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Sample records for nonlocal mullins-sekerka law

  1. Two-sided Mullins-Sekerka flow does not preserve convexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe F. Mayer

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The (two-sided Mullins-Sekerka model is a nonlocal evolution model for closed hypersurfaces, which was originally proposed as a model for phase transitions of materials of negligible specific heat. Under this evolution the propagating interfaces maintain the enclosed volume while the area of the interfaces decreases. We will show by means of an example that the Mullins-Sekerka flow does not preserve convexity in two space dimensions, where we consider both the Mullins-Sekerka model on a bounded domain, and the Mullins-Sekerka model defined on the whole plane.

  2. Quasi-stationary Stefan problem as limit case of Mullins-Sekerka problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易法槐; 陶有山; 刘祖汉

    1997-01-01

    The existence of a local classical solution to the Mullins-Sekerka problem and the convergence to the two-phase quasi-stationary Stefan problem are proved when surface tension approaches zero. This convergence gives a proof of the existence of a local classical solution of quasi-stationary Stefan problem. The methods work in all dimensions.

  3. Generalized conservation laws in non-local field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegeles, Alexander; Oriti, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    We propose a geometrical treatment of symmetries in non-local field theories, where the non-locality is due to a lack of identification of field arguments in the action. We show that the existence of a symmetry of the action leads to a generalized conservation law, in which the usual conserved current acquires an additional non-local correction term, obtaining a generalization of the standard Noether theorem. We illustrate the general formalism by discussing the specific physical example of complex scalar field theory of the type describing the hydrodynamic approximation of Bose-Einstein condensates. We expect our analysis and results to be of particular interest for the group field theory formulation of quantum gravity.

  4. Generalised conservation laws in non-local field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kegeles, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We propose a geometrical treatment of symmetries in non-local field theories, where the non-locality is due to a lack of identification of field arguments in the action. We show that the existence of a symmetry of the action leads to a generalised conservation law, in which the usual conserved current acquires an additional non-local correction term, obtaining a generalisation of the standard Noether theorem. We illustrate the general formalism by discussing the specific physical example of complex scalar field theory of the type describing the hydrodynamic approximation of Bose-Einstein condensates. We expect our analysis and results to be of particular interest for the group field theory formulation of quantum gravity.

  5. Weakly nonlocal non-equilibrium thermodynamics - variational principles and Second Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ván, P.

    2009-01-01

    A general, uniform, rigorous and constructive thermodynamic approach to weakly nonlocal non-equilibrium thermodynamics is reviewed. A method is given to construct and restrict the evolution equations of physical theories according to the Second Law of thermodynamics and considering weakly nonlocal constitutive state spaces. The evolution equations of internal variables, the classical irreversible thermodynamics and Korteweg fluids are treated.

  6. Conservation laws of the generalized nonlocal nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Shi-Gen; Quo Qi; Wu Li-Jun; Lan Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The derivations of several conservation laws of the generalized nonlocal nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation are presented. These invariants are the number of particles, the momentum, the angular momentum and the Hamiltonian in the quantum mechanical analogy. The Lagrangian is also presented.

  7. Volume law for the entanglement entropy in non-local QFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Noburo [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP),Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takayanagi, Tadashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP),Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe,University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we present a simple class of non-local field theories whose ground state entanglement entropy follows a volume law as long as the size of subsystem is smaller than a certain scale. We will confirm this volume law both from numerical calculations and from analytical estimation. This behavior fits nicely with holographic results for spacetimes whose curvatures are much smaller than AdS spaces such as those in the flat spacetime.

  8. Volume law for the entanglement entropy in non-local QFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a simple class of non-local field theories whose ground state entanglement entropy follows a volume law as long as the size of subsystem is smaller than a certain scale. We will confirm this volume law both from numerical calculations and from analytical estimation. This behavior fits nicely with holographic results for spacetimes whose curvatures are much smaller than AdS spaces such as those in the flat spacetime.

  9. Volume Law for the Entanglement Entropy in Non-local QFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, Noburo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple class of non-local field theories whose ground state entanglement entropy follows a volume law as long as the size of subsystem is smaller than a certain scale. We will confirm this volume law both from numerical calculations and from analytical estimation. This behavior fits nicely with holographic results for spacetimes whose curvatures are much smaller than AdS spaces such as those in the flat spacetime.

  10. Stationary solutions for conservation laws with singular nonlocal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coclite, Giuseppe Maria; Coclite, Mario Michele

    The existence of an a.e. positive stationary solution with bounded variation in [0,1] for an integro-differential conservation law with source depending on a function singular in the origin is proved.

  11. Vanishing non-local regularization of a scalar conservation law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Droniou

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available We prove that the solution to the regularization of a scalar conservation law by a fractional power of the Laplacian converges, as the regularization vanishes, to the entropy solution of the hyperbolic problem. We also give an error estimate when the initial condition has bounded variation.

  12. Nonlocal Conservation Laws Derived from an Explicit Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, R A

    1997-01-01

    According to this principle (EEP), in order that the local physical laws cannot change, after changes of velocity and potentials of a measuring system, the relativistic changes of any particle and any stationary radiation (like those used to measure it) must occur in identical proportion. Thus particles and stationary radiations must have the same general physical properties. In principle more exact and better defined physical laws for particles and their gravitational (G) fields can be derived from properties of particle models made up of radiation in stationary states after using fixed reference frames that don't change in the same way as the objects. Effectively, the new laws derived in this way do correspond with relativistic quantum mechanics and with all of the G tests. The main difference with current gravity is the linearity fixed by the EEP, i.e., the G field itself has not a real field energy to exchange with the bodies and it is not a secondary source of field. G work liberates energy confined in t...

  13. Energy method for multi-dimensional balance laws with non-local dissipation

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Renjun

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with a class of multi-dimensional balance laws with a non-local dissipative source which arise as simplified models for the hydrodynamics of radiating gases. At first we introduce the energy method in the setting of smooth perturbations and study the stability of constants states. Precisely, we use Fourier space analysis to quantify the energy dissipation rate and recover the optimal time-decay estimates for perturbed solutions via an interpolation inequality in Fourier space. As application, the developed energy method is used to prove stability of smooth planar waves in all dimensions n2, and also to show existence and stability of time-periodic solutions in the presence of the time-periodic source. Optimal rates of convergence of solutions towards the planar waves or time-periodic states are also shown provided initially L1-perturbations. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media

    CERN Document Server

    Ghofraniha, N; Folli, V; Trillo, S; DelRe, E; Conti, C

    2012-01-01

    We are able to detect the details of spatial optical collisionless wave-breaking through the high aperture imaging of a beam suffering shock in a fluorescent nonlinear nonlocal thermal medium. This allows us to directly measure how nonlocality and nonlinearity affect the point of shock formation and compare results with numerical simulations.

  15. Fractional Lattice Dynamics: Nonlocal constitutive behavior generated by power law matrix functions and their fractional continuum limit kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Michelitsch, Thomas; Riascos, Alejandro; Nowakowski, Andrzej F; Nicolleau, Franck C G A

    2016-01-01

    We introduce positive elastic potentials in the harmonic approximation leading by Hamilton's variational principle to fractional Laplacian matrices having the forms of power law matrix functions of the simple local Bornvon Karman Laplacian. The fractional Laplacian matrices are well defined on periodic and infinite lattices in $n=1,2,3,..$ dimensions. The present approach generalizes the central symmetric second differenceoperator (Born von Karman Laplacian) to its fractional central symmetric counterpart (Fractional Laplacian matrix).For non-integer powers of the Born von Karman Laplacian, the fractional Laplacian matrix is nondiagonal with nonzero matrix elements everywhere, corresponding to nonlocal behavior: For large lattices the matrix elements far from the diagonal expose power law asymptotics leading to continuum limit kernels of Riesz fractional derivative type. We present explicit results for the fractional Laplacian matrix in 1D for finite periodic and infinite linear chains and their Riesz fractio...

  16. Nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...

  17. Nonlocal Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaby, Neil

    2008-01-01

    We consider the possibility of realizing inflation in nonlocal field theories containing infinitely many derivatives. Such constructions arise naturally in string field theory and also in a number of toy models, such as the p-adic string. After reviewing the complications (ghosts and instabilities) that arise when working with high derivative theories we discuss the initial value problem and perturbative stability of theories with infinitely many derivatives. Next, we examine the inflationary dynamics and phenomenology of such theories. Nonlocal inflation can proceed even when the potential is naively too steep and generically predicts large nongaussianity in the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  18. Nonviolent nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    If quantum mechanics governs nature, black holes must evolve unitarily, providing a powerful constraint on the dynamics of quantum gravity. Such evolution apparently must in particular be nonlocal, when described from the usual semiclassical geometric picture, in order to transfer quantum information into the outgoing state. While such transfer from a disintegrating black hole has the dangerous potential to be violent to generic infalling observers, this paper proposes the existence of a more innocuous form of information transfer, to relatively soft modes in the black hole atmosphere. Simplified models for such nonlocal transfer are described and parameterized, within a possibly more basic framework of a Hilbert tensor network. Sufficiently sensitive measurements by infalling observers may detect departures from Hawking's predictions, and in generic models black holes decay more rapidly. Constraints of consistency -- internally and with known and expected features of physics -- restrict the form of informati...

  19. A Nonlocal Model for Carbon Nanotubes under Axial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Barretta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various beam theories are formulated in literature using the nonlocal differential constitutive relation proposed by Eringen. A new variational framework is derived in the present paper by following a consistent thermodynamic approach based on a nonlocal constitutive law of gradient-type. Contrary to the results obtained by Eringen, the new model exhibits the nonlocality effect also for constant axial load distributions. The treatment can be adopted to get new benchmarks for numerical analyses.

  20. Temporal Non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  1. Nonlocal incoherent solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Wyller, John

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons.......We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons....

  2. NONLOCAL SYMMETRIES AND NONLOCAL RECURSION OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An expose about covering method on differential equations was given. The general formulae to determine nonlocal symmetries were derived which are analogous to the prolongation formulae of generalized symmetries. In addition, a new definition of nonlocal recursion operators was proposed, which gave a satisfactory explalnation in covering theory for the integro-differcntial recursion operators.

  3. Nonlocal formalism for nanoplasmonics: Phenomenological and semi-classical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    The plasmon response of metallic nanostructures is anticipated to exhibit nonlocal dynamics of the electron gas when exploring the true nanoscale. We extend the local-response approximation (based on Ohm's law) to account for a general short-range nonlocal response of the homogeneous electron gas...

  4. Lorentz Invariant CPT Violating Effects for a Class of Gauge-invariant Nonlocal Thirring Models

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Pinaki

    2013-01-01

    CPT violation and Lorentz invariance can coexist in the framework of non-local field theory. Local gauge-invariance may not hold for the few non-local interaction terms. However, the gauge-invariance for the non-local interaction term can be formulated by the inclusion of Swinger non-integrable phase factor. In this article we have proposed a class of CPT violating Lorentz invariant Nonlocal Gauge-invariant models which can be termed as non-local gauge-invariant Thirring models. The inclusion of non-locality will modify the current conservation laws. Also, the possible particle antiparticle mass-splitting in this respect is discussed.

  5. Fully nonlocal quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Aolita, Leandro; Acín, Antonio; Chiuri, Andrea; Vallone, Giuseppe; Mataloni, Paolo; Cabello, Adán

    2011-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is a nonlocal theory, but not as nonlocal as the no-signalling principle allows. However, there exist quantum correlations that exhibit maximal nonlocality: they are as nonlocal as any non-signalling correlations and thus have a local content, quantified by the fraction $p_L$ of events admitting a local description, equal to zero. Previous examples of maximal quantum nonlocality between two parties require an infinite number of measurements, and the corresponding Bell violation is not robust against noise. We show how every proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem gives rise to maximally nonlocal quantum correlations that involve a finite number of measurements and are robust against noise. We perform the experimental demonstration of a Bell test originating from the Peres-Mermin Kochen-Specker proof, providing an upper bound on the local content $p_L\\lesssim 0.22$.

  6. Nonlocal General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, B

    2014-01-01

    A brief account of the present status of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation is presented. The main physical assumptions that underlie this theory are described. We clarify the physical meaning and significance of Weitzenb\\"ock's torsion, and emphasize its intimate relationship with the gravitational field, characterized by the Riemannian curvature of spacetime. In this theory, nonlocality can simulate dark matter; in fact, in the Newtonian regime, we recover the phenomenological Tohline-Kuhn approach to modified gravity. To account for the observational data regarding dark matter, nonlocality is associated with a characteristic length scale of order 1 kpc. The confrontation of nonlocal gravity with observation is briefly discussed.

  7. Quantum Nonlocality and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary; Gao, Shan

    2016-09-01

    Preface; Part I. John Stewart Bell: The Physicist: 1. John Bell: the Irish connection Andrew Whitaker; 2. Recollections of John Bell Michael Nauenberg; 3. John Bell: recollections of a great scientist and a great man Gian-Carlo Ghirardi; Part II. Bell's Theorem: 4. What did Bell really prove? Jean Bricmont; 5. The assumptions of Bell's proof Roderich Tumulka; 6. Bell on Bell's theorem: the changing face of nonlocality Harvey R. Brown and Christopher G. Timpson; 7. Experimental tests of Bell inequalities Marco Genovese; 8. Bell's theorem without inequalities: on the inception and scope of the GHZ theorem Olival Freire, Jr and Osvaldo Pessoa, Jr; 9. Strengthening Bell's theorem: removing the hidden-variable assumption Henry P. Stapp; Part III. Nonlocality: Illusions or Reality?: 10. Is any theory compatible with the quantum predictions necessarily nonlocal? Bernard d'Espagnat; 11. Local causality, probability and explanation Richard A. Healey; 12. Bell inequality and many-worlds interpretation Lev Vaidman; 13. Quantum solipsism and non-locality Travis Norsen; 14. Lessons of Bell's theorem: nonlocality, yes; action at a distance, not necessarily Wayne C. Myrvold; 15. Bell non-locality, Hardy's paradox and hyperplane dependence Gordon N. Fleming; 16. Some thoughts on quantum nonlocality and its apparent incompatibility with relativity Shan Gao; 17. A reasonable thing that just might work Daniel Rohrlich; 18. Weak values and quantum nonlocality Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; Part IV. Nonlocal Realistic Theories: 19. Local beables and the foundations of physics Tim Maudlin; 20. John Bell's varying interpretations of quantum mechanics: memories and comments H. Dieter Zeh; 21. Some personal reflections on quantum non-locality and the contributions of John Bell Basil J. Hiley; 22. Bell on Bohm Sheldon Goldstein; 23. Interactions and inequality Philip Pearle; 24. Gravitation and the noise needed in objective reduction models Stephen L. Adler; 25. Towards an objective

  8. Nonlocality from Local Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Heng; Hu, Xiao-Min; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Huang, Yun-Feng; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Cabello, Adán

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally show that nonlocality can be produced from single-particle contextuality by using two-particle correlations which do not violate any Bell inequality by themselves. This demonstrates that nonlocality can come from an a priori different simpler phenomenon, and connects contextuality and nonlocality, the two critical resources for, respectively, quantum computation and secure communication. From the perspective of quantum information, our experiment constitutes a proof of principle that quantum systems can be used simultaneously for both quantum computation and secure communication.

  9. Nonlocality from Local Contextuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Heng; Hu, Xiao-Min; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Huang, Yun-Feng; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Cabello, Adán

    2016-11-25

    We experimentally show that nonlocality can be produced from single-particle contextuality by using two-particle correlations which do not violate any Bell inequality by themselves. This demonstrates that nonlocality can come from an a priori different simpler phenomenon, and connects contextuality and nonlocality, the two critical resources for, respectively, quantum computation and secure communication. From the perspective of quantum information, our experiment constitutes a proof of principle that quantum systems can be used simultaneously for both quantum computation and secure communication.

  10. Making space for nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, James

    2016-04-01

    George Musser's book Spooky Action at a Distance focuses on one of quantum physics' more challenging concepts, nonlocality, and its multitude of implications, particularly its assault on space itself.

  11. Nonlocal continuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...

  12. Acceleration-Induced Nonlocal Electrodynamics in Minkowski Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Muench, U; Mashhoon, B; Muench, Uwe; Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2000-01-01

    We discuss two nonlocal models of electrodynamics in which the nonlocality is induced by the acceleration of the observer. Such an observer actually measures an electromagnetic field that exhibits persistent memory effects. We compare Mashhoon's model with a new ansatz developed here in the framework of charge & flux electrodynamics with a constitutive law involving the Levi-Civita connection as seen from the observer's local frame and conclude that they are in partial agreement only for the case of constant acceleration.

  13. Nonlocal symmetry generators and explicit solutions of some partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Maochang [School of Science, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067 (China)

    2007-04-27

    The nonlocal symmetry of a partial differential equation is studied in this paper. The partial differential equation written as a conservation law can be transformed into an equivalent system by introducing a suitable potential. The nonlocal symmetry group generators of original partial differential equations can be obtained through their equivalent system. Further, new explicit solutions can be constructed from the newly obtained symmetry generators. The Burgers equation is chosen as an example; many new valuable explicit solutions and nonlocal symmetry generators are presented.

  14. Higher harmonic nonlocal polymerization driven diffusion model: generalized nonlinearities and nonlocal responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John V.; O'Brien, Jeff; O'Neill, Feidhlim T.; Gleeson, Michael R.; Sheridan, John T.

    2004-10-01

    Non-local and non-linear models of photopolymer materials, which include diffusion effects, have recently received much attention in the literature. The material response is non-local as it is assumed that monomers are polymerised to form polymer chains and that these chains grow away from a point of initiation. The non-locality is defined in terms of a spatial non-local material response function. The numerical method of solution typically involves retaining either two or four harmonics of the Fourier series of monomer concentration in the calculation. In this paper a general set of equations is derived which allows inclusion of higher number of harmonics for any response function. The numerical convergence for varying number of harmonics retained is investigated with special care being taken to note the effect of the; non-local material variance s, the power law degree k, and the rates of diffusion, D, and polymerisation F0. General non-linear material responses are also included.

  15. Nonlocal Crowd Dynamics Models for several Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Colombo, Rinaldo M

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the basic analytical theory related to some recently introduced crowd dynamics models. Where well posedness was known only locally in time, it is here extended to all of $\\reali^+$. The results on the stability with respect to the equations are improved. Moreover, here the case of several populations is considered, obtaining the well posedness of systems of multi-D non-local conservation laws. The basic analytical tools are provided by the classical Kruzkov theory of scalar conservation laws in several space dimensions.

  16. NONLOCAL CROWD DYNAMICS MODELS FOR SEVERAL POPULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rinaldo M. Colombo; Magali Lécureux-Mercier

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the basic analytical theory related to some recently introduced crowd dynamics models.Where well posedness was known only locally in time,it is here extended to all of R+.The results on the stability with respect to the equations are improved.Moreover,here the case of several populations is considered,obtaining the well posedness of systems of multi-D non-local conservation laws.The basic analytical tools are provided by the classical Kru(z)kov theory of scalar conservation laws in several space dimensions.

  17. Nonlocal diffusion and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Working in the fractional Laplace framework, this book provides models and theorems related to nonlocal diffusion phenomena. In addition to a simple probabilistic interpretation, some applications to water waves, crystal dislocations, nonlocal phase transitions, nonlocal minimal surfaces and Schrödinger equations are given. Furthermore, an example of an s-harmonic function, its harmonic extension and some insight into a fractional version of a classical conjecture due to De Giorgi are presented. Although the aim is primarily to gather some introductory material concerning applications of the fractional Laplacian, some of the proofs and results are new. The work is entirely self-contained, and readers who wish to pursue related subjects of interest are invited to consult the rich bibliography for guidance.

  18. Disentangling Nonlocality and Teleportation

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, L

    1999-01-01

    Quantum entanglement can be used to demonstrate nonlocality and to teleport a quantum state from one place to another. The fact that entanglement can be used to do both these things has led people to believe that teleportation is a nonlocal effect. In this paper it is shown that teleportation is conceptually independent of nonlocality. This is done by constructing a toy local theory in which cloning is not possible (without a no-cloning theory teleportation makes limited sense) but teleportation is. Teleportation in this local theory is achieved in an analogous way to the way it is done with quantum theory. This work provides some insight into what type of process teleportation is.

  19. Nonlocal N=1 Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Tetsuji; Noumi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    We construct $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric nonlocal theories in four dimension. We discuss higher derivative extensions of chiral and vector superfields, and write down generic forms of K\\"ahler potential and superpotential up to quadratic order. We derive the condition in which an auxiliary field remains non-dynamical, and the dynamical scalars and fermions are free from the ghost degrees of freedom. We also investigate the nonlocal effects on the supersymmetry breaking and find that supertrace (mass) formula is significantly modified even at the tree level.

  20. Teaching Quantum Nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2012-01-01

    Nonlocality arises from the unified "all or nothing" interactions of a spatially extended field quantum such as a photon or an electron. In the double-slit experiment with light, for example, each photon comes through both slits and arrives at the viewing screen as an extended but unified energy bundle or "field quantum." When the photon interacts…

  1. Teaching Quantum Nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2012-01-01

    Nonlocality arises from the unified "all or nothing" interactions of a spatially extended field quantum such as a photon or an electron. In the double-slit experiment with light, for example, each photon comes through both slits and arrives at the viewing screen as an extended but unified energy bundle or "field quantum." When the photon interacts…

  2. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aurelien Drezet

    2007-03-01

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  3. APPLICATION OF NONLOCAL FRICTION IN SEVERAL KINDS OF PLASTIC FORMING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiao-qing; LUO Hai-bao; FU Ming-fu; JIANG Wu-gui

    2005-01-01

    The nonlocal friction law proposed by Oden et al. was adopted in order to consider the nonlocal friction effect of the asperities on the rough contact surface between the die and the workpiece in several kinds of metal plastic forming problems.The mechanical equilibrium equations with the integral-differential form were obtained by using the engineering method or slab method, and solved approximately by using the perturbation method. The normal stress distributions on the contact surfaces in metal forming problems with nonlocal friction were obtained, and the factors which affect the nonlocal friction effect were analyzed.

  4. Nonlocal neurology: beyond localization to holonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, G G; O'Carroll, C P

    2010-11-01

    The concept of local pathology has long served neurology admirably. Relevant models include self-organizing nonlinear brain dynamics, global workspace and dynamic core theories. However such models are inconsistent with certain clinical phenomena found in Charles Bonnet syndrome, disjunctive agnosia and schizophrenia, where there is disunity of content within the unity of consciousness. This is contrasted with the split-brain case where there is disunity of content and disunity of consciousnesses. The development of quantum brain theory with it nonlocal mechanisms under the law of the whole ("holonomy") offers new possibilities for explaining disintegration within unity. Dissipative quantum brain dynamics and its approach to the binding problem, memory and consciousness are presented. A nonlocal neurology armed with a holonomic understanding might see more deeply into what clinical neurology has always aspired to: the patient as a whole.

  5. Nonlocal transformation optics

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldi, Giuseppe; Alu', Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2011-01-01

    We show that the powerful framework of transformation optics may be exploited for engineering the nonlocal response of artificial electromagnetic materials. Relying on the form-invariant properties of coordinate-transformed Maxwell's equations in the spectral domain, we derive the general constitutive "blueprints" of transformation media yielding prescribed nonlocal field-manipulation effects, and provide a physically-incisive and powerful geometrical interpretation in terms of deformation of the equi-frequency contours. In order to illustrate the potentials of our approach, we present an example of application to a wave-splitting refraction scenario, which may be implemented via a simple class of artificial materials. Our results provide a systematic and versatile framework which may open intriguing venues in dispersion engineering of artificial materials.

  6. Nonlocality of quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Streltsov, A; Roga, W; Bruß, D; Illuminati, F

    2012-01-01

    We show that only those composite quantum systems possessing nonvanishing quantum correlations have the property that any nontrivial local unitary evolution changes their global state. This type of nonlocality occurs also for states that do not violate a Bell inequality, such as, for instance, Werner states with a low degree of entanglement. We derive the exact relation between the global state change induced by local unitary evolutions and the amount of quantum correlations. We prove that the minimal change coincides with the geometric measure of discord, thus providing the latter with an operational interpretation in terms of the capability of a local unitary dynamics to modify a global state. We establish rigorously that Werner states are the maximally quantum correlated two-qubit states, and thus are the ones that maximize this novel type of nonlocality.

  7. Entanglement without hidden nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Flavien; Túlio Quintino, Marco; Bowles, Joseph; Vértesi, Tamás; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    We consider Bell tests in which the distant observers can perform local filtering before testing a Bell inequality. Notably, in this setup, certain entangled states admitting a local hidden variable model in the standard Bell scenario can nevertheless violate a Bell inequality after filtering, displaying so-called hidden nonlocality. Here we ask whether all entangled states can violate a Bell inequality after well-chosen local filtering. We answer this question in the negative by showing that there exist entangled states without hidden nonlocality. Specifically, we prove that some two-qubit Werner states still admit a local hidden variable model after any possible local filtering on a single copy of the state.

  8. Acausality in Nonlocal Gravity Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ying-li; Sasaki, Misao; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the nonlocal gravity theory by deriving nonlocal equations of motion using the traditional variation principle in a homogeneous background. We focus on a class of models with a linear nonlocal modification term in the action. It is found that the resulting equations of motion contain the advanced Green's function, implying that there is an acausality problem. As a consequence, a divergence arises in the solutions due to contributions from the future infinity unless the Universe will go back to the radiation dominated era or become the Minkowski spacetime in the future. We also discuss the relation between the original nonlocal equations and its biscalar-tensor representation and identify the auxiliary fields with the corresponding original nonlocal terms. Finally, we show that the acusality problem cannot be avoided by any function of nonlocal terms in the action.

  9. Causality, Nonlocality, and Negative Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcella, Davide; Prada, Claire; Carminati, Rémi

    2017-03-31

    The importance of spatial nonlocality in the description of negative refraction in electromagnetic materials has been put forward recently. We develop a theory of negative refraction in homogeneous and isotropic media, based on first principles, and that includes nonlocality in its full generality. The theory shows that both dissipation and spatial nonlocality are necessary conditions for the existence of negative refraction. It also provides a sufficient condition in materials with weak spatial nonlocality. These fundamental results should have broad implications in the theoretical and practical analyses of negative refraction of electromagnetic and other kinds of waves.

  10. Nonlocal gravity: Conformally flat spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato

    2016-01-01

    The field equations of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation are presented in a form that is reminiscent of general relativity. The implications of the nonlocal field equations are studied in the case of conformally flat spacetimes. Even in this simple case, the field equations are intractable. Therefore, to gain insight into the nature of these equations, we investigate the structure of nonlocal gravity in two-dimensional spacetimes. While any smooth 2D spacetime is conformally flat and satisfies Einstein's field equations, only a subset containing either a Killing vector or a homothetic Killing vector can satisfy the field equations of nonlocal gravity.

  11. Analytical theory of dark nonlocal solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Qian; Wang, Qi; Bang, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    We investigate properties of dark solitons in nonlocal materials with an arbitrary degree of nonlocality. We employ the variational technique and describe dark solitons, for the first time to our knowledge, in the whole range of degree of nonlocality.......We investigate properties of dark solitons in nonlocal materials with an arbitrary degree of nonlocality. We employ the variational technique and describe dark solitons, for the first time to our knowledge, in the whole range of degree of nonlocality....

  12. Optical Beams in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Królikowski, W.; Bang, Ole; Wyller, J.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons.......We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons....

  13. Randomness and Non-Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senno, Gabriel; Bendersky, Ariel; Figueira, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The concepts of randomness and non-locality are intimately intertwined outcomes of randomly chosen measurements over entangled systems exhibiting non-local correlations are, if we preclude instantaneous influence between distant measurement choices and outcomes, random. In this paper, we survey some recent advances in the knowledge of the interplay between these two important notions from a quantum information science perspective.

  14. Observers in Spacetime and Nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, B

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of observers in relativity theory are critically examined. For field measurements in Minkowski spacetime, the Bohr-Rosenfeld principle implies that the connection between actual (i.e., noninertial) and inertial observers must be nonlocal. Nonlocal electrodynamics of non-uniformly rotating observers is discussed and the consequences of this theory for the phenomenon of spin-rotation coupling are briefly explored.

  15. Quadratic solitons as nonlocal solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, D.; Bang, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We show that quadratic solitons are equivalent to solitons of a nonlocal Kerr medium. This provides new physical insight into the properties of quadratic solitons, often believed to be equivalent to solitons of an effective saturable Kerr medium. The nonlocal analogy also allows for analytical...

  16. An operational framework for nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Gallego, Rodrigo; Acín, Antonio; Navascués, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the importance of entanglement for quantum information purposes, a framework has been developed for its characterization and quantification as a resource based on the following operational principle: entanglement among $N$ parties cannot be created by local operations and classical communication, even when $N-1$ parties collaborate. More recently, nonlocality has been identified as another resource, alternative to entanglement and necessary for device-independent quantum information protocols. We introduce an operational framework for nonlocality based on a similar principle: nonlocality among $N$ parties cannot be created by local operations and allowed classical communication even when $N-1$ parties collaborate. We then show that the standard definition of multipartite nonlocality, due to Svetlichny, is inconsistent with this operational approach: according to it, genuine tripartite nonlocality could be created by two collaborating parties. We finally discuss alternative definitions for which consist...

  17. Nonlocal and quasilocal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomboulis, E. T.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonlocal field theories, a subject that has attracted some renewed interest in connection with nonlocal gravity models. We study, in particular, scalar theories of interacting delocalized fields, the delocalization being specified by nonlocal integral kernels. We distinguish between strictly nonlocal and quasilocal (compact support) kernels and impose conditions on them to insure UV finiteness and unitarity of amplitudes. We study the classical initial value problem for the partial integro-differential equations of motion in detail. We give rigorous proofs of the existence but accompanying loss of uniqueness of solutions due to the presence of future, as well as past, "delays," a manifestation of acausality. In the quantum theory we derive a generalization of the Bogoliubov causality condition equation for amplitudes, which explicitly exhibits the corrections due to nonlocality. One finds that, remarkably, for quasilocal kernels all acausal effects are confined within the compact support regions. We briefly discuss the extension to other types of fields and prospects of such theories.

  18. Nonlocal thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Huxtable, Scott T; Yang, Bao; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2014-12-17

    Thermal transport across the interfaces between few-layer graphene sheets and soft materials exhibits intriguing anomalies when interpreted using the classical Kapitza model, e.g. the conductance of the same interface differs greatly for different modes of interfacial thermal transport. Using atomistic simulations, we show that such thermal transport follows a nonlocal flux-temperature drop constitutive law and is characterized jointly by a quasi-local conductance and a nonlocal conductance instead of the classical Kapitza conductance. The nonlocal model enables rationalization of many anomalies of the thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets and should be used in studies of interfacial thermal transport involving few-layer graphene sheets or other ultra-thin layered materials.

  19. Null tests of nonlocal gravity with multi-axis gravity gradiometers in elliptic orbits: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qianzong; Qiang, Li-E.

    2017-08-01

    A theoretical study of testing nonlocal gravity in its Newtonian regime with gravity gradient measurements in space is given. For certain solutions of the modification to Newton’s law in nonlocal gravity, a null test and a lower bound on related parameters may be given with future high precision multi-axis gravity gradiometers along elliptic orbits.

  20. The solutions of the strongly nonlocal spatial solitons with several types of nonlocal response functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Shi-Gen; Guo Qi; Lan Sheng; Wu Li-Jun

    2007-01-01

    The fundamental and second order strongly nonlocal solitons of the nonlocal nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation for several types of nonlocal responses are calculated by Ritz's variational method.For a specific type of nonlocal response, the solutions of the strongly nonlocal solitons with the same beam width but difierent degrees of nonlocality are identical except for an amplitude factor.For a nonlocal case where the nonlocal response function decays in direct proportion to the ruth power of the distance near the source point,the power and the phase constant of the strongly nonlocal soliton are in inverse proportion to the(m+2)th power of its beam width.

  1. Optimal measurements for nonlocal correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sacha; Stefanov, André; Wolf, Stefan; Montina, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    A problem in quantum information theory is to find the experimental setup that maximizes the nonlocality of correlations with respect to some suitable measure such as the violation of Bell inequalities. There are however some complications with Bell inequalities. First and foremost it is unfeasible to determine the whole set of Bell inequalities already for a few measurements and thus unfeasible to find the experimental setup maximizing their violation. Second, the Bell violation suffers from an ambiguity stemming from the choice of the normalization of the Bell coefficients. An alternative measure of nonlocality with a direct information-theoretic interpretation is the minimal amount of classical communication required for simulating nonlocal correlations. In the case of many instances simulated in parallel, the minimal communication cost per instance is called nonlocal capacity, and its computation can be reduced to a convex-optimization problem. This quantity can be computed for a higher number of measurements and turns out to be useful for finding the optimal experimental setup. Focusing on the bipartite case, we present a simple method for maximizing the nonlocal capacity over a given configuration space and, in particular, over a set of possible measurements, yielding the corresponding optimal setup. Furthermore, we show that there is a functional relationship between Bell violation and nonlocal capacity. The method is illustrated with numerical tests and compared with the maximization of the violation of CGLMP-type Bell inequalities on the basis of entangled two-qubit as well as two-qutrit states. Remarkably, the anomaly of nonlocality displayed by qutrits turns out to be even stronger if the nonlocal capacity is employed as a measure of nonlocality.

  2. Generalized non-local responses and higher harmonic retention in non-local polymerization driven diffusion model based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, J. T.; Kelly, J. V.; O'Brien, G.; Gleeson, M. R.; O'Neill, F. T.

    2004-12-01

    Non-local and non-linear models of photopolymer materials, which include diffusion effects, have recently received much attention in the literature. The material response is described as non-local as it is assumed that monomers are polymerized to form polymer chains and that these chains grow away from a point of initiation. The non-locality is defined in terms of a spatial non-local material response function. The material model is non-linear as a general non-linear material response to the incident light is included. Typically the numerical method of solution has involved retaining only up to four harmonics of the Fourier series of monomer concentration in the calculations. In this paper a general set of coupled first-order differential equations is derived which allow the inclusion of a higher number of harmonics. The resulting effect on the convergence of the algorithm, as the number of harmonics retained is increased, is investigated. Special care is taken to note the effect of physical parameters, i.e. the non-local material variance σ, the power-law degree k, and the rates of diffusion, D, and polymerization, F0.

  3. Towards LHC physics with nonlocal Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tirthabir Biswas; Nobuchika Okada

    2015-01-01

    We take a few steps towards constructing a string-inspired nonlocal extension of the Standard Model. We start by illustrating how quantum loop calculations can be performed in nonlocal scalar field theory. In particular, we show the potential to address the hierarchy problem in the nonlocal framework. Next, we construct a nonlocal abelian gauge model and derive modifications of the gauge interaction vertex and field propagators. We apply the modifications to a toy version of the nonlocal Stan...

  4. Does Quantum Nonlocality Exist? Bell's Theorem and the Many-Worlds Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Tipler, F J

    2000-01-01

    Quantum nonlocality may be an artifact of the assumption that observers obey the laws of classical mechanics, while observed systems obey quantum mechanics. I show that, at least in the case of Bell's Theorem, locality is restored if observed and observer are both assumed to obey quantum mechanics, as in the Many-Worlds Interpretation. Using the MWI, I shall show that the apparently "non-local" expectation value for the product of the spins of two widely separated particles --- the "quantum" part of Bell's Theorem --- is really due to a series of three purely local measurements. Thus, experiments confirming "nonlocality" are actually confirming the MWI.

  5. Hidden-variable models for the spin singlet: I. Non-local theories reproducing quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lorenzo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A non-local hidden variable model reproducing the quantum mechanical probabilities for a spin singlet is presented. The non-locality is concentrated in the distribution of the hidden variables. The model otherwise satisfies both the hypothesis of outcome independence, made in the derivation of Bell inequality, and of compliance with Malus's law, made in the derivation of Leggett inequality. It is shown through the prescription of a protocol that the non-locality can be exploited to send information instantaneously provided that the hidden variables can be measured, even though they cannot be controlled.

  6. Solutions of Nonlocal -Laplacian Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Avci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of variational approach we discuss a nonlocal problem, that is, a Kirchhoff-type equation involving -Laplace operator. Establishing some suitable conditions, we prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions.

  7. Spontaneous Emission in Nonlocal Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Pavel; Nasir, Mazhar E; Olvera, Paulina Segovia; Krasavin, Alexey V; Levitt, James; Hirvonen, Liisa M; Wells, Brian; Suhling, Klaus; Richards, David; Podolskiy, Viktor A; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2016-01-01

    Light-matter interactions can be dramatically modified by the surrounding environment. Here we report on the first experimental observation of molecular spontaneous emission inside a highly nonlocal metamaterial based on a plasmonic nanorod assembly. We show that the emission process is dominated not only by the topology of its local effective medium dispersion, but also by the nonlocal response of the composite, so that metamaterials with different geometric parameters but the same local effective medium properties exhibit different Purcell factors. A record-high enhancement of a decay rate is observed, in agreement with the developed quantitative description of the Purcell effect in a nonlocal medium. An engineered material nonlocality introduces an additional degree of freedom into quantum electrodynamics, enabling new applications in quantum information processing, photo-chemistry, imaging, and sensing.

  8. Classical and Quantum Nonlocal Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giaccari, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We derive the N=1 supersymmetric extension for a class of weakly nonlocal four dimensional gravitational theories.The construction is explicitly done in the superspace and the tree-level perturbative unitarity is explicitly proved both in the superfield formalism and in field components. For the minimal nonlocal supergravity the spectrum is the same as in the local theory and in particular it is ghost-free. The supersymmetric extension of the super-renormalizable Starobinsky theory and of two alternative massive nonlocal supergravities are found as straightforward applications of the formalism. Power-counting arguments ensure super-renormalizability with milder requirement for the asymptotic behavior of form factors than in ordinary nonlocal gravity. The most noteworthy result, common to ordinary supergravity, is the absence of quantum corrections to the cosmological constant in any regularization procedure. We cannot exclude the usual one-loop quadratic divergences. However, local vertices in the superfields...

  9. Local and Nonlocal Advected Invariants and Helicities in Magnetohydrodynamics and Gas Dynamics II: Noether's Theorems and Casimirs

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, G M; McKenzie, J F; Hu, Q; Zank, G P

    2013-01-01

    Conservation laws in ideal gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) associated with fluid relabelling symmetries are derived using Noether's first and second theorems. Lie dragged invariants are discussed in terms of the MHD Casimirs. A nonlocal conservation law for fluid helicity applicable for a non-barotropic fluid involving Clebsch variables is derived using Noether's theorem, in conjunction with a fluid relabelling symmetry and a gauge transformation. A nonlocal cross helicity conservation law involving Clebsch potentials, and the MHD energy conservation law are derived by the same method. An Euler Poincar\\'e variational approach is also used to derive conservation laws associated with fluid relabelling symmetries using Noether's second theorem.

  10. Study of Nonlocal Optical Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is generally known that nuclear optical potentials are theoretically expected to be non-local.The non-locality arises from the exchange of particles between the projectile and target and from coupling tonon-elastic channels.This non-locality was first introduced by Frahn and Lemmer,and developed further by Perey and Buck(PB).The kernel is of the form

  11. Nonlocal Symmetries and Exact Solutions for PIB Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiang-Peng; Miao, Qian; Chen, Yong

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, the symmetry group of the (2+1)-dimensional Painlevé integrable Burgers (PIB) equations is studied by means of the classical symmetry method. Ignoring the discussion of the infinite-dimensional subalgebra, we construct an optimal system of one-dimensional group invariant solutions. Furthermore, by using the conservation laws of the reduced equations, we obtain nonlocal symmetries and exact solutions of the PIB equations.

  12. Nonlocal Symmetries and Exact Solutions for PIB Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛祥鹏; 苗倩; 陈勇

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the symmetry group of the is studied by means of the classical symmetry method (2+l)-dimensionM Painlevd integrable Burgers (PIB) equations Ignoring the discussion of the infinite-dimensional subalgebra, we construct an optimal system of one-dimensional group invariant solutions. Furthermore, by using the conservation laws of the reduced equations, we obtain nonlocal symmetries and exact solutions of the PIB equations.

  13. Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Søren; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Wubs, Martijn; Asger Mortensen, N

    2015-05-13

    This review provides a broad overview of the studies and effects of nonlocal response in metallic nanostructures. In particular, we thoroughly present the nonlocal hydrodynamic model and the recently introduced generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model. The influence of nonlocal response on plasmonic excitations is studied in key metallic geometries, such as spheres and dimers, and we derive new consequences due to the GNOR model. Finally, we propose several trajectories for future work on nonlocal response, including experimental setups that may unveil further effects of nonlocal response.

  14. Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Wubs, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a broad overview of the studies and effects of nonlocal response in metallic nanostructures. In particular, we thoroughly present the nonlocal hydrodynamic model and the recently introduced generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model. The influence of nonlocal response...... on plasmonic excitations is studied in key metallic geometries, such as spheres and dimers, and we derive new consequences due to the GNOR model. Finally, we propose several trajectories for future work on nonlocal response, including experimental setups that may unveil further effects of nonlocal response....

  15. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  16. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.

  17. Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, P. G. L.; Karasu Kalkanli, A.; Nucci, M. C.; Andriopoulos, K.

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R). The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.

  18. Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G.L. Leach

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R. The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.

  19. Nonlocal Measurements via Quantum Erasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodutch, Aharon; Cohen, Eliahu

    2016-02-19

    Nonlocal observables play an important role in quantum theory, from Bell inequalities and various postselection paradoxes to quantum error correction codes. Instantaneous measurement of these observables is known to be a difficult problem, especially when the measurements are projective. The standard von Neumann Hamiltonian used to model projective measurements cannot be implemented directly in a nonlocal scenario and can, in some cases, violate causality. We present a scheme for effectively generating the von Neumann Hamiltonian for nonlocal observables without the need to communicate and adapt. The protocol can be used to perform weak and strong (projective) measurements, as well as measurements at any intermediate strength. It can also be used in practical situations beyond nonlocal measurements. We show how the protocol can be used to probe a version of Hardy's paradox with both weak and strong measurements. The outcomes of these measurements provide a nonintuitive picture of the pre- and postselected system. Our results shed new light on the interplay between quantum measurements, uncertainty, nonlocality, causality, and determinism.

  20. Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silling, Stewart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, John A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seleson, Pablo D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, Daniel Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ostien, Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunzburger, Max [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Peridynamics, a nonlocal extension of continuum mechanics, is unique in its ability to capture pervasive material failure. Its use in the majority of system-level analyses carried out at Sandia, however, is severely limited, due in large part to computational expense and the challenge posed by the imposition of nonlocal boundary conditions. Combined analyses in which peridynamics is em- ployed only in regions susceptible to material failure are therefore highly desirable, yet available coupling strategies have remained severely limited. This report is a summary of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project "Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Inte- grated Fracture Modeling," completed within the Computing and Information Sciences (CIS) In- vestment Area at Sandia National Laboratories. A number of challenges inherent to coupling local and nonlocal models are addressed. A primary result is the extension of peridynamics to facilitate a variable nonlocal length scale. This approach, termed the peridynamic partial stress, can greatly reduce the mathematical incompatibility between local and nonlocal equations through reduction of the peridynamic horizon in the vicinity of a model interface. A second result is the formulation of a blending-based coupling approach that may be applied either as the primary coupling strategy, or in combination with the peridynamic partial stress. This blending-based approach is distinct from general blending methods, such as the Arlequin approach, in that it is specific to the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics. Facilitating the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics has also required innovations aimed directly at peridynamic models. Specifically, the properties of peridynamic constitutive models near domain boundaries and shortcomings in available discretization strategies have been addressed. The results are a class of position-aware peridynamic constitutive laws for

  1. Nonlocal elasticity tensors in dislocation and disclination cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, V.; Gbemou, K.; Fressengeas, C.; Capolungo, L.

    2017-03-01

    Nonlocal elastic constitutive laws are introduced for crystals containing defects such as dislocations and disclinations. In addition to pointwise elastic moduli tensors adequately reflecting the elastic response of defect-free regions by relating stresses to strains and couple-stresses to curvatures, elastic cross-moduli tensors relating strains to couple-stresses and curvatures to stresses within convolution integrals are derived from a nonlocal analysis of strains and curvatures in the defects cores. Sufficient conditions are derived for positive-definiteness of the resulting free energy, and stability of elastic solutions is ensured. The elastic stress/couple stress fields associated with prescribed dislocation/disclination density distributions and solving the momentum and moment of momentum balance equations in periodic media are determined by using a Fast Fourier Transform spectral method. The convoluted cross-moduli bring the following results: (i) Nonlocal stresses and couple stresses oppose their local counterparts in the defects core regions, playing the role of restoring forces and possibly ensuring spatio-temporal stability of the simulated defects, (ii) The couple stress fields are strongly affected by nonlocality. Such effects favor the stability of the simulated grain boundaries and allow investigating their elastic interactions with extrinsic defects, (iii) Driving forces inducing grain growth or refinement derive from the self-stress and couple stress fields of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline configurations.

  2. Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Raza, Søren; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a broad overview of the studies and effects of nonlocal response in metallic nanostructures. In particular, we thoroughly present the nonlocal hydrodynamic model and the recently introduced generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model. The influence of nonlocal response on plasmonic excitations is studied in key metallic geometries, such as spheres and dimers, and we derive new consequences due to the GNOR model. Finally, we propose several trajectories for future w...

  3. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove that the solutions of the nonlocal problem converge to the solution of the higher order problem with the right-hand side given by powers of the Laplacian when the kernel J is rescaled in an appropriate way. Moreover, we prove that solutions to both equations have the same asymptotic decay rate as t goes to infinity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  4. Totality of Subquantum Nonlocal Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In a series of previous papers we developed a purely field model of microphenomena, so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of QM including correlations for entangled systems, but it also gives a possibility to go beyond quantum mechanics (QM), i.e., to make predictions of phenomena which could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper we discuss one of such predictions - existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to {\\it all} quantum systems. (And by PCSFT quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are "entangled", but in the sense of classical signal theory. On one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random back...

  5. Anderson Localization in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media

    CERN Document Server

    Folli, Viola; 10.1364/OL.37.000332

    2012-01-01

    The effect of focusing and defocusing nonlinearities on Anderson localization in highly nonlocal media is theoretically and numerically investigated. A perturbative approach is developed to solve the nonlocal nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the presence of a random potential, showing that nonlocality stabilizes Anderson states.

  6. Solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media: Exact solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of one-dimensional bright and dark spatial solitons in a nonlocal Kerr-like media, in which the nonlocality is of general form. We find an exact analytical solution to the nonlinear propagation equation in the case of weak nonlocality. We study the properties...

  7. Exact Solutions in Nonlocal Linear Models

    OpenAIRE

    Vernov, S. Yu.

    2008-01-01

    A general class of cosmological models driven by a nonlocal scalar field inspired by the string field theory is studied. Using the fact that the considering linear nonlocal model is equivalent to an infinite number of local models we have found an exact special solution of the nonlocal Friedmann equations. This solution describes a monotonically increasing Universe with the phantom dark energy.

  8. Analysis of Sigmoid Functionally Graded Material (S-FGM Nanoscale Plates Using the Nonlocal Elasticity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a nonlocal elasticity theory, a model for sigmoid functionally graded material (S-FGM nanoscale plate with first-order shear deformation is studied. The material properties of S-FGM nanoscale plate are assumed to vary according to sigmoid function (two power law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. Elastic theory of the sigmoid FGM (S-FGM nanoscale plate is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and first-order shear deformation theory. The equations of motion of the nonlocal theories are derived using Hamilton’s principle. The nonlocal elasticity of Eringen has the ability to capture the small scale effect. The solutions of S-FGM nanoscale plate are presented to illustrate the effect of nonlocal theory on bending and vibration response of the S-FGM nanoscale plates. The effects of nonlocal parameters, power law index, aspect ratio, elastic modulus ratio, side-to-thickness ratio, and loading type on bending and vibration response are investigated. Results of the present theory show a good agreement with the reference solutions. These results can be used for evaluating the reliability of size-dependent S-FGM nanoscale plate models developed in the future.

  9. Nonlocally Centralized Simultaneous Sparse Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷阳; 宋占杰

    2016-01-01

    The concept of structured sparse coding noise is introduced to exploit the spatial correlations and nonlo-cal constraint of the local structure. Then the model of nonlocally centralized simultaneous sparse coding(NC-SSC)is proposed for reconstructing the original image, and an algorithm is proposed to transform the simultaneous sparse coding into reweighted low-rank approximation. Experimental results on image denoisng, deblurring and super-resolution demonstrate the advantage of the proposed NC-SSC method over the state-of-the-art image resto-ration methods.

  10. The non-local oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccari, A. [Istituto Tecnico `G. Cardano`, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy)

    1996-08-01

    The most important characteristics of the non-local oscillator, an oscillator subjected to an additional non-local force, are extensively studied by means of a new asymptotic perturbation method that is able to furnish an approximate solution of weakly non-linear differential equations. The resulting motion is doubly periodic, because a second little frequency appears, in addition to the fundamental harmonic frequency. Comparison with the numerical solution obtained by the Runge-Kitta method confirms the validity of the asymptotic perturbation method and its importance for the study of non-linear dynamical systems.

  11. On Bending of Bernoulli-Euler Nanobeams for Nonlocal Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Feo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of size effects in functionally graded elastic nanobeams is carried out by making recourse to the nonlocal continuum mechanics. The Bernoulli-Euler kinematic assumption and the Eringen nonlocal constitutive law are assumed in the formulation of the elastic equilibrium problem. An innovative methodology, characterized by a lowering in the order of governing differential equation, is adopted in the present manuscript in order to solve the boundary value problem of a nanobeam under flexure. Unlike standard treatments, a second-order differential equation of nonlocal equilibrium elastic is integrated in terms of transverse displacements and equilibrated bending moments. Benchmark examples are developed, thus providing the nonlocality effect in nanocantilever and clampled-simply supported nanobeams for selected values of the Eringen scale parameter.

  12. Nonlocal Response in Plasmonic Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    After a brief overview of nanoplasmonics experiments that defy explanation with classical electrodynamics, we introduce nonlocal response as a main reason for non-classical effects. This concept is first introduced phenomenologically, and afterwards based on the semi-classical hydrodynamic Drude ...

  13. Quantum nonlocality does not exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J

    2014-08-05

    Quantum nonlocality is shown to be an artifact of the Copenhagen interpretation, in which each observed quantity has exactly one value at any instant. In reality, all physical systems obey quantum mechanics, which obeys no such rule. Locality is restored if observed and observer are both assumed to obey quantum mechanics, as in the many-worlds interpretation (MWI). Using the MWI, I show that the quantum side of Bell's inequality, generally believed nonlocal, is really due to a series of three measurements (not two as in the standard, oversimplified analysis), all three of which have only local effects. Thus, experiments confirming "nonlocality" are actually confirming the MWI. The mistaken interpretation of nonlocality experiments depends crucially on a question-begging version of the Born interpretation, which makes sense only in "collapse" versions of quantum theory, about the meaning of the modulus of the wave function, so I use the interpretation based on the MWI, namely that the wave function is a world density amplitude, not a probability amplitude. This view allows the Born interpretation to be derived directly from the Schrödinger equation, by applying the Schrödinger equation to both the observed and the observer.

  14. A nonlocal discretization of fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, R G; Pimentel, L O; Campos, Rafael G.; Tututi, Eduardo S.

    2001-01-01

    A nonlocal method to obtain discrete classical fields is presented. This technique relies on well-behaved matrix representations of the derivatives constructed on a non--equispaced lattice. The drawbacks of lattice theory like the fermion doubling or the breaking of chiral symmetry for the massless case, are absent in this method.

  15. Learning Non-Local Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gustav; Dienes, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of the temporary storage buffer used in implicit or statistical learning. Kuhn and Dienes [Kuhn, G., & Dienes, Z. (2005). Implicit learning of nonlocal musical rules: implicitly learning more than chunks. "Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition," 31(6) 1417-1432] showed that people could…

  16. Learning Non-Local Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gustav; Dienes, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of the temporary storage buffer used in implicit or statistical learning. Kuhn and Dienes [Kuhn, G., & Dienes, Z. (2005). Implicit learning of nonlocal musical rules: implicitly learning more than chunks. "Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition," 31(6) 1417-1432] showed that people could…

  17. Extreme nonlocality with one photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, Libby; Vedral, Vlatko [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Santos, Marcelo Franca, E-mail: l.heaney1@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: adan@us.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Caixa Postal 702, 30123-970, MG (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Quantum nonlocality is typically assigned to systems of two or more well-separated particles, but nonlocality can also exist in systems consisting of just a single particle when one considers the subsystems to be distant spatial field modes. Single particle nonlocality has been confirmed experimentally via a bipartite Bell inequality. In this paper, we introduce an N-party Hardy-like proof of the impossibility of local elements of reality and a Bell inequality for local realistic theories in the case of a single particle superposed symmetrically over N spatial field modes (i.e. N qubit W state). We show that, in the limit of large N, the Hardy-like proof effectively becomes an all-versus-nothing (or Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like) proof, and the quantum-classical gap of the Bell inequality tends to be the same as that in a three-particle GHZ experiment. We describe how to test the nonlocality in realistic systems.

  18. Collapse arrest and soliton stabilization in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Wyller, John

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the properties of localized waves in cubic nonlinear materials with a symmetric nonlocal nonlinear response of arbitrary shape and degree of nonlocality, described by a general nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger type equation. We prove rigorously by bounding the Hamiltonian that nonloc......We investigate the properties of localized waves in cubic nonlinear materials with a symmetric nonlocal nonlinear response of arbitrary shape and degree of nonlocality, described by a general nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger type equation. We prove rigorously by bounding the Hamiltonian...

  19. Explaination of nonlocal granular fluidity in terms of microscopic fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Kamrin, Ken

    A recently proposed granular constitutive law has shown capability to predict nonlocal granular rheology using a variable denoted ``granular fluidity''. This work is aimed at finding the microscopic physical meaning of fluidity in terms of fluctuations such as fluctuation of normalized shear stress and fluctuation of velocity. We try to predict the fluidity as a function of the fluctuation of normalized shear stress, and also test Eyring equation and kinetic theory based on the theoretical prediction proposed in other work. We find a consistent definition for the fluidity to be proportional to the product of the velocity fluctuations and some function of packing fraction divided by the average diameter of the grains. This definition shows predictive ability in multiple geometries for which flow behavior is nonlocal. It is notable that the fluidity is well-defined as a function of kinematic state variables, as one would hope for a quantity of this nature.

  20. Magnified imaging based on non-Hermitian nonlocal cylindrical metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Silvio; Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Monticone, Francesco; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo; Alà, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    We show that a cylindrical lensing system composed of two metasurfaces with suitably tailored non-Hermitian (i.e., with distributed gain and loss) and nonlocal (i.e., spatially dispersive) properties can perform magnified imaging with reduced aberrations. More specifically, we analytically derive the idealized surface-impedance values that are required for "perfect" magnification and imaging and elucidate the role and implications of non-Hermiticity and nonlocality in terms of spatial resolution and practical implementation. For a basic demonstration, we explore some proof-of-principle quasilocal and multilayered implementations and independently validate the outcomes via full-wave numerical simulations. We also show that the metasurface frequency-dispersion laws can be chosen so as to ensure unconditional stability with respect to arbitrary temporal excitations. These results, which extend previous studies on planar configurations, may open intriguing venues in the design of metastructures for field imaging and processing.

  1. Nonlocal multi-scale traffic flow models: analysis beyond vector spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Kloeden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Realistic models of traffic flow are nonlinear and involve nonlocal effects in balance laws. Flow characteristics of different types of vehicles, such as cars and trucks, need to be described differently. Two alternatives are used here, $$L^p$$ L p -valued Lebesgue measurable density functions and signed Radon measures. The resulting solution spaces are metric spaces that do not have a linear structure, so the usual convenient methods of functional analysis are no longer applicable. Instead ideas from mutational analysis will be used, in particular the method of Euler compactness will be applied to establish the well-posedness of the nonlocal balance laws. This involves the concatenation of solutions of piecewise linear systems on successive time subintervals obtained by freezing the nonlinear nonlocal coefficients to their values at the start of each subinterval. Various compactness criteria lead to a convergent subsequence. Careful estimates of the linear systems are needed to implement this program.

  2. Non-Local Euclidean Medians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Singer, Amit

    2012-11-01

    In this letter, we note that the denoising performance of Non-Local Means (NLM) can be improved at large noise levels by replacing the mean by the Euclidean median. We call this new denoising algorithm the Non-Local Euclidean Medians (NLEM). At the heart of NLEM is the observation that the median is more robust to outliers than the mean. In particular, we provide a simple geometric insight that explains why NLEM performs better than NLM in the vicinity of edges, particularly at large noise levels. NLEM can be efficiently implemented using iteratively reweighted least squares, and its computational complexity is comparable to that of NLM. We provide some preliminary results to study the proposed algorithm and to compare it with NLM.

  3. Extreme nonlocality with one photon

    CERN Document Server

    Heaney, Libby; Santos, Marcelo F; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    The bizarre concept of nonlocality appears in quantum mechanics because the properties of two or more particles may be assigned globally and are not always pinned to each particle individually. Experiments using two, three, or more of these entangled particles have strongly rejected a local realist interpretation of nature. Nonlocality is also argued to be an intrinsic property of a quantum field, implying that just one excitation, a photon for instance, could also by itself violate local realism. Here we show that one photon superposed symmetrically over many distant sites (which in quantum information terms is a W-state) can give a stunning all-versus-nothing demolition of local realism in an identical manner to the GHZ class of states. The elegance of this result is that it is due solely to the wave-particle duality of light and matter. We present experimental implementations capable of testing our predictions.

  4. Percolation transitions with nonlocal constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Pyoung-Seop; Lee, Hyun Keun; Noh, Jae Dong

    2012-09-01

    We investigate percolation transitions in a nonlocal network model numerically. In this model, each node has an exclusive partner and a link is forbidden between two nodes whose r-neighbors share any exclusive pair. The r-neighbor of a node x is defined as a set of at most N(r) neighbors of x, where N is the total number of nodes. The parameter r controls the strength of a nonlocal effect. The system is found to undergo a percolation transition belonging to the mean-field universality class for r1/2, the system undergoes a peculiar phase transition from a nonpercolating phase to a quasicritical phase where the largest cluster size G scales as G~N(α) with α=0.74(1). In the marginal case with r=1/2, the model displays a percolation transition that does not belong to the mean-field universality class.

  5. Rogue waves in nonlocal media

    CERN Document Server

    Horikis, Theodoros P

    2016-01-01

    The generation of rogue waves is investigated via a nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation. In this system, modulation instability is suppressed and is usually expected that rogue wave formation would also be limited. On the contrary, a parameter regime is identified where the instability is suppressed but nevertheless the number and amplitude of the rogue events increase, as compared to the standard NLS (which is a limit of the nonlocal system). Furthermore, the nature of these waves is investigated; while no analytical solutions are known to model these events, numerically it is shown that they differ significantly from either the rational (Peregrine) or soliton solution of the limiting NLS equation. As such, these findings may also help in rogue wave realization experimentally in these media.

  6. Nonlocal Quantum Effects in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dumin, Yurii V

    2014-01-01

    Since it is commonly believed that the observed large-scale structure of the Universe is an imprint of quantum fluctuations existing at the very early stage of its evolution, it is reasonable to pose the question: Do the effects of quantum nonlocality, which are well established now by the laboratory studies, manifest themselves also in the early Universe? We try to answer this question by utilizing the results of a few experiments, namely, with the superconducting multi-Josephson-junction loops and the ultracold gases in periodic potentials. Employing a close analogy between the above-mentioned setups and the simplest one-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model, we show that the specific nonlocal correlations revealed in the laboratory studies might be of considerable importance also in treating the strongly-nonequilibrium phase transitions of Higgs fields in the early Universe. Particularly, they should substantially reduce the number of topological defects (e.g., domain walls) expected du...

  7. Nonlocal reflection by photonic barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, R. -M.; A. Haibel; Nimtz, G.

    2001-01-01

    The time behaviour of microwaves undergoing partial reflection by photonic barriers was measured in the time and in the frequency domain. It was observed that unlike the duration of partial reflection by dielectric layers, the measured reflection duration of barriers is independent of their length. The experimental results point to a nonlocal behaviour of evanescent modes at least over a distance of some ten wavelengths. Evanescent modes correspond to photonic tunnelling in quantum mechanics.

  8. Gravity and non-locality

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, Pablo; Walton, Mark

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the relation between gravity and non-locality at the classical level, we study a bilocal scalar field model. Bilocality introduces new (internal) degrees of freedom that can potentially reproduce gravity. We show that the equations of motion of the massless branch of the free bilocal model match those of linearized gravity. We also discuss higher orders of perturbation theory, where there is self-interaction in both gravity and the bilocal field sectors.

  9. Boundary fluxes for nonlocal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  10. Existence of solutions for quasistatic problems of unilateral contact with nonlocal friction for nonlinear elastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mignot

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a solution of the quasi-static unilateral contact problem with nonlocal friction law for nonlinear elastic materials. We set up a variational incremental problem which admits a solution, when the friction coefficient is small enough, and then by passing to the limit with respect to time we obtain a solution.

  11. Modulational instability in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    We study modulational instability (MI) of plane waves in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media. For a focusing nonlinearity we show that, although the nonlocality tends to suppress MI, it can never remove it completely, irrespective of the particular profile of the nonlocal response function....... For a defocusing nonlinearity the stability properties depend sensitively on the response function profile: for a smooth profile (e.g., a Gaussian) plane waves are always stable, but MI may occur for a rectangular response. We also find that the reduced model for a weak nonlocality predicts MI in defocusing media...... for arbitrary response profiles, as long as the intensity exceeds a certain critical value. However, it appears that this regime of MI is beyond the validity of the reduced model, if it is to represent the weakly nonlocal limit of a general nonlocal nonlinearity, as in optics and the theory of Bose...

  12. Towards LHC physics with nonlocal Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthabir Biswas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We take a few steps towards constructing a string-inspired nonlocal extension of the Standard Model. We start by illustrating how quantum loop calculations can be performed in nonlocal scalar field theory. In particular, we show the potential to address the hierarchy problem in the nonlocal framework. Next, we construct a nonlocal abelian gauge model and derive modifications of the gauge interaction vertex and field propagators. We apply the modifications to a toy version of the nonlocal Standard Model and investigate collider phenomenology. We find the lower bound on the scale of nonlocality from the 8 TeV LHC data to be 2.5–3 TeV.

  13. Nonlocal transport in superconducting oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazey, Joshua; Cheng, Guanglei; Lu, Shicheng; Tomczyk, Michelle; Irvin, Patrick; Huang, Mengchen; Wung Bark, Chung; Ryu, Sangwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Levy, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    We report nonlocal transport signatures in the superconducting state of nanostructures formed[2] at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface using conductive AFM lithography. Nonlocal resistances (nonlocal voltage divided by current) are as large as 200 Ω when 2-10 μm separate the current-carrying segments from the voltage-sensing leads. The nonlocal resistance reverses sign at the local critical current of the superconducting state. Features observed in the nonlocal V-I curves evolve with back gate voltage and magnetic field, and are correlated with the local four-terminal V-I curves. We discuss how nonlocal and local transport effects in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 nanostructures may result from the electronic phase separation and superconducting inhomogeneity reported by others in planar structures[3]. This work is supported by AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0524) and NSF DMR-0906443

  14. Detrimental nonlocality in luminescence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluska, Mariusz; Czerwinski, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    Luminescence studies are used to investigate the local properties of various light-emitting materials. A critical issue of these studies is presented that the signals often lack all advantages of luminescence-studies of high locality, and may originate from an extended spatial region of even a few millimeters in size or the whole sample, i.e., places other than intended for investigation. This is a key problem for research and development in photonics. Due to this nonlocality, information indicating defects, irregularities, nonuniformities and inhomogeneities is lost. The issue refers to typical structures with a strong built-in electric field. Such fields exist intentionally in most photonic structures and occur unintentionally in many other materials investigated by applied physics. We reveal [using test samples prepared with focused ion beam (FIB) on an AlGaAs/GaAs laser heterostructure with an InGaAs quantum well (QW)] that nonlocality increases at low temperatures. This is contrary to the widely expected outcome, as low-temperature luminescence measurements are usually assumed to be free from disturbances. We explain many effects observed due to nonlocality in luminescence studies and prove that separation of the investigated area by focused ion beam milling is a practical solution enabling truly local luminescence measurements. All conclusions drawn using the example of cathodoluminescence are useful for other luminescence techniques.

  15. Non-local massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Modesto, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We present a general covariant action for massive gravity merging together a class of "non-polynomial" and super-renormalizable or finite theories of gravity with the non-local theory of gravity recently proposed by Jaccard, Maggiore and Mitsou (arXiv:1305.3034 [hep-th]). Our diffeomorphism invariant action gives rise to the equations of motion appearing in non-local massive massive gravity plus quadratic curvature terms. Not only the massive graviton propagator reduces smoothly to the massless one without a vDVZ discontinuity, but also our finite theory of gravity is unitary at tree level around the Minkowski background. We also show that, as long as the graviton mass $m$ is much smaller the today's Hubble parameter $H_0$, a late-time cosmic acceleration can be realized without a dark energy component due to the growth of a scalar degree of freedom. In the presence of the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$, the dominance of the non-local mass term leads to a kind of "degravitation" for $\\Lambda$ at the late cos...

  16. Nonlocal response of hyperbolic metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correas-Serrano, D; Gomez-Diaz, J S; Tymchenko, M; Alù, A

    2015-11-16

    We analyze and model the nonlocal response of ultrathin hyperbolic metasurfaces (HMTSs) by applying an effective medium approach. We show that the intrinsic spatial dispersion in the materials employed to realize the metasurfaces imposes a wavenumber cutoff on the hyperbolic isofrequency contour, inversely proportional to the Fermi velocity, and we compare it with the cutoff arising from the structure granularity. In the particular case of HTMSs implemented by an array of graphene nanostrips, we find that graphene nonlocality can become the dominant mechanism that closes the hyperbolic contour - imposing a wavenumber cutoff at around 300k(0) - in realistic configurations with periodicity Lnonlocal response is mainly relevant in hyperbolic metasurfaces and metamaterials with periodicity below a few nm, being very weak in practical scenarios. In addition, we investigate how spatial dispersion affects the spontaneous emission rate of emitters located close to HMTSs. Our results establish an upper bound set by nonlocality to the maximum field confinement and light-matter interactions achievable in practical HMTSs, and may find application in the practical development of hyperlenses, sensors and on-chip networks.

  17. Making nonlocal reality compatible with relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, H.

    2010-01-01

    It is often argued that hypothetic nonlocal reality responsible for nonlocal quantum correlations between entangled particles cannot be consistent with relativity. I review the most frequent arguments of that sort, explain how they can all be circumvented, and present an explicit Bohmian model of nonlocal reality (compatible with quantum phenomena) that fully obeys the principle of relativistic covariance and does not involve a preferred Lorentz frame.

  18. Nonlocal Gravity in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Chicone, C

    2015-01-01

    The implications of the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation for gravitational physics in the Solar System are investigated. In this theory, the nonlocal character of gravity simulates dark matter. Nonlocal gravity in the Newtonian regime involves a reciprocal kernel with three spatial parameters, of which two have already been determined from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies and the internal dynamics of clusters of galaxies. However, the short-range parameter a_0 remains to be determined. In this connection, the nonlocal contribution to the perihelion precession of a planetary orbit is estimated and a preliminary lower limit on a_0 is determined.

  19. Nonlocal gravity in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.

    2016-04-01

    The implications of the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation for gravitational physics in the solar system are investigated. In this theory, the nonlocal character of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. Nonlocal gravity in the Newtonian regime involves a reciprocal kernel with three spatial parameters, of which two have already been determined from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies and the internal dynamics of clusters of galaxies. However, the short-range parameter a 0 remains to be determined. In this connection, the nonlocal contribution to the perihelion precession of a planetary orbit is estimated and a preliminary lower limit on a 0 is determined.

  20. Origin of Dynamical Quantum Non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachon, Cesar E.; Pachon, Leonardo A.

    2014-03-01

    Non-locality is one of the hallmarks of quantum mechanics and is responsible for paradigmatic features such as entanglement and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Non-locality comes in two ``flavours'': a kinematic non-locality- arising from the structure of the Hilbert space- and a dynamical non-locality- arising from the quantum equations of motion-. Kinematic non-locality is unable to induce any change in the probability distributions, so that the ``action-at-a-distance'' cannot manifest. Conversely, dynamical non-locality does create explicit changes in probability, though in a ``causality-preserving'' manner. The origin of non-locality of quantum measurements and its relations to the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, such as the uncertainty principle, have been only recently elucidated. Here we trace the origin of dynamical non-locality to the superposition principle. This relation allows us to establish and identify how the uncertainty and the superposition principles determine the non-local character of the outcome of a quantum measurement. Being based on group theoretical and path integral formulations, our formulation admits immediate generalizations and extensions to to, e.g., quantum field theory. This work was supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion -COLCIENCIAS- of Colombia under the grant number 111556934912.

  1. Perturbative loop corrections and nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Maggiore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocal gravity has been shown to provide a phenomenologically viable infrared modification of GR. A natural question is whether the required nonlocality can emerge from perturbative quantum loop corrections due to light particles. We show that this is not the case. For the value of the mass scale of the non-local models required by cosmology, the perturbative form factors obtained from the loop corrections, in the present cosmological epoch, are in the regime where they are local. The mechanism behind the generation of the required nonlocality must be more complex, possibly related to strong infrared effects and non-perturbative mass generation for the conformal mode.

  2. Local and Nonlocal Regularization to Image Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image interpolation model with local and nonlocal regularization. A nonlocal bounded variation (BV regularizer is formulated by an exponential function including gradient. It acts as the Perona-Malik equation. Thus our nonlocal BV regularizer possesses the properties of the anisotropic diffusion equation and nonlocal functional. The local total variation (TV regularizer dissipates image energy along the orthogonal direction to the gradient to avoid blurring image edges. The derived model efficiently reconstructs the real image, leading to a natural interpolation which reduces blurring and staircase artifacts. We present experimental results that prove the potential and efficacy of the method.

  3. Causality, Non-Locality and Negative Refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Forcella, Davide; Carminati, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    The importance of spatial non-locality in the description of negative refraction in electromagnetic materials has been put forward recently. We develop a theory of negative refraction in homogeneous and isotropic media, based on first principles, and that includes non-locality in its full generality. The theory shows that both dissipation and spatial non-locality are necessary conditions for the existence of negative refraction. It also provides a sufficient condition in materials with weak spatial non-locality. These fundamental results should have broad implications in the theoretical and practical analyses of negative refraction of electromagnetic and other kinds of waves.

  4. Media psychology: Modern man and nonlocality of psyche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronina E.E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern information technologies is causing changes in the structure of the human psyche, bringing about a new psychotype. The transition to a new level of evolution is accompanied by the growing manifestation of the psyche’s ontological features — nonlocality and self-determination. From a sample of more than 300 people, it was demonstrated that active Internet users are significantly different in a number of parameters from those who mostly use traditional media. This article examines the resources of media psychology as a new paradigm in the study of mass communication phenomena and the laws of the development of psyche.

  5. Nonlocal response in thin-film waveguides: loss versus nonlocality and breaking of complementarity

    CERN Document Server

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Mortensen, N Asger

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of nonlocal response on the surface-plasmon polariton guiding properties of the metal-insulator (MI), metal-insulator-metal (MIM), and insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) waveguides. The nonlocal effects are described by a linearized hydrodynamic model, which includes the Thomas-Fermi internal kinetic energy of the free electrons in the metal. We derive the nonlocal dispersion relations of the three waveguide structures taking into account also retardation and interband effects, and examine the delicate interplay between nonlocal response and absorption losses in the metal. We also show that nonlocality breaks the complementarity of the MIM and IMI waveguides found in the non-retarded limit.

  6. Nonlocality of a single particle

    OpenAIRE

    Dunningham, Jacob; Vedral, Vlatko

    2007-01-01

    There has been a great deal of debate surrounding the issue of whether it is possible for a single photon to exhibit nonlocality. A number of schemes have been proposed that claim to demonstrate this effect, but each has been met with significant opposition. The objections hinge largely on the fact that these schemes use unobservable initial states and so, it is claimed, they do not represent experiments that could actually be performed. Here we show how it is possible to overcome these objec...

  7. Non-Local Means Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a new denoising method called non-local means. The method is based on a simple principle: replacing the color of a pixel with an average of the colors of similar pixels. But the most similar pixels to a given pixel have no reason to be close at all. It is therefore licit to scan a vast portion of the image in search of all the pixels that really resemble the pixel one wants to denoise. The paper presents two implementations of the method and displays some results.

  8. Monotone method for nonlinear nonlocal hyperbolic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmy S. Ackleh

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results concerning the application of the monotone method for studying existence and uniqueness of solutions to general first-order nonlinear nonlocal hyperbolic problems. The limitations of comparison principles for such nonlocal problems are discussed. To overcome these limitations, we introduce new definitions for upper and lower solutions.

  9. Nonlocality as Evidence for a Multiverse Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tipler, Frank J

    2010-01-01

    I show that observations of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as purely local phenomena, provided one assumes that the cosmos is a multiverse. Conversely, the observation of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as observation evidence for a multiverse cosmology, just as observation of the setting of the Sun can be interpreted as evidence for the Earth's rotation.

  10. Nonlocal study of ultimate plasmon hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    Within our recently proposed generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model, where nonlocal response is included by taking into account both convective and diffusive currents of the conduction electrons, we revisit the fundamental problem of an optically excited plasmonic dimer. We consider...

  11. A New Model of Nonlocal Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Ivan; Grujic, Jelena; Rakic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    We consider a new modified gravity model with nonlocal term of the form $R^{-1} \\mathcal{F}(\\Box) R. $ This kind of nonlocality is motivated by investigation of applicability of a few unusual ans\\"atze to obtain some exact cosmological solutions. In particular, we find attractive and useful quadratic ansatz $\\Box R = q R^{2}.$

  12. Attraction of nonlocal dark optical solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, Dragomir; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2004-01-01

    We study the formation and interaction of spatial dark optical solitons in materials with a nonlocal nonlinear response. We show that unlike in local materials, where dark solitons typically repel, the nonlocal nonlinearity leads to a long-range attraction and formation of stable bound states...... of dark solitons. (C) 2004 Optical Society of America...

  13. On instabilities in tensorial nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Nersisyan, Henrik; Amendola, Luca; Koivisto, Tomi S; Rubio, Javier; Solomon, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the cosmological implications of nonlocal modifications of general relativity containing tensorial structures. Assuming the presence of standard radiation- and matter-dominated eras, we show that, except in very particular cases, the nonlocal terms contribute a rapidly-growing energy density. These models therefore generically do not have a stable cosmological evolution.

  14. Multipole vector solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis; Vysloukh, Victor A; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2006-05-15

    We show that multipole solitons can be made stable via vectorial coupling in bulk nonlocal nonlinear media. Such vector solitons are composed of mutually incoherent nodeless and multipole components jointly inducing a nonlinear refractive index profile. We found that stabilization of the otherwise highly unstable multipoles occurs below certain maximum energy flow. Such a threshold is determined by the nonlocality degree.

  15. Creation of Entanglement with Nonlocal Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; CAO Wan-Cang; LONG Gui-Lu

    2005-01-01

    We discuss how to create more entanglement with nonlocal operations acting on two-particle states. For a given nonlocal operation, we find that some input states cannot produce entanglement and some produce the maximal entanglement, and find that any initial entangled states can produce more entanglement than initial product states.

  16. Spectral Dimension from Causal Set Nonlocal Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Belenchia, Alessio; Marciano, Antonino; Modesto, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spectral dimension obtained from non-local continuum d'Alembertians derived from causal sets. We find a universal dimensional reduction to 2 dimensions, in all dimensions. We conclude by discussing the validity and relevance of our results within the broader context of quantum field theories based on these nonlocal dynamics.

  17. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    CERN Document Server

    Mortensen, N A; Raza, S; Stenger, N; Yan, W; Jauho, A -P; Xiao, S; Wubs, M

    2012-01-01

    In tiny metallic nanostructures, quantum confinement and nonlocal response change the collective plasmonic behavior with important consequences for e.g. field-enhancement and extinction cross sections. We report on our most recent developments of a real-space formulation of an equation-of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples of applying the nonlocal framework to calculation of extinction cross sections and field enhancement in isolated particles, dimers, and corrugated surfaces.

  18. Nonlocal and quasi-local field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Tomboulis, E T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate nonlocal field theories, a subject that has attracted some renewed interest in connection with nonlocal gravity models. We study, in particular, scalar theories of interacting delocalized fields, the delocalization being specified by nonlocal integral kernels. We distinguish between strictly nonlocal and quasi-local (compact support) kernels and impose conditions on them to insure UV finiteness and unitarity of amplitudes. We study the classical initial value problem for the partial integro-differential equations of motion in detail. We give rigorous proofs of the existence but accompanying loss of uniqueness of solutions due to the presence of future, as well as past, "delays," a manifestation of acausality. In the quantum theory we derive a generalization of the Bogoliubov causality condition equation for amplitudes, which explicitly exhibits the corrections due to nonlocality. One finds that, remarkably, for quasi-local kernels all acausal effects are confined within the compact support regi...

  19. Nonlocal Galileons and self-acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Yu, Siqing

    2017-05-01

    A certain class of nonlocal theories eliminates an arbitrary cosmological constant (CC) from a universe that can be perceived as our world. Dark energy then cannot be explained by a CC; it could however be due to massive gravity. We calculate the new corrections, which originate from the nonlocal terms that eliminate the CC, to the decoupling limit Lagrangian of massive gravity. The new nonlocal terms also have internal field space Galilean symmetry and are referred here as ;nonlocal Galileons.; We then study a self-accelerated solution and show that the new nonlocal terms change the perturbative stability analysis. In particular, small fluctuations are now stable and non-superluminal for some simple parameter choices, whereas for the same choices the pure massive gravity fluctuations are unstable. We also study stable spherically symmetric solutions on this background.

  20. Nonlocal Galileons and self-acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gabadadze

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A certain class of nonlocal theories eliminates an arbitrary cosmological constant (CC from a universe that can be perceived as our world. Dark energy then cannot be explained by a CC; it could however be due to massive gravity. We calculate the new corrections, which originate from the nonlocal terms that eliminate the CC, to the decoupling limit Lagrangian of massive gravity. The new nonlocal terms also have internal field space Galilean symmetry and are referred here as “nonlocal Galileons.” We then study a self-accelerated solution and show that the new nonlocal terms change the perturbative stability analysis. In particular, small fluctuations are now stable and non-superluminal for some simple parameter choices, whereas for the same choices the pure massive gravity fluctuations are unstable. We also study stable spherically symmetric solutions on this background.

  1. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Mashhoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for “isolated” astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy’s baryonic diameter D 0 —namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time—is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction f D M times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale λ 0 ≈ 3 ± 2 kpc.

  2. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we......We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves...... of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens...

  3. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-06-17

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we propose to measure the near-field distribution of a hyperbolic metamaterial lens.

  4. Nonlocal thermal transport in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpen, Judith T.; Devore, C. Richard

    1987-01-01

    A flaring solar atmosphere is modeled assuming classical thermal transport, locally limited thermal transport, and nonlocal thermal transport. The classical, local, and nonlocal expressions for the heat flux yield significantly different temperature, density, and velocity profiles throughout the rise phase of the flare. Evaporation of chromospheric material begins earlier in the nonlocal case than in the classical or local calculations, but reaches much lower upward velocities. Much higher coronal temperatures are achieved in the nonlocal calculations owing to the combined effects of delocalization and flux limiting. The peak velocity and momentum are roughly the same in all three cases. A more impulsive energy release influences the evolution of the nonlocal model more than the classical and locally limited cases.

  5. Non-local parallel transport in BOUT++

    CERN Document Server

    Omotani, J T; Havlickova, E; Umansky, M

    2015-01-01

    Non-local closures allow kinetic effects on parallel transport to be included in fluid simulations. This is especially important in the scrape-off layer, but to be useful there the non-local model requires consistent kinetic boundary conditions at the sheath. A non-local closure scheme based on solution of a kinetic equation using a diagonalized moment expansion has been previously reported. We derive a method for imposing kinetic boundary conditions in this scheme and discuss their implementation in BOUT++. To make it feasible to implement the boundary conditions in the code, we are lead to transform the non-local model to a different moment basis, better adapted to describe parallel dynamics. The new basis has the additional benefit of enabling substantial optimization of the closure calculation, resulting in an O(10) speedup of the non-local code.

  6. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, B

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for "isolated" astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy's baryonic diameter---namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time---is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale of about 3 kpc.

  7. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2016-05-01

    Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for "isolated" astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy's baryonic diameter---namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time---is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale of about 3 kpc.

  8. Kinetic theory for flows of nonhomogeneous rodlike liquid crystalline polymers with a nonlocal intermolecular potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; E, Weinan; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Pingwen

    2002-05-01

    The Doi kinetic theory for flows of homogeneous, rodlike liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) is extended to model flows of nonhomogeneous, rodlike LCPs through a nonlocal (long-range) intermolecular potential. The theory features (i) a nonlocal, anisotropic, effective intermolecular potential in an integral form that is consistent with the chemical potential, (ii) short-range elasticity as well as long-range isotropic and anisotropic elasticity, (iii) a closed-form stress expression accounting for the nonlocal molecular interaction, and (iv) an extra elastic body force exclusively associated with the integral form of the intermolecular potential. With the effective intermolecular potential, the theory is proven to be well posed in that it warrants a positive entropy production and thereby the second law of thermodynamics. Approximate theories are obtained by gradient expansions of the number density function in the free energy density.

  9. On nonlocal characteristics of curved inhomogeneous Euler-Bernoulli nanobeams under different temperature distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, thermo-mechanical buckling analysis of curved functionally graded (FG) nanobeams is carried out via an analytical solution method. Curved FG nanobeam is subjected to uniform, linear and nonlinear temperature distributions across the thickness. Three kinds of boundary condition namely, simply supported-simply supported, simply supported-clamped and clamped-clamped are investigated. Thermo-elastic properties of curved FG beam change in radial direction according to the power-law model. Nonlocal elasticity theory is adopted to capture the size effects. Nonlocal governing equations of curved FG nanobeam are obtained from Hamilton's principle based on Euler-Bernoulli beam model. Finally, the influences of thermal loadings, nonlocal parameter, opening angle, material composition, slenderness ratio and boundary conditions on the thermal buckling behavior of nanosize curved FG beams are explored.

  10. A unified formulation for dynamic analysis of nonlocal heterogeneous nanobeams in hygro-thermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-09-01

    In this article, combined effect of moisture and temperature on free vibration characteristics of functionally graded (FG) nanobeams resting on elastic foundation is investigated by developing various refined beam theories which capture shear deformation influences needless of any shear correction factor. The material properties of FG nanobeam are temperature dependent and change gradually along the thickness through the power-law model. Size-dependent description of the nanobeam is performed applying nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen. Nonlocal governing equations of embedded FG nanobeam in hygro-thermal environment obtained from Hamilton's principle are solved analytically. To verify the validity of the developed theories, the results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. The effects of various hygro-thermal loadings, elastic foundation, gradient index, nonlocal parameter, and slenderness ratio on the vibrational behavior of FG nanobeams modeled via various beam theories are explored.

  11. Strong nonlocal coupling stabilizes localized structures: an analysis based on front dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Oto, C; Clerc, M G; Escaff, D; Tlidi, M

    2013-04-26

    We investigate the effect of strong nonlocal coupling in bistable spatially extended systems by using a Lorentzian-like kernel. This effect through front interaction drastically alters the space-time dynamics of bistable systems by stabilizing localized structures in one and two dimensions, and by affecting the kinetics law governing their behavior with respect to weak nonlocal and local coupling. We derive an analytical formula for the front interaction law and show that the kinetics governing the formation of localized structures obeys a law inversely proportional to their size to some power. To illustrate this mechanism, we consider two systems, the Nagumo model describing population dynamics and nonlinear optics model describing a ring cavity filled with a left-handed material. Numerical solutions of the governing equations are in close agreement with analytical predictions.

  12. Nonlocal Quantum Effects in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii V. Dumin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since it is commonly believed that the observed large-scale structure of the universe is an imprint of quantum fluctuations existing at the very early stage of its evolution, it is reasonable to pose the question: do the effects of quantum nonlocality, which are well established now by the laboratory studies, manifest themselves also in the early universe? We try to answer this question by utilizing the results of a few experiments, namely, with the superconducting multi-Josephson-junction loops and the ultracold gases in periodic potentials. Employing a close analogy between the above-mentioned setups and the simplest one-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model, we show that the specific nonlocal correlations revealed in the laboratory studies might be of considerable importance also in treating the strongly nonequilibrium phase transitions of Higgs fields in the early universe. Particularly, they should substantially reduce the number of topological defects (e.g., domain walls expected due to independent establishment of the new phases in the remote spatial regions. This gives us a hint on resolving a long-standing problem of the excessive concentration of topological defects, inconsistent with observational constraints. The same effect may be also relevant to the recent problem of the anomalous behavior of cosmic microwave background fluctuations at large angular scales.

  13. Theory of Nonlocal Point Transformations in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tessarotto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of the functional setting customarily adopted in General Relativity (GR is proposed. This is based on the introduction of the notion of nonlocal point transformations (NLPTs. While allowing the extension of the traditional concept of GR-reference frame, NLPTs are important because they permit the explicit determination of the map between intrinsically different and generally curved space-times expressed in arbitrary coordinate systems. For this purpose in the paper the mathematical foundations of NLPT-theory are laid down and basic physical implications are considered. In particular, explicit applications of the theory are proposed, which concern (1 a solution to the so-called Einstein teleparallel problem in the framework of NLPT-theory; (2 the determination of the tensor transformation laws holding for the acceleration 4-tensor with respect to the group of NLPTs and the identification of NLPT-acceleration effects, namely, the relationship established via general NLPT between particle 4-acceleration tensors existing in different curved space-times; (3 the construction of the nonlocal transformation law connecting different diagonal metric tensors solution to the Einstein field equations; and (4 the diagonalization of nondiagonal metric tensors.

  14. The neglected nonlocal effects of deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, Johannes; Reick, Christian; Pongratz, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation changes surface temperature locally via biogeophysical effects by changing the water, energy and momentum balance. Adding to these locally induced changes (local effects), deforestation at a given location can cause changes in temperature elsewhere (nonlocal effects). Most previous studies have not considered local and nonlocal effects separately, but investigated the total (local plus nonlocal) effects, for which global deforestation was found to cause a global mean cooling. Recent modeling and observational studies focused on the isolated local effects: The local effects are relevant for local living conditions, and they can be obtained from in-situ and satellite observations. Observational studies suggest that the local effects of potential deforestation cause a warming when averaged globally. This contrast between local warming and total cooling indicates that the nonlocal effects of deforestation are causing a cooling and thus counteract the local effects. It is still unclear how the nonlocal effects depend on the spatial scale of deforestation, and whether they still compensate the local warming in a more realistic spatial distribution of deforestation. To investigate this, we use a fully coupled climate model and separate local and nonlocal effects of deforestation in three steps: Starting from a forest world, we simulate deforestation in one out of four grid boxes using a regular spatial pattern and increase the number of deforestation grid boxes step-wise up to three out of four boxes in subsequent simulations. To compare these idealized spatial distributions of deforestation to a more realistic case, we separate local and nonlocal effects in a simulation where deforestation is applied in regions where it occurred historically. We find that the nonlocal effects scale nearly linearly with the number of deforested grid boxes, and the spatial distribution of the nonlocal effects is similar for the regular spatial distribution of deforestation

  15. Non-local currents and the structure of eigenstates in planar discrete systems with local symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Röntgen, M., E-mail: mroentge@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Zentrum für optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Morfonios, C.V., E-mail: christian.morfonios@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Zentrum für optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Diakonos, F.K., E-mail: fdiakono@phys.uoa.gr [Department of Physics, University of Athens, GR-15771 Athens (Greece); Schmelcher, P., E-mail: pschmelc@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Zentrum für optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Local symmetries are spatial symmetries present in a subdomain of a complex system. By using and extending a framework of so-called non-local currents that has been established recently, we show that one can gain knowledge about the structure of eigenstates in locally symmetric setups through a Kirchhoff-type law for the non-local currents. The framework is applicable to all discrete planar Schrödinger setups, including those with non-uniform connectivity. Conditions for spatially constant non-local currents are derived and we explore two types of locally symmetric subsystems in detail, closed-loops and one-dimensional open ended chains. We find these systems to support locally similar or even locally symmetric eigenstates. - Highlights: • We extend the framework of non-local currents to discrete planar systems. • Structural information about the eigenstates is gained. • Conditions for the constancy of non-local currents are derived. • We use the framework to design two types of example systems featuring locally symmetric eigenstates.

  16. Pattern formation in directional solidification under shear flow. I. Linear stability analysis and basic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietti, Y; Debierre, J M; Bock, T M; Kassner, K

    2001-06-01

    An asymptotic interface equation for directional solidification near the absolute stability limit is extended by a nonlocal term describing a shear flow parallel to the interface. In the long-wave limit considered, the flow acts destabilizing on a planar interface. Moreover, linear stability analysis suggests that the morphology diagram is modified by the flow near onset of the Mullins-Sekerka instability. Via numerical analysis, the bifurcation structure of the system is shown to change. Besides the known hexagonal cells, structures consisting of stripes arise. Due to its symmetry-breaking properties, the flow term induces a lateral drift of the whole pattern, once the instability has become active. The drift velocity is measured numerically and described analytically in the framework of a linear analysis. At large flow strength, the linear description breaks down, which is accompanied by a transition to flow-dominated morphologies which is described in the following paper. Small and intermediate flows lead to increased order in the lattice structure of the pattern, facilitating the elimination of defects. Locally oscillating structures appear closer to the instability threshold with flow than without.

  17. Can EPR non-locality be geometrical?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ne`eman, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences]|[Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Particle Physics; Botero, A. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The presence in Quantum Mechanics of non-local correlations is one of the two fundamentally non-intuitive features of that theory. The non-local correlations themselves fall into two classes: EPR and Geometrical. The non-local characteristics of the geometrical type are well-understood and are not suspected of possibly generating acausal features, such as faster-than-light propagation of information. This has especially become true since the emergence of a geometrical treatment for the relevant gauge theories, i.e. Fiber Bundle geometry, in which the quantum non-localities are seen to correspond to pure homotopy considerations. This aspect is reviewed in section 2. Contrary-wise, from its very conception, the EPR situation was felt to be paradoxical. It has been suggested that the non-local features of EPR might also derive from geometrical considerations, like all other non-local characteristics of QM. In[7], one of the authors was able to point out several plausibility arguments for this thesis, emphasizing in particular similarities between the non-local correlations provided by any gauge field theory and those required by the preservation of the quantum numbers of the original EPR state-vector, throughout its spatially-extended mode. The derivation was, however, somewhat incomplete, especially because of the apparent difference between, on the one hand, the closed spatial loops arising in the analysis of the geometrical non-localities, from Aharonov-Bohm and Berry phases to magnetic monopoles and instantons, and on the other hand, in the EPR case, the open line drawn by the positions of the two moving decay products of the disintegrating particle. In what follows, the authors endeavor to remove this obstacle and show that as in all other QM non-localities, EPR is somehow related to closed loops, almost involving homotopy considerations. They develop this view in section 3.

  18. Local and nonlocal advected invariants and helicities in magnetohydrodynamics and gas dynamics I: Lie dragging approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Dasgupta, B.; McKenzie, J. F.; Hu, Q.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper advected invariants and conservation laws in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and gas dynamics are obtained using Lie dragging techniques. There are different classes of invariants that are advected or Lie dragged with the flow. Simple examples are the advection of the entropy S (a 0-form), and the conservation of magnetic flux (an invariant 2-form advected with the flow). The magnetic flux conservation law is equivalent to Faraday's equation. The gauge condition for the magnetic helicity to be advected with the flow is determined. Different variants of the helicity in ideal fluid dynamics and MHD including: fluid helicity, cross helicity and magnetic helicity are investigated. The fluid helicity conservation law and the cross-helicity conservation law in MHD are derived for the case of a barotropic gas. If the magnetic field lies in the constant entropy surface, then the gas pressure can depend on both the entropy and the density. In these cases the conservation laws are local conservation laws. For non-barotropic gases, we obtain nonlocal conservation laws for fluid helicity and cross helicity by using Clebsch variables. These nonlocal conservation laws are the main new results of the paper. Ertel's theorem and potential vorticity, the Hollman invariant, and the Godbillon-Vey invariant for special flows for which the magnetic helicity is zero are also discussed.

  19. Local, nonlocal quantumness and information theoretic measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Sazim, Sk; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Pati, Arun K.

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that there may exist quantum correlations that go beyond entanglement. The existence of such correlations can be revealed by information theoretic quantities such as quantum discord, but not by the conventional measures of entanglement. We argue that a state displays quantumness, that can be of local and nonlocal origin. Information theoretic measures not only characterize the nonlocal quantumness, but also the local quantumness, such as the “local superposition”. This can be a reason, why such measures are nonzero, when there is no entanglement. We consider a generalized version of the Werner state to demonstrate the interplay of local quantumness, nonlocal quantumness and classical mixedness of a state.

  20. Nonlocal study of ultimate plasmon hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Mortensen, N Asger

    2015-03-01

    Within our recently proposed generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model, where nonlocal response is included by taking into account both convective and diffusive currents of the conduction electrons, we revisit the fundamental problem of an optically excited plasmonic dimer. We consider the transition from separated dimers via touching dimers to finally overlapping dimers. In particular, we focus on the touching case, showing a fundamental limit on the hybridization of the bonding plasmon modes due to nonlocality. Using transformation optics, we determine a simple analytical equation for the resonance energies.

  1. Nonlocal-response diffusion model of holographic recording in photopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, John T.; Lawrence, Justin R.

    2000-01-01

    The standard one-dimensional diffusion equation is extended to include nonlocal temporal and spatial medium responses. How such nonlocal effects arise in a photopolymer is discussed. It is argued that assuming rapid polymer chain growth, any nonlocal temporal response can be dealt with so that the response can be completely understood in terms of a steady-state nonlocal spatial response. The resulting nonlocal diffusion equation is then solved numerically, in low-harmonic approximation, to de...

  2. Film edge nonlocal spin valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Andrew T; Johnson, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Spintronics is a new paradigm for integrated digital electronics. Recently established as a niche for nonvolatile magnetic random access memory (MRAM), it offers new functionality while demonstrating low-power and high-speed performance. However, to reach high density spintronic technology must make a transition to the nanometer scale. Prototype devices are presently made using a planar geometry and have an area determined by the lithographic feature size, currently about 100 nm. Here we present a new nonplanar geometry in which one lateral dimension is given by a film thickness, on the order of 10 nm. With this new approach, cell sizes can shrink by an order of magnitude. The geometry is demonstrated with a nonlocal spin valve, where we study devices with an injector/detector separation much less than the spin diffusion length.

  3. Nonlocality in uniaxially polarizable media

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlach, Maxim A

    2015-01-01

    We reveal extraordinary electromagnetic properties for a general class of uniaxially polarizable media. Depending on parameters, such metamaterials may have wide range of nontrivial shapes of isofrequency contours including lemniscate, diamond and multiply connected curves with connectivity number reaching five. The possibility of the dispersion engineering paves a way to more flexible manipulation of electromagnetic waves. Employing first-principle considerations we prove that uniaxially polarizable media should be described in terms of the nonlocal permittivity tensor which by no means can be reduced to local permittivity and permeability even in the long-wavelength limit. We introduce an alternative set of local material parameters including quadrupole susceptibility capable to capture all of the second-order spatial dispersion effects.

  4. Experimental many-pairs nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Hou Shun; Cerè, Alessandro; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Cai, Yu; Sangouard, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Collective measurements on large quantum systems together with a majority voting strategy can lead to a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. In the presence of many entangled pairs, this violation decreases quickly with the number of pairs and vanishes for some critical pair number that is a function of the noise present in the system. Here we show that a different binning strategy can lead to a more substantial Bell violation when the noise is sufficiently small. Given the relation between the critical pair number and the source noise, we then present an experiment where the critical pair number is used to quantify the quality of a high visibility photon pair source. Our results demonstrate nonlocal correlations using collective measurements operating on clusters of more than 40 photon pairs.

  5. Experimental test of nonlocal causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell's local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect.

  6. Experimental test of nonlocal causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell’s local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect. PMID:27532045

  7. Nonlocal response in thin-film waveguides: Loss versus nonlocality and breaking of complementarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Christensen, Thomas; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of nonlocal response on the surface-plasmon polariton guiding properties of the metal-insulator (MI), metal-insulator-metal (MIM), and insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) waveguides. The nonlocal effects are described by a linearized hydrodynamic model, which includes...... in the metal. We also show that nonlocality breaks the complementarity of the MIM and IMI waveguides found in the nonretarded limit....

  8. Some generalizations of the nonlocal transformations approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tychynin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some generalizations of a method of nonlocal transformations are proposed: a con­nection of given equations via prolonged nonlocal transformations and finding of an adjoint solution to the solutions of initial equation are considered. A concept of nonlocal transformation with additional variables is introduced, developed and used for searching symmetries of differential equations. A problem of inversion of the nonlocal transforma­tion with additional variables is investigated and in some cases solved. Several examples are presented. Derived technique is applied for construction of the algorithms and for­mulae of generation of solutions. The formulae derived are used for construction of exact solutions of some nonlinear equations.

  9. Dispersive shock waves with nonlocal nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Barsi, Christopher; Sun, Can; Fleischer, Jason W

    2007-01-01

    We consider dispersive optical shock waves in nonlocal nonlinear media. Experiments are performed using spatial beams in a thermal liquid cell, and results agree with a hydrodynamic theory of propagation.

  10. Dispersive shock waves with nonlocal nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie; Sun, Can; Fleischer, Jason W

    2007-10-15

    We consider dispersive optical shock waves in nonlocal nonlinear media. Experiments are performed using spatial beams in a thermal liquid cell, and results agree with a hydrodynamic theory of propagation.

  11. Family of nonlocal bound entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sixia; Oh, C. H.

    2017-03-01

    Bound entanglement, being entangled yet not distillable, is essential to our understanding of the relations between nonlocality and entanglement besides its applications in certain quantum information tasks. Recently, bound entangled states that violate a Bell inequality have been constructed for a two-qutrit system, disproving a conjecture by Peres that bound entanglement is local. Here we construct this kind of nonlocal bound entangled state for all finite dimensions larger than two, making possible their experimental demonstration in most general systems. We propose a Bell inequality, based on a Hardy-type argument for nonlocality, and a steering inequality to identify their nonlocality. We also provide a family of entanglement witnesses to detect their entanglement beyond the Bell inequality and the steering inequality.

  12. Employee Travel Data (Non-Local)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — ‘This dataset provides information regarding the total approved actual expenses incurred by Montgomery County government employees traveling non-locally (over 75...

  13. Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian [CNRS LTCI, Département Informatique et Réseaux, Telecom ParisTech, 23 avenue d' Italie, CS 51327, 75214 Paris CEDEX 13 (France)

    2014-12-04

    The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.

  14. On a Nonlocal Damping Model in Ferromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moumni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model describing nonlocal damping in magnetization dynamics. The model consists of a modified form of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation for the evolution of the magnetization vector in a rigid ferromagnet. We give a global existence result and characterize the long time behaviour of the obtained solutions. The sensitivity of the model with respect to large and small nonlocal damping parameters is also discussed.

  15. Quantum theory of nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Vyas, Vivek M

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger model is quantised and exactly solved using the canonical framework. It is found that the usual canonical quantisation of the model leads to a theory with pathological inner product. This problem is resolved by constructing another inner product over the vector space of the theory. The resultant theory is found to be identical to that of nonrelativistic bosons with delta function interaction potential, devoid of any nonlocality. The exact eigenstates are found using the Bethe ansatz technique.

  16. Experimental falsification of Leggett's nonlocal variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciard, Cyril; Ling, Alexander; Gisin, Nicolas; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Scarani, Valerio

    2007-11-23

    Bell's theorem guarantees that no model based on local variables can reproduce quantum correlations. Also, some models based on nonlocal variables, if subject to apparently "reasonable" constraints, may fail to reproduce quantum physics. In this Letter, we introduce a family of inequalities, which use a finite number of measurement settings, and which therefore allow testing Leggett's nonlocal model versus quantum physics. Our experimental data falsify Leggett's model and are in agreement with quantum predictions.

  17. Robust non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.

  18. Nonlocal Infrared Modifications of Gravity. A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Maggiore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We review an approach developed in the last few years by our group in which GR is modified in the infrared, at an effective level, by nonlocal terms associated to a mass scale. We begin by recalling the notion of quantum effective action and its associated nonlocalities, illustrating some of their features with the anomaly-induced effective actions in $D=2$ and $D=4$. We examine conceptual issues of nonlocal theories such as causality, degrees of freedoms and ghosts, stressing the importance of the fact that these nonlocalities only emerge at the effective level. We discuss a particular class of nonlocal theories where the nonlocal operator is associated to a mass scale, and we show that they perform very well in the comparison with cosmological observations, to the extent that they fit CMB, supernovae, BAO and structure formation data at a level fully competitive with $\\Lambda$CDM, with the same number of free parameters. We explore some extensions of these `minimal' models, and we finally discuss some direc...

  19. Effects of Nonlocality on Transfer Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Titus, Luke J

    2016-01-01

    We solved the nonlocal scattering and bound state equations using the Perey-Buck type interaction, and compared to local equivalent calculations. Using the distorted wave Born approximation we construct the T-matrix for (p,d) transfer on 17O, 41Ca, 49Ca, 127Sn, 133Sn, and 209Pb at 20 and 50 MeV. Additionally we studied (p,d) reactions on 40Ca using the the nonlocal dispersive optical model. We have also included nonlocality consistently into the adiabatic distorted wave approximation and have investigated the effects of nonlocality on on (d,p) transfer reactions for deuterons impinged on 16O, 40Ca, 48Ca, 126Sn, 132Sn, 208Pb at 10, 20, and 50 MeV. We found that for bound states the Perry corrected wave functions resulting from the local equation agreed well with that from the nonlocal equation in the interior region, but discrepancies were found in the surface and peripheral regions. Overall, the Perey correction factor was adequate for scattering states, with the exception for a few partial waves. Nonlocality...

  20. A nonlocal constitutive model for trabecular bone softening in compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Mathieu; Jirásek, Milan; Zysset, Philippe K

    2010-10-01

    Using the three-dimensional morphological data provided by computed tomography, finite element (FE) models can be generated and used to compute the stiffness and strength of whole bones. Three-dimensional constitutive laws capturing the main features of bone mechanical behavior can be developed and implemented into FE software to enable simulations on complex bone structures. For this purpose, a constitutive law is proposed, which captures the compressive behavior of trabecular bone as a porous material with accumulation of irreversible strain and loss of stiffness beyond its yield point and softening beyond its ultimate point. To account for these features, a constitutive law based on damage coupled with hardening anisotropic elastoplasticity is formulated using density and fabric-based tensors. To prevent mesh dependence of the solution, a nonlocal averaging technique is adopted. The law has been implemented into a FE software and some simple simulations are first presented to illustrate its behavior. Finally, examples dealing with compression of vertebral bodies clearly show the impact of softening on the localization of the inelastic process.

  1. Nonlocality without inequality for almost all two-qubit entangled states based on Cabello's nonlocality argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkri, Samir; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Ahanj, Ali; Joag, Pramod

    2006-02-01

    Here we deal with a nonlocality argument proposed by Cabello, which is more general than Hardy’s nonlocality argument, but still maximally entangled states do not respond. However, for most of the other entangled states, maximum probability of success of this argument is more than that of the Hardy’s argument.

  2. A nonlocal, ordinary, state-based plasticity model for peridynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, John Anthony

    2011-05-01

    An implicit time integration algorithm for a non-local, state-based, peridynamics plasticity model is developed. The flow rule was proposed in [3] without an integration strategy or yield criterion. This report addresses both of these issues and thus establishes the first ordinary, state-based peridynamics plasticity model. Integration of the flow rule follows along the lines of the classical theories of rate independent J{sub 2} plasticity. It uses elastic force state relations, an additive decomposition of the deformation state, an elastic force state domain, a flow rule, loading/un-loading conditions, and a consistency condition. Just as in local theories of plasticity (LTP), state variables are required. It is shown that the resulting constitutive model does not violate the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The report also develops a useful non-local yield criterion that depends upon the yield stress and horizon for the material. The modulus state for both the ordinary elastic material and aforementioned plasticity model is also developed and presented.

  3. Spiralling solitons and multipole localized modes in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the propagation of rotating multi-soliton localized structures in optical media with spatially nonlocal nonlinearity. We demonstrate that nonlocality stabilizes the azimuthal breakup of rotating dipole as well as multipole localized soliton modes. We compare the results for two differe...... models of nonlocal nonlinearity and suggest that the stabilization mechanism is a generic property of a spatial nonlocal nonlinear response independent of its particular functional form.......We analyze the propagation of rotating multi-soliton localized structures in optical media with spatially nonlocal nonlinearity. We demonstrate that nonlocality stabilizes the azimuthal breakup of rotating dipole as well as multipole localized soliton modes. We compare the results for two different...

  4. Non-local Optical Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2010-11-01

    In all direct reactions to probe the structure of exotic nuclei at FRIB, optical potentials will be needed in the entrance and exit channels. At high energies Glauber approximations may be useful, but a low energies (5 to 20 MeV/nucleon) other approaches are required. Recent work of the UNEDF project [1] has shown that reaction cross sections at these energies can be accounted for by calculating all inelastic and transfer channels reachable by one particle-hole transitions from the elastic channel. In this model space, we may also calculate the two-step dynamic polarization potential (DPP) that adds to the bare folded potential to form the complex optical potential. Our calculations of the DPP, however, show that its non-localities are very significant, as well as the partial-wave dependence of both its real and imaginary components. The Perey factors (the wave function ratio to that from an equivalent local potential) are more than 20% different from unity, especially for partial waves inside grazing. These factors combine to suggest a reexamination of the validity of local and L-independent fitted optical potentials, especially for capture reactions that are dominated by low partial waves. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. [1] G.P.A. Nobre, F.S. Dietrich, J.E. Escher, I.J. Thompson, M. Dupuis, J. Terasaki and J. Engel, submitted to Phys. Rev. Letts., 2010.

  5. A Generalized Nonlocal Calculus with Application to the Peridynamics Model for Solid Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2014-01-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in [2] that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A generalization is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal...

  6. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅳ)--SURFACE COUSERVATION LAWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish rather complete surface conservation laws for micropolar thermomechanical continua from the translation and the rotation invariances of the general balance law. The generalized energy-momentum and energy-moment of momentum tensors are presented. The concrete forms of surface conservation laws for micropolar thermomechanical continua are derived. The existing related results are naturally derived as special cases from the results proposed in this paper. The incomplete degrees of the existing surface conservation laws are clearly seen from the process of the deduction.The surface conservation laws for nonlocal micropolar thermomechanical continua may be easily obtained via localization.

  7. Dynamic stability of functionally graded nanobeam based on nonlocal Timoshenko theory considering surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Shahab; Hashemian, Mohammad; Toghraie, Davood

    2017-09-01

    Based on nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, dynamic stability of functionally graded (FG) nanobeam under axial and thermal loading was investigated. Surface stress effects were implemented according to Gurtin-Murdoch continuum theory. Using power law distribution for FGM and von Karman geometric nonlinearity, governing equations were derived based on Hamilton's principle. The developed nonlocal models have the capability of interpreting small scale effects. Pasternak elastic medium was employed to represent the interaction of the FG nanobeam and the surrounding elastic medium. A parametric study was conducted to focus influences of the static load factor, temperature change, gradient index, nonlocal parameter, slenderness ratio, surface effect and springs constants of the elastic medium on the dynamic instability region (DIR) of the FG beam with simply-supported boundary conditions. It was found that differences between DIRs predicted by local and nonlocal beam theories are significant for beams with lower aspect ratio. Moreover, it was observed that in contrast to high temperature environments, at low temperatures, increasing the temperature change moves the origin of the DIR to higher excitation frequency zone and leads to further stability. Considering surface stress effects shifts the DIR of FG beam to higher frequency zone, also increasing the gradient index enhances the frequency of DIR.

  8. Dynamics in Nonlocal Cosmological Models Derived from String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Joukovskaya, Liudmila

    2007-01-01

    A general class of nonlocal cosmological models is considered. A new method for solving nonlocal Friedmann equations is proposed, and solutions of the Friedmann equations with nonlocal operator are presented. The cosmological properties of these solutions are discussed. Especially indicated is $p$-adic cosmological model in which we have obtained nonsingular bouncing solution and string field theory tachyon model in which we have obtained full solution of nonlocal Friedmann equations with $w=...

  9. Nonlocal Optics of Plasmonic Nanowire Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Brian M; Podolskiy, Viktor A

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical description of the nonlocal optical response of plasmonic nanowire metamaterials that enable negative refraction, subwavelength light manipulation, and emission lifetime engineering. We show that dispersion of optical waves propagating in nanowire media results from coupling of transverse and longitudinal electromagnetic modes supported by the composite and derive the nonlocal effective medium approximation for this dispersion. We derive the profiles of electric field across the unit cell, and use these expressions to solve the long-standing problem of additional boundary conditions in calculations of transmission and reflection of waves by nonlocal nanowire media. We verify our analytical results with numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations and discuss generalization of the developed formalism to other uniaxial metamaterials.

  10. Transfer reaction code with nonlocal interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Titus, L J; Nunes, F M

    2016-01-01

    We present a suite of codes (NLAT for nonlocal adiabatic transfer) to calculate the transfer cross section for single-nucleon transfer reactions, $(d,N)$ or $(N,d)$, including nonlocal nucleon-target interactions, within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. For this purpose, we implement an iterative method for solving the second order nonlocal differential equation, for both scattering and bound states. The final observables that can be obtained with NLAT are differential angular distributions for the cross sections of $A(d,N)B$ or $B(N,d)A$. Details on the implementation of the T-matrix to obtain the final cross sections within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation method are also provided. This code is suitable to be applied for deuteron induced reactions in the range of $E_d=10-70$ MeV, and provides cross sections with $4\\%$ accuracy.

  11. Transfer reaction code with nonlocal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, L. J.; Ross, A.; Nunes, F. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a suite of codes (NLAT for nonlocal adiabatic transfer) to calculate the transfer cross section for single-nucleon transfer reactions, (d , N) or (N , d) , including nonlocal nucleon-target interactions, within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. For this purpose, we implement an iterative method for solving the second order nonlocal differential equation, for both scattering and bound states. The final observables that can be obtained with NLAT are differential angular distributions for the cross sections of A(d , N) B or B(N , d) A. Details on the implementation of the T-matrix to obtain the final cross sections within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation method are also provided. This code is suitable to be applied for deuteron induced reactions in the range of Ed =10-70 MeV, and provides cross sections with 4% accuracy.

  12. Towards an emerging understanding of non-locality phenomena and non-local transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K.; Shi, Z.; Sun, H. J.; Inagaki, S.; Kamiya, K.; Rice, J. E.; Tamura, N.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Zou, X. L.; Itoh, K.; Sugita, S.; Gürcan, O. D.; Estrada, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Hahm, T. S.; Field, A.; Ding, X. T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Oldenbürger, S.; Yoshinuma, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Jiang, M.; Hahn, S. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Hong, S. H.; Kosuga, Y.; Dong, J.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, recent progress on experimental analysis and theoretical models for non-local transport (non-Fickian fluxes in real space) is reviewed. The non-locality in the heat and momentum transport observed in the plasma, the departures from linear flux-gradient proportionality, and externally triggered non-local transport phenomena are described in both L-mode and improved-mode plasmas. Ongoing evaluation of ‘fast front’ and ‘intrinsically non-local’ models, and their success in comparisons with experimental data, are discussed

  13. Classification of scalar and dyadic nonlocal optical response models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal optical response is one of the emerging effects on the nanoscale for particles made of metals or doped semiconductors. Here we classify and compare both scalar and tensorial nonlocal response models. In the latter case the nonlocality can stem from either the longitudinal response...

  14. Nonlocal regularization of abelian models with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate how nonlocal regularization is applied to gauge invariant models with spontaneous symmetry breaking. Motivated by the ability to find a nonlocal BRST invariance that leads to the decoupling of longitudinal gauge bosons from physical amplitudes, we show that the original formulation of the method leads to a nontrivial relationship between the nonlocal form factors that can appear in the model.

  15. Nonlocality and entanglement as opposite properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vallone, G; Gómez, E S; Cañas, G; Larsson, J -A; Mataloni, P; Cabello, A

    2011-01-01

    We show that, for any chained Bell inequality with any number of settings, nonlocality and entanglement are not only essentially different properties but opposite ones. We first show that, in the absence of noise, the threshold detection efficiency for a loophole-free Bell test increases with the degree of entanglement, so that the closer the quantum states are to product states, the harder it is to reproduce the quantum predictions with local models. In the presence of white noise, we show that nonlocality and entanglement are simultaneously maximized only in the presence of extreme noise; in any other case, the lowest threshold detection efficiency is obtained by reducing the entanglement.

  16. A Classical Framework for Nonlocality and Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Groessing, Gerhard; Pascasio, Johannes Mesa; Schwabl, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Based on our model of quantum systems as emerging from the coupled dynamics between oscillating "bouncers" and the space-filling zero-point field, a sub-quantum account of nonlocal correlations is given. This is explicitly done for the example of the "double two-slit" variant of two-particle interferometry. However, it is also shown that the entanglement in two-particle interferometry is only a natural consequence of the fact that already a "single" two-slit experiment can be described on a sub-quantum level with the aid of "entangling currents" of a generally nonlocal nature.

  17. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction.

  18. Reversed rainbow with a nonlocal metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Tiago A., E-mail: tiago.morgado@co.it.pt; Marcos, João S.; Silveirinha, Mário G., E-mail: mario.silveirinha@co.it.pt [Department of Electrical Engineering, Instituto de Telecomunicações, University of Coimbra, 3030 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, João T. [CST AG, Bad Nauheimer Strasse 19, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Costa, Jorge R. [Instituto de Telecomunicações and Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), 1649-026 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, Carlos A. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, and Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-12-29

    One of the intriguing potentials of metamaterials is the possibility to realize a nonlocal electromagnetic reaction, such that the effective medium response at a given point is fundamentally entangled with the macroscopic field distribution at long distances. Here, it is experimentally and numerically verified that a microwave nonlocal metamaterial formed by crossed metallic wires enables a low-loss broadband anomalous material response such that the refractive index decreases with frequency. Notably, it is shown that an electromagnetic beam refracted by our metamaterial prism creates a reversed microwave rainbow.

  19. Breather solitons in highly nonlocal media

    CERN Document Server

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the breathing of optical spatial solitons in highly nonlocal media. Generalizing the Ehrenfest theorem, we demonstrate that oscillations in beam width obey a fourth-order ordinary differential equation. Moreover, in actual highly nonlocal materials, the original accessible soliton model by Snyder and Mitchell [Science \\textbf{276}, 1538 (1997)] cannot accurately describe the dynamics of self-confined beams as the transverse size oscillations have a period which not only depends on power but also on the initial width. Modeling the nonlinear response by a Poisson equation driven by the beam intensity we verify the theoretical results against numerical simulations.

  20. Low energy signatures of nonlocal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Saravani, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    The response of inertial particle detectors coupled to a scalar field satisfying nonlocal dynamics described by nonanalytic functions of the d'Alembertian operator □ is studied. We show that spontaneous emission processes of a low energy particle detector are very sensitive to high-energy nonlocality scales. This allows us to suggest a nuclear physics experiment (˜MeV energy scales) that outperforms the sensitivity of LHC experiments by many orders of magnitude. This may have implications for the falsifiability of theoretical proposals of quantum gravity.

  1. Quadratic solitons for negative effective second-harmonic diffraction as nonlocal solitons with periodic nonlocal response function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B.K.; Bache, Morten; Krolikowski, W.;

    2012-01-01

    We employ the formal analogy between quadratic and nonlocal solitons to investigate analytically the properties of solitons and soliton bound states in second-harmonic generation in the regime of negative diffraction or dispersion of the second harmonic. We show that in the nonlocal description t...... this regime corresponds to a periodic nonlocal response function. We then use the strongly nonlocal approximation to find analytical solutions of the families of single bright solitons and their bound states in terms of Mathieu functions....

  2. Stability of a directional solidification front in subdiffusive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Mohammad Abu; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of crystal growth in alloys is limited by the morphological instability, which is caused by a positive feedback between the interface deformation and the diffusive flux of solute at the front of the phase transition. Usually this phenomenon is described in the framework of the normal diffusion equation, which stems from the linear relation between time and the mean squared displacement of molecules 〈x2(t)〉∼K1t (K1 is the classical diffusion coefficient) that is characteristic of Brownian motion. However, in some media (e.g., in gels and porous media) the random walk of molecules is hindered by obstacles, which leads to another power law, 〈x2(t)〉∼Kαtα, where 0directional solidification front in the case of an anomalous diffusion. Linear stability of a moving planar directional solidification front is studied, and a generalization of the Mullins-Sekerka stability criterion is obtained. Also, an asymptotic nonlinear long-wave evolution equation of Sivashinsky's type, which governs the cellular structures at the interface, is derived.

  3. Nonlocality without inequalities for two-qubit mixed states based on Cabello's nonlocality [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin-mei; Li, Cheng-zu

    2005-02-01

    This Letter presents nonlocality without inequalities for two-qubit mixed states. This Letter was mainly sparked by Cabello's work [Phys. Rev. A 65 (2003) 032108] and is an extension of our recent work [Phys. Lett. A 318 (2003) 300].

  4. Interaction of Nonlocal Incoherent White-Light Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Chun-Fu; GUO Qi

    2007-01-01

    The propagation and interaction of nonlocal incoherent white-light solitons in strongly nonlocal kerr media is investigated. Numerical simulations show that the interaction properties of nonlocal incoherent white-light solitons are different from the case in local media. The interactions of nonlocal incoherent white-light solitons are always attractive independent of their relative phase, while the other parameters such as the extent of nonlocality and the input power have a great impact on the soliton interactions. Pertinent numerical examples are presented to show their propagation and interaction behaviour further.

  5. Consequences and applications of the completeness of Hardy's nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Shane

    2017-02-01

    Logical nonlocality is completely characterized by Hardy's "paradox" in (2 ,2 ,l ) and (2 ,k ,2 ) scenarios. We consider a variety of consequences and applications of this fact. (i) Polynomial algorithms may be given for deciding logical nonlocality in these scenarios. (ii) Bell states are the only entangled two-qubit states which are not logically nonlocal under projective measurements. (iii) It is possible to witness Hardy nonlocality with certainty in a simple tripartite quantum system. (iv) Noncommutativity of observables is necessary and sufficient for enabling logical nonlocality.

  6. On nonlocal problems for ordinary differential equations and on a nonlocal parabolic transmission problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Denche

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we study nonlocal problems for ordinary differential equations with a discontinuous coefficient for the high order derivative. We establish sufficient conditions, known as regularity conditions, which guarantee the coerciveness for both the space variable and the spectral parameter, as well as guarantee the completeness of the system of root functions. The results obtained are then applied to the study of a nonlocal parabolic transmission problem.

  7. Nonlocality as Evidence for a Multiverse Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    We show that observations of quantum nonlocaltiy can be interpreted as purely local phenomena, provided one assumes that the cosmos is a multiverse. Conversely, the observation of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as observation evidence for a multiverse cosmology, just as observation of the setting of the Sun can be interpreted as evidence for the Earth's rotation.

  8. Nonlocal dynamics of dissipative phononic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Navid; Lee, Yoonkyung E.; Lafarge, Denis; Duclos, Aroune; Fang, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    We describe the nonlocal effective properties of a two-dimensional dissipative phononic crystal made by periodic arrays of rigid and motionless cylinders embedded in a viscothermal fluid such as air. The description is based on a nonlocal theory of sound propagation in stationary random fluid/rigid media that was proposed by Lafarge and Nemati [Wave Motion 50, 1016 (2013), 10.1016/j.wavemoti.2013.04.007]. This scheme arises from a deep analogy with electromagnetism and a set of physics-based postulates including, particularly, the action-response procedures, whereby the effective density and bulk modulus are determined. Here, we revisit this approach, and clarify further its founding physical principles through presenting it in a unified formulation together with the two-scale asymptotic homogenization theory that is interpreted as the local limit. Strong evidence is provided to show that the validity of the principles and postulates within the nonlocal theory extends to high-frequency bands, well beyond the long-wavelength regime. In particular, we demonstrate that up to the third Brillouin zone including the Bragg scattering, the complex and dispersive phase velocity of the least-attenuated wave in the phononic crystal which is generated by our nonlocal scheme agrees exactly with that reproduced by a direct approach based on the Bloch theorem and multiple scattering method. In high frequencies, the effective wave and its associated parameters are analyzed by treating the phononic crystal as a random medium.

  9. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.;

    2005-01-01

    or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  10. Nonlocality and discrete cellular methods in optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C.M.J.; Boeij, de P.L.

    2001-01-01

    A subdivision of space into discrete cells underlies the traditional discrete dipole model. This model presumes that only nonlocal electric interactions between cells govern the electromagnetic response of a condensed matter system. Apart from the case of simple dielectrics, this is not realistic. C

  11. Circumferential nonlocal effect on the buckling and vibration of nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng Yuan, E-mail: cywang@ujs.edu.cn; Li, Xiao Hu; Luo, Ying

    2016-04-01

    The nonlocal beam theories are widely used to study the mechanics of cylindrical nanotubes (NTs). The one-dimensional models however are unable to account for the nonlocal effect in the circumferential direction, which may substantially affect the applicability of the nonlocal beam models. To address the issue this letter examines the circumferential nonlocal effect (CNE) on the buckling and vibration of the NTs. Here the CNE is characterized by the difference between the nonlocal beam model considering the axial nonlocal effect only and the nonlocal shell model with both axial and circumferential nonlocal effects. The aspect ratio and radius-dependence of the CNE are calculated for the singlewall carbon NTs selected as a typical example. The results show that the CNE is substantial for the buckling and vibration of the NTs with small radius (e.g., <1 nm) and aspect ratio (e.g., <15). It however decreases with the rising radius and the aspect ratio, and turns out to be small for relatively wide and long NTs. The nonlocal beam theories thus may overestimate the buckling load and vibration frequency for the thin and short NTs. - Highlights: • First revealed the substantial circumferential nonlocal effect (CNE) on nanotube buckling. • Achieved radius/aspect ratio-dependence of CNE on nanotube buckling and vibration. • Located the range of applicability of the nonlocal beam theory without CNE.

  12. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  13. Thermo-mechanical vibration of rotating axially functionally graded nonlocal Timoshenko beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Majid; Mirjavadi, Seyed Sajad; Shafiei, Navvab; Hamouda, A. M. S.

    2017-01-01

    The free vibration analysis of rotating axially functionally graded nanobeams under an in-plane nonlinear thermal loading is provided for the first time in this paper. The formulations are based on Timoshenko beam theory through Hamilton's principle. The small-scale effect has been considered using the nonlocal Eringen's elasticity theory. Then, the governing equations are solved by generalized differential quadrature method. It is supposed that the thermal distribution is considered as nonlinear, material properties are temperature dependent, and the power-law form is the basis of the variation of the material properties through the axial of beam. Free vibration frequencies obtained are cantilever type of boundary conditions. Presented numerical results are validated by comparing the obtained results with the published results in the literature. The influences of the nonlocal small-scale parameter, angular velocity, hub radius, FG index and also thermal effects on the frequencies of the FG nanobeams are investigated in detail.

  14. Super-accelerating bouncing cosmology in asymptotically free non-local gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Gianluca [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Modesto, Leonardo [Fudan University, Department of Physics and Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Nicolini, Piero [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS) und Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Recently, evidence has been collected that a class of gravitational theories with certain non-local operators is renormalizable. We consider one such model which, at the linear perturbative level, reproduces the effective non-local action for the light modes of bosonic closed string-field theory. Using the property of asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet and fixing the classical behavior of the scale factor at late times, an algorithm is proposed to find general homogeneous cosmological solutions valid both at early and late times. Imposing a power-law classical limit, these solutions (including anisotropic ones) display a bounce, instead of a big-bang singularity, and super-accelerate near the bounce even in the absence of an inflaton or phantom field. (orig.)

  15. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law...

  16. Classification of scalar and dyadic nonlocal optical response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubs, M

    2015-11-30

    Nonlocal optical response is one of the emerging effects on the nanoscale for particles made of metals or doped semiconductors. Here we classify and compare both scalar and tensorial nonlocal response models. In the latter case the nonlocality can stem from either the longitudinal response, the transverse response, or both. In phenomenological scalar models the nonlocal response is described as a smearing out of the commonly assumed infinitely localized response, as characterized by a distribution with a finite width. Here we calculate explicitly whether and how tensorial models, such as the hydrodynamic Drude model and generalized nonlocal optical response theory, follow this phenomenological description. We find considerable differences, for example that nonlocal response functions, in contrast to simple distributions, assume negative and complex values. Moreover, nonlocal response regularizes some but not all diverging optical near fields. We identify the scalar model that comes closest to the hydrodynamic model. Interestingly, for the hydrodynamic Drude model we find that actually only one third (1/3) of the free-electron response is smeared out nonlocally. In that sense, nonlocal response is stronger for transverse and scalar nonlocal response models, where the smeared-out fractions are 2/3 and 3/3, respectively. The latter two models seem to predict novel plasmonic resonances also below the plasma frequency, in contrast to the hydrodynamic model that predicts standing pressure waves only above the plasma frequency.

  17. Nonlocal Operational Calculi for Dunkl Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Dimovski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional Dunkl operator $D_k$ with a non-negative parameter $k$, is considered under an arbitrary nonlocal boundary value condition. The right inverse operator of $D_k$, satisfying this condition is studied. An operational calculus of Mikusinski type is developed. In the frames of this operational calculi an extension of the Heaviside algorithm for solution of nonlocal Cauchy boundary value problems for Dunkl functional-differential equations $P(D_ku = f$ with a given polynomial $P$ is proposed. The solution of these equations in mean-periodic functions reduces to such problems. Necessary and sufficient condition for existence of unique solution in mean-periodic functions is found.

  18. Nonlocal diffusion second order partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, I.; Loi, N. V.; Malaguti, L.; Taddei, V.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with a second order integro-partial differential equation in Rn with a nonlocal, degenerate diffusion term. Nonlocal conditions, such as the Cauchy multipoint and the weighted mean value problem, are investigated. The existence of periodic solutions is also studied. The dynamic is transformed into an abstract setting and the results come from an approximation solvability method. It combines a Schauder degree argument with an Hartman-type inequality and it involves a Scorza-Dragoni type result. The compact embedding of a suitable Sobolev space in the corresponding Lebesgue space is the unique amount of compactness which is needed in this discussion. The solutions are located in bounded sets and they are limits of functions with values in finitely dimensional spaces.

  19. Quantum Loops in Non-Local Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Talaganis, Spyridon

    2015-01-01

    In this proceedings, I will consider quantum aspects of a non-local, infinite-derivative scalar field theory - a ${\\it toy \\, model}$ depiction of a covariant infinite-derivative, non-local extension of Einstein's general relativity which has previously been shown to be free from ghosts around the Minkowski background. The graviton propagator in this theory gets an exponential suppression making it ${\\it asymptotically \\, free}$, thus providing strong prospects of resolving various classical and quantum divergences. In particular, I will find that at $1$-loop, the $2$-point function is still divergent, but once this amplitude is renormalized by adding appropriate counter terms, the ultraviolet (UV) behavior of all other $1$-loop diagrams as well as the $2$-loop, $2$-point function remains well under control. I will go on to discuss how one may be able to generalize our computations and arguments to arbitrary loops.

  20. Nonlocal Condensate Model for QCD Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Ron-Chou

    2009-01-01

    We include effects of nonlocal quark condensates into QCD sum rules (QSR) via the K$\\ddot{\\mathrm{a}}$ll$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$n-Lehmann representation for a dressed fermion propagator, in which a negative spectral density function manifests their nonperturbative nature. Applying our formalism to the pion form factor as an example, QSR results are in good agreement with data for momentum transfer squared up to $Q^2 \\approx 10 $ GeV$^2$. It is observed that the nonlocal quark-condensate contribution descends like $1/Q^4$, different from the exponential decrease in $Q^2$ obtained in the literature, and contrary to the linear rise in the local-condensate approximation.

  1. Nonlocal inhomogeneous broadening in plasmonic nanoparticle ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    Nonclassical effects are increasingly more relevant in plasmonics as modern nanofabrication techniques rapidly approach the extreme nanoscale limits, for which departing from classical electrodynamics becomes important. One of the largest-scale necessary corrections towards this direction...... is to abandon the local response approximation (LRA) and take the nonlocal response of the metal into account, typically through the simple hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM), which predicts a sizedependent deviation of plasmon modes from the quasistatic (QS) limit. While this behaviour has been explored for simple...... averaging through both HDM and the recent Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response (GNOR) theory, which apart from the resonance frequency shifts accounts successfully for size-dependent damping as well. We examine NPs made of either ideal Drude-like metals [of plasmon frequency (wavelength) ωp (λp...

  2. An Adaptive Iterated Nonlocal Interferometry Filtering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interferometry filtering is one of the key steps in obtain high-precision Digital Elevation Model (DEM and Digital Orthophoto Map (DOM. In the case of low-correlation or complicated topography, traditional phase filtering methods fail in balancing noise elimination and phase preservation, which leads to inaccurate interferometric phase. This paper proposed an adaptive iterated nonlocal interferometry filtering method to deal with the problem. Based on the thought of nonlocal filtering, the proposed method filters the image with utilization of the image redundancy information. The smoothing parameter of the method is adaptive to the interferometry, and automatic iteration, in which the window size is adjusted, is applied to improve the filtering precision. Validity of the proposed method is verified by simulated and real data. Comparison with existed methods is given at the same time.

  3. Non-local geometry inside Lifshitz horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi; Lee, Sung-Sik

    2017-07-01

    Based on the quantum renormalization group, we derive the bulk geometry that emerges in the holographic dual of the fermionic U( N ) vector model at a nonzero charge density. The obstruction that prohibits the metallic state from being smoothly deformable to the direct product state under the renormalization group flow gives rise to a horizon at a finite radial coordinate in the bulk. The region outside the horizon is described by the Lifshitz geometry with a higher-spin hair determined by microscopic details of the boundary theory. On the other hand, the interior of the horizon is not described by any Riemannian manifold, as it exhibits an algebraic non-locality. The non-local structure inside the horizon carries the information on the shape of the filled Fermi sea.

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: nonlocal limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, S.; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2012-01-01

    Giant field enhancement and field singularities are a natural consequence of the commonly employed local-response framework. We show that a more general nonlocal treatment of the plasmonic response leads to new and possibly fundamental limitations on field enhancement with important consequences ...... by periodic arrays of half-cylinders (up to 120 nm in radius), we find no enhancement factors exceeding 10 orders of magnitude (10(10)). (C) 2012 Optical Society of America...

  5. Structure of Nonlocal Vacuum Condensate of Quarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽娟; 马维兴

    2003-01-01

    The Dyson-Schwinger formalism is used to derive a fully dressed quark propagator. By use of the derived form of the quark propagator, the structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate is studied, and the values of local quark vacuum condensate as well as quark gluon mixed condensate are calculated. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the empirical one used commonly in the literature.

  6. Popper's experiment, Copenhagen Interpretation and Nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, T

    2003-01-01

    A thought experiment, proposed by Karl Popper, which has been experimentally realized recently, is critically examined. A basic flaw in Popper's argument which has also been prevailing in subsequent debates, is pointed out. It is shown that Popper's experiment can be understood easily within the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. An alternate experiment, based on discrete variables, is proposed, which constitutes Popper's test in a clearer way. It refutes the argument of absence of nonlocality in quantum mechanics.

  7. Nonlocal Optical Response of Plasmonic Nanowire Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    exceptional properties that are not readily found in nature. There are numerous applications in modern optics which can be realized through the study and...K., R. C. McPhedran, and Vladimir M. Shalaev. " Electrodynamics of metal-dielectric composites and electromagnetic crystals." Physical Review B 62.12...16.10 (2008): 7460-7470. [41] Pokrovsky, A. L., and A. L. Efros. "Nonlocal electrodynamics of two-dimensional wire mesh photonic crystals." Physical

  8. Dual-switching behavior of nonlocal interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Curto, Julio; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2017-05-01

    Nonlinear interfaces separating two diffusive Kerr-type media exhibit dual switching between total internal reflection and transmission. This property is found within a weakly nonlocal regime when both a nonparaxial treatment of the problem and a full two-dimensional model for carrier diffusion are assumed. The theoretical model is shown to predict an effective cubic-quintic nonlinearity with competing terms that produces such property. The validity of the analysis is contrasted with a full set of numerical simulations.

  9. Fully nonlocal, monogamous and random genuinely multipartite quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Aolita, Leandro; Cabello, Adán; Acín, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Local measurements on bipartite maximally entangled states can yield correlations that are maximally nonlocal, monogamous, and associated to fully random outcomes. This makes these states ideal for bipartite cryptographic tasks. Genuine-multipartite nonlocality constitutes a stronger notion of nonlocality that appears in the multipartite case. Maximal genuine-multipartite nonlocality, monogamy and full random outcomes are thus highly desired properties for multipartite correlations in intrinsically genuine-multipartite cryptographic scenarios. We prove that local measurements on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, for all local dimension and number of parts, can produce correlations that are fully genuine-multipartite nonlocal, monogamous and with fully random outcomes. A key ingredient in our proof is a multipartite chained Bell inequality detecting genuine-multipartite nonlocality, which we introduce. Finally, we discuss the applications of our results for intrinsically genuine-multipartite cryptographic pr...

  10. FILAMENTATION INSTABILITY OF LASER BEAMS IN NONLOCAL NONLINEAR MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文双春; 范滇元

    2001-01-01

    The filamentation instability of laser beams propagating in nonlocal nonlinear media is investigated. It is shown that the filamentation instability can occur in weakly nonlocal self-focusing media for any degree of nonlocality, and in defocusing media for the input light intensity exceeding a threshold related to the degree of nonlocality. A linear stability analysis is used to predict the initial growth rate of the instability. It is found that the nonlocality tends to suppress filamentation instability in self-focusing media and to stimulate filamentation instability in self-defocusing media. Numerical simulations confirm the results of the linear stability analysis and disclose a recurrence phenomenon in nonlocal self-focusing media analogous to the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem.

  11. Maximum quantum nonlocality between systems that never interacted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabello, Adán, E-mail: adan@us.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-12-03

    We show that there is a stronger form of bipartite quantum nonlocality in which systems that never interacted are as nonlocal as allowed by no-signaling. For this purpose, we first show that nonlocal boxes, theoretical objects that violate a bipartite Bell inequality as much as the no-signaling principle allows and which are physically impossible for most scenarios, are feasible if the two parties have 3 measurements with 4 outputs. Then we show that, in this case, entanglement swapping allows us to prepare mixtures of nonlocal boxes using systems that never interacted. -- Highlights: ► We show quantum correlations as nonlocal as allowed by no-signaling between systems that never interacted. ► We show that nonlocal boxes are feasible if 2 parties have 3 measurements with 4 outputs. ► Experimental implementations of 1 and 2 are proposed.

  12. Nonlocal modeling of granular flows down inclines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrin, Ken; Henann, David L

    2015-01-07

    Flows of granular media down a rough inclined plane demonstrate a number of nonlocal phenomena. We apply the recently proposed nonlocal granular fluidity model to this geometry and find that the model captures many of these effects. Utilizing the model's dynamical form, we obtain a formula for the critical stopping height of a layer of grains on an inclined surface. Using an existing parameter calibration for glass beads, the theoretical result compares quantitatively to existing experimental data for glass beads. This provides a stringent test of the model, whose previous validations focused on driven steady-flow problems. For layers thicker than the stopping height, the theoretical flow profiles display a thickness-dependent shape whose features are in agreement with previous discrete particle simulations. We also address the issue of the Froude number of the flows, which has been shown experimentally to collapse as a function of the ratio of layer thickness to stopping height. While the collapse is not obvious, two explanations emerge leading to a revisiting of the history of inertial rheology, which the nonlocal model references for its homogeneous flow response.

  13. Relativistic three-partite non-locality

    CERN Document Server

    Montakhab, A

    2015-01-01

    Bell-like inequalities have been used in order to distinguish non-local quantum pure states by various authors. The behavior of such inequalities under Lorentz transformation has been a source of debate and controversies in the past. In this paper, we consider the two most commonly studied three-particle pure states, that of W and GHZ states which exhibit distinctly different type of entanglement. We discuss the various types of three-particle inequalities used in previous studies and point to their corresponding shortcomings and strengths. Our main result is that if one uses Svetlichny's inequality as the main measure of non-locality and uses the same angles in the rest frame ($S$) as well as the moving frame ($S^{\\prime}$), then maximally violated inequality in $S$ will decrease in the moving frame, and will eventually lead to lack of non-locality ( i.e. satisfaction of inequality) in the $v \\rightarrow c$ limit. This is shown for both GHZ and W states and in two different configurations which are commonly ...

  14. Nonlocal Gravity and Structure in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Park, Sohyun [Penn State U., University Park, IGC

    2014-08-26

    The observed acceleration of the Universe can be explained by modifying general relativity. One such attempt is the nonlocal model of Deser and Woodard. Here we fix the background cosmology using results from the Planck satellite and examine the predictions of nonlocal gravity for the evolution of structure in the universe, confronting the model with three tests: gravitational lensing, redshift space distortions, and the estimator of gravity $E_G$. Current data favor general relativity (GR) over nonlocal gravity: fixing primordial cosmology with the best fit parameters from Planck leads to weak lensing results favoring GR by 5.9 sigma; redshift space distortions measurements of the growth rate preferring GR by 7.8 sigma; and the single measurement of $E_G$ favoring GR, but by less than 1-sigma. The significance holds up even after the parameters are allowed to vary within Planck limits. The larger lesson is that a successful modified gravity model will likely have to suppress the growth of structure compared to general relativity.

  15. The frustrated Brownian motion of nonlocal solitary waves

    CERN Document Server

    Folli, Viola

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of solitary waves in a nonlocal medium in the presence of disorder. By using a perturbational approach, we show that an increasing degree of nonlocality may largely hamper the Brownian motion of self-trapped wave-packets. The result is valid for any kind of nonlocality and in the presence of non-paraxial effects. Analytical predictions are compared with numerical simulations based on stochastic partial differential equation

  16. The non-local content of quantum operations

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, D; Popescu, S; Collins, Daniel; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu

    2000-01-01

    We show that quantum operations on multi-particle systems have a non-local content; this mirrors the non-local content of quantum states. We introduce a general framework for discussing the non-local content of quantum operations, and give a number of examples. Quantitative relations between quantum actions and the entanglement and classical communication resources needed to implement these actions are also described. We also show how entanglement can catalyse classical communication from a quantum action.

  17. Proposal for revealing quantum nonlocality via local contextuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Adán

    2010-06-04

    Two distant systems can exhibit quantum nonlocality even though the correlations between them admit a local model. This nonlocality can be revealed by testing extra correlations between successive measurements on one of the systems which do not admit a noncontextual model whatever the reduced state of this system is. This shows that quantum contextuality plays a fundamental role in quantum nonlocality, and allows an experimental test of the Kochen-Specker with locality theorem.

  18. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palazuelos, Carlos, E-mail: cpalazue@mat.ucm.es [Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vidick, Thomas, E-mail: vidick@cms.caltech.edu [Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.

  19. Nonlocal effects on dynamic damage accumulation in brittle solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, E.P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a nonlocal analysis of the dynamic damage accumulation processes in brittle solids. A nonlocal formulation of a microcrack based continuum damage model is developed and implemented into a transient dynamic finite element computer code. The code is then applied to the study of the damage accumulation process in a concrete plate with a central hole and subjected to the action of a step tensile pulse applied at opposite edges of the plate. Several finite element discretizations are used to examine the mesh size effect. Comparisons between calculated results based on local and nonlocal formulations are made and nonlocal effects are discussed.

  20. Implementation of nonlocal quantum swap operation on two entangled pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亦庄; 顾永建; 陈立冰; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the implementation of nonlocal quantum swap operation on two spatially separated entangled pairs and we show that the operation can swap two qubits of these entangled pairs. We discuss the resourcesof the entangled qubits and classical communication bits required for the optimal implementation of the nonlocal quantum swap operation. We also put forward a scheme for probabilistic implementation of nonlocal swap operation via a nonmaximally entangled quantum channel. The probability of a successful nonlocal swap operation is obtained by introducing a collective unitary transformation.

  1. Nonlocality Sudden Birth and Transfer in System and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Liang

    2011-01-01

    Dynamics of the nonlocality measured by the violation of Svetlichny's Bell-type inequality is investigated in the non-Markovian model. The phenomenon of nonlocality sudden birth for the atoms and the reservoirs is obtained.The evolution of the nonlocality among the atoms or the reservoirs depends on the choice of the atom detuning from the cavity pseudomode, the cavity pseudomode decay and the rotation angles. For the small pseudomode decay in the near-resonance regime, the initial atomic nonlocality is completely transferred to the reservoirs ultimately.

  2. On a Nonlocal Problem Modelling Ohmic Heating in Planar Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei LIANG; Qi Lin LIU; Yu Xiang LI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the nonlocal problem of the form ut-△u=λe-u/(∫Ωe-udx)2,x∈Ω,t>0 and the associated nonlocal stationary problem -△v=λe-v/(∫Ωe-vdx)2,x∈Ω, where A is a positive parameter. For Ω to be an annulus, we prove that the nonlocal stationary problem has a unique solution if and only if λ < 2|(6)Ω|2, and for A = 2|(6)Ω|2, the solution of the nonlocal parabolic problem grows up globally to infinity as t → ∞.

  3. Nonlocal optical properties in periodic lattice of graphene layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Ruey-Lin; Han, Dezhuan

    2014-02-24

    Based on the effective medium model, nonlocal optical properties in periodic lattice of graphene layers with the period much less than the wavelength are investigated. Strong nonlocal effects are found in a broad frequency range for TM polarization, where the effective permittivity tensor exhibits the Lorentzian resonance. The resonance frequency varies with the wave vector and coincides well with the polaritonic mode. Nonlocal features are manifest on the emergence of additional wave and the occurrence of negative refraction. By examining the characters of the eigenmode, the nonlocal optical properties are attributed to the excitation of plasmons on the graphene surfaces.

  4. NEW CONSERVATION LAWS OF ENERGY AND C-D INEQUALITIES IN CONTINUA WITHOUT MICROSTRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental laws and balance equations as well as C-D inequalities in continuum mechanics are carefully restudied, incompleteness of existing balance laws of angular momentum and conservation laws of energy as well as C-D inequalities are pointed out, and finally new and more general conservation laws of energy and corresponding balance equations of energy as well as C-D inequalities in local and nonlocal asymmetric continua are presented.

  5. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  6. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  7. Nonlocalization of Nonlocal Symmetry and Symmetry Reductions of the Burgers Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金艳; 贾曼; 楼森岳

    2012-01-01

    Symmetry reduction method is one of the best ways to find exact solutions. In this paper, we study the possibility of symmetry reductions of the well known Burgers equation including the nonlocal symmetry. The related new group Jnvariant solutions are obtained. Especially, the interactions among solitons, Airy waves, and Kummer waves are explicitly given.

  8. On holographic entanglement entropy of non-local field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Da-Wei

    2014-01-01

    We study holographic entanglement entropy of non-local field theories both at extremality and finite temperature. The gravity duals, constructed in arXiv:1208.3469 [hep-th], are characterized by a parameter $w$. Both the zero temperature backgrounds and the finite temperature counterparts are exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. For the extremal case we consider the examples with the entangling regions being a strip and a sphere. We find that the leading order behavior of the entanglement entropy always exhibits a volume law when the size of the entangling region is sufficiently small. We also clarify the condition under which the next-to-leading order result is universal. For the finite temperature case we obtain the analytic expressions both in the high temperature limit and in the low temperature limit. In the former case the leading order result approaches the thermal entropy, while the finite contribution to the entanglement entropy at extremality can be extracted by taking the zero temper...

  9. Nonlocal Parity Order in the Two-Dimensional Mott Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzini, Serena; Becca, Federico; Montorsi, Arianna

    2017-04-01

    The Mott insulator is characterized by having small deviations around the (integer) average particle density n , with pairs with n -1 and n +1 particles forming bound states. In one dimension, the effect is captured by a nonzero value of a nonlocal "string" of parities, which instead vanishes in the superfluid phase where density fluctuations are large. Here, we investigate the interaction induced transition from the superfluid to the Mott insulator, in the paradigmatic Bose Hubbard model at n =1 . By means of quantum Monte Carlo simulations and finite size scaling analysis on L ×M ladders, we explore the behavior of "brane" parity operators from one dimension (i.e., M =1 and L →∞ ) to two dimensions (i.e., M →∞ and L →∞ ). We confirm the conjecture that, adopting a standard definition, their average value decays to zero in two dimensions also in the insulating phase, evaluating the scaling factor of the "perimeter law" [S. P. Rath et al., Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 334, 256 (2013), 10.1016/j.aop.2013.04.006]. Upon introducing a further phase in the brane parity, we show that its expectation value becomes nonzero in the insulator, while still vanishing at the transition to the superfluid phase. These quantities are directly accessible to experimental measures, thus providing an insightful signature of the Mott insulator.

  10. Nonlocal Transport in the Reversed Field Pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spizzo, G.; White, R. B.; Cappello, S.; Marrelli, L.

    2009-09-21

    Several heuristic models for nonlocal transport in plasmas have been developed, but they have had a limited possibility of detailed comparision with experimental data. Nonlocal aspects introduced by the existence of a known spectrum of relatively stable saturated tearing modes in a low current reversed field pinch offers a unique possibility for such a study. A numerical modelling of the magnetic structure and associated particle transport is carried out for the reversed-field pinch experiment at the Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy. A reproduction of the tearing mode spectrum with a guiding center code1 reliably reproduces the observed soft X-ray tomography. Following particle trajectories in the stochastic magnetic field shows the transport across the unperturbed flux surfaces to be due to a spectrum of Levy flights, with the details of the spectrum position dependent. The resulting transport is subdiffusive, and cannot be described by Rechester-Rosenbluth diffusion, which depends on a random phase approximation. If one attempts to fit the local transport phenomenologically, the subdiffusion can be fit with a combination of diffusion and inward pinch2. It is found that whereas passing particles explore the stochastic field and hence participate in Levy flights, the trapped particles experience normal neoclassical diffusion. A two fluid nonlocal Montroll equation is used to model this transport, with a Levy flight defined as the motion of an ion during the period that the pitch has one sign. The necessary input to the Montroll equation consists of a time distribution for the Levy flights, given by the pitch angle scattering operator, and a distribution of the flight distances, determined numerically using a guiding center code. Results are compared to experiment. The relation of this formulation to fractional kinetics is also described.

  11. The nonlocal elastomagnetoelectrostatics of disordered micropolar media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabychenkov, A. F.; Lisiovskii, F. V., E-mail: lisf@rambler.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The interactions of electric, magnetic, and elastic subsystems in nonlinear disordered micropolar media that possess a bending–torsion tensor and an nonsymmetric strain tensor have been studied in the framework of phenomenological elastomagnetoelectrostatics. A system of nonlinear equations for determining the ground state of these media has been obtained by the variational method. It is shown that nonuniform external and internal rotations not only create elastic stresses, but also generate additional electric and magnetic fields, while nonuniform elastic stresses and external fields induce internal rotations. The nonlocal character of the micropolar media significantly influences elementary excitations and nonlinear dynamic processes.

  12. Non-local modeling of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    Numerical studies of non-local plasticity effects on different materials and problems are carried out. Two different theories are used. One is of lower order in that it retains the structure of a conventional plasticity boundary value problem, while the other is of higher order and employs higher...... order stresses as work conjugates to higher order strains and uses higher order boundary conditions. The influence of internal material length parameters is studied, and the effects of higher order boundary conditions are analyzed. The focus of the thesis is on metal-matrix composites, and non...

  13. Uncertainty, non-locality and Bell's inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Pati, A K

    1998-01-01

    We derive a Bell-like inequality involving all correlations in local observables with uncertainty free states and show that the inequality is violated in quantum mechanics for EPR and GHZ states. If the uncertainties are allowed in local observables then the statistical predictions of hidden variable theory is well respected in quantum world. We argue that the uncertainties play a key role in understanding the non-locality issues in quantum world. Thus we can not rule out the possibility that a local, realistic hidden variable theory with statistical uncertainties in the observables might reproduce all the results of quantum theory.

  14. Nonlocal calculation for nonstrange dibaryons and tribaryons

    CERN Document Server

    Mota, R D; Fernández, F; Entem, D R; Garcilazo, H

    2002-01-01

    We study the possible existence of nonstrange dibaryons and tribaryons by solving the bound-state problem of the two- and three-body systems composed of nucleons and deltas. The two-body systems are $NN$, $N\\Delta$, and $\\Delta\\Delta$, while the three-body systems are $NNN$, $NN\\Delta$, $N\\Delta\\Delta$, and $\\Delta\\Delta\\Delta$. We use as input the nonlocal $NN$, $N\\Delta$, and $\\Delta\\Delta$ potentials derived from the chiral quark cluster model by means of the resonating group method. We compare with previous results obtained from the local version based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

  15. Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K. S.; Abulizi, G.; de Jong, M. P.; van der Wiel, W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing.

  16. On nonlocal symmetries of some shallow water equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Enrique G [Departamento de Matematicas y Ciencia de la Computacion, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307 Correo 2 Santiago (Chile)

    2007-04-27

    A recent construction of nonlocal symmetries for the Korteweg-de Vries, Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton equations is reviewed, and it is pointed out that-in the Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton case-these symmetries can be considered as (nonlocal) symmetries of integro-differential equations.

  17. Solutions to nonlocal fractional differential equations using a noncompact semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochun Ji

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the existence of solutions to nonlocal fractional differential equations in Banach spaces. By using a type of newly-defined measure of noncompactness, we discuss this problem in general Banach spaces without any compactness assumptions to the operator semigroup. Some existence results are obtained when the nonlocal term is compact and when is Lipschitz continuous.

  18. Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K. S.; Abulizi, G.; de Jong, M. P.; van der Wiel, W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing. PMID:26732751

  19. Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K.S.; Abulizi, G.; Jong, de M.P.; Wiel, van der W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is we

  20. A Note on a Nonlocal Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We give an application of the Crandall-Rabinowitz theorem on local bifurcation to a system of nonlinear parabolic equations with nonlocal reaction and cross-diffusion terms as well as nonlocal initial conditions. The system arises as steady-state equations of two interacting age-structured populations.

  1. Nonlocal thin films in calculations of the Casimir force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.; Svetovoy, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Casimir force is calculated between plates with thin metallic coating. Thin films are described with spatially dispersive (nonlocal) dielectric functions. For thin films the nonlocal effects are more relevant than for half-spaces. However, it is shown that even for film thickness smaller than th

  2. Anomalous interaction of nonlocal solitons in media with competing nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B. K.; Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate properties of individual bright spatial solitons and their interaction in nonlocal media with competing focusing and defocusing nonlinearities. We consider the general case with both nonlinear responses characterized by different strengths and degrees of nonlocality. We...... and interaction of solitons using numerical simulations of the full model of beam propagation. The numerical simulations fully confirm our analytical results....

  3. Spectral dimension from nonlocal dynamics on causal sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Marcianò, Antonino; Modesto, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the spectral dimension obtained from nonlocal continuum d'Alembertians derived from causal sets. We find a universal dimensional reduction to two dimensions, in all dimensions. We conclude by discussing the validity and relevance of our results within the broader context of quantum field theories based on these nonlocal dynamics.

  4. Origin and effect of nonlocality in a layered composite.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A simple demonstration of nonlocality in a heterogeneous material is presented. By analysis of the microscale deformation of a two-component layered medium, it is shown that nonlocal interactions necessarily appear in a homogenized model of the system. Explicit expressions for the nonlocal forces are determined. The way these nonlocal forces appear in various nonlocal elasticity theories is derived. The length scales that emerge involve the constituent material properties as well as their geometrical dimen- sions. A peridynamic material model for the smoothed displacement eld is derived. It is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data that the incorporation of non- locality in modeling dramatically improves the prediction of the stress concentration in an open hole tension test on a composite plate.

  5. Modulational instability in the nonlocal chi(2)-model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyller, John Andreas; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole

    2007-01-01

    We investigate in detail the linear regime of the modulational instability (MI) properties of the plane waves of the nonlocal model for chi((2))- media formulated in Nikolov et al. [N.I. Nikolov, D. Neshev, O. Bang, W.Z. Krolikowski, Quadratic solitons as nonlocal solitons, Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003...... in the parameter space for which a fundamental gain band exists, and regions for which higher order gain bands and modulational stability exist. We also show that the MI analysis for the nonlocal model is applicable in the finite walk-off case. Finally, we show that the plane waves of the nonlocal chi((2))-model...... of the nonlocal chi((2))-model, by using the singular perturbational approach. The other branch of the plane waves (i.e. the nonadiabatic branch or the optical branch) is always modulationally unstable. We compare the MI results for the adiabatic branch with the predictions obtained from the full chi((2))-model...

  6. Origin and effect of nonlocality in a layered composite.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A simple demonstration of nonlocality in a heterogeneous material is presented. By analysis of the microscale deformation of a two-component layered medium, it is shown that nonlocal interactions necessarily appear in a homogenized model of the system. Explicit expressions for the nonlocal forces are determined. The way these nonlocal forces appear in various nonlocal elasticity theories is derived. The length scales that emerge involve the constituent material properties as well as their geometrical dimen- sions. A peridynamic material model for the smoothed displacement eld is derived. It is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data that the incorporation of non- locality in modeling dramatically improves the prediction of the stress concentration in an open hole tension test on a composite plate.

  7. Notes on nonlocal projective measurements in relativistic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yuin

    2013-01-01

    In quantum mechanical bipartite systems, naive extensions of von Neumann's projective measurement to nonlocal variables can produce superluminal signals and thus violate causality. We analyze the projective quantum nondemolition state-verification in a two-spin system and see how the projection introduces nonlocality without entanglement. For the ideal measurements of "R-nonlocal" variables, we argue that causality violation can be resolved by introducing further restrictions on the post-measurement states, which makes the measurement "Q-nonlocal". After we generalize these ideas to quantum mechanical harmonic oscillators, we look into the projective measurements of the particle number of a single mode or a wave-packet of a relativistic quantum field in Minkowski space. It turns out that the causality-violating terms in the expectation values of the local operators, generated either by the ideal measurement of the "R-nonlocal" variable or the quantum nondemolition verification of a Fock state, are all suppres...

  8. Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2016-04-22

    Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.

  9. Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.

  10. Nonlocalized cluster dynamics and nuclear molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Bo; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Ren, Zhongzhou; Röpke, Gerd; Schuck, Peter; Tohsaki, Akihiro; Xu, Chang; Yamada, Taiichi

    2013-01-01

    A container picture is proposed for understanding cluster dynamics where the clusters make nonlocalized motion occupying the lowest orbit of the cluster mean-field potential characterized by the size parameter $``B"$ in the THSR (Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-R\\"{o}pke) wave function. The nonlocalized cluster aspects of the inversion-doublet bands in $^{20}$Ne which have been considered as a typical manifestation of localized clustering are discussed. So far unexplained puzzling features of the THSR wave function, namely that after angular-momentum projection for two cluster systems the prolate THSR wave function is almost 100$\\%$ equivalent to an oblate THSR wave function is clarified. It is shown that the true intrinsic two-cluster THSR configuration is nonetheless prolate. The proposal of the container picture is based on the fact that typical cluster systems, 2$\\alpha$, 3$\\alpha$, and $\\alpha$+$^{16}$O, are all well described by a single THSR wave function. It will be shown for the case of linear-chain states w...

  11. Nonlinear structure formation in Nonlocal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Barreira, Alexandre; Hellwing, Wojciech A; Baugh, Carlton M; Pascoli, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    We study the nonlinear growth of structure in nonlocal gravity models with the aid of N-body simulation and the spherical collapse and halo models. We focus on a model in which the inverse-squared of the d'Alembertian operator acts on the Ricci scalar in the action. For fixed cosmological parameters, this model differs from $\\Lambda{\\rm CDM}$ by having a lower late-time expansion rate and an enhanced and time-dependent gravitational strength ($\\sim 6\\%$ larger today). Compared to $\\Lambda{\\rm CDM}$ today, in the nonlocal model, massive haloes are slightly more abundant (by $\\sim 10\\%$ at $M \\sim 10^{14} M_{\\odot}/h$) and concentrated ($\\approx 8\\%$ enhancement over a range of mass scales), but their linear bias remains almost unchanged. We find that the Sheth-Tormen formalism describes the mass function and halo bias very well, with little need for recalibration of free parameters. The fitting of the halo concentrations is however essential to ensure the good performance of the halo model on small scales. For...

  12. Structure of nonlocality of plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürcan, Ö. D.; Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Berionni, V.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; McDevitt, C. J.; Morel, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Storelli, A.; Bourdelle, C.; the Tore Supra Team

    2013-07-01

    Various indications on the weakly nonlocal character of turbulent plasma transport both from experimental fluctuation measurements from Tore Supra and observations from the full-f, flux-driven gyrokinetic code GYSELA are reported. A simple Fisher equation model of this weakly nonlocal dynamics can be formulated in terms of an evolution equation for the turbulent entropy density, which contains the basic phenomenon of radial turbulence spreading in addition to avalanche-like dynamics via coupling to profile modulations. A derivation of this model, which contains the so-called beach effect, a diffusive and convective flux components for the flux of turbulence intensity, in addition to linear group propagation is given, starting from the drift-kinetic equation. The proposed model has the form of a transport equation for turbulence intensity, and may be considered as an addition to transport modelling. The kinetic fluxes given, can be computed using model closures, or local gyrokinetics. The model is also used in a particular setup that represents the near edge region as a relatively stable zone between the core and edge region where the energy injection is locally more substantial. It is observed that with constant, physical coefficients, the model gives a convincing qualitative profile of fluctuation intensity when the turbulence is coming from the core region with either a group velocity or a convective flux.

  13. Non-local models for ductile failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    César de Sá, José; Azinpour, Erfan; Santos, Abel

    2016-08-01

    Ductile damage can be dealt with continuous descriptions of material, resorting, for example, to continuous damage mechanic descriptions or micromechanical constitutive models. When it comes to describe material behaviour near and beyond fracture these approaches are no longer sufficient or valid and continuous/discontinuous approaches can be adopted to track fracture initiation and propagation. Apart from more pragmatic solutions like element erosion or remeshing techniques more advanced approaches based on the X-FEM concept, in particular associated with non-local formulations, may be adopted to numerically model these problems. Nevertheless, very often, for practical reasons, some important aspects are somewhat left behind, specially energetic requirements to promote the necessary transition of energy release associated with material damage and fracture energy associated to a crack creation and evolution. Phase-field methods may combine advantages of regularised continuous models by providing a similar description to non-local thermodynamical continuous damage mechanics, as well as, a "continuous" approach to numerically follow crack evolution and branching

  14. Quantum Noether identities for non-local transformations in higher-order derivatives theories

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z P

    2003-01-01

    Based on the phase-space generating functional of the Green function for a system with a regular/singular higher-order Lagrangian, the quantum canonical Noether identities (NIs) under a local and non-local transformation in phase space have been deduced, respectively. For a singular higher-order Lagrangian, one must use an effective canonical action I sub e sub f sub f sup P in quantum canonical NIs instead of the classical I sup P in classical canonical NIs. The quantum NIs under a local and non-local transformation in configuration space for a gauge-invariant system with a higher-order Lagrangian have also been derived. The above results hold true whether or not the Jacobian of the transformation is equal to unity or not. It has been pointed out that in certain cases the quantum NIs may be converted to conservation laws at the quantum level. This algorithm to derive the quantum conservation laws is significantly different from the quantum first Noether theorem. The applications of our formulation to the Yan...

  15. Accelerating oscillatory fronts in a nonlinear sonic vacuum with strong nonlocal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendelman, O V; Zolotarevskiy, V; Savin, A V; Bergman, L A; Vakakis, A F

    2016-03-01

    We describe and explore accelerating oscillatory fronts in sonic vacua with nonlocal interactions. As an example, a chain of particles oscillating in the plane and coupled by linear springs, with fixed ends, is considered. When one end of this system is harmonically excited in the transverse direction, one observes accelerated propagation of the excitation front, accompanied by an almost monochromatic oscillatory tail. Position of the front obeys the scaling law l(t) ∼ t(4/3). The frequency of the oscillatory tail remains constant, and the wavelength scales as λ ∼ t(1/3). These scaling laws result from the nonlocal effects; we derive them analytically (including the scaling coefficients) from a continuum approximation. Moreover, a certain threshold excitation amplitude is required in order to initiate the front propagation. The initiation threshold is evaluated on the basis of a simplified discrete model, further reduced to a completely integrable nonlinear system. Given their simplicity, nonlinear sonic vacua of the type considered herein should be common in periodic lattices.

  16. Nonlocal Mumford-Shah regularizers for color image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miyoun; Bresson, Xavier; Chan, Tony F; Vese, Luminita A

    2011-06-01

    We propose here a class of restoration algorithms for color images, based upon the Mumford-Shah (MS) model and nonlocal image information. The Ambrosio-Tortorelli and Shah elliptic approximations are defined to work in a small local neighborhood, which are sufficient to denoise smooth regions with sharp boundaries. However, texture is nonlocal in nature and requires semilocal/non-local information for efficient image denoising and restoration. Inspired from recent works (nonlocal means of Buades, Coll, Morel, and nonlocal total variation of Gilboa, Osher), we extend the local Ambrosio-Tortorelli and Shah approximations to MS functional (MS) to novel nonlocal formulations, for better restoration of fine structures and texture. We present several applications of the proposed nonlocal MS regularizers in image processing such as color image denoising, color image deblurring in the presence of Gaussian or impulse noise, color image inpainting, color image super-resolution, and color filter array demosaicing. In all the applications, the proposed nonlocal regularizers produce superior results over the local ones, especially in image inpainting with large missing regions. We also prove several characterizations of minimizers based upon dual norm formulations.

  17. Buckling of Functionally Graded Nanobeams Based on the Nonlocal New First-Order Shear Deformation Beam Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houari M.S.A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the size-dependent buckling behavior of functionally graded (FG nanobeams is investigated on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. The material properties of FG nanobeams are assumed to vary through the thickness according to the power law. In addition, Poisson’s ratio is assumed constant in the current model. The nanobeams is modelled according to the new first order shear beam theory with small deformation and the equilibrium equations are derived using the Hamilton’s principle. The Naviertype solution is developed for simply-supported boundary conditions, and exact formulas are proposed for the buckling load. The effects of nonlocal parameter, aspect ratio, various material compositions on the stability responses of the FG nanobeams are discussed.

  18. Degenerate-band-edge engineering inspired by nonlocal transformation optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moccia Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the engineering of degenerate-band-edge effects in nonlocal metamaterials. Our approach, inspired by nonlocal-transformation-optics concepts, is based on the approximation of analytically-derived nonlocal constitutive “blueprints”. We illustrate the synthesis procedure, and present and validate a possible implementation based on multilayered metamaterials featuring anisotropic constituents. We also elucidate the physical mechanisms underlying our approach and proposed configuration, and highlight the substantial differences with respect to other examples available in the topical literature.

  19. Degenerate-band-edge engineering inspired by nonlocal transformation optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moccia Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the engineering of degenerate-band-edge effects in nonlocal metamaterials. Our approach, inspired by nonlocal-transformation-optics concepts, is based on the approximation of analytically-derived nonlocal constitutive “blueprints”. We illustrate the synthesis procedure, and present and validate a possible implementation based on multilayered metamaterials featuring anisotropic constituents. We also elucidate the physical mechanisms underlying our approach and proposed configuration, and highlight the substantial differences with respect to other examples available in the topical literature.

  20. Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rogério F.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2009-09-01

    The nonlocal nonlinearity of castor oil was investigated using the Z-scan technique in the CW regime at 514 nm and in femtosecond regime at 810 nm. Large negative nonlinear refractive indexes of thermal origin, thermo-optical coefficients and degree of nonlocality were obtained for both laser excitation wavelengths. The results indicate that the electronic part of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption were negligible. Our results suggest that castor oil is promising candidate as a nonlinear medium for several nonlocal optical applications, such as in spatial soliton propagation, as well as a dispersant agent in the measurement of absorptive properties of nanoparticles.

  1. Generic features of modulational instability in nonlocal Kerr media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyller, John; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole

    2002-01-01

    The modulational instability (MI) of plane waves in nonlocal Kerr media is studied for a general response function. Several generic properties are proven mathematically, with emphasis on how new gain bands are formed through a bifurcation process when the degree of nonlocality, sigma, passes...... the nonlocality tends to suppress MI, but can never remove it completely, irrespectively of the shape of the response function. For a defocusing nonlinearity the stability properties depend sensitively on the profile of the response function. For response functions with a positive-definite spectrum...

  2. Unusual resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Toscano, Giuseppe; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    We study the nonlocal response of a confined electron gas within the hydrodynamical Drude model. We address the question as to whether plasmonic nanostructures exhibit nonlocal resonances that have no counterpart in the local-response Drude model. Avoiding the usual quasistatic approximation, we...... find that such resonances do indeed occur, but only above the plasma frequency. Thus the recently found nonlocal resonances at optical frequencies for very small structures, obtained within quasistatic approximation, are unphysical. As a specific example we consider nanosized metallic cylinders...

  3. Theory of nonlocal soliton interaction in nematic liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2005-01-01

    We investigate interactions between spatial nonlocal bright solitons in nematic liquid crystals using an analytical “effective particle” approach as well as direct numerical simulations. The model predicts attraction of out-of-phase solitons and the existence of their stable bound state....... This nontrivial property is solely due to the nonlocal nature of the nonlinear response of the liquid crystals. We further predict and verify numerically the critical outwards angle and degree of nonlocality which determine the transition between attraction and repulsion of out-of-phase solitons....

  4. Strain analysis of nonlocal viscoelastic Kelvin bar in tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue-chuan; LEI Yong-jun; ZHOU Jian-ping

    2008-01-01

    Based on viscoelastic Kelvin model and nonlocal relationship of strain and stress, a nonlocal constitutive relationship of viscoelasticity is obtained and the strain response of a bar in tension is studied. By transforming governing equation of the strain analysis into Volterra integration form and by choosing a symmetric exponential form of kernel function and adapting Neumann series, the closed-form solution of strain field of the bar is obtained. The creep process of the bar is presented. When time approaches infinite, the strain of bar is equal to the one of nonlocal elasticity.

  5. Stochastic waves in a Brusselator model with nonlocal interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancalani, Tommaso; Galla, Tobias; McKane, Alan J

    2011-08-01

    We show that intrinsic noise can induce spatiotemporal phenomena such as Turing patterns and traveling waves in a Brusselator model with nonlocal interaction terms. In order to predict and to characterize these stochastic waves we analyze the nonlocal model using a system-size expansion. The resulting theory is used to calculate the power spectra of the stochastic waves analytically and the outcome is tested successfully against simulations. We discuss the possibility that nonlocal models in other areas, such as epidemic spread or social dynamics, may contain similar stochastically induced patterns.

  6. Non-local thin films in Casimir force calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, R

    2005-01-01

    he Casimir force is calculated between plates with thin metallic coating. Thin films are described with spatially dispersive (nonlocal) dielectric functions. For thin films the nonlocal effects are more relevant than for half-spaces. However, it is shown that even for film thickness smaller than the mean free path for electrons, the difference between local and nonlocal calculations of the Casimir force is of the order of a few tenths of a percent. Thus the local description of thin metallic films is adequate within the current experimental precision and range of separations.

  7. Incompressible turbulence as non-local field theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahendra K Verma

    2005-03-01

    It is well-known that incompressible turbulence is non-local in real space because sound speed is infinite in incompressible fluids. The equation in Fourier space indicates that it is non-local in Fourier space as well. However, the shell-to-shell energy transfer is local. Contrast this with Burgers equation which is local in real space. Note that the sound speed in Burgers equation is zero. In our presentation we will contrast these two equations using non-local field theory. Energy spectrum and renormalized parameters will be discussed.

  8. Nonlocality Distillation and Trivial Communication Complexity for High-Dimensional Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Xiang-Jun Ye; Jing-Ling Chen

    2016-01-01

    A nonlocality distillation protocol for arbitrary high-dimensional systems is proposed.We study the nonlocality distillation in the 2-input d-output bi-partite case.Firstly,we give the one-parameter nonlocal boxes and their correlated distilling protocol.Then,we generalize the one-parameter nonlocality distillation protocol to the two-parameter case.Furthermore,we introduce a contracting protocol testifying that the 2-input d-output nonlocal boxes make communication complexity trivial.

  9. The quantum handshake entanglement, nonlocality and transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cramer, John G

    2016-01-01

    This book shines bright light into the dim recesses of quantum theory, where the mysteries of entanglement, nonlocality, and wave collapse have motivated some to conjure up multiple universes, and others to adopt a "shut up and calculate" mentality. After an extensive and accessible introduction to quantum mechanics and its history, the author turns attention to his transactional model. Using a quantum handshake between normal and time-reversed waves, this model provides a clear visual picture explaining the baffling experimental results that flow daily from the quantum physics laboratories of the world. To demonstrate its powerful simplicity, the transactional model is applied to a collection of counter-intuitive experiments and conceptual problems.

  10. Understanding quantum interference in General Nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Wanng, Hai-Jhun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to give an understanding of quantum double-slit interference of fermions in the framework of General Nonlocality (GN) [J. Math. Phys. 49, 033513 (2008)] by studying the self-interaction of matter wave. From the metric of the GN, we derive a special formalism to interpret the interference contrast when the self-interaction is perturbative. According to the formalism, the characteristic of interference pattern is in agreement with experiment qualitatively. As examples, we apply the formalism to the cases governed by Schr\\"odinger current and Dirac current respectively, both of which are relevant to topology. The gap between these two cases corresponds to a spin-current effect, which is possible to test in the near future. In addition, a general interference formalism for both perturbative and non-perturbative self-interactions is presented. By analyzing the general formalism we predict that in the nonperturbative limit there is no interference at all.

  11. A nonlocal spatial model for Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of a nonlocal and time-delayed reaction-diffusion model for Lyme disease with a spatially heterogeneous structure. In the case of a bounded domain, we first prove the existence of the positive steady state and a threshold type result for the disease-free system, and then establish the global dynamics for the model system in terms of the basic reproduction number. In the case of an unbound domain, we obtain the existence of the disease spreading speed and its coincidence with the minimal wave speed. At last, we use numerical simulations to verify our analytic results and investigate the influence of model parameters and spatial heterogeneity on the disease infection risk.

  12. Photonic multipartite entanglement conversion using nonlocal operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, T.; Tame, M. S.; Özdemir, Ş. K.; Nori, F.; Koashi, M.; Weinfurter, H.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a simple setup for the conversion of multipartite entangled states in a quantum network with restricted access. The scheme uses nonlocal operations to enable the preparation of states that are inequivalent under local operations and classical communication, but most importantly does not require full access to the states. It is based on a flexible linear optical conversion gate that uses photons, which are ideally suited for distributed quantum computation and quantum communication in extended networks. In order to show the basic working principles of the gate, we focus on converting a four-qubit entangled cluster state to other locally inequivalent four-qubit states, such as the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and symmetric Dicke states. We also show how the gate can be incorporated into extended graph state networks and can be used to generate variable entanglement and quantum correlations without entanglement but nonvanishing quantum discord.

  13. A simple nonlocal model for exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G

    2009-12-21

    This work presents a new nonlocal model for the exchange energy density. The model is obtained from the product of the Kohn-Sham one-particle density matrix used to construct exact [Hartree-Fock-like (HF)] exchange, and an approximate density matrix used to construct local spin-density approximation (LSDA) exchange. The proposed exchange energy density has useful formal properties, including correct spin and coordinate scaling and the correct uniform limit. It can readily be evaluated in finite basis sets, with a computational scaling intermediate between HF exchange and semilocal quantities such as the noninteracting kinetic energy density. Applications to representative systems indicate that its properties are typically intermediate between HF and LSDA exchange, and often similar to global hybrids of HF and LSDA exchange. The model is proposed as a novel "Rung 3.5" ingredient for constructing approximate exchange-correlation functionals.

  14. A quantum loophole to Bell nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Romero-Rochin, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the conclusion of Bell theorem, namely, that there must be spatial non-local correlations in certain experimental situations, does not apply to typical individual measurements performed on entangled EPR pairs. Our claim is based on three points, (i) on the notion of quantum {\\it complete measurements}; (ii) on Bell results on local yet distant measurements; and (iii) on the fact that perfect simultaneity is banned by the quantum mechanics. We show that quantum mechanics indicates that, while the measurements of the pair members are indeed space-like separated, the pair measurement is actually a sequence of two complete measurements, the first one terminating the entanglement and, therefore, the second one becoming unrelated to the initial preparation of the entangled pair. The outstanding feature of these measurements is that neither of them violates the principle of locality. We discuss that the present measurement viewpoint appears to run contrary to the usual interpretation of "superposition"...

  15. Construction of nonlocal multipartite quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Zhang, Ke-Jia; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Oh, C. H.

    2017-05-01

    For general bipartite quantum systems, many sets of locally indistinguishable orthogonal product states have been constructed so far. Here, we first present a general method to construct multipartite orthogonal product states in d1⊗d2⊗⋯⊗dn(d1 ,2 ,⋯,n≥3 ,n ≥4 ) by using some locally indistinguishable bipartite orthogonal product states. And we prove that these multipartite orthogonal quantum states cannot be distinguished by local operations and classical communication. Furthermore, in d1⊗d2⊗⋯⊗dn(d1 ,2 ,⋯,n≥3 ,n ≥5 ) , we give a general method to construct a much smaller number of locally indistinguishable multipartite orthogonal product states for even and odd n separately. In addition, we also present a general method to construct complete orthogonal product bases for the multipartite quantum systems. Our results demonstrate the phenomenon of nonlocality without entanglement for the multipartite quantum systems.

  16. World law

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Harold J.; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames

    1999-01-01

    In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...

  17. Scaling symmetries, conservation laws and action principles in one-dimensional gas dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G M; Zank, G P [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)], E-mail: gary.webb@uah.edu

    2009-11-27

    Scaling symmetries of the planar, one-dimensional gas dynamic equations with adiabatic index {gamma} are used to obtain Lagrangian and Eulerian conservation laws associated with the symmetries. The known Eulerian symmetry operators for the scaling symmetries are converted to the Lagrangian form, in which the Eulerian spatial position of the fluid element is given in terms of the Lagrangian fluid labels. Conditions for a linear combination of the three scaling symmetries to be a divergence or variational symmetry of the action are established. The corresponding Lagrangian and Eulerian form of the conservation laws are determined by application of Noether's theorem. A nonlocal conservation law associated with the scaling symmetries is obtained by applying a nonlocal symmetry operator to the scaling symmetry-conserved vector. An action principle incorporating known conservation laws using Lagrangian constraints is developed. Noether's theorem for the constrained action principle gives the same formulas for the conserved vector as the classical Noether theorem, except that the Lie symmetry vector field now includes the effects of nonlocal potentials. Noether's theorem for the constrained action principle is used to obtain nonlocal conservation laws. The scaling symmetry conservation laws only apply for special forms of the entropy of the gas.

  18. Non-local plasticity effects on fracture toughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    The Mode I fracture strength in a nonlocal elastic-plastic material is analyzed under quasi-static steady crack growth. The plastic deformations are modelled using a constitutive model, where nonlocal plasticity effects are included in the instantaneous hardening moduli through a gradient measure...... of the effective plastic strain. Fracture is modelled by a cohesive zone criterion. Results on the numerically obtained stress fields are presented, as well as results on the steady-state fracture toughness. It is shown that the nonlocal theory predicts lower steady-state fracture toughness compared to predictions...... by conventional J2-flow theory, since higher normal stresses in front of the crack tip are predicted. Furthermore, the nonlocal material description increases the range of applicability of the cohesive zone model, since steady-state crack growth is possible for significantly larger values of the maximum stress...

  19. Discrete model of dislocations in fractional nonlocal elasticity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2016-01-01

    Discrete models of dislocations in fractional nonlocal materials are suggested. The proposed models are based on fractional-order differences instead of finite differences of integer orders that are usually used...

  20. Nonlocal viscous transport and the effect on fluid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B D; Hansen, J S

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate that, in general, only for fluid flows in which the gradient of the strain rate is constant or zero can the classical Navier-Stokes equations with constant transport coefficients be considered exact. This is typical of two of the most common types of flow: Couette and Poiseuille. For more complicated flow fields in which the streaming velocity involves higher order nonlinear terms, the use of nonlocal constitutive equations gives an exact description of the flow. These constitutive equations involve nonlocal transport kernels. For momentum transport we demonstrate that nonlocality will be significant for any particular flow field if the even moments of the nonlocal viscosity kernel are non-negligible. This corresponds to the condition that the strain rate varies appreciably over the width of the kernel in real space. Such conditions are likely to be dominant for nanofluidic flows.

  1. NONDENSELY DEFINED IMPULSIVE NEUTRAL FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL INCLUSIONS WITH NONLOCAL CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueju Cao; Xianlong Fu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, using a fixed point theorem for condensing multi-valued maps, we investigate the existence of integral solutions to a class of nondensely defined neutral evolution impulsive differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces.

  2. Controllability of semilinear integrodifferential equations with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahima Atmania

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We establish sufficient conditions for the controllability of some semilinear integrodifferential systems with nonlocal condition in a Banach space. The results are obtained using the Schaefer fixed-point theorem and semigroup theory.

  3. Tests of quantum-gravity-induced nonlocality via optomechanical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    The nonrelativistic limit of nonlocal modifications to the Klein-Gordon operator is studied, and the experimental possibilities of casting stringent constraints on the nonlocality scale via planned and/or current optomechanical experiments are discussed. Details of the perturbative analysis and semianalytical simulations leading to the dynamic evolution of a quantum harmonic oscillator in the presence of nonlocality reported in [A. Belenchia, D. M. T. Benincasa, S. Liberati, F. Marin, F. Marino, and A. Ortolan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 161303 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.161303] are given, together with a comprehensive account of the experimental methodology with particular regard to sensitivity limitations related to thermal decoherence time and active cooling of the oscillator. Finally, a strategy for detecting nonlocality scales of the order of 10-22÷10-26 m by means of the spontaneous time-periodic squeezing of quantum-coherent states is provided.

  4. Controllability of impulsive functional differential systems with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the controllability of impulsive functional differential equations with nonlocal conditions. We establish sufficient conditions for controllability, via the measure of noncompactness and Monch fixed point theorem.

  5. Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Anne

    2016-08-01

    In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the parties share nonlocal correlations as given by the Popescu-Rohrlich box. This means that communication is not required for efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation. Exploiting the well-known relation to position-based cryptography, our result also implies the impossibility of secure position-based cryptography against adversaries with nonsignaling correlations. Furthermore, our construction establishes a quantum analog of the classical communication complexity collapse under nonsignaling correlations.

  6. Non-local plasticity effects on fracture toughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    The Mode I fracture strength in a nonlocal elastic-plastic material is analyzed under quasi-static steady crack growth. The plastic deformations are modelled using a constitutive model, where nonlocal plasticity effects are included in the instantaneous hardening moduli through a gradient measure...... of the effective plastic strain. Fracture is modelled by a cohesive zone criterion. Results on the numerically obtained stress fields are presented, as well as results on the steady-state fracture toughness. It is shown that the nonlocal theory predicts lower steady-state fracture toughness compared to predictions...... by conventional J2-flow theory, since higher normal stresses in front of the crack tip are predicted. Furthermore, the nonlocal material description increases the range of applicability of the cohesive zone model, since steady-state crack growth is possible for significantly larger values of the maximum stress...

  7. Entanglement and nonlocality in multi-particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, M D; Drummond, P D

    2011-01-01

    Entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell's failure of local-hidden-variable (LHV) theories are three historically famous forms of "quantum nonlocality". We give experimental criteria for these three forms of nonlocality in multi-particle systems, with the aim of better understanding the transition from microscopic to macroscopic nonlocality. We examine the nonlocality of N separated spin J systems. First, we obtain multipartite Bell inequalities that address the correlation between spin values measured at each site, and then we review spin squeezing inequalities that address the degree of reduction in the variance of collective spins. The latter have been particularly useful as a tool for investigating entanglement in Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). We present solutions for two topical quantum states: multi-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, and the ground state of a two-well BEC.

  8. Self-adjoint integral operator for bounded nonlocal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.

    2016-11-01

    An integral operator is developed to describe nonlocal transport in a one-dimensional system bounded on both ends by material walls. The "jump" distributions associated with nonlocal transport are taken to be Lévy α -stable distributions, which become naturally truncated by the bounding walls. The truncation process results in the operator containing a self-consistent, convective inward transport term (pinch). The properties of the integral operator as functions of the Lévy distribution parameter set [α ,γ ] and the wall conductivity are presented. The integral operator continuously recovers the features of local transport when α =2 . The self-adjoint formulation allows for an accurate description of spatial variation in the Lévy parameters in the nonlocal system. Spatial variation in the Lévy parameters is shown to result in internally generated flows. Examples of cold-pulse propagation in nonlocal systems illustrate the capabilities of the methodology.

  9. Understanding quantum non-locality through pseudo-telepathy game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkri, Samir

    2006-11-01

    Usually by quantum non-locality we mean that quantum mechanics can not be replaced by local realistic theory. On the other hand this nonlocal feature of quantum mechanics can not be used for instantaneous communication and hence it respect Einstein's special theory of relativity. But still it is not trivial as proved by various quantum information processing using entangled states. Recently there have been studies of hypothetical non-local system again respecting no-signalling which is beyond quantum mechanics. Here we study the power of such a hypothetical nonlocal box first suggested by Popescu et.al. in the context of recently suggested pseudo-telepathy game constructed from a Kochen-Specker set.

  10. Local orthogonality provides a tight upper bound for Hardy's nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhadipa; Banik, Manik; Gazi, Md. Rajjak; Rai, Ashutosh; Kunkri, Samir

    2013-12-01

    The amount of nonlocality in quantum theory is limited compared to that allowed in generalized no-signaling theory [S. Popescu and D. Rohrlich, Found. Phys.FNDPA40015-901810.1007/BF02058098 24, 379 (1994)]. This feature, for example, gets manifested in the amount of Bell inequality violation as well as in the degree of success probability of Hardy's (Cabello's) nonlocality argument. Physical principles like information causality and macroscopic locality have been proposed for analyzing restricted nonlocality in quantum mechanics, viz. explaining the Cirel'son bound. However, these principles are not very successful in explaining the maximum success probability of Hardy's as well as Cabello's argument in quantum theory. Here we show that a recently proposed physical principle, namely local orthogonality, does better by providing a tighter upper bound on the success probability for Hardy's nonlocality. This bound is relatively closer to the corresponding quantum value compared to the bounds achieved from other principles.

  11. Causal Set theory, non-locality and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Belenchia, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    This proceeding is based on a talk prepared for the XIV Marcel Grossmann meeting. We review some results on causal set inspired non-local theories as well as work in progress concerning their phenomenology.

  12. Observation of two-dimensional nonlocal gap solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Bennett, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, the existence of nonlocal gap solitons in twodimensional periodic photonic structures with defocusing thermal nonlinearity. We employ liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers and show how the system geometry can modify the effective respons...

  13. Nonlocal quintic nonlinearity by cascaded THG in dispersive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberger, F.; Bache, Morten; Minardi, S.;

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a perturbed nonlocal cubicquintic equation describing the propagation of light pulses in a dispersive, cubic nonlinearmedium in the presence of phase and velocity mismatched third harmonic generation....

  14. Nonlocal scalar quantum field theory from causal sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    We study a non-local scalar quantum field theory in flat spacetime derived from the dynamics of a scalar field on a causal set. We show that this non-local QFT contains a continuum of massive modes in any dimension. In 2 dimensions the Hamiltonian is positive definite and therefore the quantum theory is well-defined. In 4-dimensions, we show that the unstable modes of the non-local d'Alembertian are propagated via the so called Wheeler propagator and hence do not appear in the asymptotic states. In the free case studied here the continuum of massive mode are shown to not propagate in the asymptotic states. However the Hamiltonian is not positive definite, therefore potential issues with the quantum theory remain. Finally, we conclude with hints toward what kind of phenomenology one might expect from such non-local QFTs.

  15. Nonlocal Scalar Quantum Field Theory from Causal Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Belenchia, Alessio; Liberati, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We study a non-local scalar quantum field theory in flat spacetime derived from the dynamics of a scalar field on a causal set. We show that this non-local QFT contains a continuum of massive modes in any dimension. In 2 dimensions the Hamiltonian is positive definite and therefore the quantum theory is well-defined. In 4-dimensions, we show that the unstable modes of the non-local d'Alembertian are propagated via the so called Wheeler propagator and hence do not appear in the asymptotic states. In the free case studied here the continuum of massive mode are shown to not propagate in the asymptotic states. However the Hamiltonian is not positive definite, therefore potential issues with the quantum theory remain. Finally, we conclude with hints toward what kind of phenomenology one might expect from such non-local QFTs.

  16. Local implementation of nonlocal operations with block forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning Bo; Wang, An Min

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the local implementation of nonlocal operations with the block matrix form, and propose a protocol for any diagonal or offdiagonal block operation. We generalize this method to the two-party multiqubit case and the multiparty case. We also compare the local implementation of nonlocal block operations with the remote implementation of local operations [Huelga , Phys. Rev. A 63, 042303 (2001)], and point out a relation between them.

  17. Noether's theorem in non-local field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoruchenko, M I

    2016-01-01

    Explicit expressions are constructed for a locally conserved vector current associated with a continuous internal symmetry and for energy-momentum and angular-momentum density tensors associated with the Poincar\\'e group in field theories with higher-order derivatives and in non-local field theories. An example of non-local charged scalar field equations with broken C and CPT symmetries is considered. For this case, we find simple analytical expressions for the conserved currents.

  18. Nonlocal correlations: Fair and Unfair Strategies in Bayesian Game

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Arup; Mukherjee, Amit; Guha, Tamal; Ghosh, Sibasish; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Banik, Manik

    2016-01-01

    Interesting connection has been established between two apparently unrelated concepts, namely, quantum nonlocality and Bayesian game theory. It has been shown that nonlocal correlations in the form of advice can outperform classical equilibrium strategies in common interest Bayesian games and also in conflicting interest games. However, classical equilibrium strategies can be of two types, fair and unfair. Whereas in fair equilibrium payoffs of different players are same, in unfair case they ...

  19. Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation

    OpenAIRE

    Broadbent, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the pa...

  20. Self-organization analysis for a nonlocal convective Fisher equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, J.A.R. da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Penna, A.L.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil)], E-mail: penna.andre@gmail.com; Vainstein, M.H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Morgado, R. [International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Departamento de Matematica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Oliveira, F.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil)

    2009-02-02

    Using both an analytical method and a numerical approach we have investigated pattern formation for a nonlocal convective Fisher equation with constant and spatial velocity fields. We analyze the limits of the influence function due to nonlocal interaction and we obtain the phase diagram of critical velocities v{sub c} as function of the width {mu} of the influence function, which characterize the self-organization of a finite system.

  1. Twisted Backgrounds, PP-Waves and Nonlocal Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Alishahiha, M; Alishahiha, Mohsen; Ganor, Ori J.

    2003-01-01

    We study partially supersymmetric plane-wave like deformations of string theories and M-theory on brane backgrounds. These deformations are dual to nonlocal field theories. We calculate various expectation values of configurations of closed as well as open Wilson loops and Wilson surfaces in those theories. We also discuss the manifestation of the nonlocality structure in the supergravity backgrounds. A plane-wave like deformation of little string theory has also been studied.

  2. Nonlocal Problems for Fractional Differential Equations via Resolvent Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbin Fan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the continuity of analytic resolvent in the uniform operator topology and then obtain the compactness of Cauchy operator by means of the analytic resolvent method. Based on this result, we derive the existence of mild solutions for nonlocal fractional differential equations when the nonlocal item is assumed to be Lipschitz continuous and neither Lipschitz nor compact, respectively. An example is also given to illustrate our theory.

  3. The dilemma of hyperbolic heat conduction and its settlement by incorporating spatially nonlocal effect at nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. Jun; Li, Chen-Lin; Xue, Zhang-Na; Tian, Xiao-Geng, E-mail: tiansu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-08

    To model transiently thermal responses of numerous thermal shock issues at nano-scale, Fourier heat conduction law is commonly extended by introducing time rate of heat flux, and comes to hyperbolic heat conduction (HHC). However, solution to HHC under Dirichlet boundary condition depicts abnormal phenomena, e.g. heat conducts from the cold to the hot, and there are two temperatures at one location. In this paper, HHC model is further perfected with the aids of spatially nonlocal effect, and the exceeding temperature as well as the discontinuity at the wave front are avoided. The effect of nonlocal parameter on temperature response is discussed. From the analysis, the importance of size effect for nano-scale heat conduction is emphasized, indicating that spatial and temporal extensions should be simultaneously made to nano-scale heat conduction. Beyond that, it is found that heat flux boundary conditions should be directly given, instead of Neumann boundary condition, which does not make sense any longer for non-classical heat conductive models. And finally, it is observed that accurate solution to such problems may be obtained using Laplace transform method, especially for the time-dependent boundary conditions, e.g. heat flux boundary condition. - Highlights: • The dilemma of hyperbolic heat conduction is summarized. • Paradox of heat conduction from the cold to the hot. • Paradox of two temperature at one material point. • The dilemma is overcome with the aids of spatially nonlocal effect. • Heat flux boundary condition of non-classical models is discussed.

  4. A Systems-Theoretical Generalization of Non-Local Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stillfried, Nikolaus

    Non-local correlations between quantum events are not due to a causal interaction in the sense of one being the cause for the other. In principle, the correlated events can thus occur simultaneously. Generalized Quantum Theory (GQT) formalizes the idea that non-local phenomena are not exclusive to quantum mechanics, e.g. due to some specific properties of (sub)atomic particles, but that they instead arise as a consequence of the way such particles are arranged into systems. Non-local phenomena should hence occur in any system which fulfils the necessary systems-theoretical parameters. The two most important parameters with respect to non-local correlations seem to be a conserved global property of the system as a whole and sufficient degrees of freedom of the corresponding property of its subsystems. Both factors place severe limitations on experimental observability of the phenomena, especially in terms of replicability. It has been suggested that reported phenomena of a so-called synchronistic, parapsychological or paranormal kind could be understood as instances of systems-inherent non-local correlations. From a systems-theoretical perspective, their phenomenology (including the favorable conditions for their occurrence and their lack of replicability) displays substantial similarities to non-local correlations in quantum systems and matches well with systems-theoretical parameters, thus providing circumstantial evidence for this hypothesis.

  5. Nonlocality and purity in atom-field coupling system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Xin; Huang Guang-Ming; Li Gao-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    The effects of initial field state and thermal environment on quantum nonlocality and linear entropy in an atomfield coupling system are investigated. We found that if the cavity is lossless and the reservoir is in vacuum, the atom-field state can exhibit quantum nonlocality periodically and the linear entropies of the atom and the field also oscillate periodically with a period the same as that of quantum nonlocality. And if the cavity dissipation is very weak and the average photon number of the reservoir is very small, the quantum nonlocality will be lost and the linear entropies of the atom and the field oscillate with a decreasing amplitude. The rapidity of the loss of the quantum nonlocality depends on the amplitude of the initial squeezed coherent state, the cavity damping constant κ and the average photon number N of the thermal reservoir. The stronger the field and the larger the constant κ and the average photon number N could be, the more rapidly the nonlocality decreases.

  6. On the power of non-local boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Broadbent, A J

    2005-01-01

    A non-local box is a virtual device that has the following property: given that Alice inputs a bit at her end of the device and that Bob does likewise, it produces two bits, one at Alice's end and one at Bob's end, such that the XOR of the outputs is equal to the AND of the inputs. This box, inspired from the CHSH inequality, was first proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich to examine the question: given that a maximally entangled pair of qubits is non-local, why is it not maximally non-local? We believe that understanding the power of this box will yield insight into the non-locality of quantum mechanics. It was shown recently by Cerf, Gisin, Massar and Popescu, that this imaginary device is able to simulate correlations from any measurement on a singlet state. Here, we show that the non-local box can in fact do much more: through the simulation of the magic square pseudo-telepathy game and the Mermin-GHZ pseudo-telepathy game, we show that the non-local box can simulate quantum correlations that no entangled pair...

  7. Coupling of nonlocal and local continuum models by the Arlequinapproach

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2011-08-09

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply the Arlequin framework to couple nonlocal and local continuum mechanical models. A mechanically-based model of nonlocal elasticity, which involves both contact and long-range forces, is used for the \\'fine scale\\' description in which nonlocal interactions are considered to have non-negligible effects. Classical continuum mechanics only involving local contact forces is introduced for the rest of the structure where these nonlocal effects can be neglected. Both models overlap in a coupling subdomain called the \\'gluing area\\' in which the total energy is separated into nonlocal and local contributions by complementary weight functions. A weak compatibility is ensured between kinematics of both models using Lagrange multipliers over the gluing area. The discrete formulation of this specific Arlequin coupling framework is derived and fully described. The validity and limits of the technique are demonstrated through two-dimensional numerical applications and results are compared against those of the fully nonlocal elasticity method. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Property Law

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Lueck; Thomas J. Miceli

    2004-01-01

    This chapter examines the economics of property rights and property law. Property law is a fundamental part of social organization and is also fundamental to the operation of the economy because it defines and protects the bundle of rights that constitute property. Property law thereby creates incentives to protect and invest in assets and establishes a legal framework within which market exchange of assets can take place. The purpose of this chapter is to show how the economics of property r...

  9. Nonlocally of plasma fluctuations and transport in magnetically confined plasmas theoretical background of nonlocality in fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2002-09-01

    Nonlocal properties of fluctuations in confined plasmas are briefly surveyed. Contributions to understanding the bifurcation phenomena, improved confinement, and transient transport problem are explained. The theoretical progress in this aspect is addressed: Namely, the fluctuations are not excited by linear instabilities but are dressed with other turbulent fluctuations or fluctuations of meso-scale. Nonlinear interactions of fluctuations with different scale lengths are essential in dictating the dynamics of turbulence and turbulent transport. There are activators and suppressers in global inhomogeneities for evolution of turbulence. Turbulent fluctuations, on the other hand, induce or destroy these global inhomogeneities. Finally, statistical nature of turbulence is addressed. (author)

  10. Diagnostics of nonlocal plasmas: advanced techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Grabovskiy, Artiom; Strakhova, Anastasiya; Soukhomlinov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    This talk generalizes our recent results, obtained in different directions of plasma diagnostics. First-method of flat single-sided probe, based on expansion of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in series of Legendre polynomials. It will be demonstrated, that flat probe, oriented under different angles with respect to the discharge axis, allow to determine full EVDF in nonlocal plasmas. It is also shown, that cylindrical probe is unable to determine full EVDF. We propose the solution of this problem by combined using the kinetic Boltzmann equation and experimental probe data. Second-magnetic diagnostics. This method is implemented in knudsen diode with surface ionization of atoms (KDSI) and based on measurements of the magnetic characteristics of the KDSI in presence of transverse magnetic field. Using magnetic diagnostics we can investigate the wide range of plasma processes: from scattering cross-sections of electrons to plasma-surface interactions. Third-noncontact diagnostics method for direct measurements of EVDF in remote plasma objects by combination of the flat single-sided probe technique and magnetic polarization Hanley method.

  11. Let's call it Nonlocal Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Requardt, M

    2000-01-01

    In the following we undertake to derive quantum theory as a stochastic low-energy and coarse-grained theory from a more primordial discrete and basically geometric theory living on the Planck scale and which (as we argue) possibly underlies also \\tit{string theory}. We isolate the so-called \\tit{ideal elements} which represent at the same time the cornerstones of the framework of ordinary quantum theory and show how and why they encode the \\tit{non-local} aspects, being ubiquituous in the quantum realm, in a, on the surface, local way. We show that the quantum non-locality emerges in our approach as a natural consequence of the underlying \\tit{two-storey} nature of space-time or the physical vacuum, that is, quantum theory turns out to be a residual effect of the geometric depth structure of space-time on the Planck scale. We indicate how the \\tit{measurement problem} and the emergence of the \\tit{macroscopic sub-regime} can be understood in this framework.

  12. Exploring nonlocal observables in shock wave collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, Christian; Stanzer, Philipp; Stricker, Stefan A; van der Schee, Wilke

    2016-01-01

    We study the time evolution of 2-point functions and entanglement entropy in strongly anisotropic, inhomogeneous and time-dependent N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the large N and large 't Hooft coupling limit using AdS/CFT. On the gravity side this amounts to calculating the length of geodesics and area of extremal surfaces in the dynamical background of two colliding gravitational shockwaves, which we do numerically. We discriminate between three classes of initial conditions corresponding to wide, intermediate and narrow shocks, and show that they exhibit different phenomenology with respect to the nonlocal observables that we determine. Our results permit to use (holographic) entanglement entropy as an order parameter to distinguish between the two phases of the cross-over from the transparency to the full-stopping scenario in dynamical Yang-Mills plasma formation, which is frequently used as a toy model for heavy ion collisions. The time evolution of entanglement entropy allows to discern four regimes: hi...

  13. Nonperturbative embedding for highly nonlocal Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subaşı, Yiǧit; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The need for Hamiltonians with many-body interactions arises in various applications of quantum computing. However, interactions beyond two-body are difficult to realize experimentally. Perturbative gadgets were introduced to obtain arbitrary many-body effective interactions using Hamiltonians with at most two-body interactions. Although valid for arbitrary k -body interactions, their use is limited to small k because the strength of interaction is k th order in perturbation theory. In this paper we develop a nonperturbative technique for obtaining effective k -body interactions using Hamiltonians consisting of at most l -body interactions with l effect of this procedure is shown to be equivalent to evolving the system with the original nonlocal Hamiltonian. This technique does not suffer from the aforementioned shortcoming of perturbative methods and requires only one ancilla qubit for each k -body interaction irrespective of the value of k . It works best for Hamiltonians with a few many-body interactions involving a large number of qubits and can be used together with perturbative gadgets to embed Hamiltonians of considerable complexity in proper subspaces of two-local Hamiltonians. We describe how our technique can be implemented in a hybrid (gate-based and adiabatic) as well as solely adiabatic quantum computing scheme.

  14. Nonlinear and Nonlocal Feedbacks in an Aquaplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldl, N.; Roe, G.

    2012-12-01

    The power of the feedback framework lies in its ability to reveal the energy pathways by which the climate system adjusts to an imposed forcing. By understanding the closure of the energy budget in as much detail and precision as possible, and within as clean an experimental set-up as possible, we are also able to isolate nonlinear interactions between feedbacks. For an aquaplanet simulation under perpetual equinox conditions, we account for rapid tropospheric adjustments to CO2 and diagnose radiative kernels for this precise model set-up. We characterize the contributions of feedbacks, heat transport, and nonlinearities in controlling the meridional structure of the climate response. The presence of strongly positive subtropical feedbacks, combined with polar amplification, implies a critical role for transport and nonlinear effects, with the latter acting to substantially reduce global climate sensitivity. At the hemispheric scale, a rich picture emerges: net heat divergence away from strong positive feedbacks in the tropics; nonlinearities induced by circulation changes that cool the tropics and warm the high-latitudes; and strong ice-line feedbacks that drive further amplification of polar warming. Overall, these results highlight how spatial patterns in feedbacks affect both the local and nonlocal climate response, with implications for regional predictability.

  15. Traveling solitary wave induced by nonlocality in dispersive shock wave generation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Hélène; Odent, Vincent; Louvergneaux, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Shock waves are well-known nonlinear waves, displaying an abrupt discontinuity. Observation can be made in a lot of physical fields, as in water wave, plasma and nonlinear optics. Shock waves can either break or relax through either catastrophic or regularization phenomena. In this work, we restrain our study to dispersive shock waves. This regularization phenomenon implies the emission of dispersive waves. We demonstrate experimentally and numerically the generation of spatial dispersive shock waves in a nonlocal focusing media. The generation of dispersive shock wave in a focusing media is more problematic than in a defocusing one. Indeed, the modulational instability has to be frustrated to observe this phenomenon. In 2010, the dispersive shock wave was demonstrated experimentally in a focusing media with a partially coherent beam [1]. Another way is to use a nonlocal media [2]. The impact of nonlocality is more important than the modulational instability frustration. Here, we use nematic liquid crystals (NLC) as Kerr-like nonlocal medium. To achieve shock formation, we use the Riemann condition as initial spatial condition (edge at the beam entrance of the NLC cell). In these experimental conditions, we generate, experimentally and numerically, shock waves that relax through the emission of dispersive waves. Associated with this phenomenon, we evidence the emergence of a localized wave that travels through the transverse beam profile. The beam steepness, which is a good indicator of the shock formation, is maximal at the shock point position. This latter follows a power law versus the injected power as in [3]. Increasing the injected power, we found multiple shock points. We have good agreements between the numerical simulations and the experimental results. [1] W. Wan, D. V Dylov, C. Barsi, and J. W. Fleischer, Opt. Lett. 35, 2819 (2010). [2] G. Assanto, T. R. Marchant, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. A - At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 78, 1 (2008). [3] N. Ghofraniha, L. S

  16. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  17. Aberration-Free Imaging Based on Parity-Time Symmetric Nonlocal Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Monticone, Francesco; Alu, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Lens design for focusing and imaging has been optimized through centuries of developments; however, conventional lenses, even in their most ideal realizations, still suffer from fundamental limitations, such as limits in resolution and the presence of optical aberrations, which are inherent to the laws of refraction. Although some of these limitations have been at least theoretically relaxed with the advent of metamaterials, several challenges still stand in the path toward ideal aberration-free imaging. Here, we show that the concept of parity-time symmetry, combined with tailored nonlocal response, allows overcoming some of these challenges, and we demonstrate the design of a loss-immune, linear, transversely invariant, aberration-free planarized metamaterial lens.

  18. Non-local gravity in D-dimensions: Propagator, entropy and bouncing Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Conroy, Aindriu; Talaganis, Spyridon; Teimouri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We present the graviton propagator for an infinite derivative, $D$-dimensional, non-local action, up to quadratic order in curvature around a Minkowski background, and discuss the conditions required for this class of gravity theory to be ghost-free. We then study the gravitational entropy for de-Sitter and Anti-de Sitter backgrounds, before comparing with a recently derived result for a Schwarzschild blackhole, generalised to arbitrary $D$-dimensions, whereby the entropy is given simply by the area law. A novel approach of decomposing the entropy into its $(r, t)$ and spherical components is adopted in order to illustrate the differences more clearly. We conclude with a discussion of de-Sitter entropy in the framework of a non-singular bouncing cosmology.

  19. Non-local magnetoresistance in YIG/Pt nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B., E-mail: goennenwein@wmi.badw.de; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstraße 4, 80799 München (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schlitz, Richard; Ganzhorn, Kathrin [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Althammer, Matthias [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-26

    We study the local and non-local magnetoresistance of thin Pt strips deposited onto yttrium iron garnet. The local magnetoresistive response, inferred from the voltage drop measured along one given Pt strip upon current-biasing it, shows the characteristic magnetization orientation dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance. We simultaneously also record the non-local voltage appearing along a second, electrically isolated, Pt strip, separated from the current carrying one by a gap of a few 100 nm. The corresponding non-local magnetoresistance exhibits the symmetry expected for a magnon spin accumulation-driven process, confirming the results recently put forward by Cornelissen et al. [“Long-distance transport of magnon spin information in a magnetic insulator at room temperature,” Nat. Phys. (published online 14 September 2015)]. Our magnetotransport data, taken at a series of different temperatures as a function of magnetic field orientation, rotating the externally applied field in three mutually orthogonal planes, show that the mechanisms behind the spin Hall and the non-local magnetoresistance are qualitatively different. In particular, the non-local magnetoresistance vanishes at liquid Helium temperatures, while the spin Hall magnetoresistance prevails.

  20. Examining the effect of nonlocality in (d ,n ) transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.; Titus, L. J.; Nunes, F. M.

    2016-07-01

    Background: In the past year we have been exploring the effect of the explicit inclusion of nonlocality in (d ,p ) reactions. Purpose: The goal of this paper is to extend previous studies to (d ,n ) reactions, which, although similar to (d ,p ) reactions, have specific properties that merit inspection. Method: We apply our methods (both the distorted-wave Born approximation and the adiabatic wave approximation) to (d ,n ) reactions on 16O,40Ca,48Ca,126Sn,132Sn , and 208Pb at 20 and 50 MeV. Results: We look separately at the modifications introduced by nonlocality in the final bound and scattering states as well as the consequences reflected on the differential angular distributions. The cross sections obtained when using nonlocality explicitly are significantly different than those using the local approximation, just as in (d ,p ) reactions. Due to the particular role of the Coulomb force in the bound state, often we found the effects of nonlocality to be larger in (d ,n ) than in (d ,p ) reactions. Conclusions: Our results confirm the importance of including nonlocality explicitly in deuteron-induced reactions.

  1. Nonlocal dielectric effects in core-shell nanowires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J. M.; Gray, S. K.; Schatz, G. C. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( CSE); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2010-01-01

    We study the optical spectra and near fields of core-shell nanowires (nanoshells), using a recently developed finite-difference method that allows for a spatially nonlocal dielectric response. We first analyze the parameters of the nonlocal model by making comparisons with related experimental data and previous theoretical work. We then investigate how nonlocal effects are dependent on nanoshell features, such as shell thickness, overall size, and the ratio of core radius to shell radius. We demonstrate that the shell thickness along the longitudinal direction of the incident light is the primary controlling factor of nonlocal effects, which appear as anomalous absorption resonances and blueshifts in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) positions, relative to local theory. In addition, we show that the amount of blueshift depends on the order of the LSPR. The optical responses of nanoshells immersed in various refractive index (RI) environments are also studied. We show that the nonlocal anomalous absorption features are relatively insensitive to RI changes, but the blueshift of the dipolar LSPR varies nonlinearly.

  2. Localized solutions for a nonlocal discrete NLS equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, Roberto I. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, J.M. Gutiérrez 1150, 1613 Los Polvorines (Argentina); Cisneros Ake, Luís [Department of Mathematics, ESFM, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos Edificio 9, 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Minzoni, A.A. [Depto. Matemáticas y Mecánica, I.I.M.A.S.-U.N.A.M., Apdo. Postal 20-726, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Panayotaros, Panayotis, E-mail: panos@mym.iimas.unam.mx [Depto. Matemáticas y Mecánica, I.I.M.A.S.-U.N.A.M., Apdo. Postal 20-726, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-09-04

    We study spatially localized time-periodic solutions of breather type for a cubic discrete NLS equation with a nonlocal nonlinearity that models light propagation in a liquid crystal waveguide array. We show the existence of breather solutions in the limit where both linear and nonlinear intersite couplings vanish, and in the limit where the linear coupling vanishes with arbitrary nonlinear intersite coupling. Breathers of this nonlocal regime exhibit some interesting features that depart from what is seen in the NLS breathers with power nonlinearity. One property we see theoretically is the presence of higher amplitude at interfaces between sites with zero and nonzero amplitude in the vanishing linear coupling limit. A numerical study also suggests the presence of internal modes of orbitally stable localized modes. - Highlights: • Show existence of spatially localized solutions in nonlocal discrete NLS model. • Study spatial properties of localized solutions for arbitrary nonlinear nonlocal coupling. • Present numerical evidence that nonlocality leads to internal modes around stable breathers. • Present theoretical and numerical evidence for amplitude maxima at interfaces.

  3. Evidence of Non-local Chemical, Thermal and Gravitational Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu H.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entanglement is ubiquitous in the microscopic world and manifests itself macroscopically under some circumstances. But common belief is that it alone cannot be used to transmit information nor could it be used to produce macroscopic non- local effects. Yet we have recently found evidence of non-local effects of chemical substances on the brain produced through it. While our reported results are under independent verifications by other groups, we report here our experimental findings of non-local chemical, thermal and gravitational effects in simple physical systems such as reservoirs of water quantum-entangled with water being manipulated in a remote reservoir. With the aids of high-precision instruments, we have found that the pH value, temperature and gravity of water in the detecting reservoirs can be non-locally affected through manipulating water in the remote reservoir. In particular, the pH value changes in the same direction as that being manipulated; the temperature can change against that of local environment; and the gravity apparently can also change against local gravity. These non-local effects are all reproducible and can be used for non-local signalling and many other purposes. We suggest that they are mediated by quantum entanglement between nuclear and/or electron spins in treated water and discuss the implications of these results.

  4. Nonlocal Total Variation Subpixel Mapping for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyi Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subpixel mapping is a method of enhancing the spatial resolution of images, which involves dividing a mixed pixel into subpixels and assigning each subpixel to a definite land-cover class. Traditionally, subpixel mapping is based on the assumption of spatial dependence, and the spatial correlation information among pixels and subpixels is considered in the prediction of the spatial locations of land-cover classes within the mixed pixels. In this paper, a novel subpixel mapping method for hyperspectral remote sensing imagery based on a nonlocal method, namely nonlocal total variation subpixel mapping (NLTVSM, is proposed to use the nonlocal self-similarity prior to improve the performance of the subpixel mapping task. Differing from the existing spatial regularization subpixel mapping technique, in NLTVSM, the nonlocal total variation is used as a spatial regularizer to exploit the similar patterns and structures in the image. In this way, the proposed method can obtain an optimal subpixel mapping result and accuracy by considering the nonlocal spatial information. Compared with the classical and state-of-the-art subpixel mapping approaches, the experimental results using a simulated hyperspectral image, two synthetic hyperspectral remote sensing images, and a real hyperspectral image confirm that the proposed algorithm can obtain better results in both visual and quantitative evaluations.

  5. Non-linear and non-local transport processes in heterogeneous media: from long-range correlated percolation to fracture and materials breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimi, Muhammad

    1998-12-01

    We review and discuss recent progress in modelling non-linear and non-local transport processes in heterogeneous media. The non-locality that we consider is caused by long-range correlations that either exist in the morphology of the media, or are caused by the transport processes themselves. The interplay between the non-linearity and non-locality is discussed in depth with the aim of establishing that, often non-linearity and non-locality are “two sides of the same coin”, such that one may have no meaning without the presence of the other one. First, we discuss linear and scalar, but non-local transport processes and, in particular, consider those in percolation systems with long-range correlations. It appears that there are significant differences between percolative transport processes in which the long-range correlations (or the covariance function) decrease with the distance r between two points, and those in which they increase as r does. Application of this problem to flow and transport in geological formations is discussed. We then consider linear vector percolation, one type of which, the rigidity percolation, provides an example of a non-local vector transport in heterogeneous media. Applications of vector percolation to modelling elastic properties of glasses, composite solids and rock, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of polymers, and vibrations and dynamical properties of heterogeneous materials are discussed. Non-linear and non-local scalar transport processes are discussed next, including various breakdown phenomena in disordered composites, power-law transport, piecewise linear transport characterized by a threshold, and non-linear processes that arise as a result of imposing a large external potential gradient on a heterogeneous medium. Their relevance to flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media, to electrical currents and dielectric breakdown in composite solids and doped polycrystalline semiconductors, and several other problems is

  6. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  7. Collapse suppression and soliton stabilization through nonlocality in bulk Kerr media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Chemineau, E. T.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2000-01-01

    We show that self-focusing cannot occur in bulk Kerr media with a nonlocal nonlinear response. We find the stationary solutions and show that nonlocality makes them stable. The results are verified numerically....

  8. Slater's nonlocal exchange potential and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, I. A.; March, N. H.

    The local density approximation (LDA) to the exchange potential Vx(r), namely the ρ1/3 electron gas form, was already transcended in Slater's 1951 paper. Here, using Dirac's 1930 form for the exchange energy density γx(r), the Slater (Sl) nonlocal exchange potential V Slx(r) is defined by 2γx(r)/ρ(r). In spherical atomic ions, say the Be or Ne-like series, this form V Slx(r) already has the correct behavior in both r → 0 and r → ∞ limits when known properties of the exchange energy density γx(r) and the ground-state electron density ρ(r) are invoked. As examples, some emphasis will first be given to the use of the so-called 1/Z expansion in such spherical atomic ions, for which analytic results can be obtained for both γx(r) and ρ(r) as the atomic number Z becomes large. The usefulness of the 1/Z expansion is directly demonstrated for the U atomic ion with 18 electrons by comparison with the optimized effective potential prediction. A rather general integral equation for the exchange potential is then proposed. Finally, without appeal to large Z, two-level systems are considered, with specific reference to the Be atom and to the LiH molecule. In all cases treated, the Slater potential V Slx(r) is a valuable starting point, even though it needs appreciable quantitative corrections reflecting directly atomic shell structure.

  9. Nonlocal means filter-based speckle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsham, Narges; Rasoulian, Abtin; Najafi, Mohammad; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Rohling, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The objective of sensorless freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging is to eliminate the need for additional tracking hardware and reduce cost and complexity. However, the accuracy of current out-of-plane pose estimation is main obstacle for full 6-degree-of-freedom (DoF) tracking. We propose a new filter-based speckle tracking framework to increase the accuracy of out-of-plane displacement estimation. In this framework, we use the displacement estimation not only for the specific speckle pattern, but for the entire image. We develop a nonlocal means (NLM) filter based on a probabilistic normal variance mixture model of ultrasound, known as Rician-inverse Gaussian (RiIG). To aggregate the local displacement estimations, Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE) is used as a quality measure of the estimations. We derive an explicit analytical form of SURE for the RiIG model and use it as a weight factor. The proposed filter-based speckle tracking framework is formulated and evaluated for three commonly used noise models, including the RiIG model. The out-of-plane estimations are compared with our previously proposed model-based algorithm in a set of ex vivo experiments for different tissue types. We show that the proposed RiIG filter-based method is more accurate and less tissue-dependent than the other methods. The proposed method is also evaluated in vivo on the spines of five different subjects to assess the feasibility of a clinical application. The 6-DoF transform parameters are estimated and compared with the electromagnetic tracker measurements. The results show higher tracking accuracy for typical small lateral displacements and tilt rotations between image pairs.

  10. Analysis of radial nonlocal effect on the structural response of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, S.C., E-mail: scp@aero.iitkgp.ernet.in; Mandal, U.

    2013-11-01

    In this Letter, finite element model is developed to study the effect of nonlocal parameter in the radial structural response of carbon nanotubes. Timoshenko beam model is employed. The influence of nonlocal parameter in the radial direction due to interaction of atoms is defined as the radial nonlocal effect. It is found that there is significant influence of radial nonlocal effect on the structural response of the carbon nanotubes.

  11. Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes using nonlocal elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Metin

    2016-03-01

    Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes is studied in the present work. Governing equation of motion of multiwalled carbon nanotube is obtained using Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. The effect of van der Waals interaction coefficient is considered between inner and outer nanotubes. Dispersion relations are obtained and discussed in detail. Effect of nonlocal parameter and van der Waals interaction to the torsional wave propagation behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes is investigated. It is obtained that torsional van der Waals interaction between adjacent tubes can change the rotational direction of multiwalled carbon nanotube as in-phase or anti-phase. The group and escape velocity of the waves converge to a limit value in the nonlocal elasticity approach.

  12. Bell on Bell's theorem: The changing face of nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Harvey R

    2015-01-01

    Between 1964 and 1990, the notion of nonlocality in Bell's papers underwent a profound change as his nonlocality theorem gradually became detached from quantum mechanics, and referred to wider probabilistic theories involving correlations between separated beables. The proposition that standard quantum mechanics is itself nonlocal (more precisely, that it violates `local causality') became divorced from the Bell theorem per se from 1976 on, although this important point is widely overlooked in the literature. In 1990, the year of his death, Bell would express serious misgivings about the mathematical form of the local causality condition, and leave ill-defined the issue of the consistency between special relativity and violation of the Bell-type inequality. In our view, the significance of the Bell theorem, both in its deterministic and stochastic forms, can only be fully understood by taking into account the fact that a fully Lorentz-covariant version of quantum theory, free of action-at-a-distance, can be a...

  13. Bounding the persistency of the nonlocality of W states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviánszky, Péter; Trencsényi, Réka; Bene, Erika; Vértesi, Tamás

    2016-04-01

    The nonlocal properties of the W states are investigated under particle loss. By removing all but two particles from an N -qubit W state, the resulting two-qubit state is still entangled. Hence, the W state has high persistency of entanglement. We ask an analogous question regarding the persistency of nonlocality [see N. Brunner and T. Vértesi, Phys. Rev. A 86, 042113 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.042113]. Namely, we inquire what is the minimal number of particles that must be removed from the W state so that the resulting state becomes local. We bound this value in function of N qubits by considering Bell nonlocality tests with two alternative settings per site. In particular, we find that this value is between 2 N /5 and N /2 for large N . We also develop a framework to establish bounds for more than two settings per site.

  14. Near field radiative heat transfer between two nonlocal dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, F; Joulain, Karl

    2015-01-01

    We explore in the present work the near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel nonlocal dielectric planes by means of fluctuational electrodynamics. We use atheory for the nonlocal dielectric permittivityfunction proposed byHalevi and Fuchs. This theory has the advantage to includedifferent models performed in the literature. According to this theory, the nonlocal dielectric function is described by a Lorenz-Drude like single oscillator model, in which the spatial dispersion effects are represented by an additional term depending on the square of the total wavevector k. The theory takes into account the scattering of the electromagneticexcitation at the surface of the dielectric material, which leads to the need of additional boundary conditions in order to solve Maxwell's equations and treat the electromagnetic transmission problem. The additional boundary conditions appear as additional surface scattering parameters in the expressions of the surface impedances. It is shown that the...

  15. Quantum theory is classical mechanics with non-local existence

    CERN Document Server

    Hegseth, John

    2009-01-01

    I propose a new and direct connection between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics where I derive the quantum mechanical propagator from a variational principle. This variational principle is Hamilton's modified principle generalized to allow many paths due to the non-local existence of particles in phase space. This principle allows a physical system to evolve non-locally in phase space while still allowing a representation that uses many classical paths. Whereas a point in phase space represents a classical system's state, I represent the state of a non-local system by a mixed trajectory. This formulation naturally leads to the transactional interpretation for resolving the paradoxes of the measurement problem. This principle also suggests a more flexible framework for formulating theories based on invariant actions and provides a single conceptual framework for discussing many areas of science.

  16. Extremely nonlocal optical nonlinearities in atoms trapped near a waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Stimming, Hans Peter; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear optical phenomena are typically local. Here we predict the possibility of highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities for light propagating in atomic media trapped near a nano-waveguide, where long-range interactions between the atoms can be tailored. When the atoms are in an electromagnetically-induced transparency configuration, the atomic interactions are translated to long-range interactions between photons and thus to highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities. We derive and analyze the governing nonlinear propagation equation, finding a roton-like excitation spectrum for light and the emergence of long-range order in its output intensity. These predictions open the door to studies of unexplored wave dynamics and many-body physics with highly-nonlocal interactions of optical fields in one dimension.

  17. Nonlocal Measurements in the Time-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Vaidman, L; Vaidman, Lev; Nevo, Izhar

    2005-01-01

    Although nondemolition, reliable, and instantaneous quantum measurements of some nonlocal variables are impossible, demolition reliable instantaneous measurements are possible for all variables. It is shown that this is correct also in the framework of the time-symmetric quantum formalism, i.e. nonlocal variables of composite quantum systems with quantum states evolving both forward and backward in time are measurable in a demolition way. The result follows from the possibility to reverse with certainty the time direction of a backward evolving quantum state. Demolition measurements of nonlocal backward evolving quantum states require remarkably small resources. This is so because the combined operation of time reversal and teleportation of a local backward evolving quantum state requires only a single quantum channel and no transmission of classical information.

  18. A Caveat on Building Nonlocal Models of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, N C

    2014-01-01

    Nonlocal models of cosmology might derive from graviton loop corrections to the effective field equations from the epoch of primordial inflation. Although the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism would automatically produce causal and conserved effective field equations, the models so far proposed have been purely phenomenological. Two techniques have been employed to generate causal and conserved field equations: either varying an invariant nonlocal effective action and then enforcing causality by the ad hoc replacement of any advanced Green's function with its retarded counterpart, or else introducing causal nonlocality into a general ansatz for the field equations and then enforcing conservation. We point out here that the two techniques access very different classes of models, and that neither one of them may represent what would actually arise from fundamental theory.

  19. Modelling population growth with delayed nonlocal reaction in 2-dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Wu, Jianhong; Zhang, Fan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the population growth of a single species living in a two-dimensional spatial domain. New reaction-difusion equation models with delayed nonlocal reaction are developed in two-dimensional bounded domains combining diferent boundary conditions. The important feature of the models is the reflection of the joint efect of the difusion dynamics and the nonlocal maturation delayed efect. We consider and ana- lyze numerical solutions of the mature population dynamics with some wellknown birth functions. In particular, we observe and study the occurrences of asymptotically stable steady state solutions and periodic waves for the two-dimensional problems with nonlocal delayed reaction. We also investigate numerically the efects of various parameters on the period, the peak and the shape of the periodic wave as well as the shape of the asymptotically stable steady state solution.

  20. The Nonlocal p-Laplacian Evolution for Image Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image interpolation model with nonlocal p-Laplacian regularization. The nonlocal p-Laplacian regularization overcomes the drawback of the partial differential equation (PDE proposed by Belahmidi and Guichard (2004 that image density diffuses in the directions pointed by local gradient. The grey values of images diffuse along image feature direction not gradient direction under the control of the proposed model, that is, minimal smoothing in the directions across the image features and maximal smoothing in the directions along the image features. The total regularizer combines the advantages of nonlocal p-Laplacian regularization and total variation (TV regularization (preserving discontinuities and 1D image structures. The derived model efficiently reconstructs the real image, leading to a natural interpolation, with reduced blurring and staircase artifacts. We present experimental results that prove the potential and efficacy of the method.

  1. Nonlocal quartic interactions and universality classes in perovskite manganites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Dutta, Kishore; Nandy, Malay K

    2015-07-01

    A modified Ginzburg-Landau model with a screened nonlocal interaction in the quartic term is treated via Wilson's renormalization-group scheme at one-loop order to explore the critical behavior of the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition in perovskite manganites. We find the Fisher exponent η to be O(ε) and the correlation exponent to be ν=1/2+O(ε) through epsilon expansion in the parameter ε=d(c)-d, where d is the space dimension, d(c)=4+2σ is the upper critical dimension, and σ is a parameter coming from the nonlocal interaction in the model Hamiltonian. The ensuing critical exponents in three dimensions for different values of σ compare well with various existing experimental estimates for perovskite manganites with various doping levels. This suggests that the nonlocal model Hamiltonian contains a wide variety of such universality classes.

  2. Image and video restorations via nonlocal kernel regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haichao; Yang, Jianchao; Zhang, Yanning; Huang, Thomas S

    2013-06-01

    A nonlocal kernel regression (NL-KR) model is presented in this paper for various image and video restoration tasks. The proposed method exploits both the nonlocal self-similarity and local structural regularity properties in natural images. The nonlocal self-similarity is based on the observation that image patches tend to repeat themselves in natural images and videos, and the local structural regularity observes that image patches have regular structures where accurate estimation of pixel values via regression is possible. By unifying both properties explicitly, the proposed NL-KR framework is more robust in image estimation, and the algorithm is applicable to various image and video restoration tasks. In this paper, we apply the proposed model to image and video denoising, deblurring, and superresolution reconstruction. Extensive experimental results on both single images and realistic video sequences demonstrate that the proposed framework performs favorably with previous works both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  3. Stability Analysis of Continuous Waves in Nonlocal Random Nonlinear Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim A. Molchan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the competing cubic-quintic nonlinearity model, stability (instability of continuous waves in nonlocal random non-Kerr nonlinear media is studied analytically and numerically. Fluctuating media parameters are modeled by the Gaussian white noise. It is shown that for different response functions of a medium nonlocality suppresses, as a rule, both the growth rate peak and bandwidth of instability caused by random parameters. At the same time, for a special form of the response functions there can be an ''anomalous'' subjection of nonlocality to the instability development which leads to further increase of the growth rate. Along with the second-order moments of the modulational amplitude, higher-order moments are taken into account.

  4. Theory of genuine tripartite nonlocality of Gaussian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Piano, Samanta

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the genuine multipartite nonlocality of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For pure states, we present a simplified procedure to obtain the maximum violation of the Svetlichny inequality based on displaced parity measurements, and we analyze its interplay with genuine tripartite entanglement measured via Rényi-2 entropy. The maximum Svetlichny violation admits tight upper and lower bounds at fixed tripartite entanglement. For mixed states, no violation is possible when the purity falls below 0.86. We also explore a set of recently derived weaker inequalities for three-way nonlocality, finding violations for all tested pure states. Our results provide a strong signature for the nonclassical and nonlocal nature of Gaussian states despite their positive Wigner function, and lead to precise recipes for its experimental verification.

  5. Bound on Hardy's nonlocality from the principle of information causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanj, Ali; Kunkri, Samir; Rai, Ashutosh; Rahaman, Ramij; Joag, Pramod S.

    2010-03-01

    Recently, the principle of nonviolation of information causality [Nature 461, 1101 (2009)] has been proposed as one of the foundational properties of nature. We explore the Hardy’s nonlocality theorem for two-qubit systems, in the context of generalized probability theory, restricted by the principle of nonviolation of information causality. Applying a sufficient condition for information causality violation, we derive an upper bound on the maximum success probability of Hardy’s nonlocality argument. We find that the bound achieved here is higher than that allowed by quantum mechanics but still much less than what the no-signaling condition permits. We also study the Cabello type nonlocality argument (a generalization of Hardy’s argument) in this context.

  6. A noncommutative anomaly through Seiberg-Witten map and non-locally regularized BV quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Everton M.C.; Nikoofard, Vahid [UFRuralRJ, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: It is a well known fact that quantum field theory has its main basis in the principle of gauge symmetry. The gauge theory, constructed with the principle of gauge symmetry, encompassing the symmetries and their corresponding conservation laws, has underlying role in the description of the fundamental forces in nature. Nevertheless, we have also to consider that a specific conservation law that is true in a certain classical theory, can be broken when the theory is quantized. In this case we have what is known as an anomaly. Anomalies have their importance in physics where they are needed to describe certain experimental facts, for example. The anomaly cannot be considered just a perturbation effect, which results from the regularization of some divergent diagrams, it shows the deep laws of quantum physics. So, as we can see, it is important to find methods to compute the anomaly by the quantized the primary theory. A NC space can be visualized as a deformation of the usual spacetime with the *-product and can be constructed after the quantization of a given space with its symplectic structure. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map connects NC fields, transformations parameters and gauge potential to their commutative analogs. In this work we used the SW map to calculate the NC version of the anomaly of the BV quantized chiral Schwinger model with nonlocal regularization. (author)

  7. Non-locality of Entangled Coherent States and Its Evolution in a Thermal Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Ren-Shan

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the necessary and sufficient condition violating Bell-CHSH's inequality as criterion for nonlocality of entangled states, we present a perturbative calculation determining non-locality of evolving entangled states.Furthermore, by means of the perturbative calculation, the non-locality and its evolution of two kinds of entangled coherent states in a thermal reservoir are discussed.

  8. Log-periodicity: Sources, characterization, identification, and possible applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueqiang

    1999-11-01

    We investigate theoretically the log-periodic oscillations that have recently been observed in several rupture processes ranging from earthquakes to financial crashes. A possible source of log-periodic oscillations is an underlying discrete scale invariance (DSI). The first chapter of this dissertation is devoted to understanding how DSI could appear spontaneously in a physical system. We consider the example of crack arrays, and argue that the short-wavelength Mullins-Sekerka instability, together with strong screening effects, could indeed generate DSI. This is backed by extensive numerical simulations, as well as some experimental observations. In the second chapter of this dissertation, we study in more details how DSI at the geometrical level can give rise to log-periodic oscillations in a rupture process: to do so, we explore in details a simple cellular automaton model of earthquakes on a fractal lattice and show how the divergence of the correlation length, combined with the fractal geometrical structure, determines the log-periodic oscillations. Despite its simplicity, we demonstrate that our model reproduces remarkably well the statistical aspects of earthquakes, in contrast with original, erroneous conclusions of early works on the matter. The key issue here is the interplay of self-organized criticality, finite size effects, and dissipation. Besides DSI, we point out that there are other possible sources of log-periodicity arising from data analysis. We discuss in considerable details the effects of noise integration in power laws. We point out that this mechanism calls for a re-examination of the interpretation of many previously observed log-periodic oscillations. We re-visit two early observations, the Loma Prieta case and the Kobe case, and unfortunately find that the observed log-periodic oscillations are not as significant as originally claimed. Finally, this dissertation also contains an important observational part in which we analyze in details

  9. Discrete model of dislocations in fractional nonlocal elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily E. Tarasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete models of dislocations in fractional nonlocal materials are suggested. The proposed models are based on fractional-order differences instead of finite differences of integer orders that are usually used. The fractional differences allow us to describe long-range interactions in materials. In continuous limit the suggested discrete models give continuum models of dislocations in nonlocal continua. Fractional generalization of the Frenkel–Kontorova model by using long-range interactions is suggested. We also propose a fractional generalization of interacting atomic chains (IAC model of dislocations by considering long-range interacting chains.

  10. Nonlocal plasticity effects on interaction of different size voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2004-01-01

    A nonlocal elastic-plastic material model is used to show that the rate of void growth is significantly reduced when the voids are small enough to be comparable with a characteristic material length. For a very small void in the material between much larger voids the competition between...... an increased growth rate due to the stress concentrations around the larger voids and a reduced growth rate due to the nonlocal effects is studied. The analyses are based on an axisymmetric unit cell model with special boundary conditions, which allow for a relatively simple investigation of a full three...

  11. Single-particle nonlocality and entanglement with the vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Björk, G; Sánchez-Soto, L L

    2001-01-01

    We propose a single-particle experiment that is equivalent to the conventional two-particle experiment used to demonstrate a violation of Bell's inequalities. Hence, we argue that quantum mechanical nonlocality can be demonstrated by single-particle states. The validity of such a claim has been discussed in the literature, but without reaching a clear consensus. We show that the disagreement can be traced to what part of the total state of the experiment one assigns to the (macroscopic) measurement apparatus. However, with a conventional and legitimate interpretation of the measurement process one is led to the conclusion that even a single particle can show nonlocal properties.

  12. Nonlocal Classical Matter in Self-contained Machian Relativism

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyzhenkov-Widicker, I E

    2007-01-01

    The continuous elementary source in Einstein's gravitational theory is the r^{-4} radial distribution of the energy-momentum tensor density. The space energy integral of such an infinite (astro)source-particle is finite and determines its nonlocal gravitational charge for the energy-to-energy attraction of other (astro)particles. Non-empty flat space of the undivided material Universe is charged continuously by the world energy density of the global ensemble of overlapping radial particles. Nonlocal gravitational/inertial energy-charges incorporate Machian relativism quantitatively into Einstein's gravitation for self-contained GR-SR relations without references to Newton's mass-to-mass attraction.

  13. Accelerating cosmologies from non-local higher-derivative gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2008-01-01

    We study accelerating cosmological solutions of a general class of non-linear gravities which depend on Gauss-Bonnet and other higher derivative invariants. To achieve this goal a local formulation with auxiliary scalars for arbitrary higher-derivative non-local gravity is developed. It is demonstrated that non-local Gauss-Bonnet gravity can be reduced, in the local formulation, to a model of string-inspired scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. A natural unification, in the theory here developed, of the early-time inflation epoch with a late-time acceleration stage can also be realized.

  14. Accelerating cosmologies from non-local higher-derivative gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozziello, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Elizalde, Emilio [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ICE/CSIC-IEEC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Parell-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Nojiri, Shin' ichi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)], E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Odintsov, Sergei D. [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA) and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-01-12

    We study accelerating cosmological solutions of a general class of non-linear gravities which depend on Gauss-Bonnet and other higher derivative invariants. To achieve this goal a local formulation with auxiliary scalars for arbitrary higher-derivative non-local gravity is developed. It is demonstrated that non-local Gauss-Bonnet gravity can be reduced, in the local formulation, to a model of string-inspired scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. A natural unification, in the theory here developed, of the early-time inflation epoch with a late-time acceleration stage can also be realized.

  15. Genuine multipartite nonlocality of permutationally invariant Gaussian states

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Buqing; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate genuine multipartite nonlocality of pure permutationally invariant multimode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, as detected by the violation of Svetlichny inequality. We identify the phase space settings leading to the largest violation of the inequality when using displaced parity measurements, distinguishing between even and odd number of modes. We further consider pseudospin measurements and show that, for three-mode states with asymptotically large squeezing degree, particular settings of these measurements allow one to approach the maximum violation allowed by quantum mechanics. This indicates that the highest possible genuine multipartite quantum nonlocality is in principle verifiable on Gaussian states.

  16. Localization of Nonlocal Symmetries and Symmetry Reductions of Burgers Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Wen; Lou, Sen-Yue; Yu, Jun

    2017-05-01

    The nonlocal symmetries of the Burgers equation are explicitly given by the truncated Painlevé method. The auto-Bäcklund transformation and group invariant solutions are obtained via the localization procedure for the nonlocal residual symmetries. Furthermore, the interaction solutions of the solition-Kummer waves and the solition-Airy waves are obtained. Supported by the Global Change Research Program China under Grant No. 2015CB953904, the National Natural Science Foundations of China under Grant Nos. 11435005, 11175092, and 11205092, Shanghai Knowledge Service Platform for Trustworthy Internet of Things under Grant No. ZF1213, and K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University

  17. Dynamical quenching with non-local alpha and downward pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, A; Käpylä, P J

    2014-01-01

    In light of new results, the one-dimensional mean-field dynamo model of Brandenburg & Kapyla (2007) with dynamical quenching and a nonlocal Babcock-Leighton alpha effect is re-examined for the solar dynamo. We extend the one-dimensional model to include the effects of turbulent downward pumping (Kitchatinov & Olemskoy 2011), and to combine dynamical quenching with shear. We use both the conventional dynamical quenching model of Kleeorin & Ruzmaikin (1982) and the alternate one of Hubbard & Brandenburg (2011), and confirm that with varying levels of non-locality in the alpha effect, and possibly shear as well, the saturation field strength can be independent of the magnetic Reynolds number.

  18. Inhomogeneous broadening in non-interacting nonlocal plasmonic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of inhomogeneous broadening due to the size dependence of plasmon resonances in few-nm metallic particle ensembles is investigated through different models describing the nonlocal optical response of plasmonic nanospheres. Modal shifts and plasmon line broadening are shown to become...... important within the first-order correction to classical electrodynamics provided by the hydrodynamic Drude model, but turn out to be less prominent once additional single-particle size-dependent damping mechanisms are accounted for through the recently developed Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response theory...

  19. Dynamical nonlocal coherent-potential approximation for itinerant electron magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, D A; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-11-26

    A dynamical generalisation of the nonlocal coherent-potential approximation is derived based upon the functional integral approach to the interacting electron problem. The free energy is proven to be variational with respect to the self-energy provided a self-consistency condition on a cluster of sites is satisfied. In the present work, calculations are performed within the static approximation and the effect of the nonlocal physics on the formation of the local moment state in a simple model is investigated. The results reveal the importance of the dynamical correlations.

  20. A Nonlocal Poisson-Fermi Model for Ionic Solvent

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Dexuan; Eisenberg, Bob; Scott, L Ridgway

    2016-01-01

    We propose a nonlocal Poisson-Fermi model for ionic solvent that includes ion size effects and polarization correlations among water molecules in the calculation of electrostatic potential. It includes the previous Poisson-Fermi models as special cases, and its solution is the convolution of a solution of the corresponding nonlocal Poisson dielectric model with a Yukawa-type kernel function. Moreover, the Fermi distribution is shown to be a set of optimal ionic concentration functions in the sense of minimizing an electrostatic potential free energy. Finally, numerical results are reported to show the difference between a Poisson-Fermi solution and a corresponding Poisson solution.

  1. Nonlocal Poisson-Fermi model for ionic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dexuan; Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-07-01

    We propose a nonlocal Poisson-Fermi model for ionic solvent that includes ion size effects and polarization correlations among water molecules in the calculation of electrostatic potential. It includes the previous Poisson-Fermi models as special cases, and its solution is the convolution of a solution of the corresponding nonlocal Poisson dielectric model with a Yukawa-like kernel function. The Fermi distribution is shown to be a set of optimal ionic concentration functions in the sense of minimizing an electrostatic potential free energy. Numerical results are reported to show the difference between a Poisson-Fermi solution and a corresponding Poisson solution.

  2. Strong field ionization and gauge dependence of nonlocal potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rensink, T C

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocal potential models have been used in place of the Coulomb potential in the Schrodinger equation as an efficient means of exploring high field laser-atom interaction in previous works. Al- though these models have found use in modeling phenomena including photo-ionization and ejected electron momentum spectra, they are known to break electromagnetic gauge invariance. This paper examines if there is a preferred gauge for the linear field response and photoionization characteristics of nonlocal atomic binding potentials in the length and velocity gauges. It is found that the length gauge is preferable for a wide range of parameters.

  3. Nonlocal and nonlinear electrostatics of a dipolar Coulomb fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Buyukdagli; Ralf, Blossey

    2014-07-16

    We study a model Coulomb fluid consisting of dipolar solvent molecules of finite extent which generalizes the point-like dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model (DPB) previously introduced by Coalson and Duncan (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 2612) and Abrashkin et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 077801). We formulate a nonlocal Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NLPB) and study both linear and nonlinear dielectric response in this model for the case of a single plane geometry. Our results shed light on the relevance of nonlocal versus nonlinear effects in continuum models of material electrostatics.

  4. To the non-local theory of cold nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we revisit the cold fusion (CF) phenomenon using the generalized Bolzmann kinetics theory which can represent the non-local physics of this CF phenomenon. This approach can identify the conditions when the CF can take place as the soliton creation under the influence of the intensive sound waves. The vast mathematical modelling leads to affirmation that all parts of soliton move with the same velocity and with the small internal change of the pressure. The zone of the high density is shaped on the soliton's front. It means that the regime of the 'acoustic CF' could be realized from the position of the non-local hydrodynamics.

  5. Low-Energy Signatures of Nonlocal Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Belenchia, Alessio; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Saravani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The response of inertial particle detectors coupled to a scalar field satisfying nonlocal dynamics described by non-analytic functions of the d'Alembertian operator $\\Box$ is studied. We show that spontaneous emission processes of a low energy particle detector are very sensitive to high-energy non-locality scales. This allows us to suggest a nuclear physics experiment ($\\sim$ MeV energy scales) that outperforms the sensitivity of LHC experiments by many orders of magnitude. This may have implications for the falsifiability of theoretical proposals of quantum gravity.

  6. Characterizing 3-qubit UPB states: violations of LHV models, preparation via nonlocal unitaries and PPT entangled nonlocal orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Altafini, C

    2004-01-01

    For the 3-qubit UPB state, i.e., the bound entangled state constructed from an Unextendable Product Basis of Bennett et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 82:5385, 1999), we provide a set of violations of Local Hidden Variable (LHV) models based on the particular type of reflection symmetry encoded in this state. The explicit nonlocal unitary operation needed to prepare the state from its reflected separable mixture of pure states is given, as well as a nonlocal one-parameter orbit of states with Positive Partial Transpositions (PPT) which swaps the entanglement between a state and its reflection twice during a period.

  7. Nonlocal Symmetries and Geometric Integrability of Multi-Component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lu; SONG Jun-Feng; QU Chang-Zheng

    2011-01-01

    We present the multi-component Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems. It is shown that the multicomponent Camassa-Holm, Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems are geometrically integrable, namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces. As a consequence, their infinite number of conservation laws can be directly constructed. For the three-component Camo ssa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems, their nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.%@@ We present the multi-component Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems.It is shown that the multicomponent Camassa-Holm,Hunter-Saxton and μ-Camassa-Holm systems are geometrically integrable,namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces.As a consequence,their infinite number of conservation laws can be directly constructed.For the three-component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems,their nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.

  8. Violation of First Law of Thermodynamics in f(R,T) Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Mubasher; D. Momeni; Myrzakulov, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, we derived the first law of thermodynamics using the method proposed by Wald. Treating the entropy as Noether charge and comparing with the usual first law of thermodynamics, we obtained the expression of entropy explicitly which contains infinitely many non-local terms (i.e. the integral terms). We have proved, in general, that the first law of black bole thermodynamics is violated for $f(R,T)$ gravity. But there might exist some special cases in which the first law for $f(R,...

  9. In-plane vibration of FG micro/nano-mass sensor based on nonlocal theory under various thermal loading via differential transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, O.; Mohammadi Niaei, A.; Hosseini, S. A. H.; Shojaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, free vibration model of a cantilever functionally graded (FG) nanobeam with an attached mass at tip and under various thermal loading and two types of material distribution is introduced. The vibration performance is considered using nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. Two types of thermal loading, namely, uniform and nonlinear temperature rises through the thickness direction are considered. Thermo-mechanical properties of FG nano mass sensor are supposed to vary smoothly and continuously throughout the thickness based on power-law and Mori Tanaka distributions of material properties. Eringen non-local elasticity theory is exploited to describe the size dependency of FG nanobeam. The governing equations of the system with both axial and transverse displacements are derived based on Hamilton's principle and solved utilizing the differential transformation method (DTM) to find the non-dimensional natural frequencies. The results have good agreements with those discussing in the literature. After validation of the present model, the effect of various parameters such as mass and position of the attached nano particle, FG power-law exponent, thermal load type, material distribution type and nonlocal parameter on the frequency of nano sensor are studied. It is shown that the present model produces results of high accuracy, and it can be used as a benchmark in future studies of the free vibration of FG Nano-Mass Sensors.

  10. A higher-order nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory and its applications in wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. W.; Zhang, G.; Reddy, J. N.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years there have been many papers that considered the effects of material length scales in the study of mechanics of solids at micro- and/or nano-scales. There are a number of approaches and, among them, one set of papers deals with Eringen's differential nonlocal model and another deals with the strain gradient theories. The modified couple stress theory, which also accounts for a material length scale, is a form of a strain gradient theory. The large body of literature that has come into existence in the last several years has created significant confusion among researchers about the length scales that these various theories contain. The present paper has the objective of establishing the fact that the length scales present in nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory describe two entirely different physical characteristics of materials and structures at nanoscale. By using two principle kernel functions, the paper further presents a theory with application examples which relates the classical nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory and it results in a higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory. In this theory, a higher-order nonlocal strain gradient elasticity system which considers higher-order stress gradients and strain gradient nonlocality is proposed. It is based on the nonlocal effects of the strain field and first gradient strain field. This theory intends to generalize the classical nonlocal elasticity theory by introducing a higher-order strain tensor with nonlocality into the stored energy function. The theory is distinctive because the classical nonlocal stress theory does not include nonlocality of higher-order stresses while the common strain gradient theory only considers local higher-order strain gradients without nonlocal effects in a global sense. By establishing the constitutive relation within the thermodynamic framework, the governing equations of equilibrium and all boundary conditions are derived via the variational

  11. Are There Quantum Effects Coming from Outside Space-time? Nonlocality, free will and "no many-worlds"

    CERN Document Server

    Gisin, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Observing the violation of Bell's inequality tells us something about all possible future theories: they must all predict nonlocal correlations. Hence Nature is nonlocal. After an elementary introduction to nonlocality and a brief review of some recent experiments, I argue that Nature's nonlocality together with the existence of free will is incompatible with the many-worlds view of quantum physics.

  12. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren

    2012-01-01

    In tiny metallic nanostructures, quantum confinement and nonlocal response change the collective plasmonic behavior with important consequences for e.g. field-enhancement and extinction cross sections. We report on our most recent developments of a real-space formulation of an equation...... of applying the nonlocal framework to calculation of extinction cross sections and field enhancement in isolated particles, dimers, and corrugated surfaces....

  13. Effect of nonlocal dispersion on self-interacting excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim; Gaididei, Yu.B.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of self-interacting quasiparticles in 1Dsystems with long-range dispersive interactions isexpressed in terms of a nonlocal nonlinear Schrödingerequation. Two branches of stationary solutions are found.The new branch which contains a cusp soliton is shown to beunstable and blowup is o...

  14. Acceleration-induced nonlocality: kinetic memory versus dynamic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the memory of accelerated motion in Minkowski spacetime are discussed within the framework of the nonlocal theory of accelerated observers. Two types of memory are distinguished: kinetic and dynamic. We show that only kinetic memory is acceptable, since dynamic memory leads to divergences for nonuniform accelerated motion.

  15. A nonlocal parabolic system with application to a thermoelastic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lin

    1999-01-01

    problem is first transformed into an equivalent nonlocal parabolic systems using a transformation, and then the existence and uniqueness of the solutions are demonstrated via the theoretical potential representation theory of the parabolic equations. Finally some realistic situations in the applications are discussed using the results obtained in this paper.

  16. Nonlocal theory of longitudinal waves in thermoelastic bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Inan

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available The longitudinal waves in thermoelastic bars are investigated in the context of nonlocal theory. Using integral forms of constitutive equations, balance of momenta and energy, field equations are obtained. Then the frequency equation is found in generalized form. To obtain tangible results, an approximate procedure is applied and numerical results are given for short waves.

  17. THE NONLOCAL INITIAL PROBLEMS OF A SEMILINEAR EVOLUTION EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远弟; 冉启康

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the existence of solutions to a nonlocal Cauchy problem for an evolution equation. The methods used here include the abstract semigroup methods in proper spaces and Schauder's theorem.And the abstract results are applied to a system of nonlinear partial differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions.

  18. Non-local common cause explanations for EPR

    CERN Document Server

    Egg, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The paper argues that a causal explanation of the correlated outcomes of EPR-type experiments is desirable and possible. It shows how Bohmian mechanics and the GRW mass density theory offer such an explanation in terms of a non-local common cause.

  19. Nonlocal response in plasmonic waveguiding with extreme light confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Yan, Wei;

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel wave equation for linearized plasmonic response, obtained by combining the coupled real-space differential equations for the electric field and current density. Nonlocal dynamics are fully accounted for, and the formulation is very well suited for numerical implementation, allo...... Purcell factors, and thus has important implications for quantum plasmonics....

  20. Vortex stabilization by means of spatial solitons in nonlocal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebskaya, Yana; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Smyth, Noel F.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-05-01

    We investigate how optical vortices, which tend to be azimuthally unstable in local nonlinear materials, can be stabilized by a copropagating coaxial spatial solitary wave in nonlocal, nonlinear media. We focus on the formation of nonlinear vortex-soliton vector beams in reorientational soft matter, namely nematic liquid crystals, and report on experimental results, as well as numerical simulations.

  1. Nonlocal description of X waves in quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Ulrik Vingaard; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Bang, Ole

    2006-01-01

    We study localized light bullets and X-waves in quadratic media and show how the notion of nonlocality can provide an alternative simple physical picture of both types of multi-dimensional nonlinear waves. For X-waves we show that a local cascading limit in terms of a nonlinear Schrodinger equation...

  2. Nonlocal dispersive optical model ingredients for ${}^{40}$Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Mahzoon, M H; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Waldecker, S J

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive description of all single-particle properties associated with the nucleus ${}^{40}$Ca has been generated by employing a nonlocal dispersive optical potential capable of simultaneously reproducing all relevant data above and below the Fermi energy. We gather all relevant functional forms and the numerical values of the parameters in this contribution.

  3. Fractional evolution equation nonlocal problems with noncompact semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuping Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the existence results of mild solutions to the nonlocal problem of fractional semilinear integro-differential evolution equations. New existence theorems are obtained by means of the fixed point theorem for condensing maps. The results extend and improve some related results in this direction.

  4. Nonlocal effects on localization in a void-sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    1997-01-01

    solid under plane strain conditions are here used to compare with predictions of a nonlocal Version of a porous ductile material model. Both the critical strain for the onset of plastic flow localization and the slope of the stress-strain curve in the post-localization range are compared...

  5. Theory of nonlocal heat transport in fully ionized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maximov, A.V. (Tesla Labs., Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States)); Silin, V.P. (P.N. Lebedev Inst., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia))

    1993-01-25

    A new analytic solution of the electron kinetic equation describing the interacting of the electromagnetic heating field with plasma is obtained in the region of plasma parameters where the Spitzer-Harm classical theory is invalid. A novel expression for the nonlocal electron thermal conductivity is derived. (orig.).

  6. On nonlocal problems for fractional differential equations in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiWang Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the nonlocal problems for the fractional differential equation in Banach spaces. New sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solutions are established by means of fractional calculus and fixed point method under some suitable conditions. Two examples are given to illustrate the results.

  7. Nonlocal Cauchy problem for nonlinear mixed integrodifferential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Tidke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the existence and uniqueness of mild and strong solutions of a nonlinear mixed Volterra-Fredholm integrodifferential equation with nonlocal condition. The results obtained by using Schauder fixed point theorem and the theory of semigroups.

  8. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal optical media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2006-01-01

    We reveal that nonlocality can provide a simplæe physical mechanism for stabilization of multihump optical solitons and present what we believe to be the first example of stable rotating dipole solitons and soliton spiraling, which we are known to be unstable in all types of realistic nonlinear...

  9. Effect of nonlocal dispersion on self-interacting excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim; Gaididei, Yu.B.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of self-interacting quasiparticles in 1Dsystems with long-range dispersive interactions isexpressed in terms of a nonlocal nonlinear Schrödingerequation. Two branches of stationary solutions are found.The new branch which contains a cusp soliton is shown to beunstable and blowup...

  10. Flare loop radiative hydrodynamics. III - Nonlocal radiative transfer effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, R. C.; Fisher, G. H.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1983-01-01

    The study has three goals. The first is to demonstrate that processes exist whose intrinsic nonlocal nature cannot be represented by local approximations. The second is to elucidate the physical nature and origins of these nonlocal processes. The third is to suggest that the methods and results described here may prove useful in constructing semiempirical models of the chromosphere by means more efficient than trial and error. Matrices are computed that describe the effect of a temperature perturbation at an arbitrary point in the loop on density, hydrogen ionized fraction, total radiative loss rate, and radiative loss rate of selected hydrogen lines and continua at all other points. It is found that the dominant nonlocal radiative transfer effects can be separated into flux divergence coefficient effects and upper level population effects. The former are most important when the perturbation takes place in a region of significant opacity. Upper level population effects arise in both optically thick and thin regions in response to nonlocal density, ionization, and interlocking effects.

  11. Numerical computation of a nonlocal double obstacle problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a nonlocal double obstacle problem. This type of problems comes in various biological and physical situations, e.g., in phase transition models. We focus on numerical approximations and fast computation of such a model. We start with considering piece-wise basis functions for spatial app

  12. Sparse representation based image interpolation with nonlocal autoregressive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weisheng; Zhang, Lei; Lukac, Rastislav; Shi, Guangming

    2013-04-01

    Sparse representation is proven to be a promising approach to image super-resolution, where the low-resolution (LR) image is usually modeled as the down-sampled version of its high-resolution (HR) counterpart after blurring. When the blurring kernel is the Dirac delta function, i.e., the LR image is directly down-sampled from its HR counterpart without blurring, the super-resolution problem becomes an image interpolation problem. In such cases, however, the conventional sparse representation models (SRM) become less effective, because the data fidelity term fails to constrain the image local structures. In natural images, fortunately, many nonlocal similar patches to a given patch could provide nonlocal constraint to the local structure. In this paper, we incorporate the image nonlocal self-similarity into SRM for image interpolation. More specifically, a nonlocal autoregressive model (NARM) is proposed and taken as the data fidelity term in SRM. We show that the NARM-induced sampling matrix is less coherent with the representation dictionary, and consequently makes SRM more effective for image interpolation. Our extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed NARM-based image interpolation method can effectively reconstruct the edge structures and suppress the jaggy/ringing artifacts, achieving the best image interpolation results so far in terms of PSNR as well as perceptual quality metrics such as SSIM and FSIM.

  13. Nonlocal correlations: Fair and unfair strategies in Bayesian games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arup; Mukherjee, Amit; Guha, Tamal; Ghosh, Sibasish; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Banik, Manik

    2016-09-01

    An interesting connection has been established between two apparently unrelated concepts, namely, quantum nonlocality and Bayesian game theory. It has been shown that nonlocal correlations in the form of advice can outperform classical equilibrium strategies in common-interest Bayesian games and also in conflicting-interest Bayesian games. Classical equilibrium strategies can be of two types, fair and unfair. Whereas in fair equilibrium payoffs of different players are equal, in the unfair case they differ. An advantage of nonlocal correlation has been demonstrated over fair strategies only. We show that quantum strategies can outperform even the unfair classical equilibrium strategies. For this purpose we consider a class of two-player Bayesian games. It becomes that such games can have only fair equilibria, both fair and unfair equilibria, or only unfair ones. We provide a simple analytic method to characterize the nonlocal correlations that are advantageous over the classical equilibrium strategies in these games. We also show that quantum advice provides a better social optimality solution (a relevant notion of equilibrium for the unfair case) over the classical one.

  14. Inhomogeneous broadening in non-interacting nonlocal plasmonic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    2016-01-01

    important within the first-order correction to classical electrodynamics provided by the hydrodynamic Drude model, but turn out to be less prominent once additional single-particle size-dependent damping mechanisms are accounted for through the recently developed Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response theory....... Our work is therefore expected to provide insight and facilitate the design of nanoscale spectroscopy experiments....

  15. Non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Takuya [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    1998-10-01

    A new theoretical model equation which includes the non-local effect in the heat flux is proposed to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the experimental results from the power switching [Stroth U, et al 1996 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 1087] and the power modulation experiments [Giannone L, et al 1992 Nucl. Fusion 32 1985] in the W7-AS stellarator. A small fraction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in modifying the response against an external modulation. The transient feature of the transport property, which are observed in the response of heat pulse propagation, are qualitatively reproduced by the transport simulations based on this model. A possibility is discussed to determine the correlation length of the non-local effect experimentally by use of the results of transport simulations. (author)

  16. Theoretical Foundations of Incorporating Local Boundary Conditions into Nonlocal Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoylu, Burak; Beyer, Horst Reinhard; Celiker, Fatih

    2017-08-01

    We study nonlocal equations from the area of peridynamics on bounded domains. We present four main results. In our recent paper, we have discovered that, on R, the governing operator in peridynamics, which involves a convolution, is a bounded function of the classical (local) governing operator. Building on this, as main result 1, we construct an abstract convolution operator on bounded domains which is a generalization of the standard convolution based on integrals. The abstract convolution operator is a function of the classical operator, defined by a Hilbert basis available due to the purely discrete spectrum of the latter. As governing operator of the nonlocal equation we use a function of the classical operator, this allows us to incorporate local boundary conditions into nonlocal theories. As main result 2, we prove that the solution operator can be uniquely decomposed into a Hilbert-Schmidt operator and a multiple of the identity operator. As main result 3, we prove that Hilbert-Schmidt operators provide a smoothing of the input data in the sense a square integrable function is mapped into a function that is smooth up to boundary of the domain. As main result 4, for the homogeneous nonlocal wave equation, we prove that continuity is preserved by time evolution. Namely, the solution is discontinuous if and only if the initial data is discontinuous. As a consequence, discontinuities remain stationary.

  17. Nonlocal effect in surface plasmon polariton of ultrathin metal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Hong-jie; Yu, Yabin, E-mail: apybyu@hnu.edu.cn; Wu, Reng-lai; Yu, Yan-qin; Wang, Ya-xin

    2015-09-01

    Using the nonlocal conductivity based on quantum response theory, we study the optical properties of p-polarized wave in quartz–metal–film–air structures, especially the influence of nonlocal effect on the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) resonance. In absorption spectrum, the resonant peak of SPP is found, and the dependence of the resonant peak on film thickness shows that nonlocal effect in the SPP resonance is enhanced significantly with the decrease of film-thickness, especially in the less than 20 nm metal film. We calculate the surface charge density as a function of frequency, and find that the frequencies at the charge and absorption peaks are the same. This clearly confirms that the absorption peak stems from SPP resonance excitation, and SPPs absorb the energy of the electromagnetic wave via charge oscillations. In the case of SPP resonance, the charge and electric field on the down-surface of thin film are always greater than that on the up-surface; however, the situation is just opposite in the case of no SPP resonance. This implies that the SPP resonance occurs near the down-surface of the film. Moreover, due to the nonlocal response of electric current to the electric field, the energy flow and electric current show anomalous oscillations, and with the increase of film thickness the anomalous oscillations exhibit obvious attenuation.

  18. ON SOLUTIONS TO SEMILINEAR INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH NONLOCAL CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, using the theory of resolvent operators, Banach,s contraction prin-ciple and Schauder,s fixed point theorem, we study the existence of integral solutions to semilinear integrodifferential equations under nonlocal conditions in Banach space. An example is provided to illustrate the results obtained.

  19. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  20. Controllable nonlocal behaviour by cascaded second-harmonic generation of fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2008-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) of ultra-short pulses can act as a prototypical nonlocal nonlinear model, since the strength and nature of the temporal nonlocality can be controlled through the phase-mismatch parameter. The presence of a group-velocity mismatch namely implies that when the phase...... compression to few-cycle pulses in the cascaded quadratic soliton compressor, the spectral content of the full coupled SHG model is predicted by the nonlocal model even when few-cycle pulses are interacting....... mismatch is small the nonlocal response function becomes oscillatory, while for large phase mismatch it becomes localized. In the transition between the two regimes the strength of the nonlocality diverges, and the system goes from a weakly nonlocal to a strongly nonlocal state. When simulating soliton...

  1. The relation between Hardy's non-locality and violation of Bell inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yang

    2011-06-01

    We give an analytic quantitative relation between Hardy's non-locality and Bell operator. We find that Hardy's non-locality is a sufficient condition for the violation of Bell inequality, the upper bound of Hardy's non-locality allowed by information causality just corresponds to Tsirelson bound of Bell inequality and the upper bound of Hardy's non-locality allowed by the principle of no-signaling just corresponds to the algebraic maximum of Bell operator. Then we study the Cabello's argument of Hardy's non-locality (a generalization of Hardy's argument) and find a similar relation between it and violation of Bell inequality. Finally, we give a simple derivation of the bound of Hardy's non-locality under the constraint of information causality with the aid of the above derived relation between Hardy's non-locality and Bell operator.

  2. Singular dynamics and emergence of nonlocality in long-range quantum models

    CERN Document Server

    Lepori, L; Vodola, D

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how nonlocality originates in long-range quantum systems and how it affects their dynamics at and out of the equilibrium. We focus in particular on the Kitaev chains with long-range pairings and on the quantum Ising chain with long-range antiferromagnetic coupling (both having a power-law decay with exponent \\alpha). By studying the dynamic correlation functions, we find that for every finite \\alpha two different behaviours can be identified, one typical of short-range systems and the other connected with locality violation. The latter behaviour is shown related also with the known power-law decay tails previously observed in the static correlation functions, and originated by modes, having in general energies far from the minima of the spectrum, where particular singularities develop as a consequence of the long-rangedness of the system. We refer to these modes as to "singular" modes, and as to "singular dynamics" to their dynamics. For the Kitaev model they are manifest, at finite \\alpha, in deri...

  3. Holographic Phase Transition Probed by Nonlocal Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiong Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole is probed by the two-point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes that the black hole undergoes a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first-order phase transition, and a second-order phase transition successively before it reaches a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find that the equal area law for the first-order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second-order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.

  4. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  5. On wave propagation characteristics in fluid saturated porous materials by a nonlocal Biot theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lihong; Yu, Yang; Hu, Wentao; Shi, Yufeng; Xu, Changjie

    2016-09-01

    A nonlocal Biot theory is developed by combing Biot theory and nonlocal elasticity theory for fluid saturated porous material. The nonlocal parameter is introduced as an independent variable for describing wave propagation characteristics in poroelastic material. A physical insight on nonlocal term demonstrates that the nonlocal term is a superposition of two effects, one is inertia force effect generated by fluctuation of porosity and the other is pore size effect inherited from nonlocal constitutive relation. Models for situations of excluding fluid nonlocal effect and including fluid nonlocal effect are proposed. Comparison with experiment confirms that model without fluid nonlocal effect is more reasonable for predicting wave characteristics in saturated porous materials. The negative dispersion is observed theoretically which agrees well with the published experimental data. Both wave velocities and quality factors as functions of frequency and nonlocal parameter are examined in practical cases. A few new physical phenomena such as backward propagation and disappearance of slow wave when exceeding critical frequency and disappearing shear wave in high frequency range, which were not predicted by Biot theory, are demonstrated.

  6. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅵ)-CONSERVATION LAWS OF MASS AND INERTIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴安民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish the coupled conservation laws, the local conservation equations and the jump conditions of mass and inertia for polar continuum theories. In this connection the new material derivatives of the deformation gradient, the line element, the surface element and the volume element were derived and the generalized Reynolds transport theorem was presented. Combining these conservation laws of mass and inertia with the balance laws of momentum, angular momentum and energy derived in our previous papers of this series, a rather complete system of coupled basic laws and principles for polar continuum theories is constituted on the whole. From this system the coupled nonlocal balance equations of mass, inertia, momentum, angular momentum and energy may be obtained by the usual localization.

  7. Higher order supersymmetries and fermionic conservation laws of the supersymmetric extension of the KdV equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Paul H.M.

    1988-01-01

    By the introduction of nonlocal basonic and fermionic variables we construct a recursion symmetry of the super KdV equation, leading to a hierarchy of bosonic symmetries and one of fermionic symmetries. The hierarchies of bosonic and fermionic conservation laws arise in a natural way in the construc

  8. Dynamic crack growth in a nonlocal progressively cavitating solid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needleman, A.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic crack growth is analyzed numerically using a nonlocal constitutive formulation for a porous ductile material. The delocalization relates to the void growth and coalescence mechanism and is incorporated in terms of an integral condition on the rate of increase of the void volume fraction....... The material is modeled as elastic-viscoplastic with the thermal softening due to adiabatic heating accounted for. Finite element computations are carried our for edge cracked specimens subject to tensile impact loading. Two values of the material characteristic length and two finite-element discretizations...... to increase and the crack speed to decrease with increasing values of the material characteristic length. The crack growth predictions using the nonlocal constitutive model exhibit less mesh sensitivity than the corresponding ones based on the local constitutive relation. However, for the largest value...

  9. Quantum non-locality - It ain't necessarily so...

    CERN Document Server

    Zukowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Bell's theorem is 50 years old. Still there is a controversy about its implications. Much of it has its roots in confusion regarding the premises from which the theorem can be derived. Some claim that a derivation of Bell's inequalities requires just locality assumption, and nothing more. Violations of the inequalities are then interpreted as ``nonlocality'' or ``quantum nonlocality''. We show that such claims are unfounded and that every derivation of Bell's inequalities requires a premise -- in addition to locality and freedom of choice -- which is either assumed tacitly, or unconsciously, or is embedded in a single compound condition (like Bell's ``local causality''). The premise is equivalent to the assumption of existence of additional variables which do not appear in the quantum formalism (in form of determinism, or joint probability for outcomes of all conceivable measurements, or ``additional causes`'', or ``hidden variables'', ``complete description of the state'' or counterfactual definiteness, etc....

  10. Retarded versus time-nonlocal quantum kinetic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawetz, K. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Spicka, V.; Lipavsky, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Praha (Czech Republic)

    2000-07-01

    The finite duration of the collisions in Fermionic systems as expressed by the retardation time in the non-Markovian Levinson equation is discussed in the quasiclassical limit. The separate individual contributions included in the memory effect resulting in (i) off-shell tails of the Wigner distribution, (ii) renormalization of scattering rates and (iii) of the single-particle energy, (iv) collision delay and (v) related non-local corrections to the scattering integral. In this way we transform the Levison equation into the Landau-Silin equation extended by the non-local corrections known from the theory of dense gases. The derived kinetic equation unifies the Landau theory of quasiparticle transport with the classical kinetic theory of dense gases. The space-time symmetry is discussed versus particle-hole symmetry and a solution is proposed which transforms these two exclusive pictures into each other. (authors)

  11. Wave propagation in nanostructures nonlocal continuum mechanics formulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Wave Propagation in Nanostructures describes the fundamental and advanced concepts of waves propagating in structures that have dimensions of the order of nanometers. The book is fundamentally based on non-local elasticity theory, which includes scale effects in the continuum model. The book predominantly addresses wave behavior in carbon nanotubes and graphene structures, although the methods of analysis provided in this text are equally applicable to other nanostructures. The book takes the reader from the fundamentals of wave propagation in nanotubes to more advanced topics such as rotating nanotubes, coupled nanotubes, and nanotubes with magnetic field and surface effects. The first few chapters cover the basics of wave propagation, different modeling schemes for nanostructures and introduce non-local elasticity theories, which form the building blocks for understanding the material provided in later chapters. A number of interesting examples are provided to illustrate the important features of wave behav...

  12. Structure-Aware Nonlocal Optimization Framework for Image Colorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Li Zhao; Gui-Zhi Nie; Xu-Jie Li; CCF Xiao-Gang Jin; Zhi-Geng Pan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a structure-aware nonlocal energy optimization framework for interactive image colo-rization with sparse scribbles. Our colorization technique propagates colors to both local intensity-continuous regions and remote texture-similar regions without explicit image segmentation. We implement the nonlocal principle by computing k nearest neighbors in the high-dimensional feature space. The feature space contains not only image coordinates and intensities but also statistical texture features obtained with the direction-aligned Gabor wavelet filter. Structure maps are utilized to scale texture features to avoid artifacts along high-contrast boundaries. We show various experimental results and comparisons on image colorization, selective recoloring and decoloring, and progressive color editing to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Symmetry reduction related with nonlocal symmetry for Gardner equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Based on the truncated Painlevé method or the Möbious (conformal) invariant form, the nonlocal symmetry for the (1+1)-dimensional Gardner equation is derived. The nonlocal symmetry can be localized to the Lie point symmetry by introducing one new dependent variable. Thanks to the localization procedure, the finite symmetry transformations are obtained by solving the initial value problem of the prolonged systems. Furthermore, by using the symmetry reduction method to the enlarged systems, many explicit interaction solutions among different types of solutions such as solitary waves, rational solutions, Painlevé II solutions are given. Especially, some special concrete soliton-cnoidal interaction solutions are analyzed both in analytical and graphical ways.

  14. Kinematical and nonlocality effects on the nonmesonic weak hypernuclear decay

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, C; Galeao, A P; Krmpotic, F

    2003-01-01

    We derive in detail the transition potential for nonmesonic lambda-hypernuclear decay in a one-meson-exchange model involving the full pseudoscalar and vector meson octets and including two effects that have been systematically omitted in the literature, or, at best, only partially considered. These are the kinematical effects due to the difference between the lambda and nucleon masses, and the first-order nonlocality corrections, i.e., those involving up to first-order differential operators. Numerical results for $^{12}_\\Lambda$C are presented and they show that the kinematical plus nonlocal corrections have an appreciable influence on the partial decay rates. However, this is somewhat diminished in the total rate. Also the ratio of neutron-induced to proton-induced transitions is only slightly affected, and still cannot be reconciled with the available experimental data. We give indications that the combined effect should be most significant for observables that distinguish between parity-conserving and pa...

  15. Quantum nonlocality in weak-thermal-light interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Mankei

    2011-12-30

    In astronomy, interferometry of light collected by separate telescopes is often performed by physically bringing the optical paths together in the form of Young's double-slit experiment. Optical loss severely limits the efficiency of this so-called direct detection method, motivating the fundamental question of whether one can achieve a comparable performance using separate optical measurements at the two telescopes before combining the measurement results. Using quantum mechanics and estimation theory, here I show that any such spatially local measurement scheme, such as heterodyne detection, is fundamentally inferior to coherently nonlocal measurements, such as direct detection, for estimating the mutual coherence of bipartite thermal light when the average photon flux is low. This surprising result reveals an overlooked signature of quantum nonlocality in a classic optics experiment.

  16. On a class of nonlocal wave equations from applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Horst Reinhard; Aksoylu, Burak; Celiker, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    We study equations from the area of peridynamics, which is a nonlocal extension of elasticity. The governing equations form a system of nonlocal wave equations. We take a novel approach by applying operator theory methods in a systematic way. On the unbounded domain ℝn, we present three main results. As main result 1, we find that the governing operator is a bounded function of the governing operator of classical elasticity. As main result 2, a consequence of main result 1, we prove that the peridynamic solutions strongly converge to the classical solutions by utilizing, for the first time, strong resolvent convergence. In addition, main result 1 allows us to incorporate local boundary conditions, in particular, into peridynamics. This avenue of research is developed in companion papers, providing a remedy for boundary effects. As main result 3, employing spherical Bessel functions, we give a new practical series representation of the solution which allows straightforward numerical treatment with symbolic computation.

  17. Nonlocal excitonic–mechanical interaction in a nanosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabolotskii, A. A., E-mail: zabolotskii@iae.nsk.su [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automatics and Electrometry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The dynamics of a nanoparticle during its dipole interaction with an excitonic excitation in an extended quasi-one-dimensional polarizable medium is investigated. Bundles of J-aggregates of dye molecules are considered as an example of the latter. The nonlocal excitonic–mechanical interaction between the field of an amplifying or absorbing nanoparticle and excitons in a bundle has been simulated numerically. It has been found that the interaction between the field of the induced nanoparticle dipole and the fields of the molecular dipoles in an aggregate can lead to a change in the particle trajectory and excitonic pulse shape. The possibility of controlling the nanoparticle by excitonic pulses and the reverse effect of the nanoparticle field on the dynamics of excitons due to the nonlocal excitonic–mechanical interaction has been demonstrated.

  18. Deterministic error correction for nonlocal spatial-polarization hyperentanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Guan-Yu; Deng, Fu-Guo; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-02-10

    Hyperentanglement is an effective quantum source for quantum communication network due to its high capacity, low loss rate, and its unusual character in teleportation of quantum particle fully. Here we present a deterministic error-correction scheme for nonlocal spatial-polarization hyperentangled photon pairs over collective-noise channels. In our scheme, the spatial-polarization hyperentanglement is first encoded into a spatial-defined time-bin entanglement with identical polarization before it is transmitted over collective-noise channels, which leads to the error rejection of the spatial entanglement during the transmission. The polarization noise affecting the polarization entanglement can be corrected with a proper one-step decoding procedure. The two parties in quantum communication can, in principle, obtain a nonlocal maximally entangled spatial-polarization hyperentanglement in a deterministic way, which makes our protocol more convenient than others in long-distance quantum communication.

  19. Nonlocal spin-transport measurement of superconductor-ferromagnet nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolenda, Stefan; Wolf, Michael J.; Huebler, Florian; Beckmann, Detlef [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We present measurements of the nonlocal conductance of nanostructures with several ferromagnetic electrodes lying perpendicular on a superconducting wire. In these structures nonlocal conductance is mostly given by diffusion of quasiparticles, which are injected by one of the electrodes and detected by an other one. Applying a magnetic field induces a Zeeman splitting in the quasiparticles density of states, which suppresses the relaxation of injected spin imbalance, thus spin transport over distances of several micrometers is found. While in the previous experiments the magnetic field was aligned parallel to the ferromagnetic electrodes, we also show measurements applying the magnetic field noncollinear with the magnetization of the ferromagnetic electrodes. We compare our results to the previous case.

  20. Evidence for nonlocal electrodynamics in planar Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, A A; Rydh, A; Golod, T; Motzkau, H; Klushin, A M; Krasnov, V M

    2013-09-13

    We study the temperature dependence of the critical current modulation I(c)(H) for two types of planar Josephson junctions: a low-Tc Nb/CuNi/Nb and a high-Tc YBa2Cu3O(7-δ) bicrystal grain-boundary junction. At low T both junctions exhibit a conventional behavior, described by the local sine-Gordon equation. However, at elevated T the behavior becomes qualitatively different: the I(c)(H) modulation field ΔH becomes almost T independent and neither ΔH nor the critical field for the penetration of Josephson vortices vanish at Tc. Such an unusual behavior is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for junctions with nonlocal electrodynamics. We extract absolute values of the London penetration depth λ from our data and show that a crossover from local to nonlocal electrodynamics occurs with increasing T when λ(T) becomes larger than the electrode thickness.

  1. Uncertainty estimation in diffusion MRI using the nonlocal bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Pew-Thian; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yasheng; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new bootstrap scheme, called the nonlocal bootstrap (NLB) for uncertainty estimation. In contrast to the residual bootstrap, which relies on a data model, or the repetition bootstrap, which requires repeated signal measurements, NLB is not restricted by the data structure imposed by a data model and obviates the need for time-consuming multiple acquisitions. NLB hinges on the observation that local imaging information recurs in an image. This self-similarity implies that imaging information coming from spatially distant (nonlocal) regions can be exploited for more effective estimation of statistics of interest. Evaluations using in silico data indicate that NLB produces distribution estimates that are in closer agreement with those generated using Monte Carlo simulations, compared with the conventional residual bootstrap. Evaluations using in vivo data demonstrate that NLB produces results that are in agreement with our knowledge on white matter architecture.

  2. Plasmon-enhanced fluorescence near nonlocal metallic nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Stefanou, N.; Wubs, Martijn

    ) of a dipole emitter. Here we explore the importance of hitherto disregarded nonclassical effects in the description of emitter-plasmon hybrids, focusing on the roles of metal nonlocal optical response and size-dependent plasmon damping [1]. Comparison between the common local response approximation (LRA......) and the generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) theory [2] shows that a significant decrease in fluorescence enhancement is obtained for emitters close to small metallic nanospheres or thin metallic nanoshells, while the optimum emitter position is also affected. In this respect, our recent work introduces...... the study of emitterplasmon coupling (in the weak-coupling limit) as a sensitive test for the validity of stateof-the-art nonclassical models. For the regime of strong emitter-plasmon coupling, we anticipate an analogously wide importance of a description beyond classical electrodynamics, particularly once...

  3. Axial vibration analysis of nanocones based on nonlocal elasticity theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Qi Guo; Shao-Pu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanocones have quite fascinating electronic and structural properties,whose axial vibration is seldom investigated in previous studies.In this paper,based on a nonlocal elasticity theory,a nonuniform rod model is applied to investigate the small-scale effect and the nonuniform effect on axial vibration of nanocones.Using the modified Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WBK) method,an asymptotic solution is obtained for the axial vibration of general nonuniform nanorods.Then,using similar procedure,the axial vibration of nanocones is analyzed for nonuniform parameters,mode number and nonlocal parameters.Explicit expressions are derived for mode frequencies of clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions.It is found that axial vibration frequencies are highly overestimated by the classical rod model because of ignorance of the effect of small length scale.

  4. Optimizing plasmon-enhanced fluorescence with nonlocal metallic nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Stefanou, Nikolaos; Wubs, Martijn

    nonlocal corrections, the plasmon blueshift predicted by the hydrodynamic Drude model [1] leads to a small reduction of η. If however the plasmonic mode does not coincide exactly with λem, this blueshift can tune the mode to increase η. Nevertheless, when size-dependent losses are also taken into account......The fluorescence signal η of molecules coupled to plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is optimized through extended simulations, taking the metal nonlocal optical response fully into account. Solid Au and Ag nanospheres, as well as SiO2/Au(Ag) core/shell NPs (of total radius R), are engineered...... to maximize the ratio of radiative to nonradiative losses and match the emitter emission wavelength, λem. For a molecule modeled as an electric dipole p, oriented parallel to the incident field E, the optimal emitter-NP distance is then identified within the local response approximation (LRA). Introducing...

  5. Conserved nonlocal dynamics and critical behavior of uranium ferromagnetic superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Dutta, Kishore; Nandy, Malay K

    2017-01-01

    A recent theoretical study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 037202 (2014)10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.037202] has revealed that systems such as uranium ferromagnetic superconductors obey conserved dynamics. To capture the critical behavior near the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition of these compounds, we study the conserved critical dynamics of a nonlocal Ginzburg-Landau model. A dynamic renormalization-group calculation at one-loop order yields the critical indices in the leading order of ε=d_{c}-d, where d_{c}=4-2ρ is the upper critical dimension, with ρ an exponent in the nonlocal interaction. The predicted static critical exponents are found to be comparable with the available experimentally observed critical exponents for strongly uniaxial uranium ferromagnetic superconductors. The corresponding dynamic exponent z and linewidth exponent w are found to be z=4-ρε/4+O(ε^{2}) and w=1+ρ+3ε/4+O(ε^{2}).

  6. On the compatible weakly nonlocal Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ya. Maltsev

    2002-01-01

    of hydrodynamic type (Ferapontov brackets and the corresponding integrable hierarchies. We show that, under the requirement of the nondegeneracy of the corresponding “first” pseudo-Riemannian metric g(0 νμ and also some nondegeneracy requirement for the nonlocal part, it is possible to introduce a “canonical” set of “integrable hierarchies” based on the Casimirs, momentum functional and some “canonical Hamiltonian functions.” We prove also that all the “higher” “positive” Hamiltonian operators and the “negative” symplectic forms have the weakly nonlocal form in this case. The same result is also true for “negative” Hamiltonian operators and “positive” symplectic structures in the case when both pseudo-Riemannian metrics g(0 νμ and g(1 νμ are nondegenerate.

  7. On the no-signaling approach to quantum nonlocality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Méndez, J. M., E-mail: manolo@ifisica.uaslp.mx; Urías, Jesús, E-mail: jurias@ifisica.uaslp.mx [Instituto de Física, UASLP, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    The no-signaling approach to nonlocality deals with separable and inseparable multiparty correlations in the same set of probability states without conflicting causality. The set of half-spaces describing the polytope of no-signaling probability states that are admitted by the most general class of Bell scenarios is formulated in full detail. An algorithm for determining the skeleton that solves the no-signaling description is developed upon a new strategy that is partially pivoting and partially incremental. The algorithm is formulated rigorously and its implementation is shown to be effective to deal with the highly degenerate no-signaling descriptions. Several applications of the algorithm as a tool for the study of quantum nonlocality are mentioned. Applied to a large set of bipartite Bell scenarios, we found that the corresponding no-signaling polytopes have a striking high degeneracy that grows up exponentially with the size of the Bell scenario.

  8. Conserved nonlocal dynamics and critical behavior of uranium ferromagnetic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Dutta, Kishore; Nandy, Malay K.

    2017-01-01

    A recent theoretical study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 037202 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.037202] has revealed that systems such as uranium ferromagnetic superconductors obey conserved dynamics. To capture the critical behavior near the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition of these compounds, we study the conserved critical dynamics of a nonlocal Ginzburg-Landau model. A dynamic renormalization-group calculation at one-loop order yields the critical indices in the leading order of ɛ =dc-d , where dc=4 -2 ρ is the upper critical dimension, with ρ an exponent in the nonlocal interaction. The predicted static critical exponents are found to be comparable with the available experimentally observed critical exponents for strongly uniaxial uranium ferromagnetic superconductors. The corresponding dynamic exponent z and linewidth exponent w are found to be z =4 -ρ ɛ /4 +O (ɛ2) and w =1 +ρ +3 ɛ /4 +O (ɛ2) .

  9. Entropic Tests of Multipartite Nonlocality and State-Independent Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Sadegh; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a multipartite extension of an information-theoretic distance introduced by Zurek [Nature (London) 341, 119 (1989)]. We use it to develop a new tool for studying quantum correlations from an information-theoretic perspective. In particular, we derive entropic tests of multipartite nonlocality for three qubits and for an arbitrary even number of qubits as well as a test of state-independent contextuality. In addition, we rederive the tripartite Mermin inequality and a state-independent noncontextuality inequality by Cabello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 210401 (2008)]. This suggests that the information-theoretic distance approach to multipartite nonlocality and state-independent contextuality can provide a more general treatment of nonclassical correlations than the orthodox approach based on correlation functions.

  10. A Relationship between Lotka's Law, Bradford's Law, and Zipf's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Sho; Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1986-01-01

    A common functional relationship among Lotka's law, Bradford's law, and Zipf's law is derived. The proof takes explicit account of the sequences of observed values of the variables by means of an index. This approach results in a more realistic and precise formulation of each law. (Author/EM)

  11. Conservation laws with a non-local flow application to pedestrian traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lécureux-Mercier Magali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note, we introduce some models of pedestrian traffic and prove existence and uniqueness of solutions for these models. On présente ici différents modèles de trafic piéton et on prouve l’existence et l’unicité des solutions pour ces modèles.

  12. A histories perspective on characterising quantum non-locality

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, Fay; Wallden, Petros

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a framework for studying non-locality and contextuality inspired by the path integral formulation of quantum theory. We prove that the existence of a strongly positive joint quantum measure -- the quantum analogue of a joint probability measure -- on a set of experimental probabilities implies the Navascues-Pironio-Acin (NPA) condition $Q^1$ and is implied by the stronger NPA condition $Q^{1+AB}$. A related condition is shown to be equivalent to $Q^{1+AB}$.

  13. Ground state solutions for non-local fractional Schrodinger equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Pu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a time-independent fractional Schrodinger equation with non-local (regional diffusion $$ (-\\Delta^{\\alpha}_{\\rho}u + V(xu = f(x,u \\quad \\text{in }\\mathbb{R}^{N}, $$ where $\\alpha \\in (0,1$, $N > 2\\alpha$. We establish the existence of a non-negative ground state solution by variational methods.

  14. Nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in distant cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Tao; Zhu Ai-Dong; Zhang Shou

    2012-01-01

    A scheme for implementing nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in cavities is proposed.By modulating the parameters of the system,the optimal 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning machine,1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning machine,and 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning machine are constructed.The present scheme,which is attainable with current technology,saves two qubits compared with previous cloning machines.

  15. Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E

    1998-01-01

    The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.

  16. Mild Solutions for Fractional Differential Equations with Nonlocal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of the fractional differential equations with nonlocal conditions dqx(t/dtq=−Ax(t+f(t,x(t,Gx(t,  t∈[0,T],   and  x(0+g(x=x0, in a Banach space X, where 0

  17. The averaging of nonlocal Hamiltonian structures in Whitham's method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ya. Maltsev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the m-phase Whitham's averaging method and propose the procedure of “averaging” nonlocal Hamiltonian structures. The procedure is based on the existence of a sufficient number of local-commuting integrals of the system and gives the Poisson bracket of Ferapontov type for Whitham's system. The method can be considered as the generalization of the Dubrovin-Novikov procedure for the local field-theoretical brackets.

  18. Non-local gravity with a Weyl-square term

    CERN Document Server

    Cusin, Giulia; Maggiore, Michele; Mancarella, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has shown that modifications of General Relativity based on the addition of a non-local term $R\\,\\Box^{-2}R$ produce a dynamical model of dark energy, which is cosmologically viable both at the background level and at the level of cosmological perturbations. We explore a more general class of models based on the addition of terms proportional to $R_{\\mu\

  19. Prey-predator model with a nonlocal consumption of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, M; Volpert, V

    2016-08-01

    The prey-predator model with nonlocal consumption of prey introduced in this work extends previous studies of local reaction-diffusion models. Linear stability analysis of the homogeneous in space stationary solution and numerical simulations of nonhomogeneous solutions allow us to analyze bifurcations and dynamics of stationary solutions and of travelling waves. These solutions present some new properties in comparison with the local models. They correspond to different feeding strategies of predators observed in ecology.

  20. Exact results for Casimir forces using Surface Impedance: Nonlocal Media

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R; Mochán, W L

    2003-01-01

    We show that exact results are obtained for the calculation of Casimir forces between arbitrary materials using the concept of surface impedances, obtaining in a trivial way the force in the limit of perfect conductors and also Lifshitz formula in the limit of semi-infinite media. As an example we present a full and rigorous calculation of the Casimir force between two metallic half-spaces described by a hydrodynamic nonlocal dielectric response.

  1. Entanglement and nonlocality of a single relativistic particle

    OpenAIRE

    Dunningham, Jacob; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    Recent work has argued that the concepts of entanglement and nonlocality must be taken seriously even in systems consisting of only a single particle. These treatments, however, are nonrelativistic and, if single particle entanglement is fundamental, it should also persist in a relativistic description. Here we consider a spin-1/2 particle in a superposition of two different velocities as viewed by an observer in a different relativistically-boosted inertial frame. We show that the entangleme...

  2. Asymptotic behaviour for a diffusion equation governed by nonlocal interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ovono, Armel Andami

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the asymptotic behaviour of a nonlocal nonlinear parabolic equation governed by a parameter. After giving the existence of unique branch of solutions composed by stable solutions in stationary case, we gives for the parabolic problem $L^\\infty $ estimates of solution based on using the Moser iterations and existence of global attractor. We finish our study by the issue of asymptotic behaviour in some cases when $t\\to \\infty$.

  3. Test of Nonlocality with an Atom-Field Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2002-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the test of nonlocality with atom-field entanglement. An atom is sent through a cavity filled with a coherent field with a small amplitude. The dispersive interaction leads to atom-field entanglement.Then the field is driven by a classical current. The Bell inequality can be tested by the joint measurement of the parity of the field and the atomic state.

  4. Chaoticons described by nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lanhua; Li, Yuqi; Chen, Yong; Hong, Weiyi; Hu, Wei; Guo, Qi

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that the unstable evolutions of the Hermite-Gauss-type stationary solutions for the nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the exponential-decay response function can evolve into chaotic states. This new kind of entities are referred to as chaoticons because they exhibit not only chaotic properties (with positive Lyapunov exponents and spatial decoherence) but also soliton-like properties (with invariant statistic width and interaction of quasi-elastic collisions). PMID:28134268

  5. Modelling of Nonlocal Effects in Electromechanical Nano-Switches

    OpenAIRE

    Toropova, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Dielectric nano-swithes made of the materials that exhibit piezoelectric and/or flexoelectric properties with significant electro-mechanical coupling are considered. In this case, a nonuniform strain field may locally break inversion symmetry and induce polarization even in nonpiezoelectrics. At reducing dimensions to the nanoscale, the flexoelectric effect demonstrates the nonlocality of the dielectric materials and plays more significant role than piezoelectric effect. The flexoelectric eff...

  6. Prey-predator model with a nonlocal consumption of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, M.; Volpert, V.

    2016-08-01

    The prey-predator model with nonlocal consumption of prey introduced in this work extends previous studies of local reaction-diffusion models. Linear stability analysis of the homogeneous in space stationary solution and numerical simulations of nonhomogeneous solutions allow us to analyze bifurcations and dynamics of stationary solutions and of travelling waves. These solutions present some new properties in comparison with the local models. They correspond to different feeding strategies of predators observed in ecology.

  7. Non-local flow effects on bedform dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, J. Taylor; Kao, Justin; Myrow, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Bedform patterns are sensitive recorders of feedbacks among bed topography, fluid flow, and sediment transport. Some of the most important feedbacks are local. For example, evolution models based on simple flow parameterizations that only incorporate local bed height can reproduce some of the essential features of bedform evolution, including bedform growth and migration. However, non-local effects can also be critically important. For example, field and laboratory measurements have shown that the spacing of most sand ripples generated by wave-driven oscillatory flows is linearly proportional to the amplitude of the flow oscillation, implying that fluid stress and sediment transport at a given location depend on upstream features that perturb the flow. A model that fully captures the coupling of flow and bedform evolution must include such effects, but it is not clear how detailed the description of the flow must be to reproduce the most important aspects of bedform evolution. To account for the most significant non-local flow effects without resorting to a coupled hydrodynamic model, we propose an approximation in which the bed shear stress is expressed as a convolution of the bed topography with a kernel that includes both local effects, such as acceleration over bumps, and non-local effects, such as flow separation and re-attachment. Two-dimensional flow simulations demonstrate that a single, generic kernel gives a good approximation of shear stress over a wide range of bed profiles under oscillatory and some combined flows. Incorporating this approximation into a simple bedform evolution model, we show that non-local effects are required to reproduce the characteristic transient patterns that emerge as wave ripples respond to changes in the flow, which we have documented with time-lapse imagery of laboratory wave tank experiments. We then show how this result informs interpretations of two-dimensional wave ripple patterns preserved in the geologic record.

  8. Structure formation in a nonlocally modified gravity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sohyun; Dodelson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    We study a nonlocally modified gravity model proposed by Deser and Woodard which gives an explanation for current cosmic acceleration. By deriving and solving the equations governing the evolution of the structure in the Universe, we show that this model predicts a pattern of growth that differs from standard general relativity (+dark energy) at the 10-30% level. These differences will be easily probed by the next generation of galaxy surveys, so the model should be tested shortly.

  9. Analysis of a micro piezoelectric vibration energy harvester by nonlocal elasticity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model of a micro piezoelectric energy harvester is proposed based on the nonlocal elasticity theory, which is operated in the flexural mode for scavenging ambient vibration energy. A nonlocal scale is defined as the product of internal characteristic length and a constant related to the material. The dependences of performance of the harvester upon the nonlocal scale and the scale ratio of the nonlocal scale to the external characteristic parameter are investigated in detail. Numerical results show that output power of the harvester decreases, and resonance frequency reduces gradually at first then increases rapidly when nonlocal scale increases. The results of nonlocal elasticity theory are compared with that of classic beam theory. All the results are helpful for material and structure design of the micro piezoelectric energy harvester.

  10. Numerical investigation of non-local electron transport in laser-produced plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Ya-Lin; Zhao Bin; Zheng Jian

    2007-01-01

    Non-local electron transport in laser-produced plasmas under inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions is studied based on Fokker-Planck (FP) and hydrodynamic simulations. A comparison between the classical Spitzer-H(a)rm (SH)transport model and non-local transport models has been made. The result shows that among those non-local models the Epperlein and Short (ES) model of heat flux is in reasonable agreement with the FP simulation in overdense region.However, the non-local models are invalid in the hot underdense plasmas. Hydrodynamic simulation is performed with the flux limiting model and the non-local model, separately. The simulation results show that in the underdense region of the laser-produced plasmas the temperature given by the flux limiting model is significantly higher than that given with the non-local model.

  11. Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Lei; Luk, Ting S; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The optical nonlocality in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials is theoretically and experimentally investigated with respect to transverse-magnetic-polarized incident light. A nonlocal effective medium theory is derived from the transfer-matrix method to determine the nonlocal effective permittivity depending on both the frequency and wave vector in a symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer stack. In contrast to the local effective medium theory, our proposed nonlocal effective medium theory can accurately predict measured incident angle-dependent reflection spectra from a fabricated multilayer stack and provide nonlocal dispersion relations. Moreover, the bulk plasmon polaritons with large wave vectors supported in the multilayer stack are also investigated with the nonlocal effective medium theory through the analysis of the dispersion relation and eigenmode.

  12. Nonlocal discrete continuity and invariant currents in locally symmetric effective Schr\\"odinger arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Morfonios, C V; Diakonos, F K; Schmelcher, P

    2016-01-01

    A nonlocal discrete continuity formalism is developed which relates spatial symmetries in subparts of Hermitian or non-Hermitian lattice systems to the properties of adapted nonlocal currents. Broken local symmetries thereby act as current sources or sinks, and the time evolution of the associated nonlocal charge is governed by the nonlocal currents at the boundaries of domains with local symmetry. We apply the framework to locally inversion-(time-) and translation-(time-) symmetric one-dimensional photonic waveguide arrays effectively described by Schr\\"odinger's equation with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The nonlocal currents of stationary states are shown to be translationally invariant within local symmetry domains for arbitrary wavefunction profiles, and cases of complete, overlapping, and gapped local symmetry are demonstrated for model setups. Two distinct versions of the nonlocal invariant currents enable a mapping between wave amplitudes of symmetry-related sites, thereby generalizing the global Bloc...

  13. Nonlocal continuum model and molecular dynamics for free vibration of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-Gao; Liew, K M; Wang, Q

    2011-12-01

    Free transverse, longitudinal and torsional vibrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated through nonlocal beam model, nonlocal rod model and verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The nonlocal Timoshenko beam model offers a better prediction of the fundamental frequencies of shorter SWCNTs, such as a (5, 5) SWCNT shorter than 3.5 nm, than local beam models. The nonlocal rod model is employed to study the longitudinal and torsional vibrations of SWCNT and found to enable a good prediction of the MD results for shorter SWCNTs. Nonlocal and local continuum models provide a good agreement with MD results for relatively longer SWCNTs, such as (5, 5) SWCNTs longer than 3.5 nm. The scale parameter in nonlocal beam and rod models is estimated by calibrations from MD results.

  14. Application of nonlocal models to nano beams. Part II: Thickness length scale effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Sik

    2014-10-01

    Applicability of nonlocal models to nano-beams is discussed in terms of the Eringen's nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli (EB) beam model. In literature, most work has taken the axial coordinate derivative in the Laplacian operator presented in nonlocal elasticity. This causes that the non-locality always makes the beam soften as compared to the local counterpart. In this paper, the thickness scale effect is solely considered to investigate if the nonlocal model can simulate stiffening effect. Taking the thickness derivative in the Laplacian operator leads to the presence of a surface stress state. The governing equation derived is compared to that of the EB model with the surface stress. The results obtained reveal that the nonlocality tends to decrease the bending moment stiffness whereas to increase the bending rigidity in the governing equation. This tendency also depends on the surface conditions.

  15. Stability Analysis of Nonlocal Elastic Columns with Initial Imperfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated herein is the postbuckling behavior of an initially imperfect nonlocal elastic column, which is simply supported at one end and subjected to an axial force at the other movable end. The governing nonlinear differential equation of the axially loaded nonlocal elastic column experiencing large deflection is first established within the framework of Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory in order to embrace the size effect. Its semianalytical solutions by the virtue of homotopy perturbation method, as well as the successive approximation algorithm, are determined in an explicit form, through which the postbuckling equilibrium loads in terms of the end rotation angle and the deformed configuration of the column at this end rotation are predicted. By comparing the degenerated results with the exact solutions available in the literature, the validity and accuracy of the proposed methods are numerically substantiated. The size effect, as well as the initial imperfection, on the buckled configuration and the postbuckling equilibrium path is also thoroughly discussed through parametric studies.

  16. Critical thresholds in flocking hydrodynamics with non-local alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Eitan; Tan, Changhui

    2014-11-13

    We study the large-time behaviour of Eulerian systems augmented with non-local alignment. Such systems arise as hydrodynamic descriptions of agent-based models for self-organized dynamics, e.g. Cucker & Smale (2007 IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 52, 852-862. (doi:10.1109/TAC.2007.895842)) and Motsch & Tadmor (2011 J. Stat. Phys. 144, 923-947. (doi:10.1007/s10955-011-0285-9)) models. We prove that, in analogy with the agent-based models, the presence of non-local alignment enforces strong solutions to self-organize into a macroscopic flock. This then raises the question of existence of such strong solutions. We address this question in one- and two-dimensional set-ups, proving global regularity for subcritical initial data. Indeed, we show that there exist critical thresholds in the phase space of the initial configuration which dictate the global regularity versus a finite-time blow-up. In particular, we explore the regularity of non-local alignment in the presence of vacuum.

  17. Multiscale Hybrid Nonlocal Means Filtering Using Modified Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Hussain Shamsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multiscale implementation of nonlocal means filtering (MHNLM for image denoising is proposed. The proposed algorithm also introduces a modification of the similarity measure for patch comparison. Assuming the patch as an oriented surface, the notion of a normal vectors patch is introduced. The inner product of these normal vectors patches is defined and then used in the weighted Euclidean distance of intensity patches as the weight factor. The algorithm involves two steps: the first step is a multiscale implementation of an accelerated nonlocal means filtering in the discrete stationary wavelet domain to obtain a refined version of the noisy patches for later comparison. The next step is to apply the proposed modification of standard nonlocal means filtering to the noisy image using the reference patches obtained in the first step. These refined patches contain less noise, and consequently the computation of normal vectors and partial derivatives is more precise. Experimental results show equivalent or better performance of the proposed algorithm compared to various state-of-the-art algorithms.

  18. Vibration analysis of defective graphene sheets using nonlocal elasticity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namin, S. F. Asbaghian; Pilafkan, R.

    2017-09-01

    Many papers have studied the free vibration of graphene sheets. However, all this papers assumed their atomic structure free of any defects. Nonetheless, they actually contain some defects including single vacancy, double vacancy and Stone-Wales defects. This paper, therefore, investigates the free vibration of defective graphene sheets, rather than pristine graphene sheets, via nonlocal elasticity theory. Governing equations are derived using nonlocal elasticity and the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The influence of structural defects on the vibration of graphene sheets is considered by applying the mechanical properties of defective graphene sheets. Afterwards, these equations solved using generalized differential quadrature method (GDQ). The small-scale effect is applied in the governing equations of motion by nonlocal parameter. The effects of different defect types are inspected for graphene sheets with clamped or simply-supported boundary conditions on all sides. It is shown that the natural frequencies of graphene sheets decrease by introducing defects to the atomic structure. Furthermore, it is found that the number of missing atoms, shapes and distributions of structural defects play a significant role in the vibrational behavior of graphene. The effect of vacancy defect reconstruction is also discussed in this paper.

  19. Spherical systems in models of nonlocally corrected gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bronnikov, K A

    2009-01-01

    The properties of static, spherically symmetric configurations are considered in the framework of two models of nonlocally corrected gravity, suggested in S. Deser and R. Woodard., Phys. Rev. Lett. 663, 111301 (2007), and S. Capozziello et al., Phys. Lett. B 671, 193 (2009). For the first case, where the Lagrangian of nonlocal origin represents a scalar-tensor theory with two massless scalars, an explicit condition is found under which both scalars are canonical (non-phantom). If this condition does not hold, one of the fields exhibits a phantom behavior. Scalar-vacuum configurations then behave in a manner known for scalar-tensor theories. In the second case, the Lagrangian of nonlocal origin exhibits a scalar field interacting with the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) invariant and contains an arbitrary scalar field potential. It is found that the GB term, in general, leads to violation of the well-known no-go theorems valid for minimally coupled scalar fields in general relativity. It is shown, however, that some configu...

  20. Positive cosmological constant, non-local gravity and horizon entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N., E-mail: Sergey.Solodukhin@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2012-08-21

    We discuss a class of (local and non-local) theories of gravity that share same properties: (i) they admit the Einstein spacetime with arbitrary cosmological constant as a solution; (ii) the on-shell action of such a theory vanishes and (iii) any (cosmological or black hole) horizon in the Einstein spacetime with a positive cosmological constant does not have a non-trivial entropy. The main focus is made on a recently proposed non-local model. This model has two phases: with a positive cosmological constant {Lambda}>0 and with zero {Lambda}. The effective gravitational coupling differs essentially in these two phases. Generalizing the previous result of Barvinsky we show that the non-local theory in question is free of ghosts on the background of any Einstein spacetime and that it propagates a standard spin-2 particle. Contrary to the phase with a positive {Lambda}, where the entropy vanishes for any type of horizon, in an Einstein spacetime with zero cosmological constant the horizons have the ordinary entropy proportional to the area. We conclude that, somewhat surprisingly, the presence of any, even extremely tiny, positive cosmological constant should be important for the proper resolution of the entropy problem and, possibly, the information puzzle.

  1. Nonlocal Regularized Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques for MRI: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to revitalize researchers' interest in algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART by expanding their capabilities and demonstrating their potential in speeding up the process of MRI acquisition. Using a continuous-to-discrete model, we experimentally study the application of ART into MRI reconstruction which unifies previous nonuniform-fast-Fourier-transform- (NUFFT- based and gridding-based approaches. Under the framework of ART, we advocate the use of nonlocal regularization techniques which are leveraged from our previous research on modeling photographic images. It is experimentally shown that nonlocal regularization ART (NR-ART can often outperform their local counterparts in terms of both subjective and objective qualities of reconstructed images. On one real-world k-space data set, we find that nonlocal regularization can achieve satisfactory reconstruction from as few as one-third of samples. We also address an issue related to image reconstruction from real-world k-space data but overlooked in the open literature: the consistency of reconstructed images across different resolutions. A resolution-consistent extension of NR-ART is developed and shown to effectively suppress the artifacts arising from frequency extrapolation. Both source codes and experimental results of this work are made fully reproducible.

  2. Nonlocal wave turbulence in non-Abelian plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2016-01-01

    We investigate driven wave turbulence in non-Abelian plasmas, in the framework of kinetic theory where both elastic and inelastic processes are considered in the small angle approximation. The gluon spectrum, that forms in the presence of a steady source, is shown to be controlled by nonlocal interactions in momentum space, in contrast to the universal Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectra. Assuming strongly nonlocal interactions, we show that inelastic processes are dominant in the IR and cause a thermal bath to form below the forcing scale, as a result of a detailed balance between radiation and absorption of soft gluons by the hard ones. Above the forcing scale, the inelastic collision term reduces to an inhomogeneous diffusion-like equation yielding a spectrum that spreads to the UV as $t^{1/2}$, similarly to elastic processes. Due to nonlocal interactions the non-universal turbulent spectrum is not steady and flattens when time goes on toward the thermal distribution. This analysis is complemented by numerical sim...

  3. Image fusion via nonlocal sparse K-SVD dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Fangyi; Bai, Bendu; Shen, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Image fusion aims to merge two or more images captured via various sensors of the same scene to construct a more informative image by integrating their details. Generally, such integration is achieved through the manipulation of the representations of the images concerned. Sparse representation plays an important role in the effective description of images, offering a great potential in a variety of image processing tasks, including image fusion. Supported by sparse representation, in this paper, an approach for image fusion by the use of a novel dictionary learning scheme is proposed. The nonlocal self-similarity property of the images is exploited, not only at the stage of learning the underlying description dictionary but during the process of image fusion. In particular, the property of nonlocal self-similarity is combined with the traditional sparse dictionary. This results in an improved learned dictionary, hereafter referred to as the nonlocal sparse K-SVD dictionary (where K-SVD stands for the K times singular value decomposition that is commonly used in the literature), and abbreviated to NL_SK_SVD. The performance of the NL_SK_SVD dictionary is applied for image fusion using simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit. The proposed approach is evaluated with different types of images, and compared with a number of alternative image fusion techniques. The resultant superior fused images using the present approach demonstrates the efficacy of the NL_SK_SVD dictionary in sparse image representation.

  4. Positive cosmological constant, non-local gravity and horizon entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2012-08-01

    We discuss a class of (local and non-local) theories of gravity that share same properties: (i) they admit the Einstein spacetime with arbitrary cosmological constant as a solution; (ii) the on-shell action of such a theory vanishes and (iii) any (cosmological or black hole) horizon in the Einstein spacetime with a positive cosmological constant does not have a non-trivial entropy. The main focus is made on a recently proposed non-local model. This model has two phases: with a positive cosmological constant Λ>0 and with zero Λ. The effective gravitational coupling differs essentially in these two phases. Generalizing the previous result of Barvinsky we show that the non-local theory in question is free of ghosts on the background of any Einstein spacetime and that it propagates a standard spin-2 particle. Contrary to the phase with a positive Λ, where the entropy vanishes for any type of horizon, in an Einstein spacetime with zero cosmological constant the horizons have the ordinary entropy proportional to the area. We conclude that, somewhat surprisingly, the presence of any, even extremely tiny, positive cosmological constant should be important for the proper resolution of the entropy problem and, possibly, the information puzzle.

  5. Positive cosmological constant, non-local gravity and horizon entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Solodukhin, Sergey N

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a class of (local and non-local) theories of gravity that share same properties: i) they admit the Einstein spacetime with arbitrary cosmological constant as a solution; ii) the on-shell action of such a theory vanishes and iii) any (cosmological or black hole) horizon in the Einstein spacetime with a positive cosmological constant does not have a non-trivial entropy. The main focus is made on a recently proposed non-local model. This model has two phases: with a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda>0$ and with zero $\\Lambda$. The effective gravitational coupling differs essentially in these two phases. Generalizing the previous result of Barvinsky we show that the non-local theory in question is free of ghosts on the background of any Einstein spacetime and that it propagates a standard spin-2 particle. Contrary to the phase with a positive $\\Lambda$, where the entropy vanishes for any type of horizon, in an Einstein spacetime with zero cosmological constant the horizons have the ordinary entro...

  6. Two-direction nonlocal model for image denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuande; Feng, Xiangchu; Wang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Similarities inherent in natural images have been widely exploited for image denoising and other applications. In fact, if a cluster of similar image patches is rearranged into a matrix, similarities exist both between columns and rows. Using the similarities, we present a two-directional nonlocal (TDNL) variational model for image denoising. The solution of our model consists of three components: one component is a scaled version of the original observed image and the other two components are obtained by utilizing the similarities. Specifically, by using the similarity between columns, we get a nonlocal-means-like estimation of the patch with consideration to all similar patches, while the weights are not the pairwise similarities but a set of clusterwise coefficients. Moreover, by using the similarity between rows, we also get nonlocal-autoregression-like estimations for the center pixels of the similar patches. The TDNL model leads to an alternative minimization algorithm. Experiments indicate that the model can perform on par with or better than the state-of-the-art denoising methods.

  7. Conformal symmetry and nonlinear extensions of nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cusin, Giulia; Maggiore, Michele; Mancarella, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We study two nonlinear extensions of the nonlocal $R\\,\\Box^{-2}R$ gravity theory. We extend this theory in two different ways suggested by conformal symmetry, either replacing $\\Box^{-2}$ with $(-\\Box + R/6)^{-2}$, which is the operator that enters the action for a conformally-coupled scalar field, or replacing $\\Box^{-2}$ with the inverse of the Paneitz operator, which is a four-derivative operator that enters in the effective action induced by the conformal anomaly. We show that the former modification gives an interesting and viable cosmological model, with a dark energy equation of state today $w_{\\rm DE}\\simeq -1.01$, which very closely mimics $\\Lambda$CDM and evolves asymptotically into a de Sitter solution. The model based on the Paneitz operator seems instead excluded by the comparison with observations. We also review some issues about the causality of nonlocal theories, and we point out that these nonlocal models can be modified so to nicely interpolate between Starobinski inflation in the primordia...

  8. Nonlocal effects in a hybrid plasmonic waveguide for nanoscale confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiangsheng; Bao, Fanglin; He, Sailing

    2013-01-28

    The effect of nonlocal optical response is studied for a novel silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPW). Finite element method is used to implement the hydrodynamic model and the propagation mode is analyzed for a hybrid plasmonic waveguide of arbitrary cross section. The waveguide has an inverted metal nano-rib over a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure. An extremely small mode area of~10⁻⁶λ² is achieved together with several microns long propagation distance at the telecom wavelength of 1.55 μm. The figure of merit (FoM) is also improved in the same time, compared to the pervious hybrid plasmonic waveguide. We demonstrate the validity of our method by comparing our simulating results with some analytical results for a metal cylindrical waveguide and a metal slab waveguide in a wide wavelength range. For the HPW, we find that the nonlocal effects can give less loss and better confinement. In particular, we explore the influence of the radius of the rib's tip on the loss and the confinement. We show that the nonlocal effects give some new fundamental limitation on the confinement, leaving the mode area finite even for geometries with infinitely sharp tips.

  9. Learning-Based Video Superresolution Reconstruction Using Spatiotemporal Nonlocal Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyu Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at improving the video visual resolution quality and details clarity, a novel learning-based video superresolution reconstruction algorithm using spatiotemporal nonlocal similarity is proposed in this paper. Objective high-resolution (HR estimations of low-resolution (LR video frames can be obtained by learning LR-HR correlation mapping and fusing spatiotemporal nonlocal similarities between video frames. With the objective of improving algorithm efficiency while guaranteeing superresolution quality, a novel visual saliency-based LR-HR correlation mapping strategy between LR and HR patches is proposed based on semicoupled dictionary learning. Moreover, aiming at improving performance and efficiency of spatiotemporal similarity matching and fusion, an improved spatiotemporal nonlocal fuzzy registration scheme is established using the similarity weighting strategy based on pseudo-Zernike moment feature similarity and structural similarity, and the self-adaptive regional correlation evaluation strategy. The proposed spatiotemporal fuzzy registration scheme does not rely on accurate estimation of subpixel motion, and therefore it can be adapted to complex motion patterns and is robust to noise and rotation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves competitive superresolution quality compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both subjective and objective evaluations.

  10. Subquantum nonlocal correlations induced by the background random field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-10-01

    We developed a purely field model of microphenomena—prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) including correlations for entangled systems, but also gives a possibility to go beyond QM, i.e. to make predictions of phenomena that could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper, we discuss one such prediction—the existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to all quantum systems. (And by PCSFT, quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are 'entangled', but in the sense of classical signal theory. On the one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random background. On the other hand, it demonstrates total generality of such correlations. They exist even for distinguishable quantum systems in factorizable states (by PCSFT terminology—for Gaussian random fields with covariance operators corresponding to factorizable quantum states).

  11. Partial Wave Analysis of Scattering with Nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, H

    2003-01-01

    Partial wave analysis of two dimensional scattering for an arbitray short range potential and a nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux is established. The nonlocal influence of magnetic flux in the cross section of scattering for hard disk with a magnetic flux is examined. Due to the ergodic property of the nonlocal effect such influence would occur in quite general potential system and may be useful in understanding phenomenon of mesoscopic phyiscs.

  12. Nonlocal continuum theories of beams for the analysis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J. N.; Pang, S. D.

    2008-01-01

    The equations of motion of the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories are reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen [International Journal of Engineering Science 10, 1-16 (1972)]. The equations of motion are then used to evaluate the static bending, vibration, and buckling responses of beams with various boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented using the nonlocal theories to bring out the effect of the nonlocal behavior on deflections, buckling loads, and natural frequencies of carbon nanotubes.

  13. Nonlocal effects: relevance for the spontaneous emission rates of quantum emitters coupled to plasmonic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filter, Robert; Bösel, Christoph; Toscano, Giuseppe; Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2014-11-01

    The spontaneous emission rate of dipole emitters close to plasmonic dimers are theoretically studied within a nonlocal hydrodynamic model. A nonlocal model has to be used since quantum emitters in the immediate environment of a metallic nanoparticle probe its electronic structure. Compared to local calculations, the emission rate is significantly reduced. The influence is mostly pronounced if the emitter is located close to sharp edges. We suggest to use quantum emitters to test nonlocal effects in experimentally feasible configurations.

  14. A Morphing framework to couple non-local and local anisotropic continua

    KAUST Repository

    Azdoud, Yan

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we develop a method to couple anisotropic local continua with anisotropic non-local continua with central long-range forces. First, we describe anisotropic non-local models based on spherical harmonic descriptions. We then derive compatible classic continuum models. Finally, we apply the morphing method to these anisotropic non-local models and present three-dimensional numerical examples to validate the efficiency of the technique. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nonlocal thermoelectric effects and nonlocal Onsager relations in a three-terminal proximity-coupled superconductor-ferromagnet device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [SEPnet and Hubbard Theory Consortium, Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    We study thermal and charge transport in a three-terminal setup consisting of a superconducting and two ferromagnetic contacts. We predict that the simultaneous presence of spin-filtering and of spin-dependent scattering phase shifts at each of the two interfaces will lead to very large nonlocal thermoelectric effects both in clean and in disordered systems. The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. Our results show that a nonlocal version of the Onsager relations for thermoelectric currents holds in a three terminal quantum coherent ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and coherent electron transfer processes.

  16. Free vibrations analysis of carbon nanotubes resting on Winkler foundations based on nonlocal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmanian, M.; Torkaman-Asadi, M.A., E-mail: torkaman-asadi@ae.sharif.edu; Firouz-Abadi, R.D.; Kouchakzadeh, M.A.

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, free vibrations of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on an elastic foundation is investigated by nonlocal theory of elasticity with both beam and shell models. The nonlocal boundary conditions are derived explicitly and effectiveness of nonlocal parameter appearing in nonlocal boundary conditions is studied. Also it is demonstrated that the beam model is comparatively incapable of capturing size effects while shell model captures size effects more precisely. Moreover, the effects of some parameters such as mechanical properties, foundation stiffness, length and radius ratios on the natural frequencies are studied and some conclusions are drawn.

  17. Nonlocal Symmetry of the Lax Equation Related to Riccati-Type Pseudopotential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Hu; Chen, Yong; Xin, Xiang-Peng

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the Lax equation that can be employed to describe motions of long waves in shallow water under gravity. A nonlocal symmetry of this equation is given and used to find exact solutions and derive lower integrable models from higher ones. It is interesting that this nonlocal symmetry links with its corresponding Riccati-type pseudopotential. By introducing suitable and simple auxiliary dependent variables, the nonlocal symmetry is localized and used to generate new solutions from trivial solutions. Meanwhile, this equation is reduced to an ordinary differential equation by means of this nonlocal symmetry and some local symmetries.

  18. Are there novel resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Raza, Søren; Toscano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In tiny metallic nanostructures, quantum confinement and nonlocal response change the collective plasmonic behaviour with resulting important consequences for e.g. field-enhancement and extinction cross sections. Here we report on nonlocal resonances in the hydrodynamical Drude model for plasmonic...... nanostructures that have no counterpart in the local-response Drude model. Even though there are no additional resonances in the visible due to nonlocal response, plasmonic field enhancements are affected by nonlocal response. We present both analytical results for simple geometries and our numerical...

  19. Resonance measurement of nonlocal spin torque in a three-terminal magnetic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lin; Wang, Chen; Cui, Yong-Tao; Liu, Luqiao; Swander, A; Sun, J Z; Buhrman, R A; Ralph, D C

    2012-04-06

    A pure spin current generated within a nonlocal spin valve can exert a spin-transfer torque on a nanomagnet. This nonlocal torque enables new design schemes for magnetic memory devices that do not require the application of large voltages across tunnel barriers that can suffer electrical breakdown. Here we report a quantitative measurement of this nonlocal spin torque using spin-torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance. Our measurement agrees well with the prediction of an effective circuit model for spin transport. Based on this model, we suggest strategies for optimizing the strength of nonlocal torque.

  20. Equivalent bosonic theory for the massive Thirring model with non-local interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kang; Naon, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    We study, through path-integral methods, an extension of the massive Thirring model in which the interaction between currents is non-local. By examining the mass-expansion of the partition function we show that this non-local massive Thirring model is equivalent to a certain non-local extension of the sine-Gordon theory. Thus, we establish a non-local generalization of the famous Coleman's equivalence. We also discuss some possible applications of this result in the context of one-dimensional...