WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlocal heat flux

  1. Simulations of anti-parallel reconnection using a nonlocal heat flux closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jonathan; Hakim, Ammar; Bhattacharjee, A.; Stanier, Adam; Daughton, W.

    2017-08-01

    The integration of kinetic effects in fluid models is important for global simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere. In particular, it has been shown that ion kinetics play a crucial role in the dynamics of large reconnecting systems, and that higher-order fluid moment models can account for some of these effects. Here, we use a ten-moment model for electrons and ions, which includes the off diagonal elements of the pressure tensor that are important for magnetic reconnection. Kinetic effects are recovered by using a nonlocal heat flux closure, which approximates linear Landau damping in the fluid framework. The closure is tested using the island coalescence problem, which is sensitive to ion dynamics. We demonstrate that the nonlocal closure is able to self-consistently reproduce the structure of the ion diffusion region, pressure tensor, and ion velocity without the need for fine-tuning of relaxation coefficients present in earlier models.

  2. Boundary fluxes for nonlocal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  3. Momentum transport and non-local transport in heat-flux-driven magnetic reconnection in HEDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Fox, Will; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2016-10-01

    Strong magnetic fields are readily generated in high-energy-density plasmas and can affect the heat confinement properties of the plasma. Magnetic reconnection can in turn be important as an inverse process, which destroys or reconfigures the magnetic field. Recent theory has demonstrated a novel physics regime for reconnection in high-energy-density plasmas where the magnetic field is advected into the reconnection layer by plasma heat flux via the Nernst effect. In this work we elucidate the physics of the electron dissipation layer in this heat-flux-driven regime. Through fully kinetic simulation and a new generalized Ohm's law, we show that momentum transport due to the heat-flux-viscosity effect provides the dissipation mechanism to allow magnetic field line reconnection. Scaling analysis and simulations show that the characteristic width of the current sheet in this regime is several electron mean-free-paths. These results additionally show a coupling between non-local transport and momentum transport, which in turn affects the dynamics of the magnetic field. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008655.

  4. Non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Takuya [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    1998-10-01

    A new theoretical model equation which includes the non-local effect in the heat flux is proposed to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the experimental results from the power switching [Stroth U, et al 1996 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 1087] and the power modulation experiments [Giannone L, et al 1992 Nucl. Fusion 32 1985] in the W7-AS stellarator. A small fraction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in modifying the response against an external modulation. The transient feature of the transport property, which are observed in the response of heat pulse propagation, are qualitatively reproduced by the transport simulations based on this model. A possibility is discussed to determine the correlation length of the non-local effect experimentally by use of the results of transport simulations. (author)

  5. Electron heat flux instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  6. The dilemma of hyperbolic heat conduction and its settlement by incorporating spatially nonlocal effect at nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. Jun; Li, Chen-Lin; Xue, Zhang-Na; Tian, Xiao-Geng, E-mail: tiansu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-08

    To model transiently thermal responses of numerous thermal shock issues at nano-scale, Fourier heat conduction law is commonly extended by introducing time rate of heat flux, and comes to hyperbolic heat conduction (HHC). However, solution to HHC under Dirichlet boundary condition depicts abnormal phenomena, e.g. heat conducts from the cold to the hot, and there are two temperatures at one location. In this paper, HHC model is further perfected with the aids of spatially nonlocal effect, and the exceeding temperature as well as the discontinuity at the wave front are avoided. The effect of nonlocal parameter on temperature response is discussed. From the analysis, the importance of size effect for nano-scale heat conduction is emphasized, indicating that spatial and temporal extensions should be simultaneously made to nano-scale heat conduction. Beyond that, it is found that heat flux boundary conditions should be directly given, instead of Neumann boundary condition, which does not make sense any longer for non-classical heat conductive models. And finally, it is observed that accurate solution to such problems may be obtained using Laplace transform method, especially for the time-dependent boundary conditions, e.g. heat flux boundary condition. - Highlights: • The dilemma of hyperbolic heat conduction is summarized. • Paradox of heat conduction from the cold to the hot. • Paradox of two temperature at one material point. • The dilemma is overcome with the aids of spatially nonlocal effect. • Heat flux boundary condition of non-classical models is discussed.

  7. Critical heat flux thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, F.J. E-mail: fjk@posta.unizar.es

    2002-11-01

    Convective boiling in subcooled water flowing through a heated channel is essential in many engineering applications where high heat flux need to be accommodated, such as in the divertor plates of fusion reactors. There are many available correlations for predicting heat transfer in the individual regimes of the empirical Nukiyama boiling curve, although unfortunately there is no physical fundamentals of such curve. Recently, the author has shown that the classical entropy balance could contain key information about boiling heat transfer. So, it was found that the average thermal gap in the heated channel (the wall temperature minus the average temperature of the coolant fluid) was strongly correlated with the efficiency of a theoretical reversible engine placed in this thermal gap. In this work and from the new proposed correlation, a new expression of the wall temperature in function of the average fluid temperature is derived and successfully checked against experimental data from General Electric. This expression suggests a new and simple definition of the critical heat flux (CHF), a key parameter of the thermal-hydraulic design of fusion reactors. Finally, based on the new definition, the CHF trends are commented.

  8. Theory of nonlocal heat transport in fully ionized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maximov, A.V. (Tesla Labs., Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States)); Silin, V.P. (P.N. Lebedev Inst., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia))

    1993-01-25

    A new analytic solution of the electron kinetic equation describing the interacting of the electromagnetic heating field with plasma is obtained in the region of plasma parameters where the Spitzer-Harm classical theory is invalid. A novel expression for the nonlocal electron thermal conductivity is derived. (orig.).

  9. Earth's surface heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Davies

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a revised estimate of Earth's surface heat flux that is based upon a heat flow data-set with 38 347 measurements, which is 55% more than used in previous estimates. Our methodology, like others, accounts for hydrothermal circulation in young oceanic crust by utilising a half-space cooling approximation. For the rest of Earth's surface, we estimate the average heat flow for different geologic domains as defined by global digital geology maps; and then produce the global estimate by multiplying it by the total global area of that geologic domain. The averaging is done on a polygon set which results from an intersection of a 1 degree equal area grid with the original geology polygons; this minimises the adverse influence of clustering. These operations and estimates are derived accurately using methodologies from Geographical Information Science. We consider the virtually un-sampled Antarctica separately and also make a small correction for hot-spots in young oceanic lithosphere. A range of analyses is presented. These, combined with statistical estimates of the error, provide a measure of robustness. Our final preferred estimate is 47±2 TW, which is greater than previous estimates.

  10. Near field radiative heat transfer between two nonlocal dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, F; Joulain, Karl

    2015-01-01

    We explore in the present work the near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel nonlocal dielectric planes by means of fluctuational electrodynamics. We use atheory for the nonlocal dielectric permittivityfunction proposed byHalevi and Fuchs. This theory has the advantage to includedifferent models performed in the literature. According to this theory, the nonlocal dielectric function is described by a Lorenz-Drude like single oscillator model, in which the spatial dispersion effects are represented by an additional term depending on the square of the total wavevector k. The theory takes into account the scattering of the electromagneticexcitation at the surface of the dielectric material, which leads to the need of additional boundary conditions in order to solve Maxwell's equations and treat the electromagnetic transmission problem. The additional boundary conditions appear as additional surface scattering parameters in the expressions of the surface impedances. It is shown that the...

  11. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  12. Critical heat flux around strongly heated nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabia, Samy; Keblinski, Pawel; Joly, Laurent; Lewis, Laurent J; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2009-02-01

    We study heat transfer from a heated nanoparticle into surrounding fluid using molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the fluid next to the nanoparticle can be heated well above its boiling point without a phase change. Under increasing nanoparticle temperature, the heat flux saturates, which is in sharp contrast with the case of flat interfaces, where a critical heat flux is observed followed by development of a vapor layer and heat flux drop. These differences in heat transfer are explained by the curvature-induced pressure close to the nanoparticle, which inhibits boiling. When the nanoparticle temperature is much larger than the critical fluid temperature, a very large temperature gradient develops, resulting in close to ambient temperature just a radius away from the particle surface. The behavior reported allows us to interpret recent experiments where nanoparticles can be heated up to the melting point, without observing boiling of the surrounding liquid.

  13. Specific heat of a non-local attractive Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calegari, E.J., E-mail: eleonir@ufsm.br [Laboratório de Teoria da Matéria Condensada, Departamento de Física, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lobo, C.O. [Laboratório de Teoria da Matéria Condensada, Departamento de Física, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Magalhaes, S.G. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea s/n, 24210, 346, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Chaves, C.M.; Troper, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The specific heat C(T) of an attractive (interaction G<0) non-local Hubbard model is investigated within a two-pole approximation that leads to a set of correlation functions, which play an important role as a source of anomalies as the pseudogap. For a giving range of G and n{sub T} (where n{sub T}=n{sub ↑}+n{sub ↓}), the specific heat as a function of the temperature presents a two peak structure. Nevertehelesss, the presence of a pseudogap eliminates the two peak structure. The effects of the second nearest-neighbor hopping on C(T) are also investigated.

  14. Radial heat flux transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiulis, A.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Unit moves heat radially from small diameter shell to larger diameter shell, or vice versa, with negligible temperature drop, making device useful wherever heating or cooling of concentrically arranged materials, substances, and structures is desired.

  15. High heat flux loop heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Mark T.; Sarraf, David B.; Rosenfeld, John H.; Maidanik, Yuri F.; Vershinin, Sergey

    1997-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) can transport very large thermal power loads, over long distances, through flexible, small diameter tubes and against high gravitational heads. While recent LHPs have transported as much as 1500 W, the peak heat flux through a LHP's evaporator has been limited to about 0.07 MW/m2. This limitation is due to the arrangement of vapor passages next to the heat load which is one of the conditions necessary to ensure self priming of the device. This paper describes work aimed at raising this limit by threefold to tenfold. Two approaches were pursued. One optimized the vapor passage geometry for the high heat flux conditions. The geometry improved the heat flow into the wick and working fluid. This approach also employed a finer pored wick to support higher vapor flow losses. The second approach used a bidisperse wick material within the circumferential vapor passages. The bidisperse material increased the thermal conductivity and the evaporative surface area in the region of highest heat flux, while providing a flow path for the vapor. Proof-of-concept devices were fabricated and tested for each approach. Both devices operated as designed and both demonstrated operation at a heat flux of 0.70 MW/m2. This performance exceeded the known state of the art by a factor of more than six for both conventional heat pipes and for loop heat pipes using ammonia. In addition, the bidisperse-wick device demonstrated boiling heat transfer coefficients up to 100,000 W/m2.K, and the fine pored device demonstrated an orientation independence with its performance essentially unaffected by whether its evaporator was positioned above, below or level with the condenser.

  16. Heat flux solarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartarelli, A.; Vera, S.; Cyrulies, E. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Echarri, R. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Samson, I. [INTEC (Instituto Tecnologico Santo Domingo), Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)

    2010-12-15

    The solarimeter presented in this work is easy to assemble. It is calibrated and its performance is validated by means of Hottel's method. Finally, the curves obtained with this solarimeter are compared to the ones obtained with a commercial solarimeter. This device is based on the evaluation of the heat flow in a metal rod. In consequence, measurements are not affected by ambient temperature variations. On the other hand, there is a linear relationship between the temperatures measured at the rod ends and the incident radiation, as can be concluded both from the theory of its operation and the calibration lines obtained. The results obtained from the global irradiance measurements in the area of Los Polvorines (Buenos Aires Province), together with a preliminary evaluation of the solarimeter's response time, are presented in this work. (author)

  17. Contact of boundary-value problems and nonlocal problems in mathematical models of heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashenko, V.; Kobilskaya, O.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper the mathematical models in the form of nonlocal problems for the two-dimensional heat equation are considered. Relation of a nonlocal problem and a boundary value problem, which describe the same physical heating process, is investigated. These problems arise in the study of the temperature distribution during annealing of the movable wire and the strip by permanent or periodically operating internal and external heat sources. The first and the second nonlocal problems in the mobile area are considered. Stability and convergence of numerical algorithms for the solution of a nonlocal problem with piecewise monotone functions in the equations and boundary conditions are investigated. Piecewise monotone functions characterize the heat sources and heat transfer conditions at the boundaries of the area that is studied. Numerous experiments are conducted and temperature distributions are plotted under conditions of internal and external heat sources operation. These experiments confirm the effectiveness of attracting non-local terms to describe the thermal processes. Expediency of applying nonlocal problems containing nonlocal conditions - thermal balance conditions - to such models is shown. This allows you to define heat and mass transfer as the parameters of the process control, in particular heat source and concentration of the substance.

  18. On a Nonlocal Problem Modelling Ohmic Heating in Planar Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei LIANG; Qi Lin LIU; Yu Xiang LI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the nonlocal problem of the form ut-△u=λe-u/(∫Ωe-udx)2,x∈Ω,t>0 and the associated nonlocal stationary problem -△v=λe-v/(∫Ωe-vdx)2,x∈Ω, where A is a positive parameter. For Ω to be an annulus, we prove that the nonlocal stationary problem has a unique solution if and only if λ < 2|(6)Ω|2, and for A = 2|(6)Ω|2, the solution of the nonlocal parabolic problem grows up globally to infinity as t → ∞.

  19. Calibration of soil heat flux sensors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van W.K.P.; Bastings, H.M.H.; Moors, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    Soil heat flux is difficult to measure accurately and soil heat flux plates are difficult to calibrate. In this research the reference heat flux was calculated from the temperature gradient and independent thermal conductivity measurements. Reference conductivities, as measured by the non-steady sta

  20. Particle model for nonlocal heat transport in fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufferand, H; Ciraolo, G; Ghendrih, Ph; Lepri, S; Livi, R

    2013-02-01

    We present a simple stochastic, one-dimensional model for heat transfer in weakly collisional media as fusion plasmas. Energies of plasma particles are treated as lattice random variables interacting with a rate inversely proportional to their energy schematizing a screened Coulomb interaction. We consider both the equilibrium (microcanonical) and nonequilibrium case in which the system is in contact with heat baths at different temperatures. The model exhibits a characteristic length of thermalization that can be associated with an interaction mean free path and one observes a transition from ballistic to diffusive regime depending on the average energy of the system. A mean-field expression for heat flux is deduced from system heat transport properties. Finally, it is shown that the nonequilibrium steady state is characterized by long-range correlations.

  1. Understanding of flux-limited behaviors of heat transport in nonlinear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yangyu, E-mail: yangyuhguo@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics and CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jou, David, E-mail: david.jou@uab.es [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Wang, Moran, E-mail: mrwang@tsinghua.edu [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics and CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The classical Fourier's law of heat transport breaks down in highly nonequilibrium situations as in nanoscale heat transport, where nonlinear effects become important. The present work is aimed at exploring the flux-limited behaviors based on a categorization of existing nonlinear heat transport models in terms of their theoretical foundations. Different saturation heat fluxes are obtained, whereas the same qualitative variation trend of heat flux versus exerted temperature gradient is got in diverse nonlinear models. The phonon hydrodynamic model is proposed to act as a standard to evaluate other heat flux limiters because of its more rigorous physical foundation. A deeper knowledge is thus achieved about the phenomenological generalized heat transport models. The present work provides deeper understanding and accurate modeling of nonlocal and nonlinear heat transport beyond the diffusive limit. - Highlights: • Exploring flux-limited behaviors based on a categorization of existing nonlinear heat transport models. • Proposing phonon hydrodynamic model as a standard to evaluate heat flux limiters. • Providing accurate modeling of nonlocal and nonlinear heat transport beyond the diffusive limit.

  2. A NONLOCAL NONLINEAR BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR THE HEAT EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANJINHAI

    1996-01-01

    The existenoe and limit hehaviour of the solution for a kind of nonloeal noulinear boundary value condition on a part of the boundary is studied for the heat equation, which physicallymeans that the potential is the function of the total flux. When this part of boundary shrinks to a point in a certain way, this condition either results in a Dirac measure or simply disappears in the corresponding problem.

  3. Heat conduction in nanoscale materials: a statistical-mechanics derivation of the local heat flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiantao

    2014-09-01

    We derive a coarse-grained model for heat conduction in nanoscale mechanical systems. Starting with an all-atom description, this approach yields a reduced model, in the form of conservation laws of momentum and energy. The model closure is accomplished by introducing a quasilocal thermodynamic equilibrium, followed by a linear response approximation. Of particular interest is the constitutive relation for the heat flux, which is expressed nonlocally in terms of the spatial and temporal variation of the temperature. Nanowires made of copper and silicon are presented as examples.

  4. Heat Flux Apportionment to Heterogeneous Surfaces Using Flux Footprint Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Heat flux data collected from the Baiyangdian Heterogeneous Field Experiment were analyzed using the footprint method. High resolution (25 m) Landsat-5 satellite imaging was used to determine the land cover as one of four surface types: farmland, lake, wetland, or village. Data from two observation sites in September 2005 were used. One site (Wangjiazhai) was characterized by highly heterogeneous surfaces in the central area of the Baiyangdian: lake/wetland. The other site (Xiongxian) was on land with more uniform surface cover. An improved Eulerian analytical flux footprint model was used to determine "source areas" of the heat fluxes measured at towers located at each site from surrounding landscapes of mixed surface types.In relative terms results show that wetland and lake areas generally contributed most to the observed heat flux at Wangjiazhai, while farmland contributed most at Xiongxian. Given the areal distribution of surface type contributions, calculations were made to obtain the magnitudes of the heat flux from lake, wetland and farmland to the total observed flux and apportioned contributions of each surface type to the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Results show that on average the sensible heat flux from wetland and farmland were comparable over the diurnal cycle, while the latent heat flux from farmland was somewhat larger by about 30-50 W m-2 during daytime. The latent and sensible fluxes from the lake source in daytime were about 50 W m-2 and 100 W m-2 less, respectively, than from wetland and farmland. The results are judged reasonable and serve to demonstrate the potential for flux apportionment over heterogeneous surfaces.

  5. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  6. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-01-01

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts o

  7. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-01-01

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts o

  8. ANthropogenic heat FLUX estimation from Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmong, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mi, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impac

  9. Quantifying streambed advection and conduction heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, Daniel; Luce, Charles H.

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater and accompanying heat fluxes are particularly relevant for aquatic habitats as they influence living conditions both within the river and streambed. This study focuses on the theory and the development of new equations to estimate conduction and advection heat fluxes into and out of the bed, correcting some earlier misunderstandings and adding parameterizations that extend our understanding of timing of heat fluxes. The new heat flux equations are illustrated using Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick, Canada) stream/streambed temperature data. We show important relationships between fluxes when the surface water temperature (1) follows a sinusoidal function superimposed on a steady state condition (constant deep streambed temperature) and (2) when sinusoidal variations in stream temperature at two frequencies (annual and diel) are superimposed. When the stream temperature is used as a prescribed boundary condition, the contribution of bed fluid fluxes to stream temperature occurs through the effects of conductive thermal gradients, not through direct contribution/mixing of cold/warm water. Boundary conditions can be modified, however, to account for direct contribution of cold/warm water (e.g., localized upwelling) and consequences for the conduction heat flux. Equations developed allow for prediction of conductive fluxes to the bed during summer driven by diel and annual temperature fluctuations of the stream water and good agreement was observed between analytic solutions and field data. Results from this study provide a better insight into groundwater and heat fluxes which will ultimately result in better stream temperature models and a better management of fisheries resources.

  10. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000ÀC showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  11. Wave heating in magnetic flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    1990-01-01

    The bright chromosphere in the quiet sun is confined to magnetic elements (flux tubes), which are located in the interior of the supergranulation cells and within the network that surrounds the cells. The paper discusses the heating of the gas in the magnetic elements of the cell interior. These intranetwork flux tubes are closely associated with bright points, which are heated by large-amplitude compressive waves with periods near the acoustic cutoff that travel outward from the photosphere and dissipate their energy in the chromosphere. The energy flux of these long-period waves appears to be sufficient for the heating of the low and middle chromosphere in the bright points.

  12. Magnetic Flux Controllers for Induction Heating Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentin Nemkov; Robert Goldstein; Robert Ruffini

    2004-01-01

    Application of magnetic flux controllers/concentrators to induction heating coils can drastically improve the process efficiency and heat pattern control. Presentation includes: benefits provided by flux controllers, materials available for controllers, application techniques, computer assisted design of induction coils with concentrators, examples of applications. Depending on induction system design, magnetic flux controllers can concentrate heating in a specified area,change heat source distribution and shield a particular part zone or external area preventing unintended eddy current heating.Besides of the coil efficiency improvement and optimal power distribution, magnetic flux controllers reduce the coil current demand from a supplying circuitry thus strongly reducing losses in busswork, cables, transformers and inverter components.Improvement that can be achieved due to magnetic flux controllers is case dependable. 2D and 3D computer simulation allows the designer to predict accurately effect of controllers on the coil parameters and temperature distribution and optimize the whole electromagnetic system. Special attention in presentation is paid to new magnetodielectric materials optimized for induction heating conditions. These materials have high magnetic permeability and saturation flux density,excellent machinability, good chemical and temperature resistance. Concentrators from these materials can work in a wide range of frequencies and specific powers. Examples of magnetic flux controller application include surface hardening of shafts and gears, induction surface hardfacing and brazing.

  13. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Maria Carlomagno; Luigi de Luca; Gennaro Cardone; Tommaso Astarita

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dy...

  14. Latent and sensible heat fluxes overestimated and net heat flux underestimated in Lake Victoria

    CERN Document Server

    Verburg, Piet

    2014-01-01

    Cozar et al. (2012) used remotely-sensed data to link phytoplankton growth to the net heat flux in both the northern and southern parts of Lake Victoria. However, the latent and sensible heat fluxes were overestimated by ~26% by assuming a constant air density of 1.3 kg m-3. As a result, the net heat flux was underestimated, bringing into question conclusions regarding the convective circulation.

  15. A note on analytical solutions of nonlinear fractional 2D heat equation with non-local integral terms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O S IYIOLA; F D ZAMAN

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we consider the (2+1) nonlinear fractional heat equation with non-local integral terms and investigate two different cases of such non-local integral terms. The first has to do with the time-dependent non-local integral term and the second is the space-dependent non-local integral term. Apart from the nonlinear nature of these formulations, the complexity due to the presence of the non-local integral terms impelled us to use a relatively new analytical technique called q-homotopy analysis method to obtain analytical solutions to both cases in the form of convergent series with easily computable components. Our numerical analysis enables us to show the effects of non-local terms and the fractional-order derivative on the solutions obtained by this method.

  16. Correlation of critical heat flux data for uniform tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafri, T.; Dougherty, T.J.; Yang, B.W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A data base of more than 10,000 critical heat flux (CHF) data points has been compiled and analyzed. Two regimes of CHF are observed which will be referred to as the high CHF regime and the low CHF regime. In the high CHF regime, for pressures less than 110 bar, CHF (q{sub c}) is a determined by local conditions and is adequately represented by q{sub c} = (1.2/D{sup 1/2}) exp[-{gamma}(GX{sub t}){sup 1/2}] where the parameter {gamma} is an increasing function of pressure only, X{sub t} the true mass fraction of steam, and all units are metric but the heat flux is in MWm{sup -2}. A simple kinetic model has been developed to estimate X{sub t} as a function of G, X, X{sub i}, and X{sub O}, where X{sub i} is the inlet quality and X{sub O} represents the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization (OSV) which is estimated from the Saha-Zuber (S-Z) correlation. The model is based on a rate equation for vaporization suggested by, and consistent with, the S-Z correlation and contains no adjustable parameters. When X{sub i}X{sub O}, X{sub t} depends on X{sub i}, a nonlocal variable, and, in this case, CHF, although determined by local conditions, obeys a nonlocal correlation. This model appears to be satisfactory for pressures less than 110 bar, where the S-Z correlation is known to be reliable. Above 110 bar the method of calculating X{sub O}, and consequently X{sub t}, appears to fail, so this approach can not be applied to high pressure CHF data. Above 35 bar, the bulk of the available data lies in the high CHF regime while, at pressures less than 35 bar, almost all of the available data lie in the low CHF regime and appear to be nonlocal.

  17. New fractional derivatives with nonlocal and non-singular kernel: Theory and application to heat transfer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atangana Abdon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we proposed a new fractional derivative with non-local and no-singular kernel. We presented some useful properties of the new derivative and applied it to solve the fractional heat transfer model.

  18. The transient transpiration heat flux meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, N. [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica-DEM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)]. E-mail: nmartins@mec.ua.pt; Calisto, H. [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica-DEM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Afgan, N. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Leontiev, A.I. [Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya Str. 5, Moscow 107005 (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15

    A new heat flux measurement principle, based on the transient response of a transpiration radiometer, is proposed. The measurement principle of current transpiration radiometers is based on a steady-state temperature measurement in a porous element. Since it may typically take several seconds to reach these conditions, there are obvious benefits in reducing the instrument response time. This can be achieved through the analysis of its transient response in order to predict the incident heat flux. In addition, the proposed methodology enables the separate measurement of the radiative and convective components of incident heat fluxes, without compromising the known advantages of transpiration radiometers. The availability of such an instrument may enable the development of advanced monitoring, diagnostic and control systems for thermal equipment.

  19. Finite Volume schemes on unstructured grids for non-local models: Application to the simulation of heat transport in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudon, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.goudon@inria.fr [Team COFFEE, INRIA Sophia Antipolis Mediterranee (France); Labo. J.A. Dieudonne CNRS and Univ. Nice-Sophia Antipolis (UMR 7351), Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 02 (France); Parisot, Martin, E-mail: martin.parisot@gmail.com [Project-Team SIMPAF, INRIA Lille Nord Europe, Park Plazza, 40 avenue Halley, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    In the so-called Spitzer-Haerm regime, equations of plasma physics reduce to a nonlinear parabolic equation for the electronic temperature. Coming back to the derivation of this limiting equation through hydrodynamic regime arguments, one is led to construct a hierarchy of models where the heat fluxes are defined through a non-local relation which can be reinterpreted as well by introducing coupled diffusion equations. We address the question of designing numerical methods to simulate these equations. The basic requirement for the scheme is to be asymptotically consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm regime. Furthermore, the constraints of physically realistic simulations make the use of unstructured meshes unavoidable. We develop a Finite Volume scheme, based on Vertex-Based discretization, which reaches these objectives. We discuss on numerical grounds the efficiency of the method, and the ability of the generalized models in capturing relevant phenomena missed by the asymptotic problem.

  20. On a difference scheme for nonlocal heat transfer boundary-value problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhymbek, Meiram E.; Sadybekov, Makhmud A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of solving nonlocal problems for the heat equation with finite difference method. The main important feature of these problems is their non-self-adjointness. This non-self-adjointness causes major difficulties in their analytical and numerical solving. The problems, which boundary conditions do not possess strong regularity, are less studied. The scope of study of the paper justifies possibility of building a stable difference scheme with weights for abovementioned type of problems.

  1. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Maria Carlomagno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  2. Heat flux sensors for infrared thermography in convective heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-11-07

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  3. Transformation thermodynamics: cloaking and concentrating heat flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenneau, Sebastien; Amra, Claude; Veynante, Denis

    2012-03-26

    We adapt tools of transformation optics, governed by a (elliptic) wave equation, to thermodynamics, governed by the (parabolic) heat equation. We apply this new concept to an invibility cloak in order to thermally protect a region (a dead core) and to a concentrator to focus heat flux in a small region. We finally propose a multilayered cloak consisting of 20 homogeneous concentric layers with a piecewise constant isotropic diffusivity working over a finite time interval (homogenization approach).

  4. Nonlocal thermal transport in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpen, Judith T.; Devore, C. Richard

    1987-01-01

    A flaring solar atmosphere is modeled assuming classical thermal transport, locally limited thermal transport, and nonlocal thermal transport. The classical, local, and nonlocal expressions for the heat flux yield significantly different temperature, density, and velocity profiles throughout the rise phase of the flare. Evaporation of chromospheric material begins earlier in the nonlocal case than in the classical or local calculations, but reaches much lower upward velocities. Much higher coronal temperatures are achieved in the nonlocal calculations owing to the combined effects of delocalization and flux limiting. The peak velocity and momentum are roughly the same in all three cases. A more impulsive energy release influences the evolution of the nonlocal model more than the classical and locally limited cases.

  5. Fine fuel heating by radiant flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Frankman; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Don J. Latham

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were conducted wherein wood shavings and Ponderosa pine needles in quiescent air were subjected to a steady radiation heat flux from a planar ceramic burner. The internal temperature of these particles was measured using fine diameter (0.076mm diameter) type K thermocouples. A narrow angle radiometer was used to determine the emissive power generated by the...

  6. Vertical eddy heat fluxes from model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Peter H.; Yao, Mao-Sung

    1991-01-01

    Vertical eddy fluxes of heat are calculated from simulations with a variety of climate models, ranging from three-dimensional GCMs to a one-dimensional radiative-convective model. The models' total eddy flux in the lower troposphere is found to agree well with Hantel's analysis from observations, but in the mid and upper troposphere the models' values are systematically 30 percent to 50 percent smaller than Hantel's. The models nevertheless give very good results for the global temperature profile, and the reason for the discrepancy is unclear. The model results show that the manner in which the vertical eddy flux is carried is very sensitive to the parameterization of moist convection. When a moist adiabatic adjustment scheme with a critical value for the relative humidity of 100 percent is used, the vertical transports by large-scale eddies and small-scale convection on a global basis are equal: but when a penetrative convection scheme is used, the large-scale flux on a global basis is only about one-fifth to one-fourth the small-scale flux. Comparison of the model results with observations indicates that the results with the latter scheme are more realistic. However, even in this case, in mid and high latitudes the large and small-scale vertical eddy fluxes of heat are comparable in magnitude above the planetary boundary layer.

  7. Nonlocal model for the turbulent fluxes due to thermal convection in rectilinear shearing flow

    CERN Document Server

    Smolec, R; Gough, D O

    2011-01-01

    We revisit a phenomenological description of turbulent thermal convection along the lines proposed by Gough (1977) in which eddies grow solely by extracting energy from the unstably stratified mean state and are subsequently destroyed by internal shear instability. This work is part of an ongoing investigation for finding a procedure to calculate the turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum in the presence of a shearing background flow in stars.

  8. Contribution of Oceanic Circulation to the Poleward Heat Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ruixin

    2005-01-01

    Oceanic contribution to the poleward heat flux in the climate system includes two components: the sensible heat flux and the latent heat flux. Although the latent heat flux has been classified as atmospheric heat flux exclusively, it is argued that oceanic control over this component of poleward heat flux should play a critically important role. The so-called swamp ocean model practice is analyzed in detail, and the critical role of oceanic circulation in the establishment of the meridional moisture transport is emphasized.

  9. Towards an emerging understanding of non-locality phenomena and non-local transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K.; Shi, Z.; Sun, H. J.; Inagaki, S.; Kamiya, K.; Rice, J. E.; Tamura, N.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Zou, X. L.; Itoh, K.; Sugita, S.; Gürcan, O. D.; Estrada, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Hahm, T. S.; Field, A.; Ding, X. T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Oldenbürger, S.; Yoshinuma, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Jiang, M.; Hahn, S. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Hong, S. H.; Kosuga, Y.; Dong, J.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, recent progress on experimental analysis and theoretical models for non-local transport (non-Fickian fluxes in real space) is reviewed. The non-locality in the heat and momentum transport observed in the plasma, the departures from linear flux-gradient proportionality, and externally triggered non-local transport phenomena are described in both L-mode and improved-mode plasmas. Ongoing evaluation of ‘fast front’ and ‘intrinsically non-local’ models, and their success in comparisons with experimental data, are discussed

  10. Expanding Taylor bubble under constant heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voirand, Antoine; Benselama, Adel M.; Ayel, Vincent; Bertin, Yves

    2016-09-01

    Modelization of non-isothermal bubbles expanding in a capillary, as a contribution to the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHPs), is the scope of this paper. The liquid film problem is simplified and solved, while the thermal problem takes into account a constant heat flux density applied at the capillary tube wall, exchanging with the liquid film surrounding the bubble and also with the capillary tube outside medium. The liquid slug dynamics is solved using the Lucas-Washburn equation. Mass and energy balance on the vapor phase allow governing equations of bubble expansion to be written. The liquid and vapor phases are coupled only through the saturation temperature associated with the vapor pressure, assumed to be uniform throughout the bubble. Results show an over-heating of the vapor phase, although the particular thermal boundary condition used here always ensures an evaporative mass flux at the liquid-vapor interface. Global heat exchange is also investigated, showing a strong decreasing of the PHP performance to convey heat by phase change means for large meniscus velocities.

  11. Contactless heat flux control with photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control electric currents in solids using diodes and transistors is undoubtedly at the origin of the main developments in modern electronics which have revolutionized the daily life in the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, until the year 2000 no thermal counterpart for such a control had been proposed. Since then, based on pioneering works on the control of phononic heat currents new devices were proposed which allow for the control of heat fluxes carried by photons rather than phonons or electrons. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the main advances achieved recently in the field of thermal energy control with photons.

  12. Heat flux modulation in domino dynamo model

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnyak, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Using domino dynamo model we show how variations of the heat flux at the core-mantle boundary change frequency of geomagnetic field reversals. In fact, we are able to demonstrate effect known from the modern 3D planetary dynamo models using ensemble of the interacting spins, which obey equations of the Langevin-type with a random force. We also consider applications to the giant- planets and offer explanations of some specific episodes of the geomagnetic field in the past.

  13. A novel approach to evaluate soil heat flux calculation: An analytical review of nine methods: Soil Heat Flux Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhongming [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington USA; Russell, Eric S. [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington USA; Missik, Justine E. C. [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington USA; Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Chen, Xingyuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Strickland, Chris E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Clayton, Ray [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Arntzen, Evan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ma, Yulong [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington USA; Liu, Heping [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington USA

    2017-07-12

    We evaluated nine methods of soil heat flux calculation using field observations. All nine methods underestimated the soil heat flux by at least 19%. This large underestimation is mainly caused by uncertainties in soil thermal properties.

  14. Visualization Study on High Heat Flux Boiling and Critical Heat Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Satbyoul; Kim, Hyungdae [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, an integrated visible and infrared-based experimental method is introduced to simultaneously measure the details of high-resolution liquid-vapor phase and heat transfer distributions on a heated wall. The dynamics and heat transfer at high heat flux boiling and critical heat flux were observed. The experiment was conducted in pool of saturated water under atmospheric pressure. There have been many studies to examine the physical mechanisms of nucleation boiling and critical heat flux over several decades. Several visible and infrared-based optical techniques for time-resolved high resolution measurements for liquid-vapor phase and heater surface temperature during boiling have been introduced to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of them. Liquid-vapor phase, temperature, and heat flux distributions on the heated surface were measured during pool boiling of water using the integrated total reflection and infrared thermometry technique. Qualitative examination of the data for high heat flux boiling and CHF was performed. The main contributions of this work are summarized below. The existence and behavior of dry patches lead the way toward CHF condition. Therefore, the mechanistic modeling of the CHF phenomenon necessarily needs to include the physical parameters related to dynamics of the large dry patch such as life time and size. In addition to the dynamic behavior of the dry patch, the thermal behavior of the hot patch is also important. Even though the dry area was rewetted, the stored thermal energy in the hot patch can be remained if the rewetting time is short and the subsequent dry patch is regenerated quickly.

  15. Time and Space Resolved Heat Flux Measurements During Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2005-01-01

    The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work was to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleating bubbles on a constant heat flux surface using a microheater array with 100x 100 square microns resolution, then numerically determine the wall to liquid heat flux. This data was then correlated with high speed (greater than l000Hz) visual recordings of The bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that microlayer evaporation and contact line heat transfer are not major heat transfer mechanisms for bubble growth. The dominant heat transfer mechanism appears to be transient conduction into the liquid as the liquid rewets the wall during the bubble departure process.

  16. Convective heat flux in a laser-heated thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P. K. S.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis is performed to estimate the convective heating to the wall in a laser-heated thruster on the basis of a solution of the laminar boundary-layer equations with variable transport properties. A local similiarity approximation is used, and it is assumed that the gas phase is in equilibrium. For the thruster described by Wu (1976), the temperature and pressure distributions along the nozzle are obtained from the core calculation. The similarity solutions and heat flux are obtained from the freestream conditions of the boundary layer, in order to determine if it is necessary to couple the boundary losses directly to the core calculation. In addition, the effects of mass injection on the convective heat transfer across the boundary layer with large density-viscosity product gradient are examined.

  17. Spectral non-uniform temperature and non-local heat transfer in the spin Seebeck effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin S; Sinova, Jairo; Finkel'stein, Alexander M

    2013-01-01

    Recently discovered spin-dependent thermoelectric effects have merged spin, charge, and thermal physics, known as spin caloritronics, of which the spin Seebeck effect is its most puzzling. Here we present a theory of this effect driven by subthermal non-local phonon heat transfer and spectral non-uniform temperature. The theory explains its non-local behaviour from the fact that phonons that store the energy (thermal) and the phonons that transfer it (subthermal) are located in different parts of the spectrum and have different kinetics. This gives rise to a spectral phonon distribution that deviates from local equilibrium along the substrate and is sensitive to boundary conditions. The theory also predicts a non-magnon origin of the effect in ferromagnetic metals in agreement with observations in recent experiments. Equilibration of the heat flow from the substrate to the Pt probe and backwards leads to a vertical spin current produced by the spin-polarized electrons dragged by the thermal phonons.

  18. Non-locality and the flux line lattice square to hexagonal symmetry transition in the borocarbide superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, M.R.; Fisher, I.R.; Gammel, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Using small angle neutron scattering we have studied the square to hexagonal flux line lattice symmetry transition in different members of the borocarbide superconductors. The studies were performed using samples of ErNi2B2C, Lu(Ni1-xCox)(2)B2C with cobalt doping levels x = 1.5-9% and Y0.64Lu0.36...... that the transition onset follows a model by V. Kogan et nl., which includes non-local corrections to the London model due to the Fermi surface anisotropy of the borocarbides. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Heat flux measurements on ceramics with thin film thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Raymond; Anderson, Robert C.; Liebert, Curt H.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods were devised to measure heat flux through a thick ceramic using thin film thermocouples. The thermocouples were deposited on the front and back face of a flat ceramic substrate. The heat flux was applied to the front surface of the ceramic using an arc lamp Heat Flux Calibration Facility. Silicon nitride and mullite ceramics were used; two thicknesses of each material was tested, with ceramic temperatures to 1500 C. Heat flux ranged from 0.05-2.5 MW/m2(sup 2). One method for heat flux determination used an approximation technique to calculate instantaneous values of heat flux vs time; the other method used an extrapolation technique to determine the steady state heat flux from a record of transient data. Neither method measures heat flux in real time but the techniques may easily be adapted for quasi-real time measurement. In cases where a significant portion of the transient heat flux data is available, the calculated transient heat flux is seen to approach the extrapolated steady state heat flux value as expected.

  20. Separating expansion and collapse in general fluid models with heat flux

    CERN Document Server

    Delliou, Morgan Le; Mena, Filipe C; Fontanini, Michele; Guariento, Daniel C; Abdalla, Elcio

    2013-01-01

    In this letter we consider spherically symmetric general fluids with heat flux and give the appropriate set of conditions that define the divide between expansion and collapse in the cases in which heat flux and its evolution vanish at the separating surface. We extend previous works with a fully non-linear analysis in the $3 + 1$ splitting, and present gauge-invariant results. The definition of the separating surface is inspired by the conservation of the Misner-Sharp mass, and is obtained by generalizing the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equilibrium and turnaround conditions. We emphasize the non-local character of these conditions as found in previous works and discuss connections to the phenomena of spacetime cracking and thermal peeling.

  1. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology: (1) Heat flux is one of a number of parameters, together with pressure, temperature, flow, etc. of interest to engine designers and fluid dynamists, (2) The measurement of heat flux is of interest in directly determining the cooling requirements of hot section blades and vanes, and (3)In addition, if the surface and gas temperatures are known, the measurement of heat flux provides a value for the convective heat transfer coefficient that can be compared with the value provided by CFD codes.

  2. Exploring ISEE-3 magnetic cloud polarities with electron heat fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, S.W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, 29 Randolph Rd, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731 (United States); Crooker, N.U. [Center for Space Physics, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Gosling, J.T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS D 466, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1999-06-01

    We have used solar wind electron heat fluxes to determine the magnetic polarities of the interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF) during the ISEE-3 observations in 1978{endash}1982. That period included 14 magnetic clouds (MCs) identified by Zhang and Burlaga. The MCs have been modeled as single magnetic flux ropes, and it is generally assumed that they are magnetically closed structures with each end of the flux rope connected to the Sun. The flux rope model is valid only if the magnetic polarity of each MC does not change during the passage of ISEE-3 through the MC. We test this model with the heat flux data, using the dominant heat flux in bidirectional electron heat fluxes to determine the MC polarities. The polarity changes within at least 2, and possibly 6, of the 14 MCs, meaning that those MCs can not fit the model of a single flux rope. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Exploring ISEE-3 magnetic cloud polarities with electron heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Crooker, N. U.; Gosling, J. T.

    1999-06-01

    We have used solar wind electron heat fluxes to determine the magnetic polarities of the interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF) during the ISEE-3 observations in 1978-1982. That period included 14 magnetic clouds (MCs) identified by Zhang and Burlaga. The MCs have been modeled as single magnetic flux ropes, and it is generally assumed that they are magnetically closed structures with each end of the flux rope connected to the Sun. The flux rope model is valid only if the magnetic polarity of each MC does not change during the passage of ISEE-3 through the MC. We test this model with the heat flux data, using the dominant heat flux in bidirectional electron heat fluxes to determine the MC polarities. The polarity changes within at least 2, and possibly 6, of the 14 MCs, meaning that those MCs can not fit the model of a single flux rope.

  4. Surface renewal method for estimating sensible heat flux

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-18

    Sep 18, 2008 ... Keywords: surface energy balance, sensible heat flux, latent energy flux, evaporation ... Hill et al., 1992; Thiermann and Grassl, 1992; Green et al.,. 1994; De ...... the time traces over rangeland grass near Ione (California).

  5. UNIFORM BLOW-UP PROFILES FOR HEAT EQUATIONS WITH COUPLING NONLOCAL SOURCES OF ASYMMETRIC MIXED TYPE NONLINEARITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Linghua; Wang Jinhuan; Zheng Sining

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with a nonlocal heat system subject to null Dirichlet boundary conditions,where the coupling nonlocal sources consist of mixed type asymmetric nonlinearities.We at first give the criterion for simultaneous blow-up of solutions,and then establish the uniform blow-up profiles of solutions near the blow-up time.It is observed that not only the simultaneous blow-up rates of the two components u and v are asymmetric,but also the blow-up rates of the same component u (or v) may be in different levels under different dominations.

  6. High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.

    1993-07-01

    Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

  7. The measurement of surface heat flux using the Peltier effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewen, E.C. (Pavement Management Systems Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)); Hollands, K.G.T., Raithby, G.D. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    Calorimetric methods for measuring surface heat flux use Joulean heating to keep the surface isothermal. This limits them to measuring the heat flux of surfaces that are hotter than their surroundings. Presented in this paper is a method whereby reversible Peltier effect heat transfer is used to maintain this isothermality, making it suitable for surfaces that are either hotter or colder than the surroundings. The paper outlines the theory for the method and describes physical models that have been constructed, calibrated, and tested. The tested physical models were found capable of measuring heat fluxes with an absolute accuracy of 1 percent over a wide range of temperature (5-50C) and heat flux (15-500 W/m{sup 2}), while maintaining isothermality to within 0.03 K. A drawback of the method is that it appears to be suited only for measuring the heat flux from thick metallic plates.

  8. Self-similar variables and the problem of nonlocal electron heat conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Bakunin, O.G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center]|[Kurchatov Inst. of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-01

    Self-similar solutions of the collisional electron kinetic equation are obtained for the plasmas with one (1D) and three (3D) dimensional plasma parameter inhomogeneities and arbitrary Z{sub eff}. For the plasma parameter profiles characterized by the ratio of the mean free path of thermal electrons with respect to electron-electron collisions, {gamma}{sub T}, to the scale length of electron temperature variation, L, one obtains a criterion for determining the effect that tail particles with motion of the non-diffusive type have on the electron heat conductivity. For these conditions it is shown that the use of a {open_quotes}symmetrized{close_quotes} kinetic equation for the investigation of the strong nonlocal effect of suprathermal electrons on the electron heat conductivity is only possible at sufficiently high Z{sub eff} (Z{sub eff} {ge} (L/{gamma}{sub T}){sup 1/2}). In the case of 3D inhomogeneous plasma (spherical symmetry), the effect of the tail electrons on the heat transport is less pronounced since they are spread across the radius r.

  9. Numerical investigation of non-local electron transport in laser-produced plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Ya-Lin; Zhao Bin; Zheng Jian

    2007-01-01

    Non-local electron transport in laser-produced plasmas under inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions is studied based on Fokker-Planck (FP) and hydrodynamic simulations. A comparison between the classical Spitzer-H(a)rm (SH)transport model and non-local transport models has been made. The result shows that among those non-local models the Epperlein and Short (ES) model of heat flux is in reasonable agreement with the FP simulation in overdense region.However, the non-local models are invalid in the hot underdense plasmas. Hydrodynamic simulation is performed with the flux limiting model and the non-local model, separately. The simulation results show that in the underdense region of the laser-produced plasmas the temperature given by the flux limiting model is significantly higher than that given with the non-local model.

  10. Transient critical heat flux and blowdown heat-transfer studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Objective of this study is to give a best-estimate prediction of transient critical heat flux (CHF) during reactor transients and hypothetical accidents. To accomplish this task, a predictional method has been developed. Basically it involves the thermal-hydraulic calculation of the heated core with boundary conditions supplied from experimental measurements. CHF predictions were based on the instantaneous ''local-conditions'' hypothesis, and eight correlations (consisting of round-tube, rod-bundle, and transient correlations) were tested against most recent blowdown heat-transfer test data obtained in major US facilities. The prediction results are summarized in a table in which both CISE and Biasi correlations are found to be capable of predicting the early CHF of approx. 1 s. The Griffith-Zuber correlation is credited for its prediction of the delay CHF that occurs in a more tranquil state with slowly decaying mass velocity. In many instances, the early CHF can be well correlated by the x = 1.0 criterion; this is certainly indicative of an annular-flow dryout-type crisis. The delay CHF occurred at near or above 80% void fraction, and the success of the modified Zuber pool-boiling correlation suggests that this CHF is caused by flooding and pool-boiling type hydrodynamic crisis.

  11. Seasonal variability of turbulent heat fluxes in the tropical Atlantic Ocean based on WHOI flux product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mean seasonal variability of turbulent heat fluxes in the tropical Atlantic Ocean is examined using the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) flux product. The most turbulent heat fluxes occur during winter seasons in the two hemispheres, whose centers are located at 10°~20°N and 5°~15°S respectively. In climatological ITCZ, the turbulent heat fluxes are the greatest from June to August, and in equatorial cold tongue the turbulent heat fluxes are the greatest from March to May. Seasonal variability of sensible heat flux is smaller than that of latent heat flux and mainly is dominated by the variations of air-sea temperature difference. In the region with larger climatological mean wind speed (air-sea humidity difference), the variations of air-sea humidity difference (wind speed) dominate the variability of latent heat flux. The characteristics of turbulent heat flux yielded from theory analysis and WHOI dataset is consistent in physics which turns out that WHOI's flux data are pretty reliable in the tropical Atlantic Ocean.

  12. High heat flux transport by microbubble emission boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichi

    2007-10-01

    In highly subcooled flow boiling, coalescing bubbles on the heating surface collapse to many microbubbles in the beginning of transition boiling and the heat flux increases higher than the ordinary critical heat flux. This phenomenon is called Microbubble Emission Boiling, MEB. It is generated in subcooled flow boiling and the maximum heat flux reaches about 1 kW/cm2(10 MW/m2) at liquid subcooling of 40 K and liquid velocity of 0.5 m/s for a small heating surface of 10 mm×10 mm which is placed at the bottom surface of horizontal rectangular channel. The high pressure in the channel is observed at collapse of the coalescing bubbles and it is closely related the size of coalescing bubbles. Periodic pressure waves are observed in MEB and the heat flux increases linearly in proportion to the pressure frequency. The frequency is considered the frequency of liquid-solid exchange on the heating surface. For the large sized heating surface of 50 mm length×20 mm width, the maximum heat flux obtained is 500 W/cm2 (5 MW/m2) at liquid subcooling of 40 K and liquid velocity of 0.5 m/s. This is considerably higher heat flux than the conventional cooling limit in power electronics. It is difficult to remove the high heat flux by MEB for a longer heating surface than 50 mm by single channel type. A model of advanced cooling device is introduced for power electronics by subcooled flow boiling with impinging jets. Themaxumum cooling heat flux is 500 W/cm2 (5 MW/m2). Microbubble emission boiling is useful for a high heat flux transport technology in future power electronics used in a fuel-cell power plant and a space facility.

  13. Critical heat flux, post dry-out and their augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the state of art review on the critical heat flux and the post-dryout heat transfer. The work, which is a merge of original researches carried out at the Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamic of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and a thorough review of the recent literature, is divided in four chapters: critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling; critical heat flux in saturated flow boiling; post-dryout heat transfer; enhancement of critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer. [Italian] Si passa in rassegna lo stato dell'arte sulla crisi termica e sullo scambio termico post-crisi, che compendia studi tradizionali condotti dall'ENEA. Il rapporto e' suddiviso in quattro parti: crisi termica in ebollizione sottoraffreddata; crisi termica in ebollizione satura; scambio termico dopo la crisi termica; incremento del flusso termico critico e dello scambio termico post-crisi.

  14. Heat flux anomalies in Antarctica revealed from satellite magnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Cathrine Fox; Purucker, Michael E.; Olsen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    The geothermal heat flux is an important factor in the dynamics of ice sheets; it affects the occurrence of subglacial lakes, the onset of ice streams, and mass losses from the ice sheet base. Because direct heat flux measurements in ice-covered regions are difficult to obtain, we developed a met...

  15. A novel approach for anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Heldens, Wieke; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Fabio Del; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Albitar, Ahmad; Gabey, Andrew; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-01-01

    The recently launched H2020 project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of EO to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component in the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances existing Earth Observation (EO) based me

  16. The Meridional Flux of Sensible Heat over the Northern Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    White, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The meridional eddy flux of sensible heat is examined by means of finite difference integration methods from northern hemisphere charts for the winter 1945-46. The eddy sensible heat flux is shown to occur principally in the lowest layers of the atmosphere and to decrease with elevation. The magnitude of the eddy sensible heat transports are compared with the total poleward energy flux required by the radiation balance, and are shown to comprise a very large fraction of this flux.DOI: 10.1111...

  17. Analytical Solution of Coupled Laminar Heat-Mass Transfer in a Tube with Uniform Heat Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Analytical solution is obtained of coupled laminar heat-mass transfer in a tube with uniform heat flux.This corresponds to the case when a layer of sublimable material is coated on the inner surface of a tube with its outer surface heated by uniform heat flux and this coated material will sublime as gas flows throught the tube.

  18. Accuracy of surface heat fluxes from observations of operational satellites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Sugimori, Y.

    with uncertainties for same flux values resulting from climatological ship observations. For net satellite derived heat flux varying from 0 to 300 w/m sup(2) the uncertainties were found to be of the order of 50-90 w/m sup(2). For the same range of flux values...

  19. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  20. Inverse Estimation of Transient Heat Flux to Slab Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Miao; YANG Kai; LIU Yun-fei; GAO Xiao-wei

    2012-01-01

    The transient heat flux was calculated using a model for inverse heat conduction problems based on temper- ature measurements. The unknown heat flux was taken as an optimization variable and solved by minimizing the differences between the calculated temperatures and the measured ones. Several examples were given to show the ef- fectiveness and the accuracy of the inverse algorithm in estimating the transient heat flux to a slab surface. The re sults show that the inverse approach can be applied in the steel industry or in other areas where the target of investi- gation is inaccessible to direct measurements or difficult to be directly modeled.

  1. Estimation of the Distribution of Global Anthropogenic Heat Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The radiance lights data in 2006 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) and authoritative energy data distributed by the United State Energy Information Administration were applied to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic heat flux.A strong linear relationship was found to exist between the anthropogenic heat flux and the DMSP/OLS radiance data.On a global scale,the average value of anthropogenic heat flux is approximately 0.03 W m 2 and 0.10 W m 2 for global land area.The results indicate that global anthropogenic heat flux was geographically concentrated and distributed,fundamentally correlating to the economical activities.The anthropogenic heat flux concentrated in the economically developed areas including East Asia,Europe,and eastern North America.The anthropogenic heat flux in the concentrated regions,including the northeastern United States,Central Europe,United Kingdom,Japan,India,and East and South China is much larger than global average level,reaching a large enough value that could affect regional climate.In the center of the concentrated area,the anthropogenic heat flux density may exceed 100 W m 2,according to the results of the model.In developing areas,including South America,Central and North China,India,East Europe,and Middle East,the anthropogenic heat flux can reach a level of more than 10 W m 2 ;however,the anthropogenic heat flux in a vast area,including Africa,Central and North Asia,and South America,is low.With the development of global economy and urban agglomerations,the effect on climate of anthropogenic heat is essential for the research of climate change.

  2. Optimization-based design of a heat flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Ignacio; Fachinotti, Víctor D.; Ciarbonetti, Ángel A.

    2017-01-01

    To gain control over the diffusive heat flux in a given domain, one needs to engineer a thermal metamaterial with a specific distribution of the generally anisotropic thermal conductivity throughout the domain. Until now, the appropriate conductivity distribution was usually determined using transformation thermodynamics. By this way, only a few particular cases of heat flux control in simple domains having simple boundary conditions were studied. Thermal metamaterials based on optimization algorithm provides superior properties compared to those using the previous methods. As a more general approach, we propose to define the heat control problem as an optimization problem where we minimize the error in guiding the heat flux in a given way, taking as design variables the parameters that define the variable microstructure of the metamaterial. In the present study we numerically demonstrate the ability to manipulate heat flux by designing a device to concentrate the thermal energy to its center without disturbing the temperature profile outside it. PMID:28084451

  3. Heat Transport of Non-Local Effect with Modulated SMBI on HL-2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-Juan; DING Xuan-Tong; YAO Liang-Hua; FENG Bei-Bin; LIU Ze-Tian; GAO Ya-Dong; LI Wei; LI Xue-Hong; DUAN Xu-Ru; YANG Qing-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Modulated supersonic molecular beam (SMB) injection is introduced to study transport features of non-local transport phenomenon on HL-2A.Repetitive non-local effect induced by modulated SMBI allows Fourier transformation of the temperature perturbation,yielding detailed investigation of the pulse propagation. Fourier analysis provides evidence for existence of internal transport barriers.Meanwhile,experimental progress of nonlocal effect was made in the HL-2A Tokamak in 2007.The core electron temperature Te rise increases from 18% to more than 40% and the duration of the Te rise could be prolonged by changing the conditions of SMB injection.

  4. Critical Heat Flux in Nanofluids at Quasi-Stationary and Stepwise Heat Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of an experimental study on critical heat flux in nanofluid at quasi-stationary and stepwise heat generation are presented. Freon R21 with addition of 0.0077 vol.% of SiO2 nanoparticles was used as test fluid. Boiling curves, critical heat fluxes and temperatures of boiling initiation were obtained for pure fluid and for nanofluid. It was shown that the addition of nanoparticles didn’t affect heat transfer at pool boiling, but critical heat fluxes at quasi-stationary and stepwise heat generation were increased.

  5. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J.

    1995-10-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere]|[Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1997-03-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author) 197 refs.

  7. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  8. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  9. Baseline high heat flux and plasma facing materials for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Y.; Schmid, K.; Balden, M.; Coenen, J. W.; Loewenhoff, Th.; Ito, A.; Hasegawa, A.; Hardie, C.; Porton, M.; Gilbert, M.

    2017-09-01

    In fusion reactors, surfaces of plasma facing components (PFCs) are exposed to high heat and particle flux. Tungsten and Copper alloys are primary candidates for plasma facing materials (PFMs) and coolant tube materials, respectively, mainly due to high thermal conductivity and, in the case of tungsten, its high melting point. In this paper, recent understandings and future issues on responses of tungsten and Cu alloys to fusion environments (high particle flux (including T and He), high heat flux, and high neutron doses) are reviewed. This review paper includes; Tritium retention in tungsten (K. Schmid and M. Balden), Impact of stationary and transient heat loads on tungsten (J.W. Coenen and Th. Loewenhoff), Helium effects on surface morphology of tungsten (Y. Ueda and A. Ito), Neutron radiation effects in tungsten (A. Hasegawa), and Copper and copper alloys development for high heat flux components (C. Hardie, M. Porton, and M. Gilbert).

  10. Wind-Speed—Surface-Heat-Flux Feedback in Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Junshi; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Strong winds associated with dust devils can induce locally large heat fluxes from the surface, and resulting enhanced buoyancy may further intensify the dust devils. This positive wind—surface-heat-flux feedback is studied using a large-eddy simulation of a convective boundary layer. A comparison of the results with and without the feedback process for the same environment demonstrates the significance of the feedback process for simulated dust devils.

  11. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D A; Menard, J E; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boedo, J A; Bush, C E; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D

    2008-08-04

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly-shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6 MW m{sup -2} to 0.5-2 MW m{sup -2} in small-ELM 0.8-1.0 MA, 4-6 MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  12. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Heldens, Wieke; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Albitar, Ahmad; Gabey, Andrew; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-04-01

    While Earth Observation (EO) has made significant advances in the study of urban areas, there are several unanswered science and policy questions to which it could contribute. To this aim the recently launched Horizon 2020 project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of EO to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component in the urban energy budget. The anthropogenic heat flux is the heat flux resulting from vehicular emissions, space heating and cooling of buildings, industrial processing and the metabolic heat release by people. Optical, thermal and SAR data from existing satellite sensors are used to improve the accuracy of the radiation balance spatial distribution calculation, using also in-situ reflectance measurements of urban materials are for calibration. EO-based methods are developed for estimating turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes, as well as urban heat storage flux and anthropogenic heat flux spatial patterns at city scale and local scale by employing an energy budget closure approach. Independent methods and models are engaged to evaluate the derived products and statistical analyses provide uncertainty measures as well. Ultimate goal of the URBANFLUXES is to develop a highly automated method for estimating urban energy budget components to use with Copernicus Sentinel data, enabling its integration into applications and operational services. Thus, URBANFLUXES prepares the ground for further innovative exploitation of European space data in scientific activities (i.e. Earth system modelling and climate change studies in cities) and future and emerging applications (i.e. sustainable urban planning) by exploiting the improved data quality, coverage and revisit times of the Copernicus data. The URBANFLUXES products will therefore have the potential to support both sustainable planning strategies to improve the quality of life in cities, as well as Earth system models to

  13. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campergue, A.-L. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, F77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A. [Euratom/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electronics, Torino (Italy); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  14. Heat Flux Through Slag Film and Its Crystallization Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ping; XU Chu-shao; WEN Guang-hua; ZHAO Yan-hong; QI Xin

    2008-01-01

    An experimental apparatus for simulating copper mold is used to quantify the heat flux through the slag film and to obtain a solid slag for further determining its crystallization behavior.The result indicates that both the chemical composition of the mold powder and the cooling rate have an important influence on the heat flux through the slag film.With increasing the binary hasicity,the heat flux of slag film decreases at first,reaches the minimum at the basicity of 1.4,and then increases,indicating that the maximum binary basicity is about 1.4 for selecting"mild cooling"mold powder.The heat transfer through the slag film can be specified in terms of the crystalline ratio and the thickness of the slag film.Reerystallization of the solid slag occurs and must be considered as an important factor that may influence the heat transfer through the solid slag layer.

  15. Explosive Boiling at Very Low Heat Fluxes: A Microgravity Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.; Knoll, R. H.; Bentz, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents experimental observations of explosive boiling from a large (relative to bubble sizes) flat heating surface at very low heat fluxes in microgravity. The explosive boiling is characterized as either a rapid growth of vapor mass over the entire heating surface due to the flashing of superheated liquid or a violent boiling spread following the appearance of single bubbles on the heating surface. Pool boiling data with saturated Freon 113 was obtained in the microgravity environment of the space shuttle. The unique features of the experimental results are the sustainability of high liquid superheat for long periods and the occurrence of explosive boiling at low heat fluxes (0.2 to 1.2 kW/sq m). For a heat flux of 1.0 kW/sq m a wall superheat of 17.9 degrees C was attained in ten minutes of heating. This was followed by an explosive boiling accompanied with a pressure spike and a violent bulk liquid motion. However, at this heat flux the vapor blanketing the heating surface could not be sustained. Stable nucleate boiling continued following the explosive boiling.

  16. Heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving porous flat plate with heat flux

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    The analysis of the heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving semi-infinite plate in the presence of suction/ injection with heat flux has been presented. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated...

  17. Characterization of ion fluxes and heat fluxes for PMI relevant conditions on Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Clyde; Shaw, Guinevere; Biewer, Theodore; Rapp, Juergen

    2016-10-01

    Plasma characterization, in particular, particle flux and electron and ion temperature distributions nearest to an exposed target, are critical to quantifying Plasma Surface Interaction (PSI). In the Proto-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX), the ion fluxes and heat fluxes are derived from double Langmuir Probes (DLP) and Thomson Scattering in front of the target assuming Bohm conditions at the sheath entrance. Power fluxes derived from ne and Te measurements are compared to heat fluxes measured with IR thermography. The comparison will allow conclusions on the sheath heat transmission coefficient to be made experimentally. Different experimental conditions (low and high density plasmas (0.5 - 6 x 1019 m-3) with different magnetic configuration are compared. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  18. Design of a Calibration System for Heat Flux Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, F.; Dell'Isola, M.; Ficco, G.; Iacomini, L.; Fernicola, V.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate heat flux measurements are needed to gain a better knowledge of the thermal performance of buildings and to evaluate the heat exchange among various parts of a building envelope. Heat flux meters (HFMs) are commonly used both in laboratory applications and in situ for measuring one-dimensional heat fluxes and, thus, estimating the thermal transmittance of material samples and existing buildings components. Building applications often requires heat flux measurements below 100 W · m-2. However, a standard reference system generating such a low heat flux is available only in a few national metrology institutes (NMIs). In this work, a numerical study aimed at designing an HFM calibration apparatus operating in the heat flux range from 5 W·m-2 to 100 W · m-2 is presented. Predictions about the metrological performance of such a calibration system were estimated by numerical modeling exploiting a commercial FEM code (COMSOL®). On the basis of the modeling results, an engineered design of such an apparatus was developed and discussed in detail. The system was designed for two different purposes: (i) for measuring the thermal conductivity of insulators and (ii) for calibrating an HFM with an absolute method (i.e., by measuring the applied power from the heater and its active cross section) or by a relative method (i.e., by measuring the temperature drop across a reference material of known thickness and thermal conductivity). The numerical investigations show that in order to minimize the uncertainty of the generated heat flux, a fine temperature control on the thermal guard is needed. The predicted standard uncertainty is within 2% at 10W·m-2 and within 0.5% at 100 W · m-2.

  19. Estimation of sensible heat, water vapor, and CO2 fluxes using the flux-variance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-I; Lai, Mei-Chun; Hsia, Yue-Joe; Chang, Tsang-Jung

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the flux-variance relationships of temperature, humidity, and CO(2), and examined the performance of using this method for predicting sensible heat (H), water vapor (LE), and CO(2) fluxes (F(CO2)) with eddy-covariance measured flux data at three different ecosystems: grassland, paddy rice field, and forest. The H and LE estimations were found to be in good agreement with the measurements over the three fields. The prediction accuracy of LE could be improved by around 15% if the predictions were obtained by the flux-variance method in conjunction with measured sensible heat fluxes. Moreover, the paddy rice field was found to be a special case where water vapor follows flux-variance relation better than heat does. However, the CO(2) flux predictions were found to vary from poor to fair among the three sites. This is attributed to the complicated CO(2) sources and sinks distribution. Our results also showed that heat and water vapor were transported with the same efficiency above the grassland and rice paddy. For the forest, heat was transported 20% more efficiently than evapotranspiration.

  20. Critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This Brief concerns the important problem of critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to “Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” by the same author team, this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  1. Distribution of heat flux by working fluid in loop heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2016-03-01

    The main topics of article are construction of loop heat pipe, thermal visualization of working fluid dynamics and research results interpretation. The work deals about heat flux transport by working fluid in loop heat pipe from evaporator to condenser evolution. The result of the work give us how the hydrodynamic and thermal processes which take place inside the loop of heat pipe affect on the overall heat transport by loop heat pipe at start-up and during operation.

  2. Distribution of heat flux by working fluid in loop heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topics of article are construction of loop heat pipe, thermal visualization of working fluid dynamics and research results interpretation. The work deals about heat flux transport by working fluid in loop heat pipe from evaporator to condenser evolution. The result of the work give us how the hydrodynamic and thermal processes which take place inside the loop of heat pipe affect on the overall heat transport by loop heat pipe at start-up and during operation.

  3. QUANTIFICATION OF HEAT FLUX FROM A REACTING THERMITE SPRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Nixon; Michelle Pantoya

    2009-07-01

    Characterizing the combustion behaviors of energetic materials requires diagnostic tools that are often not readily or commercially available. For example, a jet of thermite spray provides a high temperature and pressure reaction that can also be highly corrosive and promote undesirable conditions for the survivability of any sensor. Developing a diagnostic to quantify heat flux from a thermite spray is the objective of this study. Quick response sensors such as thin film heat flux sensors can not survive the harsh conditions of the spray, but more rugged sensors lack the response time for the resolution desired. A sensor that will allow for adequate response time while surviving the entire test duration was constructed. The sensor outputs interior temperatures of the probes at known locations and utilizes an inverse heat conduction code to calculate heat flux values. The details of this device are discussed and illustrated. Temperature and heat flux measurements of various thermite spray conditions are reported. Results indicate that this newly developed energetic material heat flux sensor provides quantitative data with good repeatability.

  4. Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.

  5. Heat flux distribution on circulating fluidized bed boiler water wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The future of circulating fluidized bed (CFB)combustion technology is in raising the steam parameters to supercritical levels.Understanding the heat flux distribution on the water wall is one of the most important issues in the design and operation of supercritical pressure CFB boilers.In the present paper,the finite element analysis (FEA) method is adopted to predict the heat transfer coefficient as well as the heat flux of the membrane wall and the results are validated by direct measurement of the temperature around the tube.Studies on the horizontal heat flux distribution were conducted in three CFB boilers with different furnace size,tube dimension and water temperature.The results are useful in supercritical pressure CFB boiler design.

  6. Reconciling heat-flux and salt-flux estimates at a melting ice-ocean interface

    CERN Document Server

    Keitzl, Thomas; Notz, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of heat and salt flux is employed in ice-ocean models to represent ice-ocean interactions. In this study, this flux ratio is determined from direct numerical simulations of free convection beneath a melting, horizontal, smooth ice-ocean interface. We find that the flux ratio at the interface is three times as large as previously assessed based on turbulent-flux measurements in the field. As a consequence, interface salinities and melt rates are overestimated by up to 40\\% if they are based on the three-equation formulation. We also find that the interface flux ratio depends only very weakly on the far-field conditions of the flow. Lastly, our simulations indicate that estimates of the interface flux ratio based on direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes will be difficult because at the interface the diffusivities alone determine the mixing and the flux ratio varies with depth. As an alternative, we present a consistent evaluation of the flux ratio based on the total heat and salt fluxes across t...

  7. Transient critical heat flux under flow coast-down in vertical annulus with non-uniform heat flux distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.K.; Chun, S.Y.; Choi, K.Y.; Yang, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    An experimental study on transient critical heat flux (CHF) under flow coast-down has been performed for water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical annulus under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the effect of the flow transient on the CHF and to compare the transient CHF with steady state CHF. The transient CHF experiments have been performed for three kinds of flow transient modes based on the coast-down data of the Kori 3/4 nuclear power plant reactor coolant pump. Most of the CHFs occurred in the annular-mist flow regime. Thus, it means that the possible CHF mechanism might be the liquid film dryout in the annular-mist flow regime. For flow transient mode with the smallest flow reduction rate, the time-to-CHF is the largest. At the same inlet subcooling, system pressure and heat flux, the effect of the initial mass flux on the critical mass flux can be negligible. However, the effect of the initial mass flux on the time-to-CHF becomes large as the heat flux decreases. Usually, the critical mass flux is large for slow flow reduction. There is a pressure effect on the ratio of the transient CHF data to steady state CHF data. Some conventional correlations show relatively better CHF prediction results for high system pressure, high quality and slow transient modes than for low system pressure, low quality and fast transient modes. (author)

  8. Hybrid Heat Pipes for High Heat Flux Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The thermal transport requirements for future spacecraft missions continue to increase, approaching several kilowatts. At the same time the heat acquisition areas...

  9. Turbulent Heat Transfer Behavior of Nanofluid in a Circular Tube Heated under Constant Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Torii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to disclose the forced convective heat transport phenomenon of nanofluids inside a horizontal circular tube subject to a constant and uniform heat flux at the wall. Consideration is given to the effect of the inclusion of nanoparticles on heat transfer enhancement, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and pressure loss in the turbulent flow region. It is found that (i heat transfer enhancement is caused by suspending nanoparticles and becomes more pronounced with the increase of the particle volume fraction, (ii its augmentation is affected by three different nanofluids employed here, and (iii the presence of particles produces adverse effects on viscosity and pressure loss that also increases with the particle volume fraction.

  10. Heat and mass flux estimation of modern seafloor hydrothermal activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Shikui; WANG Xingtao; YU Zenghui

    2006-01-01

    Research on heat and mass flux yielded by modern seafloor hydrothermal activity is very important, because it is involved not only in the base of ocean environment research, but also in the historical evolution of seawater properties. Currently, estimating heat flux is based on the observation data of hydrothermal smokers, low-temperature diffusive flow and mid-ocean ridge mainly. But there are some faults, for example, there is lack of a concurrent conductive item in estimating the heat flux by smokers and the error between the half-space cooling model and the observation data is too large. So, three kinds of methods are applied to re-estimating the heat flux of hydrothermal activity resepectively, corresponding estimation is 97.359 GW by hydrothermal smoker and diffusive flow, 84.895 GW by hydrothermal plume, and 4.11 TW by exponential attenuation method put forward by this paper. Research on mass flux estimation is relatively rare, the main reason for this is insufficient field observation data. Mass fluxes of different elements are calculated using hydrothermal vent fluid data from the TAG hydrothermal area on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge for the first time. Difference of estimations by different methods reflects the researching extent of hydrothermal activity, and systematically in-situ observation will help to estimate the contribution of hydrothermal activity to ocean chemical environment, ocean circulation and global climate precisely.

  11. Heat flux in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Edson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Various difficulties with application of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory are surveyed including the influence of growing waves, advection and internal boundary-layer development. These complications are normally important with offshore flow. The transfer coefficient for heat is computed from eddy...

  12. Deduction of the Sensible Heat Flux from SODAR Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Naixian; LI Chengcai

    2008-01-01

    A new method for deduction of the sensible heat flux is validated with three sets of published SODAR (sound detection and ranging)data.Although the related expressions have previously been confirmed by the author with surface layer data,they have not yet been validated with observations from the boundary layer before this work.In the study,selected SODAR data are used to test the method for the convective boundary layer.The sensible heat flux(SHF)retrieved from SODAR data is found to decrease linearly with height in the mixed layer.The surface sensible heat fluxes derived from the deduced sensible heat flux profiles under convective conditions agree well with those measured by the eddy correlation method.The characteristics of SHF profiles deduced from SODAR data in difierent places reflect the background meteorology and terrain.The upper part of the SHF profile(SHFP)for a complicated terrain is found to have a difierent slope from the lower part.It is suggested that the former reflects the advective chaxacteristic of turbulence in upwind topography.A similarity relationship for the estimation of SHFP in a well mixed layer with surface SHF and zero-heat-flux layer height is presented.

  13. Heat requirement of greenhouses including latent heat flux; Waermebedarf von Gewaechshaeusern unter Beruecksichtigung des latenten Waermetransportes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tantau, Hans-Juergen [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Biosystem- und Gartenbautechnik

    2013-03-01

    Unlike buildings, the heat demand of greenhouses is affected also by the evaporation of the respective crop. Due to condensation of water vapour inside the covering material, latent heat is converted into sensible heat and transported outwards through the covering material. The portion of latent heat can increase to more than 50 % of the internal heat transfer and is therefore a significant heat flux, which must be considered in calculations of heat demand. The heat transfer coefficients (U-values), as they are given in literature, are only valid for dry conditions without condensation. In this work, a simplified methodological approach was chosen using heat transfer resistances to consider the latent heat flux and thus, to calculate U-values for greenhouse conditions including condensation. (orig.)

  14. Mass, heat and freshwater fluxes in the South Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1986-01-01

    Six hydrographic sections were used to examine the circulation and property fluxes in the South Indian Ocean from 10 to 32 deg S. The calculations were made by applying an inverse method to the data. In the interior of the South Indian Ocean, the geostrophic flow is generally northward. At 18 deg S, the northward interior mass flux is balanced by the southward Ekman mass flux at the surface, whereas at 32 deg S the northward interior mass flux is balanced by the southward mass flux of the Agulhas Current. There is a weak, southward mass flux of 6 x 10 to the 9th kg/s in the Mozambique Channel. The rate of water exchange between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean is dependent on the choice of the initial reference level used in the inverse calculation. The choice of 1500 m, the depth of the deep oxygen minimum, has led to a flux of water from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean at a rate of 6.6 x 10 to the 9th kg/s. Heat flux calculations indicate that the Indian Ocean is exporting heat to the rest of the world's oceans at a rate of -0.69 x 10 to the 15th W at 18 deg S and -0.25 x 10 to the 15th W at 32 deg S (negative values being southward).

  15. Long-term evolution of anthropogenic heat fluxes into a subsurface urban heat island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp; Schaffitel, Axel; Bayer, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Anthropogenic alterations in urban areas influence the thermal environment causing elevated atmospheric and subsurface temperatures. The subsurface urban heat island effect is observed in several cities. Often shallow urban aquifers exist with thermal anomalies that spread laterally and vertically, resulting in the long-term accumulation of heat. In this study, we develop an analytical heat flux model to investigate possible drivers such as increased ground surface temperatures (GSTs) at artificial surfaces and heat losses from basements of buildings, sewage systems, subsurface district heating networks, and reinjection of thermal wastewater. By modeling the anthropogenic heat flux into the subsurface of the city of Karlsruhe, Germany, in 1977 and 2011, we evaluate long-term trends in the heat flux processes. It revealed that elevated GST and heat loss from basements are dominant factors in the heat anomalies. The average total urban heat flux into the shallow aquifer in Karlsruhe was found to be ∼759 ± 89 mW/m(2) in 1977 and 828 ± 143 mW/m(2) in 2011, which represents an annual energy gain of around 1.0 × 10(15) J. However, the amount of thermal energy originating from the individual heat flux processes has changed significantly over the past three decades.

  16. Development activities of the high heat flux scraper element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J., E-mail: jean.boscary@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Lore, J.; Lumsdaine, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maier, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); McGinnis, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peacock, A.; Tretter, J. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The function of the high heat flux scraper element is to reduce the heat loads on the element ends of the actively cooled divertor of Wendelstein 7-X. The scraper element is actively water cooled to remove up to 550 kW steady state power load, with localized heat fluxes as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2}. Its surface area, 0.17 m{sup 2}, is contoured to optimally intercept both upstream and downstream particle fluxes. The plasma facing surface is made of 24 individual scraper fingers based on the monoblock technology. Each scraper finger is 247 mm long and 28 mm wide and has 13 monoblocks made of CFC NB31 bonded by hot isostatic pressing onto a CuCrZr cooling tube equipped with a copper twisted tape. Development activities, described here, include the design and fabrication of prototypes to validate the different technologies selected for the scraper element design to prepare a possible production.

  17. Non-local approach to kinetic effects on parallel transport in fluid models of the scrape-off layer

    CERN Document Server

    Omotani, John

    2013-01-01

    By using a non-local model, fluid simulations can capture kinetic effects in the parallel electron heat-flux better than is possible using flux limiters in the usual diffusive models. Non-local and diffusive models are compared using a test case representative of an ELM crash in the JET SOL, simulated in one dimension. The non-local model shows substantially enhanced electron temperature gradients, which cannot be achieved using a flux limiter. The performance of the implementation, in the BOUT++ framework, is also analysed to demonstrate its suitability for application in three-dimensional simulations of turbulent transport in the SOL.

  18. Heat Flux estimation in WEST divertor with embedded thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, J.; Corre, Y.; Firdaouss, M.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Guilhem, D.; Houry, M.; Le Niliot, C.; Missirlian, M.; Pocheau, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper deals with the surface heat flux estimation with embedded thermocouples (TC) in a Plasma Facing Component (PFC) of the WEST Tokamak. A 2D nonlinear unsteady calculation combined with the Conjugate Gradient Method (CGM) and the adjoint state is achieved in order to estimate the time evolution of the heat flux amplitude and decay length λq . The method is applied on different synthetic measurements in order to evaluate the accuracy of the method. The synthetic measurements are generated with realistic values of λq and magnitudes as those expected for ITER.

  19. Application of a Heat Flux Sensor in Wind Power Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Baygildina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and investigates the application of the gradient heat flux sensor (GHFS for measuring the local heat flux in power electronics. Thanks to its thinness, the sensor can be placed between the semiconductor module and the heat sink. The GHFS has high sensitivity and yields direct measurements without an interruption to the normal power device operation, which makes it attractive for power electronics applications. The development of systems for monitoring thermal loading and methods for online detection of degradation and failure of power electronic devices is a topical and crucial task. However, online condition monitoring (CM methods, which include heat flux sensors, have received little research attention so far. In the current research, an insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT module-based test setup with the GHFS implemented on the base plate of one of the IGBTs is introduced. The heat flux experiments and the IGBT power losses obtained by simulations show similar results. The findings give clear evidence that the GHFS can provide an attractive condition monitoring method for the thermal loading of power devices.

  20. Barents Sea heat – transport, storage and surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Skagseth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of the Barents Sea to variation in ocean heat transport and surface fluxes is explored using a 1-D column model. Mean monthly ocean transport and atmospheric forcing are synthesised and force model results that reproduce the observed winter convection and surface warming and freshening well. Model results are compared to existing estimates of the ocean to air heat fluxes and horizontally averaged profiles for the southern and northern Barents Sea. Our results indicate that the ~70 TW of heat transported to the Barents Sea by ocean currents is lost in the southern Barents Sea as latent, sensible, and long wave radiation, each contributing 23–39 TW to the total heat loss. Solar radiation adds 26 TW in the south, as there is no significant ice production. The northern Barents Sea, the major part of the area, receives little ocean heat transport. This leads to a mixed layer at the freezing point during winter and significant ice production. There is little net surface heat loss in the north, the balance is achieved by long wave loss removing most of the solar heating, and the model also suggests a positive sensible heat gain. During the last decade the Barents Sea has experienced an atmospheric warming and an increased ocean heat transport. Despite large changes the Barents Sea heat loss remains robust, the temperature adjusts, and the yearly cycle remains. Decreasing the ocean heat transport below 50 TW starts a transition towards Arctic conditions. The heat loss in the Barents Sea depend on the effective area for cooling, and an increased heat transport probably leads to a spreading of warm water further north.

  1. Thermotronics: Towards Nanocircuits to Manage Radiative Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2017-02-01

    The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.

  2. Sea Spray Effects on Surface Heat and Moisture Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Andreas, E. L., and E. C. Monahan, 1999: The role of whitecap bubbles in air- sea heat and moisture exchange. J. Phys. Oceanogr., in press. ...1 Sea Spray Effects on Surface Heat and Moisture Fluxes Edgar L Andreas U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 72 Lyme Road...www.crrel.usace.army.mil LONG-TERM GOAL The goal is to investigate, theoretically and through analyzing existing data, the role that sea spray plays in

  3. Thermotronics. Towards nanocircuits to manage radiative heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe [Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Palaiseau (France). Lab. Charles Fabry; Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Biehs, Svend-Age [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2017-05-01

    The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20{sup th} century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.

  4. Thin film heat flux sensors for accurate transient and unidirectional heat transfer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerou, B.; Garnier, B.; Lahmar, J.

    2012-11-01

    Heat flux measurement is needed in many heat transfer studies. For the best unbiased heat flux sensors (HFS), the heat flux is obtained using temperature measurements at different locations and also an inverse heat conduction method (function specification...) in order to calculate the heat flux. Systematic errors can come from the uncertainty in the wire thermocouples locations and from errors in the knowledge of distances between two consecutive wire thermocouples. The main idea in this work is to use thin film thermoresistances deposited on a flexible thin polymer substrate instead of wire thermocouples welded on metallic sample. The interest of using thin film thermoresistances instead of wire thermocouples is a lower disturbance due to the smaller thickness of the thin film sensors (typically less than 1μm) and a much better knowledge of the distances between the different thin film thermoresistances which are precisely defined in the mask used for the metallic thin film pattern fabrication. In this paper, we present the fabrication of the new heat flux sensor with thin film thermoresistances, the study of the effect of the self heating (due to Joule effect in thermoresistances) and the performances of this new HFS with the comparison with classical HFS using wire thermocouples. For this study, a symmetric experimental setup is used with metallic samples equipped with an etched foil heater and both classical and new HFS. For several heating conditions, it appears that a better accuracy is always obtained with the new HFS using thin film thermoresistances.

  5. Heat flux measurements for use in physiological and clothing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, R; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

    2014-08-01

    Scientists use passive heat flow meters to measure body heat exchanges with the environment. In recent years, several such sensors have been developed and concerns about their proper calibration have been addressed. However, calibration methods have differed in the geometry of the heated device as well as in the heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, a comparison of calibration methods is needed in order to understand the obtained differences in calibration lines. We chose three commercially available heat flux sensors and placed them on four different heated devices: a hot plate, double hot plate, nude cylinder and a cylinder covered with a spacer material. We found differences between the calibration line of the manufacturer and our own measurements, especially when forced convection was involved as the main heat transfer mechanism. The results showed clearly that the calibration method should be chosen according to the intended purpose of use. In addition, we recommend use a thin, light heat flux sensor with good thermal conduction in human subject studies.

  6. Forced Convection Boiling and Critical Heat Flux of Ethanol in Electrically Heated Tube Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Linne, Diane L.; Rousar, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Electrically heated tube tests were conducted to characterize the critical heat flux (transition from nucleate to film boiling) of subcritical ethanol flowing at conditions relevant to the design of a regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chamber. The coolant was SDA-3C alcohol (95% ethyl alcohol, 5% isopropyl alcohol by weight), and tests were conducted over the following ranges of conditions: pressure from 144 to 703 psia, flow velocities from 9.7 to 77 ft/s, coolant subcooling from 33 to 362 F, and critical heat fluxes up to 8.7 BTU/in(exp 2)/sec. For the data taken near 200 psia, critical heat flux was correlated as a function of the product of velocity and fluid subcooling to within +/- 20%. For data taken at higher pressures, an additional pressure term is needed to correlate the critical heat flux. It was also shown that at the higher test pressures and/or flow rates, exceeding the critical heat flux did not result in wall burnout. This result may significantly increase the engine heat flux design envelope for higher pressure conditions.

  7. Pool boiling of distilled water over tube bundle with variable heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Abhilas; Mohanty, Rajiva Lochan; Das, Mihir Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The experimental investigation of saturated pool boiling heat transfer of distilled water over plain tube bundle, under uniform and varying heat flux condition along the height are presented in this article. Experiments are carried out under various heat flux configurations applied to rows of tube bundles and pitch distance to diameter ratios of 1.25, 1.6 and 1.95. The wall superheats and pool boiling heat transfer coefficients over individual rows are determined. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for variable heat flux and uniform heat flux conditions are compared. The results indicate that the bundle effect is found to exist for uniform as well as variable heat flux under all operating conditions in the present investigation. The variable heat flux resulted in range of wall superheat being highest for decreasing heat flux from bottom to top and lowest for increasing heat flux from bottom to top.

  8. Value of Bulk Heat Flux Parameterizations for Ocean SST Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Value of bulk heat flux parameterizations for ocean SST prediction Alan J. Wallcraft a,⁎, A. Birol Kara a, Harley E. Hurlburt a, Eric P. Chassignet b...G., Doney, S.C., McWilliams , J.C., 1997. Sensitivity to surface forcing and boundary layer mixing in a global ocean model: annual-mean climatology. J

  9. Convective boundary layers driven by nonstationary surface heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, R.; Jonker, H.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the response of dry convective boundary layers to nonstationary surface heat fluxes is systematically investigated. This is relevant not only during sunset and sunrise but also, for example, when clouds modulate incoming solar radiation. Because the time scale of the associated change

  10. Estimation of bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce) has been estimated over the Arabian Sea from the moisture budget during the pre-monsoon season of 1988. The computations have been made over two regions (A: 0-8 degrees N: 60-68 degrees E: B: 0...

  11. Viscous relaxation of Ganymede's impact craters: Constraints on heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael; Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of crater depths in Ganymede’s dark terrain have revealed substantial numbers of unusually shallow craters indicative of viscous relaxation [see companion paper: Singer, K.N., Schenk, P. M., Bland, M.T., McKinnon, W.B., (2017). Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variations and high heat flow. Icarus, submitted]. These viscously relaxed craters provide insight into the thermal history of the dark terrain: the rate of relaxation depends on the size of the crater and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Here we use finite element simulations of crater relaxation to constrain the heat flux within the dark terrain when relaxation occurred. We show that the degree of viscous relaxation observed cannot be achieved through radiogenic heating alone, even if all of the relaxed craters are ancient and experienced the high radiogenic fluxes present early in the satellite’s history. For craters with diameter ≥ 10 km, heat fluxes of 40–50 mW m-2−2"> can reproduce the observed crater depths, but only if the fluxes are sustained for ∼1 Gyr. These craters can also be explained by shorter-lived “heat pulses” with magnitudes of ∼100 mW m-2−2"> and timescales of 10–100 Myr. At small crater diameters (4 km) the observed shallow depths are difficult to achieve even when heat fluxes as high as 150 mW m-2−2"> are sustained for 1 Gyr. The extreme thermal conditions required to viscously relax small craters may indicate that mechanisms other than viscous relaxation, such as topographic degradation, are also in play at small crater diameters. The timing of the relaxation event(s) is poorly constrained due to the sparsity of adequate topographic information, though it likely occurred in Ganymede’s middle history (neither recently, nor shortly after satellite formation). The consistency between the timing and magnitude of the heat fluxes derived here and those inferred from other tectonic features suggests that a single event

  12. Nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...

  13. Application of fractional calculus in ground heat flux estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Milan Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground (soil heat flux is important physical factor primarily because of its role in surface energy balance, analysis of atmospheric boundary layer and land surface-atmosphere interaction. Direct measurement of this property is often associated with difficulties arising from need for adequate calibration of measuring devices, determination of proper depth for probes, upward water migration and accumulation below measuring plates to lack of understanding of the governing thermal processes occurring at the ground surface. In the following paper approach for inferring heat flux indirectly, from known ground surface temperature time-dependant functions, using previously developed fractional diffusion equation for ground heat conduction is elaborated. Fractional equation is solved for two, most frequently encountered harmonic surface temperature functions. Yielded results were compared with analytic solutions. Validation results indicate that solutions obtained with fractional approach closely correspond to analytic solutions with remark that former are more general, containing the term covering the transitional effect.

  14. Heat Flux in the Strong-Wind Nocturnal Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, L.

    2016-11-01

    Sonic anemometer measurements are analyzed from two primary field programs and 12 supplementary sites to examine the behaviour of the turbulent heat flux near the surface with high wind speeds in the nocturnal boundary layer. On average, large downward heat flux is found for high wind speeds for most of the sites where some stratification is maintained in spite of relatively intense vertical mixing. The stratification for high wind speeds is found to be dependent on wind direction, suggesting the importance of warm-air advection, even for locally homogenous sites. Warm-air advection is also inferred from a large imbalance of the heat budget of the air for strong winds. Shortcomings of our study are noted.

  15. Heat in the Barents Sea: transport, storage, and surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Smedsrud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A column model is set up for the Barents Sea to explore sensitivity of surface fluxes and heat storage from varying ocean heat transport. Mean monthly ocean transport and atmospheric forcing are synthesised and force the simulations. Results show that by using updated ocean transports of heat and freshwater the vertical mean hydrographic seasonal cycle can be reproduced fairly well.

    Our results indicate that the ~70 TW of heat transported to the Barents Sea by ocean currents is lost in the southern Barents Sea as latent, sensible, and long wave radiation, each contributing 23–39 TW to the total heat loss. Solar radiation adds 26 TW in the south, as there is no significant ice production.

    The northern Barents Sea receives little ocean heat transport. This leads to a mixed layer at the freezing point during winter and significant ice production. There is little net surface heat loss annually in the north. The balance is achieved by a heat loss through long wave radiation all year, removing most of the summer solar heating.

    During the last decade the Barents Sea has experienced an atmospheric warming and an increased ocean heat transport. The Barents Sea responds to such large changes by adjusting temperature and heat loss. Decreasing the ocean heat transport below 50 TW starts a transition towards Arctic conditions. The heat loss in the Barents Sea depend on the effective area for cooling, and an increased heat transport leads to a spreading of warm water further north.

  16. DNS of turbulent channel flow subject to oscillatory heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhvostova Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the heat transfer in a turbulent channel flow, which is periodically heated through its walls. We consider the flow of air and water vapor using direct numerical simulation. We consider the fluid as a compressible Newtonian gas. We focus on the heat transfer properties of the system, e.g., the temperature difference between the walls and the Nusselt number. We consider the dependence of these quantities on the frequency of the applied heat flux. We observe that the mean temperature difference is quite insensitive to the frequency and that the amplitude of its oscillations is such that its value multiplied by the square root of frequency is approximately constant. Next we add droplets to the channel, which can undergo phase transitions. The heat transfer properties of the channel in the case with droplets are found to increase by more than a factor of two, compared to the situation without droplets.

  17. Thermal response of a flat heat pipe sandwich structure to a localized heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, G.; Peterson, G.P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States). Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering; Sobhan, C.B. [National Institute of Technology, Calicut (India). Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering; Queheillalt, D.T.; Wadley, H.N.G. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Material Science and Engineering Department

    2006-10-15

    The temperature distribution across a flat heat pipe sandwich structure, subjected to an intense localized thermal flux has been investigated both experimentally and computationally. The aluminum sandwich structure consisted of a pair of aluminum alloy face sheets, a truncated square honeycomb (cruciform) core, a nickel metal foam wick and distilled water as the working fluid. Heat was applied via a propane torch to the evaporator side of the flat heat pipe, while the condenser side was cooled via natural convective and radiative heat transfer. A novel method was developed to estimate experimentally, the heat flux distribution of the torch on the evaporator side. This heat flux distribution was modeled using a probability function and validated against the experimental data. Applying the estimated heat flux distribution as the surface boundary condition, a finite volume analysis was performed for the wall, wick and vapor core regions of the flat heat pipe to obtain the field variables in these domains. The results were found to agree well with the experimental data indicating the thermal spreading effect of the flat heat pipe. (author)

  18. Analysis of heat transfer under high heat flux nucleate boiling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Dinh, N. [3145 Burlington Laboratories, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Analysis was performed for a heater infrared thermometric imaging temperature data obtained from high heat flux pool boiling and liquid film boiling experiments BETA. With the OpenFOAM solver, heat flux distribution towards the coolant was obtained by solving transient heat conduction of heater substrate given the heater surface temperature data as boundary condition. The so-obtained heat flux data was used to validate them against the state-of-art wall boiling model developed by D. R. Shaver (2015) with the assumption of micro-layer hydrodynamics. Good agreement was found between the model prediction and data for conditions away from the critical heat flux (CHF). However, the data indicate a different heat transfer pattern under CHF, which is not captured by the current model. Experimental data strengthen the notion of burnout caused by the irreversible hot spot due to failure of rewetting. The observation forms a basis for a detailed modeling of micro-layer hydrodynamics under high heat flux.

  19. Numerical simulation on heat transfer inside rotating porous disk subjected to local heat flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; XingDan; ZHANG; JingZhou; TAN; XiaoMing

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulation was carried out to study the centrifugally-driven flow and heat transfer inside rotating metallic porous disk subjected to local heat flux. The effects of rotational speed, solid thermal conductivity and porosity on heat transfer were analyzed. The thermal transport coefficient, defined as the ratio of local heat flux to maximum temperature difference on the disk, was introduced to evaluate the thermal transport capacity in rotating porous disk. For convenience, the conjugation between convective heat transfer inside the rotating porous disk and convective heat transfer over the rotating disk surface was decoupled in the present study. Firstly, the convective heat transfer over the free rotating disk surface was investigated indi-vidually to determine the heat transfer coefficient over the disk surface to the ambient air. Then the convective heat transfer over a rotating disk surface was treated as the thermal boundary condition for the computation of convective heat transfer in-side rotating porous disk. Under the present research conditions, the results show that the centrifugally-driven flow is enhanced significantly with the increase of rotational speed. Consequently, the maximum temperature on the disk surface is decreased and the temperature distribution tends to be uniform. The thermal transport capacity in rotating porous disk is also enhanced with the increase of solid thermal conductivity or the decrease of solid porosity. In the rotating porous disk, the solid phase heat transfer is clearly the dominant mode of heat transport and the fluid phase makes an incremental contribution to the total heat transfer.

  20. The eddy heat-flux in rotating turbulent convection

    CERN Document Server

    Rüdiger, G; Kitchatinov, L L; Küker, M

    2004-01-01

    The three components of the heat-flux vector $F =\\rho C_p are numerically computed for a stratified rotating turbulent convection using the NIRVANA code in a flat box. The latitudinal component $F_\\theta$ proves to be negative (positive) in the northern (southern) hemisphere so that the heat always flows towards the poles. As a surprise, the radial heat-flux $F_r$ peaks at the equator rather than at the poles (Taylor numbers O(10^6)). The same behavior is observed for the radial turbulence intensity $$ which for \\emph{free} turbulence is also believed to peak at the poles (see Eq. (19) below). As we can show, however, the consequences of this unexpected result (also obtained by Kaepylae, Korpi and Tuominen 2004) for the theory of differential rotation are small as mainly the $F_\\theta$ is responsible to solve the `Taylor number puzzle'. In all our simulations the azimuthal component $F_\\phi$ proves to be negative so that the rotating turbulence produces an westwards directed azimuthal heat-flux which should ...

  1. Numerical prediction of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient under high heat fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    Pezo Milada L.; Stevanović Vladimir D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) approach to prediction of the heat transfer coefficient for nucleate pool boiling under high heat fluxes. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the atmospheric saturated pool boiling are performed. Mathematical modelling of pool boiling requires a treatment of vapor-liquid two-phase mixture on the macro level, as well as on the micro level, such as bubble growth and departure from the heating surfa...

  2. Phase-controlled superconducting heat-flux quantum modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giazotto, F.; Martínez-Pérez, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    We theoretically put forward the concept of a phase-controlled superconducting heat-flux quantum modulator. Its operation relies on phase-dependent heat current predicted to occur in temperature-biased Josephson tunnel junctions. The device behavior is investigated as a function of temperature bias across the junctions, bath temperature, and junctions asymmetry as well. In a realistic Al-based setup the structure could provide temperature modulation amplitudes up to ˜50 mK with flux-to-temperature transfer coefficients exceeding ˜125 mK/Φ0 below 1 K, and temperature modulation frequency of the order of a few MHz. The proposed structure appears as a promising building-block for the implementation of caloritronic devices operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  3. Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Haijun, E-mail: hjren@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q{sup 2}, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.

  4. Plasma–Surface Interactions Under High Heat and Particle Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory De Temmerman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma-surface interactions expected in the divertor of a future fusion reactor are characterized by extreme heat and particle fluxes interacting with the plasma-facing surfaces. Powerful linear plasma generators are used to reproduce the expected plasma conditions and allow plasma-surface interactions studies under those very harsh conditions. While the ion energies on the divertor surfaces of a fusion device are comparable to those used in various plasma-assited deposition and etching techniques, the ion (and energy fluxes are up to four orders of magnitude higher. This large upscale in particle flux maintains the surface under highly non-equilibrium conditions and bring new effects to light, some of which will be described in this paper.

  5. Spherical Gravitational Collapse with Heat Flux and Cosmic Censorship

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, S M; Muktibodh, P S; Govinder, K S

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the nature of the singularity in the spherically symmetrical, shear-free, gravitational collapse of a star with heat flux using a separable metric [cqg1]. For any non-singular, regular, radial density profile for a star described by this metric, eq. (2.1), the singularity of the gravitational collapse is not naked locally. Our results here unequivocally support the Strong Cosmic Censorship Hypothesis.

  6. Solid propellant combustion response to oscillatory radiant heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, L. D.; Weil, M. T.; Cohen, N. S.

    1989-01-01

    A progress report is given on a research project to use the microwave Doppler velocimeter technique to measure the combustion response to an oscillating thermal radiation source (CO2 laser). The test technique and supporting analyses are described, and the results are presented for an initial test series on the nonmetallized, composite propellant, Naval Weapons Center formulation A-13. It is concluded that in-depth transmission of radiant heat flux is not a factor at the CO2 laser wave length.

  7. Effect of heat flux on differential rotation in turbulent convection

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeorin, N

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effect of the turbulent heat flux on the Reynolds stresses in a rotating turbulent convection. To this end we solved a coupled system of dynamical equations which includes the equations for the Reynolds stresses, the entropy fluctuations and the turbulent heat flux. We used a spectral $\\tau$ approximation in order to close the system of dynamical equations. We found that the ratio of the contributions to the Reynolds stresses caused by the turbulent heat flux and the anisotropic eddy viscosity is of the order of $\\sim 10 (L_\\rho / l_0)^2$, where $l_{0}$ is the maximum scale of turbulent motions and $L_\\rho$ is the fluid density variation scale. This effect is crucial for the formation of the differential rotation and should be taken into account in the theories of the differential rotation of the Sun, stars and planets. In particular, we demonstrated that this effect may cause the differential rotation which is comparable with the typical solar differential rotation.

  8. Observational & modeling analysis of surface heat and moisture fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An observational and modeling study was conducted to help assess how well current GCMs are predicting surface fluxes under the highly variable cloudiness and flow conditions characteristic of the real atmosphere. The observational data base for the study was obtained from a network of surface flux stations operated during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The study included examination of a surface-driven secondary circulation in the boundary layer resulting from a persistent cross-site gradient in soil moisture, to demonstrate the sensitivity of boundary layer dynamics to heterogeneous surface fluxes, The performance of a biosphere model in reproducing the measured surface fluxes was evaluated with and without the use of satellite retrieval of three key canopy variables with RMS uncertainties commensurate with those of the measurements themselves. Four sensible heat flux closure schemes currently being used in GCMs were then evaluated against the FIFE observations. Results indicate that the methods by which closure models are calibrated lead to exceedingly large errors when the schemes are applied to variable boundary layer conditions. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Design and Calibration of a Novel High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael-Mabel, Sujay Anand

    2005-01-01

    Heat flux gages are important in applications where measurement of the transfer of energy is more important than measurement of the temperature itself. There is a need for a heat flux sensor that can perform reliably for long periods of time in high temperature and high heat flux environment. The primary objective is to design and build a heat flux sensor that is capable of operating for extended periods of time in a high heat flux and high temperature environment. A High Temperature Heat F...

  10. Reynolds stress and heat flux in spherical shell convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käpylä, P. J.; Mantere, M. J.; Guerrero, G.; Brandenburg, A.; Chatterjee, P.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Turbulent fluxes of angular momentum and enthalpy or heat due to rotationally affected convection play a key role in determining differential rotation of stars. Their dependence on latitude and depth has been determined in the past from convection simulations in Cartesian or spherical simulations. Here we perform a systematic comparison between the two geometries as a function of the rotation rate. Aims: Here we want to extend the earlier studies by using spherical wedges to obtain turbulent angular momentum and heat transport as functions of the rotation rate from stratified convection. We compare results from spherical and Cartesian models in the same parameter regime in order to study whether restricted geometry introduces artefacts into the results. In particular, we want to clarify whether the sharp equatorial profile of the horizontal Reynolds stress found in earlier Cartesian models is also reproduced in spherical geometry. Methods: We employ direct numerical simulations of turbulent convection in spherical and Cartesian geometries. In order to alleviate the computational cost in the spherical runs, and to reach as high spatial resolution as possible, we model only parts of the latitude and longitude. The rotational influence, measured by the Coriolis number or inverse Rossby number, is varied from zero to roughly seven, which is the regime that is likely to be realised in the solar convection zone. Cartesian simulations are performed in overlapping parameter regimes. Results: For slow rotation we find that the radial and latitudinal turbulent angular momentum fluxes are directed inward and equatorward, respectively. In the rapid rotation regime the radial flux changes sign in accordance with earlier numerical results, but in contradiction with theory. The latitudinal flux remains mostly equatorward and develops a maximum close to the equator. In Cartesian simulations this peak can be explained by the strong "banana cells". Their effect in the

  11. Regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat over a sub-arctic landscape during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    the regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat in different ways. The regional momentum flux is found to be 10-20% smaller than the measured momentum flux over the forest, and the regional sensible heat flux is estimated to be 30-50% of the values measured over a coniferous forest. The regional momentum...

  12. Water and heat fluxes in desert soils: 2. Numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Milly, P. C. D.

    1994-03-01

    Transient one-dimensional fluxes of soil water (liquid and vapor) and heat in response to 1 year of atmospheric forcing were simulated numerically for a site in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas. The model was initialized and evaluated using the monitoring data presented in a companion paper (Scanlon, this issue). Soil hydraulic and thermal properties were estimated a priori from a combination of laboratory measurements, models, and other published information. In the first simulation, the main drying curves were used to describe soil water retention, and hysteresis was ignored. Remarkable consistency was found between computed and measured water potentials and temperatures. Attenuation and phase shift of the seasonal cycle of water potentials below the shallow subsurface active zone (0.0- to 0.3-m depth) were similar to those of temperatures, suggesting that water potential fluctuations were driven primarily by temperature changes. Water fluxes in the upper 0.3 m of soil were dominated by downward and upward liquid fluxes that resulted from infiltration of rain and subsequent evaporation from the surface. Upward flux was vapor dominated only in the top several millimeters of the soil during periods of evaporation. Below a depth of 0.3 m, water fluxes varied slowly and were dominated by downward thermal vapor flux that decreased with depth, causing a net accumulation of water. In a second simulation, nonhysteretic water retention was instead described by the estimated main wetting curves; the resulting differences in fluxes were attributed to lower initial water contents (given fixed initial water potential) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities that were lower than they were in the first simulation. Below a depth of 0.3 m, the thermal vapor fluxes dominated and were similar to those in the first simulation. Two other simulations were performed, differing from the first only in the prescription of different (wetter) initial water potentials. These three simulations

  13. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  14. 2D divertor heat flux distribution using a 3D heat conduction solver in National Spherical Torus Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, K F; Ahn, J-W; Park, J-W; Maingi, R; McLean, A G; Gray, T K; Gong, X; Zhang, X D

    2013-02-01

    The divertor heat flux footprint in tokamaks is often observed to be non-axisymmetric due to intrinsic error fields, applied 3D magnetic fields or during transients such as edge localized modes. Typically, only 1D radial heat flux profiles are analyzed; however, analysis of the full 2D divertor measurements provides opportunities to study the asymmetric nature of the deposited heat flux. To accomplish this an improved 3D Fourier analysis method has been successfully applied in a heat conduction solver (TACO) to determine the 2D heat flux distribution at the lower divertor surface in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) tokamak. This advance enables study of helical heat deposition onto the divertor. In order to account for heat transmission through poorly adhered surface layers on the divertor plate, a heat transmission coefficient, defined as the surface layer thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the layer, was introduced to the solution of heat conduction equation. This coefficient is denoted as α and a range of values were tested in the model to ensure a reliable heat flux calculation until a specific value of α led to the constant total deposited energy in the numerical solution after the end of discharge. A comparison between 1D heat flux profiles from TACO and from a 2D heat flux calculation code, THEODOR, shows good agreement. Advantages of 2D heat flux distribution over the conventional 1D heat flux profile are also discussed, and examples of 2D data analysis in the study of striated heat deposition pattern as well as the toroidal degree of asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width are demonstrated.

  15. Solar Flux Deposition And Heating Rates In Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss here the solar downward net flux in the 0.25 - 2.5 µm range in the atmosphere of Jupiter and the associated heating rates under a number of vertical cloud structure scenarios focusing in the effect of clouds and hazes. Our numerical model is based in the doubling-adding technique to solve the radiative transfer equation and it includes gas absorption by CH4, NH3 and H2, in addition to Rayleigh scattering by a mixture of H2 plus He. Four paradigmatic Jovian regions have been considered (hot-spots, belts, zones and Polar Regions). The hot-spots are the most transparent regions with downward net fluxes of 2.5±0.5 Wm-2 at the 6 bar level. The maximum solar heating is 0.04±0.01 K/day and occurs above 1 bar. Belts and zones characterization result in a maximum net downward flux of 0.5 Wm-2 at 2 bar and 0.015 Wm-2 at 6 bar. Heating is concentrated in the stratospheric and tropospheric hazes. Finally, Polar Regions are also explored and the results point to a considerable stratospheric heating of 0.04±0.02 K/day. In all, these calculations suggest that the role of the direct solar forcing in the Jovian atmospheric dynamics is limited to the upper 1 - 2 bar of the atmosphere except in the hot-spot areas. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  16. Critical heat flux and dynamics of boiling in nanofluids at stepwise heat release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, M. I.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper results of an experimental study on critical heat flux and dynamics of boiling crisis onset in nanofluids at stepwise heat generation are presented. Freon R21 with three types of nanoparticles - SiO2, Cu and Al2O3 was used as test fluid. Critical heat fluxes and temperatures of boiling initiation were obtained. It was shown that the addition of nanoparticles increased CHF at stepwise heat generation by up to 21%. Under conditions of the experiment transition to film boiling occurred via evaporation fronts. Data on propagation velocity and structure of evaporation fronts were obtained; the spectral analysis of fluctuations of the evaporation front interface was carried out. The characteristic frequencies and amplitudes of interface fluctuations were determined depending on the velocity of evaporation front propagation. It was shown that the addition of nano-sized particles significantly affects development of interface instability and increases the front velocity.

  17. Modeling of a heat sink and high heat flux vapor chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadnjal, Aleksander

    An increasing demand for a higher heat flux removal capability within a smaller volume for high power electronics led us to focus on a novel cold plate design. A high heat flux evaporator and micro channel heat sink are the main components of a cold plate which is capable of removing couple of 100 W/cm2. In order to describe performance of such porous media device a proper modeling has to be addressed. A universal approach based on the volume average theory (VAT) to transport phenomena in porous media is shown. An approach on how to treat the closure for momentum and energy equations is addressed and a proper definition for friction factors and heat transfer coefficients are discussed. A numerical scheme using a solution to Navier-Stokes equations over a representative elementary volume (REV) and the use of VAT is developed to show how to compute friction factors and heat transfer coefficients. The calculation show good agreement with the experimental data. For the heat transfer coefficient closure, a proper average for both fluid and solid is investigated. Different types of heating are also investigated in order to determine how it influences the heat transfer coefficient. A higher heat fluxes in small area condensers led us to the micro channels in contrast to the classical heat fin design. A micro channel can have various shapes to enhance heat transfer, but the shape that will lead to a higher heat flux removal with a moderate pumping power needs to be determined. The standard micro-channel terminology is usually used for channels with a simple cross section, e.g. square, round, triangle, etc., but here the micro channel cross section is going to be expanded to describe more complicated and interconnected micro scale channel cross sections. The micro channel geometries explored are pin fins (in-line and staggered) and sintered porous micro channels. The problem solved here is a conjugate problem involving two heat transfer mechanisms; (1) porous media

  18. Microconvection in vertical channel at given heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekezhanova, V. B.; Shefer, I. A.

    2016-10-01

    A problem on stability of the viscous heat-conducting liquid flow in the vertical channel at given heat flux on the permeable solid walls is studied. The two-dimensional flow is described by an exact invariant solution of the microconvection equations. The investigation of the exact solution allows one to find out the extent of influence of the thermal load, gravity and the system geometry on the flow structure. Stability of the solution is investigated in the framework of the linear theory. The spectrum of the spatial characteristic perturbations is analyzed in the space of problem parameters. Typical forms of the hydrodynamic and thermal disturbances are presented and dependence of characteristics of the arising structures on the thermal load and gravity is established. Convective cells, hydrothermal rolls and polygonal structures can appear in the channel. By weak gravity the hydrothermal rolls are not formed. Changing heat flux and disturbance wave length lead to deformation of the cells and complication of the spatial form of the structures.

  19. Geothermal Heat Flux Underneath Ice Sheets Estimated From Magnetic Satellite Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox Maule, Cathrine; Purucker, M.E.; Olsen, Nils

    The geothermal heat flux is an important factor in the dynamics of ice sheets, and it is one of the important parameters in the thermal budgets of subglacial lakes. We have used satellite magnetic data to estimate the geothermal heat flux underneath the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland....... By using satellite data, we are able to make heat flux maps covering the entire Antarctic continent and all of Greenland. We find that the heat flux varies from less than 50 to more than 150~mW/m2 underneath the ice sheets. To validate our results, we have compared our heat flux estimate with geologic...

  20. Alongshore wind stress and heat flux divergence off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, D.P.

    Annual variation of heat flux divergence (Qv) was computed for the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam. The mean values of net heat exchange (Qn) and heat flux divergence (Qv) were found to be 114 and 115 W.m/2 respectively on annual scale. The net heat...

  1. Flow impinging effect of critical heat flux and nucleation boiling heat transfer on a downward facing heating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Huai-En; Chen, Mei-Shiue; Chen, Jyun-Wei; Lin, Wei-Keng; Pei, Bau-Shei [National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science

    2015-05-15

    Boiling heat transfer has a high heat removal capability in convective cooling. However, the heat removal capability of downward-facing boiling is significantly worse than that of upward-facing cases because of the confined buoyancy effect. This study was inspired by the conception of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) condition relevant to the in-vessel retention (IVR) design of Westinghouse AP1000 plant. In the present study, a small-scale test facility had been established to investigate the local phenomena of boiling heat transfer under a downward-facing horizontal heated surface with impinging coolant flow. In this study, the surface temperature, heat flux information and several specific scenes of bubbles are taken down throughout the boiling processes for detailed investigation. It is observed that bubbles are confined under the downward-facing heated surface, which causes a worse heat transfer rate and a lower critical heat flux (CHF) limit than upward-facing boiling. Nevertheless, the impinging coolant flow is found to disturb the thermal boundary layer formed by the heated surface, so the CHF increases with an increase of coolant flow rate. In addition, during nucleate boiling, it is discovered that the growth, combination and dissipation of bubbles induce turbulent wakes and therefore enhance the heat transfer capability.

  2. Transectional heat transfer in thermoregulating bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) - a 2D heat flux model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Jess; Musyl, Michael; Brill, Richard; Malte, Hans

    2009-11-01

    We developed a 2D heat flux model to elucidate routes and rates of heat transfer within bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe 1839 in both steady-state and time-dependent settings. In modeling the former situation, we adjusted the efficiencies of heat conservation in the red and the white muscle so as to make the output of the model agree as closely as possible with observed cross-sectional isotherms. In modeling the latter situation, we applied the heat exchanger efficiencies from the steady-state model to predict the distribution of temperature and heat fluxes in bigeye tuna during their extensive daily vertical excursions. The simulations yielded a close match to the data recorded in free-swimming fish and strongly point to the importance of the heat-producing and heat-conserving properties of the white muscle. The best correspondence between model output and observed data was obtained when the countercurrent heat exchangers in the blood flow pathways to the red and white muscle retained 99% and 96% (respectively) of the heat produced in these tissues. Our model confirms that the ability of bigeye tuna to maintain elevated muscle temperatures during their extensive daily vertical movements depends on their ability to rapidly modulate heating and cooling rates. This study shows that the differential cooling and heating rates could be fully accounted for by a mechanism where blood flow to the swimming muscles is either exclusively through the heat exchangers or completely shunted around them, depending on the ambient temperature relative to the body temperature. Our results therefore strongly suggest that such a mechanism is involved in the extensive physiological thermoregulatory abilities of endothermic bigeye tuna.

  3. USE OF PELTIER COOLERS AS SOIL HEAT FLUX TRANSDUCERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, H.L.; Campbell, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Peltier coolers were modified and calibrated to serve as soil heat flux transducers. The modification was to fill their interiors with epoxy. The average calibration constant on 21 units was 13. 6 plus or minus 0. 8 kW m** minus **2 V** minus **1 at 20 degree C. This sensitivity is about eight times that of the two thermopile transducers with which comparisons were made. The thermal conductivity of the Peltier cooler transducers was 0. 4 W m** minus **1 degree C** minus **1, which is comparable to that of dry soil.

  4. Observed and modeled surface eddy heat fluxes in the eastern Nordic Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Isachsen, P.E. .; Koszalka, Inga Monika; LaCasce, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale budget calculations and numerical model process studies suggest that lateral eddy heat fluxes have an important cooling effect on the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) as it flows through the Nordic Seas. But observational estimates of such fluxes have been lacking. Here, wintertime surface eddy heat fluxes in the eastern Nordic Seas are estimated from surface drifter data, satellite data and an eddy-permitting numerical model. Maps of the eddy heat flux divergence suggest advecti...

  5. High-quality Critical Heat Flux in Horizontally Coiled Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    An investigation on the high-quality dryout in two electrically heated coiled tubes with horizontally helix axes is reported.The temperature profiles both along the tube and around the circumference are measured.and it is found that the temperature profiles around the circumference are not identical for the corss-sections at different parts of the coil.The “local condition hypothesis” seems applicable under present conditions,and the critical heat flux qcr decreases with increasing critical quality xcr.The CHF increases as mass velocity and ratio of tube diameter to coil diameter(d/D) increases,and it seems not to be affected hby the system pressure.The CHF is larger with coils than that with straight tubes,and the difference increases with increasing mass velocity and d/D.

  6. Dependence of Convective Heat Flux Calculations on Roughness Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieldge, John P.

    1995-01-01

    The zero plane displacement height (d) and aerodynamic roughness length (z0) can be determined separately for momentum, heat, and humidity by using a procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method for solving non-linear equations. This procedure is used to analyze profile data previously collected by Lo (1977) in a forested area in Canada and by Morgan et al (1971) on a field at the University of California at Davis (UCD) in the United States. The UCD data base is used to show the effects of allowing for different roughness lengths (zom,z0h,z0q) in calculating sensible and latent heat flux densities from bulk transfer coefficients.

  7. Reynolds stress and heat flux in spherical shell convection

    CERN Document Server

    Käpylä, P J; Guerrero, G; Brandenburg, A; Chatterjee, P

    2010-01-01

    Context. Turbulent fluxes of angular momentum and heat due to rotationally affected convection play a key role in determining differential rotation of stars. Aims. We compute turbulent angular momentum and heat transport as functions of the rotation rate from stratified convection. We compare results from spherical and Cartesian models in the same parameter regime in order to study whether restricted geometry introduces artefacts into the results. Methods. We employ direct numerical simulations of turbulent convection in spherical and Cartesian geometries. In order to alleviate the computational cost in the spherical runs and to reach as high spatial resolution as possible, we model only parts of the latitude and longitude. The rotational influence, measured by the Coriolis number or inverse Rossby number, is varied from zero to roughly seven, which is the regime that is likely to be realised in the solar convection zone. Cartesian simulations are performed in overlapping parameter regimes. Results. For slow ...

  8. Radiant heat transfer network in the simulated protective clothing ; System under high heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukazawa, T.; Hartog, E.A. den; Daanen, H.A.M.; Penders-van Elk, N.; Tochihara, Y.; Havenith, G.

    2005-01-01

    A radiant network model was developed for design of the protective clothing system against solar and infrared radiative heat flux. A one-dimensional model was employed in the present study, because the aim of this study was to obtain precise temperature distribution through the system with use of a

  9. Surface wettability effects on critical heat flux of boiling heat transfer using nanoparticle coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of surface wettability on pool boiling heat transfer. Nano-silica particle coatings were used to vary the wettability of the copper surface from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by modifying surface topography and chemistry. Experimental results show that critical heat flux (CHF) values are higher in the hydrophilic region. Conversely, CHF values are lower in the hydrophobic region. The experimental CHF data of the modified surface do not fit the classical models. Therefore, this study proposes a simple model to build the nexus between the surface wettability and the growth of bubbles on the heating surface. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new method for estimating heat flux in superheater and reheater tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purbolaksono, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: judha@uniten.edu.my; Khinani, A.; Rashid, A.Z.; Ali, A.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, J. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200, Selangor (Malaysia); Nordin, N.F. [TNB Research Sdn Bhd, No. 1 Lorong Air Hitam, Kajang 43000, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-10-15

    In this paper a procedure on how to estimate the heat flux in superheater and reheater tubes utilizing the empirical formula and the finite element modeling is proposed. An iterative procedure consisting of empirical formulae and numerical simulation is used to determine heat flux as both temperature and scale thickness increase over period of time. Estimation results of the heat flux over period of time for two different design temperatures of the steam and different heat transfer parameters are presented.

  11. Prediction of heat transfer to supercritical fluids by the use of Algebraic Heat Flux Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucciarelli, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.pucciarelli@yahoo.it [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Sharabi, Medhat, E-mail: Medhat.Sharabi@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland and Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Ambrosini, Walter, E-mail: walter.ambrosini@ing.unipi.it [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • The Algebraic Heat Flux Model is considered for modelling the turbulence heat flux. • A relation based on AHFM for determining Pr{sub tur} is proposed. • Results are compared with heat transfer to supercritical fluids experimental data. - Abstract: The paper discusses capabilities and limitations of Algebraic Heat Flux Models in predicting heat transfer to supercritical fluids. The model was implemented in a commercial code and used as a basis for obtaining an advanced definition of the turbulent Prandtl number and an improved estimate of the buoyancy production of turbulence kinetic energy. A comparison between the obtained results and experimental data available in literature is performed highlighting promising features, in particular when dealing with trans-pseudo-critical conditions. Experimental conditions using different fluids where analysed showing improvements with respect to two-equation turbulence models; a reference DNS calculation is considered as well for comparison. Calculated wall temperature values are in general well reproduced by the methodology and sensitivity analyses show that improvements may be obtained in future works by selecting case-specific AHFM parameters in association with different turbulence models.

  12. Surface latent heat flux as an earthquake precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dey

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of surface latent heat flux (SLHF from the epicentral regions of five recent earthquakes that occurred in close proximity to the oceans has been found to show anomalous behavior. The maximum increase of SLHF is found 2–7 days prior to the main earthquake event. This increase is likely due to an ocean-land-atmosphere interaction. The increase of SLHF prior to the main earthquake event is attributed to the increase in infrared thermal (IR temperature in the epicentral and surrounding region. The anomalous increase in SLHF shows great potential in providing early warning of a disastrous earthquake, provided that there is a better understanding of the background noise due to the tides and monsoon in surface latent heat flux. Efforts have been made to understand the level of background noise in the epicentral regions of the five earthquakes considered in the present paper. A comparison of SLHF from the epicentral regions over the coastal earthquakes and the earthquakes that occurred far away from the coast has been made and it has been found that the anomalous behavior of SLHF prior to the main earthquake event is only associated with the coastal earthquakes.

  13. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m2 with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s.

  14. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  15. Comparison of Turbulent Heat-Transfer Results for Uniform Wall Heat Flux and Uniform Wall Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R.; Sparrow, E. M.

    1960-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to examine in a more precise way how the Nusselt numbers for turbulent heat transfer in both the fully developed and thermal entrance regions of a circular tube are affected by two different wall boundary conditions. The comparisons are made for: (a) Uniform wall temperature (UWT); and (b) uniform wall heat flux (UHF). Several papers which have been concerned with the turbulent thermal entrance region problem are given. 1 Although these analyses have all utilized an eigenvalue formulation for the thermal entrance region there were differences in the choices of eddy diffusivity expressions, velocity distributions, and methods for carrying out the numerical solutions. These differences were also found in the fully developed analyses. Hence when making a comparison of the analytical results for uniform wall temperature and uniform wall heat flux, it was not known if differences in the Nusselt numbers could be wholly attributed to the difference in wall boundary conditions, since all the analytical results were not obtained in a consistent way. To have results which could be directly compared, computations were carried out for the uniform wall temperature case, using the same eddy diffusivity, velocity distribution, and digital computer program employed for uniform wall heat flux. In addition, the previous work was extended to a lower Reynolds number range so that comparisons could be made over a wide range of both Reynolds and Prandtl numbers.

  16. Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maogui Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensible heat flux (H plays an important role in characterizations of land surface water and heat balance. There are various types of H measurement methods that depend on observation scale, from local-area-scale eddy covariance (EC to regional-scale large aperture scintillometer (LAS and remote sensing (RS products. However, methods of converting one H scale to another to validate RS products are still open for question. A previous area-to-area regression kriging-based scaling method performed well in converting EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. However, the method does not consider the path-weighting function in the EC- to LAS-scale kriging with the regression residue, which inevitably brought about a bias estimation. In this study, a weighted area-to-area regression kriging (WATA RK model is proposed to convert EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. It involves path-weighting functions of EC and LAS source areas in both regression and area kriging stages. Results show that WATA RK outperforms traditional methods in most cases, improving estimation accuracy. The method is considered to provide an efficient validation of RS H flux products.

  17. Effects of local microclimates on the surface sensible heat flux on a mid-latitude alpine valley glacier using Large-Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Tobias; Galos, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    While the large-scale climate conditions play an important role in shaping the environment in which glaciers exist, the mass and energy balance of each individual glacier are dictated by local conditions. Given the complex mountain topography around alpine glaciers, it is not trivial to find a direct link between the large-scale atmospheric motions and the local-scale weather conditions at an individual glacier. Non-local dynamic effects due to the surrounding complex topography can significantly modify the spatial variability of exchange processes, either by small scale circulations or episodic entrainment of heat and momentum by burst events. Motivated by the fact that distributed glacier models strongly rely on the quality of high resolution forcing data to adequately represent the glacier wide ablation and accumulation processes, the present study investigates (i) whether non-local topographic effects have a significant impact on the spatial distribution of turbulent sensible heat fluxes (local microclimates) over alpine glaciers, and (ii) how much variability is smoothed out when using linearly interpolated fields together with the commonly used bulk approach. To answer these questions, we perform highly resolved and properly designed case experiments by Large-Eddy Simulations with real topography to determine the impact of topographic flow features on the spatial variability of the surface sensible heat flux and compare the fields with those derived with the bulk approach. The analysis shows that there is a significant spatial variability of the mean fluxes with values ranging from -10 Wm-2 to -120 Wm-2. Since the sensible heat flux can make up to 40% of the total melting on mid-latitude alpine valley glaciers, the heterogeneity of the fluxes can substantially dictate the local melting rates. When estimating the glacier-wide surface heat fluxes on the basis of point-measurements and the bulk approach, a considerable amount of spatial information is lost. All

  18. Peltier heat flux sensor for cryogenic use; Peruchie soshi wo mochiita teion netsuryusoku sensa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyama, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-06-07

    It was evaluated as cryogenic heat flux sensor, which could measure the Peltier element in In situ in thermal flux. The equipment which could proofread the thermal flux was manufactured, and on marketed several kinds general-purpose Peltier element of, the relationship between thermal flux and thermoelectromotive force at the liquid nitrogen temperature was examined. (NEDO)

  19. Regional heat flux over the NOPEX area estimated from the evolution of the mixed-layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    1999-01-01

    of forest, agricultural fields, mires and lakes within the boreal zone, was determined for 3 days of the campaign in 1994. It was found to be lower than the heat flux over forest and higher than the heat Aux over agricultural fields. The regional heat flux estimated by the mixed-layer evolution method...

  20. Aram Chaos and its constraints on the surface heat flux of Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, S.; Zegers, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The surface heat flux of a planet is an important parameter to characterize its internal activity and to determine its thermal evolution. Here we report on a new method to constrain the surface heat flux of Mars during the Hesperian. For this, we explore the consequences for the martian surface heat

  1. Aram Chaos and its constraints on the surface heat flux of Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, S.; Zegers, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The surface heat flux of a planet is an important parameter to characterize its internal activity and to determine its thermal evolution. Here we report on a new method to constrain the surface heat flux of Mars during the Hesperian. For this, we explore the consequences for the martian surface heat

  2. Conjugated Conduction-Free Convection Heat Transfer in an Annulus Heated at Either Constant Wall Temperature or Constant Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAROON IMTIAZ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate numerically the effect of thermal boundary conditions on conjugated conduction-free convection heat transfer in an annulus between two concentric cylinders using Fourier Spectral method. The inner wall of the annulus is heated and maintained at either CWT (Constant Wall Temperature or CHF (Constant Heat Flux, while the outer wall is maintained at constant temperature. CHF case is relatively more significant for high pressure industrial applications, but it has not received much attention. This study particularly focuses the latter case (CHF. The main influencing parameters on flow and thermal fields within the annulus are: Rayleigh number Ra; thickness of inner wall Rs; radius ratio Rr and inner wall-fluid thermal conductivity ratio Kr. The study has shown that the increase in Kr increases the heat transfer rate through the annulus for heating at CWT and decreases the inner wall dimensionless temperature for heating at CHF and vice versa. It has also been proved that as the Rs increases at fixed Ra and Rr, the heat transfer rate decreases for heating at CWT and the inner wall dimensionless temperature increases for heating at CHF at Kr 1 depends on Rr. It has been shown that for certain combinations of controlling parameters there will be a value of Rr at which heat transfer rate will be minimum in the annulus in case of heating at CWT, while

  3. A laser-induced heat flux technique for convective heat transfer measurements in high speed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, A. R.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Hingst, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the local convective heat transfer coefficient on a model surface in a supersonic flow field. The technique uses a laser to apply a discrete local heat flux at the model test surface, and an infrared camera system determines the local temperature distribution due to the heating. From this temperature distribution and an analysis of the heating process, a local convective heat transfer coefficient is determined. The technique was used to measure the local surface convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The flat plate boundary layer initially was laminar and became transitional in the measurement region. The experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficients were generally higher than the theoretical predictions for flat plate laminar boundary layers. However, the results indicate that this nonintrusive optical measurement technique has the potential to measure surface convective heat transfer coefficients in high-speed flowfields.

  4. Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.

  5. Test of total heat flux from wood crib fire in and outside compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Woo d crib fires were studied by using of ISO 9705 Room. These free burning tests with different heat release rate were conducted inside room and outside room (under the hood. Thermal condition around crib fire was measured by using of thermocouples, total heat flux gauge, gas concentration analyzer, and standard instrumentations for heat release rate measurement in ISO 9705 Room. This paper focuses on the total heat flux to the surrounding area from wood crib fire. The correlation between heat release rate and total heat flux is presented. Wall and space effect is also analyzed.

  6. Penetrative turbulence associated with mesoscale surface heat flux variations

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Jahrul M

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates penetrative turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. Using a large eddy simulation approach, we study characteristics of the mixed layer with respect to surface heat flux variations in the range from 231.48 W/m$^2$ to 925.92 W/m$^2$, and observe that the surface heterogeneity on a spatial scale of $20$ km leads to downscale turbulent kinetic energy cascade. Coherent fluctuations of mesoscale horizontal wind is observed at 100m above the ground. Such a surface induced temporal oscillations in the horizontal wind suggest a rapid jump in mesocale wind forecasts, which is difficult to parameterize using traditional one-dimensional ensemble-mean models. Although the present work is idealized at a typical scale (20km) of surface heterogeneity, the results help develop effective subgrid scale parameterization schemes for classical weather forecasting mesoscale models.

  7. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  8. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert V.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  9. Eustasy, supercontinental insulation, and the temporal variability of terrestrial heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2007-05-01

    Heat flux from convection in Earth's mantle has recently been suggested to vary substantially (20-30%) with the Wilson cycle of continental aggregation and dispersal, because of possible changes in the aspect ratio of convective cells, and the present-day heat flux may be at the maximum at such a temporal variation. This possibility of strong temporal fluctuations in heat flux has an important bearing on how we should model the thermal evolution of Earth in general. As most of convective heat flux appears as oceanic heat flux, and changes in oceanic heat flux can cause changes in the global sea-level, the likely amplitude of such a temporal variation can be quantified by long-term eustasy. Though this inference may be complicated by other processes that can affect the global sea level, most of them predict sea-level fall when Pangea was present, allowing to place a likely bound on the temporal variability of heat flux. Given the geologically plausible age-area distribution of seafloor, the present-day oceanic heat flux is likely at the minimum (not the maximum) of a possible temporal fluctuation, and the oceanic heat flux at ˜ 200 Ma cannot be lower than today by more than a few percent. I also suggest that mantle warming by supercontinental insulation is probably up to only ˜ 20 K, though it still has a nontrivial consequence for the global sea level.

  10. Tests of a robust eddy correlation system for sensible heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, J. H.; Gay, L. W.

    1992-03-01

    Sensible heat flux estimates from a simple, one-propeller eddy correlation system (OPEC) were compared with those from a sonic anemometer eddy correlation system (SEC). In accordance with similarity theory, the performance of the OPEC system improved with increasing height of the sensor above the surface. Flux totals from the two systems at sites with adequate fetch were in excellent agreement after frequency response corrections were applied. The propeller system appears suitable for long periods of unattended measurement. The sensible heat flux measurements can be combined with net radiation and soil heat flux measurements to estimate latent heat as a residual in the surface energy balance.

  11. Mixing rates and vertical heat fluxes north of Svalbard from Arctic winter to spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Fer, Ilker; Sundfjord, Arild; Peterson, Algot K.

    2017-06-01

    Mixing and heat flux rates collected in the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard during the N-ICE2015 drift expedition are presented. The observations cover the deep Nansen Basin, the Svalbard continental slope, and the shallow Yermak Plateau from winter to summer. Mean quiescent winter heat flux values in the Nansen Basin are 2 W m-2 at the ice-ocean interface, 3 W m-2 in the pycnocline, and 1 W m-2 below the pycnocline. Large heat fluxes exceeding 300 W m-2 are observed in the late spring close to the surface over the Yermak Plateau. The data consisting of 588 microstructure profiles and 50 days of high-resolution under-ice turbulence measurements are used to quantify the impact of several forcing factors on turbulent dissipation and heat flux rates. Wind forcing increases turbulent dissipation seven times in the upper 50 m, and doubles heat fluxes at the ice-ocean interface. The presence of warm Atlantic Water close to the surface increases the temperature gradient in the water column, leading to enhanced heat flux rates within the pycnocline. Steep topography consistently enhances dissipation rates by a factor of four and episodically increases heat flux at depth. It is, however, the combination of storms and shallow Atlantic Water that leads to the highest heat flux rates observed: ice-ocean interface heat fluxes average 100 W m-2 during peak events and are associated with rapid basal sea ice melt, reaching 25 cm/d.

  12. Critical Heat Flux In Inclined Rectangular Narrow Long Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Rempe; S. W. Noh; Y. H. Kim; K. Y. Suh; F.B.Cheung; S. B. Kim

    2005-05-01

    In the TMI-2 accident, the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel had been overheated and then rather rapidly cooled down, as was later identified in a vessel investigation project. This accounted for the possibility of gap cooling feasibility. For this reason, several investigations were performed to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) from the standpoint of invessel retention. The experiments are conducted to investigate the general boiling phenomena, and the triggering mechanism for the CHF in a narrow gap using a 5 x 105 mm2 crevice type heater assembly and de-mineralized water. The test parameters include the gap size of 5 mm, and the surface orientation angles from the downward facing position (180o) to the vertical position (90o). The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape from the narrow gap. The CHF is less than that in a shorter channel, compared with the previous experiments having a heated length of 35 mmin the copper test section.

  13. Heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow towards a shrinking sheet with non-uniform heat flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnendu Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of non-uniform heat flux on heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow over a shrinking sheet is studied.The variable boundary heat fluxes are considered of two types:direct power-law variation with the distance along the sheet and inverse power-law variation with the distance.The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into non linear self-similar ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformations,and then those are solved using very efficient shooting method.The direct variation and inverse variation of heat flux along the sheet have completely different effects on the temperature distribution.Moreover,the heat transfer characteristics in the presence of non-uniform heat flux for several values of physical parameters are also found to be interesting.

  14. Critical Heat Flux in Inclined Rectangular Narrow Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong J. Kim; Yong H. Kim; Seong J. Kim; Sang W. Noh; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-06-01

    In light of the TMI-2 accident, in which the reactor vessel lower head survived the attack by molten core material, the in-vessel retention strategy was suggested to benefit from cooling the debris through a gap between the lower head and the core material. The GAMMA 1D (Gap Apparatus Mitigating Melt Attack One Dimensional) tests were conducted to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) in narrow gaps with varying surface orientations. The CHF in an inclined gap, especially in case of the downward-facing narrow gap, is dictated by bubble behavior because the departing bubbles are squeezed. The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape of the bubbles from the narrow gap. The test parameters include gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm and the open periphery, and the orientation angles range from the fully downward-facing (180o) to the vertical (90o) position. The 15 ×35 mm copper test section was electrically heated by the thin film resistor on the back. The heater assembly was installed to the tip of the rotating arm in the heated water pool at the atmospheric pressure. The bubble behavior was photographed utilizing a high-speed camera through the Pyrex glass spacer. It was observed that the CHF decreased as the surface inclination angle increased and as the gap size decreased in most of the cases. However, the opposing results were obtained at certain surface orientations and gap sizes. Transition angles, at which the CHF changed in a rapid slope, were also detected, which is consistent with the existing literature. A semi-empirical CHF correlation was developed for the inclined narrow rectangular channels through dimensional analysis. The correlation provides with best-estimate CHF values for realistically assessing the thermal margin to failure of the lower head during a severe accident involving relocation of the core material.

  15. Thermal response to the surface heat flux in a macrotidal coastal region (Nuevo Gulf, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Andrés L.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Dellatorre, Fernando G.

    2016-07-01

    At mid-latitudes, sea water temperature shows a strong seasonal cycle forced by the incident surface heat flux. As depth decreases, the heat flux incidence is damped by the horizontal flux, which prevents the indefinite growth of the seasonal temperature range. In the present work, cross-shore transport in the west coast of Nuevo Gulf (Argentina) was analyzed. Processes tending to cool the coastal waters in summer and to warm the coastal waters in winter, were identified through temperature measurements, surface heat flux and tidal height. The simplified models proposed here provide a feedback mechanism that links changes in surface heat flux with changes in the horizontal heat flux during both seasons. On shorter time scales, tide produces significant variations in the height of the water column, therefore influencing temperature fluctuations and the direction of the horizontal flow.

  16. Analytical study on coordinative optimization of convection in tubes with variable heat flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhongxian; ZHANG Jianguo; JIANG Mingjian

    2004-01-01

    The laminar heat transfer in the thermal entrance region in round tubes, which has a variable surface heat flux boundary condition, is analytically studied. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient is closely related to the wall temperature gradient along the tube axis. The greater the gradient, the higher the heat transfer rate. Furthermore, the coordination of the velocity and the temperature gradient fields is also analysed under different surface heat fluxes. The validity of the field coordination principle is verified by checking the correlation of heat transfer coefficient and the coordination degree. The results also demonstrate that optimizing the thermal boundary condition is a way to enhance heat transfer.

  17. Apparatus for measuring high-flux heat transfer in radiatively heated compact exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus is described which can deliver uniform heat flux densities of up to 80 W/sq cm over an area 7.8 cm x 15.2 cm for use in measuring the heat transfer and pressure drop in thin (6 mm or less), compact heat exchangers. Helium gas at flow rates of 0 to 40 kg/h and pressures to 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) is the working fluid. The instrumentation used in the apparatus and the methods for analyzing the data is described. The apparatus will be used initially to test the performance of prototype cooling jackets for the engine struts of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP).

  18. Numerical prediction of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient under high heat fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezo Milada L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics approach to prediction of the heat transfer coefficient for nucleate pool boiling under high heat fluxes. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the atmospheric saturated pool boiling are performed. Mathematical modelling of pool boiling requires a treatment of vapor-liquid two-phase mixture on the macro level, as well as on the micro level, such as bubble growth and departure from the heating surface. Two-phase flow is modelled by the two-fluid model, which consists of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for each phase. Interface transfer processes are calculated by the closure laws. Micro level phenomena on the heating surface are modelled with the bubble nucleation site density, the bubble resistance time on the heating wall and with the certain level of randomness in the location of bubble nucleation sites. The developed model was used to determine the heat transfer coefficient and results of numerical simulations are compared with available experimental results and several empirical correlations. A considerable scattering of the predictions of the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient by experimental correlations is observed, while the numerically predicted values are within the range of results calculated by well-known Kutateladze, Mostinski, Kruzhilin and Rohsenow correlations. The presented numerical modeling approach is original regarding both the application of the two-fluid two-phase model for the determination of heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling and the defined boundary conditions at the heated wall surface. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174014

  19. Critical Heat Flux of Boiling Heat Transfer in a Moderate Narrow Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-HuaZhan; TakashiMasuoka; 等

    1998-01-01

    Boiling heat transfer process is analyzed in a moderate narrow space consisted of two horizontal plates,The main difference between this process and the conventional unconfined pool boiling is the liquid supply mechanism which is absolutely prevented by the growth of coalescence bubble along with the heated surface in the narrow space.As a result,the macrolayer becomes thinner due to the evaporation of the individual bubbles within the macrolayer during the period of bubble coalescence,with or without dryout that depends on both the gap size of narrow space and the size of heated surface.For a specified size of the heated surface,the initial thickness of the liquid layer has a critical value which approaches a constant while the space height is larger than a critical value.The individual bubble behaviors and the heat transfer can be considered as the same as that in the unconfined pool boiling,if the space gap is large,However,the individual bubbles do not generate in the last period of the bubble coalescence and a lower maximum heat flux will be resulted if the space gap is reduced.In such a case,the macrolayer is dryout.

  20. The Role of the Velocity Gradient in Laminar Convective Heat Transfer through a Tube with a Uniform Wall Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…

  1. Contribution of Advective and Non-advective Heat Fluxes to the Heat Budget of a Shallow Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat budget in a shallow lagoon has been established from field measurements at a bihourly scale. Information on the main advective and non-advective heat fluxes were collected during year 2003 at Nueva lagoon (Almería, Southern Spain. Heat storage data was obtained from a thermistor chain located in the deepest part of the lagoon and meteorological information was acquired using an automatic meteorological station placed near the lagoon's shore. In addition, estimation of evaporation was inferred from climatic approaches. Inputs of heat energy were dominated by radiative fluxes, with received net radiation accounting on average for around 95% of the non-advective total gains and radiation losses accounting for around 70% of the non-advective total losses. Sensible heat transfer from/to the atmosphere constituted the second energy input (4% and output (20%, although heat losses by evaporation were also significant. Conduction of heat into the sediments was a relatively constant form of energy loss but constitutes a minor contribution on the overall heat budget. Considerable variability was evident in non-advective heat fluxes at different time scales, from diel to seasonal. In relation to advective heat fluxes, groundwater and irrigation surpluses added to the heat storage of Nueva lagoon, whereas heat advected via precipitation was negligible.

  2. The Role of the Velocity Gradient in Laminar Convective Heat Transfer through a Tube with a Uniform Wall Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…

  3. An observational study of the upward sensible heat flux by synoptic scale transients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1980-01-01

    For eight 30-day periods, two in each season, vertical transient eddy fluxes of sensible heat were computed at the 850, 500 and 200 mb levels. Use was made of NMC analyses and 6-h forecasts of the (w-field available twice a day. Vertical heat fluxes are strong in the Atlantic and Pacific storm track

  4. Time and Space Resolved Heat Transfer Measurements Under Nucleate Bubbles with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2003-01-01

    Investigations into single bubble pool boiling phenomena are often complicated by the difficulties in obtaining time and space resolved information in the bubble region. This usually occurs because the heaters and diagnostics used to measure heat transfer data are often on the order of, or larger than, the bubble characteristic length or region of influence. This has contributed to the development of many different and sometimes contradictory models of pool boiling phenomena and dominant heat transfer mechanisms. Recent investigations by Yaddanapyddi and Kim and Demiray and Kim have obtained time and space resolved heat transfer information at the bubble/heater interface under constant temperature conditions using a novel micro-heater array (10x10 array, each heater 100 microns on a side) that is semi-transparent and doubles as a measurement sensor. By using active feedback to maintain a state of constant temperature at the heater surface, they showed that the area of influence of bubbles generated in FC-72 was much smaller than predicted by standard models and that micro-conduction/micro-convection due to re-wetting dominated heat transfer effects. This study seeks to expand on the previous work by making time and space resolved measurements under bubbles nucleating on a micro-heater array operated under constant heat flux conditions. In the planned investigation, wall temperature measurements made under a single bubble nucleation site will be synchronized with high-speed video to allow analysis of the bubble energy removal from the wall.

  5. The forgotten component of sub-glacial heat flow: Upper crustal heat production and resultant total heat flux on the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Johnson, Alex; Halpin, Jacqueline; Whittaker, Joanne; Watson, Sally

    2017-04-01

    Seismic and magnetic geophysical methods have both been employed to produce estimates of heat flux beneath the Antarctic ice sheet. However, both methods use a homogeneous upper crustal model despite the variable concentration of heat producing elements within its composite lithologies. Using geological and geochemical datasets from the Antarctic Peninsula we have developed a new methodology for incorporating upper crustal heat production in heat flux models and have shown the greater variability this introduces in to estimates of crustal heat flux, with implications for glaciological modelling.

  6. Empirical models of the eddy heat flux and vertical shear on short time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghan, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    An intimate relation exists between the vertical shear and the horizontal eddy heat flux within the atmosphere. In the present investigation empirical means are employed to provide clues concerning the relationship between the shear and eddy heat flux. In particular, linear regression models are applied to individual and joint time series of the shear and eddy heat flux. These discrete models are used as a basis to infer continuous models. A description is provided of the observed relationship between the flux and the shear, taking into account means, standard deviations, and lag correction functions.

  7. Surface energy balance closure in an arid region: role of soil and heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Berkowicz, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The large soil heat fluxes in hot desert regions are very important in energy balance studies. Surface energy balance (SEB) observations, however, reveal that there is an imbalance in Surface flux measurements and that it is difficult to isolate those flux measurements causing the imbalance errors.

  8. Formation of extreme surface turbulent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilinina, N. D.; Gulev, S. K.; Gavrikov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The role of extreme surface turbulent fluxes in total oceanic heat loss in the North Atlantic is studied. The atmospheric circulation patterns enhancing ocean-atmosphere heat flux in regions with significant contributions of the extreme heat fluxes (up to 60% of the net heat loss) are analyzed. It is shown that extreme heat fluxes in the Gulf Stream and the Greenland and Labrador Seas occur in zones with maximal air pressure gradients, i.e., in cyclone-anticyclone interaction zones.

  9. Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Two-Phase Micro Channel Heat Sink at Low Water Mass Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir V.; Shamirzaev, Alisher S.

    2009-08-01

    Boiling heat transfer at water flow with low mass flux in heat sink which contained rectangular microchannels was studied. The stainless steel heat sink contained ten parallel microchannels with a size of 640 × 2050 μm in cross-section with typical wall roughness of 10-15 μm. The local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured at mass velocity of 17 and 51 kg/m2s, heat flux on 30 to 150 kW/m2 and vapor quality of up to 0.8 at pressure in the channels closed to atmospheric one. It was observed that Kandlikar nucleate boiling correlation is in good agreement with the experimental data at mass flow velocity of 85 kg/m2s. At smaller mass flux the Kandlikar model and Zhang, Hibiki and Mishima model demonstrate incorrect trend of heat transfer coefficients variation with vapor quality.

  10. Temperature and heat flux measurement techniques for aeroengine fire test: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Saadon, S.

    2016-10-01

    This review is made of studies whereby some types of fire test measuring instrument were compared based on their mode of operation, sensing ability, temperature resistance and their calibration mode used for aero-engine applications. The study discusses issues affecting temperature and heat flux measurement, methods of measurement, calibration and uncertainties that occur in the fire test. It is found that the temperature and heat flux measurements of the flame from the standard burner need to be corrected and taken into account for radiation heat loss. Methods for temperature and heat flux measurements, as well as uncertainties analysis, were also discussed.

  11. E × B shear pattern formation by radial propagation of heat flux waves

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuga, Y; Diamond, PH; Dif-Pradalier, G; Gürcan, OD

    2014-01-01

    A novel theory to describe the formation of E×B flow patterns by radially propagating heat flux waves is presented. A model for heat avalanche dynamics is extended to include a finite delay time between the instantaneous heat flux and the mean flux, based on an analogy between heat avalanche dynamics and traffic flow dynamics. The response time introduced here is an analogue of the drivers' response time in traffic dynamics. The microscopic foundation for the time delay is the time for mixing...

  12. THE STUDY ON LATENT AND SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX OVER MIRE IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how surface energy fluxes respond to environmental variables and how their components vary on daily and seasonal temporal scales are critical for understanding the ecological process of wetland ecosystem. In view of the fact that studies on surface energy flux over mire in China have been very limited, we have initiated a long-term latent and sensible heat flux (two main components of the surface energy balance) observation over mire in the Sanjiang Plain from June to October in 2004 with the eddy covariance technique. Results showed that the latent and sensible heat flux had large seasonal and diurnal variation during the period of measurement. Generally, latent heat flux between the mire wetland and the atmosphere reached the maximum value in June and then gradually decreased from June to October, whose daily mean fluxes were 9.83,8.00,7.33, 4.82 and 2.04 MJ/(m2·d), respectively. By comparison, sensible heat flux changed unnoticeably with season change from June to October, which were 1.47,0.88,1.75, 1.61,1.33 MJ/(m2·d) respectively. The diurnal variation of both latent and sensible heat flux varied noticeably within a day. After the sunrise, the latent and sensible heat flux increased and reached the maximum at noon (11:00-13:00). Then they decreased gradually and reached the minimum value during the nighttime. The patterns of temporal variation in latent and sensible heat flux were significantly controlled by environmental factors. The latent heat flux was linearly dependent on net radiation and increased with increasing vapour pressure deficit until the vapour pressure deficit surpassed 11 hPa. Wind speed effect on latent heat flux was more complicated and, in general, showed a positive correlation between them in daytime. The sensible heat flux was controlled mainly by air temperature difference between the land surface and the overlying air. However, when the temperature difference was larger than 0.3 ℃, it had no effect on the sensible

  13. Heat Flux at the Surface of Metal Foil Heater under Evaporating Sessile Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Marchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporating water drops on a horizontal heated substrate were investigated experimentally. The heater was made of a constantan foil with the thickness of 25 μm and size of 42 × 35 mm2. The temperature of the bottom foil surface was measured by the infrared (IR camera. To determine the heat flux density during evaporation of liquid near the contact line, the Cauchy problem for the heat equation was solved using the temperature data. The maximum heat flux density is obtained in the contact line region and exceeds the average heat flux density from the entire foil surface by the factor of 5–7. The average heat flux density in the region wetted by the drop exceeds the average heat flux density from the entire foil surface by the factor of 3–5. This fact is explained by the heat influx from the foil periphery to the drop due to the relatively high heat conductivity coefficient of the foil material and high evaporation rate in the contact line region. Heat flux density profiles for pairs of sessile droplets are also investigated.

  14. Effect of subcooling on critical heat flux during pool boiling on a horizontal heated wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Kawae, N.; Monde, M.

    Critical heat flux(CHF) is measured during pool boiling of water and R113 on a heated horizontal wire submerged in a subcooled liquid. Experiments are conducted over a pressure range from 0.1 to 3.0MPa and subcooling up to 220K. CHF data reveal that the CHF increases in a linear fashion with an increase in subcooling, and that the increment of the CHF with increasing subcooling becomes larger with increasing pressure. The characteristics of the CHF obtained differ from those of existing correlations at high pressures, although it is a similar tendency to them in that the CHF is proportional to the subcooling. A new correlation is derived by taking into account the effect of both the density ratio, ρL/ρV, and the Peclet number, Pe, and it succeeds in predicting the CHF data up to higher pressure and higher subcooling ranges, more effectively than previous studies using existing applicable ranges.

  15. Thin film heat flux sensors fabricated on copper substrates for thermal measurements in microfluidic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperson, Benjamin A.; Schmale, Joshua; Qu, Weilin; Pfefferkorn, Frank E.; Turner, Kevin T.

    2014-12-01

    Micro-scale heat flux sensors are fabricated on bulk copper surfaces using a combination of lithography-based microfabrication and micro end milling. The heat flux sensors are designed to enable heat transfer measurements on an individual pin in a copper micro pin fin heat sink. Direct fabrication of the sensors on copper substrates minimizes the thermal resistance between the sensor and pin. To fabricate the devices, copper wafers were polished to a flatness and roughness suitable for microfabrication and standard processes, including photolithography, polyimide deposition via spinning, and metal deposition through physical vapor deposition were tailored for use on the unique copper substrates. Micro end milling was then used to create 3D pin features and segment the devices from the copper substrate. Temperature calibrations of the sensors were performed using a tube furnace and the heat flux sensing performance was assessed through laser-based tests. This paper describes the design, fabrication and calibration of these integrated heat flux sensors.

  16. Uncertainty analysis of heat flux measurements estimated using a one-dimensional, inverse heat-conduction program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas; Figueroa, Victor G.; Murphy, Jill E. (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA)

    2005-02-01

    The measurement of heat flux in hydrocarbon fuel fires (e.g., diesel or JP-8) is difficult due to high temperatures and the sooty environment. Un-cooled commercially available heat flux gages do not survive in long duration fires, and cooled gages often become covered with soot, thus changing the gage calibration. An alternate method that is rugged and relatively inexpensive is based on inverse heat conduction methods. Inverse heat-conduction methods estimate absorbed heat flux at specific material interfaces using temperature/time histories, boundary conditions, material properties, and usually an assumption of one-dimensional (1-D) heat flow. This method is commonly used at Sandia.s fire test facilities. In this report, an uncertainty analysis was performed for a specific example to quantify the effect of input parameter variations on the estimated heat flux when using the inverse heat conduction method. The approach used was to compare results from a number of cases using modified inputs to a base-case. The response of a 304 stainless-steel cylinder [about 30.5 cm (12-in.) in diameter and 0.32-cm-thick (1/8-in.)] filled with 2.5-cm-thick (1-in.) ceramic fiber insulation was examined. Input parameters of an inverse heat conduction program varied were steel-wall thickness, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity; insulation thickness, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity, temperature uncertainty, boundary conditions, temperature sampling period; and numerical inputs. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed in all cases. Results of the analysis show that, at the maximum heat flux, the most important parameters were temperature uncertainty, steel thickness and steel volumetric heat capacity. The use of a constant thermal properties rather than temperature dependent values also made a significant difference in the resultant heat flux; therefore, temperature-dependent values should be used. As an example, several parameters were varied to

  17. Progress in the measurement of SSME turbine heat flux with plug-type sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1991-01-01

    Data reduction was completed for tests of plug-type heat flux sensors (gauges) in a turbine blade thermal cycling tester (TBT) that is located at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, and a typical gauge is illustrated. This is the first time that heat flux has been measured in a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Turbopump Turbine environment. The development of the concept for the gauge was performed in a heat flux measurement facility at Lewis. In this facility, transient and steady state absorbed surface heat flux information was obtained from transient temperature measurements taken at points within the gauge. A schematic of the TBT is presented, and plots of the absorbed surface heat flux measured on the three blades tested in the TBT are presented. High quality heat flux values were measured on all three blades. The experiments demonstrated that reliable and durable gauges can be repeatedly fabricated into the airfoils. The experiment heat flux data are being used for verification of SSME analytical stress, boundary layer, and heat transfer design models. Other experimental results and future plans are also presented.

  18. Prediction of heat transfer of nanofluid on critical heat flux based on fractal geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Bo-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Analytical expressions for nucleate pool boiling heat transfer of nanofluid in the critical heat flux (CHF) region are derived taking into account the effect of nanoparticles moving in liquid based on the fractal geometry theory.The proposed fractal model for the CHF of nanofluid is explicitly related to the average diameter of the nanoparticles,the volumetric nanoparticle concentration,the thermal conductivity of nanoparticles,the fractal dimension of nanoparticles,the fractal dimension of active cavities on the heated surfaces,the temperature,and the properties of the fluid.It is found that the CHF of nanofluid decreases with the increase of the average diameter of nanoparticles.Each parameter of the proposed formulas on CHF has a clear physical meaning.The model predictions are compared with the existing experimental data,and a good agreement between the model predictions and experimental data is found.The validity of the present model is thus verified.The proposed fractal model can reveal the mechanism of heat transfer in nanofluid.

  19. COMPARISON OF COOLING SCHEMES FOR HIGH HEAT FLUX COMPONENTS COOLING IN FUSION REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar Domalapally

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Some components of the fusion reactor receives high heat fluxes either during the startup and shutdown or during the operation of the machine. This paper analyzes different ways of enhancing heat transfer using helium and water for cooling of these high heat flux components and then conclusions are drawn to decide the best choice of coolant, for usage in near and long term applications.

  20. Heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate in transverse magnetic field with heat flux

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.

    Thermal boundary layer on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate in the presence of transverse magnetic field with heat flux has been examined. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated numerically...

  1. Countercurrent flow limited (CCFL) heat flux in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles, A.E.

    1990-10-12

    The countercurrent flow (CCF) performance in the fuel element region of the HFIR is examined experimentally and theoretically. The fuel element consists of two concentric annuli filled with aluminum clad fuel plates of 1.27 mm thickness separated by 1.27 mm flow channels. The plates are curved as they go radially outward to accomplish constant flow channel width and constant metal-to-coolant ratio. A full-scale HFIR fuel element mock-up is studied in an adiabatic air-water CCF experiment. A review of CCF models for narrow channels is presented along with the treatment of CCFs in system of parallel channels. The experimental results are related to the existing models and a mechanistic model for the annular'' CCF in a narrow channel is developed that captures the data trends well. The results of the experiment are used to calculate the CCFL heat flux of the HFIR fuel assembly. It was determined that the HFIR fuel assembly can reject 0.62 Mw of thermal power in the CCFL situation. 31 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Nonlocal Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaby, Neil

    2008-01-01

    We consider the possibility of realizing inflation in nonlocal field theories containing infinitely many derivatives. Such constructions arise naturally in string field theory and also in a number of toy models, such as the p-adic string. After reviewing the complications (ghosts and instabilities) that arise when working with high derivative theories we discuss the initial value problem and perturbative stability of theories with infinitely many derivatives. Next, we examine the inflationary dynamics and phenomenology of such theories. Nonlocal inflation can proceed even when the potential is naively too steep and generically predicts large nongaussianity in the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  3. Anthropogenic Heat Flux Estimation from Space: Results of the second phase of the URBANFLUXES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2017-04-01

    The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts of UEB fluxes on urban heat island and consequently on energy consumption in cities. In URBANFLUXES, the anthropogenic heat flux is estimated as a residual of UEB. Therefore, the rest UEB components, namely, the net all-wave radiation, the net change in heat storage and the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are independently estimated from Earth Observation (EO), whereas the advection term is included in the error of the anthropogenic heat flux estimation from the UEB closure. The Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model is employed to improve the estimation of the net all-wave radiation balance, whereas the Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM), adjusted to satellite observations is used to improve the estimation the estimation of the net change in heat storage. Furthermore the estimation of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes is based on the Aerodynamic Resistance Method (ARM). Based on these outcomes, QF is estimated by regressing the sum of the turbulent heat fluxes versus the available energy. In-situ flux measurements are used to evaluate URBANFLUXES outcomes, whereas uncertainties are specified and analyzed. URBANFLUXES is expected to prepare the ground for further innovative exploitation of EO in scientific activities (climate variability studies at local and regional scales) and future and emerging applications (sustainable urban planning, mitigation technologies) to benefit climate change mitigation/adaptation. This study presents the results of the second phase of the project and detailed information on URBANFLUXES is available at: http://urbanfluxes.eu

  4. Elastic thickness and heat flux estimates for the uranian satellite Ariel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G.; Nimmo, F.; Schenk, P.

    2015-04-01

    The surface of Ariel, an icy satellite orbiting Uranus, shows extensional tectonic features suggesting an episode of endogenic heating in the satellite's past. Using topography derived from stereo-photoclinometry, we identified flexural uplift at a rift zone suggesting elastic thickness values in the range 3.8-4.4 km. We estimate the temperature at the base of the lithosphere to be in the range 99-146 K, depending on the strain rate assumed, with corresponding heat fluxes of 28-92 mW/m2. Neither tidal heating, assuming Ariel's current eccentricity, nor radiogenic heat production from the silicate core are enough to cause the inferred heat fluxes. None of three proposed ancient mean-motion resonances produce equilibrium tidal heating values in excess of 4.3 mW/m2. Thus, the origin of the inferred high heat fluxes is currently mysterious.

  5. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck’s sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  6. Estimation of surface heat flux and surface temperature during inverse heat conduction under varying spray parameters and sample initial temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  7. Analysis of Contact Melting Driven by Surface Heat Flux Around a Cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.S. Zhao; W.Z. Chen; F.R. Sun; Z.Y. Chen

    2008-01-01

    The contact melting of phase change material around a moving horizontal cylindrical heat source, which descended under its own weight, is investigated in this article. A melting model under constant surface heat flux is established. The analytical results for thickness and pressure distributions inside melt layer and steady melting velocity are obtained by using contact melting theory. The melting law is discussed, and compared with that of contact melting driven by temperature difference. It is found that quasi-steady melting velocity is determined by heat flux of heat source, and the variation of heat source density has less effect on melting velocity.

  8. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space: results of the first phase of the URBANFLUXES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-10-01

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts of UEB fluxes on urban heat island and consequently on energy consumption in cities. This will lead to the development of tools and strategies to mitigate these effects, improving thermal comfort and energy efficiency. In URBANFLUXES, the anthropogenic heat flux is estimated as a residual of UEB. Therefore, the rest UEB components, namely, the net all-wave radiation, the net change in heat storage and the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are independently estimated from Earth Observation (EO), whereas the advection term is included in the error of the anthropogenic heat flux estimation from the UEB closure. The project exploits Sentinels observations, which provide improved data quality, coverage and revisit times and increase the value of EO data for scientific work and future emerging applications. These observations can reveal novel scientific insights for the detection and monitoring of the spatial distribution of the urban energy budget fluxes in cities, thereby generating new EO opportunities. URBANFLUXES thus exploits the European capacity for space-borne observations to enable the development of operational services in the field of urban environmental monitoring and energy efficiency in cities.

  9. Modelling the mechanical response of an idealized ice stream to variations in geothermal heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Johnsen, Silje; de Fleurian, Basile; Hestnes Nisancioglu, Kerim

    2017-04-01

    The spatial distribution of geothermal heat flux beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet is largely unknown partly due to difficulties in accessing the bed, and bore hole data providing point measurements only. Studies using tectonic, seismic and magnetic models to retrieve the geothermal heat flux show very different results indicating large uncertainties. However, modelling studies point to a geothermal heat flux anomaly that may influence the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). Previous studies have investigated the impact of the uncertainty in geothermal heatflux on ice dynamics. These studies are mainly focusing on the impact on the ice rheology as the basal condition are derived from inverse modelling methods (including the geothermal heat flux variability in the variability of the friction coefficient). Another important feedback is the increase in subglacial meltwater production which may affect the sliding velocities of an ice stream, and has not been taken into account in preceding studies. In this study we investigate the impact of variations in geothermal heat flux on ice dynamics by analysing the mechanical response of a synthetic ice stream simulating NEGIS using the Ice Sheet System Model (Larour et al. 2012). We present results from model experiments using different heat flux configurations, friction laws and a hydrology model, showing the importance of geothermal heat flux on basal conditions of fast flowing ice.

  10. Measurement of Heat Flux at Metal-Mold Interface during Casting Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    All previous studies on interfacial heat transfer coefficient have been based on indirect methods for estimating the heat flux that employed either inverse heat transfer analysis procedures or instrumentation arrangements to measure temperatures and displacements near the metal-mold interface. In this paper, the heat transfer at the metal-mold interfaces is investigated using a sensor for the direct measurement of heat flux. The heat flux sensor (HFS) was rated for 700oC and had a time response of less than 10 ms. Casting experiments were conducted using graphite molds for aluminum alloy A356. Several casting experiments were performed using a graphite coating and a boron nitride coating. The measurement errors were estimated. The temperature of the mold surface was provided by the HFS while the temperature of the casting surface was measured using a thermocouple. Results for the heat transfer coefficients were obtained based on measured heat flux and temperatures. Four stages were clearly identified for the variation in time of the heat flux. Values of the heat transfer coefficient were in good agreement with data from previous studies.

  11. Surface Catalysis and Oxidation on Stagnation Point Heat Flux Measurements in High Enthalpy Arc Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Driver, David M.; Terrazas-Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Heat flux sensors are routinely used in arc jet facilities to determine heat transfer rates from plasma plume. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of surface composition changes on these heat flux sensors. Surface compositions can change due to oxidation and material deposition from the arc jet. Systematic surface analyses of the sensors were conducted before and after exposure to plasma. Currently copper is commonly used as surface material. Other surface materials were studied including nickel, constantan gold, platinum and silicon dioxide. The surfaces were exposed to plasma between 0.3 seconds and 3 seconds. Surface changes due to oxidation as well as copper deposition from the arc jets were observed. Results from changes in measured heat flux as a function of surface catalycity is given, along with a first assessment of enthalpy for these measurements. The use of cupric oxide is recommended for future heat flux measurements, due to its consistent surface composition arc jets.

  12. E × B shear pattern formation by radial propagation of heat flux waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuga, Y., E-mail: kosuga@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); IAS and RIAM, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); CASS and CMTFO, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Dif-Pradalier, G. [CEA, IRFM, Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gürcan, Ö. D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2014-05-15

    A novel theory to describe the formation of E×B flow patterns by radially propagating heat flux waves is presented. A model for heat avalanche dynamics is extended to include a finite delay time between the instantaneous heat flux and the mean flux, based on an analogy between heat avalanche dynamics and traffic flow dynamics. The response time introduced here is an analogue of the drivers' response time in traffic dynamics. The microscopic foundation for the time delay is the time for mixing of the phase space density. The inclusion of the finite response time changes the model equation for avalanche dynamics from Burgers equation to a nonlinear telegraph equation. Based on the telegraph equation, the formation of heat flux jams is predicted. The growth rate and typical interval of jams are calculated. The connection of the jam interval to the typical step size of the E×B staircase is discussed.

  13. E × B shear pattern formation by radial propagation of heat flux wavesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuga, Y.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Gürcan, Ã.-. D.

    2014-05-01

    A novel theory to describe the formation of E ×B flow patterns by radially propagating heat flux waves is presented. A model for heat avalanche dynamics is extended to include a finite delay time between the instantaneous heat flux and the mean flux, based on an analogy between heat avalanche dynamics and traffic flow dynamics. The response time introduced here is an analogue of the drivers' response time in traffic dynamics. The microscopic foundation for the time delay is the time for mixing of the phase space density. The inclusion of the finite response time changes the model equation for avalanche dynamics from Burgers equation to a nonlinear telegraph equation. Based on the telegraph equation, the formation of heat flux jams is predicted. The growth rate and typical interval of jams are calculated. The connection of the jam interval to the typical step size of the E ×B staircase is discussed.

  14. Convective heat transfer enhancement of laminar flow of latent functionally thermal fluid in a circular tube with constant heat flux: internal heat source model and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寅平; 胡先旭; 郝磬; 王馨

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the convective heat transfer enhancement mechanism of latent heat functionally thermal fluid. By using the proposed internal heat source model, the influence of each factor affecting the heat transfer enhancement of laminar flow in a circular tube with constant heat flux is analyzed. The main influencing factors and the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement are clarified, and the influences of the main factors on the heat transfer enhancement are quantitatively analyzed. A modified Nusselt number for internal flow is introduced to describe more effectively the degree of heat transfer enhancement for latent functionally thermal fluid.

  15. Development and application of flexible substrate sensors in instantaneous heat flux measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Duo; GU JiaHua; WU Song

    2009-01-01

    A new type of sensor with the flexible substrate is introduced.It is applicable in measuring instanta-neous heat flux on the model surface in a hypersonic shock tunnel.The working principle,structure and manufacture process of the sensor are presented.The substrate thickness and the dynamic re-sponse parameter of the sensor are calculated.Because this sensor was successfully used in meas-uring the instantaneous heat flux on the surface of a flat plate in a detonation-driven shock tunnel,it may be effective in measuring instantaneous heat flux on the model surface.

  16. A simple model for the interaction between vertical eddy heat fluxes and static stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, W. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A numerical model for studying the interaction of vertical eddy heat fluxes and vertical temperature structure in midlatitude regions is described. The temperature profile for the model was derived from calculations of the equilibrium among heating rates in simplified representations of large-scale vertical eddy heat flux, moist convection and radiation. An eddy flux profile is calculated based on the quasi-geostrophic, liner baroclinic instability of a single wave. Model equilibrium states for summer and winter conditions are compared with observations, and the results are discussed in detail.

  17. Effects of mass flow rate and droplet velocity on surface heat flux during cryogen spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetian, Emil [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Aguilar, Guillermo [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kimel, Sol [Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lavernia, Enrique J [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nelson, J Stuart [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2003-01-07

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to protect the epidermis during dermatologic laser surgery. To date, the relative influence of the fundamental spray parameters on surface cooling remains incompletely understood. This study explores the effects of mass flow rate and average droplet velocity on the surface heat flux during CSC. It is shown that the effect of mass flow rate on the surface heat flux is much more important compared to that of droplet velocity. However, for fully atomized sprays with small flow rates, droplet velocity can make a substantial difference in the surface heat flux. (note)

  18. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program test report. Heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, P. O.

    1971-01-01

    A heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions is presented. Three tests were authorized to investigate whether heat flux measurements may be used as effective hazards evaluation criteria to determine safe quantity distances for pyrotechnics. A passive sensor study was conducted simultaneously to investigate their usefulness in recording events and conditions. It was concluded that heat flux measurements can effectively be used to evaluate hazards criteria and that passive sensors are an inexpensive tool to record certain events in the vicinity of deflagrating pyrotechnic stacks.

  19. Measurement of Heat Propagation in a Laser Produced Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Knight, J; Niemann, C; Price, D; Froula, D H; Edwards, J; Town, R P J; Brantov, A; Bychenkov, V Y; Rozmus, W

    2003-08-22

    We present the observation of a nonlocal heat wave by measuring spatially and temporally resolved electron temperature profiles in a laser produced nitrogen plasma. Absolutely calibrated measurements have been performed by resolving the ion-acoustic wave spectra across the plasma volume with Thomson scattering. We find that the experimental electron temperature profiles disagree with flux-limited models, but are consistent with transport models that account for the nonlocal effects in heat conduction by fast electrons.

  20. Neutron Flux Density Measured by Analysis of Annealing Heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Fan; SHI; Yong-qian; ZHU; Qing-fu; LU; Jin; LI; Lai-dong

    2015-01-01

    Neutron flux density measurement by thermal analysis is a new method different from the previous.This method is first put the sample to the neutron field.Second,measure the annealingheat of the sample.Find out the suitable mixture of crystal boron and apatite to measure the neutron flux density.Then put the sample to the neutron field in

  1. Institute for High Heat Flux Removal (IHHFR). Phases I, II, and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Ronald D. [Prairie View A& M Univ., TX (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The IHHFR focused on interdisciplinary applications as it relates to high heat flux engineering issues and problems which arise due to engineering systems being miniaturized, optimized, or requiring increased high heat flux performance. The work in the IHHFR focused on water as a coolant and includes: (1) the development, design, and construction of the high heat flux flow loop and facility; (2) test section development, design, and fabrication; and, (3) single-side heat flux experiments to produce 2-D boiling curves and 3-D conjugate heat transfer measurements for single-side heated test sections. This work provides data for comparisons with previously developed and new single-side heated correlations and approaches that address the single-side heated effect on heat transfer. In addition, this work includes the addition of single-side heated circular TS and a monoblock test section with a helical wire insert. Finally, the present work includes: (1) data base expansion for the monoblock with a helical wire insert (only for the latter geometry), (2) prediction and verification using finite element, (3) monoblock model and methodology development analyses, and (4) an alternate model development for a hypervapotron and related conjugate heat transfer controlling parameters.

  2. An assessment of air-sea heat fluxes from ocean and coupled reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Maria; Haines, Keith; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Chang, You-Soon; Drevillon, Marie; Ferry, Nicolas; Fujii, Yosuke; Köhl, Armin; Storto, Andrea; Toyoda, Takahiro; Wang, Xiaochun; Waters, Jennifer; Xue, Yan; Yin, Yonghong; Barnier, Bernard; Hernandez, Fabrice; Kumar, Arun; Lee, Tong; Masina, Simona; Andrew Peterson, K.

    2017-08-01

    Sixteen monthly air-sea heat flux products from global ocean/coupled reanalyses are compared over 1993-2009 as part of the Ocean Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP). Objectives include assessing the global heat closure, the consistency of temporal variability, comparison with other flux products, and documenting errors against in situ flux measurements at a number of OceanSITES moorings. The ensemble of 16 ORA-IP flux estimates has a global positive bias over 1993-2009 of 4.2 ± 1.1 W m-2. Residual heat gain (i.e., surface flux + assimilation increments) is reduced to a small positive imbalance (typically, +1-2 W m-2). This compensation between surface fluxes and assimilation increments is concentrated in the upper 100 m. Implied steady meridional heat transports also improve by including assimilation sources, except near the equator. The ensemble spread in surface heat fluxes is dominated by turbulent fluxes (>40 W m-2 over the western boundary currents). The mean seasonal cycle is highly consistent, with variability between products mostly cooling caused by differences in surface winds imposed in ORA-IP.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Flow Through Equilateral Triangular Duct Under Constant Wall Heat Flux Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Kumar, Anoop; Goel, Varun

    2017-06-01

    The force convective heat transfer in an equilateral triangular duct of different wall heat flux configurations was analysed for the laminar hydro-dynamically developed and thermally developing flow by the use of finite volume method. Unstructured meshing was generated by multi-block technique and set of governing equations were discretized using second-order accurate up-wind scheme and numerically solved by SIMPLE Algorithm. For ensuring accuracy, grid independence study was also done. Numerical methodology was verified by comparing results with previous work and predicted results showed good agreement with them (within error of ±5 %). The different combinations of constant heat flux boundary condition were analysed and their effect on heat transfer and fluid flow for different Reynolds number was also studied. The results of different combinations were compared with the case of force convective heat transfer in the equilateral triangular duct with constant heat flux on all three walls.

  4. Comparison between different methods of measurement of momentum and sensible heat fluxes over canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Aubinet

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Différent methods of measurement of momentum and sensible heat flux densifies are presented and compared above a gras covered fallow. The aerodynamic (AD and eddy covariance (EC methods are presented and compared for both momentum and sensible heat measurements. In addition, the temperature fluctuation (TF method is compared to the HEC method for the sensible heat flux measurement. The AD and EC methods are in good agreement for the momentum flux measurements. For the sensible heat flux, the AD method is very sensible to temperature errors. So it is unusable during night and gives biased estimations during the day. The TF method gives only estimations of the sensible heat flux. It is in good agreement with the EC method during the day but diverges completely during night, being unable to disceming positive from négative fluxes. From the three methods, the EC method is the sole that allows to measure continuously both momentum and sensible heat flux but it requires a loud data treatment. We présent in this paper the algorithm used for this treatment.

  5. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) for high heat flux thrust chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christopher M.

    -section components has become critical, but at the same time the service conditions have put our best alloy systems to their limits. As a result, implementation of cooling holes and thermal barrier coatings are new advances in hot-section technologies now looked at for modifications to reach higher temperature applications. Current thermal barrier coatings used in today's turbine applications is known as 8%yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and there are no coatings for current thrust chambers. Current research is looking at the applicability of 8%yttria-stabilized hafnia (YSH) for turbine applications and the implementation of 8%YSZ onto thrust chambers. This study intends to determine if the use of thermal barrier coatings are applicable for high heat flux thrust chambers using industrial YSZ will be advantageous for improvements in efficiency, thrust and longer service life by allowing the thrust chambers to be used more than once.

  6. A preliminary study on the heat storage fluxes of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>In order to discuss the values and daily variation characteristics of heat storage fluxes in a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, the sensible and latent heat storage flux within air column, canopy heat storage flux, energy storage by photosynthesis and ground heat storage above the soil heat flux plate, as well as the ratios of these heat storage fluxes to the net radiation in the cool-dry, hot-dry and rainy season were compared and analyzed based on the observation data of carbon fluxes, meteorological factors and biomass within this tropical seasonal rain forest from January 2003 to December 2004. The findings showed that heat storage terms ranged significantly in the daytime and weakly in the nighttime, and the absolute values of sensible and latent heat storage fluxes were obviously greater than other heat storage terms in all seasons. In addition, the absolute values of total heat storage fluxes reached the peak in the hot-dry season, then were higher in the rainy season, and reached the minimum in the cool-dry season. The ratios of heat storage fluxes to net radiation generally decreased with time in the daytime, moreover, the sensible and latent heat storage dominated a considerable fraction of net radiation, while other heat storage contents occupied a smaller fraction of the net radiation and the peak value was not above 3.5%. In the daytime, the ratios of the total heat storage to net radiation were greater and differences in these ratios were distinct among seasons before 12:00, and then they became lower and differences were small among seasons after 12:00. The energy closure was improved when the storage terms were considered in the energy balance, which indicated that heat storage terms should not been neglected. The energy closure of tropical seasonal rain forest was not very well due to effects of many factors. The results would help us to further understand energy transfer and mass exchange between tropical forest and atmosphere

  7. A multipoint flux approximation of the steady-state heat conduction equation in anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-03-20

    In this work, we introduce multipoint flux (MF) approximation method to the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic media. In such media, the heat flux vector is no longer coincident with the temperature gradient vector. In this case, thermal conductivity is described as a second order tensor that usually requires, at least, six quantities to be fully defined in general three-dimensional problems. The two-point flux finite differences approximation may not handle such anisotropy and essentially more points need to be involved to describe the heat flux vector. In the framework of mixed finite element method (MFE), the MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes. We consider the lowest order Brezzi-Douglas-Marini (BDM) mixed finite element method with a special quadrature rule that allows for nodal velocity elimination resulting in a cell-centered system for the temperature. We show comparisons with some analytical solution of the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic long strip. We also consider the problem of heat conduction in a bounded, rectangular domain with different anisotropy scenarios. It is noticed that the temperature field is significantly affected by such anisotropy scenarios. Also, the technique used in this work has shown that it is possible to use the finite difference settings to handle heat transfer in anisotropic media. In this case, heat flux vectors, for the case of rectangular mesh, generally require six points to be described. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  8. An advanced thin foil sensor concept for heat flux and heat transfer measurements in fully turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocikat, H.; Herwig, H.

    2007-02-01

    A double layer hot film with two 10 μm nickel foils, separated by a 25 μm polyimide foil is used as a multi-purpose sensor. Each foil can be operated as a (calibrated) temperature sensor in its passive mode by imposing an electric current small enough to avoid heating by dissipation of electrical energy. Alternatively, however, each foil can also serve as a heater in an active mode with electric currents high enough to cause Joule heating. This double foil sensor can be used as a conventional heat flux sensor in its passive mode when mounted on an externally heated surface. Together with the wall and free stream temperature this measured heat flux will provide the local heat transfer coefficient h = dot{q}w/left(Tw - T_{infty}right). In fully turbulent flows it alternatively can be operated in an active mode on a cold, i.e. not externally heated surface. Then, by heating the upper foil, a local heat transfer is initiated from which the local heat transfer coefficient h can be determined, once the lower foil is heated to the same temperature as the upper one, thus acting as a counter-heater. The overall concept behind this mode of measurement is based on the local character of heat transfer in fully turbulent flows which turns out to be almost independent of the upstream thermal events.

  9. The Influence of Non-Uniform High Heat Flux on Thermal Stress of Thermoelectric Power Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhen Ming

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A thermoelectric generator (TEG device which uses solar energy as heat source would achieve higher efficiency if there is a higher temperature difference between the hot-cold ends. However, higher temperature or higher heat flux being imposed upon the hot end will cause strong thermal stress, which will have a negative influence on the life cycle of the thermoelectric module. Meanwhile, in order to get high heat flux, a Fresnel lens is required to concentrate solar energy, which will cause non-uniformity of heat flux on the hot end of the TEG and further influence the thermal stress of the device. This phenomenon is very common in solar TEG devices but seldom research work has been reported. In this paper, numerical analysis on the heat transfer and thermal stress performance of a TEG module has been performed considering the variation on the power of the heat flux being imposed upon the hot-end; the influence of non-uniform high heat flux on thermal stress has also been analyzed. It is found that non-uniformity of high heat flux being imposed upon the hot end has a significant effect on the thermal stress of TEG and life expectation of the device. Taking the uniformity of 100% as standard, when the heating uniformity is 70%, 50%, 30%, and 10%, respectively, the maximum thermal stress of TEG module increased by 3%, 6%, 12%, and 22% respectively. If we increase the heat flux on the hot end, the influence of non-uniformity on the thermal stress will be more remarkable.

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Sensible Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Sensible Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. On the solenoidal heat-flux in quasi-ballistic thermal conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Ashok T.; Bowers, John E.

    2015-09-01

    The Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is recast directly in terms of the heat-flux by means of iteration followed by truncation at the second order in the spherical harmonic expansion of the distribution function. This procedure displays the heat-flux in an explicitly coordinate-invariant form, and leads to a natural decomposition into two components, namely, the solenoidal component in addition to the usual irrotational component. The solenoidal heat-flux is explicitly shown to arise by applying the heat-flux equation to a right-circular cylinder. These findings are important in the context of phonon resonators that utilize the strong quasi-ballistic thermal transport reported recently in silicon membranes at room temperature.

  12. On The Solenoidal Heat Flux in Quasi-Ballistic Thermal Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Ashok; Bowers, John

    The Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is recast directly in terms of the heat-flux by means of iteration followed by truncation at the second order in the spherical harmonic expansion of the distribution function. This procedure displays the heat-flux in an explicitly coordinate-invariant form, and leads to a natural decomposition into two components, namely the solenoidal component in addition to the usual irrotational component. The solenoidal heat-flux is explicitly shown to arise in a right-circular cylinder when the transport is in the quasi-ballistic regime. These findings are important in the context of phonon resonators that utilize the strong quasi-ballistic thermal transport reported recently in silicon membranes at room temperature. Effects due to circulating heat fluxes are noted in the effective thermal conductivity of silicon discs. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation, USA under Project Number CMMI-1363207.

  13. Recession-Tolerant Heat Flux Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an...

  14. The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS for estimation of turbulent heat fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Su

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS is proposed for the estimation of atmospheric turbulent fluxes and evaporative fraction using satellite earth observation data, in combination with meteorological information at proper scales. SEBS consists of: a set of tools for the determination of the land surface physical parameters, such as albedo, emissivity, temperature, vegetation coverage etc., from spectral reflectance and radiance measurements; a model for the determination of the roughness length for heat transfer; and a new formulation for the determination of the evaporative fraction on the basis of energy balance at limiting cases. Four experimental data sets are used to assess the reliabilities of SEBS. Based on these case studies, SEBS has proven to be capable to estimate turbulent heat fluxes and evaporative fraction at various scales with acceptable accuracy. The uncertainties in the estimated heat fluxes are comparable to in-situ measurement uncertainties. Keywords: Surface energy balance, turbulent heat flux, evaporation, remote sensing

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Total Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Total Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. High temperature thermocouple and heat flux gauge using a unique thin film-hardware hot juncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, C. H.; Holanda, R.; Hippensteele, S. A.; Andracchio, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    A special thin film-hardware material thermocouple (TC) and heat flux gauge concept for a reasonably high temperature and high flux flat plate heat transfer experiment was fabricated and tested to gauge temperatures of 911 K. This concept was developed for minimal disturbance of boundary layer temperature and flow over the plates and minimal disturbance of heat flux through the plates. Comparison of special heat flux gauge Stanton number output at steady-state conditions with benchmark literature data was good and agreement was within a calculated uncertainty of the measurement system. Also, good agreement of special TC and standard TC outputs was obtained and the results are encouraging. Oxidation of thin film thermoelements was a primary failure mode after about 5 of operation.

  17. Effect of constant heat flux at outer cylinder on stability of viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    dimensional linear stability analysis of the Couette flow between two axial cylinders for ... variable or constant heat flux at the inner cylinder while the outer cylinder is ... differential equations have been obtained to govern the stability of the ...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Heat Flux Due To Rain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Heat Flux Due To Rain data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Heat Flux Due To Rain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Heat Flux Due To Rain data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Heat Flux Due To Rain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Heat Flux Due To Rain data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Heat Flux Due To Rain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Heat Flux Due To Rain data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Latent Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Latent Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  3. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Ocean Heat Fluxes, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Ocean Surface Bundle (OSB) Climate Data Record (CDR) consist of three parts: sea surface temperature, near-surface atmospheric properties, and heat fluxes....

  4. Ir Thermographic Measurements of Temperatures and Heat Fluxes in Hypersonic Plasma Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, G.; Tortora, G.; del Vecchio, A.

    2005-02-01

    The technological development achieved in instruments and methodology concerning both flights and ground hypersonic experiment (employed in space plane planning) goes towards an updating and a standardization of the heat flux technical measurements. In fact, the possibility to simulate high enthalpy flow relative to reentry condition by hypersonic arc-jet facility needs devoted methods to measure heat fluxes. Aim of this work is to develop an experimental numerical technique for the evaluation of heat fluxes over Thermal Protection System (TPS) by means of InfraRed (IR) thermographic temperature measurements and a new heat flux sensor (IR-HFS). We tackle the numerical validation of IR-HFS, apply the same one to the Hyflex nose cap model and compare the obtained results with others ones obtained by others methodology.

  5. Explanation of how to run the global local optimization code (GLO) to find surface heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S; Sahai, V; Stein, W

    1999-03-01

    From the evaluation[1] of the inverse techniques available, it was determined that the Global Local Optimization Code[2] can determine the surface heat flux using known experimental data at various points in the geometry. This code uses a whole domain approach in which an analysis code (such as TOPAZ2D or ABAQUS) can be run to get the appropriate data needed to minimize the heat flux function. This document is a compilation of our notes on how to run this code to find the surface heat flux. First, the code is described and the overall set-up procedure is reviewed. Then, creation of the configuration file is described. A specific configuration file is given with appropriate explanation. Using this information, the reader should be able to run GLO to find the surface heat flux.

  6. The Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Solid Samples by Heat Flux Differantial Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kök, M.; Aydoǧdu, Y.

    2007-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of polyvinylchloride (PVC), polysytrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) were measured by heat flux DSC. Our results are in good agreement with the results observed by different methods.

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Sensible Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Sensible Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Latent Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Latent Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Total Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Total Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Latent Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Latent Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Latent Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Latent Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Total Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Total Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Total Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Total Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. Evapotranspiration and heat fluxes over a patchy forest - studied using modelling and measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Dellwik, Ebba; Boegh, Eva

    Most forests in Europe are too small to fulfill strict fetch requirements associated with idealized flux observations. As a consequence of limited fetch, the flux measured above the canopy will often deviate from the source strength underlying the measurements, i.e. observations of sensible...... and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest (Klaassen et al. 2002, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 72, 231-243). Because such flux measurements are very often used for calibration of forest parameters or model constants, further...... using these parameters without a proper interpretation in mesoscale or global circulation models can results in serious bias of estimates of modelled evapotranspiration or heat fluxes from given area. Since representative measurements focused on heterogeneous effects are scarce numerical modelling can...

  15. Differences between laminar convections through parallel plain planes with uniform wall temperature and heat flux in terms of process parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Using the process parameter description,we analyzed the difference between the characteristics of laminar convections through parallel plain planes with uniform temperature and heat flux.The results show the following.(1)On the wall surface of the developing region,under uniform heat flux boundary condition,the heat flux normal to the wall surface is transported through a convection process although the velocity is zero;the velocity gradient contributes to this transport,but under uniform temperature boundary condition,the heat flux normal to the wall surface is transported through a difussion process.(2)Inside the flow of the developing region,whether under uniform temperature or heat flux boundary condition,the heat flux along the main flow direction and the heat flux normal to the wall surface are transported through a convection process,and the contributions of velocity and velocity gradient are dependent on the thermal boundary condition.(3)On the wall surface of the fully developed region,under uniform heat flux boundary condition,the heat flux normal to the wall surface is transported through a convection process;the velocity gradient contributes to this transport,but under uniform temperature boundary condition,the heat flux normal to the wall surface is transported through a diffusion process.(4)Inside the flow of the fully developed region,under uniform temperature boundary condition,the heat flux along the main flow direction and the heat flux normal to the wall surface are transported through a convection process,and the velocity and velocity gradient contribute to these transports;under uniform heat flux boundary condition,the heat flux along the main flow direction and the heat flux normal to the wall surface are transported through a convection process.Furthermore,the transport of the heat flux along the main flow direction is a no-net convection process;the velocity gradient contributes to the transport of the heat flux only in the normal direction

  16. Convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid in the presence of second order slip, constant heat flux and zero nanoparticles flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M.M., E-mail: mansurdu@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, PC 123 Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Al-Rashdi, Maryam H. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, PC 123 Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Pop, I. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid is investigated. • Second order slip increases the rate of shear stress and decreases the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid. • In nanofluid flow zero normal flux of the nanoparticles at the surface is realistic to apply. • Multiple solutions are identified for certain values of the parameter space. • The upper branch solution is found to be stable, hence physically realizable. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of the second order slip, constant heat flux, and zero normal flux of the nanoparticles due to thermophoresis on the convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics in a nanofluid using Buongiorno's model over a permeable shrinking sheet is studied theoretically. The nonlinear coupled similarity equations are solved using the function bvp4c using Matlab. Similarity solutions of the flow, heat transfer and nanoparticles volume fraction are presented graphically for several values of the model parameters. The results show that the application of second order slip at the interface is found to be increased the rate of shear stress and decreased the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid, so need to be taken into account in nanofluid modeling. The results further indicate that multiple solutions exist for certain values of the parameter space. The stability analysis provides guarantee that the lower branch solution is unstable, while the upper branch solution is stable and physically realizable.

  17. Heatflow in Young Oceanic Crust. Is Earth's Heat Flux 44 TW or 31 TW?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnold, W. D.

    2008-05-01

    We address the question of heat flow in young oceanic crust using a 2-D finite difference heat flow model of sea floor spreading. The model parameters include thermal conductivity variation with temperature, a fixed T-z profile at the ridge that follows the mantle liquidus, constant spreading rate, and constant heat flow into the base of the lithosphere. The output of the model is a 2-D temperature-depth grid that provides a comparison with various analytical models of oceanic heat flow. We tested the reliability of the computations using different half-spreading rates and different node spacings and verified that the models yield equivalent results at equivalent times and depths. To address the question of global heat flux with respect to heat flow at oceanic spreading centers, we summed heat flux on the oceanic ridge system assuming a length of 65000 km and a half-spreading rate of 2.5 cm/y. Our results show that the GDH1, HSC, and PSM models overestimate heat flow close to the ridge, but the differences are less than 5 percent beyond 2 ma. Our model converges with GDH1 at a young age of 4.32 my and actually shows slightly lower heat flow than HSC and PSM models for ages greater than 5 ma. Total heat flux for GDH1 between 80ky and 2.32 my is 6.24 TW and our model yields 5.56 TW. Assuming agreement with heat flux over the rest of the globe, our model is only 0.68 TW different from 44TW. However, our result for heat flux in a 2 km wide section over the global ridge crest is 0.161 TW while the analytical models predict infinite heat flow.

  18. Critical Heat Flux Phenomena at HighPressure & Low Mass Fluxes: NEUP Final Report Part I: Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wu, Qiao [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report is a preliminary document presenting an overview of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomenon, the High Pressure Critical Heat Flux facility (HPCHF), preliminary CHF data acquired, and the future direction of the research. The HPCHF facility has been designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a rod bundle prototypical of conceptual Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs. The rod bundle is comprised of four electrically heated rods in a 2x2 square rod bundle with a prototypic chopped-cosine axial power profile and equipped with thermocouples at various axial and circumferential positions embedded in each rod for CHF detection. Experimental test parameters for CHF detection range from pressures of ~80 – 160 bar, mass fluxes of ~400 – 1500 kg/m2s, and inlet water subcooling from ~30 – 70°C. The preliminary data base established will be further extended in the future along with comparisons to existing CHF correlations, models, etc. whose application ranges may be applicable to the conditions of SMRs.

  19. Thermal evaluation of uranium silicide miniplates irradiated at high heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post Guillen, Donna, E-mail: Donna.Guillen@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3710 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Best estimate of thermal conditions during irradiation experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal evaluation of 25% enriched, high-density U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}/Al dispersion fuel miniplates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictions of heat flux and temperature for as-run, high heat flux conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finite-element analysis uses measured values of hydroxide layer thickness. - Abstract: The Gas Test Loop (GTL)-1 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to assess corrosion performance of proposed booster fuel at heat flux levels {approx}30% above the design operating condition. Sixteen miniplates fabricated from 25% enriched, high-density (4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}) U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}/Al dispersion fuel with 6061 aluminum cladding were subjected to peak beginning of cycle (BOC) heat fluxes ranging from 411 to 593 W/cm{sup 2}. No adverse impacts to the miniplates were observed at these high heat flux levels. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux for an as-run cycle average effective ATR south lobe power of 25.4 MW(t). Miniplate heat flux levels and fuel, cladding, hydroxide, and coolant-hydroxide interface temperatures were calculated using the average hydroxide thickness on each miniplate measured during post-irradiation examination. The purpose of this study was to obtain a best estimate of the as-run experiment temperatures to aid in establishing acceptable heat flux levels and designing fuel qualification experiments for this fuel type.

  20. Nonviolent nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    If quantum mechanics governs nature, black holes must evolve unitarily, providing a powerful constraint on the dynamics of quantum gravity. Such evolution apparently must in particular be nonlocal, when described from the usual semiclassical geometric picture, in order to transfer quantum information into the outgoing state. While such transfer from a disintegrating black hole has the dangerous potential to be violent to generic infalling observers, this paper proposes the existence of a more innocuous form of information transfer, to relatively soft modes in the black hole atmosphere. Simplified models for such nonlocal transfer are described and parameterized, within a possibly more basic framework of a Hilbert tensor network. Sufficiently sensitive measurements by infalling observers may detect departures from Hawking's predictions, and in generic models black holes decay more rapidly. Constraints of consistency -- internally and with known and expected features of physics -- restrict the form of informati...

  1. Experimental investigation and mechanism of critical heat flux enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer with nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatchi, R.; Venkatachalapathy, S.; Nithya, C.

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized from graphite using modified Hummer and chemical reduction methods. Various characterizations techniques are carried out to study the in-plane crystallite size, number of layers, presence of functional groups and surface morphology. Different concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 g/l of rGO/water nanofluids are prepared by dispersing the flakes in DI water. The colloidal stability of 0.3 g/l concentration is measured after 5 days using Zetasizer and found to be stable. The rGO/water nanofluids are then used to study the effect on the enhancement of critical heat flux (CHF) in pool boiling heat transfer. Results indicate an enhancement in CHF ranging from 145 to 245 % for the tested concentrations. The mechanisms of CHF enhancement are analyzed based on surface wettability, surface roughness, and porous layer thickness. The macrolayer dryout model sufficiently supports the mechanism of CHF enhancement of thin wire with rGO deposits, which is not reported yet.

  2. The whistler heat flux instability: Threshold conditions in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, S. Peter; Scime, Earl E.; Phillips, John L.; Feldman, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Solar wind electrons are observed often to consist of two components: a core and a halo. The anisotropics and relative average speeds of these components correspond to a heat flux that has the potential to excite several different electromagetic instabilities; wave-particle scattering by the resulting enhanced fluctuations can limit this heat flux. This manuscript describes theoretical studies using the linear Vlasco dispersion equation for drifting bi-Maxwellian component distributions in a homogeneous plasma to examine the threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. Expressions for this threshold are obtained from two different parametric baselines: a local model that yields scalings as functions of local dimensionless plasma paramaters, and a global model based on average electron properties observed during the in-eliptic phase of the Ulysses mission. The latter model yields an expression for the heat flux at threshold of the whistler instability as a function of helisopheric radius that scales in the same way as the average heat flux observed form Ulysses and that provides an approximate upper bound for that same quantity. This theoretical scaling is combined with the observational results to yield a semi-empirical closure relation for the average electron heat flux in the solar wind between 1 and 5 AU.

  3. High geothermal heat flux measured below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew T; Mankoff, Kenneth D; Tulaczyk, Slawek M; Tyler, Scott W; Foley, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The geothermal heat flux is a critical thermal boundary condition that influences the melting, flow, and mass balance of ice sheets, but measurements of this parameter are difficult to make in ice-covered regions. We report the first direct measurement of geothermal heat flux into the base of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), below Subglacial Lake Whillans, determined from the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of sediment under the lake. The heat flux at this site is 285 ± 80 mW/m(2), significantly higher than the continental and regional averages estimated for this site using regional geophysical and glaciological models. Independent temperature measurements in the ice indicate an upward heat flux through the WAIS of 105 ± 13 mW/m(2). The difference between these heat flux values could contribute to basal melting and/or be advected from Subglacial Lake Whillans by flowing water. The high geothermal heat flux may help to explain why ice streams and subglacial lakes are so abundant and dynamic in this region.

  4. [Dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Yang, Fu-Lin

    2010-03-01

    This paper studied the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, based on the 2008 observation data from eddy covariance tower. The diurnal patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes over the ecosystem were both single kurtosis, with the maximum value being 319.01 W x m(-2) (on May 30th, 2008) and 425.37 W x m(-2) (on Jun 2nd, 2008), respectively, and occurred at about 12:00-13:30 (local time), which was similar to the diurnal pattern of net radiation but lagged about one hour of the maximum net radiation. The maximum diurnal variations of monthly mean sensible and latent heat fluxes occurred in May and June, and their minimum diurnal variations occurred in January and November, respectively. There was a closer relationship between soil moisture content and precipitation. Surface soil moisture content was most sensitive to precipitation, while the moisture content in deeper soil layers had a lagged response to precipitation. The seasonal dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes was similar to that of net radiation, and affected by precipitation. Sensible heat flux was obviously affected by net radiation, but latent heat flux was more sensitive to precipitation and mainly controlled by soil moisture content.

  5. Three-dimensional Oldroyd-B fluid flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, S. A.; Hayat, T.; Abbasi, F. M.; Javed, Tariq; Kutbi, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux in three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface is explored in this article. The boundary layer flow of an incompressible fluid is considered. Heat transfer analysis is discussed via the Cattaneo-Christov model of heat flux. Similarity transformations lead to the nonlinear ordinary differential systems. Convergent solutions of dimensionless velocities and temperature have been computed. Convergence analysis is presented graphically and numerically. The influence of physical parameters on the velocities and temperature are plotted and discussed. We observed that the values of temperature gradient are higher for the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model when we compare it with the values obtained by the simple Fourier's law of heat conduction.

  6. Melting Heat Transfer Characteristics of Latent Heat Microcapsule-Water Mixed Slurry Flowing in a Pipe with Constant Wall Heat Flux (Experimental Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Kim, Myoung-Jun; Horibe, Akihiko

    The present experiments have been performed for obtaining the melting heat transfer characteristics of micro-encapsulated solid-liquid phase change material and water mixed slurry flow in a circular tube heated with constant wall heat flux. The phase change material having a low melting point was selected for a domestic cooling system in the present study. The governing parameters were found to be latent heat material concentration,heat,flux,and the slurry velocity. The experimental results revealed that the mean heat transfer coefficient of latent microcapsule slurry was about l.3~l.8 times greater than that of the single phase of water. Moreover the effectiveness of heat transfer coefficient to friction factor had a maximum at latent heat material concentration of 25%.

  7. Experimental result of BWR post-CHF tests. Critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Anoda, Yoshinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Iwaki, Chikako [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    Authors performed post-CHF experiments under wider pressure ranges of 2 MPa - 18 MPa, wider mass flux ranges of 33 kg/m{sup 2}s - 1651 kg/m{sup 2}s and wider superheat of heaters up to 500 K in comparison to experimental ranges at previous post-CHF experiments. Data on boiling transition, critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient were obtained. Used test section was 4x4-rod bundle with heaters, which diameter and length were the same as those of BWR nuclear fuels. As the result of the experiments, it was found that the boiling transition occurred just below several grid spacers, and that the fronts of the boiling transition region proceeded lower with increase of heated power. Heat transfer was due to nucleate boiling above grid spacers, while it was due to film boiling below grid spacers. Consequently, critical heat flux is affected on the distance from the grid spacers. Critical heat flux above the grid spacers was about 15% higher than that below the grid spacers, by comparing them under the same local condition. Heat transfer by steam turbulent flow was dominant to post-CHF heat transfer, when superheat of heaters was sufficiently high. Then, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was predicted with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. On the other hand, when superhead of heaters was not sufficiently high, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was higher than the prediction with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. Mass flux effect on post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was described by standardization of post-CHF heat transfer coefficient with the prediction for single-phase flow. However, pressure effect, superheat effect and effect of position were not described. Authors clarified that those effects could be described with functions of heater temperature and position. Post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was lowest just blow the grid spacers, and it increased with the lower positions. It increased by about 30% in one span of

  8. ANALYSIS OF A HEAT-FLUX DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY INSTRUMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements are used to estimate the fractional latent heat release during phase changes. There are temperature lags inherent to the instruments due to the temperature measurement at a different location than that of the sample and reference materials. Recently, Dong and Hunt[1] showed that significant improvement in estimating the fractional latent heat can be obtained when detailed simulations of the heat transfer within the instrument are performed. The Netzsch DSC 404C instrument, with a high accuracy heat capacity sensor, is considered in this study. This instrument had a different configuration than that studied by Dong and Hunt[1]. The applicability of Dong and Hunt's approach to this instrument is investigated. It was found that the DSC instrument could be described by numerous parameters but that model parameters were difficult to estimate. Numerical simulation results are presented and compared with experimental results for the fractional latent heat of a commercial A356 aluminum alloy.

  9. The heat budgets of magmatic arcs: Discrepancies between heat flow measurements, volatile fluxes, and interpretations of the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buer, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arc magmatic processes, from differentiation to emplacement, depend crucially on the rate at which heat and magma are supplied to the arc crust. In active arcs, the total heat flow can be estimated relatively directly by measuring and quantifying the amounts of heat lost via conduction, hydrothermal circulation, and eruption. This total heat flow can be used to calculate the implied magmatic flux at depth. Alternatively, magmatic flux in active arcs can be estimated from measured rates of volatile emissions, usually SO2. Unfortunately, heat flow and volatile flux data sufficiently detailed to make these calculations exist for only a handful of active arcs. In the geologic record, rates of arc magmatic flux have most frequently been estimated by measuring the preserved volumes of intrusive and extrusive products and dividing by the geochronologically determined duration of arc activity. This can be converted to heat flow by assuming a certain amount of heat carried per volume of magma. The ranges of magmatic flux estimated via either heat flow or SO2 are similar for modern arcs, but, on average, estimates from the geologic record are lower by about a factor of three (Fig. 1). This discrepancy may indicate that the assumption that preserved igneous rock volumes represent the total advective flux is a poor choice when interpreting the geologic record. Recycling of early solidified magma and loss of cumulates to the mantle may be important, i.e., the time-integrated advective flux might significantly exceed the net preserved intrusive volume. This is also supported by other lines of evidence, including geochemical mass-balance arguments, thermal models of basalt flux needed to allow substantial assimilation and/or crystal fractionation in the lower crust, high-temperature thermochronology in arcs, and thermal models of the conditions necessary to cause large, explosive eruptions from upper crustal magma chambers. Substantial recycling or convection within the arc crust

  10. Analytical model of particle and heat flux collection by dust immersed in dense magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignitchouk, L.; Ratynskaia, S.; Tolias, P.

    2017-10-01

    A comprehensive analytical description is presented for the particle and heat fluxes collected by dust in dense magnetized plasmas. Compared to the widely used orbital motion limited theory, the suppression of cross-field transport leads to a strong reduction of the electron fluxes, while ion collection is inhibited by thin-sheath effects and the formation of a potential overshoot along the field lines. As a result, the incoming heat flux loses its sensitivity to the floating potential, thereby diminishing the importance of electron emission processes in dust survivability. Numerical simulations implementing the new model for ITER-like detached divertor plasmas predict a drastic enhancement of the dust lifetime.

  11. Atmospheric Forcing of the Winter Air–Sea Heat Fluxes over the Northern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.

    2013-03-01

    The influence of the atmospheric circulation on the winter air–sea heat fluxes over the northern Red Sea is investigated during the period 1985–2011. The analysis based on daily heat flux values reveals that most of the net surface heat exchange variability depends on the behavior of the turbulent components of the surface flux (the sum of the latent and sensible heat). The large-scale composite sea level pressure (SLP) maps corresponding to turbulent flux minima and maxima show distinct atmospheric circulation patterns associated with each case. In general, extreme heat loss (with turbulent flux lower than −400 W m−2) over the northern Red Sea is observed when anticyclonic conditions prevail over an area extending from the Mediterranean Sea to eastern Asia along with a recession of the equatorial African lows system. Subcenters of high pressure associated with this pattern generate the required steep SLP gradient that enhances the wind magnitude and transfers cold and dry air masses from higher latitudes. Conversely, turbulent flux maxima (heat loss minimization with values from −100 to −50 W m−2) are associated with prevailing low pressures over the eastern Mediterranean and an extended equatorial African low that reaches the southern part of the Red Sea. In this case, a smooth SLP field over the northern Red Sea results in weak winds over the area that in turn reduce the surface heat loss. At the same time, southerlies blowing along the main axis of the Red Sea transfer warm and humid air northward, favoring heat flux maxima.

  12. Regionalization of surface heat fluxes and evapotranspiration over heterogeneous landscape of the Third Pole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    Like Antarctica and the Arctic, the Third Pole region is drawing increased attention among the international academic community. It is centered on the Tibetan Plateau, stretching from the Pamir Plateau and Hindu-Kush on the west to the Hengduan Mountains on the east, and from the Kunlun and Qilian Mts on the north to the Himalayas on the south. Covering over 5,000,000 km2 in total and with an average elevation surpassing 4000 m. The exchange of energy and evapotranspiration (ET) between land surface and atmosphere over the Third Pole region play an important role in the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is a major component of both the energy and water cycles of the global climate system. The parameterization methods based on satellite data and Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) observations have been proposed and tested for deriving regional distribution of surface reflectance, surface temperature, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and ET over heterogeneous landscape. As cases study, the methods were applied to the whole Tibetan Plateau area and Nepal area. To validate the proposed methods, the ground-measured surface reflectance, surface temperature, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux in the Third Pole Environment Programme (TPE) Research Platform (TPEP) TPEP are compared to the derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables, land surface heat fluxes and ET over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. These parameters show a wide range due to the strong contrast of surface features. And the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good agreement with ground measurements, and all the absolute percent difference is less than 10% in the validation sites. It is therefore concluded that the proposed methods are successful for the retrieval of land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous

  13. High-resolution hot-film measurement of surface heat flux to an impinging jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, T. S.; Persoons, T.; Murray, D. B.

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the complex coupling between surface heat transfer and local fluid velocity in convective heat transfer, advanced techniques are required to measure the surface heat flux at high spatial and temporal resolution. Several established flow velocity techniques such as laser Doppler anemometry, particle image velocimetry and hot wire anemometry can measure fluid velocities at high spatial resolution (µm) and have a high-frequency response (up to 100 kHz) characteristic. Equivalent advanced surface heat transfer measurement techniques, however, are not available; even the latest advances in high speed thermal imaging do not offer equivalent data capture rates. The current research presents a method of measuring point surface heat flux with a hot film that is flush mounted on a heated flat surface. The film works in conjunction with a constant temperature anemometer which has a bandwidth of 100 kHz. The bandwidth of this technique therefore is likely to be in excess of more established surface heat flux measurement techniques. Although the frequency response of the sensor is not reported here, it is expected to be significantly less than 100 kHz due to its physical size and capacitance. To demonstrate the efficacy of the technique, a cooling impinging air jet is directed at the heated surface, and the power required to maintain the hot-film temperature is related to the local heat flux to the fluid air flow. The technique is validated experimentally using a more established surface heat flux measurement technique. The thermal performance of the sensor is also investigated numerically. It has been shown that, with some limitations, the measurement technique accurately measures the surface heat transfer to an impinging air jet with improved spatial resolution for a wide range of experimental parameters.

  14. Heat flux limits on the plasma-facing components for a commercial fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.R.; Tillack, M.S. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Sze, D.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wong, C.P.C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this work, the heat flux limits of conventional plasma-facing components (PFC) were examined. The limits are based on maximum allowable temperature and stress levels in the structures. The substrate materials considered were V, SiC composite and HT-9. The use of Cu also was considered. However, low temperature limits, activation and very limited radiation damage life time, make the using of Cu in a commercial power plant unattractive. With selected heat transfer enhancement, the heat flux allowable is about 5.3 MW/m{sup 2} for lithium-cooled V-alloy, 2.7 MW/m{sup 2} for helium-cooled SiC composite, and 2.7 MW/m{sup 2} for helium/water-cooled HT-9. Compared with the maximum heat flux attainable with Cu and cold water (13.4 MW/m{sup 2}), acceptable power plant materials place severe restrictions on heat removal. The thermal conductivity of SiC composite at 1,000 C and after irradiation is a factor of several lowered than the value the authors used. This indicates a need to examine the heat transfer problems associated with PFC, in terms of material development and enhancement in heat transfer. Physics regimes which can provide low peak and average heat flux should be pursued.

  15. Multi-sensor remote sensing parameterization of heat fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faivre, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    The parameterization of heat transfer by remote sensing, and based on SEBS scheme for turbulent heat fluxes retrieval, already proved to be very convenient for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) over homogeneous land surfaces. However, the use of such a method over heterogeneous landscapes (e.g. sem

  16. Estimation of surface heat flux for ablation and charring of thermal protection material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei-qi; He, Kai-feng; Zhou, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Ablation of the thermal protection material of the reentry hypersonic flight vehicle is a complex physical and chemical process. To estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperature measurement is much more complex than the conventional inverse heat conduction problem case. In the paper, by utilizing a two-layer pyrogeneration-plane ablation model to model the ablation and charring of the material, modifying the finite control volume method to suit for the numerical simulation of the heat conduction equation with variable-geometry, the CGM along with the associated adjoint problem is developed to estimate the surface heat flux. This estimation method is verified with a numerical example at first, the results show that the estimation method is feasible and robust. The larger is the measurement noise, the greater is the deviation of the estimated result from the exact value, and the measurement noise of ablated surface position has a significant and more direct influence on the estimated result of surface heat flux. Furthermore, the estimation method is used to analyze the experimental data of ablation of blunt Carbon-phenolic material Narmco4028 in an arc-heater. It is shown that the estimated surface heat flux agrees with the heating power value of the arc-heater, and the estimation method is basically effective and potential to treat the engineering heat conduction problem with ablation.

  17. Based on Sea Surface Heat Fluxes and Observations of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from the Kenya Meteorological Department including gauging data from two small rivers were ... For this reason, heat conservation was used for the calculation of water exchange. .... (Knudsen, 1899). Figure 3 indicates a simple model.

  18. Two-flux method for radiation heat transfer in anisotropic gas-particles media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; CEN Kefa; T. Girasole; A. Garo; G. Gréhan; YAN Jianhua

    2004-01-01

    Two-flux method can be used, as a simplification for the radiative heat transfer, to predict heat flux in a slab consisting of gas and particles. In the original two-flux method (Schuster, 1905 and Schwarzschild, 1906), the radiation field was assumed to be isotropic. But for gas-particles mixture in combustion environments, the scatterings of particles are usually anisotropic, and the original two-flux method gives critical errors when ignoring this anisotropy. In the present paper, a multilayer four-flux model developed by Rozé et al. (2001) is extended to calculate the radiation heat flux in a slab containing participating particles and gas mixture. The analytic resolution of the radiative transfer equation in the framework of a two-flux approach is presented. The average crossing parameter ε And the forward scattering ratio ζ are defined to describe the anisotropy of the radiative field. To validate the model, the radiation transfer in a slab has been computed. Comparisons with the exact analytical result of Modest (1993) and the original two-flux model show the exactness and the improvement. The emissivity of a slab containing flyash/CO2/H2O mixture is obtained using the new model. The result is identical with that of Goodwin (1989).

  19. Ionospheric Poynting Flux and Joule Heating Modeling Challenge: Latest Results and New Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. S.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Knipp, D. J.; Zheng, Y.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Newell, P. T.; Weimer, D. R.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Wang, W.

    2014-12-01

    Poynting Flux and Joule Heating in the ionosphere - latest results from the challenge and updates at the CCMC. With the addition of satellite tracking and display features in the online analysis tool and at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), we are now able to obtain Poynting flux and Joule heating values from a wide variety of ionospheric models. In addition to Poynting fluxes derived from electric and magnetic field measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites for a recent modeling challenge, we can now use a Poynting Flux model derived from FAST satellite observations for comparison. Poynting Fluxes are also correlated using Ovation Prime maps of precipitation patterns during the same time periods to assess how "typical" the events in the challenge are.

  20. The meridional variation of the eddy heat fluxes by baroclinic waves and their parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    The meridional and vertical eddy fluxes of sensible heat produced by small-amplitude growing baroclinic waves are calculated using solutions to the two-level model with horizontal shear in the mean flow. The results show that the fluxes are primarily dependent on the local baroclinicity, i.e., the local value of the isentropic slopes in the mean state. Where the slope exceeds the critical value, the transports are poleward and upward; where the slope is less than the critical value, the transports are equatorward and downward. These results are used to improve an earlier parameterization of the tropospheric eddy fluxes of sensible heat based on Eady's model. Comparisons with observations show that the improved parameterization reproduces the observed magnitude and sign of the eddy fluxes and their vertical variations and seasonal changes, but the maximum in the poleward flux is too near the equator.

  1. What is the Role of the Sensible Heat Flux on the Surface Heat Budget of Multi-year Sea Ice?

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, Peter S.; Persson, Ola G.; ANDREAS, EDGAR L.; Fairall, Christopher W.

    2001-01-01

    J1.4 The authors carried out a comprehensive measurement program to determine the surface energy budget at the SHEBA site. This paper will focus on the characteristics of the air-ice sensible heat flux and its role in the surface energy budget. The results discussed here are based on covariance measurements at the main tower site. We continuously sampled the sensible heat flux for almost an entire year at nominal levels of 2 m, 3 m, 5 m, 8 m and 18 m. The N...

  2. Dynamics of charged bulk viscous collapsing cylindrical source with heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S.M.; Abbas, G. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, we have explored the effects of dissipation on the dynamics of charged bulk viscous collapsing cylindrical source which allows the out-flow of heat flux in the form of radiations. The Misner-Sharp formalism has been implemented to drive the dynamical equation in terms of proper time and radial derivatives. We have investigated the effects of charge and bulk viscosity on the dynamics of collapsing cylinder. To determine the effects of radial heat flux, we have formulated the heat transport equations in the context of Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory by assuming that thermodynamics viscous/heat coupling coefficients can be neglected within some approximations. In our discussion, we have introduced the viscosity by the standard (non-causal) thermodynamics approach. The dynamical equations have been coupled with the heat transport equation; the consequences of the resulting coupled heat equation have been analyzed in detail. (orig.)

  3. Converting the patterns of local heat flux via thermal illusion device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Q. Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the thermal conduction equation has form invariance under coordinate transformation, one can design thermal metamaterials with novel functions by tailoring materials’ thermal conductivities. In this work, we establish a different transformation theory, and propose a layered device with anisotropic thermal conductivities. The device is able to convert heat flux from parallel patterns into non-parallel patterns and vice versa. In the mean time, the heat flux pattern outside the device keeps undisturbed as if this device is absent. We perform finite-element simulations to confirm the converting behavior. This work paves a different way to manipulate the flow of heat at will.

  4. Direct measurement of heat transfer rates and coefficients in freezing processes by the use of heat flux sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarante, A.; Lanoiselle, J.L.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-10-01

    Heat exchange is often complex to assess in freezing equipment. Either the extensive calculation procedures based on product time-temperature data, or the lack of accurate thermophysical properties, or even the non-uniform processing conditions in industrial equipment, results in increased difficulty in calculating accurate heat exchange parameters. The present study aims to solve this kind of problem by introducing the use of heat flux sensors (or fluxmeters) for an online measurement of heat exchange parameters during freezing processes. Since food products often have irregular, moist and greasy surfaces, bad attachment of the sensors can lead to low accuracy in heat flux measurement. First, a technique was improved in this particular and a numerical procedure based on matching the experimental and simulated temperature histories was used to calibrate the sensors attached to Tylose gels submitted to freezing and thawing cycles. Following this, the sensors were applied directly to a vegetable product undergoing freezing in a static freezer to measure the instantaneous product heat release rate and the local heat transfer coefficient. A fluxmeter-plastic transducer was also developed and used, coupled to an anemometer to map axially and transversally the local effective heat transfer coefficient and air speed profiles in a Super-Contact freezing tunnel. Results were compared with numerical simulations and showed good agreement. Irregular air speed distribution and low efficiency heat transfer zones were accurately detected, providing information for equipment optimization. (author)

  5. Reflectance-Based Estimation of Soil Heat Fluxes in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; O'Shaughnessy, S.; Ha, W.; Howell, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Soil heat flux (G) is one of the terms required for estimating evapotranspiration rates using an energy balance. Numerous reflectance-based models are available in the literature for estimating G fluxes. However, these models have shown wide variation in their performance. Therefore, operational ET remote sensing programs may require locally developed/calibrated models for accurately estimating G. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate reflectance-based empirical G models for the semi-arid Texas High Plains. Soil heat flux was measured at 0.15 hz interval and averaged every 15 minutes at five different locations within a 4.7 ha lysimeter field with Pullman clay loam soil during the 2010 summer growing season. The field was planted to soybean and managed under dryland conditions. In each location, G was measured at 8 cm depth with two Campbell Scientific HFT3 soil heat flux plates. Soil temperature was measured at 2 and 6 cm above the soil heat flux plates. Soil moisture was measured in the 2-8 cm layer using Acclima SDI-12 sensors. Hourly G fluxes at the surface were calculated by adding the measured G fluxes at 8 cm to the energy stored above the heat flux plates. A multispectral radiometer (MSR, CROPSCAN, Inc.) and hand-held thermometer (EVEREST Interscience Inc.) measured surface reflectance in red and near infrared bandwidths and surface temperature (ST), respectively, daily at 11:30 AM CST to be consistent with the Landsat 5 overpass time. Fraction crop cover (FC) was measured by digital photographs taken twice a week. A set of G models was developed for estimating hourly fluxes based on measured reflectance, net radiation, ST, NDVI, and FC,. Resulting models were compared for performance with existing models available in the literature. In this presentation, we will discuss our G models for the Texas High Plains and the statistical results.

  6. A Semi-parametric Multivariate Gap-filling Model for Eddy Covariance Latent Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Chen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative descriptions of latent heat fluxes are important to study the water and energy exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The eddy covariance approaches have been recognized as the most reliable technique for measuring surface fluxes over time scales ranging from hours to years. However, unfavorable micrometeorological conditions, instrument failures, and applicable measurement limitations may cause inevitable flux gaps in time series data. Development and application of suitable gap-filling techniques are crucial to estimate long term fluxes. In this study, a semi-parametric multivariate gap-filling model was developed to fill latent heat flux gaps for eddy covariance measurements. Our approach combines the advantages of a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA) and a nonlinear interpolation technique (K-nearest-neighbors, KNN). The PCA method was first used to resolve the multicollinearity relationships among various hydrometeorological factors, such as radiation, soil moisture deficit, LAI, and wind speed. The KNN method was then applied as a nonlinear interpolation tool to estimate the flux gaps as the weighted sum latent heat fluxes with the K-nearest distances in the PCs’ domain. Two years, 2008 and 2009, of eddy covariance and hydrometeorological data from a subtropical mixed evergreen forest (the Lien-Hua-Chih Site) were collected to calibrate and validate the proposed approach with artificial gaps after standard QC/QA procedures. The optimal K values and weighting factors were determined by the maximum likelihood test. The results of gap-filled latent heat fluxes conclude that developed model successful preserving energy balances of daily, monthly, and yearly time scales. Annual amounts of evapotranspiration from this study forest were 747 mm and 708 mm for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Nocturnal evapotranspiration was estimated with filled gaps and results are comparable with other studies

  7. Impacts of soil–aquifer heat and water fluxes on simulated global climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Krakauer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate models have traditionally only represented heat and water fluxes within relatively shallow soil layers, but there is increasing interest in the possible role of heat and water exchanges with the deeper subsurface. Here, we integrate an idealized 50 m deep aquifer into the land surface module of the GISS ModelE general circulation model to test the influence of aquifer–soil moisture and heat exchanges on climate variables. We evaluate the impact on the modeled climate of aquifer–soil heat and water fluxes separately, as well as in combination. The addition of the aquifer to ModelE has limited impact on annual-mean climate, with little change in global mean land temperature, precipitation, or evaporation. The seasonal amplitude of deep soil temperature is strongly damped by the soil–aquifer heat flux. This not only improves the model representation of permafrost area but propagates to the surface, resulting in an increase in the seasonal amplitude of surface air temperature of > 1 K in the Arctic. The soil–aquifer water and heat fluxes both slightly decrease interannual variability in soil moisture and in land-surface temperature, and decrease the soil moisture memory of the land surface on seasonal to annual timescales. The results of this experiment suggest that deepening the modeled land surface, compared to modeling only a shallower soil column with a no-flux bottom boundary condition, has limited impact on mean climate but does affect seasonality and interannual persistence.

  8. Impacts of soil-aquifer heat and water fluxes on simulated global climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Krakauer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate models have traditionally only represented heat and water fluxes within relatively shallow soil layers, but there is increasing interest in the possible role of heat and water exchanges with the deeper subsurface. Here, we integrate an idealized 50 m deep aquifer into the land surface module of the GISS ModelE general circulation model to test the influence of aquifer-soil moisture and heat exchanges on climate variables. We evaluate the impact on the modeled climate of aquifer-soil heat and water fluxes separately, as well as in combination. The addition of the aquifer to ModelE has limited impact on annual-mean climate, with little change in global mean land temperature, precipitation, or evaporation. The seasonal amplitude of deep soil temperature is strongly damped by the soil-aquifer heat flux. This not only improves the model representation of permafrost area but propagates to the surface, resulting in an increase in the seasonal amplitude of surface air temperature of >1 K in the Arctic. The soil-aquifer water and heat fluxes both slightly decrease interannual variability in soil moisture and land-surface temperature, and decrease the soil moisture memory of the land surface on annual timescales. The results of this experiment suggest that deepening the modeled land surface, compared to modeling only a shallower soil column with a no-flux bottom boundary condition, has limited impact on mean climate but does affect seasonality and interannual persistence.

  9. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  10. How the propagation of heat-flux modulations triggers E × B flow pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuga, Y; Diamond, P H; Gürcan, O D

    2013-03-08

    We propose a novel mechanism to describe E×B flow pattern formation based upon the dynamics of propagation of heat-flux modulations. The E × B flows of interest are staircases, which are quasiregular patterns of strong, localized shear layers and profile corrugations interspersed between regions of avalanching. An analogy of staircase formation to jam formation in traffic flow is used to develop an extended model of heat avalanche dynamics. The extension includes a flux response time, during which the instantaneous heat flux relaxes to the mean heat flux, determined by symmetry constraints. The response time introduced here is the counterpart of the drivers' response time in traffic, during which drivers adjust their speed to match the background traffic flow. The finite response time causes the growth of mesoscale temperature perturbations, which evolve to form profile corrugations. The length scale associated with the maximum growth rate scales as Δ(2) ~ (v(thi)/λT(i))ρ(i)sqrt[χ(neo)τ], where λT(i) is a typical heat pulse speed, χ(neo) is the neoclassical thermal diffusivity, and τ is the response time of the heat flux. The connection between the scale length Δ(2) and the staircase interstep scale is discussed.

  11. Eddy Flux of Heat and Momentum during Two Years at Stockholm-Bromma

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, A; Schmacke, E.

    2011-01-01

    The eddy flux of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat has been computed from measured temperature, humidity and wind data from the aerological station Bromma 59° 21' N, 17° 57'E. The results obtained have been compared with similar computations for Larkhill 51° 11' N, 01° 48' W made by Priestley. A comparison has also been made with values obtained by using geostrophic winds kaken from synoptic charts. An estimation of the heat and momentum gaine...

  12. Global anthropogenic heat flux database with high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y.; Varquez, A. C. G.; Kanda, M.

    2017-02-01

    This study developed a top-down method for estimating global anthropogenic heat emission (AHE), with a high spatial resolution of 30 arc-seconds and temporal resolution of 1 h. Annual average AHE was derived from human metabolic heating and primary energy consumption, which was further divided into three components based on consumer sector. The first and second components were heat loss and heat emissions from industrial sectors equally distributed throughout the country and populated areas, respectively. The third component comprised the sum of emissions from commercial, residential, and transportation sectors (CRT). Bulk AHE from the CRT was proportionally distributed using a global population dataset, with a radiance-calibrated nighttime lights adjustment. An empirical function to estimate monthly fluctuations of AHE based on gridded monthly temperatures was derived from various Japanese and American city measurements. Finally, an AHE database with a global coverage was constructed for the year 2013. Comparisons between our proposed AHE and other existing datasets revealed that the problem of overestimation of AHE intensity in previous top-down models was mitigated by the separation of energy consumption sectors; furthermore, the problem of AHE underestimation at central urban areas was solved by the nighttime lights adjustment. A strong agreement in the monthly profiles of AHE between our database and other bottom-up datasets further proved the validity of the current methodology. Investigations of AHE for the 29 largest urban agglomerations globally highlighted that the share of heat emissions from CRT sectors to the total AHE at the city level was 40-95%; whereas that of metabolic heating varied with the city's level of development by a range of 2-60%. A negative correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and the share of metabolic heating to a city's total AHE was found. Globally, peak AHE values were found to occur between December and February, while

  13. Effect of the Heat Flux Density on the Evaporation Rate of a Distilled Water Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental dependence of the evaporation rate of a nondeaerated distilled water drop from the heat flux density on the surfaces of non-ferrous metals (copper and brass. A drop was placed on a heated substrate by electronic dosing device. To obtain drop profile we use a shadow optical system; drop symmetry was controlled by a high-speed video camera. It was found that the evaporation rate of a drop on a copper substrate is greater than on a brass. The evaporation rate increases intensively with raising volume of a drop. Calculated values of the heat flux density and the corresponding evaporation rates are presented in this work. The evaporation rate is found to increase intensively on the brass substrate with raising the heat flux density.

  14. High heat flux capabilities of the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Temmerman, G., E-mail: g.c.detemmerman@differ.nl; Berg, M.A. van den; Scholten, J.; Lof, A.; Meiden, H.J. van der; Eck, H.J.N. van; Morgan, T.W.; Kruijf, T.M. de; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Zielinski, J.J.

    2013-10-15

    Magnum-PSI is an advanced linear plasma device uniquely capable of producing plasma conditions similar to those expected in the divertor of ITER both steady-state and transients. The machine is designed both for fundamental studies of plasma–surface interactions under high heat and particle fluxes, and as a high-heat flux facility for the tests of plasma-facing components under realistic plasma conditions. To study the effects of transient heat loads on a plasma-facing surface, a novel pulsed plasma source system as well as a high power laser is available. In this article, we will describe the capabilities of Magnum-PSI for high-heat flux tests of plasma-facing materials.

  15. High flux inductors for the rapid heating of steel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, R.; Griffay, G.; Galbrun, F. [Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France); Hellegouaec`h, J.; Prost, G.

    1995-03-01

    To reduce investment and operating costs of electroheating processes of long products by induction, we developed a new multilayed inductor with high flux density which represents a real technological step in regard of conventional technics: 4 MV/m{sup 2} instead of 1MW/m{sup 2}, efficiency of 85% instead of 55%, compacity and low costs of maintenance. The new technology can also be used with success in flat products plants. (authors). 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Estimation of peak heat flux onto the targets for CFETR with extended divertor leg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuanjia; Chen, Bin [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xing, Zhe [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wu, Haosheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Mao, Shifeng, E-mail: sfmao@ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Luo, Zhengping; Peng, Xuebing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Ye, Minyou [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the outer divertor leg in CFETR. • Density scan SOLPS simulation is done to study the peak heat flux onto target. • Attached–detached regime transition in out divertor occurs at lower puffing rate. • Unexpected delay of attached–detached regime transition occurs in inner divertor. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is now in conceptual design phase. CFETR is proposed as a good complement to ITER for demonstrating of fusion energy. Divertor is a crucial component which faces the plasmas and handles huge heat power for CFETR and future fusion reactor. To explore an effective way for heat exhaust, various methods to reduce the heat flux to divertor target should be considered for CFETR. In this work, the effect of extended out divertor leg on the peak heat flux is studied. The magnetic configuration of the long leg divertor is obtained by EFIT and Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), while a hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the out divertor leg as long as possible inside vacuum vessel. A SOLPS simulation is performed to study peak heat flux of the long leg divertor for CFETR. D{sub 2} gas puffing is used and increasing of the puffing rate means increase of plasma density. Both peak heat flux onto inner and outer targets are below 10 MW/m{sup 2} is achieved. A comparison between the peak heat flux between long leg and conventional divertor shows that an attached–detached regime transition of out divertor occurs at lower gas puffing gas puffing rate for long leg divertor. While for the inner divertor, even the configuration is almost the same, the situation is opposite.

  17. Flow boiling critical heat flux enhancement by using magnetic nanofluids and external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.; Jeong, Y.H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Tech., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    By using the nanofluid as a working fluid, we can expect the enhancement in the flow boiling critical heat flux mainly due to the deposition of nanoparticles on the heat transfer surface. In this study, we suggest the magnetic nanofluid, or magnetite-water nanofluid, as a working fluid which is regarded as a controllable nanofluid, that is, nanoparticles or magnetite nanoparticles in a nanofluid can be controlled by an external magnetic field. Therefore, we can expect the advantages of magnetic nanofluid such as, i) control of nanofluid concentration to maintain nanoparticle suspension and to localize nanofluid concentration, and ii) removal of nanoparticle from nanofluid when we want. In this study, we focused on the investigation of flow boiling critical heat flux characteristics for the magnetic nanofluid. Series of experiments were performed under the low pressure and low flow conditions, and based on the experimental results; we can conclude that the use of magnetic nanofluid improves the flow boiling critical heat flux characteristics. This is mainly due to the deposition of magnetite nanoparticles on the heat transfer surface, which results in the improvement of wettability and re-wetting characteristics of heat transfer surface. Preliminary results of the magnetic field effects on the flow boiling critical heat flux would be presented also. (author)

  18. Heat Flux Estimation of a Flame Thermal Spray Process Using a Thermally Thin Composite Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Duo; Serio, Bruno; Lecler, Sylvain; Pfeiffer, Pierre; Costil, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    Temperature measurements take on prime importance in the field of the thermal spray coating since the temperature variation greatly affects the formation of splat morphology and also the coating properties and qualities. The evaluation of the heat flux is therefore essential since temperature variation comes from the energy transfer and conduction of the thermal system. The aim of this study is to estimate the heat flux of a flame thermal spray by solving an inverse heat conduction problem. Firstly, the substrate material and geometry are well designed so that the Biot number is small enough to conform to the lumped capacitance conditions. A lumped capacitance model of a substrate with its coating subjected to a uniform echelon heat flux is evaluated by solving a heat balance equation in the Laplace domain. Then, a thermally thin calorimeter is designed and the experimental thermogram is obtained by embedding a thin-wire micro-thermocouple onto the front and rear faces of the substrate. The forced convective heat transfer coefficient as well as the net incident heat flux density brought to the substrate during the thermal spray process are estimated. The theoretical composite surface temperature is compared to the experimental recording, the result showing a good agreement.

  19. A novel thin-film temperature and heat-flux microsensor for heat transfer measurements in microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadi, David; Garnier, Bertrand; Willaime, Herve; Monti, Fabrice; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2012-02-07

    Temperature and heat-flux measurement at the microscale for convective heat-transfer studies requires highly precise, minimally intrusive sensors. For this purpose, a new generic temperature and heat-flux sensor was designed, calibrated and tested. The sensor allows measurement of temperature and heat flux distributions along the direction of flow. It is composed of forty gold thermoresistances, 85 nm thick, deposited on both sides of a borosilicate substrate. Their sensitivities are about 37.8 μV K(-1), close to those of a K-type wire thermocouple. Using a thermoelectrical model, temperature biases due to the Joule effect were calculated using the current crossing each thermoresistance and the heat-transfer coefficient. Finally, heat-transfer measurements were performed with deionized water flowing in a straight PDMS microchannel for various Reynolds numbers. The Nusselt number was obtained for microchannels of 50 to 10 μm span. The results were found to be in good agreement with classical Nu-Re macroscopic correlations.

  20. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  1. Measurement improvements of heat flux probes for internal combustion engine; Nainen kikan ni okeru netsuryusokukei no kaihatsu to kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, H.; Tasaka, H. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In heat flux measurement in engines, material properties of a heat flux probe and numerical prediction of those influence have been discussed rather than practical measurement accuracy. This study featured the process for the quantitative examination of heat flux probes. Although the process required direct comparison among all the probes and additional measurements in a constant volume bomb, precision of heat flux measurement was greatly improved so that the essential characteristics of heat transfer in engines can be detected. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2016-10-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  3. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2017-09-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  4. Sensible and latent heat flux from radiometric surface temperatures at the regional scale: methodology and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Miglietta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES was designed to develop and test a range of methodologies to assess regional surface energy and mass exchange of a large study area in the south-western part of France. This paper describes a methodology to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes on the basis of net radiation, surface radiometric temperature measurements and information obtained from available products derived from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG geostationary meteorological satellite, weather stations and ground-based eddy covariance towers. It is based on a simplified bulk formulation of sensible heat flux that considers the degree of coupling between the vegetation and the atmosphere and estimates latent heat as the residual term of net radiation. Estimates of regional energy fluxes obtained in this way are validated at the regional scale by means of a comparison with direct flux measurements made by airborne eddy-covariance. The results show an overall good matching between airborne fluxes and estimates of sensible and latent heat flux obtained from radiometric surface temperatures that holds for different weather conditions and different land use types. The overall applicability of the proposed methodology to regional studies is discussed.

  5. Round-robin test of heat flux sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turzo-Andras, E.; Blokland, H.; Hammerschmidt, U.; Rudtsch, S.; Stacey, C.; Krös, C.; Magyarlaki, T.; Nemeth, S.

    2011-01-01

    The first intercomparison on the density of heat flow-rate measurements has been organized by MKEH (Hungarian Trade Licensing Office, Metrology Division) within the framework of EUROMET (Project No. 426). This round-robin test gives evidence about the measurement capabilities of the local realizatio

  6. Comparison of heat flux estimations from two turbulent exchange models based on thermal UAV data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Helene; Nieto, Hector; Jensen, Rasmus; Friborg, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Advantages of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) data-collection, compared to more traditional data-collections are numerous and already well-discussed (Berni et al., 2009; Laliberte et al., 2011; Turner et al., 2012). However studies investigating the quality and applications of UAV-data are crucial if advantages are to be beneficial for scientific purposes. In this study, thermal data collected over an agricultural site in Denmark have been obtained using a fixed-wing UAV and investigated for the estimation of heat fluxes. Estimation of heat fluxes requires high precision data and careful data processing. Latent, sensible and soil heat fluxes are estimates through two models of the two source energy modelling scheme driven by remotely sensed observations of land surface temperature; the original TSEB (Norman et al., 1995) and the DTD (Norman et al., 2000) which builds on the TSEB. The DTD model accounts for errors arising when deriving radiometric temperatures and can to some extent compensate for the fact that thermal cameras rarely are accurate. The DTD model requires an additional set of remotely sensed data during morning hours of the day at which heat fluxes are to be determined. This makes the DTD model ideal to use when combined with UAV data, because acquisition of data is not limited by fixed time by-passing tracks like satellite images (Guzinski et al., 2013). Based on these data, heat fluxes are computed from the two models and compared with fluxes from an eddy covariance station situated within the same designated agricultural site. This over-all procedure potentially enables an assessment of both the collected thermal UAV-data and of the two turbulent exchange models. Results reveal that both TSEB and DTD models compute heat fluxes from thermal UAV data that is within a very reasonable range and also that estimates from the DTD model is in best agreement with the eddy covariance system.

  7. Whistler mode waves and the electron heat flux in the solar wind: cluster observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; De Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, UPMC Université Paris 06, Université Paris-Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Matteini, L. [Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Santolík, O. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics ASCR, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-20

    The nature of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind between the ion and electron scales is still under debate. Using the Cluster/STAFF instrument, we make a survey of the power spectral density and of the polarization of these fluctuations at frequencies f in [1, 400] Hz, during five years (2001-2005), when Cluster was in the free solar wind. In ∼10% of the selected data, we observe narrowband, right-handed, circularly polarized fluctuations, with wave vectors quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field, superimposed on the spectrum of the permanent background turbulence. We interpret these coherent fluctuations as whistler mode waves. The lifetime of these waves varies between a few seconds and several hours. Here, we present, for the first time, an analysis of long-lived whistler waves, i.e., lasting more than five minutes. We find several necessary (but not sufficient) conditions for the observation of whistler waves, mainly a low level of background turbulence, a slow wind, a relatively large electron heat flux, and a low electron collision frequency. When the electron parallel beta factor β {sub e∥} is larger than 3, the whistler waves are seen along the heat flux threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. The presence of such whistler waves confirms that the whistler heat flux instability contributes to the regulation of the solar wind heat flux, at least for β {sub e∥} ≥ 3, in slow wind at 1 AU.

  8. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at astronomical observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Roxy; V B Sumithranand; G Renuka

    2014-06-01

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter, pre-monsoon, SW monsoon and NE monsoon seasons. The diurnal variation is characterized by a cross-over from negative to positive values at 0700 h, occurrence of maximum around noon and return to negative values in the late evening. The energy storage term for the soil layer 0–0.05 m is calculated and the ground heat flux * is estimated in all seasons. Daytime surface energy balance at the surface on wet and dry seasons is investigated. The average Bowen’s ratio during the wet and dry seasons were 0.541 and 0.515, respectively indicating that considerable evaporation takes place at the surface. The separate energy balance components were examined and the mean surface energy balance closure was found to be 0.742 and 0.795 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. When a new method that accounts for both soil thermal conduction and soil thermal convection was adopted to calculate the surface heat flux, the energy balance closure was found to be improved. Thus on the land surface under study, the soil vertical water movement is significant.

  9. Mechanisms controlling the SST air-sea heat flux feedback and its dependence on spatial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Ute; Czaja, Arnaud; Marshall, John

    2017-02-01

    The turbulent air-sea heat flux feedback (α, in {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}) is a major contributor to setting the damping timescale of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. In this study we compare the spatial distribution and magnitude of α in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, as estimated from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. The comparison is rationalized in terms of an upper bound on the heat flux feedback, associated with "fast" atmospheric export of temperature and moisture anomalies away from the marine boundary layer, and a lower bound associated with "slow" export. It is found that regions of cold surface waters (≤10 ° C) are best described as approaching the slow export limit. This conclusion is not only valid at the synoptic scale resolved by the reanalysis data, but also on basin scales. In particular, it applies to the heat flux feedback acting as circumpolar SST anomaly scales are approached in the Southern Ocean, with feedbacks of ≤10 {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}. In contrast, the magnitude of the heat flux feedback is close to that expected from the fast export limit over the Gulf Stream and its recirculation with values on the order of ≈40 {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}. Further analysis suggests that this high value reflects a compensation between a moderate thermodynamic adjustment of the boundary layer, which tends to weaken the heat flux feedback, and an enhancement of the surface winds over warm SST anomalies, which tend to enhance the feedback.

  10. Mechanisms controlling the SST air-sea heat flux feedback and its dependence on spatial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Ute; Czaja, Arnaud; Marshall, John

    2016-05-01

    The turbulent air-sea heat flux feedback (α , in {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} ) is a major contributor to setting the damping timescale of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. In this study we compare the spatial distribution and magnitude of α in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, as estimated from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. The comparison is rationalized in terms of an upper bound on the heat flux feedback, associated with "fast" atmospheric export of temperature and moisture anomalies away from the marine boundary layer, and a lower bound associated with "slow" export. It is found that regions of cold surface waters (≤ 10° C) are best described as approaching the slow export limit. This conclusion is not only valid at the synoptic scale resolved by the reanalysis data, but also on basin scales. In particular, it applies to the heat flux feedback acting as circumpolar SST anomaly scales are approached in the Southern Ocean, with feedbacks of ≤ 10 {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} . In contrast, the magnitude of the heat flux feedback is close to that expected from the fast export limit over the Gulf Stream and its recirculation with values on the order of ≈40 {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} . Further analysis suggests that this high value reflects a compensation between a moderate thermodynamic adjustment of the boundary layer, which tends to weaken the heat flux feedback, and an enhancement of the surface winds over warm SST anomalies, which tend to enhance the feedback.

  11. Study of Dynamic Buckling of FG Plate Due to Heat Flux Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czechowski L.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a FEM analysis of dynamic buckling of functionally graded clamped plates under heat flux loading with huge power. The materials of structures as well as their properties are varying in each layer across the plate thickness formulated by the power law distribution. The heat flux was applied evenly to the whole ceramic surface. The analysis was developed in the ANSYS 14.5 software. The duration of the heat flux loading equal to a period of natural fundamental flexural vibrations of given structures was taken into consideration. To implement large deflections of structures, the Green-Lagrange nonlinear-displacement equations and the incremental Newton-Raphson algorithm were applied. An evaluation of the dynamic response of structures was carried out on basis of the Budiansky-Hutchinson criterion. The studies were conducted for different volume fraction distributions and different shapes of the heat flux loading. The computation results of the heat flux versus maximal plate deflection are shown and discussed.

  12. Heat flux reduction mechanism induced by a combinational opposing jet and cavity concept in supersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Jiang, Yan-ping; Yan, Li; Liu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The thermal protection on the surface of hypersonic vehicles attracts an increasing attention worldwide, especially when the vehicle enters the atmosphere at high speed. In the current study, the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the Menter's shear stress transport (SST) model have been employed to investigate the heat flux reduction mechanism induced by the variations of the cavity configuration, the jet pressure ratio and the injectant molecular weight in the combinational opposing jet and cavity concept. The length of the cavity is set to be 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm in order to make sure that the cavity configuration is the "open" cavity, and the jet pressure ratio is set to be 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 in order to make sure that the flow field is steady. The injectant is set to be nitrogen and helium. The obtained results show that the aft angle of the cavity only has a slight impact on the heat flux reduction, and the heat flux peak decreases with the decrease of the length of the cavity. The design of the thermal protection system for the hypersonic blunt body is a multi-objective design exploration problem, and the heat flux distribution depends on the jet pressure ratio, the aft wall of the cavity and the injectant molecular weight. The heat flux peak decreases with the increase of the jet pressure ratio when the aft angle of the cavity is large enough, and this value is 45°.

  13. Simulation of tokamak SOL and divertor region including heat flux mitigation by gas puffing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Na, Yong-Su; Hong, Sang Hee; Ahn, Joon-Wook; Kim, Deok-Kyu; Han, Hyunsun; Shim, Seong Bo; Lee, Hae June

    2012-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D), scrape-off layer (SOL)-divertor transport simulations are performed using the integrated plasma-neutral-impurity code KTRAN developed at Seoul National University. Firstly, the code is applied to reproduce a National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) discharge by using the prescribed transport coefficients and the boundary conditions obtained from the experiment. The plasma density, the heat flux on the divertor plate, and the D α emission rate profiles from the numerical simulation are found to follow experimental trends qualitatively. Secondly, predictive simulations are carried out for the baseline operation mode in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) to predict the heat flux on the divertor target plates. The stationary peak heat flux in the KSTAR baseline operation mode is expected to be 6.5 MW/m2 in the case of an orthogonal divertor. To study the mitigation of the heat flux, we investigated the puffing effects of deuterium and argon gases. The puffing position is assumed to be in front of the strike point at the outer lower divertor plate. In the simulations, mitigation of the peak heat flux at the divertor target plates is found to occur when the gas puffing rate exceeds certain values, ˜1.0 × 1020 /s and ˜5.0 × 1018 /s for deuterium and argon, respectively. Multi-charged impurity transport is also investigated for both NSTX and KSTAR SOL and divertor regions.

  14. Estimating Heat Fluxes by Merging Profile Formulae and the Energy Budget with a Variational Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张述文; 邱崇践; 张卫东

    2004-01-01

    A variational technique (VT) is applied to estimate surface sensible and latent heat fluxes based on observations of air temperature, wind speed, and humidity, respectively, at three heights (1 m, 4 m, and 10m), and the surface energy and radiation budgets by the surface energy and radiation system (SERBS). The method fully uses all information provided by the measurements of air temperature, wind, and humidity profiles, the surface energy budget, and the similarity profile formulae as well. Data collected at Feixi experiment station installed by the China Heavy Rain Experiment and Study (HeRES) Program are used to test the method. Results show that the proposed technique can overcome the well-known unstablility problem that occurs when the Bowen method becomes singular; in comparison with the profile method, it reduces both the sensitivities of latent heat fluxes to observational errors in humidity and those of sensible heat fluxes to observational errors in temperature, while the estimated heat fluxes approximately satisfy the surface energy budget. Therefore, the variational technique is more reliable and stable than the two conventional methods in estimating surface sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  15. On the effect of laterally varying boundary heat flux on rapidly rotating spherical shell convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Swarandeep; Sreenivasan, Binod

    2017-08-01

    The onset of convection in a rotating spherical shell subject to laterally varying heat flux at the outer boundary is considered in this paper. The focus is on the geophysically relevant regime of rapid rotation (low Ekman number) where the natural length scale of convection is significantly smaller than the length scale imposed by the boundary heat flux pattern. Contrary to earlier studies at a higher Ekman number, we find a substantial reduction in the onset Rayleigh number Rac with increasing lateral variation. The decrease in Rac is shown to be closely correlated to the equatorial heat flux surplus in the steady, basic state solution. The consistency of such a correlation makes the estimation of Rac possible without solving the full stability problem. The steady baroclinic flow has a strong cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry in the kinetic helicity only for equatorially symmetric lateral variations, with possible implications for dynamo action. Equatorially antisymmetric variations, on the other hand, break the symmetry of the mean flow, in turn negating its helicity. Analysis of the perturbation solution reveals strongly localized clusters through which convection rolls drift in and out at a frequency higher than that for the reference case with homogeneous boundary heat flux. Large lateral variations produce a marked decrease in the azimuthal length scale of columns, which indicates that small-scale motions are essential to the transport of heat in rapidly rotating, localized convection. With an equatorially antisymmetric heat flux pattern, convection in individual clusters goes through an asynchronous wax-wane cycle whose frequency is much lower than the drift rate of the columns. These continual variations in convection intensity may in turn result in fluctuations in the magnetic field intensity, an effect that needs to be considered in dynamo models. Finally, there is a notable analogy between the role of a laterally varying boundary heat flux and the role of a

  16. A new hybrid method--combined heat flux method with Monte-Carlo method to analyze thermal radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new hybrid method, Monte-Carlo-Heat-Flux (MCHF) method, was presented to analyze the radiative heat transfer of participating medium in a three-dimensional rectangular enclosure using combined the Monte-Carlo method with the heat flux method. Its accuracy and reliability was proved by comparing the computational results with exact results from classical "Zone Method".

  17. Adiabatic heating and convection caused by a fixed-heat-flux source in a near-critical fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, E B

    2003-10-01

    Dynamics and heat transfer in a near-critical fluid in a square cavity with a finite heat source located at the bottom are studied numerically. A thermally insulated enclosure and a fixed-heat-flux source are considered. The two-dimensional simulation is based on the full Navier-Stokes equations with two-scale splitting of the pressure and the van der Waals equation of state. It is shown that the piston effect is independent of convection. Near the critical point, this effect becomes independent of criticality and convective motions are damped.

  18. Unsteady stagnation point flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking sheet with prescribed surface heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ishak

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the unsteady two dimensional stagnation point flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking sheet with prescribed surface heat flux. The governing partial differential equations are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity variables, and solved numerically. The effects of the unsteadiness parameter A, stretching/shrinking parameter ε and Prandtl number Pr on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied. It is found that the skin friction f′′(0 and the local Nusselt number 1θ(0 increase as the the unsteadiness parameter A increases. Moreover, the velocity and temperature increase as ε and Pr increase.

  19. Prototyping phase of the high heat flux scraper element of Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J., E-mail: jean.boscary@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Greuner, H. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Ehrke, G. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany); Böswirth, B.; Wang, Z. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Clark, E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Lumsdaine, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Tretter, J. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); McGinnis, D.; Lore, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Ekici, K. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Aim of scraper element: reduction of heat loads on high heat flux divertor ends. • Design: actively water-cooled for 20 MW/m{sup 2} local heat loads. • Technology: CFC NB31 monoblocks bonded by HIP to CuCrZr cooling tube. • Successful high heat flux testing up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}. - Abstract: The water-cooled high heat flux scraper element aims to reduce excessive heat loads on the target element ends of the actively cooled divertor of Wendelstein 7-X. Its purpose is to intercept some of the plasma fluxes both upstream and downstream before they reach the divertor surface. The scraper element has 24 identical plasma facing components (PFCs) divided into 6 modules. One module has 4 PFCs hydraulically connected in series by 2 water boxes. A PFC, 247 mm long and 28 mm wide, has 13 monoblocks made of CFC NB31 bonded by hot isostatic pressing onto a CuCrZr cooling tube equipped with a copper twisted tape. 4 full-scale prototypes of PFCs have been successfully tested in the GLADIS facility up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}. The difference observed between measured and calculated surface temperatures is probably due to the inhomogeneity of CFC properties. The design of the water box prototypes has been detailed to allow the junction between the cooling pipe of the PFCs and the water boxes by internal orbital welding. The prototypes are presently under fabrication.

  20. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Analytical analysis of the Pennes bioheat transfer equation with sinusoidal heat flux condition on skin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tzu-Ching; Yuan, Ping; Lin, Win-Li; Kou, Hong-Sen

    2007-11-01

    This study focuses on the effect of the temperature response of a semi-infinite biological tissue due to a sinusoidal heat flux at the skin. The Pennes bioheat transfer equation such as rho(t)c(t)( partial differentialT/ partial differentialt)+W(b)c(b)(T-T(a))=k partial differential(2)T/ partial differentialx(2) with the oscillatory heat flux boundary condition such as q(0,t)=q(0)e(iomegat) was investigated. By using the Laplace transform, the analytical solution of the Pennes bioheat transfer equation with surface sinusoidal heating condition is found. This analytical expression is suitable for describing the transient temperature response of tissue for the whole time domain from the starting periodic oscillation to the final steady periodic oscillation. The results show that the temperature oscillation due to the sinusoidal heating on the skin surface is unstable in the initial period. Further, it is unavailable to predict the blood perfusion rate via the phase shifting between the surface heat flux and the surface temperature. Moreover, the lower frequency of sinusoidal heat flux on the skin surface induces a more sensitive phase shift response to the blood perfusion rate change, but extends the beginning time of sampling because of the avoidance of the unavailable first cyclic oscillation.

  2. Heat flux: thermohydraulic investigation of solar air heaters used in agro-industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati Aidinlou, H.; Nikbakht, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    A new design of solar air heater simulator is presented to comply with the extensive applications inagro-industry. A wise installation of increased heat transfer surface area provided uniform and efficient heat diffusion over the duct. Nusselt number and friction factor have been investigated based on the constant roughness parameters such as relative roughness height (e/D), relative roughness pitch (P/e), angle of attack (α) and aspect ratio with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 19,000 in the fully developed region. Heat fluxes of 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 were provided. The enhancement in friction factor is observed to be 3.1656, 3.47 and 3.0856 times, and for the Nusselt number either, augmentation is calculated to be 1.4437, 1.4963 and 1.535 times, respectively, over the smooth duct for 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 heat fluxes. Thermohydraulic performance is plotted versus the Reynolds number based on the aforementioned roughness parameters at varying heat fluxes. The results show up that thermohydraulic performance is found to be maximum for 1000 Wm-2 at the average Reynolds number of 5151. Based on the results, we can verify that the introduced solar simulator can help analyzing and developing solar collector installations at the simulated heat fluxes.

  3. Heat flux: thermohydraulic investigation of solar air heaters used in agro-industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati Aidinlou, H.; Nikbakht, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    A new design of solar air heater simulator is presented to comply with the extensive applications inagro-industry. A wise installation of increased heat transfer surface area provided uniform and efficient heat diffusion over the duct. Nusselt number and friction factor have been investigated based on the constant roughness parameters such as relative roughness height (e/D), relative roughness pitch (P/e), angle of attack (α) and aspect ratio with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 19,000 in the fully developed region. Heat fluxes of 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 were provided. The enhancement in friction factor is observed to be 3.1656, 3.47 and 3.0856 times, and for the Nusselt number either, augmentation is calculated to be 1.4437, 1.4963 and 1.535 times, respectively, over the smooth duct for 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 heat fluxes. Thermohydraulic performance is plotted versus the Reynolds number based on the aforementioned roughness parameters at varying heat fluxes. The results show up that thermohydraulic performance is found to be maximum for 1000 Wm-2 at the average Reynolds number of 5151. Based on the results, we can verify that the introduced solar simulator can help analyzing and developing solar collector installations at the simulated heat fluxes.

  4. Estimating sensible heat flux in agricultural screenhouses by the flux-variance and half-order time derivative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiman, Ori; Mekhmandarov, Yonatan; Pirkner, Moran; Tanny, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have established that the eddy covariance (EC) technique is reliable for whole canopy flux measurements in agricultural crops covered by porous screens, i.e., screenhouses. Nevertheless, the eddy covariance technique remains difficult to apply in the farm due to costs, operational complexity, and post-processing of data - thereby inviting alternative techniques to be developed. The subject of this research was estimating the sensible heat flux by two turbulent transport techniques, namely, Flux-Variance (FV) and Half-order Time Derivative (HTD) whose instrumentation needs and operational demands are not as elaborate as the EC. The FV is based on the standard deviation of high frequency temperature measurements and a similarity constant CT. The HTD method requires mean air temperature and air velocity data. Measurements were carried out in two types of screenhouses: (i) a banana plantation in a light shading (8%) screenhouse; (ii) a pepper crop in a dense insect-proof (50-mesh) screenhouse. In each screenhouse an EC system was deployed for reference and high frequency air temperature measurements were conducted using miniature thermocouples installed at several levels to identify the optimal measurement height. Quality control analysis showed that turbulence development and flow stationarity conditions in the two structures were suitable for flux measurements by the EC technique. Energy balance closure slopes in the two screenhouses were larger than 0.71, in agreement with results for open fields. Regressions between sensible heat flux measured by EC and estimated by FV resulted with CT values that were usually larger than 1, the typical value for open field. In both shading and insect-proof screenhouses the CT value generally increased with height. The optimal measurement height, defined as the height with maximum R2 of the regression between EC and FV sensible heat fluxes, was just above the screen. CT value at optimal height was 2.64 and 1.52 for

  5. Benchmark Wall Heat Flux Data for a GO2/GH2 Single Element Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Pal, Sibtosh; Woodward, Roger d.; Santoro, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Wall heat flux measurements in a 1.5 in. diameter circular cross-section rocket chamber for a uni-element shear coaxial injector element operating on gaseous oxygen (GOz)/gaseous hydrogen (GH,) propellants are presented. The wall heat flux measurements were made using arrays of Gardon type heat flux gauges and coaxial thermocouple instrumentation. Wall heat flux measurements were made for two cases. For the first case, GOZ/GHz oxidizer-rich (O/F=l65) and fuel-rich preburners (O/F=1.09) integrated with the main chamber were utilized to provide vitiated hot fuel and oxidizer to the study shear coaxial injector element. For the second case, the preburners were removed and ambient temperature gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen propellants were supplied to the study injector. Experiments were conducted at four chamber pressures of 750, 600, 450 and 300psia for each case. The overall mixture ratio for the preburner case was 6.6, whereas for the ambient propellant case, the mixture ratio was 6.0. Total propellant flow was nominally 0.27-0.29 Ibm/s for the 750 psia case with flowrates scaled down linearly for lower chamber pressures. The axial heat flux profile results for both the preburner and ambient propellant cases show peak heat flux levels a t axial locations between 2.0 and 3.0 in. from the injector face. The maximum heat flux level was about two times greater for the preburner case. This is attributed to the higher injector fuel-to-oxidizer momentum flux ratio that promotes mixing and higher initial propellant temperature for the preburner case which results in a shorter reaction zone. The axial heat flux profiles were also scaled with respect to the chamber pressure to the power 0.8. The results at the four chamber pressures for both cases collapsed to a single profile indicating that at least to first approximation, the basic fluid dynamic structures in the flow field are pressure independent as long as the chamber/njector/nozzle geometry and injection velocities

  6. Dry Block Calibrator Using Heat Flux Sensors and an Adiabatic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, M.; Marin, S.; Schalles, M.; Krapf, G.; Fröhlich, T.

    2015-08-01

    The main problems of conventional dry block calibrators are axial temperature gradients and calibration results which are strongly influenced by the geometry and the thermal properties of the thermometers under test. To overcome these disadvantages, a new dry block calibrator with improved homogeneity of the inner temperature field was developed for temperatures in the range from room temperature up to . The inner part of the dry block calibrator is a cylindrical normalization block which is divided into three parts in the axial direction. Between these parts, heat flux sensors are placed to measure the heat flux in the axial direction inside the normalization block. Each part is attached to a separate tube-shaped heating zone of which the heating power can be controlled in a way that the axial heat flux measured by means of the heat flux sensors is zero. Additionally, an internal reference thermometer is used to control the absolute value of the temperature inside the normalization block. To minimize the radial heat flux, an adiabatic shield is constructed which is composed of a secondary heating zone that encloses the whole assembly. For rapid changes of the set point from high to low temperatures, the design contains an additional ventilation system to cool the normalization block. The present paper shows the operating principle as well as the results of the design process, in which numerical simulations based on the finite element method were used to evaluate and optimize the design of the dry block calibrator. The final optimized design can be used to build a prototype of the dry block calibrator.

  7. Ground heat flux and power sources of low-enthalpy geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp; Rivera, Jaime A.

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal heat pumps commonly extract energy from the shallow ground at depths as low as approximately 400 m. Vertical borehole heat exchangers are often applied, which are seasonally operated for decades. During this lifetime, thermal anomalies are induced in the ground and surface-near aquifers, which often grow over the years and which alleviate the overall performance of the geothermal system. As basis for prediction and control of the evolving energy imbalance in the ground, focus is typically set on the ground temperatures. This is reflected in regulative temperature thresholds, and in temperature trends, which serve as indicators for renewability and sustainability. In our work, we examine the fundamental heat flux and power sources, as well as their temporal and spatial variability during geothermal heat pump operation. The underlying rationale is that for control of ground temperature evolution, knowledge of the primary heat sources is fundamental. This insight is also important to judge the validity of simplified modelling frameworks. For instance, we reveal that vertical heat flux from the surface dominates the basal heat flux towards a borehole. Both fluxes need to be accounted for as proper vertical boundary conditions in the model. Additionally, the role of horizontal groundwater advection is inspected. Moreover, by adopting the ground energy deficit and long-term replenishment as criteria for system sustainability, an uncommon perspective is adopted that is based on the primary parameter rather than induced local temperatures. In our synthetic study and dimensionless analysis, we demonstrate that time of ground energy recovery after system shutdown may be longer than what is expected from local temperature trends. In contrast, unrealistically long recovery periods and extreme thermal anomalies are predicted without account for vertical ground heat fluxes and only when the energy content of the geothermal reservoir is considered.

  8. The Development of Novel, High-Flux, Heat Transfer Cells for Thermal Control in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marc K.; Glezer, Ari

    1996-01-01

    In order to meet the future needs of thermal management and control in space applications such as the Space Lab, new heat-transfer technology capable of much larger heat fluxes must be developed. To this end, we describe complementary numerical and experimental investigations into the fundamental fluid mechanics and heat-transfer processes involved in a radically new, self contained, heat transfer cell for microgravity applications. In contrast to conventional heat pipes, the heat transfer in this cell is based on a forced droplet evaporation process using a fine spray. The spray is produced by a novel fluidic technology recently developed at Georgia Tech. This technology is based on a vibration induced droplet atomization process. In this technique, a liquid droplet is placed on a flexible membrane and is vibrated normal to itself. When the proper drop size is attained, the droplet resonates with the surface motion of the membrane and almost immediately bursts into a shower of very fine secondary droplets. The small droplets travel to the opposite end of the cell where they impact a heated surface and are evaporated. The vapor returns to the cold end of the cell and condenses to form the large droplets that are fragmented to form the spray. Preliminary estimates show that a heat transfer cell based on this technology would have a heat-flux capacity that is an order of magnitude higher than those of current heat pipes designs used in microgravity applications.

  9. Heat flux induced blueshift of dominant phonon wavelength and its impact on thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Ramiere

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of dominant phonon wavelength is investigated in systems submitted to a heat flux at low temperatures. Using spectral energy distributions, a treatment of two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures is conducted in parallel. We demonstrate a significant reduction of the dominant phonon wavelength, up to 62%, due to a displacement of the phonon spectrum towards higher frequencies in presence of a heat flux. We name this phenomenon blueshift effect. A formula is provided to directly calculate the corrected dominant phonon wavelength. We illustrate the impact of the blueshift effect by showing that a temperature gradient of 10% at 4K yields a 20% reduction in the thermal conductivity. Therefore, ignoring the blueshift effect in a thermal model can notably alter the physical interpretation of measurements. The results suggest that an appropriate heat flux environment can improve thermoelectric device performances.

  10. Heat flux in a non-Maxwellian plasma. [in realistic solar coronal loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljepojevic, N. N.; Macneice, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hybrid numerical scheme is applied to solve the Landau equation for the electron distribution function over all velocity space. Evidence is presented for the first time of the degree and character of the failure of the classical Spitzer-Haerm heat flux approximation in a realistic solar coronal loop structure. In the loop model used, the failure is so severe at some points that the role of the heat flux in the plasma's energy balance is completely misinterpreted. In the lower corona the Spitzer-Haerm approximation predicts that the heat flux should act as an energy source, whereas the more accurate distribution functions calculated here show this to be an energy sink.

  11. A Note on the Role of Meridional Wind Stress Anomalies and Heat Flux in ENSO Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jieshun; SUN Zhaobo; ZHOU Guangqing

    2007-01-01

    Four comparative experiments and some supplementary experiments were conducted to examine the role of meridional wind stress anomalies and heat flux variability in ENSO simulations by using a highresolution Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM). The results indicate that changes in the direction and magnitude of meridional wind stress anomalies have little influence on ENSO simulations until meridional wind stress anomalies are unrealistically enlarged by a factor of 5.0. However, evidence of an impact on ENSO simulations due to heat flux variability was found. The simulated Ni(n)o-3 index without the effect of heat flux anomalies tended to be around 1.0° lower than the observed, as well as the control run, during the peak months of ENSO events.

  12. Observation of heat flux and plasma flow in scrape off layer in QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onchi, T., E-mail: onchi@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Mahira, Y. [IGSES, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nagaoka, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science,322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Tashima, S.; Banerjee, S.; Mishra, K. [IGSES, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Idei, H.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M. [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Matsuoka, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science,322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kuzmin, A.; Watanabe, O.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A. [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Thermal probe with double function of thermocouples and Langmuir probe has been developed, and the initial data observed in far-SOL in QUEST is obtained. Heat flux of megawatt per square meters related to energetic electrons and sonic plasma flow in far-SOL have been observed in the current rump-up phase although no high power inductive force like ohmic winding is applied. The heat flux and the flow are suppressed after the current is built up. In the quasi-steady state, plasma current starts and keeps sawtooth-like oscillation with 20 Hz frequency. The heat flux and the flow in far-SOL have clear responses to the oscillation.

  13. An Analysis of Turbulent Heat Fluxes and the Energy Balance During the REFLEX Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Christiaan van der

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three eddy covariance stations were installed at the Barrax experimental farm during the Land-Atmosphere Exchanges (REFLEX airborne training and measurement campaign to provide ground truth data of energy balance fluxes and vertical temperature and wind profiles. The energy balance closure ratio (EBR was 105% for a homogeneous camelina site, 86% at a sparse reforestation site, and 73% for a vineyard. We hypothesize that the lower closure in the last site was related to the limited fetch. Incorporating a vertical gradient of soil thermal properties decreased the RMSE of the energy balance at the camelina site by 16 W m-2. At the camelina site, eddy covariance estimates of sensible and latent heat fluxes could be reproduced well using mean vertical profiles of wind and temperature, provided that the Monin-Obukhov length is known. Measured surface temperature and sensible heat fluxes suggested high excess resistance for heat (kB-1 = 17.

  14. Modeling Coronal Response in Decaying Active Regions with Magnetic Flux Transport and Steady Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.; Upton, Lisa A.; Young, Peter R.

    2017-09-01

    We present new measurements of the dependence of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiance on the total magnetic flux in active regions as obtained from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Using observations of nine active regions tracked along different stages of evolution, we extend the known radiance—magnetic flux power-law relationship (I\\propto {{{Φ }}}α ) to the AIA 335 Å passband, and the Fe xviii 93.93 Å spectral line in the 94 Å passband. We find that the total unsigned magnetic flux divided by the polarity separation ({{Φ }}/D) is a better indicator of radiance for the Fe xviii line with a slope of α =3.22+/- 0.03. We then use these results to test our current understanding of magnetic flux evolution and coronal heating. We use magnetograms from the simulated decay of these active regions produced by the Advective Flux Transport model as boundary conditions for potential extrapolations of the magnetic field in the corona. We then model the hydrodynamics of each individual field line with the Enthalpy-based Thermal Evolution of Loops model with steady heating scaled as the ratio of the average field strength and the length (\\bar{B}/L) and render the Fe xviii and 335 Å emission. We find that steady heating is able to partially reproduce the magnitudes and slopes of the EUV radiance—magnetic flux relationships and discuss how impulsive heating can help reconcile the discrepancies. This study demonstrates that combined models of magnetic flux transport, magnetic topology, and heating can yield realistic estimates for the decay of active region radiances with time.

  15. Heat flux solutions of the 13-moment approximation transport equations in a multispecies gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Wu [CRIRP, Henan Province (China); Taieb, C. [Centre de Recherche en Physique de l`Environnement (CRPE), Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1993-09-01

    The authors study steady state heat flux equations by means of the 13-moment approximation for situations applicable to aeronomy and space plasmas. They compare their results with Fourier`s law applied to similar problems, to test validity conditions for it. They look at the flux of oxygen and hydrogen ions in the high-latitude ionosphere, and compare calculations with observations from EISCAT radar measurements. These plasma components are observed to have strongly non-Maxwellian distributions.

  16. Evaluation of monthly turbulent heat fluxes from WHOI analysis and NCEP reanalysis in the tropical Atlantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The biases and their sources in monthly turbulent heat fluxes from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) analysis, and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction- National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalyses 1 and 2 (NCEP1 and NCEP2) are checked in the climatically representative regions in the tropical Atlantic using the fluxes from the Southampton Oceanographic Centre (SOC) and the pilot research moored array in the tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) as references. For the WHOI analysis, the biases in turbulent heat fluxes mainly exist in equatorial regions which are due to the overestimated sea surface temperature and the underestimated 2 m air humidity. For the NCEP2 reanalysis, the maximum biases, about (40 ± 5) W/m2, exist in southeast and northeast trade wind regions, which are mainly caused by the flux algorithm used because the biases in wind speed and air-sea humidity difference are relatively small. In the equatorial regions, the flux biases in the NCEP2 derived from both flux-related basic variables and algorithm are equally large. Although the estimations of time series trends and air-sea humidity difference of the NCEP1 are improved greatly in the NCEP2, the biases of latent heat flux in the NCEP2 are about 20 W/m2 greater than those from the NCEP1 in the trade wind regions. The result shows that the climatologies and monthly variabilities of the turbulent heat fluxes from the WHOI are more accurate than those from the NCEP1 and NCEP2 in the tropical Atlantic, especially on outside of the equatorial regions.

  17. ENSO related SST anomalies and relation with surface heat fluxes over south Pacific and Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Nuncio, M.; Satheesan, K.

    2017-07-01

    The role of surface heat fluxes in Southern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean SST anomalies associated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is studied using observation and ocean reanalysis products. A prominent dipole structure in SST anomaly is found with a positive (negative) anomaly center over south Pacific (65S-45S, 120W-70W) and negative (positive) one over south Atlantic (50S-30S, 30W-0E) during austral summer (DJF) of El Nino (LaNina). During late austral spring-early summer (OND) of El Nino (LaNina), anomalous northerly (southerly) meridional moisture transport and a positive (negative) sea level pressure anomaly induces a suppressed (enhanced) latent heat flux from the ocean surface over south Pacific. This in turn results in a shallower than normal mixed layer depth which further helps in development of the SST anomaly. Mixed layer thins further due to anomalous shortwave radiation during summer and a well developed SST anomaly evolves. The south Atlantic pole exhibits exactly opposite characteristics at the same time. The contribution from the surface heat fluxes to mixed layer temperature change is found to be dominant over the advective processes over both the basins. Net surface heat fluxes anomaly is also found to be maximum during late austral spring-early summer period, with latent heat flux having a major contribution to it. The anomalous latent heat fluxes between atmosphere and ocean surface play important role in the growth of observed summertime SST anomaly. Sea-surface height also shows similar out-of-phase signatures over the two basins and are well correlated with the ENSO related SST anomalies. It is also observed that the magnitude of ENSO related anomalies over the southern ocean are weaker in LaNina years than in El Nino years, suggesting an intensified tropics-high latitude tele-connection during warm phases of ENSO.

  18. Using heat to characterize streambed water flux variability in four stream reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, H.I.; Zamora, C.M.; McCarthy, K.A.; Vogel, J.R.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of streambed water flux are needed for the interpretation of streambed chemistry and reactions. Continuous temperature and head monitoring in stream reaches within four agricultural watersheds (Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Maple Creek, NE; DR2 Drain, WA; and Merced River, CA) allowed heat to be used as a tracer to study the temporal and spatial variability of fluxes through the streambed. Synoptic methods (seepage meter and differential discharge measurements) were compared with estimates obtained by using heat as a tracer. Water flux was estimated by modeling one-dimensional vertical flow of water and heat using the model VS2DH. Flux was influenced by physical heterogeneity of the stream channel and temporal variability in stream and ground-water levels. During most of the study period (April-December 2004), flux was upward through the streambeds. At the IN, NE, and CA sites, high-stage events resulted in rapid reversal of flow direction inducing short-term surface-water flow into the streambed. During late summer at the IN site, regional ground-water levels dropped, leading to surface-water loss to ground water that resulted in drying of the ditch. Synoptic measurements of flux generally supported the model flux estimates. Water flow through the streambed was roughly an order of magnitude larger in the humid basins (IN and NE) than in the arid basins (WA and CA). Downward flux, in response to sudden high streamflows, and seasonal variability in flux was most pronounced in the humid basins and in high conductivity zones in the streambed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential for improvement in high heat flux HyperVapotron element performance using nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergis, A.; Hardalupas, Y.; Barrett, T. R.

    2013-11-01

    HyperVapotron (HV) elements have been used extensively as high heat flux beam stopping components in nuclear fusion research facilities. These water-cooled heat exchangers use a boiling heat transfer mechanism and so are inherently limited by their critical heat flux (CHF). The use of a nanofluid as the coolant, instead of water, promises to enhance the heat transfer performance of the HV and increase the CHF by a factor of 2 or 3, which would lead to a step-change improvement in the power handling capability. This paper reports on computational and experimental analyses which have indicated mechanisms for the enhanced thermal performance of nanofluids. A molecular dynamics simulation code has been developed which has identified heat transfer augmentation mechanisms that depart from classical thermodynamics associated with the presence of nanoparticles. In addition, an experiment has been conducted which uses particle image velocimetry to measure the flow field in a full-scale HV. Past studies have yielded qualitative experimental results, but the measurements reported here provide quantitative data to aid the understanding of the initial flow field inside the HV (i.e., before a heat flux is applied). Further, the experiment is conducted using both water and Al2O3-water nanofluid as the flow medium. Thus, these velocity measurements offer a first indication for potentially enhanced heat transfer in HV devices when nanofluids are used as the coolant. The improved understanding of the HV flow regime and the cooling advantage of nanofluids could assist the design of advanced high heat flux components for future fusion machines.

  20. Classical Heat-Flux Measurements in Coronal Plasmas from Collective Thomson-Scattering Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.; Rozmus, W.

    2016-10-01

    Collective Thomson scattering was used to measure heat flux in coronal plasmas. The relative amplitude of the Thomson-scattered power into the up- and downshifted electron plasma wave features was used to determine the flux of electrons moving along the temperature gradient at three to four times the electron thermal velocity. Simultaneously, the ion-acoustic wave features were measured. Their relative amplitude was used to measure the flux of the return-current electrons. The frequencies of these ion-acoustic and electron plasma wave features provide local measurements of the electron temperature and density. These spectra were obtained at five locations along the temperature gradient in a laser-produced blowoff plasma. These measurements of plasma parameters are used to infer the Spitzer-Härm flux (qSH = - κ∇Te ) and are in good agreement with the values of the heat flux measured from the scattering-feature asymmetries. Additional experiments probed plasma waves perpendicular to the temperature gradient. The data show small effects resulting from heat flux compared to probing waves along the temperature gradient. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  1. Heat Flux Characterization of DC Laminar-plasma Jets Impinging on a Flat Plate at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟显; 潘文霞; 张文宏; 吴承康

    2001-01-01

    By using steady and transient methods, the total heat fluxes and the distributions of the heat flux were measured experimentally for an argon DC laminar plasma jet impinging normally on a flat plate at atmospheric pressure. Results show that the total heat fluxes measured with a steady method are a little bit higher than those with a transient method. Numerical simulation work was executed to compare with the experimental results.

  2. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT BY LAMINAR FORCED CONVECTION FROM HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED TUBE HEATED WITH CONSTANT HEAT FLUX, USING TWO TYPES OF POROUS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir K. Jassem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An experimental forced laminar study was presented in this research for an air flowing through a circular channel for different angles ( ,30o,45o,60o, the channel was heated at constant heat flux , the channel also was packed with steel and glass spheres respectively . The tests were done for three values of Peclets number (2111.71,3945.42,4575.47 with changing the heat flux for each case and five times for each number.The results showed that the dimensionless temperature distribution  will decrease with increasing the dimensionless channel length for all cases with changing Peclet number, heat flux and inclination angles, and its lowest value will be for glass spheres at highest flux, while at lower flux for , and the decreasing in dimensionless temperature was closed for both types of packed at other inclination angles.The study declared that the local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the dimensionless length of the channel for both packeds and for different applied heat flux, also through this study it was declared that the average Nusselt increases as Peclet number increases for both packed. Its value for the glass spheres is greater than the steel spheres with percentage (98.3% at small Peclet, and percentage (97.2% at large Peclet number for the horizontal tube, and (98.3% at small Peclet number and (97.8% at large Peclet number at  .Through this study its was found that average Nusselt number increases along the channel as the heat flux increases, because the bulk temperature will increase as the flow proceeds toward the end of the channel , so the heat transfer coefficient will increase.  It was declared from this study that in the case of the steel packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by conduction, while in the case of glass packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by laminar forced convection, where the lowest Nusselt number (Nu=3.8 was found when the pipe is horizontal and lowest heat flux and lowest Peclet number.  

  3. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensor Development for Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Zhu, Dongming; Laster, Kimala L.; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Gregory, Otto J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has an on-going effort for developing high temperature thin film sensors for advanced turbine engine components. Stable, high temperature thin film ceramic thermocouples have been demonstrated in the lab, and novel methods of fabricating sensors have been developed. To fabricate thin film heat flux sensors for Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems, the rough and porous nature of the CMC system posed a significant challenge for patterning the fine features required. The status of the effort to develop thin film heat flux sensors specifically for use on silicon carbide (SiC) CMC systems with these new technologies is described.

  4. Two-Dimensional Thermal Boundary Layer Corrections for Convective Heat Flux Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max; Haddad, George

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) study of two-dimensional thermal boundary layer correction factors for convective heat flux gauges mounted in flat plate subjected to a surface temperature discontinuity with variable properties taken into account. A two-equation k - omega turbulence model is considered. Results are obtained for a wide range of Mach numbers (1 to 5), gauge radius ratio, and wall temperature discontinuity. Comparisons are made for correction factors with constant properties and variable properties. It is shown that the variable-property effects on the heat flux correction factors become significant

  5. Eddy heat fluxes from direct current measurements of the Antarctic Polar Front in Shag Rocks Passage

    OpenAIRE

    Walkden, GJ; Heywood, Kj; Stevens, DP

    2008-01-01

    Determining meridional heat flux in the Southern Ocean is critical to the accurate understanding and model simulation of the global ocean. Mesoscale eddies provide a significant but poorly-defined contribution to this transport. An eighteen-month deep-water current meter array deployment in Shag Rocks Passage (53°S, 48°W) between May 2003 and November 2004 provides estimates of the eddy flux of heat across the Polar Front. We calculate a statistically nonzero (99% level), vertically coherent ...

  6. Slip Flow in Elliptic Microducts with Constant Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Spiga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a numerical model for determining the dynamic and thermal performances of a rarefied fluid flowing in a microduct with elliptical cross-section. A slip flow is considered, in laminar steady state condition, in fully developed forced convection, with Knudsen number in the range 0.001−0.1, in H1 boundary conditions. The velocity and temperature distributions are determined in the elliptic cross-section, for different values of both aspect ratio γ and Knudsen number, resorting to the Comsol Multiphysics software, to solve the momentum and energy equations. The friction factors (or Poiseuille numbers and the convective heat transfer coefficients (or Nusselt numbers are calculated and presented in graphs and tables. The numerical solution is validated resorting to data available in literature for continuum flow in elliptic cross-sections (Kn = 0 and for slip flow in circular ducts (γ=1. A further benchmark is carried out for the velocity profile for slip flow in ellipticalcross-sections, thanks to a recent analytical solution obtained using elliptic cylinder coordinates and the separation of variables method. The Poiseuille and Nusselt numbers for elliptic cross-sections are discussed. The results may be used to predict pressure drop and heat transfer performance in metallic microducts with elliptic cross-section, produced by microfabrication for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS.

  7. High Heat Flux Burnout in Subcooled Flow Boiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.P.Celata; M.Cumo; 等

    1995-01-01

    The paper reports the results of an experimental research carried out at the Heat transfer divison of the Energy Department,C.R.Casaccia,on the thermal hydraulic characterization of subcooled flow boiling CHF under typical conditions of thermonuclear fusion reactors.I.e.high liquid velocity and subcooling.The experiment was carried out exploring the following parameters:channel diameter(from 2.5to 8.0 mm),heated length(10 and 15cm) ,liquid velocity (from 2 to 40m/s),exit pressure(from atmospheric to 5.0 MPa),inlet temperature(from 30 to 80℃),channel orientation (vertical and horizontal),A maximum CHF value of 60.6MW/m2 has been obtained under the following conditions:Tin-30°,p=2.5MPa,u=40m/s,D=2.5mm(smooth channel) Turbulence promoters(helically coiled wires)have been employed to further enhance the CHF attainable with subcooled flow boiling.Helically coiled wires allow an increase of 50% of the maximum CHF obtained with smooth channels.

  8. Remote Measurement of Heat Flux from Power Plant Cooling Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Alfred J.; Kurzeja, Robert J.; Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Bollinger, James S.; Pendergast, Malcolm M.

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated a correlation between the rate of heat loss q" from an experimental fluid to the air above and the standard deviation σ of the thermal variability in images of the fluid surface. These experimental results imply that q" can be derived directly from thermal imagery by computing σ. This paper analyses thermal imagery collected over two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the same relationship exists. Turbulent boundary layer theory predicts a linear relationship between q" and σ when both forced (wind driven) and free (buoyancy driven) convection are present. Datasets derived from ground- and helicopter-based imagery collections had correlation coefficients between σ and q" of 0.45 and 0.76, respectively. Values of q" computed from a function of σ and friction velocity u* derived from turbulent boundary layer theory had higher correlations with measured values of q" (0.84 and 0.89). Finally, this research may be applicable to the problem of calculating losses of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during high-latitude cold-air outbreaks because it does not require the information typically needed to compute sensible, evaporative, and thermal radiation energy losses to the atmosphere.

  9. Dynamical Processes in Flux Tubes and their Role in Chromospheric Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. S. Hasan

    2000-09-01

    We model the dynamical interaction between magnetic flux tubes and granules in the solar photosphere which leads to the excitation of transverse (kink) and longitudinal (sausage) tube waves. The investigation is motivated by the interpretation of network oscillations in terms of flux tube waves. The calculations show that for magnetic field strengths typical of the network, the energy flux in transverse waves is higher than in longitudinal waves by an order of magnitude. But for weaker fields, such as those that might be found in internetwork regions, the energy fluxes in the two modes are comparable. Using observations of footpoint motions, the energy flux in transverse waves is calculated and the implications for chromospheric heating are pointed out.

  10. Transport of radial heat flux and second sound in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürcan, Ö. D.; Diamond, P. H.; Garbet, X.; Berionni, V.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Hennequin, P.; Morel, P.; Kosuga, Y.; Vermare, L.

    2013-02-01

    Simple flux-gradient relations that involve time delay and radial coupling are discussed. Such a formulation leads to a rather simple description of avalanches and may explain breaking of gyroBohm transport scaling. The generalization of the flux-gradient relation (i.e., constitutive relation), which involve both time delay and spatial coupling, is derived from drift-kinetic equation, leading to kinetic definitions of constitutive elements such as the flux of radial heat flux. This allows numerical simulations to compute these cubic quantities directly. The formulation introduced here can be viewed as an extension of turbulence spreading to include the effect of spreading of cross-phase as well as turbulence intensity, combined in such a way to give the flux. The link between turbulence spreading and entropy production is highlighted. An extension of this formulation to general quasi-linear theory for the distribution function in the phase space of radial position and parallel velocity is also discussed.

  11. Transport of radial heat flux and second sound in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guercan, Oe. D.; Berionni, V.; Hennequin, P.; Morel, P.; Vermare, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); CMTFO and CASS, UCSD, California 92093 (United States); Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kosuga, Y. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Simple flux-gradient relations that involve time delay and radial coupling are discussed. Such a formulation leads to a rather simple description of avalanches and may explain breaking of gyroBohm transport scaling. The generalization of the flux-gradient relation (i.e., constitutive relation), which involve both time delay and spatial coupling, is derived from drift-kinetic equation, leading to kinetic definitions of constitutive elements such as the flux of radial heat flux. This allows numerical simulations to compute these cubic quantities directly. The formulation introduced here can be viewed as an extension of turbulence spreading to include the effect of spreading of cross-phase as well as turbulence intensity, combined in such a way to give the flux. The link between turbulence spreading and entropy production is highlighted. An extension of this formulation to general quasi-linear theory for the distribution function in the phase space of radial position and parallel velocity is also discussed.

  12. Turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection with polymers: Understanding how heat flux is modified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzi, Roberto; Ching, Emily S. C.; De Angelis, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    We study how polymers affect the heat flux in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection at moderate Rayleigh numbers using direct numerical simulations with polymers of different relaxation times. We find that heat flux is enhanced by polymers and the amount of heat enhancement first increases and then decreases with the Weissenberg number, which is the ratio of the polymer relaxation time to the typical time scale of the flow. We show that this nonmonotonic behavior of the heat flux enhancement is the combined effect of the decrease in the viscous energy dissipation rate due to the viscosity of the Newtonian fluid and the increase in the energy dissipation rate due to polymers when Weissenberg number is increased. We explain why the viscous energy dissipation rate decreases with the Weissenberg number. Then by carrying out a generalized boundary layer analysis supplemented by a space-dependent effective viscosity from the numerical simulations, we provide a theoretical understanding of the change of the heat flux when the viscous energy dissipation rate is held constant. Our analysis thus provides a physical way to understand the numerical results.

  13. Review of the influence of nanoparticles on thermal conductivity, nucleate pool boiling and critical heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Jagdeep M.; Shrivastava, Ramakant

    2015-03-01

    Nanofluids, the fluid suspensions of nonmaterials, have shown many interesting properties and the unique features offer unprecedented potential for many applications. Research on nanofluids has progressed rapidly since its enhanced thermal conductivity was first noted, about a decade ago, though much debate and inconsistency have been reported. Insufficient understanding of the formulation, mechanism of nanofluids further limits their applications [1-34]. Inconsistent data have been presented in the literature on the effect that nanofluids have on the boiling heat-transfer coefficient; however, almost all researchers [35-43] have noted an enhancement in the critical heat flux during nanofluid boiling. Some researchers have observed nanoparticle deposition at the heater surface, which they have related back to the critical heat flux augmentation. In the review, the future developments of these technologies are discussed. In order to be able to put the nanofluid heat transfer technologies into practice, fundamental of these studies are greatly needed to comprehend the physical mechanisms.

  14. Heat Fluxes and River Energy Budget on the Example of Lowland Świder River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łaszewski Maksym

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the energy budget of the downstream part of lowland Świder River, right tributary of the Vistula River in Mazovian Lowland, Poland. Heat fluxes were calculated on the example of four days, representing different meteorological and vegetative conditions. Results confirmed the dominant role of radiation, which accounted for an average of 90.7% and 79.7% gains and losses of thermal energy. Participation of non-radiative components proved to be far less crucial; the average contribution of condensation, sensible heat transfer, bed conduction and friction in energy gains accounted respectively to 0.0%, 0.6%, 2.9% and 5.9%, while the average contribution of evaporation, sensible heat transfer and bed conduction in energy losses reached respectively 4.5%, 1.1% and 14.6%. The results showed significant effect of riparian vegetation and cloud cover on river heat fluxes

  15. New charged shear-free relativistic models with heat flux

    CERN Document Server

    Nyonyi, Y; Govinder, K S

    2014-01-01

    We study shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic gravitating fluids with heat flow and electric charge. The solution to the Einstein-Maxwell system is governed by the generalised pressure isotropy condition which contains a contribution from the electric field. This condition is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation. We analyse this master equation using Lie's group theoretic approach. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are found. The first generator is independent of the electromagnetic field. The second generator depends critically on the form of the charge, which is determined explicitly in general. We provide exact solutions to the gravitational potentials using the symmetries admitted by the equation. Our new exact solutions contain earlier results without charge. We show that other charged solutions, related to the Lie symmetries, may be generated using the algorithm of Deng. This leads to new classes of charged Deng models which are generalisations of conform...

  16. New charged shear-free relativistic models with heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyonyi, Y.; Maharaj, S. D.; Govinder, K. S.

    2013-11-01

    We study shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic gravitating fluids with heat flow and electric charge. The solution to the Einstein-Maxwell system is governed by the generalised pressure isotropy condition which contains a contribution from the electric field. This condition is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation. We analyse this master equation using Lie's group theoretic approach. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are found. The first generator is independent of the electromagnetic field. The second generator depends critically on the form of the charge, which is determined explicitly in general. We provide exact solutions to the gravitational potentials using the symmetries admitted by the equation. Our new exact solutions contain earlier results without charge. We show that other charged solutions, related to the Lie symmetries, may be generated using the algorithm of Deng. This leads to new classes of charged Deng models which are generalisations of conformally flat metrics.

  17. Assessment of land surface temperature and heat fluxes over Delhi using remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Surya Deb; Kant, Yogesh; Mitra, Debashis

    2015-01-15

    Surface energy processes has an essential role in urban weather, climate and hydrosphere cycles, as well in urban heat redistribution. The research was undertaken to analyze the potential of Landsat and MODIS data in retrieving biophysical parameters in estimating land surface temperature & heat fluxes diurnally in summer and winter seasons of years 2000 and 2010 and understanding its effect on anthropogenic heat disturbance over Delhi and surrounding region. Results show that during years 2000-2010, settlement and industrial area increased from 5.66 to 11.74% and 4.92 to 11.87% respectively which in turn has direct effect on land surface temperature (LST) and heat fluxes including anthropogenic heat flux. Based on the energy balance model for land surface, a method to estimate the increase in anthropogenic heat flux (Has) has been proposed. The settlement and industrial areas has higher amounts of energy consumed and has high values of Has in all seasons. The comparison of satellite derived LST with that of field measured values show that Landsat estimated values are in close agreement within error of ±2 °C than MODIS with an error of ±3 °C. It was observed that, during 2000 and 2010, the average change in surface temperature using Landsat over settlement & industrial areas of both seasons is 1.4 °C & for MODIS data is 3.7 °C. The seasonal average change in anthropogenic heat flux (Has) estimated using Landsat & MODIS is up by around 38 W/m(2) and 62 W/m(2) respectively while higher change is observed over settlement and concrete structures. The study reveals that the dynamic range of Has values has increased in the 10 year period due to the strong anthropogenic influence over the area. The study showed that anthropogenic heat flux is an indicator of the strength of urban heat island effect, and can be used to quantify the magnitude of the urban heat island effect.

  18. Review of current status of high flux heat transfer techniques. Volume I. Text + Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W.H.; Gordon, H.S.; Lackner, H.; Mettling, J.R.; Miller, J.E.

    1980-09-01

    The scope of this work comprised two tasks. The first was to review high heat flux technology with consideration given to heat transfer panel configuration, diagnostics techniques and coolant supply. The second task was to prepare a report describing the findings of the review, to recommend the technology offering the least uncertainty for scale-up for the MFTF-B requirement and to recommend any new or perceived requirements for R and D effort.

  19. Geometric optimization of bodies submitted to an intense heat flux using bifurcated channel nets

    OpenAIRE

    Bolzan, Claus de Rosso; Santos, Elizaldo Domingues dos; Isoldi, Liercio André; Rocha, Luiz Alberto Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The present work studies the geometric optimization of a body submitted to intense heat flux. The body to be optimized is refrigerated by a ducts system whose circulating fluid will remove the heat. The optimization method is denominated "Constructal Design" and it is based on Constructal theory", which is a new theory that guides the engineers in the discovery of new and highly efficient architectures for the drainage of fluids, mass, energy, and " anything that moves ". The maximum temperat...

  20. Investigation of Mechanical Loss Components and Heat Transfer in an Axial-Flux PM Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Wrobel, Rafal; Vaniel, Gyula; Copeland, Colin; Duda, Tomasz; Staton, David; Mellor, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates components of mechanical loss together with heat transfer effects in an axial-flux permanent-magnet motor. The mechanical loss components generated within electrical machines are well known; however, their prediction or derivation has not been widely reported in the literature. These, together with the electromagnetic loss sources and heat transfer effects, are crucial and must be accounted for when considering high-power-density, high-speed, and/or compact machine des...

  1. A comparison of optical and microwave scintillometers with eddy covariance derived surface heat fluxes

    KAUST Repository

    Yee, Mei Sun

    2015-11-01

    Accurate measurements of energy fluxes between land and atmosphere are important for understanding and modeling climatic patterns. Several methods are available to measure heat fluxes, and scintillometers are becoming increasingly popular because of their ability to measure sensible (. H) and latent (. LvE) heat fluxes over large spatial scales. The main motivation of this study was to test the use of different methods and technologies to derive surface heat fluxes.Measurements of H and LvE were carried out with an eddy covariance (EC) system, two different makes of optical large aperture scintillometers (LAS) and two microwave scintillometers (MWS) with different frequencies at a pasture site in a semi-arid environment of New South Wales, Australia. We used the EC measurements as a benchmark. Fluxes derived from the EC system and LAS systems agreed (R2>0.94), whereas the MWS systems measured lower H (bias ~60Wm-2) and larger LvE (bias ~65Wm-2) than EC. When the scintillometers were compared against each other, the two LASs showed good agreement of H (R2=0.98), while MWS with different frequencies and polarizations led to different results. Combination of LAS and MWS measurements (i.e., two wavelength method) resulted in performance that fell in between those estimated using either LAS or MWS alone when compared with the EC system. The cause for discrepancies between surface heat fluxes derived from the EC system and those from the MWS systems and the two-wavelength method are possibly related to inaccurate assignment of the structure parameter of temperature and humidity. Additionally, measurements from MWSs can be associated with two values of the Bowen ratio, thereby leading to uncertainties in the estimation of the fluxes. While only one solution has been considered in this study, when LvE was approximately less than 200Wm-2, the alternate solution may be more accurate. Therefore, for measurements of surface heat fluxes in a semi-arid or dry environment, the

  2. Homotopy Perturbation Method for Thin Film Flow and Heat Transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heating and Variable Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chung Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the effects of variable heat flux and internal heat generation on the flow and heat transfer in a thin film on a horizontal sheet in the presence of thermal radiation. Similarity transformations are used to transform the governing equations to a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The obtained differential equations are solved approximately by the homotopy perturbation method (HPM. The effects of various parameters governing the flow and heat transfer in this study are discussed and presented graphically. Comparison of numerical results is made with the earlier published results under limiting cases.

  3. Critical heat flux performance of hypervapotrons proposed for use in the ITER divertor vertical target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, D.L.; Marshall, T.D.; McDonald, J.M.; Lutz, T.J.; Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Driemeyer, D.E. Kubik, D.L.; Slattery, K.T.; Hellwig, T.H. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Task T-222 of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program addresses the manufacturing and testing of permanent components for use in the ITER divertor. Thermalhydraulic and critical heat flux performance of the heat sinks proposed for use in the divertor vertical target are part of subtask T-222.4. As part of this effort, two single channel, medium scale, bare copper alloy, hypervapotron mockups were designed, fabricated, and tested using the EB-1200 electron beam system. The objectives of the effort were to develop the design and manufacturing procedures required for construction of robust high heat flux (HHF) components, verify thermalhydraulic, thermomechanical and critical heat flux (CHF) performance under ITER relevant conditions, and perform analyses of HHF data to identify design guidelines and failure criteria and possibly modify any applicable CHF correlations. The design, fabrication, and finite element modeling of two types of hypervapotrons are described; a common version already in use at the Joint European Torus (JET) and a new attached fin design. HHF test data on the attached fin hypervapotron will be used to compare the CHF performance under uniform heating profiles on long heated lengths with that of localized, highly peaked, off nominal profiles.

  4. Modeling of Transient Heat Flux in Spark Ignition Engine During Combustion and Comparisons with Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Yusaf

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A quasi-one dimensional engine cycle simulation program was developed to predict the transient heat flux during combustion in a spark ignition engine. A two-zone heat release model was utilized to model the combustion process inside the combustion chamber. The fuel, air and burned gas properties throughout the engine cycle were calculated using variable specific heats. The transient heat flux inside the combustion chamber due to the change in the in-cylinder gas temperature and pressure during combustion was determined using the Woschni heat transfer model. The program was written in MATLAB together with the Graphical User Interface (GUI. Numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements and good agreement was obtained. Four thermocouples were used and positioned equi-spaced at 5mm intervals along a ray from the spark plug location on the engine head. These thermocouples were able to capture the heat flux release by the burned gas to the wall during the combustion process including the cycle-to-cycle variations. Pressure sensor was installed at the engine head to capture the pressure change throughout the cycle.

  5. Critical heat flux for downward-facing pool boiling on CANDU calandria tube surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdadi, Azin, E-mail: behdada@mcmaster.ca; Talebi, Farshad; Luxat, John

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Pressure tube-calandria tube contact may challenge fuel channel integrity in CANDU. • Critical heat flux variation is predicted on the outer surface of CANDU calandria tube. • A two-phase boundary layer flow driven by buoyancy is modeled on the surface. • Different slip ratios and flow regimes are considered inside the boundary layer. • Subcooling effects are added to the model using wall heat flux partitioning. - Abstract: One accident scenario in CANDU reactors that can challenge the integrity of the primary pressure boundary is a loss of coolant accident, referred to as critical break LOCA, in which the pressure tube (PT) can undergo thermal creep strain deformation and contact its calandria tube (CT). In such case, rapid redistribution of stored heat from PT to CT, leads to a large spike in heat flux to the moderator which can cause bubble accumulation and dryout on the CT surface. A challenge to fuel channel integrity is posed if critical heat flux occurs on the surface of the CT and results in sustained film boiling. If the post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high then continued creep strain of the PT and CT may lead to fuel channel failure. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed to predict the critical heat flux variations along the downward facing outer surface of CT. The hydrodynamic model considers a liquid macrolayer beneath an elongated vapor slug on the surface. Local dryout is postulated to occur whenever the fresh liquid supply to the macrolayer is not sufficient to compensate for the liquid depletion. A boundary layer analysis is performed, treating the two phase motion as an external buoyancy driven flow. The model shows good agreement with the available experimental data and has been modified to take into account the effect of subcooling.

  6. Seasonal Spatial Patterns of Surface Water Temperature, Surface Heat Fluxes and Meteorological Forcing Over Lake Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Bouffard, D.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.; Barry, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    In many lakes, surface heat flux (SHF) is the most important component controlling the lake's energy content. Accurate methods for the determination of SHF are valuable for water management, and for use in hydrological and meteorological models. Large lakes, not surprisingly, are subject to spatially and temporally varying meteorological conditions, and hence SHF. Here, we report on an investigation for estimating the SHF of a large European lake, Lake Geneva. We evaluated several bulk formulas to estimate Lake Geneva's SHF based on different data sources. A total of 64 different surface heat flux models were realized using existing representations for different heat flux components. Data sources to run the models included meteorological data (from an operational numerical weather prediction model, COSMO-2) and lake surface water temperature (LSWT, from satellite imagery). Models were calibrated at two points in the lake for which regular depth profiles of temperature are available, and which enabled computation of the total heat content variation. The latter, computed for 03.2008-12.2012, was the metric used to rank the different models. The best calibrated model was then selected to calculate the spatial distribution of SHF. Analysis of the model results shows that evaporative and convective heat fluxes are the dominant terms controlling the spatial pattern of SHF. The former is significant in all seasons while the latter plays a role only in fall and winter. Meteorological observations illustrate that wind-sheltering, and to some extent relative humidity variability, are the main reasons for the observed large-scale spatial variability. In addition, both modeling and satellite observations indicate that, on average, the eastern part of the lake is warmer than the western part, with a greater temperature contrast in spring and summer than in fall and winter whereas the SHF spatial splitting is stronger in fall and winter. This is mainly due to negative heat flux

  7. Study of the Relap5/mod3.2 wall heat flux partitioning model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari, S.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A and M University, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, College Station, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The performance of the subcooled boiling model adapted in RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been assessed in detail for low-pressure conditions and it has been found that the void fraction profile is under-predicted. In general, any subcooled boiling model is composed of individual sub-models that account for the different physical mechanism that govern the overall process, as the wall vapor generation, interfacial shear and condensation etc. The wall heat flux partitioning model is one of the important sub-models that is a constituent of any subcooled boiling model. The function of this model is to apportion the wall heat flux to the different components (as the single/two phase fluid or bubble), as the case may be, in a two-phase flow-boiling scenario adjacent to a heated wall. The ''pumping factor'' approach is generally followed by most of the wall heat flux partitioning models, for partitioning the wall heat flux. In this work, the wall heat flux partitioning model of RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code is studied; in particular, the ''pumping factor'' formulation in the present code version is assessed for its performance under low-pressure conditions. In addition, three different ''pumping factor'' formulations available in the literature have been introduced into the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. Simulations of two low-pressure subcooled flow boiling experiments were performed with the refined code versions to determine the appropriate pumping factor to be used under these conditions. (author)

  8. Eddy heat fluxes and stability of planetary waves. I, II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    The stability of baroclinic Rossby waves in a zonal shear flow was analyzed by a linear, quasigeostrophic, two-level, adiabatic, and frictionless midlatitude beta-plane model. The ratio of the basic wave scale and the radius of deformation together with two nondimensional parameters which describe the amplitudes of the barotropic and baroclinic components of the basic wave constitute the three parameters of the stability problem. The parameter space is partitioned according to the dominant energy source for instability; the Lorenz and Kim conditions are characterized by significant horizontal and vertical shears of the basic wave, while the Phillips regime has a strong zonal flow. The stability analysis is then applied to the atmosphere, with the primary motivation being to examine the midlatitude planetary scale (zonal wavenumbers 1, 2, 3) transient waves that transport heat. It is found that the most unstable mode consists of a spectrum of waves, with a maximum amplitude at wavenumber 3; the response is thus maximum at a zonal scale intermediate between the basic wave scale and the radius of deformation.

  9. Development of a laser-induced heat flux technique for measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients in a supersonic flowfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, A. Robert; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the local convective heat transfer coefficient on a model surface in a supersonic flow field. The technique uses a laser to apply a discrete local heat flux at the model test surface, and an infrared camera system determines the local temperature distribution due to heating. From this temperature distribution and an analysis of the heating process, a local convective heat transfer coefficient is determined. The technique was used to measure the load surface convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The flat plate boundary layer initially was laminar and became transitional in the measurement region. The experimental results agreed reasonably well with theoretical predictions of convective heat transfer of flat plate laminar boundary layers. The results indicate that this non-intrusive optical measurement technique has the potential to obtain high quality surface convective heat transfer measurements in high speed flowfields.

  10. Determination of regional heat fluxes from the growth of the mixed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Batchvarova, E. [National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-10-01

    The distribution of surface sensible heat flux is a critical factor in producing and modifying the mesoscale atmospheric flows, turbulence and evaporation. Parameterizations that assume homogeneous land characteristics are inappropriate to represent the spatial variability often found in nature. One possibility to overcome this problem is to increase the resolution of the model grid which demands unrealistic computing resources and data for model initialization. Area averaged fluxes can be obtained from aircraft measurements. It is essential that the flights are performed at a height where the individual surface features are not felt. A large number of flights and appropriate pattern to meet the task are needed in order to achieve a fair statistics. The mixed layer grows in response to the regional turbulent fluxes including the aggregation and small scale processes. The region of influence in upwind direction is typically 20 times the height of the mixed layer for convective and 100 times the height of the mixed layer for atmospheric near neutral conditions. In this study we determine the regional integrated sensible heat flux from information on the evolution of the mixed layer over the area. The required information to use the method can be derived from wind speed and temperature profiles obtained by radio-soundings when performed frequently enough to provide a reasonably detailed structure of the development of the mixed-layer. The method is applied to estimate the regional heat flux over the NOPEX experimental area for three days during the campaign in 1994. (au)

  11. Numerical study of the effects of boundary conditions on the measurement and calibration of gardon type heat flux sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, M.; Dybbs, A.

    1987-01-01

    To monitor the high-intensity heat flux conditions that occur in the space shuttle main engine (SSME), it is necessary to use specifically designed heat flux sensors. These sensors, which are of the Gardon-type, are exposed on the measuring face to high-intensity radiative and convective heat fluxes and on the other face to convective cooling. To improve the calibration and measurement accuracy of these gauges, researchers are studing the effect that the thermal boundary conditions have on gauge performance. In particular, they are studying how convective cooling effects the field inside the sensor and the measured heat flux. The first phase of this study involves a numerical study of these effects. Subsequent phases will involve experimental verification. A computer model of the heat transfer around a Garden-type heat flux sensor was developed. Two specific geometries are being considered are: (1) heat flux sensor mounted on a flat-plate; and (2) heat flux sensor mounted at the stagnation point of a circular cylinder. Both of these configurations are representative of the use of heat flux sensors in the components of the SSME. The purpose of the analysis is to obtain a temperature distribution as a function of the boundary conditions.

  12. Edge Recycling and Heat Fluxes in L- and H-mode NSTX Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.A. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; R. Raman; H. Kugel; B. LeBlanc; A.L. Roquemore; C.J. Lasnier; the NSTX Research Team

    2003-08-05

    Introduction Edge characterization experiments have been conducted in NSTX to provide an initial survey of the edge particle and heat fluxes and their scaling with input power and electron density. The experiments also provided a database of conditions for the analyses of the NSTX global particle sources, core fueling, and divertor operating regimes.

  13. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209...

  14. The practical application of scintillometers in determining the surface fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis has collated one review chapter and five experiments concerned with addressing the question, 'how successful is the scintillometer method in determining the surface fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum and under what circumstances does it appear to fail?' Answering this question is impo

  15. Wall heat flux influence on the thermodynamic optimisation of irreversibilities of a circulating fluidised bed combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study the comparison of irreversibilities was done when the wall condition of the combustor was changed from adiabatic to negative heat flux, for incoming air temperature of 400 K. The reactant mixture of solid pitch pine wood fuel and air...

  16. Effects of system pressure and heat flux on bubble nucleation and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chao; Zhang, Huichen

    2015-09-01

    Characteristics of bubble nucleation and growth are critical for its application. It is affected by several factors including viscosity, surface tension and temperature. However, the effect of pressure on bubble nucleation and growth has been underreported, although it processes significant effect on above characteristics. In this work, a micro copper electrode is etched on a slab covered with copper to produce bubble on the surface by current input. The nucleation time of bubble is measured under different heat flux and system pressures. The nucleation and growth processes are recorded with a high speed camera in order to discuss the effects of heat flux and system pressure on bubble characteristics. The experiment results indicate that the micro electrode with higher heat flux produces more thermal energy, which makes the time of bubble nucleation shorter and the speed of bubble growth faster. Higher system pressure causes the increase of the critical nucleation temperature and also baffles the bubble nucleation and growth. Bubble growth includes the stages of rapid growth and dynamic equilibrium, with the speed being from fast to slow. In the former part of rapid growth, heat flux plays a dominant role in bubble growth. While the effect of system pressure on bubble growth becomes significant in the latter part of rapid growth. Both the nucleation time and bubble growth agree well with the theoretical analysis. The obtained results help to accurately control bubble nucleation and growth required in different application.

  17. Study of Particle Motion in He II Counterflow Across a Wide Heat Flux Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Brian; Takada, Suguru; Guo, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Some discrepancy exists in the results of He II counterflow experiments obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV) when compared with those obtained using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV): using PIV, it was observed that tracer particles move at roughly half the expected normal fluid velocity, v_n/2 , while tracer particles observed using PTV moved at approximately v_n . A suggested explanation is that two different flow regimes were examined since the range of heat flux applied in each experiment was adjacent but non-overlapping. Another PTV experiment attempted to test this model, but the applied heat flux did not overlap with any PIV experiments. We report on the beginnings of a study of solid D_2 particle motion in counterflow using PTV, and the heat flux range overlaps that of all previous visualization studies. The observed particle velocity distribution transitions from a two-peak structure to a single peak as the heat flux is increased. Furthermore, the mean value of one peak in the bi-modal distributions grows at approximately the same rate as v_n , while the mean value of the single-peak distributions grows at roughly 0.4v_n , in reasonable agreement with both previous experiments and with the suggested model.

  18. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau : surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Yaoming; Jia, Li; Wen, Jun

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy imba

  19. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau: surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Zhang, T.; Ma, Y.; Jia, L.; Wen, J.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy imba

  20. A modified Bowen ratio method to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Liu

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensible heat flux (H and the latent heat flux (λE were measured above a grassland during June, 1997 (LINEX-97/1 Experiment, using the eddy covariance method (EC and the Bowen ratio/Energy balance method (BREB. The results indicate that HBREB is about (30 ± 20 Wm-2 higher than HEC, and λEBREB is about (180 ± 40 Wm-2 higher than λEEC during the daytime, and this is mainly caused by an imbalance in the closure of the surface energy balance in the BREB. In order to avoid the inaccuracies associated with the surface energy balance method, we propose a modified Bowen ratio method (MBR to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes without using the surface energy balance equation. The results and error analysis show that MBR can give more accurate results than BREB. For the MBR, a measurement system using a sonic anemometer together with temperature and humidity measurements at two levels is being recommended to obtain sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  1. Assimilation of remotely sensed latent heat flux in a distributed hydrological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, J.M.; Troch, P.A.A.; Veldhuizen, A.A.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether remotely sensed latent heat flux estimates over a catchment can be used to improve distributed hydrological model water balance computations by the process of data assimilation. The data used is a series of satellite images for the Drentse Aa catchment in

  2. Impact of ELM filaments on divertor heat flux dynamics in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J.-W., E-mail: jahn@pppl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Gan, K.F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China); Gray, T.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The ELM induced change in wetted area (A{sub wet}) and peak heat flux (q{sub peak}) of divertor heat flux is investigated as a function of the number of striations, which represent ELM filaments, observed in the heat flux profile in NSTX. More striations are found to lead to larger A{sub wet} and lower q{sub peak}. The typical number of striations observed in NSTX is 0–9, while 10–15 striations are normally observed in other machines such as JET, and the ELM contracts heat flux profile when the number of striations is less than 3–4 but broadens it with more of them. The smaller number of striations in NSTX is attributed to the fact that NSTX ELMs are against kink/peeling boundary with lower toroidal mode number (n = 1–5), while typical peeling–ballooning ELMs have higher mode number of n = 10–20. For ELMs with smaller number of striations, relative A{sub wet} change is rather constant and q{sub peak} change rapidly increases with increasing ELM size, while A{sub wet} change slightly increases leading to a weaker increase of q{sub peak} change for ELMs with larger number of striations, both of which are unfavourable trend for the material integrity of divertor tiles.

  3. Critical heat flux prediction for water boiling in vertical tubes of a steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payan-Rodriguez, L.A.; Gallegos-Munoz [Departmet of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guanajuato, Av. Tampico No. 912 Salamanca (Mexico); Porras-Loaiza, G.L. [Institute for Electrical Researches, Av. Reforma No. 113, Temixco (Mexico); Picon-Nunez [Institute for Scientific Research, University of Guanajuato, Lascurain de Retana No. 5, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the prediction of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of water in vertical tubes operating under typical conditions found in steam generators. At the furnace, the water flows through long vertical tubes under an axially non-uniform heat flux and with relatively low mass fluxes. This fact causes that the recent theories and correlations, which have been developed for conditions typically found in nuclear reactors, cannot be directly applied for the prediction of the CHF in the furnace tubes. In this context, the mechanistic theories focused into the CHF prediction have proved their usefulness to predict CHF avoiding the use of correlations and experimental constants. Hence, in order to assist the CHF problem in steam generators, the sublayer dryout theory, initially formulated for CHF in vertical tubes uniformly heated, is extended by combining it with the shape factor method (F-factor), to account for the effects of the axially non-uniform heat flux distribution. The critical wall temperature (CWT) of the tubes is calculated from CHF data. The reliability of the modified theory for the CHF prediction is tested by comparing CWT results against measured data from a steam generator of a power plant. Good consistency and approximation is found between predicted and measured data. (authors)

  4. Non-invasive continuous core temperature measurement by zero heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Klewer, J.; Haan, A. de; Koning, J.J. de; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable continuous core temperature measurement is of major importance for monitoring patients. The zero heat flux method (ZHF) can potentially fulfil the requirements of non-invasiveness, reliability and short delay time that current measurement methods lack. The purpose of this study was to deter

  5. Self-pressurization of a flightweight liquid hydrogen storage tank subjected to low heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental investigation of self-pressurization and thermal stratification of a 4.89 cu m liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tank subjected to low heat flux (0.35, 2.0, and 3.5 W/sq m) under normal gravity conditions. Tests were performed at fill levels of 83 to 84 percent (by volume). The LH2 tank was representative of future spacecraft tankage, having a low mass-to-volume ratio and high performance multilayer thermal insulation. Results show that the pressure rise rate and thermal stratification increase with increasing heat flux. At the lowest heat flux, the pressure rise rate is comparable to the homogenous rate, while at the highest heat flux, the rate is more than three times the homogeneous rate. It was found that initial conditions have a significant impact on the initial pressure rise rate. The quasi-steady pressure rise rates are nearly independent of the initial condition after an initial transient period has passed.

  6. Inverse determination of heat flux into a gun barrel using temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Jonathan A.; Jablonski, Melissa N.

    2017-05-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the thermal response of a temperature sensor located within a gun barrel, which accounts for the time-constant of the sensor and a measurement bias. The model is inversely solved to estimate the total heat flux applied to the bore surface as well as the transient history of the applied heat flux for a given thermal response of a temperature sensor. A parametric study is conducted to determine the influence of sensor time-constant, sensor location within the gun barrel, and measurement bias on the accuracy of the estimated heat flux as applied to a 155mm gun barrel. It is found that the accuracy of the estimated heat flux improves as the time-constant of the sensor decreases, the sensor is located closer to the bore surface, and the measurement bias decreases. A regression model is provided to estimate that accuracy and it is shown how a typical thermocouple would perform at various locations through the thickness of the gun barrel.

  7. Effect of Triangular Fins on Critical Heat Flux in Ethanol-cooled Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegoshi, Masao; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Saito, Toshihito; Ono, Fumiei; Hiraiwa, Tetsuo; Tomioka, Sadatake

    A pressure-fed engine with a regeneratively-cooled combustion chamber is studied in JAXA. Operation chamber pressure is approximately 1 MPa. A proposed propellant combination is liquid oxygen and ethanol. However, it is necessary to understand the critical heat flux when ethanol is used as a coolant for regeneratively-cooled combustion chamber because the saturation pressure of it is 6.3 MPa. In general, it is known that the cooling wall with fins improves the cooling performance. In this study, the effect of triangular fins on critical heat flux of ethanol in ethanol-cooled combustion chamber was investigated. As the result, it was found that the critical heat flux of cooling wall with triangular fins was 23 % higher than that of that without fin in the same velocity condition of the coolant. The critical heat flux increases by the triangular fins on the cooling surface due to the effect of the combination cooling with film boiling and nucleate boiling.

  8. Production of high transient heat and particle fluxes in a linear plasma device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Temmerman, G.; Zielinski, J. J.; van der Meiden, H.; Melissen, W.; Rapp, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the generation of high transient heat and particle fluxes in a linear plasma device by pulsed operation of the plasma source. A capacitor bank is discharged into the source to transiently increase the discharge current up to 1.7 kA, allowing peak densities and temperature of 70x10(20) m

  9. The practical application of scintillometers in determining the surface fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis has collated one review chapter and five experiments concerned with addressing the question, 'how successful is the scintillometer method in determining the surface fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum and under what circumstances does it appear to fail?'

  10. Sensible and latent heat flux from radiometric surface temperatures at the regional scale: methodology and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miglietta, F.; Gioli, B.; Brunet, Y.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Matese, A.; Sarrat, C.; Zaldei, A.

    2009-01-01

    The CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES) was designed to develop and test a range of methodologies to assess regional surface energy and mass exchange of a large study area in the south-western part of France. This paper describes a methodology to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes

  11. More power and less loads in wind farms. 'Heat and flux'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corten, G.P.; Schaak, P. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    We consider a farm as a single energy extracting body instead of a superposition of individual energy extractors, i.e. wind turbines. As a result we found two new hypotheses called Heat and Flux. Both hypotheses reveal that the classical operation of turbines in a wind farm at the Lanchester-Betz optimum does not lead to maximum farm output. However, when the turbines at the windward side of the farm are operated below their optimum, then the power of the turbines under the lee increases in such a way that the net farm production increases slightly. Next to this production advantage of Heat and Flux operation there is also a loading advantage. The average axial loading of the upwind turbines of a farm is reduced in a 'Heat and Flux'-farm. As a result those turbines generate less turbines so that the fatigue loads of the downwind turbines reduce too. The results were confirmed by in a boundary layer tunnel by means of differential measurements between a 'Heat and Flux'-farm and a classical farm.

  12. Influence of spray characteristics on heat flux in dual phase spray impingement cooling of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Nayak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of variation of spray characteristics (mass flux, inlet pressure, flow rate, nozzle tip to target distance and plate thickness on heat flux were systematically investigated. The round spray released from a full cone internally mix atomizing nozzle was impinged with a wide range of air and water pressures on stationary hot steel surface of definite dimension. The effect of each parameter was examined while keeping others nearly fixed. Four different plate thicknesses i.e., 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were tested and effect of plate thickness on heat transfer was determined. Surface heat flux at each experimental condition was computed from the transient temperature history measured by K-type thermocouples embedded at bottom surface of the plate. The mass impingement density was measured by the help of a simple mechanical patternator. The maximum surface heat flux of 4895.525 kW/m2 was achieved at an inlet water pressure of 4 bar, air pressure of 3 bar and nozzle height of 120 mm for an initial temperature of 850 °C of the 4 mm steel plate.

  13. Estimation of catchment averaged sensible heat fluxes using a large aperture scintillometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samain Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration rates at the catchment scale are very difficult to quantify. One possible manner to continuously observe this variable could be the estimation of sensible heat fluxes (H across large distances (in the order of kilometers using a large aperture scintillometer (LAS, and inverting these observations into evapotranspiration rates, under the assumption that the LAS observations are representative for the entire catchment. The objective of this paper is to assess whether measured sensible heat fluxes from a LAS over a long distance (9.5 km can be assumed to be valid for a 102.3 km2 heterogeneous catchment. Therefore, a fully process-based water and energy balance model with a spatial resolution of 50 m has been thoroughly calibrated and validated for the Bellebeek catchmentin Belgium. A footprint analysis has been performed. In general, the sensible heat fluxes from the LAS compared well with the modeled sensible heat fluxes within the footprint. Moreover, as the modeled Hwithin the footprint has been found to be almost equal to the modeled catchment averaged H, it can be concluded that the scintillometer measurements over a distance of 9.5 km and an effective heightof 68 m are representative for the entire catchment.

  14. Numerical investigation of fluid flow and heat transfer under high heat flux using rectangular micro-channels

    KAUST Repository

    Mansoor, Mohammad M.

    2012-02-01

    A 3D-conjugate numerical investigation was conducted to predict heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular cross-sectional micro-channel employing simultaneously developing single-phase flows. The numerical code was validated by comparison with previous experimental and numerical results for the same micro-channel dimensions and classical correlations based on conventional sized channels. High heat fluxes up to 130W/cm 2 were applied to investigate micro-channel thermal characteristics. The entire computational domain was discretized using a 120×160×100 grid for the micro-channel with an aspect ratio of (α=4.56) and examined for Reynolds numbers in the laminar range (Re 500-2000) using FLUENT. De-ionized water served as the cooling fluid while the micro-channel substrate used was made of copper. Validation results were found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and numerical data [1] with an average deviation of less than 4.2%. As the applied heat flux increased, an increase in heat transfer coefficient values was observed. Also, the Reynolds number required for transition from single-phase fluid to two-phase was found to increase. A correlation is proposed for the results of average Nusselt numbers for the heat transfer characteristics in micro-channels with simultaneously developing, single-phase flows. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR ABSORPTANCE OF BUILDING EXTERNAL SURFACES FROM HEAT FLUX POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral ÖZEL

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solar absorptance of external surfaces of buildings has been numerically investigated from the heat gain and losses point of view. For this purpose, external surface solar absorptance was icreased from 0 to 1with an ratio of 0.1 and, for the summer and winter conditions, heat fluxs was calculated by considering orientations of the wall and its roof for brick and concrete structure materials. Besides, external surface absorptance was assumed as 0.2, 0.5 and 0.9, respectively. Than, heat gain and losses were calculated to insulation thickness increasing on the outdoor surface of wall. Results obtained were presented as graphics

  16. Temperature and heat flux scalings for isoviscous thermal convection in spherical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Frédéric; Tackley, Paul J.; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2010-07-01

    Parametrized convection, which has long been used to reconstruct the thermal history of planetary mantles, is based on scaling relationships between observables (including heat flux) and controlling parameters (the most important being the Rayleigh number, Ra). To explore the influence of spherical geometry on heat transfer, we have conducted two series of numerical experiments of thermal convection (one with bottom heating and the other with mixed heating) in an isoviscous spherical shell with various curvatures. Using these calculations and a generalized non-linear inversion, we then derive scaling laws for the average temperature and for the surface heat flux. In the case of bottom heating, we found that the non-dimensional average temperature is given by θm = f2/(1 + f2), where f is the ratio between the core and total radii. The non-dimensional surface heat flux is fitted well by Nutop = 0.36f0.32 Ra(0.273+0.05f) θ0.6m. This scaling indicates that the available heating power decreases with increasing curvature (decreasing f). There exist strong trade-offs between the inverted parameters, that is, different sets of parameters explain our calculations well within error bars. For mixed heating, the non-dimensional average temperature and surface heat flux are well explained by θH = θm + (1.68 - 0.8f)[(1 + f + f2)/3]0.79 h0.79/Ra0.234, where h is the non-dimensional rate of internal heating, and Nutop = 0.59f0.05 Ra(0.300-0.003f) θ1.23H. Due to a competition between the radiogenic and convective powers, and for given values of h and Ra, there is a curvature for which the Urey ratio reaches a minimum. Applied to the Earth's mantle, the mixed heating scaling predicts a Urey ratio between 0.4 and 0.6, depending on the Rayleigh number. Additional parameters, including the thermal viscosity ratio, phase transitions, the presence of dense material in the deep mantle, and variability of the flow pattern in time, may enter an appropriate modelling of the Earth

  17. Memory Effect in Upper Bound of Heat Flux Induced by Quantum Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Koide, T

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model of quantum open systems as a quantum Brownian motion coupled to a classical heat bath by introducing a mathematical definition of operator differentials. We then define a heat operator by extending the stochastic energetics and show that this operator satisfies properties corresponding to the first and second laws in thermodynamics. We further find that the upper bound of the heat flux depends on the memory effect induced by quantum fluctuations and hence the maximum extractable work can be qualitatively modified in quantum thermodynamics.

  18. A low-frequency wave motion mechanism enables efficient energy transport in carbon nanotubes at high heat fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Hu, Ming; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-07-11

    The great majority of investigations of thermal transport in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the open literature focus on low heat fluxes, that is, in the regime of validity of the Fourier heat conduction law. In this paper, by performing nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations we investigated thermal transport in a single-walled CNT bridging two Si slabs under constant high heat flux. An anomalous wave-like kinetic energy profile was observed, and a previously unexplored, wave-dominated energy transport mechanism is identified for high heat fluxes in CNTs, originated from excited low frequency transverse acoustic waves. The transported energy, in terms of a one-dimensional low frequency mechanical wave, is quantified as a function of the total heat flux applied and is compared to the energy transported by traditional Fourier heat conduction. The results show that the low frequency wave actually overtakes traditional Fourier heat conduction and efficiently transports the energy at high heat flux. Our findings reveal an important new mechanism for high heat flux energy transport in low-dimensional nanostructures, such as one-dimensional (1-D) nanotubes and nanowires, which could be very relevant to high heat flux dissipation such as in micro/nanoelectronics applications.

  19. Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Yang, Bai [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Liu, Qing [ORNL; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Sluss, Daniel Wayne [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    We conducted observations and modeling at a forest site to assess importance of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages for land-atmosphere interactions. We used the terrestrial ecosystem Fluxes And Pools Integrated Simulator (FAPIS). We first examined FAPIS performance by testing its predictions with and without biomass energy storages against measurements of surface energy and CO2 fluxes. We then evaluated the magnitudes and temporal patterns of the calculated biomass energy storages. Effects of energy storages on flux exchanges and variations of radiative temperature were investigated by contrasting FAPIS simulations with and without the storages. We found that with the storages, FAPIS predictions agreed with measurements well; without them, FAPIS performance deteriorated for all surface energy fluxes. The biomass heat storage and biochemical energy storage had clear diurnal patterns with typical ranges from -50 to 50 and -3 to 20 Wm-2, respectively; these typical ranges were exceeded substantially when there were sudden changes in atmospheric conditions. Without-storage simulations produced larger sensible and latent heat fluxes during the day but smaller fluxes (more negative values) at night as compared with with-storage simulations. Similarly, without-storage simulations had higher surface radiative temperature during the day but lower radiative temperature at night, indicating that the biomass energy storages act to dampen diurnal temperature range. Therefore, biomass heat and biochemical energy storages are an integral and substantial part of the surface energy budget and play a role in modulating land surface temperatures and must be considered in studies of land - atmosphere interactions and climate modeling.

  20. Controlled heat flux measurement across a closing nanoscale gap and its comparison to theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Ghafari, A.; Budaev, B. V.; Bogy, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    We present here a controlled measurement of heat flux across a closing gap that is initially less than 10 nm wide between two solid surfaces at different temperatures. The measured heat transfer is compared with our published theoretical analyses of this phenomenon that show thermal radiation dominates the heat transfer for gaps wider than about 1-2 nm, but phonon conduction dominates between 1 and 2 nm and contact. The experiments employ a thermal actuator mounted on a rocking base block for coarse positioning that supplies Joule heating to an embedded element to cause thermal expansion of a localized region for less than 10 nm spacing control, together with an embedded near-surface resistive temperature sensor to measure its temperature change due to the heat flux across the gap. The measured results are in general agreement with the theoretical predictions, and they also agree with common sense expectations. This paper not only shows nano-scale heat transfer measurement across a closing gap, it also lends additional strong support to the validity of the referenced theoretical developments. The proposed experimental approach can provide support to design of future devices for nano-scale heat transfer measurement.

  1. Numerical Simulation of the Moving Induction Heating Process with Magnetic Flux Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The induction heating with ferromagnetic metal powder bonded magnetic flux concentrator (MPB-MFC demonstrates more advantages in surface heating treatments of metal. However, the moving heating application is mostly applied in the industrial production. Therefore, the analytical understanding of the mechanism, efficiency, and controllability of the moving induction heating process becomes necessary for process design and optimization. This paper studies the mechanism of the moving induction heating with magnetic flux concentrator. The MPB-MFC assisted moving induction heating for Inconel 718 alloy is studied by establishing the finite element simulation model. The temperature field distribution is analyzed, and the factors influencing the temperature are studied. The conclusion demonstrates that the velocity of the workpiece should be controlled properly and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC has little impact on the temperature development, compared with other input parameters. In addition, the validity of the static numerical model is verified by comparing the finite element simulation with experimental results on AISI 1045 steel. The numerical model established in this work can provide comprehensive understanding for the process control in production.

  2. Methodology for heat flux investigation on leading edges using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Y.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Dejarnac, R.; Gaspar, J.; Gunn, J. P.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Rigollet, F.

    2017-01-01

    During steady state plasma operation in fusion devices, leading edges of the actively cooled plasma-facing components can be impacted by plasma flux with nearly normal angle of incidence, causing local overheating. The overheating can be a critical issue in high-power machines, especially in the presence of mechanical misalignments. Due to heat diffusion through the material, the edge power overload also leads to a local increase of temperature on the top part of the tile that can be detected by the infrared imaging system (viewed from the top of the machine). In the Tore Supra tokamak, heat flux impinging on the top and the leading edge of the carbon fibre composite (CFC) flat tiles are characterized with both an infrared (IR) thermographic system and 2D thermal modelling of the tile. A specific sensor correction based on a laboratory blackbody-slit experiment has been developed to simulate the spatial resolution related effects (necessary here since the temperature gradient near the leading edge is smaller than the pixel size of the IR system). The transfer function of the IR system is characterized by a Gaussian distribution function. The standard deviation is found to be σ  =  1.75 mm for a pixel size of 3.1 mm. The heat flux calculation is applied to CFC flat tiles and, after being processed with the transfer function, compared to experimental IR data for two geometrical situations: one with 0.2 mm misalignment between two adjacent tiles and the other without misalignment (well-aligned tiles). The heat flux ratio between the leading edge and top is found to be ~25 in the case of the protruding tile, which is lower than the expected ratio using the guiding-centre ballistic approximation with no cross-field heat flux (57).

  3. How the Propagation of Heat-Flux Modulations Triggers E × B Flow Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuga, Yusuke

    2013-10-01

    Recently, a new class of E × B flow pattern, called an `` E × B staircase,'' was observed in a simulation study using the full- f flux driven GYSELA code. Here, E × B staircases are quasi-regular steady patterns of localized shear layers and temperature profile corrugations. The shear layers are interspaced between regions of turbulent avalanching of the size of several correlation length (~ 10Δc). In this work, a theory to describe the formation of such E × B staircases from a bath of stochastic avalanches is presented, based on analogy of staircase formation to jam formation in traffic flow. Namely, staircase formation is viewed as a heat flux ``jam'' that causes profile corrugation, which is analogous to a traffic jam that causes corrugations in the local car density in a traffic flow. To model such an effect in plasmas, a finite response time τ is introduced, during which instantaneous heat flux relaxes to the mean heat flux, determined by symmetry constraints. The response time introduced here is an analogue of drivers' response time in traffic flow dynamics. It is shown that the extended model describes a heat flux ``jam'' and profile corrugation, which appears as an instability, in analogy to the way a clustering instability leads to a traffic jam. Such local amplification of heat and profile corrugations can lead to the formation of E × B staircases. The scale length that gives the maximum growth rate falls in the mesoscale range and is comparable to the staircase step spacing. Present address: IAS and RIAM, Kyushu University, Japan.

  4. A review of dryout heat fluxes and coolability of particle beds. APRI 4, Stage 2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Ilona [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-04-01

    Dryout heat flux experiments on particle beds have been reviewed. The observed dryout heat flux varies from some tens of kW/m{sup 2} to well over 1 MW/m 2 . The variation can be qualitatively and to some extent also quantitatively explained. The effect of particle diameter has been clearly demonstrated. For particles having diameter less than about 1 mm, the dryout heat flux on the order of 100-200 kW/m{sup 2}, and increases on square of the particle diameter. For larger than 1 mm particles the dryout heat flux increases on square root of the particle diameter. Typical values for {approx} 5 mm particles is 500 kW/m{sup 2} to 1 MW/m{sup 2} . An effect of bed thickness can be seen for small particles and medium range (50-500 mm) beds. For thick beds, > 500 mm, the dryout heat flux does not any more change as the bed height increases. The dryout heat flux increases with increasing coolant pressure. This can be explained by the increasing vapour density, which can remove more latent heat from the bed. Debris bed stratification, with small particles on top, clearly decreases the dryout heat flux. The dryout heat flux in a stratified bed can even be smaller than a heat flux of an equivalent debris bed consisting of the smaller particles alone. This is due to the capillary force, which draws liquid towards the smaller particles and causes the dryout to occur at the interface of the particle layers. A model has been developed by Lipinski to estimate dryout heat fluxes in a particle bed. The model has been derived based on solution of momentum, energy and mass conservation equations for two phases. The 1-D model can take into account variable particle sizes (stratification) along the bed and different coolant entry positions. It has been shown that the model can quite well predict the observed dryout characteristics in most experiments. The simpler 0-D model can give reasonable estimates for non-stratified beds. Results and observations of several tests on melt jet

  5. SIRHEX—A new experimental facility for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, André, E-mail: andre.kunze@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (Germany); Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (Germany); Bonelli, Flavia [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Commercial infrared heaters have been qualified for future First Wall experiments. • In first tests surface heat flux densities up to 470 kW/m were achieved. • The homogeneity of the heat distribution stayed within ±5% of the nominal value. • With the heaters a typical ITER pulse can be reproduced. • An adequate testing strategy will be required to improve heater lifetime. - Abstract: SIRHEX (“Surface Infrared Radiation Heating Experiment”) is a small-scale experimental facility at KIT, which has been built for testing and qualifying high heat flux radiation heaters for blanket specific conditions using an instrumented water cooled target. This paper describes the SIRHEX facility and the experimental set-up for the heater tests. The results of a series of tests focused on reproducing homogeneous surface heat flux densities up to 500 kW/m{sup 2} will be presented and the impact of the heater performance on the design of the First Wall test rig will be discussed.

  6. Heat Flux and Wall Temperature Estimates for the NASA Langley HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Vincent, Jr.; Hass, Neal E.

    2010-01-01

    An objective of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program Flight 2 is to provide validation data for high enthalpy scramjet prediction tools through a single flight test and accompanying ground tests of the HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig (HDCR) tested in the NASA LaRC Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF). The HDCR is a full-scale, copper heat sink structure designed to simulate the isolator entrance conditions and isolator, pilot, and combustor section of the HIFiRE flight test experiment flowpath and is fully instrumented to assess combustion performance over a range of operating conditions simulating flight from Mach 5.5 to 8.5 and for various fueling schemes. As part of the instrumentation package, temperature and heat flux sensors were provided along the flowpath surface and also imbedded in the structure. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the surface heat flux and wall temperature of the Zirconia coated copper wall can be obtained with a water-cooled heat flux gage and a sub-surface temperature measurement. An algorithm was developed which used these two measurements to reconstruct the surface conditions along the flowpath. Determinations of the surface conditions of the Zirconia coating were conducted for a variety of conditions.

  7. Bayesian inferences of the thermal properties of a wall using temperature and heat flux measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco

    2017-09-20

    The assessment of the thermal properties of walls is essential for accurate building energy simulations that are needed to make effective energy-saving policies. These properties are usually investigated through in situ measurements of temperature and heat flux over extended time periods. The one-dimensional heat equation with unknown Dirichlet boundary conditions is used to model the heat transfer process through the wall. In Ruggeri et al. (2017), it was assessed the uncertainty about the thermal diffusivity parameter using different synthetic data sets. In this work, we adapt this methodology to an experimental study conducted in an environmental chamber, with measurements recorded every minute from temperature probes and heat flux sensors placed on both sides of a solid brick wall over a five-day period. The observed time series are locally averaged, according to a smoothing procedure determined by the solution of a criterion function optimization problem, to fit the required set of noise model assumptions. Therefore, after preprocessing, we can reasonably assume that the temperature and the heat flux measurements have stationary Gaussian noise and we can avoid working with full covariance matrices. The results show that our technique reduces the bias error of the estimated parameters when compared to other approaches. Finally, we compute the information gain under two experimental setups to recommend how the user can efficiently determine the duration of the measurement campaign and the range of the external temperature oscillation.

  8. Measurements and modelling of snowmelt and turbulent heat fluxes over shrub tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bewley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of snowmelt and turbulent heat fluxes were made during the snowmelt periods of two years at two neighbouring tundra sites in the Yukon, one in a sheltered location with tall shrubs exposed above deep snow and the other in an exposed location with dwarf shrubs covered by shallow snow. The snow was about twice as deep in the valley as on the plateau at the end of each winter and melted out about 10 days later. The site with buried vegetation showed a transition from air-to-surface heat transfers to surface-to-air heat transfers as bare ground became exposed during snowmelt, but there were daytime transfers of heat from the surface to the air at the site with exposed vegetation even while snow remained on the ground. A model calculating separate energy balances for snow and exposed vegetation, driven with meteorological data from the sites, is found to be able to reproduce these behaviours. Averaged over 30-day periods the model gives about 8 Wm−2 more sensible heat flux to the atmosphere for the valley site than for the plateau site. Sensitivity of simulated fluxes to model parameters describing vegetation cover and density is investigated.

  9. High heat flux x-ray monochromators: What are the limits?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.S.

    1997-06-01

    First optical elements at third-generation, hard x-ray synchrotrons, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), are subjected to immense heat fluxes. The optical elements include crystal monochromators, multilayers and mirrors. This paper presents a mathematical model of the thermal strain of a three-layer (faceplate, heat exchanger, and baseplate), cylindrical optic subjected to narrow beam of uniform heat flux. This model is used to calculate the strain gradient of a liquid-gallium-cooled x-ray monochromator previously tested on an undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). The resulting thermally broadened rocking curves are calculated and compared to experimental data. The calculated rocking curve widths agree to within a few percent of the measured values over the entire current range tested (0 to 60 mA). The thermal strain gradient under the beam footprint varies linearly with the heat flux and the ratio of the thermal expansion coefficient to the thermal conductivity. The strain gradient is insensitive to the heat exchanger properties and the optic geometry. This formulation provides direct insight into the governing parameters, greatly reduces the analysis time, and provides a measure of the ultimate performance of a given monochromator.

  10. Electrostatic particle-in-cell simulation of heat flux mitigation using magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüskow, Karl Felix; Kemnitz, S.; Bandelow, G.; Duras, J.; Kahnfeld, D.; Matthias, P.; Schneider, R.; Konigorski, D.

    2016-10-01

    The particle-in-cell (PIC) method was used to simulate heat flux mitigation experiments with partially ionised argon. The experiments demonstrate the possibility of reducing heat flux towards a target using magnetic fields. Modelling using the PIC method is able to reproduce the heat flux mitigation qualitatively. This is driven by modified electron transport. Electrons are magnetised and react directly to the external magnetic field. In addition, an increase of radial turbulent transport is also needed to explain the experimental observations in the model. Close to the target an increase of electron density is created. Due to quasi-neutrality, ions follow the electrons. Charge exchange collisions couple the dynamics of the neutrals to the ions and reduce the flow velocity of neutrals by radial momentum transport and subsequent losses. By this, the dominant heat-transport channel by neutrals gets reduced and a reduction of the heat deposition, similar to the experiment, is observed. Using the simulation a diagnostic module for optical emission is developed and its results are compared with spectroscopic measurements and photos from the experiment. The results of this study are in good agreement with the experiment. Experimental observations such as a shrank bright emission region close to the nozzle exit, an additional emission in front of the target and an overall change in colour to red are reproduced by the simulation.

  11. Analysis of the sensible heat flux from the exterior surface of buildings using time sequential thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyano, Akira; Asano, Kohichi; Kanamaru, Takehisa

    In this study, the distribution of surface temperature on the surface of two buildings having different characteristics was measured using a thermal infrared camera. Measurements were made in the summer, the period in Japan during which heat flux from buildings is of major interest, and again in the winter for comparison purposes. The heat characteristics of each building were obtained throughout the day by time-sequential thermography (TST), and the surface temperature of each physical element was classified according to temperature, shape, material and position. When the temperature of a surface could not be determined by an infrared camera mounted on the top of a building or a pole, temperature measurements were made using a hand-held IR camera. In addition, the sensible heat flux from each surface was calculated using TST and the surface area of each element as calculated from blueprints of the buildings.

  12. Sensitivity of urban rainfall to anthropogenic heat flux: A numerical experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Christopher Claus; Tam, Chi-Yung; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the sensitivity of local precipitation statistics to surface heat fluxes in an urban subdomain in the Pearl River Delta region, which is situated along the coast of south China. By conducting simulations of a past record-breaking rainfall event with a cloud-resolving model, we found that rainfall rates and the spatial distribution of accumulated rainfall are very sensitive to imposed urban surface heat fluxes. Diagnostics of the planetary boundary layer show increasing fluctuations of turbulence and buoyant turbulence production with increasing surface heat emission, causing increased near-surface mixing and convection. Heavy precipitation rates show a higher sensitivity than lighter rates. The extreme tail of the distribution is hence more affected. This study serves as an example of how sensitive the magnitude of local high impact weather phenomena can be to local forcing.

  13. Magnetogasdynamic Cylindrical Shock Waves in a Rotating Nonideal Gas with Radiation Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, J. P.; Patel, Nanhey

    2015-03-01

    A similarity solution is presented for a cylindrical magnetogasdynamic shock wave in a rotating nonideal gas in the presence of a variable axial magnetic field in the case where the radiation heat flux is of importance. The initial angular velocity of the medium is assumed to vary as some power of the distance from the symmetry axis. The radiation heat flux is evaluated from the equation of motion without explicit use of the radiation transfer equations. It is shown that the gas nonidealness increases the shock strength but decreases the shock velocity. On the other hand, the presence of a magnetic field decreases the shock strength but increases the shock velocity. Moreover, the shock velocity increases with the ratio of specific heats. The total energy of the shock wave increases with time.

  14. Liquid-mixed convection in a closed enclosure with highly-intensive heat fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Cardona, A.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Electrica y Electronica, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico); Romero-Mendez, R. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ingenieria, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Lesso-Arroyo, R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica, Celaya Gto. (Mexico)

    2004-09-01

    Laminar-mixed convection of a dielectric fluid contained in a two-dimensional enclosure is investigated in the present paper. Within the enclosure discrete heat sources of a constant heat flux are flush-mounted on a vertical wall. Forced flow conditions are imposed by placing a propeller at different locations within the enclosure. The analysis is performed for a wide range of heat fluxes, from the order of 10,000 to 100,000 W/m{sup 2}, way in the trend of current computer chips, such as the Pentium IV, and the future ones. Emphasis is placed on the influence of the governing parameters, such as buoyancy parameters, the aspect ratio of the enclosure, and location of the propeller. The flow and temperature fields are obtained as part of the solution. (Author)

  15. Corrections for Convective Heat Flux Gauges Subjected to a Surface Temperature Discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, M.; Reinarts, T.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been carried out in an effort to determine the convective heat transfer corrections for circular heat flux gauges subjected to a surface temperature discontinuity. Solutions were obtained at a Reynolds number Of 1 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 4. The CFD results are compared with the existing correlations for the correction factors. In general, the CFD corrections exceed those provided by the correlations. The discrepancy increases with increasing upstream surface temperature, thus indicating the role of property variations, which are not accounted for in the correlations. A quasi-two-dimensional analysis is also performed to treat the cylindrical geometry of the heat flux gauges by area-averaging the computed two-dimensional results from CFD.

  16. Local stress and heat flux in atomistic systems involving three-body forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youping

    2006-02-01

    Local densities of fundamental physical quantities, including stress and heat flux fields, are formulated for atomistic systems involving three-body forces. The obtained formulas are calculable within an atomistic simulation, in consistent with the conservation equations of thermodynamics of continuum, and can be applied to systems with general two- and three-body interaction forces. It is hoped that this work may correct some misuse of inappropriate formulas of stress and heat flux in the literature, may clarify the definition of site energy of many-body potentials, and may serve as an analytical link between an atomistic model and a continuum theory. Physical meanings of the obtained formulas, their relation with virial theorem and heat theorem, and the applicability are discussed.

  17. Benchmark Wall Heat Flux Data for a GO2/GH2 Single Element Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is becoming an important component of injector design in the rocket industry. Injector designers who use CFD in the design process need to understand the accuracy level of the particular code being used for certain aspects of the design. This paper presents a recent effort to acquire benchmark quality data to be used for CFD code validation. Detailed chamber wall temperature and heat flux data was acquired for a gaseous oxygen, gaseous hydrogen single element shear coaxial injector in a 1.5 inch diameter copper heat sink chamber at Penn State University. The data was taken using both coaxial and water cooled heat flux gauges. Tests were run using hot gases generated from both fuel and oxidizer preburners. Tests were conducted over a chamber pressure range of 300 to 750 psia. Data analysis and uncertainty information will also be presented.

  18. An experimental investigation of critical heat flux performance of hypervapotron in subcooled boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peipei

    The successful use of subcooled flow boiling for high heat flux components requires that the critical heat flux (CHF), i.e., a fast reduction in the boiling heat transfer, must be avoided. Among the many techniques available to enhance CHF, particular attention has been focused on the hypervapotron concept. In this study, the CHF characteristics of the hypervapotron were experimentally investigated using a simulant fluid, R134a, which has been found to be an effective modeling fluid to simulate CHF in water-cooled environments. An experimental and modeling study of the subcooled boiling heat transfer on plain surface and hypervapotron has been conduced. A test facility was designed and constructed to perform required boiling heat transfer experiments. A high speed visualization system was utilized to give details of bubble formation and departure and of nucleation site density. Surface measurements of various specimens were performed to investigate the relationship between nucleation sites and surface microstructure. Full characterization of the hypervapotron effect as a function of fluid thermal hydraulic conditions was accomplished. A non-dimensional CHF correlation for smooth rectangular channels and the hypervapotron channel was developed and compared with experimental data in this work. In addition, a hot-spot model was developed to give predictions of critical heat flux on both plain and hypervapotron surfaces. It was developed on observations of bubble formation, departure and coalescence, and on the confirmation of nucleation structure on the heating surface. Finally, a numerical code was successfully developed to give CHF predictions for hypervapotron configurations. The simulation indicates that the better performance of CHF in hypervapotron configurations is a result of high conductivity material with augmented heating surfaces in subcooled boiling environment. Different fin dimensions were also tested numerically to compare the experimental results, and

  19. Estimation of Surface Temperature and Heat Flux by Inverse Heat Transfer Methods Using Internal Temperatures Measured While Radiantly Heating a Carbon/Carbon Specimen up to 1920 F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Michelle; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Glass, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve the heat conduction equation is needed when designing materials to be used on vehicles exposed to extremely high temperatures; e.g. vehicles used for atmospheric entry or hypersonic flight. When using test and flight data, computational methods such as finite difference schemes may be used to solve for both the direct heat conduction problem, i.e., solving between internal temperature measurements, and the inverse heat conduction problem, i.e., using the direct solution to march forward in space to the surface of the material to estimate both surface temperature and heat flux. The completed research first discusses the methods used in developing a computational code to solve both the direct and inverse heat transfer problems using one dimensional, centered, implicit finite volume schemes and one dimensional, centered, explicit space marching techniques. The developed code assumed the boundary conditions to be specified time varying temperatures and also considered temperature dependent thermal properties. The completed research then discusses the results of analyzing temperature data measured while radiantly heating a carbon/carbon specimen up to 1920 F. The temperature was measured using thermocouple (TC) plugs (small carbon/carbon material specimens) with four embedded TC plugs inserted into the larger carbon/carbon specimen. The purpose of analyzing the test data was to estimate the surface heat flux and temperature values from the internal temperature measurements using direct and inverse heat transfer methods, thus aiding in the thermal and structural design and analysis of high temperature vehicles.

  20. Critical heat flux tests for a 12 finned-element assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J., E-mail: Jun.Yang@cnl.ca; Groeneveld, D.C.; Yuan, L.Q.

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • CHF tests for a 12 finned-fuel-element assembly at highly subcooled conditions. • Test approach to maximize experimental information and minimize heater failures. • Three series of tests were completed in vertical upward light water flow. • Bundle simulators of two axial power profiles and three heated lengths were tested. • Results confirm that the prediction method predicts lower CHF values than measured. - Abstract: An experimental study was undertaken to provide relevant data to validate the current critical heat flux (CHF) prediction method of the NRU driver fuel for safety analysis, i.e., to confirm no CHF occurrence below the predicted values. The NRU driver fuel assembly consists of twelve finned fuel elements arranged in two rings – three in the inner ring and nine in the outer ring. To satisfy the experimental objective tests at very high heat fluxes, very high mass velocities, and high subcoolings were conducted where the CHF mechanism is the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). Such a CHF experiment can be very difficult, costly and time consuming since failure of the heating surface due to rupture or melting (physical burnout) is expected when the DNB type of CHF is reached. A novel experimental approach has been developed to maximize the amount of relevant experimental information on safe operating conditions in the tests, and to minimize any possible heater failures that inherently accompany the CHF occurrence at these conditions. Three series of tests using electrically heated NRU driver fuel simulators with three heated lengths and two axial power profiles (or axial heat flux distribution (AFD)) were completed in vertical upward light water flow. Each series of tests covered two mass flow rates, several heat flux levels, and local subcoolings that bound the ranges of interest for the analysis of postulated slow loss-of-regulation accident (LORA) and loss-of-flow accident (LOFA) scenarios. Tests for each mass flow rate of

  1. Reduced entropic model for studies of multidimensional nonlocal transport in high-energy-density plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sorbo, D.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Dubroca, B.; Guisset, S.; Touati, M.; Tikhonchuk, V. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Université de Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France)

    2015-08-15

    Hydrodynamic simulations of high-energy-density plasmas require a detailed description of energy fluxes. For low and intermediate atomic number materials, the leading mechanism is the electron transport, which may be a nonlocal phenomenon requiring a kinetic modeling. In this paper, we present and test the results of a nonlocal model based on the first angular moments of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation. This multidimensional model is closed thanks to an entropic relation (the Boltzman H-theorem). It provides a better description of the electron distribution function, thus enabling studies of small scale kinetic effects within the hydrodynamic framework. Examples of instabilities of electron plasma and ion-acoustic waves, driven by the heat flux, are presented and compared with the classical formula.

  2. Reduced entropic model for studies of multidimensional nonlocal transport in high-energy-density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sorbo, D.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Dubroca, B.; Guisset, S.; Touati, M.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2015-08-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations of high-energy-density plasmas require a detailed description of energy fluxes. For low and intermediate atomic number materials, the leading mechanism is the electron transport, which may be a nonlocal phenomenon requiring a kinetic modeling. In this paper, we present and test the results of a nonlocal model based on the first angular moments of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation. This multidimensional model is closed thanks to an entropic relation (the Boltzman H-theorem). It provides a better description of the electron distribution function, thus enabling studies of small scale kinetic effects within the hydrodynamic framework. Examples of instabilities of electron plasma and ion-acoustic waves, driven by the heat flux, are presented and compared with the classical formula.

  3. Sensitivity of model parameterizations for simulated latent heat flux at the snow surface for complex mountain sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The snowcover energy balance is typically dominated by net radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Validation of the two latter components is rare and often difficult to undertake at complex mountain sites. Latent heat flux, the focus of this paper, is the primary coupling mechanism between...

  4. Advantages of analytically computing the ground heat flux in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Daly, Edoardo

    2016-11-01

    It is generally accepted that the ground heat flux accounts for a significant fraction of the surface energy balance. In land surface models, the ground heat flux is typically estimated through a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation. Recent research has shown that this approach introduces errors in the estimation of the energy balance. In this paper, we calibrate a land surface model using a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation with four different vertical spatial resolutions. It is found that the thermal conductivity is the most sensitive parameter to the spatial resolution. More importantly, the thermal conductivity values are directly related to the spatial resolution, thus rendering any physical interpretation of this value irrelevant. The numerical solution is then replaced by an analytical solution. The results of the numerical and analytical solutions are identical when fine spatial and temporal resolutions are used. However, when using resolutions that are typical of land surface models, significant differences are found. When using the analytical solution, the ground heat flux is directly calculated without calculating the soil temperature profile. The calculation of the temperature at each node in the soil profile is thus no longer required, unless the model contains parameters that depend on the soil temperature, which in this study is not the case. The calibration is repeated, and thermal conductivity values independent of the vertical spatial resolution are obtained. The main conclusion of this study is that care must be taken when interpreting land surface model results that have been obtained using numerical ground heat flux estimates. The use of exact analytical solutions, when available, is recommended.

  5. Vertical heat flux in the ocean: Estimates from observations and from a coupled general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Patrick F.; Masson, Diane; Saenko, Oleg A.

    2016-06-01

    The net heat uptake by the ocean in a changing climate involves small imbalances between the advective and diffusive processes that transport heat vertically. Generally, it is necessary to rely on global climate models to study these processes in detail. In the present study, it is shown that a key component of the vertical heat flux, namely that associated with the large-scale mean vertical circulation, can be diagnosed over extra-tropical regions from global observational data sets. This component is estimated based on the vertical velocity obtained from the geostrophic vorticity balance, combined with estimates of absolute geostrophic flow. Results are compared with the output of a non-eddy resolving, coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Reasonable agreement is found in the latitudinal distribution of the vertical heat flux, as well as in the area-integrated flux below about 250 m depth. The correspondence with the coupled model deteriorates sharply at depths shallower than 250 m due to the omission of equatorial regions from the calculation. The vertical heat flux due to the mean circulation is found to be dominated globally by the downward contribution from the Southern Hemisphere, in particular the Southern Ocean. This is driven by the Ekman vertical velocity which induces an upward transport of seawater that is cold relative to the horizontal average at a given depth. The results indicate that the dominant characteristics of the vertical transport of heat due to the mean circulation can be inferred from simple linear vorticity dynamics over much of the ocean.

  6. Temporal Non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  7. Particle and heat flux estimates in Proto-MPEX in Helicon Mode with IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, M. A.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Donovan, D. C.; Goulding, R. H.; Rapp, J.

    2016-10-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a linear plasma device developing the plasma source concept for the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which will address plasma material interaction (PMI) science for future fusion reactors. To better understand how and where energy is being lost from the Proto-MPEX plasma during ``helicon mode'' operations, particle and heat fluxes are quantified at multiple locations along the machine length. Relevant diagnostics include infrared (IR) cameras, four double Langmuir probes (LPs), and in-vessel thermocouples (TCs). The IR cameras provide temperature measurements of Proto-MPEX's plasma-facing dump and target plates, located on either end of the machine. The change in surface temperature is measured over the duration of the plasma shot to determine the heat flux hitting the plates. The IR cameras additionally provide 2-D thermal load distribution images of these plates, highlighting Proto-MPEX plasma behaviors, such as hot spots. The LPs and TCs provide additional plasma measurements required to determine particle and heat fluxes. Quantifying axial variations in fluxes will help identify machine operating parameters that will improve Proto-MPEX's performance, increasing its PMI research capabilities. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  8. Radiative interactions in molecular gases under local and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Jha, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    Basic formulations, analyses, and numerical procedures are presented to investigate radiative heat interactions in diatomic and polyatomic gases under local and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Essential governing equations are presented for both gray and nongray gases. Information is provided on absorption models, relaxation times, and transfer equations. Radiative flux equations are developed which are applicable under local and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The problem is solved for fully developed laminar incompressible flows between two parallel plates under the boundary condition of a uniform surface heat flux. For specific applications, three diatomic and three polyatomic gases are considered. The results are obtained numerically by employing the method of variation of parameters. The results are compared under local and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions at different temperature and pressure conditions. Both gray and nongray studies are conducted extensively for all molecular gases considered. The particular gases selected for this investigation are CO, NO, OH, CO2, H2O, and CH4. The temperature and pressure range considered are 300-2000 K and 0.1-10 atmosphere, respectively. In general, results demonstrate that the gray gas approximation overestimates the effect of radiative interaction for all conditions. The conditions of NLTE, however, result in underestimation of radiative interactions. The method developed for this study can be extended to solve complex problems of radiative heat transfer involving nonequilibrium phenomena.

  9. Nonlocal incoherent solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Wyller, John

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons.......We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons....

  10. An intercomparison between the surface heat flux feedback in five coupled models, COADS and the NCEP reanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankignoul, C.; Kestenare, E. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Institute Pierre-Simon Laplace, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Botzet, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Carril, A.F. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Drange, H. [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Pardaens, A. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office (United Kingdom); Terray, L.; Sutton, R. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-01

    The surface heat flux feedback is estimated in the Atlantic and the extra-tropical Indo-Pacific, using monthly heat flux and sea surface temperature anomaly data from control simulations with five global climate models, and it is compared to estimates derived from COADS and the NCEP reanalysis. In all data sets, the heat flux feedback is negative nearly everywhere and damps the sea surface temperature anomalies. At extra-tropical latitudes, it is strongly dominated by the turbulent fluxes. The radiative feedback can be positive or negative, depending on location and season, but it remains small, except in some models in the tropical Atlantic. The negative heat flux feedback is strong in the mid-latitude storm tracks, exceeding 40 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1} at place, but in the Northern Hemisphere it is substantially underestimated in several models. The negative feedback weakens at high latitudes, although the models do not reproduce the weak positive feedback found in NCEP in the northern North Atlantic. The main differences are found in the tropical Atlantic where the heat flux feedback is weakly negative in some models, as in the observations, and strongly negative in others where it can exceed 30 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1} at large scales, in part because of a strong contribution of the radiative fluxes, in particular during spring. A comparison between models with similar atmospheric or oceanic components suggests that the atmospheric model is primarily responsible for the heat flux feedback differences at extra-tropical latitudes. In the tropical Atlantic, the ocean behavior plays an equal role. The differences in heat flux feedback in the tropical Atlantic are reflected in the sea surface temperature anomaly persistence, which is too small in models where the heat flux damping is large. A good representation of the heat flux feedback is thus required to simulate climate variability realistically. (orig.)

  11. Heat and mass transfer in magnetohydrodynamic flow of micropolar fluid on a circular cylinder with uniform heat and mass flux

    CERN Document Server

    Mansour, M A; El-Kabeir, S M

    2000-01-01

    Steady laminar boundary layer analysis of heat and mass transfer characteristics in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a micropolar fluid on a circular cylinder maintained at uniform heat and mass flux has been conducted. The solution of the energy equation inside the boundary layer is obtained as a power series of the distance measured along the surface from the front stagnation point of the cylinder. The results of dimensionless temperature, Nusselt number, wall shear stress, wall couple stress and Sherwood number have been presented graphically for various values of the material parameters. The results indicate that the micropolar fluids display a reduction in drag as well as heat transfer rate when compared with Newtonian fluids.

  12. A New Paradigm for Understanding and Enhancing the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Abdolreza; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2017-07-12

    Nearly a century of research on enhancing critical heat flux (CHF) has focused on altering the boiling surface properties such as its nucleation site density, wettability, wickability and heat transfer area. But, a mechanism to manipulate dynamics of the vapor and liquid interactions above the boiling surface as a means of enhancing CHF has not been proposed. Here, a new approach is implemented to limit the vapor phase lateral expansion over the heat transfer surface and actively control the surface wetted area fraction, known to decline monotonically with increasing heat flux. This new degree of freedom has enabled reaching unprecedented CHF levels and revealed new details about the physics of CHF. The impact of wickability, effective heat transfer area, and liquid pressure on CHF is precisely quantified. Test results show that, when rewetting is facilitated, the CHF increases linearly with the effective surface heat transfer area. A maximum CHF of 1.8 kW/cm(2) was achieved on a copper structure with the highest surface area among all tested surfaces. A model developed based on the experimental data suggests that the thermal conductivity of the surface structures ultimately limits the CHF; and a maximum CHF of 7-8 kW/cm(2) may be achieved using diamond surface structures.

  13. Analysis of the Effects of Vitiates on Surface Heat Flux in Ground Tests of Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Vincent; Gaffney, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the high enthalpy conditions associated with hypersonic flight, many ground test facilities burn fuel in the air upstream of the test chamber. Unfortunately, the products of combustion contaminate the test gas and alter gas properties and the heat fluxes associated with aerodynamic heating. The difference in the heating rates between clean air and a vitiated test medium needs to be understood so that the thermal management system for hypersonic vehicles can be properly designed. This is particularly important for advanced hypersonic vehicle concepts powered by air-breathing propulsion systems that couple cooling requirements, fuel flow rates, and combustor performance by flowing fuel through sub-surface cooling passages to cool engine components and preheat the fuel prior to combustion. An analytical investigation was performed comparing clean air to a gas vitiated with methane/oxygen combustion products to determine if variations in gas properties contributed to changes in predicted heat flux. This investigation started with simple relationships, evolved into writing an engineering-level code, and ended with running a series of CFD cases. It was noted that it is not possible to simultaneously match all of the gas properties between clean and vitiated test gases. A study was then conducted selecting various combinations of freestream properties for a vitiated test gas that matched clean air values to determine which combination of parameters affected the computed heat transfer the least. The best combination of properties to match was the free-stream total sensible enthalpy, dynamic pressure, and either the velocity or Mach number. This combination yielded only a 2% difference in heating. Other combinations showed departures of up to 10% in the heat flux estimate.

  14. NONLOCAL SYMMETRIES AND NONLOCAL RECURSION OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An expose about covering method on differential equations was given. The general formulae to determine nonlocal symmetries were derived which are analogous to the prolongation formulae of generalized symmetries. In addition, a new definition of nonlocal recursion operators was proposed, which gave a satisfactory explalnation in covering theory for the integro-differcntial recursion operators.

  15. Progress in remote sensing of global land surface heat fluxes and evaporations with a turbulent heat exchange parameterization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuelong; Su, Bob

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing has provided us an opportunity to observe Earth land surface with a much higher resolution than any of GCM simulation. Due to scarcity of information for land surface physical parameters, up-to-date GCMs still have large uncertainties in the coupled land surface process modeling. One critical issue is a large amount of parameters used in their land surface models. Thus remote sensing of land surface spectral information can be used to provide information on these parameters or assimilated to decrease the model uncertainties. Satellite imager could observe the Earth land surface with optical, thermal and microwave bands. Some basic Earth land surface status (land surface temperature, canopy height, canopy leaf area index, soil moisture etc.) has been produced with remote sensing technique, which already help scientists understanding Earth land and atmosphere interaction more precisely. However, there are some challenges when applying remote sensing variables to calculate global land-air heat and water exchange fluxes. Firstly, a global turbulent exchange parameterization scheme needs to be developed and verified, especially for global momentum and heat roughness length calculation with remote sensing information. Secondly, a compromise needs to be innovated to overcome the spatial-temporal gaps in remote sensing variables to make the remote sensing based land surface fluxes applicable for GCM model verification or comparison. A flux network data library (more 200 flux towers) was collected to verify the designed method. Important progress in remote sensing of global land flux and evaporation will be presented and its benefits for GCM models will also be discussed. Some in-situ studies on the Tibetan Plateau and problems of land surface process simulation will also be discussed.

  16. Numerical Study of Laminar Flow and Convective Heat Transfer Utilizing Nanofluids in Equilateral Triangular Ducts with Constant Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Hung Ting

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study numerically investigates heat transfer augmentation using water-based Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids flowing in a triangular cross-sectional duct under constant heat flux in laminar flow conditions. The Al2O3/water nanofluids with different volume fractions (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% and CuO/water nanofluids with various volume fractions (0.05%, 0.16%, 0.36%, 0.5%, and 0.8% are employed, and Reynolds numbers in the range of 700 to 1900 in a laminar flow are considered. The heat transfer rate becomes more remarkable when employing nanofluids. As compared with pure water, at a Peclet number of 7000, a 35% enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient, is obtained for an Al2O3/water nanofluid with 2% particle volume fraction; at the same Peclet number, a 41% enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient is achieved for a CuO/water nanofluid with 0.8% particle volume concentration. Heat transfer enhancement increases with increases in particle volume concentration and Peclet number. Moreover, the numerical results are found to be in good agreement with published experimental data.

  17. Analytical study of flow and heat transfer in an annular porous medium subject to asymmetrical heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huijin; Zhao, Changying; Vafai, Kambiz

    2017-08-01

    Fully developed forced convective heat transfer in an annulus filled with a porous medium subject to asymmetrical heating is investigated analytically with different models in this work. The classic Darcy and Brinkman models were employed for the fluid flow, while the local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) models were employed to describe the heat transfer process in porous media. An analytical model based on fin theory was also employed for analyzing this problem. Exact solutions with Darcy-LTNE, Darcy-LTE, Brinkman-LTNE, Brinkman-LTE, and the fin models were obtained. Among these solutions, the Brinkman-LTNE solution can be treated as the benchmark, as it is a complete model, which covers the effect of viscous force near the solid wall and the temperature difference between the solid and fluid phases. The basic parameters that affect the velocity and temperature fields were analyzed in depth. The velocity and temperature profiles with these different models were also presented. The effects of some critical parameters on thermal performance of asymmetrically heated annulus fitted with a porous medium were discussed. The cited different analytical models were compared in detail with each other. The critical heat flux (HF) ratios for the inner and outer walls were presented in terms of a Nu- ξ curve for the five models. These solutions were developed for an asymmetrically heated annular channel filled with a porous medium, which can predict the thermal performance within a wide range of radii and HF ratios.

  18. Temporal and spatial changes in mixed layer properties and atmospheric net heat flux in the Nordic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A; Alekseev, G [SI ' Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Korablev, A; Esau, I, E-mail: avsmir@aari.nw.r [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    The Nordic Seas are an important area of the World Ocean where warm Atlantic waters penetrate far north forming the mild climate of Northern Europe. These waters represent the northern rim of the global thermohaline circulation. Estimates of the relationships between the net heat flux and mixed layer properties in the Nordic Seas are examined. Oceanographic data are derived from the Oceanographic Data Base (ODB) compiled in the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Ocean weather ship 'Mike' (OWS) data are used to calculate radiative and turbulent components of the net heat flux. The net shortwave flux was calculated using a satellite albedo dataset and the EPA model. The net longwave flux was estimated by Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) method. Turbulent fluxes at the air-sea interface were calculated using the COARE 3.0 algorithm. The net heat flux was calculated by using oceanographic and meteorological data of the OWS 'Mike'. The mixed layer depth was estimated for the period since 2002 until 2009 by the 'Mike' data as well. A good correlation between these two parameters has been found. Sensible and latent heat fluxes controlled by surface air temperature/sea surface temperature gradient are the main contributors into net heat flux. Significant correlation was found between heat fluxes variations at the OWS 'Mike' location and sea ice export from the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Experimental study on heat transfer augmentation for high heat flux removal in rib-roughened narrow channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.S.; Monde, Masanori [Saga Univ. (Japan); Hino, Ryutaro; Haga, Katsuhiro; Sudo, Yukio

    1997-07-01

    Frictional pressure drop and heat transfer performance in a very narrow rectangular channel having one-sided constant heat flux and repeated-ribs for turbulent flow have been investigated experimentally, and their experimental correlations were obtained using the least square method. The rib pitch-to-height ratios(p/k) were 10 and 20 while holding the rib height constant at 0.2mm, the Reynolds number(Re) from 2,414 to 98,458 under different channel heights of 1.2mm, 2.97mm, and 3.24mm, the rib height-to-channel equivalent diameter(k/De) of 0.03, 0.04, and 0.09 respectively. The results show that the rib-roughened surface augments heat transfer 2-3 times higher than that of the smooth surface with the expense of 2.8-4 times higher frictional pressure drop under Re=5000-10{sup 5}, p/k=10, and H=1.2mm. Experimental results obtained by channel height, H=1.2mm shows a little bit higher heat transfer and friction factor performance than the higher channel height, H=3.24mm. The effect of fin and consequently higher turbulence intensity are responsible for producing higher heat transfer rates. The obtained correlations could be used to design the cooling passages between the target plates to remove high heat flux up to 12MW/m{sup 2} generated at target plates in a high-intensity proton accelerator system. (author). 54 refs.

  20. Turbulent transport regimes and the scrape-off layer heat flux width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. In this paper, we present a qualitative and conceptual framework for understanding various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport as the mechanism for establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with the previous findings [Connor et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 169 (1999)]. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the neoclassical orbit width or heuristic drift mechanism in core energy confinement regimes known as low (L) mode and high (H) mode is considered, together with implications for the future experiments.

  1. High heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosman, A. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2004-07-01

    The development, design, manufacture and testing of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFC) has been an essential stage towards long powerful tokamak operations for Tore-Supra, it lasted about 10 years. This paper deals with the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) that is able to sustain up to 10 MW/m{sup 2} of nominal heat flux. This device is based on hardened copper alloy heat sink structures covered by a carbon fiber composite armour, it resulted in the manufacturing of 600 elementary components, called finger elements, to achieve the 7.6 m{sup 2} TPL. This assembly has been operating in Tore-Supra since spring 2002. Some difficulties occurred during the manufacturing phase, the valuable industrial experience is summarized in the section 2. The permanent monitoring of PFC surface temperature all along the discharge is performed by a set of 6 actively cooled infrared endoscopes. The heat flux monitoring and control issue but also the progress made in our understanding of the deuterium retention in long discharges are described in the section 3. (A.C.)

  2. Particle-In-Cell simulation concerning heat-flux mitigation using electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüskow, Karl Felix; Duras, Julia; Kemnitz, Stefan; Kahnfeld, Daniel; Matthias, Paul; Bandelow, Gunnas; Schneider, Ralf; Konigorski, Detlev

    2016-10-01

    In space missions enormous amount of money is spent for the thermal protection system for re-entry. To avoid complex materials and save money one idea is to reduce the heat-flux towards the spacecraft. The partially-ionized gas can be controlled by electromagnetic fields. For first-principle tests partially ionized argon flow from an arc-jet was used to measure the heat-flux mitigation created by an external magnetic field. In the successful experiment a reduction of 85% was measured. In this work the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method was used to simulate this experiment. PIC is able to reproduce the heat flux mitigation qualitatively. The main mechanism is identified as a changed electron transport and by this, modified electron density due to the reaction to the applied magnetic field. Ions follow due to quasi-neutrality and influence then strongly by charge exchange collisions the neutrals dynamics and heat deposition. This work was supported by the German Space Agency DLR through Project 50RS1508.

  3. Heat flux estimates from the Gakkel Ridge 85E vent field from the AGAVE 2007 expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranne, C.; Winsor, P.; Sohn, R. A.; Liljebladh, B.

    2009-04-01

    During the Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE) 2007, abundant hydrothermal venting was discovered on the Gakkel Ridge at 85E. Hydrothermal vents on the sea floor give rise to buoyant plumes which, when reaching neutral buoyancy, spreads horizontally over areas with length scales on the order of several kilometres and are therefore easily detected with a CTD rosette. The detected anomalies are consistent with the findings 6 years earlier during the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition (AMORE) 2001. The horizontal and vertical distribution of the anomalies is considered in order to establish the number of individual plumes detected. The objective of this paper is to estimate the minimum heat input required to reproduce the observed plumes, using a turbulent entrainment model. The model was run with a large number of combinations of boundary conditions (nozzle area, vertical velocity and temperature) in order to see which combinations that give rise to the observed plume characteristics (level of neutral buoyancy and temperature anomaly). For each individual plume, we estimate the minimum heat flux required to obtain the observed temperature anomaly. Adding the minimum heat flux from each vent together, the total heat flux for the vent field is estimated to be ~ 2 GW. The estimated value is comparable or larger than any other known vent field.

  4. Pool boiling with high heat flux enabled by a porous artery structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lizhan; Zhang, Lianpei; Lin, Guiping; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-06-01

    A porous artery structure utilizing the concept of "phase separation and modulation" is proposed to enhance the critical heat flux of pool boiling. A series of experiments were conducted on a range of test articles in which multiple rectangular arteries were machined directly into the top surface of a 10.0 mm diameter copper rod. The arteries were then covered by a 2.0 mm thickness microporous copper plate through silver brazing. The pool wall was fabricated from transparent Pyrex glass to allow a visualization study, and water was used as the working fluid. Experimental results confirmed that the porous artery structure provided individual flow paths for the liquid supply and vapor venting, and avoided the detrimental effects of the liquid/vapor counter flow. As a result, a maximum heat flux of 610 W/cm2 over a heating area of 0.78 cm2 was achieved with no indication of dryout, prior to reaching the heater design temperature limit. Following the experimental tests, the mechanisms responsible for the boiling critical heat flux and performance enhancement of the porous artery structure were analyzed.

  5. Closing the Energy Budget: Advances in assessing heat fluxes into shallow lakes and ponds (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, S. W.; Hausner, M. B.; Suarez, F. I.; Selker, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    While soil heat flux is traditionally directly measured in any land surface energy study, measuring heat flux into and out of lakes and ponds is complicated by water column mixing processes, differing radiation adsorption coefficients, turbidity variation and heat flux through the sediment-water interface. High resolution thermal profile, to assess heat storage changes in aquatic systems is both time consuming and challenging using traditional thermister or thermocouple strings or casts. Recent advances in Raman spectra distributed temperature sensing (DTS) offer the opportunity to measure, at high spatial and temporal resolution, the thermal storage changes occurring in lakes and ponds. Measurements of thermal storage using DTS are presented from two distinct environments; a strongly density stratified solar pond and a deep cavern system (Devils Hole in Death Valley National Park), demonstrating the effectiveness of high resolution temperature measurements. In the solar pond environment, closure of the energy budget using direct measurements of evaporation and net radiation was greatly improved by incorporating transient thermal measurements, and the development of a cooling boundary layer easily shown. At Devils Hole, variations in shading of the water surface produced small but measureable horizontal gradients in water column temperature for short periods of the day, which impact both pool evaporation and the metabolism and behavior of aquatic organisms

  6. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Wall Heat Flux in Pulverized-Coal Furnaces and Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun

    A mathematical model of combustion and heat transfer within a cylindrical enclosure firing pulverized coal has been developed and tested against two sets of measured data (one is 1993 WSU/DECO Pilot test data, the other one is the International Flame Research Foundation 1964 Test (Beer, 1964)) and one independent code FURN3D from the Argonne National Laboratory (Ahluwalia and IM, 1992). The model called PILC assumes that the system is a sequence of many well-stirred reactors. A char burnout model combining diffusion to the particle surface, pore diffusion, and surface reaction is employed for predicting the char reaction, heat release, and evolution of char. The ash formation model included relates the ash particle size distribution to the particle size distribution of pulverized coal. The optical constants of char and ash particles are calculated from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. The Mie theory is applied to determine the extinction and scattering coefficients. The radiation heat transfer is modeled using the virtual zone method, which leads to a set of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations for the temperature field within the furnace and on its walls. This enables the heat fluxes to be evaluated. In comparisons with the experimental data and one independent code, the model is successful in predicting gas temperature, wall temperature, and wall radiative flux. When the coal with greater fineness is burnt, the particle size of pulverized coal has a consistent influence on combustion performance: the temperature peak was higher and nearer to burner, the radiation flux to combustor wall increased, and also the absorption and scattering coefficients of the combustion products increased. The effect of coal particle size distribution on absorption and scattering coefficients and wall heat flux is significant. But there is only a small effect on gas temperature and fuel fraction burned; it is speculated

  7. MHD effects and heat transfer for the UCM fluid along with Joule heating and thermal radiation using Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S.; Hussain, S.; Sagheer, M.

    2016-08-01

    Present study examines the numerical analysis of MHD flow of Maxwell fluid with thermal radiation and Joule heating by considering the recently developed Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model which explains the time relaxation characteristics for the heat flux. The objective is to analyze the governing parameters such as viscoelastic fluid parameter, Magnetic parameter, Eckert and Prandtl number's impact on the velocity and temperature profiles through graphs and tables. Suitable similarity transformations have been used to reduce the formulated PDEs into a system of coupled non-linear ODEs. Shooting technique has been invoked for finding the numerical solutions of the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles. Additionally, the MATLAB built-in routine bvp4c has also been used to verify and strengthen the results obtained by shooting method. From some special cases of the present work, a comparison with the previously published results has been presented.

  8. Characteristics of critical heat flux under rolling condition for flow boiling in vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jin-Seok, E-mail: hjscd@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon-Gun, E-mail: yeongun2@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl, E-mail: parkgc@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiment was conducted on CHF under rolling condition in vertical tube. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHF loop was mounted on rolling device to achieve rolling conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trends of CHF ratio as mass flux and pressure were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trends of CHF ratio under rolling motion was suggested using hypothetical CHF mechanism. - Abstract: This paper presents the characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of R-134a in vertical tube under rolling motion in a marine reactor. It is important to predict CHF of marine reactor under rolling motion in order to consider the safety margin of the reactor. MArine Reactor Moving Simulator (MARMS) test was conducted to measure the CHF of R-134a flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical tube under rolling motion. A CHF loop mounted on rolling equipment, which can periodically roll from side to side through rotating by motor and mechanical power transmission gear. The CHF tests were performed in a 9.5 mm I.D. test section with heated length of 1 m. Mass flux ranges from 285 kg/m{sup 2} s to 1300 kg/m{sup 2} s, inlet subcoolings from 3 to 38 Degree-Sign C and outlet pressures from 1.3 to 2.4 bar, respectively. Amplitudes of rolling range from 15 Degree-Sign to 40 Degree-Sign and period from 6 to 12 s. Fluid-to-fluid (FTF) scaling was applied to convert the test matrix of MARMS from water to R-134a equivalent conditions. CHF ratios (ratio of the CHF under rolling condition to the stationary CHF) as mass flux and pressure in rolling motion are quite different from those of other existing transient CHF experiments. For the mass fluxes below 500 kg/m{sup 2} s (region of relative low mass flux) at 13, 16 bar, CHF ratios seem smaller than unit but in region (region of relative high mass flux) where mass fluxes are above 500 kg/m{sup 2} s, it was found that the ratios increased. Moreover, rolling CHFs tend to enhance

  9. Hybrid Heat Pipes for High Heat Flux Spacecraft Thermal Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Grooved aluminum/ammonia Constant Conductance Heat Pipes (CCHPs) are the standard for thermal control in zero-gravity. Unfortunately, they are limited in terms of...

  10. Boiling heat transfer of nanofluids--special emphasis on critical heat flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Joong; Kim, Hyungdae

    2013-11-01

    As innovative nanotechnology-based heat-transfer media, nanofluids have evoked considerable interest among researchers owing to their improved thermal properties as well as their extendable applications to various high-power thermal systems. This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent research developments and patents pertaining to nanofluid boiling heat transfer. Nanofluids definitely offer a wide range of potential improvements in boiling heat-transfer performance. However, experimental data available from different studies are currently beset by numerous contradictions, suggesting that the fundamental mechanisms of nanofluid boiling heat transfer are not yet well understood. Consequently application of these technologies has been limited in some aspects. Only a small number of patents related to nanofluid boiling heat transfer have thus far been reported in the literature. Based on the present review, future technological development and research requirements in this area are outlined in line with technical challenges. To utilize nanofluid boiling heat-transfer technologies for practical applications, more systematic and fundamental studies are required to understand the physical mechanisms involved.

  11. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar central Receiver Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestrin, J.

    2001-07-01

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPS-CRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. the geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the indecent power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems ha been useful to define a new simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. All these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs.

  12. Influence of stem temperature changes on heat pulse sap flux density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Burgess, Stephen S O; Downey, Alec; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    While natural spatial temperature gradients between measurement needles have been thoroughly investigated for continuous heat-based sap flow methods, little attention has been given to how natural changes in stem temperature impact heat pulse-based methods through temporal rather than spatial effects. By modelling the theoretical equation for both an ideal instantaneous pulse and a step pulse and applying a finite element model which included actual needle dimensions and wound effects, the influence of a varying stem temperature on heat pulse-based methods was investigated. It was shown that the heat ratio (HR) method was influenced, while for the compensation heat pulse and Tmax methods changes in stem temperatures of up to 0.002 °C s(-1) did not lead to significantly different results. For the HR method, rising stem temperatures during measurements led to lower heat pulse velocity values, while decreasing stem temperatures led to both higher and lower heat pulse velocities, and to imaginary results for high flows. These errors of up to 40% can easily be prevented by including a temperature correction in the data analysis procedure, calculating the slope of the natural temperature change based on the measured temperatures before application of the heat pulse. Results of a greenhouse and outdoor experiment on Pinus pinea L. show the influence of this correction on low and average sap flux densities.

  13. Partial Wave Analysis of Scattering with Nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, H

    2003-01-01

    Partial wave analysis of two dimensional scattering for an arbitray short range potential and a nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux is established. The nonlocal influence of magnetic flux in the cross section of scattering for hard disk with a magnetic flux is examined. Due to the ergodic property of the nonlocal effect such influence would occur in quite general potential system and may be useful in understanding phenomenon of mesoscopic phyiscs.

  14. Infrared experiment on the wall temperature distribution for a particle packed channel with constant heat flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With constant heat flux, wall temperature distribution for a particle filled channel was measured using infrared thermal vision technology. It was found that nonuniform relative high-temperature regions were randomly distributed on the heating wall, possibly due to the lower flow velocity, or even due to the blocked flow near the points where particles contact with the heating wall directly. Not only porosity but also the size and shape of the pores are changed in the wall region of particle-packed structures,because of the limitation of the wall, and the changes affect largely the fluid flow and heat transfer. The transition of the flow pattern in pores can be inferred according to the variation of Nu with Re, where the area weighted wall temperature is adopted to calculate the Nu.``

  15. Experiment of Microwave Heating on Self-FluxingPellet Containing Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The self-fluxing pellets containing coal possess an independent self-reducing and self-slag-making system. A high metallization rate can be achieved without external reduction condition at high temperature, and it looks like a micro-blast-furnace by itself. The essential condition to use it is to supply heat to the pellet rapidly and uniformly and keep it at a certain temperature. Microwave heating can meet the need of rapid and uniform heating. The results show that the temperature of the pellet with a certain weight increases as the microwave power increases. The heating rate of the pellet is increased from 9.17 K/min (5 kW) to 71.65 K/min (15 kW).

  16. Transport coefficients and heat fluxes in non-equilibrium high-temperature flows with electronic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of electronic excitation on transport processes in non-equilibrium high-temperature ionized mixture flows is studied. Two five-component mixtures, N 2 / N2 + / N / N + / e - and O 2 / O2 + / O / O + / e - , are considered taking into account the electronic degrees of freedom for atomic species as well as the rotational-vibrational-electronic degrees of freedom for molecular species, both neutral and ionized. Using the modified Chapman-Enskog method, the transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, shear viscosity and bulk viscosity, diffusion and thermal diffusion) are calculated in the temperature range 500-50 000 K. Thermal conductivity and bulk viscosity coefficients are strongly affected by electronic states, especially for neutral atomic species. Shear viscosity, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients are not sensible to electronic excitation if the size of excited states is assumed to be constant. The limits of applicability for the Stokes relation are discussed; at high temperatures, this relation is violated not only for molecular species but also for electronically excited atomic gases. Two test cases of strongly non-equilibrium flows behind plane shock waves corresponding to the spacecraft re-entry (Hermes and Fire II) are simulated numerically. Fluid-dynamic variables and heat fluxes are evaluated in gases with electronic excitation. In inviscid flows without chemical-radiative coupling, the flow-field is weakly affected by electronic states; however, in viscous flows, their influence can be more important, in particular, on the convective heat flux. The contribution of different dissipative processes to the heat transfer is evaluated as well as the effect of reaction rate coefficients. The competition of diffusion and heat conduction processes reduces the overall effect of electronic excitation on the convective heating, especially for the Fire II test case. It is shown that reliable models of chemical reaction rates are of great

  17. GAME/Tibet实验中感热通量计算方法的讨论%Discussion on Calculation Methods of Sensible Heat Flux during GAME/Tibet in 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志球; 卞林根; 王金星; 陆龙骅

    2003-01-01

    Based on previous research on sensible heat flux, we investigate it from different aspects usingGAME/Tibet data measured during 6 June-13 September, 1998. This work consists of the derivationof the surface heat flux equation, analysis on counter-gradient heat transference, comparison betweentwo different methods to compute the sensible heat flux, and investigation on the calculation scheme ofsensible heat flux in the Simple Biosphere model 2 (SiB2) with relevant simulation. By improving twoprevious formulations, an integrated formulation for calculating surface heat flux is given. Secondly, usingthe measured data, the counter-gradient heat flux is clarified, leading to the fact that buoyancy plays animportant role in the sensible heat transfer process. It is concluded that (1) energy imbalance is a commonphenomenon resulting from the use of the traditional closure scheme on the heterogeneous underlyingsurface because the measured ensemble heat fluxes by eddy correlation contain the effect of nonlocal parcelmovements; and (2) nonlocal parcel movement deserves more attention in any future heat flux study.%回顾了前人对感热通量的分析研究,详细分析了计算感热通量公式的推导过程.结合GAME/Tibet那曲近地面通量观测站1998年6月6日到9月13日的观测资料验证了近地面层逆梯度热输送现象的存在;并比较了两种不同计算感热通量的方法.同时,对简化生物圈模式(SiB2)计算感热通量方案进行了分析.主要结论有:(1)由于用涡旋相关法测量得到的总体感热通量本身已经包含了非局地热(冷)泡运动的影响,所以在非均匀下垫面上,传统的闭合方案必然会"遭遇"能量不平衡.这里,非均匀下垫面可能是导致能量不平衡的关键所在.(2)在今后的有关热通量研究中,有必要仔细研究非局地热(冷)泡运动对热通量的贡献,而为了更好地理解这种贡献,应用陆面过程模式研究能量平衡是必需的.

  18. The Effect of Inclination Angle on Critical Heat Flux in a Locally Heated Liquid Film Moving Under the Action of Gas Flow in a Mini-Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Egor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensively evaporating liquid films moving under the action of the cocurrent gas flow in a microchannel are promising for the use in modern cooling systems of semiconductor devices with high local heat release. This work has studied the dependence of the critical heat flux on the inclination angle of the channel. It has been found that the inclination angle in the plane parallel to the flow has no significant effect on the critical heat flux. Whereas the inclination angle in the plane perpendicular to the flow, on the contrary, significantly changes the value of the critical heat flux. However, for a given flow rate of fluid there is a threshold gas velocity at which the critical heat flux does not differ from the case of zero inclination of the channel. Thus, it can be concluded that the cooling system based on shear-driven liquid films can be potentially used when direction of the gravity changes.

  19. Partial Nucleate Pool Boiling at Low Heat Flux: Preliminary Ground Test for SOBER-SJ10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke; Li, Zhen-Dong; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Li, Hui-Xiong; Li, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Focusing on partial nucleate pool boiling at low heat flux, SOBER-SJ10, one of 27 experiments of the program SJ-10, has been proposed to study local convection and heat transfer around an isolated growing vapor bubble during nucleate pool boiling on a well characterized flat surface in microgravity. An integrated micro heater has been developed. By using a local pulse overheating method in the experimental mode of single bubble boiling, a bubble nucleus can be excited with accurate spatial and temporal positioning on the top-side of a quartz glass substrate with a thickness of 2 mm and an effective heating area of 4.5 mm in diameter, and then grows under an approximate constant heat input provided by the main heater on the back-side of the substrate. Ten thin film micro-RTDs are used for local temperature measurements on the heating surface underneath the growing bubble. Normal pool boiling experiments can also be carried out with step-by-step increase of heating voltage. A series of ground test of the flight module of SOBER-SJ10 have been conducted. Good agreement of the measured data of single phase natural convection with the common-used empirical correlation warrants reasonable confidence in the data. It is found that the values of the incipience superheat of pool boiling at different subcooling are consistent with each others, verifying that the influence of subcooling on boiling incipience can be neglected. Pool boiling curves are also obtained, which shows great influence of subcooling on heat transfer of partial nucleate pool boiling, particularly in lower heat flux.

  20. Super-High Heat Flux Removal Using Sintered Metal Porous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhisa YUKI; Jun ABEI; Hidetoshi HASHIZUME; Saburo TODA

    2005-01-01

    Heat transfer experiments using various porous materials are performed to verify the possibility of extremely highheat flux removal (several dozens of MW/m2). The porous media introduced in this experiment are bronze particle-sintered ones and copper fibers-sintered ones that have high thermal conductivity, each of which can enhance the thermal diffusion in the porous material. From the heat transfer experiments using a non-transferredtype of plasma arcjet as a high heat flux source, the steady heat removal of 66.0 MW/m2 is proved by using the bronze porous medium whose pore size and porosity are 100 μm and 0.38, respectively. Furthermore, as the result of eveluating the heat removal performance for various copper fiber porous media with the porosity from 0.5 to 0.7 and the fiber diameter from 30 to 90 μm, it is clarified that the maximum cooling performance exceeds 70.0MW/m2 at the porosity of 0.7 and the fiber diameter of 90 μm, and that using the lower porosity material is useful for improving an evaporation rate in the porous media.

  1. Design and Characterization of a High Resolution Microfluidic Heat Flux Sensor with Thermal Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Kyu Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible process was used in the design and fabrication of a suspended membrane microfluidic heat flux sensor with a thermopile for the purpose of measuring the heat flow rate. The combination of a thirty-junction gold and nickel thermoelectric sensor with an ultralow noise preamplifier, a low pass filter, and a lock-in amplifier can yield a resolution 20 nW with a sensitivity of 461 V/W. The thermal modulation method is used to eliminate low-frequency noise from the sensor output, and various amounts of fluidic heat were applied to the sensor to investigate its suitability for microfluidic applications. For sensor design and analysis of signal output, a method of modeling and simulating electro-thermal behavior in a microfluidic heat flux sensor with an integrated electronic circuit is presented and validated. The electro-thermal domain model was constructed by using system dynamics, particularly the bond graph. The electro-thermal domain system model in which the thermal and the electrical domains are coupled expresses the heat generation of samples and converts thermal input to electrical output. The proposed electro-thermal domain system model is in good agreement with the measured output voltage response in both the transient and the steady state.

  2. Hydrothermal heat flux through aged oceanic crust: where does the heat escape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villinger, Heinrich; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Kaul, Norbert; Hauschild, Jan; Pfender, Marion

    2002-08-01

    Recent publications suggest that most of the fluid flow in the upper oceanic crust is channelized through small volumes of rock and vented into the ocean. This implies that at flanks of generally thinly sedimented mid-ocean ridges, focused discharge at the seafloor should be concentrated most likely at outcrops, high-angle normal faults or seamounts. These vents should be associated with a significant heat flow signature. However, only few observations worldwide support this assumption up to now. On our quest for focused fluid exchange between young oceanic crust and the ocean we surveyed a 720 km long and 40-90 km wide off-axis portion of seafloor intersecting the East Pacific Rise near 14°14'S. A wealth of geophysical methods including high-resolution swath mapping bathymetry, single channel seismics, sediment echo sounding, magnetics and heat flow determinations were used. Heat flow data in the tectonic corridor cover crustal ages of 0.3-9.3 Ma. With respect to the conductive plate cooling model the data show the well-known pattern of low values close to the ridge, associated with vigorous hydrothermal circulation of cold seawater through the young upper crust, and a fast recovery to almost lithospheric conductive cooling values at a surprisingly young crustal age of 9.3 Ma. Although the sediment cover is fairly thin, measurements with a 3.6 m violin bow type heat probe were possible almost everywhere within the investigated area. A detailed survey between two large seamounts at 4.5 Ma revealed localized extremely high values of up to 618 mW/m 2 (275% of the expected heat flow) at the foot of the seamount. This is interpreted as a clear indication of focused discharge of hydrothermal fluid. If we, however, relate heat flow normalized by the expected conductive heat loss to the character of igneous basement, heat flow is highest in areas with an almost flat and sedimented basement, and lowest within ˜10-20 km of seamounts and other rough basement relief. We

  3. Fluctuations of the heat flux of a one-dimensional hard particle gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, E.; Derrida, B.; Gerschenfeld, A.

    2010-04-01

    Momentum-conserving one-dimensional models are known to exhibit anomalous Fourier's law, with a thermal conductivity varying as a power law of the system size. Here we measure, by numerical simulations, several cumulants of the heat flux of a one-dimensional hard particle gas. We find that the cumulants, like the conductivity, vary as power laws of the system size. Our results also indicate that cumulants higher than the second follow different power laws when one compares the ring geometry at equilibrium and the linear case in contact with two heat baths (at equal or unequal temperatures).

  4. Design and Characterization of a High Resolution Microfluidic Heat Flux Sensor with Thermal Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sun-Kyu Lee; Sung-Cheon Cho; Jung-Kyun Kim; Sung-Ki Nam

    2010-01-01

    A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible process was used in the design and fabrication of a suspended membrane microfluidic heat flux sensor with a thermopile for the purpose of measuring the heat flow rate. The combination of a thirty-junction gold and nickel thermoelectric sensor with an ultralow noise preamplifier, a low pass filter, and a lock-in amplifier can yield a resolution 20 nW with a sensitivity of 461 V/W. The thermal modulation method is used to eliminate low-freque...

  5. MHD Flow Towards a Permeable Surface with Prescribed Wall Heat Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anuar Ishak; Roslinda Nazar; Ioan Pop

    2009-01-01

    The steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow towards a vertical permeable surface with prescribed heat flux is investigated. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically by a finite-difference method. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for different values of the governing parameters are analysed and discussed. Both assisting and opposing flows are considered. It is found that dual solutions exist for the assisting flow, besides the solutions usually reported in the literature for the opposing flow.

  6. The thermal response of a homogeneous slab to a constant heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    An approximate solution of the one-dimensional heat flow equation for a homogeneous slab subject to a constant heat flux at its inner face and bounded at its outer face by a surface resistance to a medium at constant temperature is presented. This solution is used to find the temperature of the inner face as a function of time. It is also used to investigate the approach to steady state enabling the time required to reach a given percentage of the steady state temperature to be calculated.

  7. Critical Heat Flux in forced Convective Boiling with a Wall Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迅

    2004-01-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) in the forced convective boiling with a wall jet has been investigated.The experiments of CHF with a wall jet have been performed over a wide range of ρl/ρg=6.6-1 603 and ΔTsub=0-60 K.The mechanism on CHF is discussed and a CHF model based on heat balance in sublayer can provide a good clue for analyzing and deriving CHF.Finally,a generalized correlation is presented, which can predict CHF for saturated and subcooled conditions.

  8. Flux-limitation of the Nernst effect in magnetized ICF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgers, Christopher; Barrois, Rion; Wengraf, Joshua; Bissell, John; Brodrick, Jonathan; Kingham, Robert; Read, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Magnetized ICF is a promising scheme which combines the advantages of magnetic and inertial confinement fusion. In the relevant high-energy density plasmas magnetic field evolution is often controlled by the Nernst effect where the magnetic field advects with the electron heat flow. It is well known that non-local thermal transport necessitates a flux-limiter on the heat flow. This suggests that a flux-limiter should also be applied to the Nernst effect. We have shown that this is the case using Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations and that the flux-limter is not the same as that required for the heat flow itself, for example when a NIF-relevant flux-limiter of 0.15 is required to limit the heat flow a Nernst flux limiter of 0.08 is required. We acknowledge support from EPSRC Grant No. EPM011372/1.

  9. Flow instability and critical heat flux for downward flow in a vertical narrow rectangular channel heated from both-sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juhyung; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Daeseong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Subcooled flow boiling in a vertical rectangular channel was experimentally investigated to enhance the understanding of the CHF and the effect of the two-phase flow instability on it under low pressure conditions, especially for downward flow which was adopted for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) and Kijang research reactor (KJRR) to achieve easier fuel and irradiation rig loading. In addition, visual observations of subcoold flow boiling was conducted by using high-speed video (HSV) for a clear understanding of both phenomena. We concluded that flow excursion (which is static instability) could be induced due to the OPDF (which is dynamic instability) when a system has no resistibility to the pressure drop perturbation, which is caused by the coalescence of facing bubbles on opposing heated surfaces. In more stable system with throttling applied, flow rate could be maintained and stable CHF could be reached. The static flow instability (FI) and critical heat flux (CHF) for subcooled flow boiling in a vertical narrow channels under low pressure condition are fairly crucial phenomena relative to thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis for pool-type research reactors. It has been recommended that RRs and MTRs be designed to have sufficient margins for CHF and the onset of FI as well, since unstable flow could leads to premature CHF under very low wall heat flux in comparison to stable CHF. Even the fact and previous studies, however, the understanding of relationship among FI, premature CHF and stable CHF is not sufficient to date.

  10. The measurement of shear stress and total heat flux in a nonadiabatic turbulent hypersonic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulla, V.; Horstman, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    Turbulent shear stress and direct turbulent total heat-flux measurements have been made across a nonadiabatic, zero pressure gradient, hypersonic boundary layer by using specially designed hot-wire probes free of strain-gauging and wire oscillation. Heat-flux measurements were in reasonably good agreement with values obtained by integrating the energy equation using measured profiles of velocity and temperature. The shear-stress values deduced from the measurements, by assuming zero correlation of velocity and pressure fluctuations, were lower than the values obtained by integrating the momentum equation. Statistical properties of the cross-correlations are similar to corresponding incompressible measurements at approximately the same momentum-thickness Reynolds number.

  11. Solar-receiver heat-flux capability and structural integrity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, R.D.

    1976-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to determine the operating characteristics of full length (65 feet) single and multi-tube once-through steam generator test sections subjected to radiant heat flux levels commensurate with commercial solar tower receiver application. Absorbed heat flux levels ranging from 0.15 to 0.71 Btu/in./sup 2/-sec (0.25 to 1.16 MW/m/sup 2/) were achieved in a horizontal facility utilizing graphite radiant heater arrays. Steam exit temperatures ranged from 625 F (two-phase) to 1380 F at pressures of 1000 to 2300 psia. Wall temperature profiles and fluid pressure losses were obtained and compared with an existing computer model.

  12. Poleward eddy heat flux anomalies associated with recent Arctic sea ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Kazuhira; Ukita, Jinro; Honda, Meiji; Iwamoto, Katsushi; Nakamura, Tetsu; Yamazaki, Koji; Dethloff, Klaus; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe

    2017-01-01

    Details of the characteristics of upward planetary wave propagation associated with Arctic sea ice loss under present climate conditions are examined using reanalysis data and simulation results. Recent Arctic sea ice loss results in increased stratospheric poleward eddy heat fluxes in the eastern and central Eurasia regions and enhanced upward propagation of planetary-scale waves in the stratosphere. A linear decomposition scheme reveals that this modulation of the planetary waves arises from coupling of the climatological planetary wavefield with temperature anomalies for the eastern Eurasia region and with meridional wind anomalies for the central Eurasia region. Propagation of stationary Rossby wave packets results in a dynamic link between these temperature and meridional wind anomalies with sea ice loss over the Barents-Kara Sea. The results provide strong evidence that recent Arctic sea ice loss significantly modulates atmospheric circulation in winter to modify poleward eddy heat fluxes so as to drive stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes.

  13. Midlatitude atmospheric responses to Arctic sensible heat flux anomalies in Community Climate Model, Version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Catrin M.; Cassano, John J.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.

    2016-12-01

    Possible linkages between Arctic sea ice loss and midlatitude weather are strongly debated in the literature. We analyze a coupled model simulation to assess the possibility of Arctic ice variability forcing a midlatitude response, ensuring consistency between atmosphere, ocean, and ice components. We work with weekly running mean daily sensible heat fluxes with the self-organizing map technique to identify Arctic sensible heat flux anomaly patterns and the associated atmospheric response, without the need of metrics to define the Arctic forcing or measure the midlatitude response. We find that low-level warm anomalies during autumn can build planetary wave patterns that propagate downstream into the midlatitudes, creating robust surface cold anomalies in the eastern United States.

  14. Contribution of Low-Frequency Motions to Sensible Heat Fluxes over Urban and Suburban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Hongsheng; Cai, Xuhui; Song, Yu; Sun, Jianning

    2016-10-01

    Field observations of the atmospheric boundary layer were made over urban and suburban terrain in the Yangtze River Delta, China. A multiresolution decomposition was applied over three different types of terrain: flat homogeneous terrain, suburban terrain and urban terrain, with results indicating that, (1) the average scale contribution of u, v, w and Tv had a similar variability with length scale for all these three sites respectively, and the dimensionless length scale corresponding to the maximum sensible heat flux contribution increased with the terrain complexity; (2) the length scale corresponding to the maximal average scale contribution for vertical wind velocity λ _w was directly proportional to the roughness length z0 in unstable conditions; and (3) the contributions of large-scale motions led to sensible heat fluxes determined with a large-aperture scintillomter being larger than those using the eddy-covariance method for the suburban case, whereas this phenomenon was not substantial for the urban case.

  15. Thermal conditions on the International Space Station: Heat flux and temperature investigation of main radiators for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Min, E-mail: alice.m.xie@icloud.com; Gao, Jianmin; Wu, Shaohua; Qin, Yukun

    2016-09-11

    The investigation on heat flux can clarify the thermal condition and explain temperature behavior on the main radiators of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS). In this paper, a detailed investigation of heat flux on the AMS main radiators is proposed. The heat transfer process of the AMS main radiators is theoretically analyzed. An updated thermal model of the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS) is developed to calculate the external heat flux density on the AMS main radiators. We conclude the ISS components and operations affect on the solar flux density of the AMS main radiators by reflecting or shading solar illumination. According to the energy conservation on the AMS main radiators, the temperature variation mainly depends on the solar flux change. The investigations are conducive to reference for the long-duration thermal control of the AMS, and knowledge for the thermal conditions on the ISS.

  16. Thermal conditions on the International Space Station: Heat flux and temperature investigation of main radiators for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Gao, Jianmin; Wu, Shaohua; Qin, Yukun

    2016-09-01

    The investigation on heat flux can clarify the thermal condition and explain temperature behavior on the main radiators of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS). In this paper, a detailed investigation of heat flux on the AMS main radiators is proposed. The heat transfer process of the AMS main radiators is theoretically analyzed. An updated thermal model of the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS) is developed to calculate the external heat flux density on the AMS main radiators. We conclude the ISS components and operations affect on the solar flux density of the AMS main radiators by reflecting or shading solar illumination. According to the energy conservation on the AMS main radiators, the temperature variation mainly depends on the solar flux change. The investigations are conducive to reference for the long-duration thermal control of the AMS, and knowledge for the thermal conditions on the ISS.

  17. Heat flux measurements of Tb3M series (M=Co, Rh and Ru): Specific heat and magnetocaloric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J. C. B.; Lombardi, G. A.; dos Reis, R. D.; Freitas, H. E.; Cardoso, L. P.; Mansanares, A. M.; Gandra, F. G.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) for the Tb3M series, with M=Co, Rh and Ru, obtained using a heat flux technique. The specific heat of Tb3Co and Tb3Rh are very similar, with a first order type transition occurring around 6 K below the magnetic ordering temperature without any corresponding feature on the magnetization. The slightly enhanced electronic specific heat, the Debye temperature around 150 K and the presence of the magnetic specific heat well above the ordering temperature are also characteristic of many other compounds of the R3M family (R=Rare Earth). The specific heat for Tb3Ru, however, presents two peaks at 37 K and 74 K. The magnetization shows that below the first peak the system presents an antiferromagnetic behavior and is paramagnetic above 74 K. We obtained a magnetocaloric effect for M=Co and Rh, -∆S=12 J/kg K, but for Tb3Ru it is less than 3 J/kg K (μ0∆H=5 T). We believe that the experimental results show that the MCE is directly related with the process of hybridization of the (R)5d-(M)d electrons that occurs in the R3M materials.

  18. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in electric-arc jet facilities for planetary entry heating simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes are constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies; the temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its rate of change gives the steady-state, absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. It is concluded that the simple construction of these probes allows them to be expendable and heated to destruction to obtain a measurable temperature slope at high heating rates.

  19. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Mick Y.

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  20. The estimation of latent heat flux: A reflection for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Castellví

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the cost of measuring turbulent fluxes is extremely high. Thus, the development of models and theories that use robust and low-cost equipment to estimate turbulent fluxes is becoming an increasingly interesting line of research. This paper describes the difficulties encountered throughout the study in estimating evapotranspiration. A set of experiments, (already published, were carried out to estimate average sensible and latent heat fluxes every 30 minutes. These experiments used different models based on the Surface Renewal Analysis (SR; the results are presented in this paper. Considering the fundamental importance of water in the agricultural industry, this article addresses the issue of implementing SR in the protocol for data acquisition-transfer in a network of agro-meteorological stations.