increase of the condensate polarizability with respect to the T =0 value, in agreement with the predictions of theory.

  2. Local and non-local potentials for deuteron elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The nucleon--nucleus local potential (central and spin--orbit) and the deuteron--nucleus nonlocal potential (central, spin--orbit, spin--radial tensor) are calculated by the folding-model (FM). Simple analytic expressions are obtained for the nucleon--nucleus potential by the use of Gaussians to represent the nucleon--nucleus potential and the charge and mass densities of the target. The analytic expressions give qualitative descriptions of phenomenological nucleon--nucleus interactions. A systematic target--mass dependence of realistic local FM deueron potentials is also included. Local-equivalent, energy-dependent, deuteron potentials are obtained from the nonlocal FM deuteron potentials and the energy dependence of the local potential parameters are presented. The local FM deuteron potential is tested for 60 Ni(d,d) 60 Ni at E/sub α/ = 15 MeV by comparing the predictions of the FM potentials with data in which all five polarization moments were measured. A qualitative fit to the data is obtained, but it overestimates the volume integral of the central potential by 7%. Energy-dependence effects are estimated by evaluating the local-equivalent potentials at E/sub α/ = 30 MeV and comparing the predictions to the E/sub α/ = 15 MeV potentials. The energy dependence of the central potential dominates the angular dependence of all five observables while the energy dependence of the spin--orbit and tensor potentials produces only scale changes (approx. 3%) in the vector and tensor analyzing powers. The scattering formalism for a spin-1 on a spin-0 target nucleus, and a description of the coupled--channels computer code DDUNC1 which treats the spin--radial tensor potential exactly, are included

  3. Magnetic field dependence of the magnon spin diffusion length in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, L. J.; van Wees, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of an external magnetic field on the diffusive spin transport by magnons in the magnetic insulator Y3Fe5O12, using a nonlocal magnon transport measurement geometry. We observed a decrease in magnon spin diffusion length lambda(m) for increasing field strengths, where

  4. Reassessment of the nonlocality of correlation boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.P.; Parisio, Fernando, E-mail: parisio@df.ufpe.br

    2017-01-15

    Correlation boxes are hypothetical systems usually designed to produce the maximal algebraic violation of a Bell inequality, beyond the quantum bound and without superluminal signalling. The fact that these systems show stronger correlations than those presented by maximally entangled quantum states, as the spin singlet, has been regarded as a demonstration that the former are more nonlocal than the latter. By applying an alternative, consistent measure of nonlocality to a family of correlation boxes, we show that this conclusion is not necessarily true. Complementarily, we define a class of systems displaying subquantum correlations which, nevertheless, are more nonlocal than the singlet state, showing that the extent of the numeric violation of an inequality may have little to do with the degree of nonlocality, especially in the case of correlation boxes.

  5. Observables and microscopic entropy of higher spin black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Jottar, Juan I.; Song, Wei

    2013-11-01

    In the context of recently proposed holographic dualities between higher spin theories in AdS3 and (1 + 1)-dimensional CFTs with symmetry algebras, we revisit the definition of higher spin black hole thermodynamics and the dictionary between bulk fields and dual CFT operators. We build a canonical formalism based on three ingredients: a gauge-invariant definition of conserved charges and chemical potentials in the presence of higher spin black holes, a canonical definition of entropy in the bulk, and a bulk-to-boundary dictionary aligned with the asymptotic symmetry algebra. We show that our canonical formalism shares the same formal structure as the so-called holomorphic formalism, but differs in the definition of charges and chemical potentials and in the bulk-to-boundary dictionary. Most importantly, we show that it admits a consistent CFT interpretation. We discuss the spin-2 and spin-3 cases in detail and generalize our construction to theories based on the hs[ λ] algebra, and on the sl( N,[InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]) algebra for any choice of sl(2 ,[InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]) embedding.

  6. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  7. Entanglement and nonlocality in multi-particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Margaret D.; He, Qiong-Yi; Drummond, Peter D.

    2012-02-01

    Entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell's failure of local-hiddenvariable (LHV) theories are three historically famous forms of "quantum nonlocality". We give experimental criteria for these three forms of nonlocality in multi-particle systems, with the aim of better understanding the transition from microscopic to macroscopic nonlocality. We examine the nonlocality of N separated spin J systems. First, we obtain multipartite Bell inequalities that address the correlation between spin values measured at each site, and then we review spin squeezing inequalities that address the degree of reduction in the variance of collective spins. The latter have been particularly useful as a tool for investigating entanglement in Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). We present solutions for two topical quantum states: multi-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, and the ground state of a two-well BEC.

  8. International conference on spin observables of nuclear probes: Summary talk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, G.T.

    1988-01-01

    A selected summary of the presentation and discussions at the 4th Telluride Conference is presented. The summary deals mainly with the effects of nuclear spin and isospin on the interaction between nucleons and their consequences in nuclear structure. 11 figs

  9. A stochastic picture of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Dankel has shown how to incorporate spin into stochastic mechanics. The resulting non-local hidden variable theory gives an appealing picture of spin correlation experiments in which Bell's inequality is violated. (orig.)

  10. Observation of spin-selective tunneling in SiGe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaros, G; Golovach, V N; Spathis, P; Ares, N; Stoffel, M; Fournel, F; Schmidt, O G; Glazman, L I; De Franceschi, S

    2011-12-09

    Spin-selective tunneling of holes in SiGe nanocrystals contacted by normal-metal leads is reported. The spin selectivity arises from an interplay of the orbital effect of the magnetic field with the strong spin-orbit interaction present in the valence band of the semiconductor. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that spin-selective tunneling in semiconductor nanostructures can be achieved without the use of ferromagnetic contacts. The reported effect, which relies on mixing the light and heavy holes, should be observable in a broad class of quantum-dot systems formed in semiconductors with a degenerate valence band.

  11. Observation of Rashba zero-field spin splitting in a strained germanium 2D hole gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, C.; Rhead, S. D.; Foronda, J.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Wiśniewski, P.

    2014-01-01

    We report the observation, through Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance, of spin splitting caused by the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in a strained Ge quantum well epitaxially grown on a standard Si(001) substrate. The Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations display a beating pattern due to the spin split Landau levels. The spin-orbit parameter and Rashba spin-splitting energy are found to be 1.0 × 10 −28   eVm 3 and 1.4 meV, respectively. This energy is comparable to 2D electron gases in III-V semiconductors, but substantially larger than in Si, and illustrates the suitability of Ge for modulated hole spin transport devices.

  12. Spin-injection into epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Keita; Cui, Zhixin; Hiraki, Takahiro; Yoh, Kanji

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the spin-injection properties in epitaxial graphene on SiC. The ferromagnetic metal (FM) electrodes were composed of a tunnel barrier layer AlOx (14 Å) and a ferromagnetic Co (600 Å) layer. We have successfully observed the clear resistance peaks indicating spin-injection both in the "local" and "non-local" spin measurement set-ups at low temperatures. We estimate spin-injection rate of 1% based on "non-local" measurement and 1.6% based on local measurements. Spin-injection rate of multilayer graphene by mechanical exfoliation method was twice as high as single layer graphene on SiC based on "local" measurement.

  13. Direct observation of the orbital spin Kondo effect in gallium arsenide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ru-Nan; Zhang, Ting; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2018-02-01

    Besides the spin Kondo effect, other degrees of freedom can give rise to the pseudospin Kondo effect. We report a direct observation of the orbital spin Kondo effect in a series-coupled gallium arsenide (GaAs) double quantum dot device where orbital degrees act as pseudospin. Electron occupation in both dots induces a pseudospin Kondo effect. In a region of one net spin impurity, complete spectra with three resonance peaks are observed. Furthermore, we observe a pseudo-Zeeman effect and demonstrate its electrical controllability for the artificial pseudospin in this orbital spin Kondo process via gate voltage control. The fourfold degeneracy point is realized at a specific value supplemented by spin degeneracy, indicating a transition from the SU(2) to the SU(4) Kondo effect.

  14. Spin observables in antiproton-proton to AntiLambda-Lambda and density-matrix constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Elchikh, Mokhtar; Richard, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    The positivity conditions of the spin density matrix constrain the spin observables of the reaction antiproton-proton to AntiLambda-Lambda, leading to model-independent, non-trivial inequalities. The formalism is briefly presented and examples of inequalities are provided.

  15. Spin observables in p-barp → ΛΛ and density-matrix constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elchikh, Mokhtar; Richard, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    The positivity conditions of the spin density matrix constrain the spin observables of the reaction p-barp → Λ-barΛ, leading to model-independent, non-trivial inequalities. The formalism is briefly presented and examples of inequalities are provided

  16. Quantum nonlocality does not exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J

    2014-08-05

    Quantum nonlocality is shown to be an artifact of the Copenhagen interpretation, in which each observed quantity has exactly one value at any instant. In reality, all physical systems obey quantum mechanics, which obeys no such rule. Locality is restored if observed and observer are both assumed to obey quantum mechanics, as in the many-worlds interpretation (MWI). Using the MWI, I show that the quantum side of Bell's inequality, generally believed nonlocal, is really due to a series of three measurements (not two as in the standard, oversimplified analysis), all three of which have only local effects. Thus, experiments confirming "nonlocality" are actually confirming the MWI. The mistaken interpretation of nonlocality experiments depends crucially on a question-begging version of the Born interpretation, which makes sense only in "collapse" versions of quantum theory, about the meaning of the modulus of the wave function, so I use the interpretation based on the MWI, namely that the wave function is a world density amplitude, not a probability amplitude. This view allows the Born interpretation to be derived directly from the Schrödinger equation, by applying the Schrödinger equation to both the observed and the observer.

  17. High field electron-spin transport and observation of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation of drifting electrons in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2008-01-01

    High field electron-spin transport in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide is studied. We generate electron spins in the samples by optical pumping. During transport, we observe the Dyakonov-Perel (DP) [M.I. Dyakonov, V.I. Perel, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60 (1971) 1954] spin relaxation of the drifting electrons. The results are discussed and are compared with those obtained in calculations of the DP spin relaxation frequency of the hot electrons. A good agreement is obtained

  18. High field electron-spin transport and observation of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation of drifting electrons in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2008-11-17

    High field electron-spin transport in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide is studied. We generate electron spins in the samples by optical pumping. During transport, we observe the Dyakonov-Perel (DP) [M.I. Dyakonov, V.I. Perel, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60 (1971) 1954] spin relaxation of the drifting electrons. The results are discussed and are compared with those obtained in calculations of the DP spin relaxation frequency of the hot electrons. A good agreement is obtained.

  19. Observation of multicellular spinning behavior of Proteus mirabilis by atomic force microscopy and multifunctional microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxia; Deng, Yuanxin; Luo, Shuxiu; Deng, Yu; Guo, Linming; Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Lei; Liu, Junkang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the multicellular spinning behavior of Proteus mirabilis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and multifunctional microscopy in order to understand the mechanism underlying this spinning movement and its biological significance. Multifunctional microscopy with charge-coupled device (CCD) and real-time AFM showed changes in cell structure and shape of P. mirabilis during multicellular spinning movement. Specifically, the morphological characteristics of P. mirabilis, multicellular spinning dynamics, and unique movement were observed. Our findings indicate that the multicellular spinning behavior of P. mirabilis may be used to collect nutrients, perform colonization, and squeeze out competitors. The movement characteristics of P. mirabilis are vital to the organism's biological adaptability to the surrounding environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Z boson spin observables as messengers of new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Granada (Spain); Bernabeu, J.; Segarra, A. [Universitat de Valencia, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain); CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna (Spain); Mitsou, V.A. [CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    We demonstrate that the eight multipole parameters describing the spin state of the Z boson are able to disentangle known Z production mechanisms and signals from new physics at the LHC. They can be extracted from appropriate asymmetries in the angular distribution of lepton pairs from the Z boson decay. The power of this analysis is illustrated by (1) the production of Z boson plus jets; (2) Z boson plus missing transverse energy; (3) W and Z bosons originating from the two-body decay of a heavy resonance. (orig.)

  1. Experimental observation of the optical spin transfer torque

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, P.; Rozkotová, E.; Tesařová, N.; Trojánek, F.; De Ranieri, E.; Olejník, Kamil; Zemen, Jan; Novák, Vít; Cukr, Miroslav; Malý, P.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 411-415 ISSN 1745-2473 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN; European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magneto-optics * magnetization dynamics * ferromagnetic semiconductors Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 19.352, year: 2012 http://arxiv.org/abs/1201.1436

  2. Experimental observation of the optical spin-orbit torque

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesařová, N.; Němec, P.; Rozkotová, E.; Zemen, Jan; Janda, T.; Butkovičová, D.; Trojánek, F.; Olejník, Kamil; Novák, Vít; Malý, P.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, Jun (2013), s. 493-499 ISSN 1749-4885 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GD202/09/H041 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN; European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductor * magneto-optical spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 29.958, year: 2013

  3. Spin relaxation through lateral spin transport in heavily doped n -type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M.; Oka, T.; Fujita, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Saito, Y.; Hamaya, K.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally study temperature-dependent spin relaxation including lateral spin diffusion in heavily doped n -type silicon (n+-Si ) layers by measuring nonlocal magnetoresistance in small-sized CoFe/MgO/Si lateral spin-valve (LSV) devices. Even at room temperature, we observe large spin signals, 50-fold the magnitude of those in previous works on n+-Si . By measuring spin signals in LSVs with various center-to-center distances between contacts, we reliably evaluate the temperature-dependent spin diffusion length (λSi) and spin lifetime (τSi). We find that the temperature dependence of τSi is affected by that of the diffusion constant in the n+-Si layers, meaning that it is important to understand the temperature dependence of the channel mobility. A possible origin of the temperature dependence of τSi is discussed in terms of the recent theories by Dery and co-workers.

  4. Observation of vacuum-enhanced electron spin resonance of optically levitated nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongcang; Hoang, Thai; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining such NV spin systems with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for many novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centers in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this novel system, we also investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. Our results show that optical levitation of nanodiamonds in vacuum not only can improve the mechanical quality of its oscillation, but also enhance the ESR contrast, which pave the way towards a novel levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. The results also indicate potential applications of NV centers in gas sensing.

  5. Metric versus observable operator representation, higher spin models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fring, Andreas; Frith, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    We elaborate further on the metric representation that is obtained by transferring the time-dependence from a Hermitian Hamiltonian to the metric operator in a related non-Hermitian system. We provide further insight into the procedure on how to employ the time-dependent Dyson relation and the quasi-Hermiticity relation to solve time-dependent Hermitian Hamiltonian systems. By solving both equations separately we argue here that it is in general easier to solve the former. We solve the mutually related time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a Hermitian and non-Hermitian spin 1/2, 1 and 3/2 model with time-independent and time-dependent metric, respectively. In all models the overdetermined coupled system of equations for the Dyson map can be decoupled algebraic manipulations and reduces to simple linear differential equations and an equation that can be converted into the non-linear Ermakov-Pinney equation.

  6. Thermoelectric effects and spin injection into superconductors with exchange field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, Tero [Dept. Phys., Univ. Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Silaev, Mihail [O.V. Lounasmaa Lab, Aalto Univ. (Finland); Dept. Theor. Physics, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Virtanen, Pauli [O.V. Lounasmaa Lab, Aalto Univ. (Finland); Giazotto, Francesco [NEST CNR-INFM and SNS Pisa (Italy); Ozaeta, Asier; Bergeret, Sebastian [CFM-CSIC and DIPC, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    When a thin superconducting film is exposed to a longitudinal magnetic field or is in proximity to a ferromagnet, an exchange field separating the spin bands emerges in it. For low enough exchange fields superconductivity survives, but its response to external driving is strongly modified. In my talk I will show how at linear response such systems exhibit very strong thermoelectric response with an almost ideal efficiency. For strong driving, this effect creates a spin accumulation that can only relax via thermalization, and therefore at low temperatures has a very long range. Therefore our work explains recent observations of the long-range spin accumulation in spin-split superconductors. When injecting spin from injectors with non-collinear magnetization compared to the exchange field, the spins start to rotate around the latter. I will describe how superconductivity modifies this spin Hanle effect so that the resulting nonlocal magnetoresistance depends on the details of spin relaxation, therefore allowing for probing them.

  7. Nonlocal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnikov, N.V.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlocal gauge theories including gravity are considered. It is shown that the introduction of the additional nonlocal interaction makes γ 5 -anomalous theories meaningful. The introduction of such interaction leads to macrocausal unitary theory, which describes the interaction of massive vector fields with fermion fields. It is shown that nonlocal gauge theories with nonlocal scale Λ nl ≤(1-10) TeV can solve the gauge hierarchy problem. An example of nonlinear grand unified gauge model in which topologically nontrivial finite energy monopole solutions are absent is found

  8. First observation of spin flips with a single proton stored in a cryogenic Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis the very first observation of spin transitions of a single proton stored in a cryogenic double-Penning trap is presented. The experimental observation of spin transitions is based on the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, which couples the spin of the single trapped proton to its axial eigenfrequency, by means of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. A spin transition causes a change of the axial frequency, which can be measured non-destructively. Due to the tiny magnetic moment of the proton, the direct detection of proton spin-flips is an exceeding challenge. To achieve spin-flip resolution, the proton was stored in the largest magnetic field inhomogeneity, which has ever been superimposed to a Penning trap, and its axial frequency was detected non-destructively. Therefore, superconducting detection systems with ultrahigh-sensitivity were developed, allowing the direct observation of the single trapped proton, as well as the high-precision determination of its eigenfrequencies. Based on novel experimental methods, which were developed in the framework of this thesis, the axial frequency of the particle was stabilized to a level, where the observation of single-proton spin-flips is possible, which was demonstrated. This experimental success is one of the most important steps towards the high-precision determination of the magnetic moment of the free proton. With the very first observation of spin transitions with a single trapped proton, a highly exciting perspective opens. All experimental techniques which were developed in this thesis can be directly applied to the antiproton. Thus, the first high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the antiproton becomes possible. This will provide a new high-precision test of the matterantimatter symmetry. (orig.)

  9. Spin observables in the NN→YΘ+ reaction at the threshold and quantum numbers of the Θ+ pentaquark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzikov, Yu.N.

    2004-01-01

    General formulae for the spin-spin correlation parameters C i,j and spin-transfer coefficients K i j are derived for the reaction NN→YΘ + at the threshold for an arbitrary spin of the pentaquark Θ + . It is shown that measurement of the sign of C y,y or observation of the non-zero polarization transfer from the nucleon to the hyperon Y allows one to determine the P-parity of the Θ + unambiguously and independently of the spin of the Θ + . Measurement of these spin observables in both the pp- and pn-channels of this reaction determines also the isospin of the Θ +

  10. Revealing Hidden Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walborn, S. P.; Salles, A.; Gomes, R. M.; Toscano, F.; Souto Ribeiro, P. H.

    2011-04-01

    Steering is a form of quantum nonlocality that is intimately related to the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox that ignited the ongoing discussion of quantum correlations. Within the hierarchy of nonlocal correlations appearing in nature, EPR steering occupies an intermediate position between Bell nonlocality and entanglement. In continuous variable systems, EPR steering correlations have been observed by violation of Reid’s EPR inequality, which is based on inferred variances of complementary observables. Here we propose and experimentally test a new criterion based on entropy functions, and show that it is more powerful than the variance inequality for identifying EPR steering. Using the entropic criterion our experimental results show EPR steering, while the variance criterion does not. Our results open up the possibility of observing this type of nonlocality in a wider variety of quantum states.

  11. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation and propagation of two-dimensional vortex solitons, i.e. solitons with a phase singularity, in optical materials with a nonlocal focusing nonlinearity. We show that nonlocality stabilizes the dynamics of an otherwise unstable vortex beam. This occurs for either single...... or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  12. Nonlocal thermoelectric symmetry relations in ferromagnet-superconductor proximity structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham Hill, EGHAM, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients in quantum coherent structures are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. We generalize Onsager's symmetry relation to nonlocal thermoelectric currents in a three terminal ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and direct electron transfer processes. We proof this general symmetry by applying spin-dependent boundary conditions for quasi-classical Green's functions in both the clean and the dirty limit. We predict an anomalously large local thermopower and a nonlocal Seebeck effect, which can be explained by the spin-dependent spectral properties.

  13. Observer enhanced control for spin-stabilized tethered formation in earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Zhai; Yuyang, Li; Liang, Bin

    2018-04-01

    This paper addresses the issues relevant to control of spin-stabilized tethered formation in circular orbit. Due to the dynamic complexities and nonlinear perturbations, it is challenging to promote the control precision for the formation deployment and maintenance. In this work, the formation dynamics are derived with considering the spinning rate of the central body, then major attention is dedicated to develop the nonlinear disturbance observer. To achieve better control performance, the observer-enhanced controller is designed by incorporating the disturbance observer into the control loop, benefits from the disturbance compensation are demonstrated, and also, the dependences of the disturbance observer performance on some important parameters are theoretically and numerically analyzed.

  14. Quantum Nonlocality and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary; Gao, Shan

    2016-09-01

    Preface; Part I. John Stewart Bell: The Physicist: 1. John Bell: the Irish connection Andrew Whitaker; 2. Recollections of John Bell Michael Nauenberg; 3. John Bell: recollections of a great scientist and a great man Gian-Carlo Ghirardi; Part II. Bell's Theorem: 4. What did Bell really prove? Jean Bricmont; 5. The assumptions of Bell's proof Roderich Tumulka; 6. Bell on Bell's theorem: the changing face of nonlocality Harvey R. Brown and Christopher G. Timpson; 7. Experimental tests of Bell inequalities Marco Genovese; 8. Bell's theorem without inequalities: on the inception and scope of the GHZ theorem Olival Freire, Jr and Osvaldo Pessoa, Jr; 9. Strengthening Bell's theorem: removing the hidden-variable assumption Henry P. Stapp; Part III. Nonlocality: Illusions or Reality?: 10. Is any theory compatible with the quantum predictions necessarily nonlocal? Bernard d'Espagnat; 11. Local causality, probability and explanation Richard A. Healey; 12. Bell inequality and many-worlds interpretation Lev Vaidman; 13. Quantum solipsism and non-locality Travis Norsen; 14. Lessons of Bell's theorem: nonlocality, yes; action at a distance, not necessarily Wayne C. Myrvold; 15. Bell non-locality, Hardy's paradox and hyperplane dependence Gordon N. Fleming; 16. Some thoughts on quantum nonlocality and its apparent incompatibility with relativity Shan Gao; 17. A reasonable thing that just might work Daniel Rohrlich; 18. Weak values and quantum nonlocality Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; Part IV. Nonlocal Realistic Theories: 19. Local beables and the foundations of physics Tim Maudlin; 20. John Bell's varying interpretations of quantum mechanics: memories and comments H. Dieter Zeh; 21. Some personal reflections on quantum non-locality and the contributions of John Bell Basil J. Hiley; 22. Bell on Bohm Sheldon Goldstein; 23. Interactions and inequality Philip Pearle; 24. Gravitation and the noise needed in objective reduction models Stephen L. Adler; 25. Towards an objective

  15. Anisotropic spin relaxation in graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tombros, N.; Tanabe, S.; Veligura, A.; Jozsa, C.; Popinciuc, M.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Spin relaxation in graphene is investigated in electrical graphene spin valve devices in the nonlocal geometry. Ferromagnetic electrodes with in-plane magnetizations inject spins parallel to the graphene layer. They are subject to Hanle spin precession under a magnetic field B applied perpendicular

  16. Implications of the Low Binary Black Hole Aligned Spins Observed by LIGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotokezaka, Kenta [Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 5th Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Piran, Tsvi [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2017-06-20

    We explore the implications of the low-spin components along the orbital axis observed in an Advanced LIGO O1 run on binary black hole (BBH) merger scenarios in which the merging BBHs have evolved from field binaries. The coalescence time determines the initial orbital separation of BBHs. This, in turn, determines whether the stars are synchronized before collapse, and hence determines their projected spins. Short coalescence times imply synchronization and large spins. Among known stellar objects, Wolf–Rayet (WR) stars seem to be the only progenitors consistent with the low aligned spins observed in LIGO’s O1, provided that the orbital axis maintains its direction during the collapse. We calculate the spin distribution of BBH mergers in the local universe, and its redshift evolution for WR progenitors. Assuming that the BBH formation rate peaks around a redshift of ∼2–3, we show that BBH mergers in the local universe are dominated by low-spin events. The high-spin population starts to dominate at a redshift of ∼0.5–1.5. WR stars are also progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts that take place at a comparable rate to BBH mergers. We discuss the possible connection between the two phenomena. Additionally, we show that hypothetical Population III star progenitors are also possible. Although WR and Population III progenitors are consistent with the current data, both models predict a non-vanishing fraction of high positive values of the BBHs’ aligned spin. If those are not detected within the coming LIGO/Virgo runs, it will be unlikely that the observed BBHs formed via field binaries.

  17. Observation of linear spin wave dispersion in the reentrant spin glass Fe sub 0 sub . sub 7 Al sub 0 sub . sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, S M; Raymond, S; Lee, S H; Motoya, K

    2002-01-01

    Fe sub 0 sub . sub 7 Al sub 0 sub . sub 3 is a reentrant spin glass, which undergoes a transition from a paramagnet to a disordered ferromagnet at T sub c propor to 500 K; at a lower temperature the spins progressively freeze and it exhibits a spin-glass-like behavior. In the ferromagnetic phase spin waves with a q sup 2 dispersion are observed at small q, which broaden rapidly and become diffusive beyond a critical wave vector q sub 0. On cooling the spin waves also disappear and a strong elastic central peak develops. For measurements around the (1,1,1) Bragg peak, a new sharp excitation is observed which has a linear dispersion behavior. It disappears above T sub c , but persists throughout the spin-glass phase. It is not present in the stoichiometric Fe sub 3 Al material. (orig.)

  18. Nonlocality in Bohmian mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafar, Zati Amalina binti Mohd Abdul; Radiman, Shahidan bin; Siong, Ch'ng Han

    2018-04-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox demonstrates that entangled particles can interact in such a way that it is possible to measure both their position and momentum instantaneously. The position or momentum of one particle can be determined by measuring another identical particle that exists in another space. This instantaneous action is actually called nonlocality. The nonlocality has been proved by Bell's theorem that states that all quantum theories must be nonlocal. The Bell's theorem gives a strong support to the hidden variable theory, i.e. Bohmian mechanics. Using nonlocality, we present that the velocity field of one particle can be obtained by measuring the velocity of other particles. The trajectory of these particles is perhaps surrealistic trajectory due to the nonlocality.

  19. Observation of two-orbital spin-exchange interactions with ultracold SU(N)-symmetric fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazza, F.; Hofrichter, C.; Höfer, M.; de Groot, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Fölling, S.

    2014-10-01

    Spin-exchanging interactions govern the properties of strongly correlated electron systems such as many magnetic materials. When orbital degrees of freedom are present, spin exchange between different orbitals often dominates, leading to the Kondo effect, heavy fermion behaviour or magnetic ordering. Ultracold ytterbium or alkaline-earth ensembles have attracted much recent interest as model systems for these effects, with two (meta-) stable electronic configurations representing independent orbitals. We report the observation of spin-exchanging contact interactions in a two-orbital SU(N)-symmetric quantum gas realized with fermionic 173Yb. We find strong inter-orbital spin exchange by spectroscopic characterization of all interaction channels and demonstrate SU(N = 6) symmetry within our measurement precision. The spin-exchange process is also directly observed through the dynamic equilibration of spin imbalances between ensembles in separate orbitals. The realization of an SU(N)-symmetric two-orbital Hubbard Hamiltonian opens the route to quantum simulations with extended symmetries and with orbital magnetic interactions, such as the Kondo lattice model.

  20. Non-local magnetoresistance in YIG/Pt nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B., E-mail: goennenwein@wmi.badw.de; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstraße 4, 80799 München (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schlitz, Richard; Ganzhorn, Kathrin [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Althammer, Matthias [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-26

    We study the local and non-local magnetoresistance of thin Pt strips deposited onto yttrium iron garnet. The local magnetoresistive response, inferred from the voltage drop measured along one given Pt strip upon current-biasing it, shows the characteristic magnetization orientation dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance. We simultaneously also record the non-local voltage appearing along a second, electrically isolated, Pt strip, separated from the current carrying one by a gap of a few 100 nm. The corresponding non-local magnetoresistance exhibits the symmetry expected for a magnon spin accumulation-driven process, confirming the results recently put forward by Cornelissen et al. [“Long-distance transport of magnon spin information in a magnetic insulator at room temperature,” Nat. Phys. (published online 14 September 2015)]. Our magnetotransport data, taken at a series of different temperatures as a function of magnetic field orientation, rotating the externally applied field in three mutually orthogonal planes, show that the mechanisms behind the spin Hall and the non-local magnetoresistance are qualitatively different. In particular, the non-local magnetoresistance vanishes at liquid Helium temperatures, while the spin Hall magnetoresistance prevails.

  1. Spin observables in inelastic proton-nucleus scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of spin observables in inelastic proton-nucleus reactions for incident proton energies near 1 GeV. At this energy, the dominant reaction mechanisms are (1) quasi-free knockout of one or more nucleons, and (2) pion production through the Δ resonance. The cross section due to quasi-free knockout can be reasonably well understood theoretically in a multiple scattering picture, which uses measured NN amplitudes as input. Calculations of this sort were carried out in reference [10] using scalar NN amplitudes parameterized as Gaussians. The author has extended this picture to include spin dependent NN amplitudes. This allows calculation of all the spin observables, Ay, DLL, DSS, DNN, DLS, and DSL, as well as the cross section dsigma/dOmegadp due to quasi-free knockout of one or more particles. The cross section and polarization Ay have been measured at the LAMPF High Resolution Spectrometer at T/sub L/ = 800 MeV on 12 C. The theoretical results agree well with the data in the quasi-free region. The results for the remaining spin observables provide predictions for experiments which can be performed at LAMPF. By comparing the calculations with the data, it may be possible to separate the contribution due to a quasi-free knockout, and see a signature of quasi-free Δ production in the spin observables

  2. On determining fluxgate magnetometer spin axis offsets from mirror mode observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, Ferdinand; Narita, Yasuhito

    2016-09-01

    In-flight calibration of fluxgate magnetometers that are mounted on spacecraft involves finding their outputs in vanishing ambient fields, the so-called magnetometer offsets. If the spacecraft is spin-stabilized, then the spin plane components of these offsets can be relatively easily determined, as they modify the spin tone content in the de-spun magnetic field data. The spin axis offset, however, is more difficult to determine. Therefore, usually Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind are used. We propose a novel method to determine the spin axis offset: the mirror mode method. The method is based on the assumption that mirror mode fluctuations are nearly compressible such that the maximum variance direction is aligned to the mean magnetic field. Mirror mode fluctuations are typically found in the Earth's magnetosheath region. We introduce the method and provide a first estimate of its accuracy based on magnetosheath observations by the THEMIS-C spacecraft. We find that 20 h of magnetosheath measurements may already be sufficient to obtain high-accuracy spin axis offsets with uncertainties on the order of a few tenths of a nanotesla, if offset stability can be assumed.

  3. On determining fluxgate magnetometer spin axis offsets from mirror mode observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Plaschke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In-flight calibration of fluxgate magnetometers that are mounted on spacecraft involves finding their outputs in vanishing ambient fields, the so-called magnetometer offsets. If the spacecraft is spin-stabilized, then the spin plane components of these offsets can be relatively easily determined, as they modify the spin tone content in the de-spun magnetic field data. The spin axis offset, however, is more difficult to determine. Therefore, usually Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind are used. We propose a novel method to determine the spin axis offset: the mirror mode method. The method is based on the assumption that mirror mode fluctuations are nearly compressible such that the maximum variance direction is aligned to the mean magnetic field. Mirror mode fluctuations are typically found in the Earth's magnetosheath region. We introduce the method and provide a first estimate of its accuracy based on magnetosheath observations by the THEMIS-C spacecraft. We find that 20 h of magnetosheath measurements may already be sufficient to obtain high-accuracy spin axis offsets with uncertainties on the order of a few tenths of a nanotesla, if offset stability can be assumed.

  4. Nonlocal hidden variables and nonlocal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    1984-01-01

    A possible unification of classical fundamental interactions together with quantum interactions is proposed, based on an extension of the concept of local gauge invariance to a nonlocal gauge invariance. As an example this new concept is developed for the particular case of the electromagnetic field. (Auth.)

  5. Testing a spin-2 mediator by angular observables in b →s μ+μ-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfer, Svjetlana; Melić, Blaženka; Patra, Monalisa

    2018-05-01

    We consider the effects of the spin-2 particle in the b →s μ+μ- transition assuming that the spin-2 particle couples in a flavor-nonuniversal way to b and s quarks and in the leptonic sector couples only to the muons, thereby only contributing to the process b →s μ+μ-. The Bs-B¯s transition gives the strong constraint on the coupling of the spin-2 mediator and b and s quarks, while the observed discrepancy from the standard model prediction for the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g -2 )μ serves to constrain the μ coupling to a spin-2 particle. We find that the spin-2 particle can modify the angular observables in the B →K μ+μ- and B →K*μ+μ- decays and produce effects that do not exist in the standard model. The generated forward-backward asymmetries in these processes can reach 15%, while other observables for these decays receive tiny effects.

  6. Modulation of pure spin currents with a ferromagnetic insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, Estitxu; Isasa, Miren; Vélez, Saül; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Vavassori, Paolo; Hueso, Luis E.; Bergeret, F. Sebastián; Casanova, Fèlix

    2015-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate spin manipulation by magnetically controlled modulation of pure spin currents in cobalt/copper lateral spin valves, fabricated on top of the magnetic insulator Y3F e5O12 (YIG). The direction of the YIG magnetization can be controlled by a small magnetic field. We observe a clear modulation of the nonlocal resistance as a function of the orientation of the YIG magnetization with respect to the polarization of the spin current. Such a modulation can only be explained by assuming a finite spin-mixing conductance at the Cu/YIG interface, as it follows from the solution of the spin-diffusion equation. These results open a path towards the development of spin logics.

  7. Spin observables at intermediate energies: a tool in viewing the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize some of the advances made in intermediate nuclear physics through measurements of spin observables, notably in the range of bombarding energies from 100 to 1000 MeV. Relative to measurements of cross section, spin observables offer a highly selective filter in viewing the nucleus. Their general utility is found in their sensitivity to particular nuclear transitions and is further augmented by their simple connections to the NN force. The advantage of higher energies is apparent from the dominance of single-step mechanisms even at large energy losses where general nuclear spin responses may be made. Experimentally, this is an energy range where efficient, high-analyzing-power polarimeters can be coupled with high resolution detection techniques. 29 refs., 5 figs

  8. On nonlocality in quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasskij, B.I.; Moskovskij, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of nonlocality of quantum objects are considered on the example of the Aharonov-Bohm, effect Brown-Twiss effect, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. These effects demonstrate inherent features of specific integrity in quantum objects. The term ''nonlocality'' is considered as a ''quantum analog'' of the notion of long range. Experiments on checking the Bell inequalities for fulfilment are described. The inequalities permit to solve which of the quantum mechanics interpretations is correct either the Einstein interpretation according to which the quantum system properties exist as elements of physical reality irrespective of their observation, or the Copenhagen one, according to which the microsystem properties described by noncommuting operators do not exist irrespective of measurement means

  9. Nonlocal continuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...

  10. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-01-01

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  11. Influence of primary fragment excitation energy and spin distributions on fission observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaize, Olivier; Thulliez, Loïc; Serot, Olivier; Chebboubi, Abdelaziz; Tamagno, Pierre

    2018-03-01

    Fission observables in the case of 252Cf(sf) are investigated by exploring several models involved in the excitation energy sharing and spin-parity assignment between primary fission fragments. In a first step the parameters used in the FIFRELIN Monte Carlo code "reference route" are presented: two parameters for the mass dependent temperature ratio law and two constant spin cut-off parameters for light and heavy fragment groups respectively. These parameters determine the initial fragment entry zone in excitation energy and spin-parity (E*, Jπ). They are chosen to reproduce the light and heavy average prompt neutron multiplicities. When these target observables are achieved all other fission observables can be predicted. We show here the influence of input parameters on the saw-tooth curve and we discuss the influence of a mass and energy-dependent spin cut-off model on gamma-rays related fission observables. The part of the model involving level densities, neutron transmission coefficients or photon strength functions remains unchanged.

  12. The HERA polarimeter and the first observation of electron spin polarization at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.; Bremer, H.D.; Boege, M.; Brinkmann, R.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kaiser, H.; Klanner, R.; Lewin, H.C.; Meyners, N.; Vogel, W.; Brueckner, W.; Buescher, C.; Dueren, M.; Gaul, H.G.; Muecklich, A.; Neunreither, F.; Rith, K.; Scholz, C.; Steffens, E.; Veltri, M.; Wander, W.; Zapfe, K.; Zetsche, F.; Chapman, M.; Milner, R.; Coulter, K.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Haeusser, O.; Henderson, R.; Levy, P.; Vetterli, M.; Gressmann, H.; Janke, T.; Micheel, B.; Westphal, D.; Kaiser, R.; Losev, L.; Nowak, W.D.

    1992-10-01

    Electron spin polarizations of about 8% were observed at HERA in November 1991. In runs during 1992 utilizing special orbit corrections, polarization values close to 60% have been achieved. In this paper the polarimeter, the machine conditions, the data analysis, the first results and plans for future measurements are described. (orig.)

  13. Spin transport at high temperatures in epitaxial Heusler alloy/n-GaAs lateral spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Timothy A.; Christie, Kevin D.; Patel, Sahil J.; Crowell, Paul A.; Palmstrøm, Chris J.

    2015-03-01

    We report on electrical injection and detection of spin accumulation in ferromagnet/ n-GaAs lateral spin-valve devices, observed up to and above room temperature. The ferromagnet in these measurements is the Heusler alloy Co2FeSi, and the semiconductor channel is GaAs doped at 3 ×1016 cm-3. The spin signal is enhanced by operating the detection contact under forward bias. The enhancement originates from drift effects at low-temperatures and an increase of the detection efficiency at all temperatures. The detector bias dependence of the observed spin-valve signal is interpreted by taking into account the quantum well (QW) which forms in the degenerately doped region immediately behind the Schottky tunnel barrier. In particular, we believe the QW is responsible for the minority spin accumulation (majority spin current) under large forward bias. The spin diffusion length and lifetime are determined by measuring the separation dependence of the non-local spin valve signal in a family of devices patterned by electron beam lithography. A spin diffusion length of 700 nm and lifetime of 46 picoseconds are found at a temperature of 295 K. This work was supported by the NSF under DMR-1104951, the NSF MRSEC program and C-SPIN, a SRC STARNET center sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  14. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  15. Quantum Nonlocality and Beyond: Limits from Nonlocal Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Winter, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    We address the problem of “nonlocal computation,” in which separated parties must compute a function without any individual learning anything about the inputs. Surprisingly, entanglement provides no benefit over local classical strategies for such tasks, yet stronger nonlocal correlations allow perfect success. This provides intriguing insights into the limits of quantum information processing, the nature of quantum nonlocality, and the differences between quantum and stronger-than-quantum nonlocal correlations.

  16. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger nonlocality in arbitrary even dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jinhyoung; Lee, Seung-Woo; Kim, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) nonlocality to every even-dimensional and odd-partite system. For the purpose we employ concurrent observables that are incompatible and nevertheless have a common eigenstate. It is remarkable that a tripartite system can exhibit the genuinely high-dimensional GHZ nonlocality

  17. Nonlocal diffusion and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Working in the fractional Laplace framework, this book provides models and theorems related to nonlocal diffusion phenomena. In addition to a simple probabilistic interpretation, some applications to water waves, crystal dislocations, nonlocal phase transitions, nonlocal minimal surfaces and Schrödinger equations are given. Furthermore, an example of an s-harmonic function, its harmonic extension and some insight into a fractional version of a classical conjecture due to De Giorgi are presented. Although the aim is primarily to gather some introductory material concerning applications of the fractional Laplacian, some of the proofs and results are new. The work is entirely self-contained, and readers who wish to pursue related subjects of interest are invited to consult the rich bibliography for guidance.

  18. MFM observation of spin structures in nano-magnetic-dot arrays fabricated by damascene technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Tezuka, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Morishita, Y.; Koukitu, A.; Machida, K.; Yamaoka, T.

    2006-01-01

    Regularly aligned arrays of magnetic nano dots buried in silicon wafers have been fabricated using damascene technique with the help of electron beam lithography. Arrays of square, rectangular, cross-shaped and Y-shaped structures of submicron size have been obtained. Spin distributions have been observed by means of magnetic force microscopy and analyzed by a micromagnetic simulation with Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations. Importance of magnetostatic interactions working between adjacent dots has been elucidated

  19. Nonlocal N=1 supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Tetsuji [Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Mazumdar, Anupam [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Physics Department, Lancaster University,Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen,9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Noumi, Toshifumi [Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Department of Physics, Kobe University,Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2016-10-05

    We construct N=1 supersymmetric nonlocal theories in four dimension. We discuss higher derivative extensions of chiral and vector superfields, and write down generic forms of Kähler potential and superpotential up to quadratic order. We derive the condition in which an auxiliary field remains non-dynamical, and the dynamical scalars and fermions are free from the ghost degrees of freedom. We also investigate the nonlocal effects on the supersymmetry breaking and find that supertrace (mass) formula is significantly modified even at the tree level.

  20. Direct observation of spin-quadrupolar excitations in Sr2CoGe2O7 by high-field electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaki, Mitsuru; Yoshizawa, Daichi; Okutani, Akira; Kida, Takanori; Romhányi, Judit; Penc, Karlo; Hagiwara, Masayuki

    2017-12-01

    Exotic spin-multipolar ordering in spin transition metal insulators has so far eluded unambiguous experimental observation. A less studied, but perhaps more feasible fingerprint of multipole character emerges in the excitation spectrum in the form of quadrupolar transitions. Such multipolar excitations are desirable as they can be manipulated with the use of light or electric field and can be captured by means of conventional experimental techniques. Here we study single crystals of multiferroic Sr2CoGe2O7 and observe a two-magnon spin excitation appearing above the saturation magnetic field in electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra. Our analysis of the selection rules reveals that this spin excitation mode does not couple to the magnetic component of the light, but it is excited by the electric field only, in full agreement with the theoretical calculations. Due to the nearly isotropic nature of Sr2CoGe2O7 , we identify this excitation as a purely spin-quadrupolar two-magnon mode.

  1. First observation of high spin states and isomeric decay in 210Fr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanjilal, D.; Saha, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Raut, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Mukherjee, G.; Mukherjee, B.

    2011-01-01

    The first observation of the prompt and the delayed γ transitions involving the high spin states in 210 Fr is reported. The decay of the high spin states and the isomeric levels of 210 Fr, identified for the first time from the known sequence of low-lying transitions found earlier in the α decay of 214 Ac, were studied. High spin states of the doubly-odd 210 Fr, which were produced by the fusion evaporation reaction 197 Au ( 16 O, xn) 213-x Fr, were populated and the subsequent emitted γ rays were detected through the high-sensitivity germanium clover detector array INGA. The level scheme up to yrast levels of 5.3 MeV excitation energy and ∼20(ℎ/2π) angular momentum could be established for the first time through γγ, γγΔT coincidence, and DCO ratio measurements. A new low-lying isomeric transition at E γ = 203(2) keV was observed. The half-life was measured to be T 1/2 = 41(2) ns. The measured half-life was compared with the corresponding single-particle estimate, based on the level scheme obtained from the experiment.

  2. Time-nonlocal kinetic equations, jerk and hyperjerk in plasmas and solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2018-06-01

    The simulation and analysis of nonlocal effects in fluids and plasmas is an inherently complicated problem due to the massive breadth of physics required to describe the nonlocal dynamics. This is a multi-physics problem that draws upon various miscellaneous fields, such as electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. In this paper we strive to focus on one narrow but motivating mathematical way: the derivation of nonlocal plasma-fluid equations from a generalized nonlocal Liouville derivative operator motivated from Suykens's nonlocal arguments. The paper aims to provide a guideline toward modeling nonlocal effects occurring in plasma-fluid systems by means of a generalized nonlocal Boltzmann equation. The generalized nonlocal equations of fluid dynamics are derived and their implications in plasma-fluid systems are addressed, discussed and analyzed. Three main topics were discussed: Landau damping in plasma electrodynamics, ideal MHD and solar wind. A number of features were revealed, analyzed and confronted with recent research results and observations.

  3. Observation of spin-polarized electron transport in Alq3 by using a low work function metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyuk-Jae; Pernstich, Kurt P.; Gundlach, David J.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Richter, Curt. A.

    2012-09-01

    We present the observation of magnetoresistance in Co/Ca/Alq3/Ca/NiFe spin-valve devices. Thin Ca layers contacting 150 nm thick Alq3 enable the injection of spin-polarized electrons into Alq3 due to the engineering of the band alignment. The devices exhibit symmetric current-voltage (I-V) characteristics indicating identical metal contacts on Alq3, and up to 4% of positive magnetoresistance was observed at 4.5 K. In contrast, simultaneously fabricated Co/Alq3/NiFe devices displayed asymmetric I-V curves due to the different metal electrodes, and spin-valve effects were not observed.

  4. Electron spin and nuclear spin manipulation in semiconductor nanosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Yoshiro; Yusa, Go; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Manipulations of electron spin and nuclear spin have been studied in AlGaAs/GaAs semiconductor nanosystems. Non-local manipulation of electron spins has been realized by using the correlation effect between localized and mobile electron spins in a quantum dot- quantum wire coupled system. Interaction between electron and nuclear spins was exploited to achieve a coherent control of nuclear spins in a semiconductor point contact device. Using this device, we have demonstrated a fully coherent manipulation of any two states among the four spin levels of Ga and As nuclei. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Nonlocal Quantum Effects in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii V. Dumin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since it is commonly believed that the observed large-scale structure of the universe is an imprint of quantum fluctuations existing at the very early stage of its evolution, it is reasonable to pose the question: do the effects of quantum nonlocality, which are well established now by the laboratory studies, manifest themselves also in the early universe? We try to answer this question by utilizing the results of a few experiments, namely, with the superconducting multi-Josephson-junction loops and the ultracold gases in periodic potentials. Employing a close analogy between the above-mentioned setups and the simplest one-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model, we show that the specific nonlocal correlations revealed in the laboratory studies might be of considerable importance also in treating the strongly nonequilibrium phase transitions of Higgs fields in the early universe. Particularly, they should substantially reduce the number of topological defects (e.g., domain walls expected due to independent establishment of the new phases in the remote spatial regions. This gives us a hint on resolving a long-standing problem of the excessive concentration of topological defects, inconsistent with observational constraints. The same effect may be also relevant to the recent problem of the anomalous behavior of cosmic microwave background fluctuations at large angular scales.

  6. Transverse spin observables in hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivers, D.

    1991-01-01

    Transverse, single-spin asymmetries offer a chance to test QCD at the level of ''twist-3'' observables. Early suggestions that such asymmetries necessarily vanish as m q → 0 or involve an extra power of α s can be refuted with a simple example. Recent experimental results support the interpretation of these data in hard-scattering QCD. The asymmetry in the scattering on nuclear targets can provide new, nontrivial information the space-time structure of the interaction. 10 refs., 6 figs

  7. Nonlocal quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    The basic ideas for creating the theory of nonlocal interactions of a scalar one-component field are presented. Lagrangian describing a non-interacting field is the ordinary one so that non-interacting particles are described by standard methods of the Fock space. Form factors introduced have been chosen from a class of analytic functionals and quantized. Conditions of microcausality have been considered in detail. The convergence of all integrals corresponding to the arbitrary Feynman diagrams in spinor electrodynamics is guaranteed in the frame of the rules formulated. It is noted in conclusion that the spinor electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction contains no ultraviolet divergencies and satisfies all the requirements of the quantum field theory; in this sense it is mathematically more consistent than its local version

  8. Nonlocal transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo; Alù, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2012-02-10

    We show that the powerful framework of transformation optics may be exploited for engineering the nonlocal response of artificial electromagnetic materials. Relying on the form-invariant properties of coordinate-transformed Maxwell's equations in the spectral domain, we derive the general constitutive "blueprints" of transformation media yielding prescribed nonlocal field-manipulation effects and provide a physically incisive and powerful geometrical interpretation in terms of deformation of the equifrequency contours. In order to illustrate the potentials of our approach, we present an example of application to a wave-splitting refraction scenario, which may be implemented via a simple class of artificial materials. Our results provide a systematic and versatile framework which may open intriguing venues in dispersion engineering of artificial materials.

  9. Nonlocal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partovi, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    From a generalization of the covariant derivative, nonlocal gauge theories are developed. These theories enjoy local gauge invariance and associated Ward identities, a corresponding locally conserved current, and a locally conserved energy-momentum tensor, with the Ward identities implying the masslessness of the gauge field as in local theories. Their ultraviolet behavior allows the presence as well as the absence of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, the latter in analogy with lattice theories

  10. Nonlocal thermoelectric effects and nonlocal Onsager relations in a three-terminal proximity-coupled superconductor-ferromagnet device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [SEPnet and Hubbard Theory Consortium, Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    We study thermal and charge transport in a three-terminal setup consisting of a superconducting and two ferromagnetic contacts. We predict that the simultaneous presence of spin-filtering and of spin-dependent scattering phase shifts at each of the two interfaces will lead to very large nonlocal thermoelectric effects both in clean and in disordered systems. The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. Our results show that a nonlocal version of the Onsager relations for thermoelectric currents holds in a three terminal quantum coherent ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and coherent electron transfer processes.

  11. Observation of overlapping spin-1 and spin-3 D0K- resonances at mass 2.86 GeV/c2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, Rf; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Geraci, A; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-10-17

    The resonant substructure of B(s)(0) → D(0)K(-)π(+) decays is studied using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) of pp collision data recorded by the LHCb detector. An excess at m(D(0)K(-))≈ 2.86 GeV/c(2) is found to be an admixture of spin-1 and spin-3 resonances. Therefore, the D(sJ)*(2860)(-) state previously observed in inclusive e(+)e(-) → D(0)K(-)X and pp → D(0)K(-)X processes consists of at least two particles. This is the first observation of a heavy flavored spin-3 resonance, and the first time that any spin-3 particle has been seen to be produced in B decays. The masses and widths of the new states and of the D(s2)*(2573)(-) meson are measured, giving the most precise determinations to date.

  12. Results from EDDA at COSY: Spin Observables in Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohdjess, Heiko

    2003-01-01

    Elastic proton-proton scattering as one of the fundamental hadronic reactions has been studied with the internal target experiment EDDA at the Cooler-Synchrotron COSY/Juelich. A precise measurement of differential cross section, analyzing power and three spin-correlation parameters over a large angular (θc.m. ≅ 35 deg. - 90 deg.) and energy (Tp ≅ 0.5 - 2.5 GeV) range has been carried out in the past years. By taking scattering data during the acceleration of the COSY beam, excitation functions were measured in small energy steps and consistent normalization with respect to luminosity and polarization. The experiment uses internal fiber targets and a polarized hydrogen atomic-beam target in conjunction with a double-layered, cylindrical scintillator hodoscope for particle detection. The results on differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been published and helped to improve phase shift solutions. Recently data taking with polarized beam and target has been completed. Preliminary results for the spin-correlation parameters A NN, ASS, and ASL are presented. The observable ASS has been measured the first time above 800 MeV and our results are in sharp contrast to phase-shift predictions at higher energies. Our analysis shows that some of the ambiguities in the direct reconstruction of scattering amplitudes which also show up as differences between available phase-shift solutions, will be reduced by these new measurements

  13. Mermin Non-Locality in Abstract Process Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gogioso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of non-locality is fundamental to the understanding of quantum mechanics. The past 50 years have seen a number of non-locality proofs, but its fundamental building blocks, and the exact role it plays in quantum protocols, has remained elusive. In this paper, we focus on a particular flavour of non-locality, generalising Mermin's argument on the GHZ state. Using strongly complementary observables, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for Mermin non-locality in abstract process theories. We show that the existence of more phases than classical points (aka eigenstates is not sufficient, and that the key to Mermin non-locality lies in the presence of certain algebraically non-trivial phases. This allows us to show that fRel, a favourite toy model for categorical quantum mechanics, is Mermin local. We show Mermin non-locality to be the key resource ensuring the device-independent security of the HBB CQ (N,N family of Quantum Secret Sharing protocols. Finally, we challenge the unspoken assumption that the measurements involved in Mermin-type scenarios should be complementary (like the pair X,Y, opening the doors to a much wider class of potential experimental setups than currently employed. In short, we give conditions for Mermin non-locality tests on any number of systems, where each party has an arbitrary number of measurement choices, where each measurement has an arbitrary number of outcomes and further, that works in any abstract process theory.

  14. Entanglement without nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt-Horsman, C.; Vedral, V.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the characterization of entanglement from the perspective of a Heisenberg formalism. We derive a two-party generalized separability criterion, and from this describe a physical understanding of entanglement. We find that entanglement may be considered as fundamentally a local effect, and therefore as a separate computational resource from nonlocality. We show how entanglement differs from correlation physically, and explore the implications of this concept of entanglement for the notion of classicality. We find that this understanding of entanglement extends naturally to multipartite cases

  15. Local spin structure of the α -RuCl3 honeycomb-lattice magnet observed via muon spin rotation/relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Ichihiro; Hiraishi, Masatoshi; Okabe, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Soshi; Koda, Akihiro; Kojima, Kenji M.; Kadono, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2018-04-01

    We report a muon spin rotation/relaxation (μ SR ) study of single-crystalline samples of the α -RuCl3 honeycomb magnet, which is presumed to be a model compound for the Kitaev-Heisenberg interaction. It is inferred from magnetic susceptibility and specific-heat measurements that the present samples exhibit successive magnetic transitions at different critical temperatures TN with decreasing temperature, eventually falling into the TN=7 K antiferromagnetic (7 K) phase that has been observed in only single-crystalline specimens with the least stacking fault. Via μ SR measurements conducted under a zero external field, we show that such behavior originates from a phase separation induced by the honeycomb plane stacking fault, yielding multiple domains with different TN's. We also perform μ SR measurements under a transverse field in the paramagnetic phase to identify the muon site from the muon-Ru hyperfine parameters. Based on a comparison of the experimental and calculated internal fields at the muon site for the two possible spin structures inferred from neutron diffraction data, we suggest a modulated zigzag spin structure for the 7 K phase, with the amplitude of the ordered magnetic moment being significantly reduced from that expected for the orbital quenched spin-1/2 state.

  16. Nonlocal gravity. Conceptual aspects and cosmological predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Enis; Dirian, Yves; Foffa, Stefano; Maggiore, Michele

    2018-03-01

    Even if the fundamental action of gravity is local, the corresponding quantum effective action, that includes the effect of quantum fluctuations, is a nonlocal object. These nonlocalities are well understood in the ultraviolet regime but much less in the infrared, where they could in principle give rise to important cosmological effects. Here we systematize and extend previous work of our group, in which it is assumed that a mass scale Λ is dynamically generated in the infrared, giving rise to nonlocal terms in the quantum effective action of gravity. We give a detailed discussion of conceptual aspects related to nonlocal gravity (including causality, degrees of freedom, ambiguities related to the boundary conditions of the nonlocal operator, scenarios for the emergence of a dynamical scale in the infrared) and of the cosmological consequences of these models. The requirement of providing a viable cosmological evolution severely restricts the form of the nonlocal terms, and selects a model (the so-called RR model) that corresponds to a dynamical mass generation for the conformal mode. For such a model: (1) there is a FRW background evolution, where the nonlocal term acts as an effective dark energy with a phantom equation of state, providing accelerated expansion without a cosmological constant. (2) Cosmological perturbations are well behaved. (3) Implementing the model in a Boltzmann code and comparing with observations we find that the RR model fits the CMB, BAO, SNe, structure formation data and local H0 measurements at a level statistically equivalent to ΛCDM. (4) Bayesian parameter estimation shows that the value of H0 obtained in the RR model is higher than in ΛCDM, reducing to 2.0σ the tension with the value from local measurements. (5) The RR model provides a prediction for the sum of neutrino masses that falls within the limits set by oscillation and terrestrial experiments (in contrast to ΛCDM, where letting the sum of neutrino masses vary as a free

  17. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove

  18. Spin Transfer Torque in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Chen, Zhihong

    2014-03-01

    Graphene is an idea channel material for spin transport due to its long spin diffusion length. To develop graphene based spin logic, it is important to demonstrate spin transfer torque in graphene. Here, we report the experimental measurement of spin transfer torque in graphene nonlocal spin valve devices. Assisted by a small external in-plane magnetic field, the magnetization reversal of the receiving magnet is induced by pure spin diffusion currents from the injector magnet. The magnetization switching is reversible between parallel and antiparallel configurations by controlling the polarity of the applied charged currents. Current induced heating and Oersted field from the nonlocal charge flow have also been excluded in this study. Next, we further enhance the spin angular momentum absorption at the interface of the receiving magnet and graphene channel by removing the tunneling barrier in the receiving magnet. The device with a tunneling barrier only at the injector magnet shows a comparable nonlocal spin valve signal but lower electrical noise. Moreover, in the same preset condition, the critical charge current density for spin torque in the single tunneling barrier device shows a substantial reduction if compared to the double tunneling barrier device.

  19. Search for new physics in rare top decays: t t ¯ spin correlations and other observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiers, Ken; Saha, Pratishruti; Szynkman, Alejandro; London, David; Judge, Samuel; Melendez, Jordan

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we study new-physics contributions to the top-quark decay t →b b ¯c . We search for ways of detecting such new physics via measurements at the LHC. As top quarks are mainly produced at the LHC in t t ¯ production via gluon fusion, we analyze the process g g →t t ¯→(b b ¯c ) (b ¯ℓν ¯) . We find six observables that can be used to reveal the presence of new physics in t →b b ¯c . Three are invariant mass-squared distributions involving two of the final-state particles in the top decay, and three are angular correlations between the final-state quarks coming from the t decay and the ℓ- coming from the t ¯ decay. The angular correlations are related to the t t ¯ spin correlation.

  20. Evidence of Non-local Chemical, Thermal and Gravitational Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu H.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entanglement is ubiquitous in the microscopic world and manifests itself macroscopically under some circumstances. But common belief is that it alone cannot be used to transmit information nor could it be used to produce macroscopic non- local effects. Yet we have recently found evidence of non-local effects of chemical substances on the brain produced through it. While our reported results are under independent verifications by other groups, we report here our experimental findings of non-local chemical, thermal and gravitational effects in simple physical systems such as reservoirs of water quantum-entangled with water being manipulated in a remote reservoir. With the aids of high-precision instruments, we have found that the pH value, temperature and gravity of water in the detecting reservoirs can be non-locally affected through manipulating water in the remote reservoir. In particular, the pH value changes in the same direction as that being manipulated; the temperature can change against that of local environment; and the gravity apparently can also change against local gravity. These non-local effects are all reproducible and can be used for non-local signalling and many other purposes. We suggest that they are mediated by quantum entanglement between nuclear and/or electron spins in treated water and discuss the implications of these results.

  1. Nonlocal non-Markovian effects in dephasing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Dong; Wang An-Min

    2014-01-01

    We study the nonlocal non-Markovian effects through local interactions between two subsystems and the corresponding two environments. It has been found that the initial correlations between two environments can turn a Markovian to a non-Markovian regime with extra control on the local interaction time. We further research the nonlocal non-Markovian effects from two situations: without extra control, the nonlocal non-Markovian effects only appear under the condition that two local dynamics are non-Markovian–non-Markovian (both of the two local dynamics are non-Markovian) or Markovian–non-Markovian, but not under the condition of Markovian–Markovian; with extra control, the nonlocal non-Markovian effects can occur under the condition of Markovian–Markovian. It shows that the function of correlations between two environments has an upper bound, which makes a flow of information from the environment back to the global system beginning finitely earlier than that back to one of the two local systems, not infinitely. Then, we proposed two special ways to distribute classical correlations between two environments without initial correlations. Finally, from numerical solutions in the spin star configuration, we found that the self-correlation (internal correlation) of each environment promotes the nonlocal non-Markovian effects. (general)

  2. Period-doubling bifurcation cascade observed in a ferromagnetic nanoparticle under the action of a spin-polarized current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horley, Paul P., E-mail: paul.horley@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Kushnir, Mykola Ya. [Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynsky str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Morales-Meza, Mishel [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Sukhov, Alexander [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Rusyn, Volodymyr [Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynsky str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine)

    2016-04-01

    We report on complex magnetization dynamics in a forced spin valve oscillator subjected to a varying magnetic field and a constant spin-polarized current. The transition from periodic to chaotic magnetic motion was illustrated with bifurcation diagrams and Hausdorff dimension – the methods developed for dissipative self-organizing systems. It was shown that bifurcation cascades can be obtained either by tuning the injected spin-polarized current or by changing the magnitude of applied magnetic field. The order–chaos transition in magnetization dynamics can be also directly observed from the hysteresis curves. The resulting complex oscillations are useful for development of spin-valve devices operating in harmonic and chaotic modes.

  3. Exploring the top-Higgs FCNC couplings at polarized linear colliders with top spin observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melić, Blaženka; Patra, Monalisa [Institut Ruđer Bošković, Theoretical Physics Division,Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2017-01-11

    We study the nature of flavor changing neutral couplings of the top quark with the Higgs boson and the up/charm quark in the tt̄ production at linear colliders. There are previous bounds on such tqH couplings at both, linear and hadronic colliders, with the assumption that the top couples equally to the left and the right handed fermions. In this paper we examine chirality of the tqH coupling and construct different observables which will be sensitive to it. The kinematics of the emitted q from t→qH in tt̄ production is discussed and it was found that the polar angle distribution of q is sensitive to the chiral nature of tqH couplings. The observables in the context of top-antitop spin correlations, which are sensitive to new physics in the top decay are considered using different spin-quantization bases. It was found that in particular the off-diagonal basis can be useful to distinguish among the chiral tqH couplings. The sensitivity of the unpolarized ILC in probing the couplings at the 3σ level at √s = 500 GeV and L = 500 fb{sup −1} is also studied, resulting in predicted BR(t→qH)<1.19×10{sup −3}. This limit is further improved to BR(t→qH)<8.84×10{sup −4} with the inclusion of initial beam polarization of left handed electrons and right handed positrons.

  4. Observability of the probability current density using spin rotator as a quantum clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Home, D.; Alok Kumar Pan; Md Manirul Ali

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An experimentally realizable scheme is formulated which can test any quantum mechanical approach for calculating the arrival time distribution. This is specifically illustrated by using the modulus of the probability current density for calculating the arrival time distribution of spin-1/2 neutral particles at the exit point of a spin rotator (SR) which contains a constant magnetic field. Such a calculated time distribution is then used for evaluating the distribution of spin orientations along different directions for these particles emerging from the SR. Based on this, the result of spin measurement along any arbitrary direction for such an ensemble is predicted. (author)

  5. Evidence and concepts for nonlocal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.; Kissick, M.W.

    1997-08-01

    Up until a few years ago, most transient transport studies observed primarily diffusive plasma transport responses to fast, localized perturbations. Recently, a number of experiments have, in addition, observed nonlocal electron heat responses. Most remarkably, in cold pulse experiments the abrupt edge cooling via radiative processes can induce both a diffusive cooling response moving in from the edge, and simultaneously a rising electron temperature in the central core of tokamak plasmas--an opposite response even before the diffusive cooling from the edge reaches the center. These and other nonlocal electron heat transport conundrums from recent experiments are reviewed. Also, models and physical processes being advanced to explain these puzzling phenomena are discussed. The importance of resolving this transport enigma is emphasized

  6. Nonlocal structures: bilocal photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    It is postulated that all particles and fields are built from a single primitive field, a massless fermion with a σ spin of one-half. Two helicities are embodied in a tau spin of one-half. The vacuum is an open Fermi sea whose height is a wave number kappa. Elementary particles are structures having the form of standing-wave systems floating on the vacuum sea. A bilocal photon starts with a function describing two primitive quanta with parallel σ spin and opposite tau spin. A centroid-time wave equation then couples-in and infinite set of orthogonal functions. The introduction of an operator Qlambda permits the reduction of the infinite secular determinant to finite six-by-six determinant. Solutions are obtained describing photons with right-handed and left-handed polarizations. Electric and magnetic field vectors satisfying the vacuum Maxwell equations, are obtained from a bilocal Hertz vector. (author)

  7. Hartman effect and nonlocality in quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandopadhyay, Swarnali; Jayannavar, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the phase time for various quantum mechanical networks having potential barriers in their arms to find the generic presence of Hartman effect. In such systems it is possible to control the 'super arrival' time in one of the arms by changing parameters on another, spatially separated from it. This is yet another quantum nonlocal effect. Negative time delays (time advancement) and 'ultra Hartman effect' with negative saturation times have been observed in some parameter regimes

  8. Nonlocality versus complementarity: a conservative approach to the information problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B

    2011-01-01

    A proposal for resolution of the information paradox is that 'nice slice' states, which have been viewed as providing a sharp argument for information loss, do not in fact do so as they do not give a fully accurate description of the quantum state of a black hole. This however leaves an information problem, which is to provide a consistent description of how information escapes when a black hole evaporates. While a rather extreme form of nonlocality has been advocated in the form of complementarity, this paper argues that is not necessary, and more modest nonlocality could solve the information problem. One possible distinguishing characteristic of scenarios is the information retention time. The question of whether such nonlocality implies acausality, and particularly inconsistency, is briefly addressed. The need for such nonlocality, and its apparent tension with our empirical observations of local quantum field theory, may be a critical missing piece in understanding the principles of quantum gravity.

  9. Extent of multiparticle quantum nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Nick S.; Linden, Noah; Massar, Serge

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that entangled quantum states are nonlocal: the corrrelations between local measurements carried out on these states cannot be reproduced by local hidden variable models. Svetlichny, followed by others, showed that multipartite quantum states are more nonlocal than bipartite ones in the sense that even some nonlocal classical models with (super-luminal) communication between some of the parties cannot reproduce the quantum correlations. Here we study in detail the kinds of nonlocality present in quantum states. More precisely, we enquire what kinds of classical communication patterns cannot reproduce quantum correlations. By studying the extremal points of the space of all multiparty probability distributions, in which all parties can make one of a pair of measurements each with two possible outcomes, we find a necessary condition for classical nonlocal models to reproduce the statistics of all quantum states. This condition extends and generalizes work of Svetlichny and others in which it was showed that a particular class of classical nonlocal models, the 'separable' models, cannot reproduce the statistics of all multiparticle quantum states. Our condition shows that the nonlocality present in some entangled multiparticle quantum states is much stronger than previously thought. We also study the sufficiency of our condition

  10. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    OpenAIRE

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguo...

  11. Exchange magnetic field torques in YIG/Pt bilayers observed by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlietstra, N.; Shan, J.; Castel, V.; Ben Youssef, J.; Bauer, G. E. W.; van Wees, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    The effective field torque of an yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) film on the spin accumulation in an attached platinum (Pt) film is measured by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). As a result, the magnetization direction of a ferromagnetic insulating layer can be measured electrically. Experimental

  12. Measurement of spin-transfer observables in pp to $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ at 1.637 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bassalleck, B; Bradtke, C; Bröders, R; Bunker, B; Dennert, H; Dutz, H; Eilerts, S W; Eyrich, W; Fields, D; Fischer, H; Franklin, G; Franz, J; Gehring, R; Geyer, R; Görtz, S; Harmsen, J; Hauffe, J; Heinsius, F H; Hertzog, D W; Johansson, T; Jones, T; Khaustov, P; Kilian, K; Kingsberry, P; Kriegler, E; Lowe, J; Meier, A; Metzger, A E; Meyer, C A; Meyer, Werner T; Moosburger, M; Oelert, W; Paschke, K D; Plückthun, M; Pomp, S; Quinn, B; Radtke, E; Reicherz, G; Röhrich, K; Sachs, K; Schmitt, H; Schoch, B; Sefzick, T; Stinzing, F; Stotzer, R W; Tayloe, R; Wirth, S

    2002-01-01

    Spin-transfer observables for pp to Lambda Lambda have been measured using a transversely polarized frozen-spin target and a beam momentum of 1.637 GeV/c. Current models of the reaction near threshold are in good agreement with existing measurements performed with unpolarized particles in the initial state but produce conflicting predictions for the spin-transfer observables D/sub nn/ and K/sub nn/ (the normal-to-normal depolarization and polarization transfer), which are measurable only with polarized target or beam. Measurements of D/sub nn/ and K/sub nn/ presented here are found to be in disagreement with predictions from these models. (21 refs).

  13. Quasiclassical Theory of Spin Imbalance in a Normal Metal-Superconductor Heterostructure with a Spin-Active Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsov, O; Löfwander, T

    2014-01-01

    Non-equilibrium phenomena in superconductors have attracted much attention since the first experiments on charge imbalance in the early 1970's. Nowadays a new promising line of research lies at an intersection between superconductivity and spintronics. Here we develop a quasiclassical theory of a single junction between a normal metal and a superconductor with a spin-active interface at finite bias voltages. Due to spin-mixing and spin-filtering effects of the interface a non-equilibrium magnetization (or spin imbalance) is induced at the superconducting side of the junction, which relaxes to zero in the bulk. A peculiar feature of the system is the presence of interface-induced Andreev bound states, which influence the magnitude and the decay length of spin imbalance. Recent experiments on spin and charge density separation in superconducting wires required external magnetic field for observing a spin signal via non-local measurements. Here, we propose an alternative way to observe spin imbalance without applying magnetic field

  14. Measurement of Spin Observables in Inclusive Lambda and Neutral Kaon (short) Production with a 200 GEV Polarized Proton Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravar, Alessandro

    The considerable polarization of hyperons produced at high x_ F has been known for a long time and has been interpreted in various theoretical models in terms of the constituents' spin. The spin dependence in inclusive Lambda and K _sp{s}{circ} production has been studied for the first time at high energy using the Fermilab 200 GeV/c polarized proton beam and a large forward spectrometer. The spin observables analyzing power A_ N, polarization P_0 and depolarization D _{NN} in inclusive Lambda production has been measured in the kinematic range of rm 0.2current picture of spin effects in hadronic interactions is much more complex than naively thought. The data on the spin dependence of the Lambda inclusive production indicate a substantial negative asymmetry A_ N at large x _ F and moderate p_ T, the polarization results P_0 are in fair agreement with previous measurements, and the double spin parameter D_ {NN} increases with x_ F and p_ T to relatively large positive values. The trend of the Lambda A_ N, which shows a kinematical behavior similar to P_0 with same sign but smaller in magnitude, might be suggestive of a common interpretation. These results, however, are difficult to accommodate within the present quark fragmentation models for hyperon polarization, based on SU(6) wave functions where the produced strange quark carries all the spin information of the Lambda, unless spectator di-quarks in the recombination process play a more significant role than generally expected. These results can further test the current ideas on the underlying mechanisms for the hyperon polarization and meson production asymmetry.

  15. Direct observation of spin-resolved full and empty electron states in ferromagnetic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, G., E-mail: giulia.berti@polimi.it; Calloni, A.; Brambilla, A.; Bussetti, G.; Duò, L.; Ciccacci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    We present a versatile apparatus for the study of ferromagnetic surfaces, which combines spin-polarized photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopies. Samples can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy and analyzed in situ. Spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy analysis is done with a hemispherical electron analyzer coupled to a 25 kV-Mott detector. Inverse photoemission spectroscopy experiments are performed with GaAs crystals as spin-polarized electron sources and a UV bandpass photon detector. As an example, measurements on the oxygen passivated Fe(100)-p(1×1)O surface are presented.

  16. Nonlocal heat transfer in nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanavin, A.P.; Uryupin, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Kinetics of electrons in a degenerate conductor heated up by absorption of a high-frequency field localized in a region of about hundred nanometers has been studied. A new law for nonlocal electron thermal flux has been predicted

  17. Observation of high-spin states in the N=84 nucleus 152Er and comparison with shell-model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnert, A.; Alber, D.; Grawe, H.; Kluge, H.; Maier, K.H.; Reviol, W.; Sun, X.; Beck, E.M.; Byrne, A.P.; Huebel, H.; Bacelar, J.C.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.

    1992-01-01

    High-spin states in 152 Er have been populated through the 116 Sn( 40 Ar,4n) 152 Er reaction. Prompt and delayed γ-γ-γ-t and γ-e-t coincidences have been measured. Levels and transitions are assigned up to an excitation energy of 15 MeV and spin and parities up to 28 + at 9.7 MeV. A new isomer [t 1/2 =11(1) ns] has been observed at 13.4 MeV. The results are discussed in comparison with neighboring nuclei and with shell-model calculations

  18. Calculation of spin-dependent observables in electron-sodium scattering using the coupled-channel optical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, Igor.

    1992-04-01

    The calculations of the 3 2 S and 3 2 P spin asymmetries and the angular momentum for singlet and triplet scattering for projectile energies of 10 and 20 eV is presented. Together these observables give a most stringent test of any electron-atom scattering theory. An excellent agreement was found between the results of the coupled-channel optical method and experiment, which for the spin asymmetries can only be obtained by a good description of the couplings between the lower-lying target states and the target continuum. 10 refs., 2 figs

  19. Spin-echo observation of radio frequency induced flux lattice annealing (RIFLA) in a type-II superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.G.; Hanson, M.E.; Wong, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    We report the annealing of a strained flux line lattice (FLL) in 10 μm diameter type-II superconducting NbTi filaments by an RF magnetic field at 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 1 T. The strained FLL is prepared by slowly changing the direction of the applied magnetic field. When the RF magnetic field used to generate a 93 Nb NMR spin echo anneals the FLL, there is a corresponding reduction in the amplitude of the spin echo. Starting from an annealed condition, a rotation threshold of 3 mr is needed to produce enough FLL strain to be observed in these measurements. (orig.)

  20. A Systems-Theoretical Generalization of Non-Local Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stillfried, Nikolaus

    Non-local correlations between quantum events are not due to a causal interaction in the sense of one being the cause for the other. In principle, the correlated events can thus occur simultaneously. Generalized Quantum Theory (GQT) formalizes the idea that non-local phenomena are not exclusive to quantum mechanics, e.g. due to some specific properties of (sub)atomic particles, but that they instead arise as a consequence of the way such particles are arranged into systems. Non-local phenomena should hence occur in any system which fulfils the necessary systems-theoretical parameters. The two most important parameters with respect to non-local correlations seem to be a conserved global property of the system as a whole and sufficient degrees of freedom of the corresponding property of its subsystems. Both factors place severe limitations on experimental observability of the phenomena, especially in terms of replicability. It has been suggested that reported phenomena of a so-called synchronistic, parapsychological or paranormal kind could be understood as instances of systems-inherent non-local correlations. From a systems-theoretical perspective, their phenomenology (including the favorable conditions for their occurrence and their lack of replicability) displays substantial similarities to non-local correlations in quantum systems and matches well with systems-theoretical parameters, thus providing circumstantial evidence for this hypothesis.

  1. Nonlocal gravity simulates dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    A nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation is constructed within the framework of the translational gauge theory of gravity. In the linear approximation, the nonlocal theory can be interpreted as linearized general relativity but in the presence of "dark matter" that can be simply expressed as an integral transform of matter. It is shown that this approach can accommodate the Tohline-Kuhn treatment of the astrophysical evidence for dark matter.

  2. New low-spin states of 122Xe observed via high-statistics β-decay of 122Cs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jigmeddorj, B.; Garrett, P. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bruhn, T.; Cross, D. S.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hadinia, B.; Moukaddam, M.; Park, J.; Pore, J. L.; Radich, A. J.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E. T.; Rizwan, U.; Svensson, C. E.; Voss, P.; Wang, Z. M.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.

    2018-05-01

    Excited states of 122Xe were studied via the β+/EC decay of 122Cs with the 8π γ-ray spectrometer at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors were used for measurements of γ-ray intensities, γγ coincidences, and γ-γ angular correlations. Two sets of data were collected to optimize the decays of the ground (21.2 s) and isomeric (3.7 min) states of 122Cs. The data collected have enabled the observation of about 505 new transitions and about 250 new levels, including 51 new low-spin states. Spin assignments have been made for 58 low-spin states based on the deduced β-decay feeding and γ-γ angular correlation analyses.

  3. Non-local Effects of Conformal Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that the nonlocal anomalous effective actions corresponding to the quantum breaking of the conformal symmetry can lead to observable modifications of Einstein's equations. The fact that Einstein's general relativity is in perfect agreement with all observations including cosmological or recently observed gravitational waves imposes strong restrictions on the field content of possible extensions of Einstein's theory: all viable theories should have vanishing conformal anomalies. It is shown that a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in D=4 for both the C^2 invariant and the Euler (Gauss-Bonnet) invariant can only be achieved for N-extended supergravity multiplets with N ≥ 5.

  4. Nonlocal Gravity and Structure in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Park, Sohyun [Penn State U., University Park, IGC

    2014-08-26

    The observed acceleration of the Universe can be explained by modifying general relativity. One such attempt is the nonlocal model of Deser and Woodard. Here we fix the background cosmology using results from the Planck satellite and examine the predictions of nonlocal gravity for the evolution of structure in the universe, confronting the model with three tests: gravitational lensing, redshift space distortions, and the estimator of gravity $E_G$. Current data favor general relativity (GR) over nonlocal gravity: fixing primordial cosmology with the best fit parameters from Planck leads to weak lensing results favoring GR by 5.9 sigma; redshift space distortions measurements of the growth rate preferring GR by 7.8 sigma; and the single measurement of $E_G$ favoring GR, but by less than 1-sigma. The significance holds up even after the parameters are allowed to vary within Planck limits. The larger lesson is that a successful modified gravity model will likely have to suppress the growth of structure compared to general relativity.

  5. EPR paradox, quantum nonlocality and physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupczynski, M

    2016-01-01

    Eighty years ago Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen demonstrated that instantaneous reduction of wave function, believed to describe completely a pair of entangled physical systems, led to EPR paradox. The paradox disappears in statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) according to which a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. QM predicts strong correlations between outcomes of measurements performed on different members of EPR pairs in far-away locations. Searching for an intuitive explanation of these correlations John Bell analysed so called local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of QM and by experimental data. Several different local models were constructed and inequalities proven. Some eminent physicists concluded that Nature is definitely nonlocal and that it is acting according to a law of nonlocal randomness. According to these law perfectly random, but strongly correlated events, can be produced at the same time in far away locations and a local and causal explanation of their occurrence cannot be given. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we prove the contrary by analysing in detail some influential finite sample proofs of Bell and CHSH inequalities and so called Quantum Randi Challenges. We also show how one can win so called Bell's game without violating locality of Nature. Nonlocal randomness is inconsistent with local quantum field theory, with standard model in elementary particle physics and with causal laws and adaptive dynamics prevailing in the surrounding us world. The experimental violation of Bell-type inequalities does not prove the nonlocality of Nature but it only confirms a contextual character of quantum observables and gives a strong argument against counterfactual definiteness and against a point of view according to which experimental outcomes are

  6. EPR paradox, quantum nonlocality and physical reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczynski, M.

    2016-03-01

    Eighty years ago Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen demonstrated that instantaneous reduction of wave function, believed to describe completely a pair of entangled physical systems, led to EPR paradox. The paradox disappears in statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) according to which a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. QM predicts strong correlations between outcomes of measurements performed on different members of EPR pairs in far-away locations. Searching for an intuitive explanation of these correlations John Bell analysed so called local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of QM and by experimental data. Several different local models were constructed and inequalities proven. Some eminent physicists concluded that Nature is definitely nonlocal and that it is acting according to a law of nonlocal randomness. According to these law perfectly random, but strongly correlated events, can be produced at the same time in far away locations and a local and causal explanation of their occurrence cannot be given. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we prove the contrary by analysing in detail some influential finite sample proofs of Bell and CHSH inequalities and so called Quantum Randi Challenges. We also show how one can win so called Bell's game without violating locality of Nature. Nonlocal randomness is inconsistent with local quantum field theory, with standard model in elementary particle physics and with causal laws and adaptive dynamics prevailing in the surrounding us world. The experimental violation of Bell-type inequalities does not prove the nonlocality of Nature but it only confirms a contextual character of quantum observables and gives a strong argument against counterfactual definiteness and against a point of view according to which experimental outcomes are produced

  7. Spin-independent transparency of pure spin current at normal/ferromagnetic metal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Runrun; Zhong, Hai; Kang, Yun; Tian, Yufei; Yan, Shishen; Liu, Guolei; Han, Guangbing; Yu, Shuyun; Mei, Liangmo; Kang, Shishou

    2018-03-01

    The spin transparency at the normal/ferromagnetic metal (NM/FM) interface was studied in Pt/YIG/Cu/FM multilayers. The spin current generated by the spin Hall effect (SHE) in Pt flows into Cu/FM due to magnetic insulator YIG blocking charge current and transmitting spin current via the magnon current. Therefore, the nonlocal voltage induced by an inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in FM can be detected. With the magnetization of FM parallel or antiparallel to the spin polarization of pure spin currents ({{\\boldsymbol{σ }}}sc}), the spin-independent nonlocal voltage is induced. This indicates that the spin transparency at the Cu/FM interface is spin-independent, which demonstrates that the influence of spin-dependent electrochemical potential due to spin accumulation on the interfacial spin transparency is negligible. Furthermore, a larger spin Hall angle of Fe20Ni80 (Py) than that of Ni is obtained from the nonlocal voltage measurements. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921502), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474184 and 11627805), the 111 Project, China (Grant No. B13029), and the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University, China.

  8. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  9. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Manjón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden.

  10. Towards LHC physics with nonlocal Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Tirthabir, E-mail: tbiswas@loyno.edu [Department of Physics, Loyola University, 6363 St. Charles Avenue, Box 92, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Okada, Nobuchika, E-mail: okadan@ua.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We take a few steps towards constructing a string-inspired nonlocal extension of the Standard Model. We start by illustrating how quantum loop calculations can be performed in nonlocal scalar field theory. In particular, we show the potential to address the hierarchy problem in the nonlocal framework. Next, we construct a nonlocal abelian gauge model and derive modifications of the gauge interaction vertex and field propagators. We apply the modifications to a toy version of the nonlocal Standard Model and investigate collider phenomenology. We find the lower bound on the scale of nonlocality from the 8 TeV LHC data to be 2.5–3 TeV.

  11. On the Activation of Quantum Nonlocality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Ducuara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on some quantum properties of physical systems, namely, entanglement, nonlocality, k-copy nonlocality (superactivation of nonlocality, hidden nonlocality (activation of nonlocality through local filtering and the activation of nonlocality through tensoring and local filtering. The aim of this work is two-fold. First, we provide a review of the numerical procedures that must be followed in order to calculate the aforementioned properties, in particular, for any two-qubit system, and reproduce the bounds for two-qudit Werner states. Second, we use such numerical tools to calculate new bounds of these properties for two-qudit Isotropic states and two-qubit Hirsch states.

  12. Accelerated territorial arterial spin labeling based on shared rotating control acquisition: an observer study for validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamano, Hironori; Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Takayama, Yukihisa; Nagao, Eiki; Sagiyama, Koji; Honda, Hiroshi; Zimine, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Shared rotating control acquisition can shorten the imaging time of territorial arterial spin labeling (tASL) by 33% compared with the normal control acquisition scheme but potentially results in an inaccurate estimate of vascular territories due to imperfect magnetization transfer compensation. Our purpose was to validate the accuracy of the shared rotating control acquisition method in evaluation of vascular territories. Twenty-four patients underwent tASL at a 3.0-T MRI with the conventional normal control acquisition method. Composite vascular territory maps, in which the blood flows from the right and left internal carotid arteries and the posterior circulation were encoded in red-green-blue, were generated as a normal averaged control-label scheme and as a simulated shared rotating control scheme. Two observers independently reported the most dominant territorial flow in 26 brain regions corresponding to the arterial segments at three post-labeling time points. Inter-reader and inter-method agreements were analyzed using κ statistics. Overall inter-reader agreements were excellent for both the normal control and the shared rotating control methods (κ = 0.98, respectively). Overall inter-method agreement was also excellent (κ = 0.98), although relatively low agreement was noted in the bilateral posterior cerebral artery territories (κ = 0.79 to 0.93). Our results suggested that tASL using shared rotating control acquisition can provide information on the vascular territories comparable to that obtained using the normal control acquisition while substantially shortening the imaging time. (orig.)

  13. Observation of a new high-spin isomer in 94Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, T. S.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Wadsworth, R.; Boutachkov, P.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Pietri, S.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Caceres, L.; Engert, T.; Farinon, F.; Gerl, J.; Goel, N.; Kojuharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Schaffner, H.; Weick, H.; Braun, N.

    2010-01-01

    A second γ-decaying high-spin isomeric state, with a half-life of 197(22)ns, has been identified in the N=Z+2 nuclide 94 Pd as part of a stopped-beam Rare Isotope Spectroscopic INvestigation at GSI (RISING) experiment. Weisskopf estimates were used to establish a tentative spin/parity of 19 - , corresponding to the maximum possible spin of a negative parity state in the restricted (p 1/2 , g 9/2 ) model space of empirical shell model calculations. The reproduction of the E3 decay properties of the isomer required an extension of the model space to include the f 5/2 and p 3/2 orbitals using the CD-Bonn potential. This is the first time that such an extension has been required for a high-spin isomer in the vicinity of 100 Sn and reveals the importance of such orbits for understanding the decay properties of high-spin isomers in this region. However, despite the need for the extended model space for the E3 decay, the dominant configuration for the 19 - state remains (πp 1/2 -1 g 9/2 -3 ) 11 x (νg 9/2 -2 ) 8 . The half-life of the known, 14 + , isomer was remeasured and yielded a value of 499(13) ns.

  14. On nonlocally interacting metrics, and a simple proposal for cosmic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanyan, Valeri; Akrami, Yashar; Amendola, Luca; Silvestri, Alessandra

    2018-03-01

    We propose a simple, nonlocal modification to general relativity (GR) on large scales, which provides a model of late-time cosmic acceleration in the absence of the cosmological constant and with the same number of free parameters as in standard cosmology. The model is motivated by adding to the gravity sector an extra spin-2 field interacting nonlocally with the physical metric coupled to matter. The form of the nonlocal interaction is inspired by the simplest form of the Deser-Woodard (DW) model, α R1/squareR, with one of the Ricci scalars being replaced by a constant m2, and gravity is therefore modified in the infrared by adding a simple term of the form m21/squareR to the Einstein-Hilbert term. We study cosmic expansion histories, and demonstrate that the new model can provide background expansions consistent with observations if m is of the order of the Hubble expansion rate today, in contrast to the simple DW model with no viable cosmology. The model is best fit by w0~‑1.075 and wa~0.045. We also compare the cosmology of the model to that of Maggiore and Mancarella (MM), m2R1/square2R, and demonstrate that the viable cosmic histories follow the standard-model evolution more closely compared to the MM model. We further demonstrate that the proposed model possesses the same number of physical degrees of freedom as in GR. Finally, we discuss the appearance of ghosts in the local formulation of the model, and argue that they are unphysical and harmless to the theory, keeping the physical degrees of freedom healthy.

  15. Observation of zone folding induced acoustic topological insulators and the role of spin-mixing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanchen; Ge, Hao; Tian, Yuan; Lu, Minghui; Jing, Yun

    2017-11-01

    This article reports on the experimental realization of a flow-free, pseudospin-based acoustic topological insulator designed using the strategy of zone folding. Robust sound one-way propagation is demonstrated with the presence of non-spin-mixing defects. On the other hand, it is shown that spin-mixing defects, which break the geometric symmetry and therefore the pseudo-time-reversal symmetry, can open up nontrivial band gaps within the edge state frequency band, and their width can be tailored by the extent of the defect. This provides a possible route for realizing tunable acoustic topological insulators.

  16. Electrovacuum solutions in nonlocal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Karan; Mitra, Arpita

    2018-05-01

    We consider the coupling of the electromagnetic field to a nonlocal gravity theory comprising of the Einstein-Hilbert action in addition to a nonlocal R □-2R term associated with a mass scale m . We demonstrate that in the case of the minimally coupled electromagnetic field, real corrections about the Reissner-Nordström background only exist between the inner Cauchy horizon and the event horizon of the black hole. This motivates us to consider the modified coupling of electromagnetism to this theory via the Kaluza ansatz. The Kaluza reduction introduces nonlocal terms involving the electromagnetic field to the pure gravitational nonlocal theory. An iterative approach is provided to perturbatively solve the equations of motion to arbitrary order in m2 about any known solution of general relativity. We derive the first-order corrections and demonstrate that the higher order corrections are real and perturbative about the external background of a Reissner-Nordström black hole. We also discuss how the Kaluza reduced action, through the inclusion of nonlocal electromagnetic fields, could also be relevant in quantum effects on curved backgrounds with horizons.

  17. Charge and spin transport in edge channels of a ν=0 quantum Hall system on the surface of topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Furusaki, Akira; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2015-04-10

    Three-dimensional topological insulators of finite thickness can show the quantum Hall effect (QHE) at the filling factor ν=0 under an external magnetic field if there is a finite potential difference between the top and bottom surfaces. We calculate energy spectra of surface Weyl fermions in the ν=0 QHE and find that gapped edge states with helical spin structure are formed from Weyl fermions on the side surfaces under certain conditions. These edge channels account for the nonlocal charge transport in the ν=0 QHE which is observed in a recent experiment on (Bi_{1-x}Sb_{x})_{2}Te_{3} films. The edge channels also support spin transport due to the spin-momentum locking. We propose an experimental setup to observe various spintronics functions such as spin transport and spin conversion.

  18. Nonlocal symmetries and nonlocal conservation laws of Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anco, S.C.; Bluman, G.

    1997-01-01

    Nonlocal symmetries are obtained for Maxwell's equations in three space-time dimensions through the use of two potential systems involving scalar and vector potentials for the electromagnetic field. Corresponding nonlocal conservation laws are derived from these symmetries. The conservation laws yield nine functionally independent constants of motion which cannot be expressed in terms of the constants of motion arising from local conservation laws for space-time symmetries. These nine constants of motion represent additional conserved quantities for the electromagnetic field in three space endash time dimensions. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Observation of high-spin mixed oxidation state of cobalt in ceramic Co3TeO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harishchandra; Ghosh, Haranath; Chandrasekhar Rao, T. V.; Sinha, A. K.; Rajput, Parasmani

    2014-12-01

    We report coexistence of high spin Co3+ and Co2+ in ceramic Co3TeO6 using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), DC magnetization, and first principles ab-initio calculations. The main absorption line of cobalt Co K-edge XANES spectra, along with a linear combination fit, led us to estimate relative concentration of Co2+ and Co3+as 60:40. The pre edge feature of XANES spectrum shows crystal field splitting of ˜1.26 eV between eg and t2g states, suggesting a mixture of high spin states of both Co2+ and Co3+. Temperature dependent high field DC magnetization measurements reveal dominant antiferromagnetic order with two Neel temperatures (TN1 ˜ 29 K and TN2 ˜ 18 K), consistent with single crystal study. A larger effective magnetic moment is observed in comparison to that reported for single crystal (which contains only Co2+), supports our inference that Co3+ exists in high spin state. Furthermore, we show that both Co2+ and Co3+ being in high spin states constitute a favorable ground state through first principles ab-initio calculations, where Rietveld refined synchrotron X-ray diffraction data are used as input.

  20. Observation of interface dependent spin polarized photocurrents in InAs/GaSb superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan, E-mail: liyuan12@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Wu, Qing; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yonghai, E-mail: yhchen@semi.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing (China); Niu, Zhichuan; Xiang, Wei; Hao, Hongyue [The State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing (China)

    2015-05-11

    In this letter, we investigated the spin polarized photocurrents excited by mid-infrared radiation and near-infrared radiation, respectively, in InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with different kinds of interfaces. By periodically varying the polarization state of the radiation, we analyzed Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents, which present different features depending on the interface types and excitation conditions. Under mid-infrared excitation, the ratio of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents of the superlattice with InSb-like interface is obviously larger than that of the superlattice with GaAs-like interface, the ratio of the superlattice with alternate interface is in the middle. Whereas under near-infrared excitation, the ratios of the three superlattices are nearly the same. Further researches reveal the synactic effects of interface dependent strain and asymmetric interface potential on the spin splitting. Besides, the polarized Raman spectroscopies of these structures were also analyzed.

  1. Observation of interface dependent spin polarized photocurrents in InAs/GaSb superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Wu, Qing; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yonghai; Niu, Zhichuan; Xiang, Wei; Hao, Hongyue

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we investigated the spin polarized photocurrents excited by mid-infrared radiation and near-infrared radiation, respectively, in InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with different kinds of interfaces. By periodically varying the polarization state of the radiation, we analyzed Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents, which present different features depending on the interface types and excitation conditions. Under mid-infrared excitation, the ratio of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents of the superlattice with InSb-like interface is obviously larger than that of the superlattice with GaAs-like interface, the ratio of the superlattice with alternate interface is in the middle. Whereas under near-infrared excitation, the ratios of the three superlattices are nearly the same. Further researches reveal the synactic effects of interface dependent strain and asymmetric interface potential on the spin splitting. Besides, the polarized Raman spectroscopies of these structures were also analyzed

  2. Observation of significant spin effects in hard collisions at 40 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apokin, V D; Arestov, Yu I; Astafiev, O V; Belikov, N I; Chujko, B V; Derevshchikov, A A; Grachev, O A; Matulenko, Yu A; Meshchanin, A P; Morozov, A A; Mochalov, V V; Mysnik, A I; Nurushev, S B; Patalakha, D I; Prudkogliad, A F; Rykov, V L; Soloviev, L F; Solovianov, V L; Vasiliev, A N [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Serpukhov (USSR); Borisov, N S; Kazarinov, Yu M; Khachaturov, B A; Liburg, M Yu; Matafonov, V N; Neganov, A B; Usov, Yu A [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR); Bagaturia, Yu Sh; Glonti, L N; Macharashvili, G G; Ocherashvili, A I; Sakhelashvili, T M [Tbilisskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Inst. for High Energy Physics

    1990-07-05

    A single-spin asymmetry in the inclusive {pi}{sup 0} production at small x{sub F} was measured. In the experiment 40 GeV/c {pi}{sup -} mesons were incident on transversely polarized protons and deuterons. An asymmetry of (40-50)% has been revealed in the hard scattering region. (orig.).

  3. Effect of Δ-isobar excitation on spin-dependent observables of elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, S.; Oryu, S.; Chmielewski, K.; Sauer, P.U.

    2000-01-01

    Δ-isobar excitation in the nuclear medium yields an effective three-nucleon force. A coupled-channel formulation with Δ-isobar excitation developed previously is used. The three-particle scattering equations are solved by a separable expansion of the two-baryon transition matrix for elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering. The effect of Δ-isobar excitation on the spin-dependent observables is studied at energies above 50 MeV nucleon lab energy. (author)

  4. Constraints on mass, spin and magnetic field of microquasar H~1743-322 from observations of QPOs

    OpenAIRE

    Tursunov, Arman; Kološ, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The study of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray flux observed in many microquasars can provide a powerful tool for testing of the phenomena occurring in strong gravity regime. QPOs phenomena can be well related to the oscillations of charged particles in accretion disks orbiting Kerr black holes immersed in external large-scale magnetic fields. In the present paper we study the model of magnetic relativistic precession and provide estimations of the mass and spin of the central objec...

  5. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove that the solutions of the nonlocal problem converge to the solution of the higher order problem with the right-hand side given by powers of the Laplacian when the kernel J is rescaled in an appropriate way. Moreover, we prove that solutions to both equations have the same asymptotic decay rate as t goes to infinity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  6. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  7. Certifying the absence of quantum nonlocality

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Carl A.; Shi, Yaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Quantum nonlocality is an inherently non-classical feature of quantum mechanics and manifests itself through violation of Bell inequalities for nonlocal games. We show that in a fairly general setting, a simple extension of a nonlocal game can certify instead the absence of quantum nonlocality. Through contraposition, our result implies that a super-classical performance for such a game ensures that a player's output is unpredictable to the other player. Previously such output unpredictabilit...

  8. Closed sets of nonlocal correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allcock, Jonathan; Linden, Noah; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Vertesi, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    We present a fundamental concept - closed sets of correlations - for studying nonlocal correlations. We argue that sets of correlations corresponding to information-theoretic principles, or more generally to consistent physical theories, must be closed under a natural set of operations. Hence, studying the closure of sets of correlations gives insight into which information-theoretic principles are genuinely different, and which are ultimately equivalent. This concept also has implications for understanding why quantum nonlocality is limited, and for finding constraints on physical theories beyond quantum mechanics.

  9. More nonlocality with less purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro

    2011-05-27

    Quantum information is nonlocal in the sense that local measurements on a composite quantum system, prepared in one of many mutually orthogonal states, may not reveal in which state the system was prepared. It is shown that in the many copy limit this kind of nonlocality is fundamentally different for pure and mixed quantum states. In particular, orthogonal mixed states may not be distinguishable by local operations and classical communication, no matter how many copies are supplied, whereas any set of N orthogonal pure states can be perfectly discriminated with m copies, where miff the set is not conclusively locally distinguishable with multiple copies. © 2011 American Physical Society

  10. Electrical spin injection and detection in silicon nanowires with axial doping gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouriotis, Konstantinos; Barreda, Jorge L; Keiper, Timothy David; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Peng

    2018-06-13

    The interest in spin transport in nanoscopic semiconductor channels is driven by both the inevitable miniaturization of spintronics devices toward nanoscale and the rich spin-dependent physics the quantum confinement engenders. For such studies, the all-important issue of the ferromagnet/semiconductor (FM/SC) interface becomes even more critical at nanoscale. Here we elucidate the effects of the FM/SC interface on electrical spin injection and detection at nanoscale dimensions, utilizing a unique type of Si nanowires (NWs) with an inherent axial doping gradient. Two-terminal and nonlocal four-terminal lateral spin-valve measurements were performed using different combinations from a series of FM contacts positioned along the same NW. The data are analyzed with a general model of spin accumulation in a normal channel under electrical spin injection from a FM, which reveals a distinct correlation of decreasing spin-valve signal with increasing injector junction resistance. The observation is attributed to the diminishing contribution of the d-electrons in the FM to the injected current spin polarization with increasing Schottky barrier width. The results demonstrate that there is a window of interface parameters for optimal spin injection efficiency and current spin polarization, which provides important design guidelines for nano-spintronic devices with quasi-1D semiconductor channels.

  11. Modulational instability in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    We study modulational instability (MI) of plane waves in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media. For a focusing nonlinearity we show that, although the nonlocality tends to suppress MI, it can never remove it completely, irrespective of the particular profile of the nonlocal response function. For a defoc...

  12. Optical Beams in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Królikowski, W.; Bang, Ole; Wyller, J.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons....

  13. Hyperspherical effective interaction for nonlocal potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnea, N.; Leidemann, W.; Orlandini, G.

    2010-01-01

    The effective interaction hyperspherical-harmonics method, formulated for local forces, is generalized to accommodate nonlocal interactions. As for local potentials this formulation retains the separation of the hyper-radial part leading solely to a hyperspherical effective interaction. By applying the method to study ground-state properties of 4 He with a modern effective-field-theory nucleon-nucleon potential model (Idaho-N3LO), one finds a substantial acceleration in the convergence rate of the hyperspherical-harmonics series. Also studied are the binding energies of the six-body nuclei 6 He and 6 Li with the JISP16 nuclear force. Again an excellent convergence is observed.

  14. Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Vladislav E; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O

    2016-01-28

    Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics.

  15. Observation of the Distribution of Molecular Spin States by Resonant Quantum Tunneling of the Magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsdorfer, W.; Ohm, T.; Sangregorio, C.; Sessoli, R.; Mailly, D.; Paulsen, C.

    1999-05-01

    Below 360 mK, Fe8 magnetic molecular clusters are in the pure quantum relaxation regime and we show that the predicted ``square-root time'' relaxation is obeyed, allowing us to develop a new method for watching the evolution of the distribution of molecular spin states in the sample. We measure as a function of applied field H the statistical distribution P\\(ξH\\) of magnetic energy bias ξH acting on the molecules. Tunneling initially causes rapid transitions of molecules, thereby ``digging a hole'' in P\\(ξH\\) (around the resonant condition ξH = 0). For small initial magnetization values, the hole width shows an intrinsic broadening which may be due to nuclear spins.

  16. Absorption by Spinning Dust: A Contaminant for High-redshift 21 cm Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draine, B. T.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2018-05-01

    Spinning dust grains in front of the bright Galactic synchrotron background can produce a weak absorption signal that could affect measurements of high-redshift 21 cm absorption. At frequencies near 80 MHz where the Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Signature (EDGES) has reported 21 cm absorption at z≈ 17, absorption could be produced by interstellar nanoparticles with radii a≈ 50 \\mathringA in the cold interstellar medium (ISM), with rotational temperature T ≈ 50 K. Atmospheric aerosols could contribute additional absorption. The strength of the absorption depends on the abundance of such grains and on their dipole moments, which are uncertain. The breadth of the absorption spectrum of spinning dust limits its possible impact on measurement of a relatively narrow 21 cm absorption feature.

  17. Ponzano-Regge model revisited: I. Gauge fixing, observables and interacting spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Louapre, David

    2004-01-01

    We show how to properly gauge fix all the symmetries of the Ponzano-Regge model for 3D quantum gravity. This amounts to doing explicit finite computations for transition amplitudes. We give the construction of the transition amplitudes in the presence of interacting quantum spinning particles. We introduce a notion of operators whose expectation value gives rise to either gauge fixing, introduction of time, or insertion of particles, according to the choice. We give the link between the spin foam quantization and the Hamiltonian quantization. We finally show the link between the Ponzano-Regge model and the quantization of Chern-Simons theory based on the double quantum group of SU(2)

  18. Spin polarization of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) and Ni(111) observed by spin-polarized surface positronium spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, A.; Maekawa, M.; Wada, K.; Kawasuso, A.; Watanabe, T.; Entani, S.; Sakai, S.

    2018-05-01

    In spin-polarized surface positronium annihilation measurements, the spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) were higher than those on Ni(111), while no significant differences were seen between graphene and h -BN on the same metal. The obtained spin polarizations agreed with those expected from first-principles calculations considering the positron wave function and the electron density of states from the first surface layer to the vacuum region. The higher spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) as compared to Ni(111) simply reflect the spin polarizations of these metals. The comparable spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on the same metal are attributed to the creation of similar electronic states due to the strong influence of the metals: the Dirac cone of graphene and the band gap of h -BN disappear as a consequence of d -π hybridization.

  19. Observation of spin-glass behavior in nickel adsorbed few layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Sreemanta [MLS Professor of Physics' Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata-700032 (India); Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata-700009 (India); Mondal, Oindrila [Department of Physics, M.U.C. Woman' s College, Burdwan (India); Banerjee, Sourish [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata-700009 (India); Chakravorty, Dipankar [MLS Professor of Physics' Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata-700032 (India)

    2013-01-14

    Nickel-adsorbed graphene was prepared by first synthesizing graphite oxide (GO) by modified Hummers' method and then reducing a solution containing both GO and Ni{sup 2+}. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed 31 at. % nickel was present. Magnetization measurements under both dc and ac magnetic fields were carried out in the temperature range 2 K to 300 K. The zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization data showed a pronounced irreversibility at a temperature around 20 K. The analysis of the ac susceptibility data was carried out by both Vogel-Fulcher as well as power law. From dynamic scaling analysis, the microscopic flipping time {tau}{sub 0}{approx}10{sup -13}s and critical exponent z{nu}=5.9{+-}0.1 were found, indicating the presence of conventional spin glass in the system. The spin glass transition temperature was estimated as 19.5 K. Decay of thermoremanent magnetization was explained by stretched exponential function with a value of the exponent as 0.6. From the results, it is concluded that nickel adsorbed graphene behaves like a spin-glass.

  20. Observation of spin-glass behavior in nickel adsorbed few layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Sreemanta; Mondal, Oindrila; Banerjee, Sourish; Chakravorty, Dipankar

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-adsorbed graphene was prepared by first synthesizing graphite oxide (GO) by modified Hummers' method and then reducing a solution containing both GO and Ni 2+ . Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed 31 at. % nickel was present. Magnetization measurements under both dc and ac magnetic fields were carried out in the temperature range 2 K to 300 K. The zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization data showed a pronounced irreversibility at a temperature around 20 K. The analysis of the ac susceptibility data was carried out by both Vogel-Fulcher as well as power law. From dynamic scaling analysis, the microscopic flipping time τ 0 ∼10 −13 s and critical exponent zν=5.9±0.1 were found, indicating the presence of conventional spin glass in the system. The spin glass transition temperature was estimated as 19.5 K. Decay of thermoremanent magnetization was explained by stretched exponential function with a value of the exponent as 0.6. From the results, it is concluded that nickel adsorbed graphene behaves like a spin-glass.

  1. Observation of Gravitationally Induced Vertical Striation of Polarized Ultracold Neutrons by Spin-Echo Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afach, S; Ayres, N J; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Chowdhuri, Z; Daum, M; Fertl, M; Franke, B; Griffith, W C; Grujić, Z D; Harris, P G; Heil, W; Hélaine, V; Kasprzak, M; Kermaidic, Y; Kirch, K; Knowles, P; Koch, H-C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemière, Y; Mtchedlishvili, A; Musgrave, M; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Pendlebury, J M; Piegsa, F M; Pignol, G; Plonka-Spehr, C; Prashanth, P N; Quéméner, G; Rawlik, M; Rebreyend, D; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Rozpedzik, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severijns, N; Thorne, J A; Weis, A; Wursten, E; Wyszynski, G; Zejma, J; Zenner, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-10-16

    We describe a spin-echo method for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) confined in a precession chamber and exposed to a |B0|=1  μT magnetic field. We have demonstrated that the analysis of UCN spin-echo resonance signals in combination with knowledge of the ambient magnetic field provides an excellent method by which to reconstruct the energy spectrum of a confined ensemble of neutrons. The method takes advantage of the relative dephasing of spins arising from a gravitationally induced striation of stored UCNs of different energies, and also permits an improved determination of the vertical magnetic-field gradient with an exceptional accuracy of 1.1  pT/cm. This novel combination of a well-known nuclear resonance method and gravitationally induced vertical striation is unique in the realm of nuclear and particle physics and should prove to be invaluable for the assessment of systematic effects in precision experiments such as searches for an electric dipole moment of the neutron or the measurement of the neutron lifetime.

  2. Direct Observation on Spin-Coating Process of PS- b -P2VP Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hiroki; Takenaka, Mikihito; Miyazaki, Tsukasa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Lee, Byeongdu; Shimokita, Keisuke; Nishibori, Eiji; Takata, Masaki

    2016-05-10

    We studied the structural development of symmetric poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymers during spin-coating using in situ grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. During the spin-coating process, after the formation of the micelles in dilute solution, the selective solvent induced two kinds of the morphological transition. Firstly, the disordered spherical micelles were transformed into a BCC lattice of spheres of which the (110) plane was oriented perpendicularly to the substrate surface. Secondly, further evaporation induced a transition from spheres on the BCC lattice into cylindrical structures. The orientation of the cylinders perpendicular to the substrate surface was induced by solvent convection perpendicular to the substrate, which occurs during rapid solvent evaporation. After this transition, vitrification of PS and P2VP prevented any further transition from cylinders to the more thermodynamically stable lamellar structures, as are generally observed as the bulk equilibrium state.

  3. Nonlocal Response in Plasmonic Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    After a brief overview of nanoplasmonics experiments that defy explanation with classical electrodynamics, we introduce nonlocal response as a main reason for non-classical effects. This concept is first introduced phenomenologically, and afterwards based on the semi-classical hydrodynamic Drude...

  4. Nonlocal quasilinear damped differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffak Benchohra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of mild solutions to second order initial value problems for a class of damped differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions. By using suitable fixed point theorems, we study the case when the multivalued map has convex and nonconvex values.

  5. Nonlocal interactions and Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garuccio, A.; Selleri, F.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that natural extensions of the local hidden variable theories to include nonlocal effects still lead to a full validity of Bell's inequality. It is conjectured that the essential point expressed by this inequality is not locality, but the wave-particle dualism

  6. Extreme nonlocality with one photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, Libby; Vedral, Vlatko [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Santos, Marcelo Franca, E-mail: l.heaney1@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: adan@us.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Caixa Postal 702, 30123-970, MG (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Quantum nonlocality is typically assigned to systems of two or more well-separated particles, but nonlocality can also exist in systems consisting of just a single particle when one considers the subsystems to be distant spatial field modes. Single particle nonlocality has been confirmed experimentally via a bipartite Bell inequality. In this paper, we introduce an N-party Hardy-like proof of the impossibility of local elements of reality and a Bell inequality for local realistic theories in the case of a single particle superposed symmetrically over N spatial field modes (i.e. N qubit W state). We show that, in the limit of large N, the Hardy-like proof effectively becomes an all-versus-nothing (or Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like) proof, and the quantum-classical gap of the Bell inequality tends to be the same as that in a three-particle GHZ experiment. We describe how to test the nonlocality in realistic systems.

  7. Observation of undulation motion of lipid bilayers by neutron spin echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Norifumi L.; Seto, Hideki; Hishida, Mafumi

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of synthesized phospholipids have been well investigated as model biomembranes. These lipids usually self-assemble into regular stacks of bilayers with a characteristic repeat distance on the order of nm, whereas real biomembrane exist as single bilayers. The key phenomenon in understanding the formation of single isolated bilayers in 'unbinding' of lipid bilayers, in which the inter-bilayer distance of lipid bilayers diverges by the steric interaction due to the membrane undulation. In this paper, we show some results of neutron spin-echo (NSE) experiments to investigate the effect of the steric interaction on unbinding and related phenomena. (author)

  8. NuSTAR Observations of the Black Hole GS 1354-645: Evidence of Rapid Black Hole Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Batal, A. M.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D. K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 "hard" state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a = cJ/ GM(sup 2) > or = 0.98 (1(sigma) statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: theta approx. = 75(2)deg. Strong "dips" are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources viewed at such an angle; these are absent, perhaps indicating that dips correspond to flared disk structures that only manifest at higher accretion rates. In the lower flux observation, there is evidence of radial truncation of the thin accretion disk. We discuss these results in the context of spin in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates.

  9. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.

  10. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2015-03-01

    Based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the photon pairs produced can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.

  11. Picture book of nucleon--nucleon scattering: amplitudes, models, double- and triple-spin observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Stevens, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive study of nucleon-nucleon scattering is presented with particular emphasis on the underlying amplitude structure. The five complex NN amplitudes are determined as a function of energy and momentum transfer from existing pp, anti pp, and np elastic scattering data and np and anti pp CHEX data. Some constraints determined from meson-baryon fits are imposed. The resulting amplitudes are used to make predictions of forthcoming double- and triple-spin measurements, and are also compared with the model amplitudes of Kane and Seidl. In addition, the usefulness of transversity amplitudes in NN scattering is discussed, the status of our present knowledge concerning them is examined, and model predictions of these amplitudes are displayed. The paper is presented in a ''picture book'' form so that the reader can get a good overview of NN scattering by studying the figures and reading the tables and figure captions

  12. Realization of Rectangular Artificial Spin Ice and Direct Observation of High Energy Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, I R B; Nascimento, F S; Ferreira, S O; Moura-Melo, W A; Costa, C A R; Borme, J; Freitas, P P; Wysin, G M; de Araujo, C I L; Pereira, A R

    2017-10-25

    In this work, we have constructed and experimentally investigated frustrated arrays of dipoles forming two-dimensional artificial spin ices with different lattice parameters (rectangular arrays with horizontal and vertical lattice spacings denoted by a and b respectively). Arrays with three different aspect ratios γ = a/b = [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are studied. Theoretical calculations of low-energy demagnetized configurations for these same parameters are also presented. Experimental data for demagnetized samples confirm most of the theoretical results. However, the highest energy topology (doubly-charged monopoles) does not emerge in our theoretical model, while they are seen in experiments for large enough γ. Our results also insinuate that the string tension connecting two magnetic monopoles in a pair vanishes in rectangular lattices with a critical ratio γ = γ c  = [Formula: see text], supporting previous theoretical predictions.

  13. Observation of second spin reorientation transition within ultrathin region in Fe films on Ag(001) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khim, T.-Y.; Shin, M.; Lee, H.; Park, B.-G.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-01-01

    We acquired direct measurements for in-plane and perpendicular-to-plane magnetic moments of Fe films using an x-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique with increase of the Fe thickness (up to 40 Å) on the Ag(001) surface. Epitaxial Fe/Ag(001) films were grown in situ with the thickness varying from 2 Å to 40 Å, and the magnetic anisotropy was carefully investigated as a function of the film thickness. We found re-entrance of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the Fe film in ultrathin region. The results manifest that the epitaxial Fe/Ag(001) film undergoes two distinct spin reorientation transitions from in-plane to out-of-plane at the film thickness t ≈ 9 Å and back to in-plane at t ≈ 18 Å as t increases.

  14. Nonlocal nonlinear coupling of kinetic sound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lyubchyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We study three-wave resonant interactions among kinetic-scale oblique sound waves in the low-frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency. The nonlinear eigenmode equation is derived in the framework of a two-fluid plasma model. Because of dispersive modifications at small wavelengths perpendicular to the background magnetic field, these waves become a decay-type mode. We found two decay channels, one into co-propagating product waves (forward decay, and another into counter-propagating product waves (reverse decay. All wavenumbers in the forward decay are similar and hence this decay is local in wavenumber space. On the contrary, the reverse decay generates waves with wavenumbers that are much larger than in the original pump waves and is therefore intrinsically nonlocal. In general, the reverse decay is significantly faster than the forward one, suggesting a nonlocal spectral transport induced by oblique sound waves. Even with low-amplitude sound waves the nonlinear interaction rate is larger than the collisionless dissipation rate. Possible applications regarding acoustic waves observed in the solar corona, solar wind, and topside ionosphere are briefly discussed.

  15. NuSTAR observations of the black holes GS 1354-645: Evidence of rapid black hole spin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Batal, A. M.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 "hard" state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal...... a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a = cf/GM(2) >= 0.98 (1 sigma statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: 0 similar or equal to 75 (2)degrees. Strong "dips" are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources...... in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates....

  16. Electrical detection of spin transport in lateral ferromagnet-semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiaohua

    2007-03-01

    A fully electrical scheme of spin injection, transport, and detection in a single ferromagnet-semiconductor structure has been a long-standing goal in the field of spintronics. In this talk, we report on an experimental demonstration of such a scheme. The devices are fabricated from epitaxial Fe/GaAs (100) heterostructures with highly doped GaAs as a Schottky tunnel barrier. A set of closely spaced Fe contacts on the top of an n-GaAs channel are used as spin injectors and detectors. Reference electrodes are placed at the far ends of the channel, allowing for non-local spin detection [1]. The electro-chemical potential of the detector is sensitive to the relative magnetizations of the injector and detector. In spin-valve measurements, a magnetic field is applied along the Fe easy axis to switch the relative magnetizations of injector and detector from parallel to antiparallel, resulting in a voltage jump that is proportional to the non-equilibrium spin polarization in the channel. A more rigorous test of electrical spin detection is the observation of the Hanle effect, in which an out-of-plane magnetic field is used to modulate and dephase the spin polarization in the channel. The magnitudes of the observed Hanle curves agree with the results of the spin-valve measurements. The dependence of the Hanle curves on temperature and contact separation is studied in detail and is consistent with a drift-diffusion model incorporating spin precession and relaxation. The spin polarization generated by spin injection (reverse bias at the injector) or spin accumulation (forward bias at the injector) is measured using the magneto-optical Kerr effect and is found to be in good agreement with the spin-dependent non-local voltage. Both the transport and optical measurements show a non-linear relationship between the bias voltage at the injector and the spin polarization in the channel. [1] M. Johnson and R. H. Silsbee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1790 (1985).

  17. Heat and spin interconversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Yuichi; Matsuo, Mamoru; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eeiji

    2017-01-01

    Spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects, which are mutual conversion phenomena of heat and spin, are discussed on the basis of the microscopic theory. First, the spin Seebeck effect, which is the spin-current generation due to heat current, is discussed. The recent progress in research on the spin Seebeck effect are introduced. We explain the origin of the observed sign changes of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferromagnets. Next, the spin Peltier effect, which is the heat-current generation due to spin current, is discussed. Finally, we show that the spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relation and derive Kelvin's relation for the spin and heat transports. (author)

  18. Boundary fluxes for nonlocal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  19. Temporal nonlocality in bistable perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    A novel conceptual framework for theoretical psychology is presented and illustrated for the example of bistable perception. A basic formal feature of this framework is the non-commutativity of operations acting on mental states. A corresponding model for the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli, the Necker-Zeno model, is sketched and some empirical evidence for it so far is described. It is discussed how a temporal nonlocality of mental states, predicted by the model, can be understood and tested.

  20. Possible measurements of the spin one observables in elastic dN, dd collisions at the NICA deuteron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharov, V I

    2016-01-01

    The report shows the possibilities of studying the spin one observables in the elastic dN and dd interactions at the NICA collider of the VBLHEP JINR. The use of the colliding deuteron beams would allow us to carry out the measurements of the differential cross sections I 0 (dN, dd) of the elastic scattering of unpolarized deuterons and the differential cross sections I pol (dN,dd) and the vector A y (Ed,θ) and tensor A yy (Ed,θ) and A xx (E d .θ) analyzing powers in elastic collisions of the vector and tensor polarized deuterons. The planned luminosity of the colliding polarized deuteron beams will provide sufficiently high elastic events counting rate. The use of the colliding beams of the polarized deuterons for the spin one >dN and dd observables research has a number of significant advantages in comparison with the experiments with the “fixed” target. The angular acceptance of the collider detector covers the full solid angle 4π radians while the wide ranges of the energies of the dN, dd interactions and the 4-momentum transfer squared are available. (paper)

  1. Causality and local determinism versus quantum nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupczynski, M

    2014-01-01

    The entanglement and the violation of Bell and CHSH inequalities in spin polarization correlation experiments (SPCE) is considered to be one of the biggest mysteries of Nature and is called quantum nonlocality. In this paper we show once again that this conclusion is based on imprecise terminology and on the lack of understanding of probabilistic models used in various proofs of Bell and CHSH theorems. These models are inconsistent with experimental protocols used in SPCE. This is the only reason why Bell and CHSH inequalities are violated. A probabilistic non-signalling description of SPCE, consistent with quantum predictions, is possible and it depends explicitly on the context of each experiment. It is also deterministic in the sense that the outcome is determined by supplementary local parameters describing both physical signals and measuring instruments. The existence of such description gives additional arguments that quantum theory is emergent from some more detailed theory respecting causality and local determinism. If quantum theory is emergent then there exist perhaps some fine structures in time-series of experimental data which were not predicted by quantum theory. In this paper we explain how a systematic search for such fine structures can be done. If such reproducible fine structures were found it would show that quantum theory is not predictably complete, which would be a major discovery.

  2. Spin currents in metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeschka, Franz Dominik

    2011-09-05

    A pure spin current, i.e., a flow of angular momentum without accompanying net charge current, is a key ingredient in the field of spintronics. In this thesis, we experimentally investigated two different concepts for pure spin current sources suggested by theory. The first is based on a time-dependent magnetization precession which ''pumps'' a pure spin current into an adjacent non-magnetic conductor. Our experiments quantitatively corroborated important predictions expected theoretically for this approach, including the dependence of the spin current on the sample geometry and the microwave power. Even more important, we could show for the first time that the spin pumping concept is viable in a large variety of ferromagnetic materials and that it only depends on the magnetization damping. Therefore, our experiments established spin pumping as generic phenomenon and demonstrated that it is a powerful way to generate pure spin currents. The second theoretical concept is based on the conversion of charge currents into spin currents in non-magnetic nanostructures via the spin Hall effect. We experimentally investigated this approach in H-shaped, metallic nanodevices, and found that the predictions are linked to requirements not realizable with the present experimental techniques, neither in sample fabrication nor in measurement technique. Indeed, our experimental data could be consistently understood by a spin-independent transport model describing the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport. In addition, the implementation of advanced fabrication and measurement techniques allowed to discover a new non-local phenomenon, the non-local anisotropic magnetoresistance. Finally, we also studied spin-polarized supercurrents carried by spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We found that low resistance interfaces are a key requirement for further experiments in this direction. (orig.)

  3. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion cu...

  4. Frustrated Brownian Motion of Nonlocal Solitary Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folli, V.; Conti, C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of solitary waves in a nonlocal medium in the presence of disorder. By using a perturbational approach, we show that an increasing degree of nonlocality may largely hamper the Brownian motion of self-trapped wave packets. The result is valid for any kind of nonlocality and in the presence of nonparaxial effects. Analytical predictions are compared with numerical simulations based on stochastic partial differential equations.

  5. The disk wind in the rapidly spinning stellar-mass black hole 4U 1630-472 observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630-472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we...... find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also...

  6. Observation of a spin 4 neutral meson with 2 GeV mass decaying in π0π0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, W.D.; Augenstein, K.; Bertolucci, E.; Donskov, S.V.; Inyakin, A.V.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kittenberger, W.; Krasnokutsky, R.N.; Kruger, M.; Leder, G.

    1975-01-01

    The invariant mass spectrum of neutral meson states from π - p interactions at 40 GeV/c incident momentum has been investigated in a high statistics experiment performed at the 70 GeV IHEP accelerator. To detect the high energy photons coming from the produced neutral states, a hodoscope spectrometer with a computer on-line was used. A clear structure on the mass spectrum of dipions produced in the reaction π - p → π 0 π 0 n is observed at 2 GeV. The decay angular distributions show in this mass region the variation with mass typical of a state with a spin J = 4. The mass of the observed meson is found to be M (2020 +- 25) MeV and the estimate of the full width is (180 +- 50) MeV

  7. Observation of a spin 4 neutral meson with 2 GeV mass decaying in $\\pi^{0} \\pi^{0}$

    CERN Document Server

    Apel, W D; Bertolucci, E.; Donskov, S.V.; Inyakin, A.V.; Kachanov, V.A.; Kittenberger, W.; Krasnokutsky, R.N.; Kruger, M.; Leder, G.; Lednev, A.A.; Mannelli, I.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Müller, H.; Pierazzini, G.M.; Prokoshkin, Yu.D.; Quaglia, M.; Schneider, H.; Scribano, A.; Sergiampietri, F.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Sigurdsson, G.; Steuer, M.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The invariant mass spectrum of neutral meson states from π−p interactions at 40 GeV/c incident momentum has been investigated in a high statistics experiment performed at the 70 GeV IHEP accelerator. To detect the high energy photons coming from the produced neutral states, a hodoscope spectrometer with a computer on-line was used. A clear structure on the mass spectrum of dipions produced in the reaction π−p→π°π°n is observed at 2 GeV. The decay angular distributions show in this mass region the variation with mass typical of a state with a spin J = 4. The mass of the observed meson is found to be M = (2020±30)MeV and the estimate of the full width is (180±60) MeV.

  8. Unified criteria for multipartite quantum nonlocality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, E. G. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia); He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D. [Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Centre for Quantum-Atom Optics (Australian Research Council), Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Wiseman, H. M. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia); Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology (Australian Research Council), Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    Wiseman and co-workers [H. M. Wiseman, S. J. Jones, and A. C. Doherty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402, (2007)] proposed a distinction among the nonlocality classes of Bell's nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox or steering, and entanglement based on whether or not an overseer trusts each party in a bipartite scenario where they are asked to demonstrate entanglement. Here we extend that concept to the multipartite case and derive inequalities that progressively test for those classes of nonlocality, with different thresholds for each level. This framework includes the three classes of nonlocality above in special cases and introduces a family of others.

  9. Unified criteria for multipartite quantum nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, E. G.; He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Wiseman and co-workers [H. M. Wiseman, S. J. Jones, and A. C. Doherty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402, (2007)] proposed a distinction among the nonlocality classes of Bell's nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox or steering, and entanglement based on whether or not an overseer trusts each party in a bipartite scenario where they are asked to demonstrate entanglement. Here we extend that concept to the multipartite case and derive inequalities that progressively test for those classes of nonlocality, with different thresholds for each level. This framework includes the three classes of nonlocality above in special cases and introduces a family of others.

  10. Robustness of multiparty nonlocality to local decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Cheong, Yong Wook; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the robustness of multiparty nonlocality under local decoherence, acting independently and equally on each subsystem. To be specific, we consider an N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state under a depolarization, dephasing, or dissipation channel, and examine nonlocality by testing violation of the Mermin-Klyshko inequality, which is one of Bell's inequalities for multiqubit systems. The results show that the robustness of nonlocality increases with the number of qubits, and that the nonlocality of an N-qubit GHZ state with even N is extremely persistent against dephasing

  11. Non-Local Effects in Kaonic Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.; Florkowski, W.

    2000-01-01

    Optical potentials with non-local (gradient) terms are used to describe the spectra of kaonic atoms. The strength of the non-local terms is determined from a many-body calculation of the kaon self energy in nuclear matter. We find that the non-local terms are quantitatively important and the results depend strongly on the way the gradient terms are arranged. Phenomenologically successful description is obtained for p-wave like optical potentials. It is suggested that the microscopic form of the non-local interaction terms is obtained systematically by means of a semi-classical expansion of the nucleus structure. (author)

  12. Experimental test of Bell's inequality with a proton pair and quantum nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hideyuki; Saito, Takaaki

    2009-01-01

    One of the most profound feature of quantum mechanics is the non-locality of entangled system. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) criticized this non-locality from the classical view point, realistic local theory. This criticism is known as the EPR paradox which has been thought as a philosophical argument between Copenhagen interpretation and EPR rather than the experimental issue. About 30 years later, John Bell found the inequality which is amenable to experiments. We succeeded to measure the spin correlation of an entangled proton pair in high accuracy which disagrees with Bell's inequality and confirmed the nonlocality of quantum mechanics in the massive Fermion pair. This short article introduces our experiment. The difference between present experiment and photon experiments is briefly mentioned. (author)

  13. Non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Takuya; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    1998-01-01

    A new theoretical model equation which includes the non-local effect in the heat flux is proposed to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the experimental results from the power switching [Stroth U, et al 1996 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 1087] and the power modulation experiments [Giannone L, et al 1992 Nucl. Fusion 32 1985] in the W7-AS stellarator. A small fraction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in modifying the response against an external modulation. The transient feature of the transport property, which are observed in the response of heat pulse propagation, are qualitatively reproduced by the transport simulations based on this model. A possibility is discussed to determine the correlation length of the non-local effect experimentally by use of the results of transport simulations. (author)

  14. Nonlocal transport in the presence of transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.

    2013-10-01

    There is experimental, numerical, and theoretical evidence that transport in plasmas can, under certain circumstances, depart from the standard local, diffusive description. Examples include fast pulse propagation phenomena in perturbative experiments, non-diffusive scaling in L-mode plasmas, and non-Gaussian statistics of fluctuations. From the theoretical perspective, non-diffusive transport descriptions follow from the relaxation of the restrictive assumptions (locality, scale separation, and Gaussian/Markovian statistics) at the foundation of diffusive models. We discuss an alternative class of models able to capture some of the observed non-diffusive transport phenomenology. The models are based on a class of nonlocal, integro-differential operators that provide a unifying framework to describe non- Fickian scale-free transport, and non-Markovian (memory) effects. We study the interplay between nonlocality and internal transport barriers (ITBs) in perturbative transport including cold edge pulses and power modulation. Of particular interest in the nonlocal ``tunnelling'' of perturbations through ITBs. Also, flux-gradient diagrams are discussed as diagnostics to detect nonlocal transport processes in numerical simulations and experiments. Work supported by the US Department of Energy.

  15. Statistical reexamination of analytical method on the observed electron spin (or nuclear) resonance curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Observed magnetic resonance curves are statistically reexamined. Typical models of resonance lines are Lorentzian and Gaussian distribution functions. In the case of metallic, alloy or intermetallic compound samples, observed resonance lines are supperposed with the absorption line and the dispersion line. The analyzing methods of supperposed resonance lines are demonstrated. (author)

  16. A nonlocal inhomogeneous dispersal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortázar, C.; Coville, J.; Elgueta, M.; Martínez, S.

    This article in devoted to the study of the nonlocal dispersal equation u(x,t)=∫R J({x-y}/{g(y)}){u(y,t)}/{g(y)} dy-u(x,t) in R×[0,∞), and its stationary counterpart. We prove global existence for the initial value problem, and under suitable hypothesis on g and J, we prove that positive bounded stationary solutions exist. We also analyze the asymptotic behavior of the finite mass solutions as t→∞, showing that they converge locally to zero.

  17. Constraints on Mass, Spin and Magnetic Field of Microquasar H 1743-322 from Observations of QPOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursunov, A. A.; Kološ, M.

    2018-03-01

    The study of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray flux observed in many microquasars can provide a powerful tool for testing of the phenomena occurring in strong gravity regime. QPOs phenomena can be well related to the oscillations of charged particles in accretion disks orbiting Kerr black holes immersed in external large-scalemagnetic fields. In the present paper we study the model ofmagnetic relativistic precession and provide estimations of the mass and spin of the central object of the microquasar H 1743-322 which is a candidate for a black hole. Moreover, we discuss the possible values of external magnetic field and study its influence on the motion of charged particles around rotating black hole.

  18. Polarization observables for strangeness photoproduction on a frozen spin target with CLAS at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The FROST experiment at Jefferson Lab used the CLAS detector in Hall B with the intention of performing a complete measurement of polarization observables associated with strangeness photoproduction, in combination with data from previous JLab experiments. This was achieved by utilizing the FROST polarized target in conjunction with polarized photon beams, allowing direct measurement of beam-target double polarization observables. By studying strangeness reactions, such as γp → K + Λ 0 , it may be possible to find 'missing' baryon resonances, predicted by symmetric quark models but not observed in previous experiments, whose results are consistent with the di-quark model. It is thought these 'missing' resonances remain undiscovered because they have different coupling strengths for different reaction channels, such as the strangeness reactions, whereas the current data is dominated by studies of pN reactions. Observing these resonances therefore has important implications for our knowledge of the excited states of nucleons, and the models predicting the quark interactions within them. The G polarization observable is one of the beam-target double polarization observables, associated with a longitudinally polarized target and a linearly polarized photon beam, and its measurement for the strangeness reaction γp → K + Λ 0 is the focus of the work presented.

  19. Observation of the in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy in [111]-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chunbo; Li, Junbin; Yu, Ying; Ni, Haiqiao; Niu, Zhichuan; Zhang, Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    The electron density and temperature dependent in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy in [111]-grown GaAs quantum well (QW) has been investigated by time-resolved magneto-Kerr rotation technique. Due to the specific symmetry of [111]-grown quantum well, the in-plane Rashba and linear Dresselhaus effective spin-orbit magnetic field is parallel to each other for electron wave vectors in all directions. However, an obvious in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy comparing [2 ¯ 11] with [01 ¯ 1] crystalline orientations has been observed and discussed in this work. Our results demonstrate the innegligible spin dephasing channel through inhomogeneous broadening induced by the out-of-plane non-linear Dresselhaus field, which arises naturally from the C 3 symmetry of [111]-grown GaAs QW

  20. Fractional diffusion models of nonlocal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del

    2006-01-01

    A class of nonlocal models based on the use of fractional derivatives (FDs) is proposed to describe nondiffusive transport in magnetically confined plasmas. FDs are integro-differential operators that incorporate in a unified framework asymmetric non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian ('memory') effects, and nondiffusive scaling. To overcome the limitations of fractional models in unbounded domains, we use regularized FDs that allow the incorporation of finite-size domain effects, boundary conditions, and variable diffusivities. We present an α-weighted explicit/implicit numerical integration scheme based on the Grunwald-Letnikov representation of the regularized fractional diffusion operator in flux conserving form. In sharp contrast with the standard diffusive model, the strong nonlocality of fractional diffusion leads to a linear in time response for a decaying pulse at short times. In addition, an anomalous fractional pinch is observed, accompanied by the development of an uphill transport region where the 'effective' diffusivity becomes negative. The fractional flux is in general asymmetric and, for steady states, it has a negative (toward the core) component that enhances confinement and a positive component that increases toward the edge and leads to poor confinement. The model exhibits the characteristic anomalous scaling of the confinement time, τ, with the system's size, L, τ∼L α , of low-confinement mode plasma where 1<α<2 is the order of the FD operator. Numerical solutions of the model with an off-axis source show that the fractional inward transport gives rise to profile peaking reminiscent of what is observed in tokamak discharges with auxiliary off-axis heating. Also, cold-pulse perturbations to steady sates in the model exhibit fast, nondiffusive propagation phenomena that resemble perturbative experiments

  1. Attraction of nonlocal dark optical solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, Dragomir; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2004-01-01

    We study the formation and interaction of spatial dark optical solitons in materials with a nonlocal nonlinear response. We show that unlike in local materials, where dark solitons typically repel, the nonlocal nonlinearity leads to a long-range attraction and formation of stable bound states...

  2. Nonlocality and localizability in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, K.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlocality of simultaneous spatial correlation of a quantum phenomenon as demonstrated in various versions of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type experiment reduces to nonlocality of the measurement apparatus in the sense that the eigen-wavefunctions for the apparatus are completely specified in a manner of being independent of whatever object it may measure. Nonlocality of the measurement apparatus however serves as no more than a good approximation to reality at best. The theoretical imposition of nonlocality of the measurement apparatus as an approximation is compatible with the actual locality of quantum mechanics that dispenses with an agent claiming globally simultaneous specifiability of boundary conditions, though the genuine locality of quantum mechanics has to be examined without employing the nonlocality of the measurement apparatus. The actual locality of quantum mechanics is intrinsically irreversible in its development

  3. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves...... of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens...... in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we...

  4. Nonlocal Galileons and self-acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Yu, Siqing, E-mail: sy1430@nyu.edu

    2017-05-10

    A certain class of nonlocal theories eliminates an arbitrary cosmological constant (CC) from a universe that can be perceived as our world. Dark energy then cannot be explained by a CC; it could however be due to massive gravity. We calculate the new corrections, which originate from the nonlocal terms that eliminate the CC, to the decoupling limit Lagrangian of massive gravity. The new nonlocal terms also have internal field space Galilean symmetry and are referred here as “nonlocal Galileons.” We then study a self-accelerated solution and show that the new nonlocal terms change the perturbative stability analysis. In particular, small fluctuations are now stable and non-superluminal for some simple parameter choices, whereas for the same choices the pure massive gravity fluctuations are unstable. We also study stable spherically symmetric solutions on this background.

  5. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Mashhoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for “isolated” astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy’s baryonic diameter D 0 —namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time—is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction f D M times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale λ 0 ≈ 3 ± 2 kpc.

  6. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-06-17

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we propose to measure the near-field distribution of a hyperbolic metamaterial lens.

  7. Non-local effects in kaonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.; Florkowski, W.

    2000-04-01

    Optical potentials with non-local (gradient) terms are used to describe the spectra of kaonic atoms. The strength of the non-local terms is determined from a many-body calculation of the kaon self-energy in nuclear matter. The optical potentials show strong non-linearities in the nucleon density and sizeable non-local terms. We find that the non-local terms are quantitatively important and the results depend strongly on the way the gradient terms are arranged. Phenomenologically successful fits are obtained for p-wave like optical potentials. It is suggested that the microscopic form of the non-local interaction terms is obtained systematically by means of a semi-classical expansion of the nucleus structure. We conclude that a microscopic description of kaonic atom data requires further detailed studies of the microscopic K - nuclear dynamics. (orig.)

  8. Generalized non-Local Resistance Expression and its Application in F/N/F Spintronic Structure with Graphene Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huazhou; Fu, Shiwei

    We report our work on the spin transport properties in the F/N/F(ferromagnets/normal metal/ferromagnets) spintronic structure from a new theoretical perspective. A significant problem in the field is to explain the inferior measured order of magnitude for spin lifetime. Based on the known non-local resistance formula and the mechanism analysis of spin-flipping within the interfaces between F and N, we analytically derive a broadly applicable new non-local resistance expression and a generalized Hanle curve formula. After employing them in the F/N/F structure under different limits, especially in the case of graphene channel, we find that the fitting from experimental data would yield a longer spin lifetime, which approaches its theoretical predicted value in graphene. The authors acknowledge the financial support by China University of Petroleum-Beijing and the Key Laboratory of Optical Detection Technology for Oil and Gas in this institution.

  9. A nonlocal application of the dispersive optical model to 208Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, M. A.; Mahzoon, M. H.; Atkinson, M. C.; Charity, R. J.; Dickhoff, W. H.

    2017-09-01

    A nonlocal application of the dispersive optical model to neutrons and protons in 208Pb is presented. A nucleon self-energy is described by parametrized real and imaginary parts connected through a dispersion relation. This parametrization includes nonlocal Hartree-Fock and local Coulomb and spin-orbit real terms, and nonlocal volume and surface and local spin-orbit imaginary terms. A simple Gaussian nonlocality is employed, and appropriate asymmetry parameters are included to describe the N-Z dependence of the nucleus. These parameters are constrained by fitting to experimental data, including particle numbers, energy levels, the charge density, elastic-scattering angular distributions, reaction cross sections, and the neutron total reaction cross section. From the resulting nucleon self-energy, the neutron matter distribution and neutron skin are deduced. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Division of Nuclear Physics under Grant DE-FG02-87ER-40316, the US National Science Foundation under Grants PHY-1304242 and PHY-1613362, and the Washington University Office of Undergraduate Research.

  10. Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blon, T.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Piraux, L.

    2007-01-01

    of single nanowires at room temperature. For small applied magnetic fields, we have measured resistance changes above a critical direct-current (dc) injected current that corresponds to the change in resistance observed in the magnetoresistance curves at low current. We conclude that magnetic reversals...

  11. Direct observation of low energy nuclear spin excitations in HoCrO3 by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, T; Jalarvo, N; Kumar, C M N; Xiao, Y; Brückel, Th

    2013-07-17

    We have investigated low energy nuclear spin excitations in the strongly correlated electron compound HoCrO3. We observe clear inelastic peaks at E = 22.18 ± 0.04 μeV in both energy loss and gain sides. The energy of the inelastic peaks remains constant in the temperature range 1.5-40 K at which they are observed. The intensity of the inelastic peak increases at first with increasing temperature and then decreases at higher temperatures. The temperature dependence of the energy and intensity of the inelastic peaks is very unusual compared to that observed in other Nd, Co, V and also simple Ho compounds. Huge quasielastic scattering appears at higher temperatures presumably due to the fluctuating electronic moments of the Ho ions that get increasingly disordered at higher temperatures. The strong quasielastic scattering may also originate in the first Ho crystal-field excitations at about 1.5 meV.

  12. First observation of alkyne radical anions by electron spin resonance spectroscopy: Hexyne/n-hexane mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, K.; Muto, H.

    1991-01-01

    The radical anions of alkynes have been first observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy following alkene anions previously studied. Hexyne radical anions were formed in 1-, 2-, or 3-hexyne/n--hexane mixed crystals irradiated at 4.2 or 77 K. The characters of the anions were as follows; (a) the α-proton hyperfine coupling is very large (∼4.5 mT for the 1-hexyne anion), (b) the β-proton couplings are very small (∼1.0 mT for C--H β proton with the conformational angle of 0 degree), and (c) the radicals show a negative g shift (2.0014). From these observations, it was found that the anions have a nonlinear(bent) molecule structure in the anticonfiguration (trans C--C≡C--C) with the bend angle ∼60 degree, and that the unpaired electron orbital is approximately composed of the anticombination of the sp 2 hybrid orbitals of the C≡C carbon atoms. A discussion based on complete neglect of differential overlap (CNDO) molecular orbital (MO) calculations was given for the observed negative g shift, which was shown to be characteristic of the alkyne anions which have a high-lying unpaired electron orbital and an antibonding 2p--2p π carbon orbital just above it on the upper energy side

  13. EVIDENCE FOR LOW BLACK HOLE SPIN AND PHYSICALLY MOTIVATED ACCRETION MODELS FROM MILLIMETER-VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF SAGITTARIUS A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Fish, Vincent L; Doeleman, Sheperd S [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Loeb, Abraham [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard University, Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-07-10

    Millimeter very long baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) provides the novel capacity to probe the emission region of a handful of supermassive black holes on sub-horizon scales. For Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, this provides access to the region in the immediate vicinity of the horizon. Broderick et al. have already shown that by leveraging spectral and polarization information as well as accretion theory, it is possible to extract accretion-model parameters (including black hole spin) from mm-VLBI experiments containing only a handful of telescopes. Here we repeat this analysis with the most recent mm-VLBI data, considering a class of aligned, radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. We find that the combined data set rules out symmetric models for Sgr A*'s flux distribution at the 3.9{sigma} level, strongly favoring length-to-width ratios of roughly 2.4:1. More importantly, we find that physically motivated accretion flow models provide a significantly better fit to the mm-VLBI observations than phenomenological models, at the 2.9{sigma} level. This implies that not only is mm-VLBI presently capable of distinguishing between potential physical models for Sgr A*'s emission, but further that it is sensitive to the strong gravitational lensing associated with the propagation of photons near the black hole. Based upon this analysis we find that the most probable magnitude, viewing angle, and position angle for the black hole spin are a = 0.0{sup +0.64+0.86}, {theta}=68{sup o+5o+9o}{sub -20}{sup o}{sub -28}{sup o}, and {xi}=-52{sup o+17o+33o}{sub -15}{sup o}{sub -24}{sup o} east of north, where the errors quoted are the 1{sigma} and 2{sigma} uncertainties.

  14. EVIDENCE FOR LOW BLACK HOLE SPIN AND PHYSICALLY MOTIVATED ACCRETION MODELS FROM MILLIMETER-VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF SAGITTARIUS A*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Loeb, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Millimeter very long baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) provides the novel capacity to probe the emission region of a handful of supermassive black holes on sub-horizon scales. For Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, this provides access to the region in the immediate vicinity of the horizon. Broderick et al. have already shown that by leveraging spectral and polarization information as well as accretion theory, it is possible to extract accretion-model parameters (including black hole spin) from mm-VLBI experiments containing only a handful of telescopes. Here we repeat this analysis with the most recent mm-VLBI data, considering a class of aligned, radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. We find that the combined data set rules out symmetric models for Sgr A*'s flux distribution at the 3.9σ level, strongly favoring length-to-width ratios of roughly 2.4:1. More importantly, we find that physically motivated accretion flow models provide a significantly better fit to the mm-VLBI observations than phenomenological models, at the 2.9σ level. This implies that not only is mm-VLBI presently capable of distinguishing between potential physical models for Sgr A*'s emission, but further that it is sensitive to the strong gravitational lensing associated with the propagation of photons near the black hole. Based upon this analysis we find that the most probable magnitude, viewing angle, and position angle for the black hole spin are a = 0.0 +0.64+0.86 , θ=68 o+5 o +9 o -20 o -28 o , and ξ=-52 o+17 o +33 o -15 o -24 o east of north, where the errors quoted are the 1σ and 2σ uncertainties.

  15. Real-space observation of a right-rotating inhomogeneous cycloidal spin spiral by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy in a triple axes vector magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, S; Mikuszeit, N; Pressler, A; Vedmedenko, E Y; Pietzsch, O; Wiesendanger, R

    2009-10-09

    Using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy performed in a triple axes vector magnet, we show that the magnetic structure of the Fe double layer on W(110) is an inhomogeneous right-rotating cycloidal spin spiral. The magnitude of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vector is extracted from the experimental data using micromagnetic calculations. The result is confirmed by comparison of the measured saturation field along the easy axis to the respective value as obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is too weak to destabilize the single domain state. However, it can define the sense of rotation and the cycloidal spiral type once the single domain state is destabilized by dipolar interaction.

  16. Observed side feeding in incomplete fusion dynamics in 16O + 160Gd reaction at energy ∼5.6 MeV/A: Spin distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rahbar; Afzal Ansari, M.; Singh, D.; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, D. P.; Sharma, M. K.; Gupta, Unnati; Singh, B. P.; Shidling, P. D.; Negi, Dinesh; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Spin distributions of various residues populated via complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) reactions in the interaction of 16O with 160Gd at the projectile energy Eproj ∼ 5.6 MeV/A have been studied. The experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues associated with the ICF reactions are found to be distinctly different from those populated via the CF reactions. An attempt has been made to extract the side-feeding pattern from the spin distributions of CF and ICF reaction products. It has been observed that the CF products are strongly fed over a broad spin range. But, no side-feeding takes place in the low observed spins as low partial waves are strongly hindered in the fast α-emission channels (associated with ICF) in the forward direction. It has also been observed that the mean input angular momentum for direct α-emitting (ICF) channels is relatively higher than evaporation α-emitting (CF) channels, and it increases with direct α-multiplicity in forward direction.

  17. An Observational Study of Tropical Cyclone Spin-Up in Supertyphoon Jangmi and Hurricane Georges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Marks et al. (2008) flight level and radar observations from Hurricane Hugo shown in Figure 9 (their Figure 3) and Hurricane Isabel (Montgomery et al...Figure 3c and Figure 6c) and Persing and Montgomery (2003, their Figures 8, 9, and 12). For the case of Hurricane Hugo , a cross-section of the... Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 1237–1259. McTaggart-Cowan, R., L. F. Bosart, J. R. Gyakum, and E. H. Atallah, 2007: Hurricane Katrina

  18. Experimental nonlocality-based randomness generation with nonprojective measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, S.; Mattar, A.; Gómez, E. S.; Cavalcanti, D.; Farías, O. Jiménez; Acín, A.; Lima, G.

    2018-04-01

    We report on an optical setup generating more than one bit of randomness from one entangled bit (i.e., a maximally entangled state of two qubits). The amount of randomness is certified through the observation of Bell nonlocal correlations. To attain this result we implemented a high-purity entanglement source and a nonprojective three-outcome measurement. Our implementation achieves a gain of 27% of randomness as compared with the standard methods using projective measurements. Additionally, we estimate the amount of randomness certified in a one-sided device-independent scenario, through the observation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. Our results prove that nonprojective quantum measurements allow extending the limits for nonlocality-based certified randomness generation using current technology.

  19. Non-local deformation of a supersymmetric field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qin [National University of Singapore, Department of Physics, Singapore (Singapore); Faizal, Mir [University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge (Canada); University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Shah, Mushtaq B.; Ganai, Prince A. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Srinagar, Kashmir (India); Bhat, Anha [National Institute of Technology, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Srinagar (India); Zaz, Zaid [University of Kashmir, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Srinagar, Kashmir (India); Masood, Syed; Raza, Jamil; Irfan, Raja Muhammad [International Islamic University, Department of Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, we will analyze a supersymmetric field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle and Lifshitz scaling. It will be observed that this deformed supersymmetric field theory contains non-local fractional derivative terms. In order to construct such a deformed N = 1 supersymmetric theory, a harmonic extension of functions will be used. However, the supersymmetry will only be preserved for a free theory and will be broken by the inclusion of interaction terms. (orig.)

  20. On the interplay between neoclassical tearing modes and nonlocal transport in toroidal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, X. Q.; Xu, Y.; Hidalgo, C.; Diamond, P. H.; Liu, Yi; Pan, O.; Shi, Z. B.; Yu, D. L.

    2016-09-01

    This Letter presents the first observation on the interplay between nonlocal transport and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) during transient nonlocal heat transport events in the HL-2A tokamak. The nonlocality is triggered by edge cooling and large-scale, inward propagating avalanches. These lead to a locally enhanced pressure gradient at the q = 3/2 (or 2/1) rational surface and hence the onset of the NTM in relatively low β plasmas (βN < 1). The NTM, in return, regulates the nonlocal transport by truncation of avalanches by local sheared toroidal flows which develop near the magnetic island. These findings have direct implications for understanding the dynamic interaction between turbulence and large-scale mode structures in fusion plasmas.

  1. Spin-Resolved Photoemission on Anti-Ferromagnets: Direct Observation of Zhang-Rice Singlets in CuO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeng, L.H.; Sinkovic, B.; Brookes, N.B.; Goedkoop, J.B.; Hesper, R.; Pellegrin, E.; Groot, F.M.F. de; Altieri, S.; Hulbert, S.L.; Shekel, E.; Sawatzky, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain spin-resolved valence band spectra with a very high degree of spin polarization from antiferromagnetic transition metal materials if the excitation light is circularly polarized and has an energy close to the cation 2p3/2 (L3) white line. We are able to

  2. Experimental observation of the spin-Hall effect in a spin–orbit coupled two-dimensional hole gas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaestner, B.; Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, J.; Nomura, K.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2006), s. 47-52 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin-orbit interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.084, year: 2006

  3. Construction of local and non-local conservation laws for non-linear field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.S.; Volovich, I.V.

    1984-08-01

    A method of constructing conserved currents for non-linear field equations is presented. More explicitly for non-linear equations, which can be derived from compatibility conditions of some linear system with a parameter, a procedure of obtaining explicit expressions for local and non-local currents is developed. Some examples such as the classical Heisenberg spin chain and supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are considered. (author)

  4. Can EPR non-locality be geometrical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence in Quantum Mechanics of non-local correlations is one of the two fundamentally non-intuitive features of that theory. The non-local correlations themselves fall into two classes: EPR and Geometrical. The non-local characteristics of the geometrical type are well-understood and are not suspected of possibly generating acausal features, such as faster-than-light propagation of information. This has especially become true since the emergence of a geometrical treatment for the relevant gauge theories, i.e. Fiber Bundle geometry, in which the quantum non-localities are seen to correspond to pure homotopy considerations. This aspect is reviewed in section 2. Contrary-wise, from its very conception, the EPR situation was felt to be paradoxical. It has been suggested that the non-local features of EPR might also derive from geometrical considerations, like all other non-local characteristics of QM. In[7], one of the authors was able to point out several plausibility arguments for this thesis, emphasizing in particular similarities between the non-local correlations provided by any gauge field theory and those required by the preservation of the quantum numbers of the original EPR state-vector, throughout its spatially-extended mode. The derivation was, however, somewhat incomplete, especially because of the apparent difference between, on the one hand, the closed spatial loops arising in the analysis of the geometrical non-localities, from Aharonov-Bohm and Berry phases to magnetic monopoles and instantons, and on the other hand, in the EPR case, the open line drawn by the positions of the two moving decay products of the disintegrating particle. In what follows, the authors endeavor to remove this obstacle and show that as in all other QM non-localities, EPR is somehow related to closed loops, almost involving homotopy considerations. They develop this view in section 3

  5. Spin-glass behavior of warwickite MgFeBO{sub 4} and CoFeBO{sub 4} crystals observed by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubutin, I.S.; Korotkov, N. Yu.; Frolov, K.V. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, RAS, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazak, N.V.; Platunov, M.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB of RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Knyazev, Yu. V. [Siberian Federal University, 660074 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bezmaternykh, L.N. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB of RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, S.G. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB of RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 660074 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Siberian State Aerospace University, 660014 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Arauzo, A. [Servicio de Medidas Físicas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartolomé, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Spin-glass behavior of MgFeBO{sub 4} and CoFeBO{sub 4} observed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. • Transition temperature T{sub SG} increases strongly with Co substitution. • Dynamical scaling theory near T{sub SG} is fulfilled. • Spin-glass behavior is explained as due to short range correlations. • Inclusion of Co increases exchange interaction and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. - Abstract: Single crystals of MgFeBO{sub 4} and CoFeBO{sub 4} warwickites were obtained. The effects of charge ordering and magnetic properties were investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Cation distribution over M1 and M2 nonequivalent sites and the average charge at the metal positions were established. Low temperature Mössbauer spectra reveal spin-glass behavior, with spin-freezing temperatures T{sub SG} of 15.2 and 33.2 K for Mg- and Co-warwickites, respectively, higher than that observed from the d.c. and a.c. magnetic susceptibility measurements. The difference is explained in terms of dynamical scaling theory. The specific shape of the Mössbauer spectra in the vicinity of the magnetic transition at T{sub SG} shows the difference between spin-glass and superparamagnetic behavior and demonstrates an overwhelming role of the exchange anisotropy in the properties of Mg-warwickite. In Co-warwickite the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy provokes an increase in magnetic viscosity.

  6. Experimental many-pairs nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Hou Shun; Cerè, Alessandro; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Cai, Yu; Sangouard, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Collective measurements on large quantum systems together with a majority voting strategy can lead to a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. In the presence of many entangled pairs, this violation decreases quickly with the number of pairs and vanishes for some critical pair number that is a function of the noise present in the system. Here we show that a different binning strategy can lead to a more substantial Bell violation when the noise is sufficiently small. Given the relation between the critical pair number and the source noise, we then present an experiment where the critical pair number is used to quantify the quality of a high visibility photon pair source. Our results demonstrate nonlocal correlations using collective measurements operating on clusters of more than 40 photon pairs.

  7. Bell's theorem, accountability and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Nicola; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2014-01-01

    Bell's theorem is a fundamental theorem in physics concerning the incompatibility between some correlations predicted by quantum theory and a large class of physical theories. In this paper, we introduce the hypothesis of accountability, which demands that it is possible to explain the correlations of the data collected in many runs of a Bell experiment in terms of what happens in each single run. Under this assumption, and making use of a recent result by Colbeck and Renner (2011 Nature Commun. 2 411), we then show that any nontrivial account of these correlations in the form of an extension of quantum theory must violate parameter independence. Moreover, we analyze the violation of outcome independence of quantum mechanics and show that it is also a manifestation of nonlocality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell's theorem’. (paper)

  8. The influence of the Coulomb-distortion effect on proton-proton observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plessas, W.; Mathelitsch, L.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the Coulomb distortion of the strong interaction is studied on the basis of nucleon-nucleon observables. In particular, cross sections, polarizations, spin-correlation parameters, and spin-transfer coefficients are considered for proton-proton as well as neutron-neutron scattering at laboratory kinetic energies Esub(Lab) = 10, 20, and 50 MeV. The calculations are performed for the meson-theoretical PARIS potential, the nonlocal separable GRAZ potential and also using the Arndt-Hackman-Roper parametrization of proton-proton scattering phase shifts. Important conclusions are drawn with respect to phenomenological phase-shift analyses. (Auth.)

  9. Direct observation of hopping induced spin polarization current in oxygen deficient Co-doped ZnO by Andreev reflection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kung-Shang; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Dwivedi, G.D. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lu-Kuei; Lee, Shang-Fan [Taiwan Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Sun, Shih-Jye [Department of Applied Physics, National Kaohsiung University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hsiung, E-mail: hchou@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Co-doped ZnO thin-films were grown with varying V{sub O} concentartion. • PCAR measurements were done to study the SPC. • High spin polarization was observed above a certain V{sub O} concentartion. • High V{sub O} samples provide a high density of completed percolation path. • This complete percolation path gives rise to high SPC. - Abstract: Oxygen vacancy induced ferromagnetic coupling in diluted magnetic oxide (DMO) semiconductors have been reported in several studies, but technologically more crucial spin-polarized current (SPC) is still under-developed in DMOs. Few studies have claimed that VRH mechanism can originate the SPC, but, how VRH mechanism associated with percolation path, is not clearly understood. We used Point-contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) technique to probe the SPC in Co-doped ZnO (CZO) films. Since the high resistance samples cause broadening in conductance(G)-voltage(V) curves, which may result in an unreliable evaluation of spin polarization, we include two extra parameters, (i) effective temperature and (ii) spreading resistance, for the simulation to avoid the uncertainty in extracting spin polarization. The effective G-V curves and higher spin polarization can be obtained above a certain oxygen vacancy concentration. The number of completed and fragmentary percolation paths is proportional to the concentration of oxygen vacancies. For low oxygen vacancy samples, the Pb-tip has a higher probability of covering fragmentary percolation paths than the complete ones, due to its small contact size. The completed paths may remain independent of one another and get polarized in different directions, resulting in lower spin-polarization value. High oxygen vacancy samples provide a high density of completed path, most of them link to one another by crossing over, and gives rise to high spin-polarization value.

  10. Nonlocality, no-signalling, and Bellʼs theorem investigated by Weyl conformal differential geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini, Francesco; Santamato, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    The principles and methods of conformal quantum geometrodynamics based on Weyl differential geometry are presented. The theory applied to the case of the relativistic single quantum spin-\\frac{1}{2} leads to a novel and unconventional derivation of the Dirac equation. The further extension of the theory to the case of two-spins-\\frac{1}{2} in the EPR entangled state and to the related violation of Bell inequalities leads, by an exact non-relativistic analysis, to an insightful resolution of all paradoxes implied by quantum nonlocality.

  11. Self-consistent study of local and nonlocal magnetoresistance in a YIG/Pt bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Zhou, Zhen-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Guo, Guang-hua

    2018-03-01

    We present a self-consistent study of the local spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) and nonlocal magnon-mediated magnetoresistance (MMR) in a heavy-metal/magnetic-insulator heterostructure at finite temperature. We find that the thermal fluctuation of magnetization significantly affects the SMR. It appears unidirectional with respect to the direction of electrical current (or magnetization). The unidirectionality of SMR originates from the asymmetry of creation or annihilation of thermal magnons induced by the spin Hall torque. Also, a self-consistent model can well describe the features of MMR.

  12. Nonlocality, no-signalling, and Bell's theorem investigated by Weyl conformal differential geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Francesco De; Santamato, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The principles and methods of conformal quantum geometrodynamics based on Weyl differential geometry are presented. The theory applied to the case of the relativistic single quantum spin-(1/2) leads to a novel and unconventional derivation of the Dirac equation. The further extension of the theory to the case of two-spins-(1/2) in the EPR entangled state and to the related violation of Bell inequalities leads, by an exact non-relativistic analysis, to an insightful resolution of all paradoxes implied by quantum nonlocality. (paper)

  13. Notes on nonlocal projective measurements in relativistic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shih-Yuin

    2014-01-01

    In quantum mechanical bipartite systems, naive extensions of von Neumann’s projective measurement to nonlocal variables can produce superluminal signals and thus violate causality. We analyze the projective quantum nondemolition state-verification in a two-spin system and see how the projection introduces nonlocality without entanglement. For the ideal measurements of “R-nonlocal” variables, we argue that causality violation can be resolved by introducing further restrictions on the post-measurement states, which makes the measurement “Q-nonlocal”. After we generalize these ideas to quantum mechanical harmonic oscillators, we look into the projective measurements of the particle number of a single mode or a wave-packet of a relativistic quantum field in Minkowski space. It turns out that the causality-violating terms in the expectation values of the local operators, generated either by the ideal measurement of the “R-nonlocal” variable or the quantum nondemolition verification of a Fock state, are all suppressed by the IR and UV cutoffs of the theory. Thus relativistic quantum field theories with such projective measurements are effectively causal

  14. Entanglement, nonlocality and multi-particle quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Margaret D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper contributes to the proceedings of the Latin-American School of Physics (ELAF-2017) on Quantum Correlations, and is a brief review of quantum entanglement and nonlocality. In such a brief review, only some topics can be covered. The emphasis is on those topics relevant that may be relevant to detecting multi-particle quantum correlations arising in atomic and Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) experiments. The paper is divided into five sections. In the first section, the historical papers of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR), Bell, Schrodinger and Greenberger-Zeilinger-Horne (GHZ) are described in a tutorial fashion. This is followed by an introduction to entanglement and density operators. A discussion of the classes of nonlocality is given in the third section, including the modern interpretation of the correlations of the EPR paradox experiments, known as EPR steering correlations. The fourth section covers the detection and generation of so-called continuous variable entanglement and EPR steering. Various known criteria are derived with the details of the proofs given for tutorial purposes. The final section focuses on the criteria and methods that have been useful to detect quantum correlation in BEC or atomic systems. Recent results relating spin squeezing with quantum correlations, including entanglement and EPR steering, are summarised.

  15. Subquantum nonlocal correlations induced by the background random field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrennikov, Andrei, E-mail: Andrei.Khrennikov@lnu.s [International Center for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, Linnaeus University, Vaexjoe (Sweden); Institute of Information Security, Russian State University for Humanities, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    We developed a purely field model of microphenomena-prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) including correlations for entangled systems, but also gives a possibility to go beyond QM, i.e. to make predictions of phenomena that could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper, we discuss one such prediction-the existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to all quantum systems. (And by PCSFT, quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are 'entangled', but in the sense of classical signal theory. On the one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random background. On the other hand, it demonstrates total generality of such correlations. They exist even for distinguishable quantum systems in factorizable states (by PCSFT terminology-for Gaussian random fields with covariance operators corresponding to factorizable quantum states).

  16. Subquantum nonlocal correlations induced by the background random field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We developed a purely field model of microphenomena-prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) including correlations for entangled systems, but also gives a possibility to go beyond QM, i.e. to make predictions of phenomena that could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper, we discuss one such prediction-the existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to all quantum systems. (And by PCSFT, quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are 'entangled', but in the sense of classical signal theory. On the one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random background. On the other hand, it demonstrates total generality of such correlations. They exist even for distinguishable quantum systems in factorizable states (by PCSFT terminology-for Gaussian random fields with covariance operators corresponding to factorizable quantum states).

  17. Direct observation of the edge spin structure and chain length dependence of a finite haldane chain by high field ESR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ohta, Hitoshi; Ito, Toshimitsu; Ajiro, Yoshitami

    2006-01-01

    We have performed high field and multi-frequency ESR measurements of finite length S=1 antiferromagnetic chains in Y 2 BaNi 0.96 Mg 0.04 O 5 . Owing to the high spectral resolution by high fields and high frequencies, observed ESR signals can be separated into the contributions of the finite chains with various chain lengths. Our results clearly show that the edge spins actually interact with each other through the quantum spin chain and the interaction depends on the chain length N. (author)

  18. Genuinely high-dimensional nonlocality optimized by complementary measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, James; Ryu, Junghee; Yoo, Seokwon; Lee, Changhyoup; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2010-01-01

    Qubits exhibit extreme nonlocality when their state is maximally entangled and this is observed by mutually unbiased local measurements. This criterion does not hold for the Bell inequalities of high-dimensional systems (qudits), recently proposed by Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu and Son-Lee-Kim. Taking an alternative approach, called the quantum-to-classical approach, we derive a series of Bell inequalities for qudits that satisfy the criterion as for the qubits. In the derivation each d-dimensional subsystem is assumed to be measured by one of d possible measurements with d being a prime integer. By applying to two qubits (d=2), we find that a derived inequality is reduced to the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality when the degree of nonlocality is optimized over all the possible states and local observables. Further applying to two and three qutrits (d=3), we find Bell inequalities that are violated for the three-dimensionally entangled states but are not violated by any two-dimensionally entangled states. In other words, the inequalities discriminate three-dimensional (3D) entanglement from two-dimensional (2D) entanglement and in this sense they are genuinely 3D. In addition, for the two qutrits we give a quantitative description of the relations among the three degrees of complementarity, entanglement and nonlocality. It is shown that the degree of complementarity jumps abruptly to very close to its maximum as nonlocality starts appearing. These characteristics imply that complementarity plays a more significant role in the present inequality compared with the previously proposed inequality.

  19. Unified criteria for multipartite quantum nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, E. G.; He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-09-01

    Wiseman and co-workers [H. M. Wiseman, S. J. Jones, and A. C. Doherty, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.140402 98, 140402, (2007)] proposed a distinction among the nonlocality classes of Bell's nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox or steering, and entanglement based on whether or not an overseer trusts each party in a bipartite scenario where they are asked to demonstrate entanglement. Here we extend that concept to the multipartite case and derive inequalities that progressively test for those classes of nonlocality, with different thresholds for each level. This framework includes the three classes of nonlocality above in special cases and introduces a family of others.

  20. Nanoplasmonics: Exploring nonlocal and quantum effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonics is commonly understood within classical electrodynamics with local-response constitutive relations. However, possibilities for nonlocal dynamics and quantum effects emerge with strong spatial confinement in plasmonic nanostructures. This talks reviews recent theory and experiments...

  1. Some generalizations of the nonlocal transformations approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tychynin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some generalizations of a method of nonlocal transformations are proposed: a con­nection of given equations via prolonged nonlocal transformations and finding of an adjoint solution to the solutions of initial equation are considered. A concept of nonlocal transformation with additional variables is introduced, developed and used for searching symmetries of differential equations. A problem of inversion of the nonlocal transforma­tion with additional variables is investigated and in some cases solved. Several examples are presented. Derived technique is applied for construction of the algorithms and for­mulae of generation of solutions. The formulae derived are used for construction of exact solutions of some nonlinear equations.

  2. Employee Travel Data (Non-Local)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — ‘This dataset provides information regarding the total approved actual expenses incurred by Montgomery County government employees traveling non-locally (over 75...

  3. Plasmonic nanostructures: local versus nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Wubs, Martijn; Xiao, Sanshui

    2010-01-01

    , and hence it is sensitive to possible narrow resonances that may arise due to strong electronic quantum confinement in the metal. This feature allows us to accurately determine which geometries are strongly affected by nonlocal response, for example regarding applications based on electric field enhancement......We study the importance of taking the nonlocal optical response of metals into account for accurate determination of optical properties of nanoplasmonic structures. Here we focus on the computational physics aspects of this problem, and in particular we report on the nonlocal-response package...... that we wrote for state-of the art numerical software, enabling us to take into account the nonlocal material response of metals for any arbitrarily shaped nanoplasmonic structures, without much numerical overhead as compared to the standard local response. Our method is a frequency-domain method...

  4. Suzaku Observations of 4U 1957+11: Potentially the Most Rapidly Spinning Black Hole in (the Halo of) the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Joern; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert; Maitra, Dipankar; Miller, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We present three Suzaku observations of the black hole candidate 4U 1957+11 (V 1408 Aql) - a source that exhibits some of. the simplest and cleanest examples of soft, disk-dominated spectra. 4U 1957+ II also presents among the. highest peak temperatures found from disk-dominated spectra. Such temperatures may be associated with rapid black hole spin. The 4U 1957+11 spectra also require a very low normalization, which can be explained by a combination of small inner disk radius and a large distance (> 10 kpc) which places 4U 1957+ 11 well into the Galactic halo. We perform Joint fits to the Suzaku spectra with both relativistic and Comptonized disk models. Assuming a low mass black hole and the nearest distance (3 Stellar Mass, 10 kpc), the dimensionless spin parameter a* = Jc/GM(sup 2)> or approx. 0.9. Higher masses and farther distances yield a* approx. = 1. Similar conclusions are reached with Comptonization models; they imply a combination of small inner disk radii (or, equivalently, rapid spin) and large distance. Low spin cannot be recovered unless 4U 1957+11 is a low mass black hole that is at the unusually large distance of > or approx.40 kpc. We speculate whether the suggested maximal spin is related to how the system came to reside in the halo.

  5. Measurement of Spin Dependent Observables in the $\\overline pN$ Elastic Scattering from 300 to 700 MeV/c

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to measure @*N spin obssservables using a frozen spin target and a high resolution spectrometer (SPES II). The &bar.NN scattering is usually described with NN potentials transformed by G-parity, where the large annihilation cross section (@s^a^n/@s^e^l$>$2) is taken into account. The different theoretical approaches fit reasonably well the existing data on spin integrated cross sections. For the spin dependent observables, the predictions depend consistently on the theoretical inputs.\\\\ \\\\ A strong energy dependence of the @*p polarization Ay(@q) is predicted. We plan to check it measuring the angular distribution of Ay(@q) for @* momenta between 300 and 700 MV/c. Using a deuterium target, measurements of Ay(@q) for @*d in the same energy range will provide information on @*n scattering.\\\\ \\\\ The @* beam hits a 5 mm thick frozen spin target which has a large opening aperture. We expect a polarization of @=~80\\% with a low holding field of (.35Tm). The incident trajectory is de...

  6. The Green’s functions for peridynamic non-local diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. J.; Xu, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we develop the Green’s function method for the solution of the peridynamic non-local diffusion model in which the spatial gradient of the generalized potential in the classical theory is replaced by an integral of a generalized response function in a horizon. We first show that the general solutions of the peridynamic non-local diffusion model can be expressed as functionals of the corresponding Green’s functions for point sources, along with volume constraints for non-local diffusion. Then, we obtain the Green’s functions by the Fourier transform method for unsteady and steady diffusions in infinite domains. We also demonstrate that the peridynamic non-local solutions converge to the classical differential solutions when the non-local length approaches zero. Finally, the peridynamic analytical solutions are applied to an infinite plate heated by a Gauss source, and the predicted variations of temperature are compared with the classical local solutions. The peridynamic non-local diffusion model predicts a lower rate of variation of the field quantities than that of the classical theory, which is consistent with experimental observations. The developed method is applicable to general diffusion-type problems. PMID:27713658

  7. Positronium annihilation in liquids in the framework of non-local interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Tapas; Dutta, Dhanadeep

    2012-01-01

    In the bubble model of ortho positronium (o-Ps) annihilation in liquid the origin of the trapping of o-Ps is the electron-exchange repulsive interaction between the electron of o-Ps and the electron of the medium. The corresponding effective interaction is non-local in nature. However, in the prevalent bubble model, this effective interaction is usually treated as local (model) potential (sharp or smooth). In the present study, we have taken an approach to consider this trapping interaction as non-local in nature, which is included through a model separable non-local function to tackle the problem in analytically solvable manner. The analytical calculations show that this non-local interaction effectively acts as a gauge potential in the energy of the Ps atom in parameter (bubble radius) space. The computed bubble variables obtained using experimental Ps annihilation data are shown. A comparison between the present data with the calculated results using prevalent bubble model has been presented. Discussions have been made on the input parameter dependencies of the computed data. - Highlights: ► Bubble model has been modified by considering positronium-atom non-local interaction. ► No straight forward correlation between bubble size and effective potential is observed. ► Non-local potential acts as a guage potential.

  8. Black hole information, unitarity, and nonlocality

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    The black hole information paradox apparently indicates the need for a fundamentally new ingredient in physics. The leading contender is nonlocality. Possible mechanisms for the nonlocality needed to restore unitarity to black hole evolution are investigated. Suggestions that such dynamics arises from ultra-planckian modes in Hawking's derivation are investigated and found not to be relevant, in a picture using smooth slices spanning the exterior and interior of the horizon. However, no simul...

  9. Gauging Non-local Quark Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broniowski, W.

    1999-09-01

    The gauge effective quark model with non-local interactions is considered. It is shown how this approach regularize the theory in such a way that the anomalies are preserved and charges are properly quantized. With non-local interactions the effective action is finite to all orders in the loop expansion and there is no need to introduce the quark momentum cut-off parameter

  10. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger nonlocality for continuous-variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zengbing; Zhang Yongde

    2002-01-01

    As a development of our previous work, this paper is concerned with the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) nonlocality for continuous-variable cases. The discussion is based on the introduction of a pseudospin operator, which has the same algebra as the Pauli operator, for each of the N modes of a light field. Then the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is presented for the N modes, each of which has a continuous degree of freedom. Following Mermin's argument, it is demonstrated that for N-mode parity-entangled GHZ states (in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space) of the light field, the contradictions between quantum mechanics and local realism grow exponentially with N, similarly to the usual N-spin cases

  11. Singlet ground-state fluctuations in praseodymium observed by muon spin relaxation in PrP and PrP0.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, D R; Waeppling, R; Kalvius, G M; Jr, M F White; Stronach, C E

    2005-01-01

    Muon spin relaxation (μSR) in the singlet ground-state compounds PrP and PrP 0.9 reveals the unusual situation of a Lorentzian local field distribution with fast-fluctuation-limit strong-collision dynamics, a case that does not show motional narrowing. Contrary to publications by others, where PrP 0.9 was asserted to have vacancy-induced spin-glass freezing, no spin-glass freezing is seen in PrP 0.9 or PrP down to ≤100mK. This was confirmed by magnetization measurements on these same samples. In both compounds, the muon spin relaxation rate does increase as temperature decreases, demonstrating increasing strength of the paramagnetic response. A Monte Carlo model of fluctuations of Pr ions out of their crystalline-electric-field singlet ground states into their magnetic excited states (and back down again) produces the strong-collision-dynamic Lorentzian relaxation functions observed at each individual temperature but not the observed temperature dependence. This model contains no exchange interaction, and so predicts decreasing paramagnetic response as the temperature decreases, contrary to the temperature dependence observed. Comparison of the simulations to the data suggests that the exchange interaction is causing the system to approach magnetic freezing (by mode softening), but fails to complete the process

  12. Electron-Hole Asymmetry of Spin Injection and Transport in Single-Layer Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Wei; Wang, W. H.; Pi, K.; McCreary, K. M.; Bao, W.; Li, Yan; Miao, F.; Lau, C. N.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    Spin-dependent properties of single-layer graphene (SLG) have been studied by non-local spin valve measurements at room temperature. Gate voltage dependence shows that the non-local magnetoresistance (MR) is proportional to the conductivity of the SLG, which is the predicted behavior for transparent ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic contacts. While the electron and hole bands in SLG are symmetric, gate voltage and bias dependence of the non-local MR reveal an electron-hole asymmetry in which the non-...

  13. Robust non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.

  14. Spinning worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, H.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1

  15. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  16. Comparative Assessment of Nonlocal Continuum Solvent Models Exhibiting Overscreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Baihua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal continua have been proposed to offer a more realistic model for the electrostatic response of solutions such as the electrolyte solvents prominent in biology and electrochemistry. In this work, we review three nonlocal models based on the Landau-Ginzburg framework which have been proposed but not directly compared previously, due to different expressions of the nonlocal constitutive relationship. To understand the relationships between these models and the underlying physical insights from which they are derive, we situate these models into a single, unified Landau-Ginzburg framework. One of the models offers the capacity to interpret how temperature changes affect dielectric response, and we note that the variations with temperature are qualitatively reasonable even though predictions at ambient temperatures are not quantitatively in agreement with experiment. Two of these models correctly reproduce overscreening (oscillations between positive and negative polarization charge densities, and we observe small differences between them when we simulate the potential between parallel plates held at constant potential. These computations require reformulating the two models as coupled systems of local partial differential equations (PDEs, and we use spectral methods to discretize both problems. We propose further assessments to discriminate between the models, particularly in regards to establishing boundary conditions and comparing to explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Conformal symmetry and nonlinear extensions of nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cusin, Giulia; Maggiore, Michele; Mancarella, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We study two nonlinear extensions of the nonlocal $R\\,\\Box^{-2}R$ gravity theory. We extend this theory in two different ways suggested by conformal symmetry, either replacing $\\Box^{-2}$ with $(-\\Box + R/6)^{-2}$, which is the operator that enters the action for a conformally-coupled scalar field, or replacing $\\Box^{-2}$ with the inverse of the Paneitz operator, which is a four-derivative operator that enters in the effective action induced by the conformal anomaly. We show that the former modification gives an interesting and viable cosmological model, with a dark energy equation of state today $w_{\\rm DE}\\simeq -1.01$, which very closely mimics $\\Lambda$CDM and evolves asymptotically into a de Sitter solution. The model based on the Paneitz operator seems instead excluded by the comparison with observations. We also review some issues about the causality of nonlocal theories, and we point out that these nonlocal models can be modified so to nicely interpolate between Starobinski inflation in the primordia...

  18. Dissipation and nonlocality in a general expanding braneworld universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remazeilles, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of both scalar and tensor cosmological perturbations in a Randall-Sundrum braneworld having an arbitrary expansion history. We adopt a four dimensional point of view where the degrees of freedom on the brane constitute an open quantum system coupled to an environment composed of the bulk gravitons. Because of the expansion of the universe, the brane degrees of freedom and the bulk degrees of freedom interact as they propagate forward in time. Brane excitations may decay through the emission of bulk gravitons which may escape to future infinity, leading to a sort of dissipation from the four dimensional point of view of an observer on the brane. Bulk gravitons may also be reflected off of the curved bulk and reabsorbed by the brane, thereby transformed into quanta on the brane, leading to a sort of nonlocality from the four dimensional point of view. The dissipation and the nonlocality are encoded into the retarded bulk propagator. We estimate the dissipation rates of the bound state as well as of the matter degrees of freedom at different cosmological epochs and for different sources of matter on the brane. We use a near-brane limit of the bulk geometry for the study when purely nonlocal bulk effects are encountered.

  19. A Beautiful Spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiangdong

    2003-01-01

    Spin is a beautiful concept that plays an ever important role in modern physics. In this talk, I start with a discussion of the origin of spin, and then turn to three themes in which spin has been crucial in subatomic physics: a lab to explore physics beyond the standard model, a tool to measure physical observables that are hard to obtain otherwise, a probe to unravel nonperturbative QCD. I conclude with some remarks on a world without spin

  20. Nonlocal response in thin-film waveguides: Loss versus nonlocality and breaking of complementarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Christensen, Thomas; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    the Thomas-Fermi internal kinetic energy of the free electrons in the metal. We derive the nonlocal dispersion relations of the three waveguide structures taking into account also retardation and interband effects, and examine the delicate interplay between nonlocal response and absorption losses...

  1. Weakly nonlocal symplectic structures, Whitham method and weakly nonlocal symplectic structures of hydrodynamic type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltsev, A Ya

    2005-01-01

    We consider the special type of field-theoretical symplectic structures called weakly nonlocal. The structures of this type are, in particular, very common for integrable systems such as KdV or NLS. We introduce here the special class of weakly nonlocal symplectic structures which we call weakly nonlocal symplectic structures of hydrodynamic type. We investigate then the connection of such structures with the Whitham averaging method and propose the procedure of 'averaging' the weakly nonlocal symplectic structures. The averaging procedure gives the weakly nonlocal symplectic structure of hydrodynamic type for the corresponding Whitham system. The procedure also gives 'action variables' corresponding to the wave numbers of m-phase solutions of the initial system which give the additional conservation laws for the Whitham system

  2. Nonlocality and entanglement in qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batle, J [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Casas, M, E-mail: vdfsjbv4@uib.es [Departament de Fisica and IFISC-CSIC, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2011-11-04

    Nonlocality and quantum entanglement constitute two special aspects of the quantum correlations existing in quantum systems, which are of paramount importance in quantum-information theory. Traditionally, they have been regarded as identical (equivalent, in fact, for pure two qubit states, that is, Gisin's Theorem), yet they constitute different resources. Describing nonlocality by means of the violation of several Bell inequalities, we obtain by direct optimization those states of two qubits that maximally violate a Bell inequality, in terms of their degree of mixture as measured by either their participation ratio R = 1/Tr({rho}{sup 2}) or their maximum eigenvalue {lambda}{sub max}. This optimum value is obtained as well, which coincides with previous results. Comparison with entanglement is performed too. An example of an application is given in the XY model. In this novel approximation, we also concentrate on the nonlocality for linear combinations of pure states of two qubits, providing a closed form for their maximal nonlocality measure. The case of Bell diagonal mixed states of two qubits is also extensively studied. Special attention concerning the connection between nonlocality and entanglement for mixed states of two qubits is paid to the so-called maximally entangled mixed states. Additional aspects for the case of two qubits are also described in detail. Since we deal with qubit systems, we will perform an analogous study for three qubits, employing similar tools. Relation between distillability and nonlocality is explored quantitatively for the whole space of states of three qubits. We finally extend our analysis to four-qubit systems, where nonlocality for generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of arbitrary number of parties is computed. (paper)

  3. Experimental nonlocal steering of Bohmian trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya; Kedem, Yaron; Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-06-26

    Interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM), or proposals for underlying theories, that attempt to present a definite realist picture, such as Bohmian mechanics, require strong non-local effects. Naively, these effects would violate causality and contradict special relativity. However if the theory agrees with QM the violation cannot be observed directly. Here, we demonstrate experimentally such an effect: we steer the velocity and trajectory of a Bohmian particle using a remote measurement. We use a pair of photons and entangle the spatial transverse position of one with the polarization of the other. The first photon is sent to a double-slit-like apparatus, where its trajectory is measured using the technique of Weak Measurements. The other photon is projected to a linear polarization state. The choice of polarization state, and the result, steer the first photon in the most intuitive sense of the word. The effect is indeed shown to be dramatic, while being easy to visualize. We discuss its strength and what are the conditions for it to occur.

  4. Observation of the spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling in the 3d photoionization of caesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokhpour, H; Alagia, M; Amusia, M Ya

    2006-01-01

    The ionization cross-section of the 3d spin-orbit components of the Cs atom has been measured from about 12 to 70 eV above their respective thresholds. The measured relative ionization cross-section of the 3d 5/2 channel exhibits a pronounced minimum above threshold followed by a second maximum near the 3d 3/2 ionization onset and thus qualitatively confirms the theoretical predictions of a spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling (Amusia et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett 88 093002)

  5. Observation of the spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling in the 3d photoionization of caesium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhpour, H [Chemistry Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Alagia, M [CNR-ISMN Sez.Roma1, P.le A Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy) and CNR-Lab. Naz. TASC-INFM, Gas Phase Beamline at Elettra, Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)] (and others)

    2006-02-21

    The ionization cross-section of the 3d spin-orbit components of the Cs atom has been measured from about 12 to 70 eV above their respective thresholds. The measured relative ionization cross-section of the 3d{sub 5/2} channel exhibits a pronounced minimum above threshold followed by a second maximum near the 3d{sub 3/2} ionization onset and thus qualitatively confirms the theoretical predictions of a spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling (Amusia et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett 88 093002)

  6. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  7. Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shuo; Luo Xiaoming; Chen Liqing; Ning Bo; Chen Shuai; Wang Jingyang; Zhong Zhiping; Pan Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    We report a prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of a thermal 87 Rb atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated cell. The spin wave is prepared through a stimulated Raman process. The long coherence time is achieved by prolonging the lifetime of the spins with paraffin coating and minimize dephasing with optimal experimental configuration. The observation of the long-time-delayed-stimulated Stokes signal in the writing process suggests the prolonged lifetime of the prepared spins; a direct measurement of the decay of anti-Stokes signal in the reading process shows the coherence time is up to 300 μs after minimizing dephasing. This is 100 times longer than the reported coherence time in the similar experiments in thermal atomic ensembles based on the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller and its improved protocols. This prolonged coherence time sets the upper limit of the memory time in quantum repeaters based on such protocols, which is crucial for the realization of long-distance quantum communication. The previous reported fluorescence background in the writing process due to collision in a sample cell with buffer gas is also reduced in a cell without buffer gas.

  8. A Generalized Nonlocal Calculus with Application to the Peridynamics Model for Solid Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2014-01-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in [2] that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A generalization is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal...

  9. Star-product functions in higher-spin theory and locality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M.A. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-04

    Properties of the functional classes of star-product elements associated with higher-spin gauge fields and gauge parameters are elaborated. Cohomological interpretation of the nonlinear higher-spin equations is given. An algebra ℋ, where solutions of the nonlinear higher-spin equations are valued, is found. A conjecture on the classes of star-product functions underlying (non)local maps and gauge transformations in the nonlinear higher-spin theory is proposed.

  10. Ab initio translationally invariant nonlocal one-body densities from no-core shell-model theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M.; Elster, Ch.; Popa, G.; Launey, K. D.; Nogga, A.; Maris, P.

    2018-02-01

    Background: It is well known that effective nuclear interactions are in general nonlocal. Thus if nuclear densities obtained from ab initio no-core shell-model (NCSM) calculations are to be used in reaction calculations, translationally invariant nonlocal densities must be available. Purpose: Though it is standard to extract translationally invariant one-body local densities from NCSM calculations to calculate local nuclear observables like radii and transition amplitudes, the corresponding nonlocal one-body densities have not been considered so far. A major reason for this is that the procedure for removing the center-of-mass component from NCSM wave functions up to now has only been developed for local densities. Results: A formulation for removing center-of-mass contributions from nonlocal one-body densities obtained from NCSM and symmetry-adapted NCSM (SA-NCSM) calculations is derived, and applied to the ground state densities of 4He, 6Li, 12C, and 16O. The nonlocality is studied as a function of angular momentum components in momentum as well as coordinate space. Conclusions: We find that the nonlocality for the ground state densities of the nuclei under consideration increases as a function of the angular momentum. The relative magnitude of those contributions decreases with increasing angular momentum. In general, the nonlocal structure of the one-body density matrices we studied is given by the shell structure of the nucleus, and cannot be described with simple functional forms.

  11. Spin-polarized spin excitation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2010-01-01

    We report on the spin dependence of elastic and inelastic electron tunneling through transition metal atoms. Mn, Fe and Cu atoms were deposited onto a monolayer of Cu 2 N on Cu(100) and individually addressed with the probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Electrons tunneling between the tip and the substrate exchange energy and spin angular momentum with the surface-bound magnetic atoms. The conservation of energy during the tunneling process results in a distinct onset threshold voltage above which the tunneling electrons create spin excitations in the Mn and Fe atoms. Here we show that the additional conservation of spin angular momentum leads to different cross-sections for spin excitations depending on the relative alignment of the surface spin and the spin of the tunneling electron. For this purpose, we developed a technique for measuring the same local spin with a spin-polarized and a non-spin-polarized tip by exchanging the last apex atom of the probe tip between different transition metal atoms. We derive a quantitative model describing the observed excitation cross-sections on the basis of an exchange scattering process.

  12. Constraining generalized non-local cosmology from Noether symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalized non-local theory of gravity which, in specific limits, can become either the curvature non-local or teleparallel non-local theory. Using the Noether symmetry approach, we find that the coupling functions coming from the non-local terms are constrained to be either exponential or linear in form. It is well known that in some non-local theories, a certain kind of exponential non-local couplings is needed in order to achieve a renormalizable theory. In this paper, we explicitly show that this kind of coupling does not need to be introduced by hand, instead, it appears naturally from the symmetries of the Lagrangian in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Finally, we find de Sitter and power-law cosmological solutions for different non-local theories. The symmetries for the generalized non-local theory are also found and some cosmological solutions are also achieved using the full theory.

  13. Constraining generalized non-local cosmology from Noether symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Complesso di Monte Sant' Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Complesso di Monte Sant' Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    We study a generalized non-local theory of gravity which, in specific limits, can become either the curvature non-local or teleparallel non-local theory. Using the Noether symmetry approach, we find that the coupling functions coming from the non-local terms are constrained to be either exponential or linear in form. It is well known that in some non-local theories, a certain kind of exponential non-local couplings is needed in order to achieve a renormalizable theory. In this paper, we explicitly show that this kind of coupling does not need to be introduced by hand, instead, it appears naturally from the symmetries of the Lagrangian in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Finally, we find de Sitter and power-law cosmological solutions for different non-local theories. The symmetries for the generalized non-local theory are also found and some cosmological solutions are also achieved using the full theory. (orig.)

  14. NLOM - a program for nonlocal optical model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.T.; Kyum, M.C.; Hong, S.W.; Park, M.H.; Udagawa, T.

    1992-01-01

    A FORTRAN program NLOM for nonlocal optical model calculations is described. It is based on a method recently developed by Kim and Udagawa, which utilizes the Lanczos technique for solving integral equations derived from the nonlocal Schroedinger equation. (orig.)

  15. Coupling of nonlocal and local continuum models by the Arlequinapproach

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    for the 'fine scale' description in which nonlocal interactions are considered to have non-negligible effects. Classical continuum mechanics only involving local contact forces is introduced for the rest of the structure where these nonlocal effects can

  16. Accurate nonlocal theory for cascaded quadratic soliton compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Moses, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    We study soliton compression in bulk quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion....

  17. Black hole information, unitarity, and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    The black hole information paradox apparently indicates the need for a fundamentally new ingredient in physics. The leading contender is nonlocality. Possible mechanisms for the nonlocality needed to restore unitarity to black hole evolution are investigated. Suggestions that such dynamics arise from ultra-Planckian modes in Hawking's derivation are investigated and found not to be relevant, in a picture using smooth slices spanning the exterior and interior of the horizon. However, no simultaneous description of modes that have fallen into the black hole and outgoing Hawking modes can be given without appearance of a large kinematic invariant, or other dependence on ultra-Planckian physics. This indicates that a reliable argument for information loss has not been constructed, and that strong gravitational dynamics is important. Such dynamics has been argued to be fundamentally nonlocal in extreme situations, such as those required to investigate the fate of information

  18. Assimilation of GPS Refractivity from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Using a Nonlocal Operator with WRF 3DVAR and Its Impact on the Prediction of a Typhoon Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ya Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlocal observation operator has been developed to assimilate GPS radio occultation (RO refractivity with WRF 3DVAR. For simplicity, in the past GPS RO refractivity was often assimilated using a local observation operator with the assumption that the GPS RO observation was representative of amodel local point. Such an operator did not take into account the effects of horizontal inhomogeneity on the derived GPS RO refractivity. In order to more accurately model the observables, Sokolovskiy et al. (2005a developed a nonlocal observation operator, which would take into account the effects of horizontal inhomogeneity on GPS RO measurements. This nonlocal observation operator calculates the integrated amount of the model refractivity along the ray paths centered at the perigee points. For comparative purposes, the nonlocal observation operator can be simplified by limiting the length of integration near the RO point. This is called the "local operator variant", which is equivalent to the original local operator except that the original one is performed with fixed tangent points at observation levels. For computational efficiency, assimilation using both the nonlocal operator and local operator variant now is performed with smear tangent points at the mean height of each model vertical level. In this study, the statistics of observation errors using both local and nonlocal operators were estimated based on WRF simulations. The observation errors produced by the nonlocal operator are about two times smaller than those generated by the local operator and in agreement with Sokolovskiy et al. (2005b.

  19. Spiraling solitons and multipole localized modes in nonlocal nonlinear media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the propagation of rotating multi-soliton localized structures in optical media with spatially nonlocal nonlinearity. We demonstrate that nonlocality stabilizes the azimuthal breakup of rotating dipole as well as multipole localized soliton modes. We compare the results for two different models of nonlocal nonlinearity and suggest that the stabilization mechanism is a generic property of a spatial nonlocal nonlinear response independent of its particular functional form

  20. Spiralling solitons and multipole localized modes in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the propagation of rotating multi-soliton localized structures in optical media with spatially nonlocal nonlinearity. We demonstrate that nonlocality stabilizes the azimuthal breakup of rotating dipole as well as multipole localized soliton modes. We compare the results for two differe...... models of nonlocal nonlinearity and suggest that the stabilization mechanism is a generic property of a spatial nonlocal nonlinear response independent of its particular functional form....

  1. Nonlocal optical effects on the Goos–Hänchen shifts at multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Bian, Tingting; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Leung, P T

    2016-01-01

    The lateral beam shift of light incident on a multilayered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) is investigated using a theoretical model which emphasizes the nonlocal optical response of the indefinite material. By applying an effective local response theory formulated recently in the literature, it is found that nonlocal effects only affect p polarized light in this Goos–Hänchen (GH) shift of the incident beam; leading to a blue-shifted peak for positive shifts at high frequencies and red-shifted dip for negative shifts at low frequencies in the GH shift spectrum. An account for the observed phenomenon is given by referring to the ‘Brewster condition’ for the reflected wave from the HMM. This observation thus provides a relatively direct probe for the nonlocal response of the HMM. (paper)

  2. Reversed rainbow with a nonlocal metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Tiago A., E-mail: tiago.morgado@co.it.pt; Marcos, João S.; Silveirinha, Mário G., E-mail: mario.silveirinha@co.it.pt [Department of Electrical Engineering, Instituto de Telecomunicações, University of Coimbra, 3030 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, João T. [CST AG, Bad Nauheimer Strasse 19, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Costa, Jorge R. [Instituto de Telecomunicações and Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), 1649-026 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, Carlos A. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, and Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-12-29

    One of the intriguing potentials of metamaterials is the possibility to realize a nonlocal electromagnetic reaction, such that the effective medium response at a given point is fundamentally entangled with the macroscopic field distribution at long distances. Here, it is experimentally and numerically verified that a microwave nonlocal metamaterial formed by crossed metallic wires enables a low-loss broadband anomalous material response such that the refractive index decreases with frequency. Notably, it is shown that an electromagnetic beam refracted by our metamaterial prism creates a reversed microwave rainbow.

  3. On nonlocal modeling in continuum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Martowicz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to provide an overview of nonlocal formulations for models of elastic solids. The author presents the physical foundations for nonlocal theories of continuum mechanics, followed by various analytical and numerical techniques. The characteristics and range of practical applications for the presented approaches are discussed. The results of numerical simulations for the selected case studies are provided to demonstrate the properties of the described methods. The paper is illustrated with outcomes from peridynamic analyses. Fatigue and axial stretching were simulated to show the capabilities of the developed numerical tools.

  4. Hyperbolic metamaterials: Nonlocal response regularizes broadband supersingularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    We study metamaterials known as hyperbolic media that in the usual local-response approximation exhibit hyperbolic dispersion and an associated broadband singularity in the density of states. Instead, from the more microscopic hydrodynamic Drude theory we derive qualitatively different optical...... properties of these metamaterials, due to the free-electron nonlocal optical response of their metal constituents. We demonstrate that nonlocal response gives rise to a large-wavevector cutoff in the dispersion that is inversely proportional to the Fermi velocity of the electron gas, but also for small...

  5. A model of the extended electron and its nonlocal electromagnetic interaction: Gauge invariance of the nonlocal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namsrai, Kh.; Nyamtseren, N.

    1994-09-01

    A model of the extended electron is constructed by using definition of the d-operation. Gauge invariance of the nonlocal theory is proved. We use the Efimov approach to describe the nonlocal interaction of quantized fields. (author). 4 refs

  6. Classification of scalar and dyadic nonlocal optical response models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal optical response is one of the emerging effects on the nanoscale for particles made of metals or doped semiconductors. Here we classify and compare both scalar and tensorial nonlocal response models. In the latter case the nonlocality can stem from either the longitudinal response...

  7. Collapse arrest and soliton stabilization in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Wyller, John

    2002-01-01

    that nonlocality of the nonlinearity prevents collapse in, e.g., Bose-Einstein condensates and optical Kerr media in all physical dimensions. The nonlocal nonlinear response must be symmetric and have a positive definite Fourier spectrum, but can otherwise be of completely arbitrary shape and degree of nonlocality...

  8. Observation of ESR spin flip satellite lines of trapped hydrogen atoms in solid H2 at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Iwata, Nobuchika; Fueki, Kenji; Hase, Hirotomo

    1990-01-01

    ESR spectra of H atoms, produced in γ-irradiated solid H 2 , were studied at 4.2 K. Two main lines of the ESR spectra of H atoms that are separated by about 500 G accompanied two weak satellite lines. Both satellite lines and main lines decrease with the same decay rate. In the D 2 -H 2 mixtures, the satellite-line intensity depends upon the number of matrix protons. The spacing of the satellites from the main lines is equal to that of the NMR proton resonance frequency. It was concluded that the satellite lines were not ascribable to paired atoms but to spin flip lines due to an interaction of H atoms with matrix protons. The analysis of the spin flip lines and the main lines suggests that H atoms in solid H 2 are trapped in the substitutional site

  9. Tight Bell Inequalities and Nonlocality in Weak Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waegell, Mordecai

    A general class of Bell inequalities is derived based on strict adherence to probabilistic entanglement correlations observed in nature. This derivation gives significantly tighter bounds on local hidden variable theories for the well-known Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, and also leads to new proofs of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) theorem. This method is applied to weak measurements and reveals nonlocal correlations between the weak value and the post-selection, which rules out various classical models of weak measurement. Implications of these results are discussed. Fetzer-Franklin Fund of the John E. Fetzer Memorial Trust.

  10. Quadratic solitons for negative effective second-harmonic diffraction as nonlocal solitons with periodic nonlocal response function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B.K.; Bache, Morten; Krolikowski, W.

    2012-01-01

    We employ the formal analogy between quadratic and nonlocal solitons to investigate analytically the properties of solitons and soliton bound states in second-harmonic generation in the regime of negative diffraction or dispersion of the second harmonic. We show that in the nonlocal description...... this regime corresponds to a periodic nonlocal response function. We then use the strongly nonlocal approximation to find analytical solutions of the families of single bright solitons and their bound states in terms of Mathieu functions....

  11. IMPLICATIONS OF NON-LOCALITY OF TRANSPORT IN GEOMORPHIC TRANSPORT LAWS: HILLSLOPES AND LANDSCAPE EVOLUTION MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ganti, V. K.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    Sediment transport on hillslopes can be thought of as a hopping process, where the sediment moves in a series of jumps. A wide range of processes shape the hillslopes which can move sediment to a large distance in the downslope direction, thus, resulting in a broad-tail in the probability density function (PDF) of hopping lengths. Here, we argue that such a broad-tailed distribution calls for a non-local computation of sediment flux, where the sediment flux is not only a function of local topographic quantities but is an integral flux which takes into account the upslope topographic “memory” of the point of interest. We encapsulate this non-local behavior into a simple fractional diffusive model that involves fractional (non-integer) derivatives. We present theoretical predictions from this nonlocal model and demonstrate a nonlinear dependence of sediment flux on local gradient, consistent with observations. Further, we demonstrate that the non-local model naturally eliminates the scale-dependence exhibited by any local (linear or nonlinear) sediment transport model. An extension to a 2-D framework, where the fractional derivative can be cast into a mixture of directional derivatives, is discussed together with the implications of introducing non-locality into existing landscape evolution models.

  12. Non-local matrix generalizations of W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, A.

    1995-01-01

    There is a standard way to define two symplectic (hamiltonian) structures, the first and second Gelfand-Dikii brackets, on the space of ordinary m th -order linear differential operators L=-d m +U 1 d m-1 +U 2 d m-2 +..+U m . In this paper, I consider in detail the case where the U k are nxn-matrix-valued functions, with particular emphasis on the (more interesting) second Gelfand-Dikii bracket. Of particular interest is the reduction to the symplectic submanifold U 1 =0. This reduction gives rise to matrix generalizations of (the classical version of) the non-linear W m -algebras, called V n,m -algebras. The non-commutativity of the matrices leads to non-local terms in these V n,m -algebras. I show that these algebras contain a conformal Virasoro subalgebra and that combinations W k of the U k can be formed that are nxn-matrices of conformally primary fields of spin k, in analogy with the scalar case n=1. In general however, the V m,n -algebras have a much richer structure than the W m -algebras as can be seen on the examples of the non-linear and non-local Poisson brackets {(U 2 ) ab (σ),(U 2 ) cd (σ')}, {(U 2 ) ab (σ),(W 3 ) cd (σ')} and {(W 3 ) ab (σ),(W 3 ) cd (σ')} which I work out explicitly for all m and n. A matrix Miura transformation is derived, mapping these complicated (second Gelfand-Dikii) brackets of the U k to a set of much simpler Poisson brackets, providing the analogue of the free-field representation of the W m -algebras. (orig.)

  13. Controlling the efficiency of spin injection into graphene by carrier drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozsa, C.; Popinciuc, M.; Tombros, N.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.

    Electrical spin injection from ferromagnetic metals into graphene is hindered by the impedance mismatch between the two materials. This problem can be reduced by the introduction of a thin tunnel barrier at the interface. We present room-temperature nonlocal spin valve measurements in

  14. Nonlocality, Entanglement Witnesses and Supra-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    quantum non-locality, non-signaling theories, Popescu-Rohrlich boxes, EPR 1. INTRODUCTION Physics imposes limits on the correlations that can be...References [1] J.S. Bell, “On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox ,” Physics 1, 195 (1964). [2] B. Tsirelson, “Quantum Generalizations of Bell’s

  15. Energy dependence of nonlocal optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A. E.; Bacq, P.-L.; Capel, P.; Nunes, F. M.; Titus, L. J.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a variety of studies have shown the importance of including nonlocality in the description of reactions. The goal of this work is to revisit the phenomenological approach to determining nonlocal optical potentials from elastic scattering. We perform a χ2 analysis of neutron elastic scattering data off 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb at energies E ≈5 -40 MeV, assuming a Perey and Buck [Nucl. Phys. 32, 353 (1962), 10.1016/0029-5582(62)90345-0] or Tian et al. [Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 24, 1550006 (2015), 10.1142/S0218301315500068] nonlocal form for the optical potential. We introduce energy and asymmetry dependencies in the imaginary part of the potential and refit the data to obtain a global parametrization. Independently of the starting point in the minimization procedure, an energy dependence in the imaginary depth is required for a good description of the data across the included energy range. We present two parametrizations, both of which represent an improvement over the original potentials for the fitted nuclei as well as for other nuclei not included in our fit. Our results show that, even when including the standard Gaussian nonlocality in optical potentials, a significant energy dependence is required to describe elastic-scattering data.

  16. Nonlocal study of ultimate plasmon hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    the transition from separated dimers via touching dimers to finally overlapping dimers. In particular, we focus on the touching case, showing a fundamental limit on the hybridization of the bonding plasmon modes due to nonlocality. Using transformation optics, we determine a simple analytical equation...

  17. The statistical strength of nonlocality proofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van W.; Gill, R.D.; Grünwald, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    There exist numerous proofs of Bell's theorem, stating that quantum mechanics is incompatible with local realistic theories of nature. Here the strength of such nonlocality proofs is defined in terms of the amount of evidence against local realism provided by the corresponding experiments.

  18. Local and nonlocal space-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity to subdivide the singularities into two classes: local and nonlocal, each of them to be defined independently, is proved. Both classes of the singularities are defined, and the relation between the definitions introduced and the standard definition of singularities, based on space-time, incompleteness, is established. The relation between definitions introduced and theorems on the singularity existence is also established

  19. Testing nonlocal realism with entangled coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paternostro, Mauro; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the violation of nonlocal realism using entangled coherent states (ECSs) under nonlinear operations and homodyne measurements. We address recently proposed Leggett-type inequalities, including a class of optimized incompatibility inequalities proposed by Branciard et al. [Nature Phys. 4, 681 (2008)], and thoroughly assess the effects of detection inefficiency.

  20. Light Meets Water in Nonlocal Media: Surface Tension Analogue in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikis, Theodoros P.; Frantzeskakis, Dimitrios J.

    2017-06-01

    Shallow water wave phenomena find their analogue in optics through a nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model in 2 +1 dimensions. We identify an analogue of surface tension in optics, namely, a single parameter depending on the degree of nonlocality, which changes the sign of dispersion, much like surface tension does in the shallow water wave problem. Using multiscale expansions, we reduce the NLS model to a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, which is of the KPII (KPI) type, for strong (weak) nonlocality. We demonstrate the emergence of robust optical antidark solitons forming Y -, X -, and H -shaped wave patterns, which are approximated by colliding KPII line solitons, similar to those observed in shallow waters.

  1. From Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox to quantum nonlocality: experimental investigation of quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-11-01

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen published their influential paper proposing a now famous paradox (the EPR paradox) that threw doubt on the completeness of quantum mechanics. Two fundamental concepts: entanglement and steering, were given in the response to the EPR paper by Schrodinger, which both reflect the nonlocal nature of quantum mechanics. In 1964, John Bell obtained an experimentally testable inequality, in which its violation contradicts the prediction of local hidden variable models and agrees with that of quantum mechanics. Since then, great efforts have been made to experimentally investigate the nonlocal feature of quantum mechanics and many distinguished quantum properties were observed. In this work, along with the discussion of the development of quantum nonlocality, we would focus on our recent experimental efforts in investigating quantum correlations and their applications with optical systems, including the study of entanglement-assisted entropic uncertainty principle, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and the dynamics of quantum correlations.

  2. Distributed quantum information processing via quantum dot spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Liu; Qiong, Wang; Le-Man, Kuang; Hao-Sheng, Zeng

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme to engineer a non-local two-qubit phase gate between two remote quantum-dot spins. Along with one-qubit local operations, one can in principal perform various types of distributed quantum information processing. The scheme employs a photon with linearly polarisation interacting one after the other with two remote quantum-dot spins in cavities. Due to the optical spin selection rule, the photon obtains a Faraday rotation after the interaction process. By measuring the polarisation of the final output photon, a non-local two-qubit phase gate between the two remote quantum-dot spins is constituted. Our scheme may has very important applications in the distributed quantum information processing

  3. Quantum non-locality in a two-slit interferometer for short-lived particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new test of quantum nonlocality, using an interferometer for short-lived particles. The separation is large compared with the particle lifetimes. This interferometer is realized by vector meson production in distant heavy ion collisions. The mesons decay before waves from the two sources (ions) can overlap, so interference is only possible among the decay products. The post-decay wave function must retain amplitudes for all possible decays. The decay products are spatially separated, necessitating a non-local wave function. The interference is measurable by summing the product momenta. Alternately, the products positions could be observed, allowing new tests of the EPR paradox

  4. Light pseudoscalar mesons in a nonlocal SU(3) chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpettini, A.; Gomez Dumm, D.; Scoccola, Norberto N.

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties of the light pseudoscalar mesons in a three-flavor chiral quark model with nonlocal separable interactions. We concentrate on the evaluation of meson masses and decay constants, considering both the cases of Gaussian and Lorentzian nonlocal regulators. The results are found to be in quite good agreement with the empirical values, in particular in the case of the ratio f K /f π and the anomalous decay π 0 →γγ. In addition, the model leads to a reasonable description of the observed phenomenology in the η-η ' sector, even though it implies the existence of two significantly different state mixing angles

  5. Light pseudoscalar mesons in a nonlocal three flavor chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Dumm, D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties of light pseudoscalar mesons in a nonlocal three flavor chiral quark model with nonlocal separable interactions. We consider the case of a Gaussian regulator, evaluating meson masses and decay constants. Our results are found to be in good agreement with empirical values, in particular, in the case of the ratio f κ /f π and the decay π 0 → γγ. The model leads also to a reasonable description of the observed phenomenology in the η-η ' sector, where two significantly different mixing angles are required. Detailed description of the work sketched here can be found in Ref. [1]. (author)

  6. The Disk Wind in the Rapidly Spinning Stellar-mass Black Hole 4U 1630-472 Observed with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fabian, Andy C.; Furst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630-472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, a* = 0.985(+0.005/-0.014) (1 sigma statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also report the clear detection of an absorption feature at 7.03 +/- 0.03 keV, likely signaling a disk wind. If this line arises in dense, moderately ionized gas (log xi = 3.6(+0.2/-0.3) and is dominated by He-like Fe xxv, the wind has a velocity of v/c = 0.043(+0.002/-0.007) (12900(+600/-2100) km s(exp -1)). If the line is instead associated with a more highly ionized gas (log xi = 6.1(+0.7/-0.6)), and is dominated by Fe xxvi, evidence of a blueshift is only marginal, after taking systematic errors into account. Our analysis suggests the ionized wind may be launched within 200-1100 Rg, and may be magnetically driven.

  7. Nonlocal astrophysics dark matter, dark energy and physical vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2017-01-01

    Non-Local Astrophysics: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Physical Vacuum highlights the most significant features of non-local theory, a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems in areas where classical local theory runs into difficulties. The book provides the fundamental science behind new non-local astrophysics, discussing non-local kinetic and generalized hydrodynamic equations, non-local parameters in several physical systems, dark matter, dark energy, black holes and gravitational waves. Devoted to the solution of astrophysical problems from the position of non-local physics Provides a solution for dark matter and dark energy Discusses cosmological aspects of the theory of non-local physics Includes a solution for the problem of the Hubble Universe expansion, and of the dependence of the orbital velocity from the center of gravity

  8. Observation of the spin gap in a S=1/2 alternating chain compound, high pressure phase of (VO)2P2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi; Azuma, Masaki; Fujita, Masaki; Takano, Mikio

    2001-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering data were collected on the high pressure phase of (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 , a S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic alternating chain compound. The existence of a spin gap was confirmed, and the size was determined to be Δ=2.15(6) meV (=25.0(7) K). The theoretically predicted second gap (Δ'=2Δ) owing to a 2-magnon bound state was not observed. This is consistent with the high field magnetization measurement reported previously. (author)

  9. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  10. Optical Implementation of Non-locality with Coherent Light Fields for Quantum Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kim Fook

    2008-01-01

    Polarization correlations of two distant observers are observed by using coherent light fields based on Stapp's formulation of nonlocality. Using a 50/50 beam splitter transformation, a vertically polarized coherent light field is found to be entangled with a horizontally polarized coherent noise field. The superposed light fields at each output port of the beam splitter are sent to two distant observers, where the fields are interfered and manipulated at each observer by using a quarter wave...

  11. Observation of spin-parity 2+ dominance in the reaction γγ→ρ0ρ0 near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Glaeser, R.; Harder, G.; Krueger, A.; Nau, A.; Nilsson, A.W.; Nippe, A.; Oest, T.; Reidenbach, M.; Schaefer, M.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Schulz, H.D.; Sefkow, F.; Wurth, R.; Appuhn, R.D.; Drescher, A.; Hast, C.; Herrera, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Scheck, H.; Schieber, M.; Schweda, G.; Spaan, B.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D.; Britton, D.I.; Charlesworth, C.E.K.; Edwards, K.W.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Kutschke, R.; MacFarlane, D.B.; McLean, K.W.; Orr, R.S.; Parsons, J.A.; Patel, P.M.; Prentice, J.D.; Seidel, S.C.; Swain, J.D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tzamariudaki, K.; Yoon, T.S.; Ruf, T.; Schael, S.; Schubert, K.R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Childers, R.; Darden, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction γγ→π + π - π + π - has been studied with the ARGUS detector. The rate in the invariant mass region below 1.8 GeV/c 2 is found to be largely due to ρ 0 ρ 0 production. A spin-parity analysis shows a dominance of the partial wave (J P , J z )=(2 + , 2) with a small admixture from J P =0 + . The contribution of negative parity states is consistent with zero. The large ratio of cross sections σ(γγ→ρ 0 ρ 0 )/σ(γγ→ρ + ρ - )≅4, and the dominance of the J P =2 + wave in the reaction γγ→ρ 0 ρ 0 is a signature consistent with the production of an exotic (I=2) resonance. (orig.)

  12. Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Friedman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenation or fluorination of graphene can be used to create a tunnel barrier. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves and a weakly temperature dependent zero-bias resistance. We demonstrate lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures, and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect. We compare the results for hydrogenated and fluorinated tunnel and we discuss the possibility that ferromagnetic moments in the hydrogenated graphene tunnel barrier affect the spin transport of our devices.

  13. Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adam L.; van't Erve, Olaf M. J.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Whitener, Keith E.; Jonker, Berend T.

    2016-05-01

    Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenation or fluorination of graphene can be used to create a tunnel barrier. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves and a weakly temperature dependent zero-bias resistance. We demonstrate lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures, and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect. We compare the results for hydrogenated and fluorinated tunnel and we discuss the possibility that ferromagnetic moments in the hydrogenated graphene tunnel barrier affect the spin transport of our devices.

  14. Aggregation patterns from nonlocal interactions: Discrete stochastic and continuum modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Hackett-Jones, Emily J.

    2012-04-17

    Conservation equations governed by a nonlocal interaction potential generate aggregates from an initial uniform distribution of particles. We address the evolution and formation of these aggregating steady states when the interaction potential has both attractive and repulsive singularities. Currently, no existence theory for such potentials is available. We develop and compare two complementary solution methods, a continuous pseudoinverse method and a discrete stochastic lattice approach, and formally show a connection between the two. Interesting aggregation patterns involving multiple peaks for a simple doubly singular attractive-repulsive potential are determined. For a swarming Morse potential, characteristic slow-fast dynamics in the scaled inverse energy is observed in the evolution to steady state in both the continuous and discrete approaches. The discrete approach is found to be remarkably robust to modifications in movement rules, related to the potential function. The comparable evolution dynamics and steady states of the discrete model with the continuum model suggest that the discrete stochastic approach is a promising way of probing aggregation patterns arising from two- and three-dimensional nonlocal interaction conservation equations. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  15. Nonlocal correlations as an information-theoretic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Jonathan; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Roberts, David

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that measurements performed on spatially separated entangled quantum systems can give rise to correlations that are nonlocal, in the sense that a Bell inequality is violated. They cannot, however, be used for superluminal signaling. It is also known that it is possible to write down sets of 'superquantum' correlations that are more nonlocal than is allowed by quantum mechanics, yet are still nonsignaling. Viewed as an information-theoretic resource, superquantum correlations are very powerful at reducing the amount of communication needed for distributed computational tasks. An intriguing question is why quantum mechanics does not allow these more powerful correlations. We aim to shed light on the range of quantum possibilities by placing them within a wider context. With this in mind, we investigate the set of correlations that are constrained only by the no-signaling principle. These correlations form a polytope, which contains the quantum correlations as a (proper) subset. We determine the vertices of the no-signaling polytope in the case that two observers each choose from two possible measurements with d outcomes. We then consider how interconversions between different sorts of correlations may be achieved. Finally, we consider some multipartite examples

  16. Nonlocal inhomogeneous broadening in plasmonic nanoparticle ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    Nonclassical effects are increasingly more relevant in plasmonics as modern nanofabrication techniques rapidly approach the extreme nanoscale limits, for which departing from classical electrodynamics becomes important. One of the largest-scale necessary corrections towards this direction...... is to abandon the local response approximation (LRA) and take the nonlocal response of the metal into account, typically through the simple hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM), which predicts a sizedependent deviation of plasmon modes from the quasistatic (QS) limit. While this behaviour has been explored for simple...... metallic nanoparticles (NPs) or NP dimers, the possibility of inhomogeneous resonance broadening due to size variation in a large NP collection and the resulting spectral overlap of modes (as depicted in Fig. 1), has been so far overlooked. Here we study theoretically the effect of nonlocality on ensemble...

  17. Nonlocal synchronization in nearest neighbour coupled oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nashar, H.F.; Elgazzar, A.S.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    2002-02-01

    We investigate a system of nearest neighbour coupled oscillators. We show that the nonlocal frequency synchronization, that might appear in such a system, occurs as a consequence of the nearest neighbour coupling. The power spectra of nonadjacent oscillators shows that there is no complete coincidence between all frequency peaks of the oscillators in the nonlocal cluster, while the peaks for neighbouring oscillators approximately coincide even if they are not yet in a cluster. It is shown that nonadjacent oscillators closer in frequencies, share slow modes with their adjacent oscillators which are neighbours in space. It is also shown that when a direct coupling between non-neighbours oscillators is introduced explicitly, the peaks of the spectra of the frequencies of those non-neighbours coincide. (author)

  18. Nonlocal transport in hot plasma. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of describing charged particle transport in hot plasma under the conditions in which the ratio of the electron mean free path to the gradient length is not too small is one of the key problems of plasma physics. However, up to now, there was a deficit of the systematic interpretation of the current state of this problem, which, in most studies, is formulated as the problem of nonlocal transport. In this review, we fill this gap by presenting a self-consistent linear theory of nonlocal transport for small plasma perturbations and an arbitrary collisionality from the classical highly collisional hydrodynamic regime to the collisionless regime. We describe a number of nonlinear transport models and demonstrate the application of the nonclassical transport theory to the solution of some problems of plasma physics, first of all for plasmas produced by nanosecond laser pulses with intensities of 10 13 –10 16 W/cm 2

  19. Nonlocal Operational Calculi for Dunkl Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Dimovski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional Dunkl operator $D_k$ with a non-negative parameter $k$, is considered under an arbitrary nonlocal boundary value condition. The right inverse operator of $D_k$, satisfying this condition is studied. An operational calculus of Mikusinski type is developed. In the frames of this operational calculi an extension of the Heaviside algorithm for solution of nonlocal Cauchy boundary value problems for Dunkl functional-differential equations $P(D_ku = f$ with a given polynomial $P$ is proposed. The solution of these equations in mean-periodic functions reduces to such problems. Necessary and sufficient condition for existence of unique solution in mean-periodic functions is found.

  20. Nonlocality and short-range wetting phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Romero-Enrique, J M; Lazarides, A

    2004-08-20

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  1. Nonlocality and Short-Range Wetting Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A. O.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Lazarides, A.

    2004-08-01

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  2. Geometrical spin symmetry and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, I. B.

    2011-01-01

    Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics leads to General Quantum Mechanics which includes into itself spindynamics as a theory of spin phenomena. The key concepts of spindynamics are geometrical spin symmetry and the spin field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). The essence of spin is the bipolar structure of geometrical spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potential. The bipolar structure provides a natural derivation of the equations of spindynamics. Spindynamics involves all phenomena connected with spin and provides new understanding of the strong interaction.

  3. Boundary fluxes for non-local diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Cortazar, C.; Elgueta, M.; Rossi, J. D.; Wolanski, N.

    2006-01-01

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  4. Using nonlocal coherence to quantify quantum correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Pei; Wang, Wei; Li, Chong; Song, He-Shan

    2010-01-01

    We reexamine quantum correlation from the fundamental perspective of its consanguineous quantum property, the coherence. We emphasize the importance of specifying the tensor product structure of the total state space before discussing quantum correlation. A measure of quantum correlation for arbitrary dimension bipartite states using nonlocal coherence is proposed, and it can be easily generalized to the multipartite case. The quantification of non-entangled component within quantum correlati...

  5. Nonlocal Boltzmann theory of plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.S.; Melendez, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical framework for the LLNL code NUTS is developed. This code is designed to study the evolution of an electron-beam-generated plasma channel at all pressures. The Boltzmann treatment of the secondary electrons presented include all inertial, nonlocal, electric and magnetic effects, as well as effects of atomic collisions. Field equations are advanced simultaneously and self-consistently with the evolving plasma currents

  6. Switching non-local vector median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.

  7. Classical spins in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, H [Tokyo Univ.; Maki, K

    1968-08-01

    It is shown that there exists a localized excited state in the energy gap in a superconductor with a classical spin. At finite concentration localized excited states around classical spins form an impurity band. The process of growth of the impurity band and its effects on observable quantities are investigated.

  8. Multipartite nonlocality and random measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosier, Anna; Gruca, Jacek; Parisio, Fernando; Vértesi, Tamás; Laskowski, Wiesław

    2017-07-01

    We present an exhaustive numerical analysis of violations of local realism by families of multipartite quantum states. As an indicator of nonclassicality we employ the probability of violation for randomly sampled observables. Surprisingly, it rapidly increases with the number of parties or settings and even for relatively small values local realism is violated for almost all observables. We have observed this effect to be typical in the sense that it emerged for all investigated states including some with randomly drawn coefficients. We also present the probability of violation as a witness of genuine multipartite entanglement.

  9. Lateral spin injection and detection via electrodeposited Fe/GaAs contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Sarmita

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies of lateral spin injection and detection through electrodeposited Fe/GaAs tunnel contacts are reported in this thesis. An enhanced spin valve voltage is demonstrated via non-local lateral spin transport measurements compared to their vacuum-deposited counterparts. We have proposed a simple theoretical model to explain this result. Combined with experimental evidence for interfacial oxygen from atom probe tomography, we speculate that the enhancements occur due to a magne...

  10. Viscoelastic optical nonlocality of doped cadmium oxide epsilon-near-zero thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, Ting S.; De Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael; Vincenti, Maria A.; Campione, Salvatore; Kelley, Kyle; Maria, Jon-Paul; Keeler, Gordon A.

    2017-08-01

    Optical nonlocalities are elusive and hardly observable in traditional plasmonic materials like noble and alkali metals. Here we experimentally observe and theoretically model viscoelastic nonlocalities in the infrared optical response of a doped, cadmium oxide epsilon-near-zero thin film. The nonlocality is clearly detectable thanks to the low damping rate of conduction electrons and the virtual absence of interband transitions at infrared wavelengths. We describe the motion of conduction electrons using a hydrodynamic model for a viscoelastic fluid, and find excellent agreement with experimental results. The electrons’ elasticity blue-shifts the infrared plasmonic resonance associated with the main epsilon-near-zero mode, and triggers the onset of higher-order resonances due to the excitation of electron-pressure modes above the bulk plasma frequency. We also provide evidence of the existence of nonlocal damping, i.e., viscosity, in the motion of optically-excited conduction electrons using a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry data and predictions based on the viscoelastic hydrodynamic model.

  11. Gap solitons under competing local and nonlocal nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Kuan-Hsien; Lin Yuanyao; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the existence, bifurcations, and shape transformations of one-dimensional gap solitons (GSs) in the first finite band gap induced by a periodic potential built into materials with local self-focusing and nonlocal self-defocusing nonlinearities. Originally stable on-site GS modes become unstable near the upper edge of the band gap with the introduction of the nonlocal self-defocusing nonlinearity with a small nonlocality radius. Unstable off-site GSs bifurcate into a new branch featuring single-humped, double-humped, and flat-top modes due to the competition between local and nonlocal nonlinearities. The mechanism underlying the complex bifurcation pattern and cutoff effects (termination of some bifurcation branches) is illustrated in terms of the shape transformation under the action of the varying degree of the nonlocality. The results of this work suggest a possibility of optical-signal processing by means of the competing nonlocal and local nonlinearities.

  12. Non-local correlations within dynamical mean field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang

    2009-03-15

    The contributions from the non-local fluctuations to the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) were studied using the recently proposed dual fermion approach. Straight forward cluster extensions of DMFT need the solution of a small cluster, where all the short-range correlations are fully taken into account. All the correlations beyond the cluster scope are treated in the mean-field level. In the dual fermion method, only a single impurity problem needs to be solved. Both the short and long-range correlations could be considered on equal footing in this method. The weak-coupling nature of the dual fermion ensures the validity of the finite order diagram expansion. The one and two particle Green's functions calculated from the dual fermion approach agree well with the Quantum Monte Carlo solutions, and the computation time is considerably less than with the latter method. The access of the long-range order allows us to investigate the collective behavior of the electron system, e.g. spin wave excitations. (orig.)

  13. Non-local correlations within dynamical mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gang

    2009-03-01

    The contributions from the non-local fluctuations to the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) were studied using the recently proposed dual fermion approach. Straight forward cluster extensions of DMFT need the solution of a small cluster, where all the short-range correlations are fully taken into account. All the correlations beyond the cluster scope are treated in the mean-field level. In the dual fermion method, only a single impurity problem needs to be solved. Both the short and long-range correlations could be considered on equal footing in this method. The weak-coupling nature of the dual fermion ensures the validity of the finite order diagram expansion. The one and two particle Green's functions calculated from the dual fermion approach agree well with the Quantum Monte Carlo solutions, and the computation time is considerably less than with the latter method. The access of the long-range order allows us to investigate the collective behavior of the electron system, e.g. spin wave excitations. (orig.)

  14. Numerical fluid solutions for nonlocal electron transport in hot plasmas: Equivalent diffusion versus nonlocal source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, Denis; Manheimer, Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Flux limitation and preheat are important processes in electron transport occurring in laser produced plasmas. The proper calculation of both of these has been a subject receiving much attention over the entire lifetime of the laser fusion project. Where nonlocal transport (instead of simple single flux limit) has been modeled, it has always been with what we denote the equivalent diffusion solution, namely treating the transport as only a diffusion process. We introduce here a new approach called the nonlocal source solution and show it is numerically viable for laser produced plasmas. It turns out that the equivalent diffusion solution generally underestimates preheat. Furthermore, the advance of the temperature front, and especially the preheat, can be held up by artificial 'thermal barriers'. The nonlocal source method of solution, on the other hand more accurately describes preheat and can stably calculate the solution for the temperature even if the heat flux is up the gradient.

  15. THE DISK WIND IN THE RAPIDLY SPINNING STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLE 4U 1630–472 OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Walton, Dominic J.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, Andy C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, INAF-IAPS, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: ashking@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630–472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, a{sub ∗}=0.985{sub −0.014}{sup +0.005} (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also report the clear detection of an absorption feature at 7.03 ± 0.03 keV, likely signaling a disk wind. If this line arises in dense, moderately ionized gas (log ξ=3.6{sub −0.3}{sup +0.2}) and is dominated by He-like Fe XXV, the wind has a velocity of v/c=0.043{sub −0.007}{sup +0.002} (12900{sub −2100}{sup +600} km s{sup –1}). If the line is instead associated with a more highly ionized gas (log ξ=6.1{sub −0.6}{sup +0.7}), and is dominated by Fe XXVI, evidence of a blueshift is only marginal, after taking systematic errors into account. Our analysis suggests the ionized wind may be launched within 200-1100 Rg, and may be magnetically driven.

  16. Studies on nonlocal optical nonlinearity of Sr–CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamgadge, Y.S.; Talwatkar, S.S.; Sunatkari, A.L.; Pahurkar, V.G.; Muley, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Thermally induced nonlocal nonlinear optical properties of strontium (Sr) doped CuO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films under continuous wave Helium–Neon laser illumination are investigated by single beam Z-scan method. Undoped and Sr doped CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using L-arginine as surface modifying agent have been synthesized by wet chemical method and their thin films with PVA as host matrix have been obtained by spin coating technique. Structure, morphology and purity of prepared CuO NPs and thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fourier transform infra-red spectrum attests the role of L-arginine as surface modifier and ultraviolet–visible absorption studies reveal that the excitonic absorption wavelengths are blue shifted for strontium doped CuO NPs. Sr doped CuO NPs with average particle size of 7 nm and calculated optical band gap up to 2.54 eV have been reported. All Sr doped CuO–PVA nanocomposite thin films show enhanced nonlinear refraction and absorption best suited for optical limiting applications. Observed effects have been attributed to thermal lensing effect. - Highlights: • Pure and strontium doped CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films are prepared. • Z-scan studies of thin films are performed under continuous wave helium–neon laser. • Enhanced values of third order nonlinear optical coefficients are obtained for all films. • Thermally induced self-defocusing and reverse saturable absorption have been discussed.

  17. Studies on nonlocal optical nonlinearity of Sr–CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamgadge, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Mahatma Fule Arts, Commerce and S C Science Mahavidyalaya, Warud, Dist. Amravati (MS), 444906 (India); Talwatkar, S.S. [Department of Physics, D K Marathe and N G Acharya College, Chembur, Mumbai (MS) 440071 (India); Sunatkari, A.L. [Department of Physics, Siddharth College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Fort, Mumbai (MS) 440001 (India); Pahurkar, V.G. [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), 444602 (India); Muley, G.G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), 444602 (India)

    2015-11-30

    Thermally induced nonlocal nonlinear optical properties of strontium (Sr) doped CuO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films under continuous wave Helium–Neon laser illumination are investigated by single beam Z-scan method. Undoped and Sr doped CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using L-arginine as surface modifying agent have been synthesized by wet chemical method and their thin films with PVA as host matrix have been obtained by spin coating technique. Structure, morphology and purity of prepared CuO NPs and thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fourier transform infra-red spectrum attests the role of L-arginine as surface modifier and ultraviolet–visible absorption studies reveal that the excitonic absorption wavelengths are blue shifted for strontium doped CuO NPs. Sr doped CuO NPs with average particle size of 7 nm and calculated optical band gap up to 2.54 eV have been reported. All Sr doped CuO–PVA nanocomposite thin films show enhanced nonlinear refraction and absorption best suited for optical limiting applications. Observed effects have been attributed to thermal lensing effect. - Highlights: • Pure and strontium doped CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films are prepared. • Z-scan studies of thin films are performed under continuous wave helium–neon laser. • Enhanced values of third order nonlinear optical coefficients are obtained for all films. • Thermally induced self-defocusing and reverse saturable absorption have been discussed.

  18. Deep neural networks for direct, featureless learning through observation: The case of two-dimensional spin models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kyle; Tamblyn, Isaac

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate the capability of a convolutional deep neural network in predicting the nearest-neighbor energy of the 4 ×4 Ising model. Using its success at this task, we motivate the study of the larger 8 ×8 Ising model, showing that the deep neural network can learn the nearest-neighbor Ising Hamiltonian after only seeing a vanishingly small fraction of configuration space. Additionally, we show that the neural network has learned both the energy and magnetization operators with sufficient accuracy to replicate the low-temperature Ising phase transition. We then demonstrate the ability of the neural network to learn other spin models, teaching the convolutional deep neural network to accurately predict the long-range interaction of a screened Coulomb Hamiltonian, a sinusoidally attenuated screened Coulomb Hamiltonian, and a modified Potts model Hamiltonian. In the case of the long-range interaction, we demonstrate the ability of the neural network to recover the phase transition with equivalent accuracy to the numerically exact method. Furthermore, in the case of the long-range interaction, the benefits of the neural network become apparent; it is able to make predictions with a high degree of accuracy, and do so 1600 times faster than a CUDA-optimized exact calculation. Additionally, we demonstrate how the neural network succeeds at these tasks by looking at the weights learned in a simplified demonstration.

  19. Sigma observation of the pulsar OAO 1657 - 415: Precise localization at hard X-ray energy and discovery of spin-down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mereghetti, S.; Mandrou, P.; Natalucci, L.; Ballet, J.; Lambert, A.

    1991-01-01

    The region of sky containing the 38 s X-ray pulsar OAO 1657 - 415 has been observed on March 1990 with Sigma, an imaging gamma-ray telescope exploiting the coded mask technique. This observation has yielded an accurate (about arcminute-scale) localization for OAO 1657 - 415 at hard X-ray energy, confirming its association with a previously suggested soft X-ray candidate. A timing analysis of the 40-120 keV data has revealed for the first time a spin-down episode in OAO 1657 - 415, implying that an important change in the accretion torque experienced by this X-ray pulsar must have recently occurred. 18 refs

  20. Experimental demonstration of conflicting interest nonlocal games using superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Haozhen; Li, Lvzhou; Huang, Zhiming; He, Zhimin; Zhang, Cai

    2018-06-01

    Conflicting interest nonlocal games are special Bayesian games played by noncooperative players without communication. In recent years, some conflicting interest nonlocal games have been proposed where quantum advice can help players to obtain higher payoffs. In this work we perform an experiment of six conflicting interest nonlocal games using the IBM quantum computer made up of five superconducting qubits. The experimental results demonstrate quantum advantage in four of these games, whereas the other two games fail to showcase quantum advantage in the experiment.

  1. Modulational instability and nonlocality management in coupled NLS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doktorov, Evgeny V; Molchan, Maxim A

    2007-01-01

    The modulational instability of two interacting waves in a nonlocal Kerr-type medium is considered analytically and numerically. For a generic choice of wave amplitudes, we give a complete description of stable/unstable regimes for zero group-velocity mismatch. It is shown that nonlocality suppresses considerably the growth rate and bandwidth of instability. For nonzero group-velocity mismatch we perform a geometrical analysis of a nonlocality management which can provide stability of waves otherwise unstable in a local medium

  2. Quantum gravitational collapse: non-singularity and non-locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate gravitational collapse in the context of quantum mechanics. We take primary interest in the behavior of the collapse near the horizon and near the origin (classical singularity) from the point of view of an infalling observer. In the absence of radiation, quantum effects near the horizon do not change the classical conclusions for an infalling observer, meaning the horizon is not an obstacle for him. However, quantum effects are able to remove the classical singularity at the origin, since the wave function is non-singular at the origin. Also, near the classical singularity, some non-local effects become important. In the Schrodinger equation describing behavior near the origin, derivatives of the wave function at one point are related to the value of the wave function at some other distant point.

  3. Spin Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  4. Nonlocal effects on dynamic damage accumulation in brittle solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, E.P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a nonlocal analysis of the dynamic damage accumulation processes in brittle solids. A nonlocal formulation of a microcrack based continuum damage model is developed and implemented into a transient dynamic finite element computer code. The code is then applied to the study of the damage accumulation process in a concrete plate with a central hole and subjected to the action of a step tensile pulse applied at opposite edges of the plate. Several finite element discretizations are used to examine the mesh size effect. Comparisons between calculated results based on local and nonlocal formulations are made and nonlocal effects are discussed.

  5. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazuelos, Carlos; Vidick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states

  6. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palazuelos, Carlos, E-mail: cpalazue@mat.ucm.es [Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vidick, Thomas, E-mail: vidick@cms.caltech.edu [Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.

  7. Correlation between the luminosity and spin-period changes during outbursts of 12 Be binary pulsars observed by the MAXI/GSC and the Fermi/GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nakajima, Motoki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2017-12-01

    To study observationally the spin-period changes of accreting pulsars caused by the accretion torque, the present work analyzes X-ray light curves of 12 Be binary pulsars obtained by the MAXI Gas-Slit Camera all-sky survey and their pulse periods measured by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor pulsar project, both covering more than six years, from 2009 August to 2016 March. The 12 objects were selected because they are accompanied by clear optical identification and accurate measurements of surface magnetic fields. The luminosity L and the spin-frequency derivatives \\dot{ν}, measured during large outbursts with L ≳ 1 × 1037 erg s-1, were found to follow approximately the theoretical relations in the accretion torque models, represented by \\dot{ν} ∝ L^{α} (α ≃ 1), and the coefficient of proportionality between \\dot{ν} and Lα agrees, within a factor of ˜3, with that proposed by Ghosh and Lamb (1979b, ApJ, 234, 296). In the course of the present study, the orbital elements of several sources were refined.

  8. Two methods for nuclear spin determination in collinear laser spectroscopy: classical r.f. magnetic resonance and observation of the Larmor precession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendali, N.; Duong, H.T.; Saint-Jalm, J.M.; Vialle, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of nuclear spin in the collinear laser spectroscopy method has been investigated using a fast sodium atomic beam excited collinearly by a C.W. single mode dye laser beam. The atomic magnetic moments are first aligned by optical pumping process, then they interact with a static magnetic field H 0 . The magnetic alignment of the atomic system just at the exit of the magnetic field is monitored by the laser induced fluorescence. Upon varying the amplitude of H 0 , the fluorescence signal presents a fringed structure. This structure is due to the Larmor precession of the aligned magnetic moments around H 0 , and therefore it is a signature of the spin involved. The modulation patterns corresponding to different relative orientations of H 0 and light polarization direction, are fitted by an analytical formula. In a second step, a classical magnetic resonance experiment with a static magnetic field and a radiofrequency field has been performed. The monocinetic character of our fast atomic beam allowed us to observe, even at high r.f. power, resonances line shapes in agreement with the Majorana formula

  9. Efficient linear criterion for witnessing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen nonlocality under many-setting local measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Lin; Zhen, Yi-Zheng; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Kai; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The striking and distinctive nonlocal features of quantum mechanics were discovered by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) beyond classical physics. At the core of the EPR argument, it was "steering" that Schrödinger proposed in 1935. Besides its fundamental significance, quantum steering opens up a novel application for quantum communication. Recent work has precisely characterized its properties; however, witnessing the EPR nonlocality remains a big challenge under arbitrary local measurements. Here we present an alternative linear criterion and complement existing results to efficiently testify steering for high-dimensional system in practice. By developing a novel and analytical method to tackle the maximization problem in deriving the bound of a steering criterion, we show how observed correlations can reveal powerfully the EPR nonlocality in an easily accessed manner. Although the criteria is not necessary and sufficient, it can recover some of the known results under a few settings of local measurements and is applicable even if the size of the system or the number of measurement settings are high. Remarkably, a deep connection is explicitly established between the steering and amount of entanglement. The results promise viable paths for secure communication with an untrusted source, providing optional loophole-free tests of the EPR nonlocality for high-dimensional states, as well as motivating solutions for other related problems in quantum information theory.

  10. Multistate observations of the Galactic black hole XTE J1752-223: evidence for an intermediate black hole spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.C.; Miller, J.M.; Fabian, A.C.; Cackett, E.M.; Maitra, D.; Reynolds, C.S.; Rupen, M.; Steeghs, D.T.H.; Wijnands, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1752−223 was observed during the decay of its 2009 outburst with the Suzaku and XMM-Newton observatories. The observed spectra are consistent with the source being in the ‘intermediate’ and ‘low-hard’ states, respectively. The presence of a strong, relativistic

  11. PREFACE: Spin Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.

    2007-04-01

    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  12. Creating and manipulating nonequilibrium spins in nanoscale superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Michael J.; Kolenda, Stefan; Beckmann, Detlef [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Huebler, Florian [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Suergers, Christoph; Fischer, Gerda [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We report on nonlocal transport in superconductor hybrid structures, with ferromagnetic as well as normal-metal tunnel junctions attached to the superconductor. In the presence of a strong Zeeman splitting of the density of states, we find signatures of spin transport over distances of several μm, exceeding other length scales such as the coherence length, the normal-state spin-diffusion length, and the charge-imbalance length. Using a combination of ferromagnetic and normal-metal contacts, we demonstrate spin injection from a normal metal, and show a complete separation of charge and spin imbalance. An exchange splitting induced by the ferromagnetic insulator europium sulfide enables spin transport at very small applied magnetic fields, and therefore paves the way to manipulating spin currents by local exchange fields.

  13. Electrical spin injection into high mobility 2D systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltscher, M; Ciorga, M; Utz, M; Schuh, D; Bougeard, D; Weiss, D

    2014-12-05

    We report on spin injection into a high mobility 2D electron system confined at an (Al,Ga)As/GaAs interface, using (Ga,Mn)As Esaki diode contacts as spin aligners. We measured a clear nonlocal spin valve signal, which varies nonmonotonically with the applied bias voltage. The magnitude of the signal cannot be described by the standard spin drift-diffusion model, because at maximum this would require the spin polarization of the injected current to be much larger than 100%, which is unphysical. A strong correlation of the spin signal with contact width and electron mean free path suggests that ballistic transport in the 2D region below ferromagnetic contacts should be taken into account to fully describe the results.

  14. Electronic and structural aspects of spin transitions observed by optical microscopy. The case of [Fe(ptz)6](BF4)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Christian; Mishra, Haritosh; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Denise, Stéphane; Bouchez, Guillaume; Collet, Eric; Ameline, Jean-Claude; Naik, Anil D; Garcia, Yann; Varret, François

    2010-02-11

    The colorimetric analysis of images recorded with an optical microscope during the onset of the spin crossover transformation allows monitoring separately the involved electronic and structural aspects, through the separation of resonant absorption and scattering effects. Complementary information can also be obtained by using the polarized modes of the microscope. These potentialities are illustrated by the observation of [Fe(ptz)(6)](BF(4))(2) single crystals during the onset of the thermal transitions in the 110-140 K range. We characterized the interplay between the electronic (HS LS) and structural (order disorder) transformations. Elastic stresses and mechanical effects (hopping, self-cleavage) generated by the volume change upon electronic transition are also illustrated, with their impact on the photoswitching properties of the crystals.

  15. Chimera states in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators with biharmonic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongyan; Dai, Qionglin; Wu, Nianping; Feng, Yuee; Li, Haihong; Yang, Junzhong

    2018-03-01

    Chimera states, which consist of coexisting domains of coherent and incoherent parts, have been observed in a variety of systems. Most of previous works on chimera states have taken into account specific form of interaction between oscillators, for example, sinusoidal coupling or diffusive coupling. Here, we investigate chimera dynamics in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators with biharmonic interaction. We find novel chimera states with features such as that oscillators in the same coherent cluster may split into two groups with a phase difference around π/2 and that oscillators in adjacent coherent clusters may have a phase difference close to π/2. The different impacts of the coupling ranges in the first and the second harmonic interactions on chimera dynamics are investigated based on the synchronous dynamics in globally coupled phase oscillators. Our study suggests a new direction in the field of chimera dynamics.

  16. The nonlocal elastomagnetoelectrostatics of disordered micropolar media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabychenkov, A. F.; Lisiovskii, F. V.

    2016-01-01

    The interactions of electric, magnetic, and elastic subsystems in nonlinear disordered micropolar media that possess a bending–torsion tensor and an nonsymmetric strain tensor have been studied in the framework of phenomenological elastomagnetoelectrostatics. A system of nonlinear equations for determining the ground state of these media has been obtained by the variational method. It is shown that nonuniform external and internal rotations not only create elastic stresses, but also generate additional electric and magnetic fields, while nonuniform elastic stresses and external fields induce internal rotations. The nonlocal character of the micropolar media significantly influences elementary excitations and nonlinear dynamic processes.

  17. Some loopholes to save quantum nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardi, Luigi

    2005-02-01

    The EPR-chameleon experiment has closed a long standing debate between the supporters of quantum nonlocality and the thesis of quantum probability according to which the essence of the quantum pecularity is non Kolmogorovianity rather than non locality. The theory of adaptive systems (symbolized by the chameleon effect) provides a natural intuition for the emergence of non-Kolmogorovian statistics from classical deterministic dynamical systems. These developments are quickly reviewed and in conclusion some comments are introduced on recent attempts to "reconstruct history" on the lines described by Orwell in "1984".

  18. Pion polarizability in nonlocal quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.; Okhlopkova, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The γγ→ππ amplitude was calculated in nonlocal quark model in the fourth order on the perturbation theory. The coefficients of electric[a) and magnetic polarizability (β) determined are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign αsub(π+-)=βsub(π+-)=+0.014α/msub(π)sup(3), αsub(πsup(0))=-βsub(πsup(0))=-0.07α/msub(π)sup(3). The results have been compared with calculations in other models

  19. Spectral tunneling of lattice nonlocal solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Torner, Lluis; Vysloukh, Victor A.

    2010-01-01

    We address spectral tunneling of walking spatial solitons in photorefractive media with nonlocal diffusion component of the nonlinear response and an imprinted shallow optical lattice. In contrast to materials with local nonlinearities, where solitons traveling across the lattice close to the Bragg angle suffer large radiative losses, in photorefractive media with diffusion nonlinearity resulting in self-bending, solitons survive when their propagation angle approaches and even exceeds the Bragg angle. In the spatial frequency domain this effect can be considered as tunneling through the band of spatial frequencies centered around the Bragg frequency where the spatial group velocity dispersion is positive.

  20. Non-local modeling of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    Numerical studies of non-local plasticity effects on different materials and problems are carried out. Two different theories are used. One is of lower order in that it retains the structure of a conventional plasticity boundary value problem, while the other is of higher order and employs higher...... order stresses as work conjugates to higher order strains and uses higher order boundary conditions. The influence of internal material length parameters is studied, and the effects of higher order boundary conditions are analyzed. The focus of the thesis is on metal-matrix composites, and non...

  1. A nonlocal model of chiral dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdom, B.; Terning, J.; Verbeek, K.

    1989-01-01

    We consider a nonlocal generalization of the nonlinear σ model. Our chirally symmetric model couples quarks with self-energy Σ(p) to Goldstone bosons (GBs). By integrating out the quarks we obtain a chiral lagrangian, the parameters of which are finite integrals of Σ(p). We find that chiral symmetry is not sufficient to derive the well-known Pagels-Stokar formula for the GB decay constant. We reproduce the Wess-Zumino term and we illustrate the dependence of other four derivative coefficients on Σ(p). (orig.)

  2. A non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, T.; Itoh, S.I.; Yagi, M.; Stroth, U.

    1998-01-01

    The anomalous transport in high temperature plasma has been studied for a long time, from the beginning of the fusion research. Since the electron channel in stellarators and tokamaks is clearly anomalous, it is of fundamental importance to investigate the electron heat diffusivity coefficient, χ e and to understand the physical mechanism. Recently, the experimental data for the transient transport of the heat pulse propagation in fusion plasma has been accumulated. An observation was reported on W7-AS which the heat flux changes faster than the change of the temperature profile, responding to the switching on off of the central heating power. The observation on the transient response has simulated the transport modeling, e.g., the critical marginality which implies the existence of a finite threshold in ∇T for the excitation of the turbulence, or the model in which the thermal conductivity is assumed to depend on the heating power. Extensive study is made by use of these models, and the critical marginally model seems to be insufficient to explain various transient transport. The rapid change of the plasma state and its hysteresis nature were successfully modeled by a heating-power-dependent model. The foundation of this model, however, is left for future work. The development of the transport modeling remains to be an urgent problem. In this paper, we investigate the role of the non-locality of the plasma transport in the study of the heat pulse propagation. For this purpose, a model equation is proposed, in which the non-local effect is taken into account in the heat flux. The properties of this model are investigated by performing a transport simulation. The organization of this paper is as follows: In Sec. II, the model equation is proposed and the properties of the model are explained. Using the model equation, the switching on off experiment is simulated in Sec. III. Summary and discussion are given in Sec. IV. (author)

  3. Nonlinear Dynamics of Silicon Nanowire Resonator Considering Nonlocal Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2017-12-01

    In this work, nonlinear dynamics of silicon nanowire resonator considering nonlocal effect has been investigated. For the first time, dynamical parameters (e.g., resonant frequency, Duffing coefficient, and the damping ratio) that directly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the nanostructure have been derived. Subsequently, by calculating their response with the varied nonlocal coefficient, it is unveiled that the nonlocal effect makes more obvious impacts at the starting range (from zero to a small value), while the impact of nonlocal effect becomes weaker when the nonlocal term reaches to a certain threshold value. Furthermore, to characterize the role played by nonlocal effect in exerting influence on nonlinear behaviors such as bifurcation and chaos (typical phenomena in nonlinear dynamics of nanoscale devices), we have calculated the Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagram with and without nonlocal effect, and results shows the nonlocal effect causes the most significant effect as the device is at resonance. This work advances the development of nanowire resonators that are working beyond linear regime.

  4. Discussion record of the workshop on nonlocal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Stroth, U.; Iwasaki, T.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    1997-06-01

    The discussion on the problem of the transient response and nonlocal transport is reported. Problem of the transient response is surveyed, and several approaches are reviewed. The formulation based on the nonlocal transport is discussed. Example of the analysis is presented. Future study is identified. (author)

  5. On nonlocal symmetries of some shallow water equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Enrique G [Departamento de Matematicas y Ciencia de la Computacion, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307 Correo 2 Santiago (Chile)

    2007-04-27

    A recent construction of nonlocal symmetries for the Korteweg-de Vries, Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton equations is reviewed, and it is pointed out that-in the Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton case-these symmetries can be considered as (nonlocal) symmetries of integro-differential equations.

  6. The sheaf-theoretic structure of non-locality and contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramsky, Samson; Brandenburger, Adam

    2011-01-01

    We use the mathematical language of sheaf theory to give a unified treatment of non-locality and contextuality, in a setting that generalizes the familiar probability tables used in non-locality theory to arbitrary measurement covers; this includes Kochen-Specker configurations and more. We show that contextuality, and non-locality as a special case, correspond exactly to obstructions to the existence of global sections. We describe a linear algebraic approach to computing these obstructions, which allows a systematic treatment of arguments for non-locality and contextuality. We distinguish a proper hierarchy of strengths of no-go theorems, and show that three leading examples—due to Bell, Hardy and Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger, respectively—occupy successively higher levels of this hierarchy. A general correspondence is shown between the existence of local hidden-variable realizations using negative probabilities, and no-signalling; this is based on a result showing that the linear subspaces generated by the non-contextual and no-signalling models, over an arbitrary measurement cover, coincide. Maximal non-locality is generalized to maximal contextuality, and characterized in purely qualitative terms, as the non-existence of global sections in the support. A general setting is developed for the Kochen-Specker-type results, as generic, model-independent proofs of maximal contextuality, and a new combinatorial condition is given, which generalizes the ‘parity proofs’ commonly found in the literature. We also show how our abstract setting can be represented in quantum mechanics. This leads to a strengthening of the usual no-signalling theorem, which shows that quantum mechanics obeys no-signalling for arbitrary families of commuting observables, not just those represented on different factors of a tensor product. (paper)

  7. A new treatment of nonlocality in scattering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, N. J.; Bhagwat, A.; Jain, B. K.

    2018-01-01

    Nonlocality in the scattering potential leads to an integro-differential equation. In this equation nonlocality enters through an integral over the nonlocal potential kernel. The resulting Schrödinger equation is usually handled by approximating r,{r}{\\prime }-dependence of the nonlocal kernel. The present work proposes a novel method to solve the integro-differential equation. The method, using the mean value theorem of integral calculus, converts the nonhomogeneous term to a homogeneous term. The effective local potential in this equation turns out to be energy independent, but has relative angular momentum dependence. This method is accurate and valid for any form of nonlocality. As illustrative examples, the total and differential cross sections for neutron scattering off 12C, 56Fe and 100Mo nuclei are calculated with this method in the low energy region (up to 10 MeV) and are found to be in reasonable accord with the experiments.

  8. Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2016-04-22

    Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.

  9. Protecting nonlocality of multipartite states by feed-forward control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Gang; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Nonlocality is a useful resource in quantum communication and quantum information processing. In practical quantum communication, multipartite entangled states must be distributed between different users in different places through a channel. However, the channel is usually inevitably disturbed by the environment in quantum state distribution processing and then the nonlocality of states will be weakened and even lost. In this paper, we use a feed-forward control scheme to protect the nonlocality of the Bell and GHZ states against dissipation. We find that this protection scheme is very effective, specifically, for the Bell state, we can increase the noise threshold from 0.5 to 0.98, and for GHZ state from 0.29 to 0.96. And we also find that entanglement is relatively easier to be protected than nonlocality. For our scheme, protecting entanglement is equivalent to protecting the state in the case of Bell state, while protecting nonlocality is not.

  10. General constraints on spin observables; application to p-bar + p → Λ-bar + Λ and to polarized quark distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artru, X.; Richard, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    The density matrix formalism and the positive conditions for general multiple-spin asymmetries are reviewed, taking as an example the case p-bar + p → Λ-bar + Λ in which one, two or three spins are analyzed. Some aspects related to quantum information and entangled states are discussed. Some positivity domains are compared with the experimental data. The case of inclusive reaction is also treated, taking as an example the spin- and transverse momentum-dependent quark distributions [ru

  11. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument and Bell inequalities for Bose-Einstein spin condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laloee, F.; Mullin, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the properties of two Bose-Einstein condensates in different spin states, represented quantum mechanically by a double Fock state. Individual measurements of the spins of the particles are performed in transverse directions (perpendicular to the spin quantization axis), giving access to the relative phase of the two macroscopically occupied states. Before the first spin measurement, the phase is completely undetermined; after a few measurements, a more and more precise knowledge of its value emerges under the effect of the quantum measurement process. This naturally leads to the usual notion of a quasiclassical phase (Anderson phase) and to an interesting transposition of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument to macroscopic physical quantities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this transposition, as well as situations where the notion of a quasiclassical phase is no longer sufficient to account for the quantum results, and where significant violations of Bell-type inequalities are predicted. Quantum mechanically, the problem can be treated exactly: the probability for all sequences of results can be expressed in the form of a double integral, depending on all parameters that define the experiment (number of particles, number and angles of measurements). We discuss the differences between this case and the usual two-spin case. We discuss the effect of the many parameters that the experimenters can adjust for their measurements, starting with a discussion of the effect of the angles of measurement (the 'settings'), and then envisaging various choices of the functions that are used to obtain violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities. We then discuss how the 'sample bias loophole' (often also called 'efficiency loophole') can be closed in this case, by introducing a preliminary sequence of measurements to localize the particles into 'measurement boxes'. We finally show that the same nonlocal effects can be observed with distinguishable

  12. Muonium spin exchange in spin-polarized media: Spin-flip and -nonflip collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, M.

    1994-01-01

    The transverse relaxation of the muon spin in muonium due to electron spin exchange with a polarized spin-1/2 medium is investigated. Stochastic calculations, which assume that spin exchange is a Poisson process, are carried out for the case where the electron spin polarization of the medium is on the same axis as the applied field. Two precession signals of muonium observed in intermediate fields (B>30 G) are shown to have different relaxation rates which depend on the polarization of the medium. Furthermore, the precession frequencies are shifted by an amount which depends on the spin-nonflip rate. From the two relaxation rates and the frequency shift in intermediate fields, one can determine (i) the encounter rate of muonium and the paramagnetic species, (ii) the polarization of the medium, and most importantly (iii) the quantum-mechanical phase shift (and its sign) associated with the potential energy difference between electron singlet and triplet encounters. Effects of spin-nonflip collisions on spin dynamics are discussed for non-Poisson as well as Poisson processes. In unpolarized media, the time evolution of the muon spin in muonium is not influenced by spin-nonflip collisions, if the collision process is Poissonian. This seemingly obvious statement is not true anymore in non-Poissonian processes, i.e., it is necessary to specify both spin-flip and spin-nonflip rates to fully characterize spin dynamics

  13. Buonomano against Bell: Nonergodicity or nonlocality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    The aim of this note is to attract attention of the quantum foundational community to the fact that in Bell’s arguments, one cannot distinguish two hypotheses: (a) quantum mechanics is nonlocal, (b) quantum mechanics is nonergodic. Therefore, experimental violations of Bell’s inequality can be as well interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that stochastic processes induced by quantum measurements are nonergodic. The latter hypothesis was discussed actively by Buonomano since 1980. However, in contrast to Bell’s hypothesis on nonlocality, it did not attract so much attention. The only experiment testing the hypothesis on nonergodicity was performed in neutron interferometry (by Summhammer, in 1989). This experiment can be considered as rejecting this hypothesis. However, it cannot be considered as a decisive experiment. New experiments are badly needed. We point out that a nonergodic model can be realistic, i.e. the distribution of hidden (local!) variables is well-defined. We also discuss coupling of violation of the Bell inequality with violation of the condition of weak mixing for ergodic dynamical systems.

  14. Feature-Based Nonlocal Polarimetric SAR Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Xing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR images are inherently contaminated by multiplicative speckle noise, which complicates the image interpretation and image analyses. To reduce the speckle effect, several adaptive speckle filters have been developed based on the weighted average of the similarity measures commonly depending on the model or probability distribution, which are often affected by the distribution parameters and modeling texture components. In this paper, a novel filtering method introduces the coefficient of variance ( CV and Pauli basis (PB to measure the similarity, and the two features are combined with the framework of the nonlocal mean filtering. The CV is used to describe the complexity of various scenes and distinguish the scene heterogeneity; moreover, the Pauli basis is able to express the polarimetric information in PolSAR image processing. This proposed filtering combines the CV and Pauli basis to improve the estimation accuracy of the similarity weights. Then, the similarity of the features is deduced according to the test statistic. Subsequently, the filtering is proceeded by using the nonlocal weighted estimation. The performance of the proposed filter is tested with the simulated images and real PolSAR images, which are acquired by AIRSAR system and ESAR system. The qualitative and quantitative experiments indicate the validity of the proposed method by comparing with the widely-used despeckling methods.

  15. Bending analysis of embedded nanoplates based on the integral formulation of Eringen's nonlocal theory using the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R.; Torabi, J.; Norouzzadeh, A.

    2018-04-01

    Due to the capability of Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory to capture the small length scale effect, it is widely used to study the mechanical behaviors of nanostructures. Previous studies have indicated that in some cases, the differential form of this theory cannot correctly predict the behavior of structure, and the integral form should be employed to avoid obtaining inconsistent results. The present study deals with the bending analysis of nanoplates resting on elastic foundation based on the integral formulation of Eringen's nonlocal theory. Since the formulation is presented in a general form, arbitrary kernel functions can be used. The first order shear deformation plate theory is considered to model the nanoplates, and the governing equations for both integral and differential forms are presented. Finally, the finite element method is applied to solve the problem. Selected results are given to investigate the effects of elastic foundation and to compare the predictions of integral nonlocal model with those of its differential nonlocal and local counterparts. It is found that by the use of proposed integral formulation of Eringen's nonlocal model, the paradox observed for the cantilever nanoplate is resolved.

  16. Observation of attraction between dark solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreischuh, A.; Neshev, D.N.; Petersen, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a dramatic change in the interaction forces between dark solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media. We present what we believe is the first experimental evidence of attraction of dark solitons. Our results indicate that attraction should be observable in other nonlocal systems...

  17. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  18. Wilson loop's phase transition probed by non-local observable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to give further insights into the holographic Van der Waals phase transition, it would be of great interest to investigate the behavior of Wilson loop across the holographic phase transition for a higher dimensional hairy black hole. We offer a possibility to proceed with a numerical calculation in order to discussion on the hairy black hole's phase transition, and show that Wilson loop can serve as a probe to detect a phase structure of the black hole. Furthermore, for a first order phase transition, we calculate numerically the Maxwell's equal area construction; and for a second order phase transition, we also study the critical exponent in order to characterize the Wilson loop's phase transition.

  19. Polarization observable of the elastic vector-p vector-p scattering fort energies up to 2.5 GeV. Experimental determination of spin correlation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, F.

    2001-01-01

    EDDA is an internal experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich. The detector is specialized for a detailed study of the elastic proton-proton-scattering and consists of two concentric scintillator hodoscopes of cylindrical symmetry, covering an angular range of 30 ≤θ cm ≤90 in the center of mass system. The reaction vertex and the scattering angle are reconstructed from the points of incidence through the two layers of the detector. The EDDA-Experiment measures angular distributions and excitation functions of five observables of the elastic proton-proton scattering in the energy range 500 MeV≤Tp ≤ 2500 MeV with focus on polarization observables. The first phase was devoted to the measurement of the unpolarized differential cross section dσ/dΩ, the second phase consisted of the measurement of the analyzing power A N . Both are finished and first results have been published. This work deals with the third phase of the EDDA-experiment: the determination of the three spin correlation coeffcients A SS , A NN and A SL , which were measured during three successive beam-times in November/December 1999, May/June 2000 and November/December 2000. For the measurements of the spin observables, a polarized atomic beam target was used with a typical target thickness of 1.8.10 11 cm-2 and effective polarizations between 60% and 70%. Some development during the different beam-times resulted in a polarized COSY-beam with up to 65% polarization at highest energies with 4.10 9 stored protons. These numbers convert into luminosities of 9.0.10 26 cm -2 s -1 ; they were insufficient to perform measurements only during beam acceleration, as it was done for dσ/dΩ and A N to obtain data with sufficient statistics needed for high internal consistency. To accumulate statistics at higher energies, data acquisition for A SS , A NN and A SL during beam acceleration (approx. 2 mio. events) was combined with measurements at some fixed energies. The

  20. Symmetry-Breaking Orbital Anisotropy Observed for Detwinned Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 above the Spin Density Wave Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Nematicity, defined as broken rotational symmetry, has recently been observed in competing phases proximate to the superconducting phase in the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Similarly, the new iron-based high temperature superconductors exhibit a tetragonal to orthorhombic structural transition (i.e. a broken C 4 symmetry) that either precedes or is coincident with a collinear spin density wave (SDW) transition in undoped parent compounds, and superconductivity arises when both transitions are suppressed via doping. Evidence for strong in-plane anisotropy in the SDW state in this family of compounds has been reported by neutron scattering, scanning tunneling microscopy, and transport measurements. Here we present an angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of detwinned single crystals of a representative family of electron-doped iron-arsenide superconductors, Ba(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 As 2 in the underdoped region. The crystals were detwinned via application of in-plane uniaxial stress, enabling measurements of single domain electronic structure in the orthorhombic state. At low temperatures, our results clearly demonstrate an in-plane electronic anisotropy characterized by a large energy splitting of two orthogonal bands with dominant d xz and d yz character, which is consistent with anisotropy observed by other probes. For compositions x > 0, for which the structural transition (T S ) precedes the magnetic transition (T SDW ), an anisotropic splitting is observed to develop above T SDW , indicating that it is specifically associated with T S . For unstressed crystals, the band splitting is observed close to T S , whereas for stressed crystals the splitting is observed to considerably higher temperatures, revealing the presence of a surprisingly large in-plane nematic susceptibility in the electronic structure.

  1. Spin doctoring

    OpenAIRE

    Vozková, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...

  2. Local vs. Non-local core potentials in electron scattering from sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartschat, K.; Bray, I.

    1996-02-01

    We have tested the use of a local potential instead of the non-local Hartree-Fock potential to represent exchange effects between the valence or the projectile electron and the core in electron scattering from sodium atoms For some of the most detailed observables in this collision system/ the results of the two approaches are nearly identical, even though the effect of the exchange part is shown to be particularly large. (authors). 16 refs., 4 figs

  3. Local versus non-local core potentials in electron scattering from sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartschat, K.; Bray, I.

    1996-01-01

    We have tested the use of a local potential instead of the non-local Hartree-Fock potential to represent exchange effects between the valence or the projectile electron and the core in electron scattering from sodium atoms. For some of the most detailed observables in this collision system, the results of the two approaches are nearly identical, even though the effect of the exchange part is shown to be particularly large. (Author)

  4. Diverging conductance at the contact between random and pure quantum XX spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    A model consisting of two quantum XX spin chains, one homogeneous and the second with random couplings drawn from a binary distribution, is considered. The two chains are coupled to two different non-local thermal baths and their dynamics is governed by a Lindblad equation. In the steady state, a current J is induced between the two chains by coupling them together by their edges and imposing different chemical potentials μ to the two baths. While a regime of linear characteristics J versus Δμ is observed in the absence of randomness, a gap opens as the disorder strength is increased. In the infinite-randomness limit, this behavior is related to the density of states of the localized states contributing to the current. The conductance is shown to diverge in this limit.

  5. Probing the transition from non-localization to localization by K-shell photoemission from isotope-substituted N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolles, Daniel; Braune, Markus; Cvejanovic, Slobodan; Gessner, Oliver; Hentges, Rainer; Korica, Sanja; Langer, Burkhard; Lischke, Toralf; Pruemper, Georg; Reinkoester, Axel; Viefhaus, Jens; Zimmermann, Bjoern; McKoy, Vince; Becker, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    In homonuclear diatomic molecules such as N 2 , the inversion symmetry of the system causes non-local, coherent behavior of the otherwise localized core holes. The non-locality of the electron emission and the remaining core hole changes in a continuous way into partially localized behaviour if a gradual breakdown of the inversion symmetry is induced by isotope substitution. This is reflected by a loss of interference and a parity mixing of the outgoing photoelectron waves. Our results represent the first experimentally observed isotope effect on the electronic structure of a diatomic molecule

  6. 'Non-local' response of RTP ohmic plasmas to peripheral perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, P.; Gorini, G.; Mantica, P.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.; Kloe, J. de; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 'non-local' response of the plasma core triggered by peripheral plasma perturbations other than laser ablation is found in the RTP tokamak. Oblique pellet injection (OPI) has been used to induce fast cooling of the peripheral plasma. In response, an inward cold pulse (T e drop) and a slightly delayed core T e rise are observed. A somewhat similar 'non-local' response is observed when the peripheral plasma is heated by modulated electron cyclotron heating or by fast current ramps, i.e. the core temperature drops in response to the peripheral heating. The plasma conditions for the occurrence of the 'non-local' response have been investigated. The core T e rise following OPI is associated with the formation of a large temperature gradient in the region 1 e rise is largest at low electron density and for large pellet deposition radii. Above a critical density the T e rise disappears and only the (weaker) drop in core T e is observed. Time dependent transport simulations show that the propagation of the inward cold pulse is consistent with local transport, while the core T e rise is a slower phenomenon requiring a large transient drop of χ e in the region 1 < q < 2. (author)

  7. Possibility of Cooper-pair formation controlled by multi-terminal spin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Ishitaki, M.; Kimura, T.

    2018-03-01

    A multi-terminal lateral spin valve consisting of three ferromagnetic nanopillars on a Cu/Nb bilayer has been fabricated. We investigated the influence of the spin injection on the superconducting properties at the Cu/Nb interface. The non-local spin valve signal exhibits a clear spin insulation signature due to the superconducting gap of the Nb. The magnitude of the spin signal is found to show the probe configuration dependence. From the careful analysis of the bias current dependence, we found the suppression of the superconductivity due to the exchange interaction between the Cooper pair and accumulated spin plays an important role in the multi-terminal spin injections. We also discuss about the possibility of the Cooper-pair formation due to the spin injection from the two injectors with the anti-parallel alignment.

  8. Nonlocal kinetic-energy-density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, P.; Alvarellos, J.E.; Chacon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present nonlocal kinetic-energy functionals T[n] within the average density approximation (ADA) framework, which do not require any extra input when applied to any electron system and recover the exact kinetic energy and the linear response function of a homogeneous system. In contrast with previous ADA functionals, these present good behavior of the long-range tail of the exact weight function. The averaging procedure for the kinetic functional (averaging the Fermi momentum of the electron gas, instead of averaging the electron density) leads to a functional without numerical difficulties in the calculation of extended systems, and it gives excellent results when applied to atoms and jellium surfaces. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Howard; Jones, Steve; Andrew, Doherty

    2007-06-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schroedinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell-nonlocality. For arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states we derive a linear matrix inequality that decides the question of steerability via Gaussian measurements, and we relate this to the original EPR paradox.

  10. Switching non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method for removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on grayscale images. Generally, it is well known that switching-type median filters are effective for impulse noise removal. In this paper, we propose a more sophisticated switching-type impulse noise removal method in terms of detail-preserving performance. Specifically, the noise detector of the proposed method finds out noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the difference between the value of a pixel of interest (POI) and the median of its neighboring pixel values, and on the POI's isolation tendency from the surrounding pixels. Furthermore, the removal of the detected noise is performed by the newly proposed median filter based on non-local processing, which has superior detail-preservation capability compared to the conventional median filter. The effectiveness and the validity of the proposed method are verified by some experiments using natural grayscale images.

  11. The quantum handshake entanglement, nonlocality and transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cramer, John G

    2016-01-01

    This book shines bright light into the dim recesses of quantum theory, where the mysteries of entanglement, nonlocality, and wave collapse have motivated some to conjure up multiple universes, and others to adopt a "shut up and calculate" mentality. After an extensive and accessible introduction to quantum mechanics and its history, the author turns attention to his transactional model. Using a quantum handshake between normal and time-reversed waves, this model provides a clear visual picture explaining the baffling experimental results that flow daily from the quantum physics laboratories of the world. To demonstrate its powerful simplicity, the transactional model is applied to a collection of counter-intuitive experiments and conceptual problems.

  12. Relativistic dynamical reduction models and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.

    1990-09-01

    We discuss some features of continuous dynamical models yielding state vector reduction and we briefly sketch some recent attempts to get a relativistic generalization of them. Within the relativistic context we analyze in detail the local an nonlocal features of the reduction mechanism and we investigate critically the possibility of attributing objective properties to individual systems in the micro and macroscopic cases. At the nonrelativistic level, two physically equivalent versions of continuous reduction mechanisms have been presented. However, only one of them can be taken as a starting point for the above considered relativistic generalization. By resorting to counterfactual arguments we show that the reason for this lies in the fact that the stochasticity involved in the two approaches has different conceptual implications. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  13. Graphene plasmons: Impurities and nonlocal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Giovanni; Wenger, Tobias; Kinaret, Jari; Fogelström, Mikael

    2018-02-01

    This work analyzes how impurities and vacancies on the surface of a graphene sample affect its optical conductivity and plasmon excitations. The disorder is analyzed in the self-consistent Green's function formulation and nonlocal effects are fully taken into account. It is shown that impurities modify the linear spectrum and give rise to an impurity band whose position and width depend on the two parameters of our model, the density and the strength of impurities. The presence of the impurity band strongly influences the electromagnetic response and the plasmon losses. Furthermore, we discuss how the impurity-band position can be obtained experimentally from the plasmon dispersion relation and discuss this in the context of sensing.

  14. A nonlocal spatial model for Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of a nonlocal and time-delayed reaction-diffusion model for Lyme disease with a spatially heterogeneous structure. In the case of a bounded domain, we first prove the existence of the positive steady state and a threshold type result for the disease-free system, and then establish the global dynamics for the model system in terms of the basic reproduction number. In the case of an unbound domain, we obtain the existence of the disease spreading speed and its coincidence with the minimal wave speed. At last, we use numerical simulations to verify our analytic results and investigate the influence of model parameters and spatial heterogeneity on the disease infection risk.

  15. Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, P. G. L.; Karasu Kalkanli, A.; Nucci, M. C.; Andriopoulos, K.

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R). The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.

  16. Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G.L. Leach

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R. The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.

  17. Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohashi, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Spin-Polarized Scanning Electron Microscopy (Spin SEM) is one way for observing magnetic domain structures taking advantage of the spin polarization of the secondary electrons emitted from a ferromagnetic sample. This principle brings us several excellent capabilities such as high-spatial resolution better than 10 nm, and analysis of magnetization direction in three dimensions. In this paper, the principle and the structure of the spin SEM is briefly introduced, and some examples of the spin SEM measurements are shown. (author)

  18. Global solution branches for a nonlocal Allen-Cahn equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuto, Kousuke; Mori, Tatsuki; Tsujikawa, Tohru; Yotsutani, Shoji

    2018-05-01

    We consider the Neumann problem of a 1D stationary Allen-Cahn equation with nonlocal term. Our previous paper [4] obtained a local branch of asymmetric solutions which bifurcates from a point on the branch of odd-symmetric solutions. This paper derives the global behavior of the branch of asymmetric solutions, and moreover, determines the set of all solutions to the nonlocal Allen-Cahn equation. Our proof is based on a level set analysis for an integral map associated with the nonlocal term.

  19. Torsion of cracked nanorods using a nonlocal elasticity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loya, J A; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Fernández-Sáez, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlocal cracked-rod model from which we have analysed the torsional vibrations of a carbon nanotube with a circumferential crack. Several types of boundary conditions, including the consideration of a buckyball at the end of the nanotube, have been studied. The nonlocal Eringen elasticity theory is used to formulate the problem. The cracked rod is modelled by dividing the cracked element into two segments connected by a torsional linear spring whose stiffness is related to the crack severity. The effect of the nonlocal small-scale parameter, crack severity, cracked section position, different boundary conditions and attached mass are examined in this work. (paper)

  20. Nonlocal kinetic energy functionals by functional integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Wenhui; Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele

    2018-05-01

    Since the seminal studies of Thomas and Fermi, researchers in the Density-Functional Theory (DFT) community are searching for accurate electron density functionals. Arguably, the toughest functional to approximate is the noninteracting kinetic energy, Ts[ρ], the subject of this work. The typical paradigm is to first approximate the energy functional and then take its functional derivative, δ/Ts[ρ ] δ ρ (r ) , yielding a potential that can be used in orbital-free DFT or subsystem DFT simulations. Here, this paradigm is challenged by constructing the potential from the second-functional derivative via functional integration. A new nonlocal functional for Ts[ρ] is prescribed [which we dub Mi-Genova-Pavanello (MGP)] having a density independent kernel. MGP is constructed to satisfy three exact conditions: (1) a nonzero "Kinetic electron" arising from a nonzero exchange hole; (2) the second functional derivative must reduce to the inverse Lindhard function in the limit of homogenous densities; (3) the potential is derived from functional integration of the second functional derivative. Pilot calculations show that MGP is capable of reproducing accurate equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, total energy, and electron densities for metallic (body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic) and semiconducting (crystal diamond) phases of silicon as well as of III-V semiconductors. The MGP functional is found to be numerically stable typically reaching self-consistency within 12 iterations of a truncated Newton minimization algorithm. MGP's computational cost and memory requirements are low and comparable to the Wang-Teter nonlocal functional or any generalized gradient approximation functional.

  1. Spin 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, Gisela

    1990-01-01

    The idea of the intrinsic angular momentum, or 'spin', of a particle has played an essential part in fundamental physics for more than 60 years, and its continuing importance was underlined at the 9th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics, held in September in Bonn.

  2. Spin 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Gisela

    1990-12-15

    The idea of the intrinsic angular momentum, or 'spin', of a particle has played an essential part in fundamental physics for more than 60 years, and its continuing importance was underlined at the 9th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics, held in September in Bonn.

  3. Spin tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ariano, G M [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Maccone, L [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Paini, M [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2003-02-01

    We propose a tomographic reconstruction scheme for spin states. The experimental set-up, which is a modification of the Stern-Gerlach scheme, can be easily performed with currently available technology. The method is generalized to multiparticle states, analysing the spin-1/2 case for indistinguishable particles. Some Monte Carlo numerical simulations are given to illustrate the technique.

  4. Spin tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, G M; Maccone, L; Paini, M

    2003-01-01

    We propose a tomographic reconstruction scheme for spin states. The experimental set-up, which is a modification of the Stern-Gerlach scheme, can be easily performed with currently available technology. The method is generalized to multiparticle states, analysing the spin-1/2 case for indistinguishable particles. Some Monte Carlo numerical simulations are given to illustrate the technique

  5. Investigation of the difference between spin Hall magnetoresistance rectification and spin pumping from the viewpoint of magnetization dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihan; Fan, Xiaolong; Zhou, Hengan; Kong, Wenwen; Zhou, Shiming; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.; Xue, Desheng

    2018-02-01

    Spin pumping (SP) and spin rectification due to spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) can result in a dc resonant voltage signal, when magnetization in ferromagnetic insulator/nonmagnetic structures experiences ferromagnetic resonance. Since the two effects are often interrelated, quantitative identification of them is important for studying the dynamic nonlocal spin transport through an interface. In this letter, the key difference between SP and SMR rectification was investigated from the viewpoint of spin dynamics. The phase-dependent nature of SMR rectification, which is the fundamental characteristic distinguishing it from SP, was tested by a well-designed experiment. In this experiment, two identical yttrium iron garnet/Pt strips with a π phase difference in dynamic magnetization show the same SP signals and inverse SMR signals.

  6. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  7. Spin symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-01-15

    The recent 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota, opened with a bang when L. Pondrom (Wisconsin), donning a hard hat borrowed from construction workers, ventured that 'spin, the notorious inessential complication of hadronic physics, is finally telling us what real QCD (quantum chromodynamics, the field theory of quarks and gluons) looks like.' He was referring to an animated discussion on the meaning of the recent spin oriented (polarized) scattering results from the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) at CERN and reported at the Symposium by R. Garnet (Liverpool) and P. Schuler (Yale) which show that the proton spin is not simply a reflection of the spins of its constituent quarks.

  8. Nonlocality of classical electrodynamics of point particles, and violation of Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carati, A.; Galagni, L.

    1999-01-01

    This study shows that Bell's inequalities are violated in a model of two charged particles interacting with two potential barriers, which mimic the measuring instruments; the motion in the nonrelativistic version, and the role of the hidden variables is played by the initial accelerations. The essential nonlocality property of the system is induced by the celebrated Dirac's non-runway condition, which makes the measuring instruments have a certain influence on the observed system, by determining the domain of definition of the hidden variable (the Bopp-Haag phenomenon). So this model strongly supports E. Nelson's suggestion, namely that nonlocality properties suited to violate Bell's inequalities appear in classical field theories when regularizing cutoff are removed

  9. Measurement-induced nonlocality in arbitrary dimensions in terms of the inverse approximate joint diagonalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-qiang; Ma, Ting-ting; Yu, Chang-shui

    2018-03-01

    The computability of the quantifier of a given quantum resource is the essential challenge in the resource theory and the inevitable bottleneck for its application. Here we focus on the measurement-induced nonlocality and present a redefinition in terms of the skew information subject to a broken observable. It is shown that the obtained quantity possesses an obvious operational meaning, can tackle the noncontractivity of the measurement-induced nonlocality and has analytic expressions for pure states, (2 ⊗d )-dimensional quantum states, and some particular high-dimensional quantum states. Most importantly, an inverse approximate joint diagonalization algorithm, due to its simplicity, high efficiency, stability, and state independence, is presented to provide almost-analytic expressions for any quantum state, which can also shed light on other aspects in physics. To illustrate applications as well as demonstrate the validity of the algorithm, we compare the analytic and numerical expressions of various examples and show their perfect consistency.

  10. Nonlocality and particle-clustering effects on the optical response of composite materials with metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. W.; Chung, H. Y.; Chiang, H.-P.; Lu, J. Y.; Chang, R.; Tsai, D. P.; Leung, P. T.

    2010-10-01

    The optical properties of composites with metallic nanoparticles are studied, taking into account the effects due to the nonlocal dielectric response of the metal and the coalescing of the particles to form clusters. An approach based on various effective medium theories is followed, and the modeling results are compared with those from the cases with local response and particles randomly distributed through the host medium. Possible observations of our modeling results are illustrated via a calculation of the transmission of light through a thin film made of these materials. It is found that the nonlocal effects are particularly significant when the particles coalesce, leading to blue-shifted resonances and slightly lower values in the dielectric functions. The dependence of these effects on the volume fraction and fractal dimension of the metal clusters is studied in detail.

  11. Semi-local invariance in Ising models with multi-spin interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowski, A.

    1996-08-01

    We examine implications of semi-local invariance in Ising models with multispin interaction. In ergodic models all spin-spin correlation functions vanish and the local symmetry is the same as in locally gauge-invariant models. The d = 3 model with four-spin interaction is nonergodic at low temperature but the magnetic symmetry remains unbroken. The d = 3 model with eight-spin interaction is ergodic but undergoes the phase transition and most likely its low-temperature phase is characterized by a nonlocal order parameter. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig

  12. Observation of layered antiferromagnetism in self-assembled parallel NiSi nanowire arrays on Si(110) by spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ie-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Zan

    2018-03-01

    The layered antiferromagnetism of parallel nanowire (NW) arrays self-assembled on Si(110) have been observed at room temperature by direct imaging of both the topographies and magnetic domains using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (SP-STM/STS). The topographic STM images reveal that the self-assembled unidirectional and parallel NiSi NWs grow into the Si(110) substrate along the [\\bar{1}10] direction (i.e. the endotaxial growth) and exhibit multiple-layer growth. The spatially-resolved SP-STS maps show that these parallel NiSi NWs of different heights produce two opposite magnetic domains, depending on the heights of either even or odd layers in the layer stack of the NiSi NWs. This layer-wise antiferromagnetic structure can be attributed to an antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling between the adjacent layers in the multiple-layer NiSi NW with a B2 (CsCl-type) crystal structure. Such an endotaxial heterostructure of parallel magnetic NiSi NW arrays with a layered antiferromagnetic ordering in Si(110) provides a new and important perspective for the development of novel Si-based spintronic nanodevices.

  13. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR NONLOCAL CONTINUUM MODEL OF ORTHOTROPIC GRAPHENE SHEETS EMBEDDED IN AN ELASTIC MEDIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarp Adali

    2012-01-01

    Equations governing the vibrations and buckling of multilayered orthotropic graphene sheets can be expressed as a system of n partial differential equations where n refers to the number of sheets.This description is based on the continuum model of the graphene sheets which can also take the small scale effects into account by employing a nonlocal theory.In the present article a variational principle is derived for the nonlocal elastic theory of rectangular graphene sheets embedded in an elastic medium and undergoing transverse vibrations.Moreover the graphene sheets are subject to biaxial compression.Rayleigh quotients are obtained for the frequencies of freely vibrating graphene sheets and for the buckling load. The influence of small scale effects on the frequencies and the buckling load can be observed qualiatively from the expressions of the Rayleigh quotients.Elastic medium is modeled as a combination of Winkler and Pasternak foundations acting on the top and bottom layers of the mutilayered nano-structure.Natural boundary conditions of the problem are derived using the variational principle formulated in the study.It is observed that free boundaries lead to coupled boundary conditions due to nonlocal theory used in the continuum formulation while the local (classical) elasticity theory leads to uncoupled boundary conditions.The mathematical methods used in the study involve calculus of variations and the semi-inverse method for deriving the variational integrals.

  14. Mutually exclusive aspects of information carried by physical systems: Complementarity between local and nonlocal information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, Jonathan; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard; Horodecki, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    Complex physical systems contain information which, under some well-defined processes can differentiate between local and nonlocal information. Both these fundamental aspects of information are defined operationally. Local information is locally accessible and allows one to perform processes, such as physical work, while nonlocal information allows one to perform processes such as teleportation. It is shown that these two kinds of information are complementary in the sense that two parties can either gain access to the nonlocal information or to the local information but not both. This complementarity has a form similar to that expressed by entropic uncertainty relations. For pure states, the entanglement plays the role of Planck's constant. We also find another class of complementarity relations which applies to operators and is induced when two parties can only perform local operations and communicate classical (LOCC). In particular, observables such as the parity and phase of two qubits commute but under LOCC, they are complementary observables. It is also found this complementarity is pure in the sense that it can be ''decoupled'' from the uncertainty principle. It is suggested that these complementarities represent an essential extension of Bohr's complementarity to complex (distributed) systems which are entangled

  15. Circuit Simulation of All-Spin Logic

    KAUST Repository

    Alawein, Meshal

    2016-05-01

    With the aggressive scaling of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) nearing an inevitable physical limit and its well-known power crisis, the quest for an alternative/augmenting technology that surpasses the current semiconductor electronics is needed for further technological progress. Spintronic devices emerge as prime candidates for Beyond CMOS era by utilizing the electron spin as an extra degree of freedom to decrease the power consumption and overcome the velocity limit connected with the charge. By using the nonvolatility nature of magnetization along with its direction to represent a bit of information and then manipulating it by spin-polarized currents, routes are opened for combined memory and logic. This would not have been possible without the recent discoveries in the physics of nanomagnetism such as spin-transfer torque (STT) whereby a spin-polarized current can excite magnetization dynamics through the transfer of spin angular momentum. STT have expanded the available means of switching the magnetization of magnetic layers beyond old classical techniques, promising to fulfill the need for a new generation of dense, fast, and nonvolatile logic and storage devices. All-spin logic (ASL) is among the most promising spintronic logic switches due to its low power consumption, logic-in-memory structure, and operation on pure spin currents. The device is based on a lateral nonlocal spin valve and STT switching. It utilizes two nanomagnets (whereby information is stored) that communicate with pure spin currents through a spin-coherent nonmagnetic channel. By using the well-known spin physics and the recently proposed four-component spin circuit formalism, ASL can be thoroughly studied and simulated. Previous attempts to model ASL in the linear and diffusive regime either neglect the dynamic characteristics of transport or do not provide a scalable and robust platform for full micromagnetic simulations and inclusion of other effects like spin Hall

  16. Hardy's argument and successive spin-s measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahanj, Ali

    2010-01-01

    We consider a hidden-variable theoretic description of successive measurements of noncommuting spin observables on an input spin-s state. In this scenario, the hidden-variable theory leads to a Hardy-type argument that quantum predictions violate it. We show that the maximum probability of success of Hardy's argument in quantum theory is ((1/2)) 4s , which is more than in the spatial case.

  17. Relativistic Nonlocality and the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The exact violation of Bell's Inequalities is obtained with a local realistic model for spin. The model treats one particle that comprises a quantum ensemble and simulates the EPR data one coincidence at a time as a product state. Such a spin is represented by operators σx , iσy ,σz in its body frame rather than the usual set of σX ,σY ,σZ in the laboratory frame. This model, assumed valid in the absence of a measuring probe, contains both quantum polarizations and coherences. Each carries half the EPR correlation, but only half can be measured using coincidence techniques. The model further predicts the filter angles that maximize the spin correlation in EPR experiments.

  18. Nonlocal microscopic theory of quantum friction between parallel metallic slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despoja, Vito; Echenique, Pedro M.; Sunjic, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    We present a new derivation of the friction force between two metallic slabs moving with constant relative parallel velocity, based on T=0 quantum-field theory formalism. By including a fully nonlocal description of dynamically screened electron fluctuations in the slab, and avoiding the usual matching-condition procedure, we generalize previous expressions for the friction force, to which our results reduce in the local limit. Analyzing the friction force calculated in the two local models and in the nonlocal theory, we show that for physically relevant velocities local theories using the plasmon and Drude models of dielectric response are inappropriate to describe friction, which is due to excitation of low-energy electron-hole pairs, which are properly included in nonlocal theory. We also show that inclusion of dissipation in the nonlocal electronic response has negligible influence on friction.

  19. Size-dependent nonlocal effects in plasmonic semiconductor particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Localized surface plasmons (LSP) in semiconductor particles are expected to exhibit spatial nonlocal response effects as the geometry enters the nanometer scale. To investigate these nonlocal effects, we apply the hydrodynamic model to nanospheres of two different semiconductor materials: intrinsic...... InSb and n-doped GaAs. Our results show that the semiconductors indeed display nonlocal effects, and that these effects are even more pronounced than in metals. In a 150 nm InSb particle at 300 K, the LSP frequency is blueshifted 35%, which is orders of magnitude larger than the blueshift in a metal...... particle of the same size. This property, together with their tunability, makes semiconductors a promising platform for experiments in nonlocal effects. Copyright (C)EPLA, 2017...

  20. Identification of the Diffusion Parameter in Nonlocal Steady Diffusion Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Elia, M., E-mail: mdelia@fsu.edu, E-mail: mdelia@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Gunzburger, M. [Florida State University (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The problem of identifying the diffusion parameter appearing in a nonlocal steady diffusion equation is considered. The identification problem is formulated as an optimal control problem having a matching functional as the objective of the control and the parameter function as the control variable. The analysis makes use of a nonlocal vector calculus that allows one to define a variational formulation of the nonlocal problem. In a manner analogous to the local partial differential equations counterpart, we demonstrate, for certain kernel functions, the existence of at least one optimal solution in the space of admissible parameters. We introduce a Galerkin finite element discretization of the optimal control problem and derive a priori error estimates for the approximate state and control variables. Using one-dimensional numerical experiments, we illustrate the theoretical results and show that by using nonlocal models it is possible to estimate non-smooth and discontinuous diffusion parameters.

  1. Non-local means filter for trim statics

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Wang, Xin; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image

  2. A single variable shear deformable nonlocal theory for transversely ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rameshchandra P Shimpi

    2018-05-11

    May 11, 2018 ... Abstract. In this paper, a simple single variable shear deformable nonlocal theory for bending of micro- and ... the models based upon continuum mechanics are widely .... of the body. ...... Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford, UK. pp.

  3. Unusual spin frozen state in a frustrated pyrochlore system NaCaCo{sub 2}F{sub 7} as observed by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, R.; Brueckner, F.; Klauss, H.H. [IFP, TU Dresden (Germany); Krizan, J.W.; Cava, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present {sup 23}Na -and {sup 19}F NMR results on the magnetically frustrated pyrochlore NaCaCo{sub 2}F{sub 7} with a frustration index of f = θ{sub CW}/T{sub f} ∝ 56. Recent neutron scattering experiments proposed XY like antiferromagnetic spin clusters at low energies in NaCaCo{sub 2}F{sub 7}. {sup 23}Na NMR -spectra reveal the presence of two magnetically non equivalent Na sites in conjunction with the local Co{sup 2+} spin structure. Below 3.6 K both the {sup 23}Na -and {sup 19}F spectra broaden due to the formation of static spin correlations. A huge reduction of the {sup 19}F -and {sup 23}Na NMR signal intensity hints at a quasi-static field distribution in NaCaCo{sub 2}F{sub 7} in this regime. The {sup 19}F spin-lattice relaxation rate {sup 19}(1/T{sub 1}) exhibits a peak at around 2.9 K, at the same temperature range where ac and dc susceptibility data show a broad maximum. The character of the spin fluctuation appears to be isotropic. The overall temperature dependence of {sup 19}(1/T{sub 1}) can be described by the BPP theory considering a fluctuating hyperfine field with an autocorrelation function. The correlation time of the autocorrelation function exhibits an activation behavior further indicating the spin-frozen state. While the present NMR studies suggest the spin frozen state at low temperatures, μSR investigations however reveal the presence of so called persistent spin dynamics down to 20 mK implying an exotic ground state in NaCaCo{sub 2}F{sub 7}.

  4. Self-organization analysis for a nonlocal convective Fisher equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, J.A.R. da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Penna, A.L.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil)], E-mail: penna.andre@gmail.com; Vainstein, M.H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Morgado, R. [International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Departamento de Matematica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Oliveira, F.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil)

    2009-02-02

    Using both an analytical method and a numerical approach we have investigated pattern formation for a nonlocal convective Fisher equation with constant and spatial velocity fields. We analyze the limits of the influence function due to nonlocal interaction and we obtain the phase diagram of critical velocities v{sub c} as function of the width {mu} of the influence function, which characterize the self-organization of a finite system.

  5. Spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, W J

    1989-01-01

    This book is about spin systems as models for magnetic materials, especially antiferromagnetic lattices. Spin-systems are well-defined models, for which, in special cases, exact properties may be derived. These special cases are for the greater part, one- dimensional and restricted in their applicability, but they may give insight into general properties that also exist in higher dimension. This work pays special attention to qualitative differences between spin lattices of different dimensions. It also replaces the traditional picture of an (ordered) antiferromagnetic state of a Heisenberg sy

  6. Spin Waves in Ho2Co17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Lebech, Bente

    1980-01-01

    Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed.......Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed....

  7. Coupling of nonlocal and local continuum models by the Arlequinapproach

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2011-08-09

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply the Arlequin framework to couple nonlocal and local continuum mechanical models. A mechanically-based model of nonlocal elasticity, which involves both contact and long-range forces, is used for the \\'fine scale\\' description in which nonlocal interactions are considered to have non-negligible effects. Classical continuum mechanics only involving local contact forces is introduced for the rest of the structure where these nonlocal effects can be neglected. Both models overlap in a coupling subdomain called the \\'gluing area\\' in which the total energy is separated into nonlocal and local contributions by complementary weight functions. A weak compatibility is ensured between kinematics of both models using Lagrange multipliers over the gluing area. The discrete formulation of this specific Arlequin coupling framework is derived and fully described. The validity and limits of the technique are demonstrated through two-dimensional numerical applications and results are compared against those of the fully nonlocal elasticity method. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Vibration dependence of the tensor spin-spin and scalar spin-spin hyperfine interactions by precision measurement of hyperfine structures of 127I2 near 532 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Fenglei; Zhang Yun; Ishikawa, Jun; Onae, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2002-01-01

    Hyperfine structures of the R(87)33-0, R(145)37-0, and P(132)36-0 transitions of molecular iodine near 532 nm are measured by observing the heterodyne beat-note signal of two I 2 -stabilized lasers, whose frequencies are bridged by an optical frequency comb generator. The measured hyperfine splittings are fit to a four-term Hamiltonian, which includes the electric quadrupole, spin-rotation, tensor spin-spin, and scalar spin-spin interactions, with an accuracy of ∼720 Hz. High-accurate hyperfine constants are obtained from this fit. Vibration dependences of the tensor spin-spin and scalar spin-spin hyperfine constants are determined for molecular iodine, for the first time to our knowledge. The observed hyperfine transitions are good optical frequency references in the 532-nm region

  9. Spin Transport in Nondegenerate Si with a Spin MOSFET Structure at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Ando, Yuichiro; Kameno, Makoto; Tahara, Takayuki; Koike, Hayato; Oikawa, Tohru; Suzuki, Toshio; Shiraishi, Masashi

    2014-09-01

    Spin transport in nondegenerate semiconductors is expected to pave the way to the creation of spin transistors, spin logic devices, and reconfigurable logic circuits, because room-temperature (RT) spin transport in Si has already been achieved. However, RT spin transport has been limited to degenerate Si, which makes it difficult to produce spin-based signals because a gate electric field cannot be used to manipulate such signals. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of spin transport in nondegenerate Si with a spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) structure. We successfully observe the modulation of the Hanle-type spin-precession signals, which is a characteristic spin dynamics in nondegenerate semiconductors. We obtain long spin transport of more than 20 μm and spin rotation greater than 4π at RT. We also observe gate-induced modulation of spin-transport signals at RT. The modulation of the spin diffusion length as a function of a gate voltage is successfully observed, which we attribute to the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. These achievements are expected to lead to the creation of practical Si-based spin MOSFETs.

  10. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  11. The right inferior frontal gyrus processes nested non-local dependencies in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Vincent K M; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D; Koelsch, Stefan

    2018-02-28

    Complex auditory sequences known as music have often been described as hierarchically structured. This permits the existence of non-local dependencies, which relate elements of a sequence beyond their temporal sequential order. Previous studies in music have reported differential activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) when comparing regular and irregular chord-transitions based on theories in Western tonal harmony. However, it is unclear if the observed activity reflects the interpretation of hierarchical structure as the effects are confounded by local irregularity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that violations to non-local dependencies in nested sequences of three-tone musical motifs in musicians elicited increased activity in the right IFG. This is in contrast to similar studies in language which typically report the left IFG in processing grammatical syntax. Effects of increasing auditory working demands are moreover reflected by distributed activity in frontal and parietal regions. Our study therefore demonstrates the role of the right IFG in processing non-local dependencies in music, and suggests that hierarchical processing in different cognitive domains relies on similar mechanisms that are subserved by domain-selective neuronal subpopulations.

  12. Post-Newtonian parameter γ in generalized non-local gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Wu, YaBo; Yang, WeiQiang; Zhang, ChengYuan; Chen, BoHai; Zhang, Nan

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the post-Newtonian parameter γ and derive its formalism in generalized non-local (GNL) gravity, which is the modified theory of general relativity (GR) obtained by adding a term m 2 n-2 R☐-n R to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Concretely, based on parametrizing the generalized non-local action in which gravity is described by a series of dynamical scalar fields ϕ i in addition to the metric tensor g μν, the post-Newtonian limit is computed, and the effective gravitational constant as well as the post-Newtonian parameters are directly obtained from the generalized non-local gravity. Moreover, by discussing the values of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters γ, we can compare our expressions and results with those in Hohmann and Järv et al. (2016), as well as current observational constraints on the values of γ in Will (2006). Hence, we draw restrictions on the nonminimal coupling terms F̅ around their background values.

  13. Nonlocal electron kinetics and spectral line emission in the positive column of an argon glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskii, Yu; Kalanov, D; Gorchakov, S; Uhrlandt, D

    2015-01-01

    Modern non-local electron kinetics theory predicts several interesting effects connected with spectral line emission from the positive column in the range of low and medium pressures and currents. Some theoretical works describe non-monotonic behavior of the radial profiles of line emission at intermediate pressures and currents between the validity ranges of the non-local and local approximation of the electron kinetics. Despite a great number of publications, there have been no systematic measurements attempting to confirm these theoretical predictions through experiments. In this work the radial profiles of the line emission from the positive column of an argon glow discharge have been measured with high spatial resolution and new effects caused by the narrowing and broadening of the spatial emission profiles with dependence on discharge conditions have been discovered. The effect of intensity maximum shift predicted by theory using a self-consistent model was not found in the experiment. The properties of the spectral line radiation are influenced by the peculiarities of the formation of the high-energy tail of the electron energy distribution function. An interpretation of the observed effects based on the non-local character of the electron kinetics in radially inhomogeneous fields is given. The obtained experimental data are compared with the results of calculations. (paper)

  14. How Volatilities Nonlocal in Time Affect the Price Dynamics in Complex Financial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time. PMID:25723154

  15. How volatilities nonlocal in time affect the price dynamics in complex financial systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tan

    Full Text Available What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time.

  16. Nonlocality in many-body quantum systems detected with two-body correlators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tura, J., E-mail: jordi.tura@icfo.es [ICFO—Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Augusiak, R.; Sainz, A.B. [ICFO—Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Lücke, B.; Klempt, C. [Institut für Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Lewenstein, M.; Acín, A. [ICFO—Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA—Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Lluis Campanys 3, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Contemporary understanding of correlations in quantum many-body systems and in quantum phase transitions is based to a large extent on the recent intensive studies of entanglement in many-body systems. In contrast, much less is known about the role of quantum nonlocality in these systems, mostly because the available multipartite Bell inequalities involve high-order correlations among many particles, which are hard to access theoretically, and even harder experimentally. Standard, “theorist- and experimentalist-friendly” many-body observables involve correlations among only few (one, two, rarely three...) particles. Typically, there is no multipartite Bell inequality for this scenario based on such low-order correlations. Recently, however, we have succeeded in constructing multipartite Bell inequalities that involve two- and one-body correlations only, and showed how they revealed the nonlocality in many-body systems relevant for nuclear and atomic physics [Tura et al., Science 344 (2014) 1256]. With the present contribution we continue our work on this problem. On the one hand, we present a detailed derivation of the above Bell inequalities, pertaining to permutation symmetry among the involved parties. On the other hand, we present a couple of new results concerning such Bell inequalities. First, we characterize their tightness. We then discuss maximal quantum violations of these inequalities in the general case, and their scaling with the number of parties. Moreover, we provide new classes of two-body Bell inequalities which reveal nonlocality of the Dicke states—ground states of physically relevant and experimentally realizable Hamiltonians. Finally, we shortly discuss various scenarios for nonlocality detection in mesoscopic systems of trapped ions or atoms, and by atoms trapped in the vicinity of designed nanostructures.

  17. Spin Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The 5th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics met in September at Brookhaven. The symposium has evolved to include a number of diverse specialities: theory, including parity violations and proposed quantum chromodynamics (QCD) tests with polarized beams; experiment, including the large spin effects discovered in high transverse momentum elastic scattering and hyperon production, dibaryons, and magnetic moments; acceleration and storage of polarized protons and electrons; and development of polarized sources and targets

  18. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1975-01-01

    with the symmetry, we deduce the dispersion relation for the spin waves in a basal-plane ferromagnet. This phenomenological spin-wave theory accounts for the observed behavior of the magnon energies in Tb. The two q⃗-dependent Bogoliubov components of the magnon energies are derived from the experimental results......, which are corrected for the effect of the direct coupling between the magnons and the phonons, and for the field dependence of the relative magnetization at finite temperatures. A large q⃗-dependent difference between the two energy components is observed, showing that the anisotropy of the two...

  19. Glueball phenomenology within a nonlocal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacosa, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we describe the properties of glueball phenomenology within a nonlocal covariant constituent approach. The search for glueballs, their theoretical description and the mixing with quarkonia mesons is an active and unsolved issue of hadronic QCD. Different models and assignments have been proposed, but up to now no certain statement about their existence can be done. After introducing the theoretical framework in which we will work in, the attention will be focused on the problem of the scalar glueball, which lattice QCD predicts to be the lightest gluonic state with a mass between 1.4-1.8 GeV. In the same mass region one encounters many scalar resonances; mixing between the bare glueball and quarkonia states is therefore likely. In a covariant constituent approach one cannot define rigorously a mixing matrix connecting the bare to physical fields. However, we propose a definition which satisfies the correct requirements and which can be compared to other phenomenological studies. The two-photon decay of isoscalar-scalar states is believed to be crucial to pin down the flavor content of the resonances between 1 and 2 GeV. We discuss and calculate the two-photon decay rates of the mixed states glueball-quarkonia, getting results which are consistent with the current experimental upper limits

  20. PET reconstruction via nonlocal means induced prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingfeng; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Bayesian priors for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods usually incorporate local neighborhood interactions that penalize large deviations in parameter estimates for adjacent pixels; therefore, only local pixel differences are utilized. This limits their abilities of penalizing the image roughness. To achieve high-quality PET image reconstruction, this study investigates a MAP reconstruction strategy by incorporating a nonlocal means induced (NLMi) prior (NLMi-MAP) which enables utilizing global similarity information of image. The present NLMi prior approximates the derivative of Gibbs energy function by an NLM filtering process. Specially, the NLMi prior is obtained by subtracting the current image estimation from its NLM filtered version and feeding the residual error back to the reconstruction filter to yield the new image estimation. We tested the present NLMi-MAP method with simulated and real PET datasets. Comparison studies with conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and a few iterative reconstruction methods clearly demonstrate that the present NLMi-MAP method performs better in lowering noise, preserving image edge and in higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). Extensive experimental results show that the NLMi-MAP method outperforms the existing methods in terms of cross profile, noise reduction, SNR, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CORR).