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Sample records for nonlocal andreev reflection

  1. Spin transistor based on pure nonlocal Andreev reflection in EuO-graphene/superconductor/EuO-graphene nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Yee Sin; Ang, Lay Kee; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhongshui

    In graphene-magnetic-insulator hybrid structure such as graphene-Europium-oxide, proximity induced exchange interaction opens up a spin-dependent bandgap and spin splitting in the Dirac band. We show that such band topology allows pure crossed Andreev reflection to be generated exclusively without the parasitic local Andreev reflection and elastic cotunnelling over a wide range of bias and Fermi levels. We model the charge transport in an EuO-graphene/superconductor/EuO-graphene three-terminal device and found that the pure non-local conductance exhibits rapid on/off switching characteristic with a minimal subthreshold swing of ~ 20 mV. Non-local conductance oscillation is observed when the Fermi levels in the superconducting lead is varied. The oscillatory behavior is directly related to the quasiparticle propagation in the superconducting lead and hence can be used as a tool to probe the subgap quasiparticle mode in superconducting graphene. The non-local current is 100% spin-polarized and is highly tunable in our proposed device. This opens up the possibility of highly tunable graphene-based spin transistor that operates purely in the non-local transport regime.

  2. Specular Andreev reflection in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, C W J

    2006-08-11

    By combining the Dirac equation of relativistic quantum mechanics with the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation of superconductivity we investigate the electron-hole conversion at a normal-metal-superconductor interface in graphene. We find that the Andreev reflection of Dirac fermions has several unusual features: (1) the electron and hole occupy different valleys of the band structure; (2) at normal incidence the electron-hole conversion happens with unit efficiency in spite of the large mismatch in Fermi wavelengths at the two sides of the interface; and, most fundamentally: (3) away from normal incidence the reflection angle may be the same as the angle of incidence (retroreflection) or it may be inverted (specular reflection). Specular Andreev reflection dominates in weakly doped graphene, when the Fermi wavelength in the normal region is large compared to the superconducting coherence length.

  3. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.

  4. Spin-filtered and spatially distinguishable crossed Andreev reflection in a silicene-superconductor junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangkang; Zhang, Yan-Yang

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum transport in a junction between a superconductor and a silicene nanoribbon, under the effect of a magnetic exchange field. We find that for a narrow nanoribbon of silicene, remarkable crossed Andreev reflection (with a fraction >50 % ) can be induced in the energy window of the elastic cotunneling, by destroying some symmetries of the system. Since the energy responses of electrons to the exchange field are opposite for opposite spins, these transport channels can be well spin polarized. Moreover, due to the helicity conservation of the topological edge states, the Andreev reflection, the crossed Andreev reflection, and the elastic cotunneling are spatially separated in three different locations of the device, making them experimentally distinguishable. This crossed Andreev reflection is a nonlocal quantum interference between opposite edges through evanescent modes. If two superconducting leads with different phases are connected to two edges of the silicene nanoribbon, the crossed Andreev reflection can present Josephson type oscillations, with a maximal fraction ˜100 % .

  5. Multiple Andreev reflections in diffusive SNS structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev;

    1999-01-01

    dips is half the spacing of the n = 2 dips. The voltage bias positions of the subgap differential resistance minima coincide with the maxima in the. oscillation amplitude when a magnetic field is applied in an interferometer configuration, where one of the superconducting electrodes has been replaced......We report new measurements on subgap energy structures originating from multiple Andreev reflections in mesoscopic SNS junctions. The junctions were fabricated in a planar geometry with high-transparency superconducting contacts of Al deposited on highly diffusive and surface delta-doped n......(++)-GaAs. For samples with a normal GaAs region of active length 0.3 mu m, the Josephson effect with a maximal supercunent I-C = 3 mu A at T = 237 mK was observed. The subgap structure was observed as a series of local minima in the differential resistance at de bias voltages V = +/-2 Delta/(ne) with n = 1, 2, 4, i...

  6. Magnetoanisotropic Andreev reflection in ferromagnet-superconductor junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högl, Petra; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Žutić, Igor; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2015-09-11

    Andreev reflection spectroscopy of ferromagnet-superconductor (FS) junctions [corrected] is an important probe of spin polarization. We theoretically investigate spin-polarized transport in FS junctions in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus interfacial spin-orbit fields and show that Andreev reflection can be controlled by changing the magnetization orientation. We predict a giant in- and out-of-plane magnetoanisotropy of the junction conductance. If the ferromagnet is highly spin polarized-in the half-metal limit-the magnetoanisotropic Andreev reflection depends universally on the spin-orbit fields only. Our results show that Andreev reflection spectroscopy can be used for sensitive probing of interfacial spin-orbit fields in a FS junction.

  7. Controllable Andreev retroreflection and specular Andreev reflection in a four-terminal graphene-superconductor hybrid system

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, SG; Sun, QF; Xing, Y; Wang, J

    2009-01-01

    We report the investigation of electron transport through a four-terminal graphene-superconductor hybrid system. Due to the quantum interference of the reflected holes from two graphene-superconductor interfaces with phase difference $\\theta$, it is found that the specular Andreev reflection vanishes at $\\theta=0$ while the Andreev retroreflection disappears at $\\theta=\\pi$. This means that the retroreflection and specular reflection can be easily controlled and separated in this device. In a...

  8. Andreev reflection properties in a parallel mesoscopic circuit with Majorana bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jin-Tao; Han, Yu [Physics Department, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Gong, Wei-Jiang, E-mail: gwj@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-03-15

    We investigate the Andreev reflection in a parallel mesoscopic circuit with Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that in such a structure, the Andreev current can be manipulated in a highly efficient way, by the adjustment of bias voltage, dot levels, inter-MBS coupling, and the applied magnetic flux. Besides, the dot-MBS coupling manner is an important factor to modulate the Andreev current, because it influences the period of the conductance oscillation. By discussing the underlying quantum interference mechanism, the Andreev-reflection property is explained in detail. We believe that all the results can assist to understand the nontrivial role of the MBSs in driving the Andreev reflection.

  9. Andreev-Bragg Reflection from an Amperian Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baireuther, P; Hyart, T; Tarasinski, B; Beenakker, C W J

    2015-08-28

    We show how an electrical measurement can detect the pairing of electrons on the same side of the Fermi surface (Amperian pairing), recently proposed by Patrick Lee for the pseudogap phase of high-Tc cuprate superconductors. Bragg scattering from the pair-density wave introduces odd multiples of 2k(F) momentum shifts when an electron incident from a normal metal is Andreev reflected as a hole. These Andreev-Bragg reflections can be detected in a three-terminal device, containing a ballistic Y junction between normal leads (1, 2) and the superconductor. The cross-conductance dI1/dV2 has the opposite sign for Amperian pairing than it has either in the normal state or for the usual BCS pairing.

  10. Controllable Andreev retroreflection and specular Andreev reflection in a four-terminal graphene-superconductor hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-guang; Xing, Yanxia; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qing-feng

    2009-10-16

    We report the investigation of electron transport through a four-terminal graphene-superconductor hybrid system. Because of the quantum interference of the reflected holes from two graphene-superconductor interfaces with a phase difference theta, it is found that the specular Andreev reflection vanishes at theta=0 while the Andreev retroreflection disappears at theta=pi. This means that retroreflection and specular reflection can be easily controlled and separated in this device. In addition, because of the diffraction effect in the narrow graphene nanoribbon, the reflected hole can exit from both graphene terminals. As the width of nanoribbon increases, the diffraction effect gradually disappears and the reflected hole eventually exits from a particular graphene terminal depending on the type of Andreev reflection.

  11. The Andreev reflection of zero line mode in graphene-superconductor hybrid junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Cheng, Shu-guang

    2015-04-01

    The zero line mode (ZLM) in two dimensional materials provides a quasi-one dimensional path for electronic transport. We report the theoretical investigation of the Andreev reflection of ZLM by using the staggered graphene-superconductor based models. For a two-terminal system in which the valley index is well preserved, when graphene is zigzag edged, the Andreev reflection coefficient can be either large or strongly suppressed depending on the symmetric properties of the transverse wave function in graphene ribbon. However, the Andreev reflection coefficient, independent of the staggering profile in the armchair edged model, is large due to the absence of wave function symmetry. When ZLM changes its direction in a vertical path, a perfect Andreev reflection could happen when the incident ZLM stems from a zigzag edged graphene ribbon. In a zigzag edged four-terminal hybrid model, the interference of reflected holes leads to perfect Andreev reflection with probability unity and the annihilation of the crossed Andreev reflection. For the armchair edged model, the interference effect disappears because the Andreev reflection from one of the paths is prohibited. The interference of Andreev reflections in four-terminal models is investigated by spacial local density of states in the central scattering region as well.

  12. Nonlocal reflection by photonic barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, R. -M.; A. Haibel; Nimtz, G.

    2001-01-01

    The time behaviour of microwaves undergoing partial reflection by photonic barriers was measured in the time and in the frequency domain. It was observed that unlike the duration of partial reflection by dielectric layers, the measured reflection duration of barriers is independent of their length. The experimental results point to a nonlocal behaviour of evanescent modes at least over a distance of some ten wavelengths. Evanescent modes correspond to photonic tunnelling in quantum mechanics.

  13. Unified formalism of Andreev reflection at a ferromagnet/superconductor interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Tesanovic, Z; Chien, C L

    2012-10-05

    We present a unified formalism of Andreev reflection of a partial polarized current at a ferromagnet/superconductor interface instead of assuming a linear combination of unpolarized and polarized currents. The Andreev reflection is limited by the states of minority spins and the extra majority spins become evanescent wave. We further study the effects of spin polarization, inelastic scattering, and interfacial scattering on the Andreev reflection, normal reflection, and transmitted probabilities in equilibrium as well as under a bias. Our model, which reduces to those of Blonder, Tinkham, and Klapwijk, Mazin, and Dynes in three limiting cases, provides a significantly better description of the experimental results.

  14. Andreev reflection and bound states in topological insulator based planar and step Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Tarun; Deo, Nivedita

    2017-01-01

    A superconductor-topological insulator-superconductor (S/TI/S) junction having normal region at angle θ is studied theoretically to investigate the junction angle dependency of the Andreev reflection and the formation of the Andreev bound states in the step and planar S/TI/S structures. It is found that the Andreev reflection becomes θ dependent only in the presence of the potential barrier at the TI/S interface. In particular, the step and planar TI/S junction have totally different conductive behavior with bias voltage and potential barrier in the regime of retro and specular Andreev reflection. Interestingly, we find that the elliptical cross section of Dirac cone, an important feature of topological insulator with step surface defect, affects the Fabry-Perot resonance of the Andreev reflection induced Andreev bound states (which become Majorana zero energy states at low chemical potential) in the step S/TI/S structure. Unlike the usual planar S/TI/S structures, we find these ellipticity affected Andreev bound states lead to non-monotonic Josephson super-current in the step S/TI/S structure whose non-monotonicity can be controlled with the use of the potential barrier, which may find applications in nanoelectronics.

  15. Partially resummed perturbation theory for multiple Andreev reflections in a short three-terminal Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélin, Régis; Feinberg, Denis; Douçot, Benoît

    2016-03-01

    In a transparent three-terminal Josephson junction, modeling nonequilibrium transport is numerically challenging, owing to the interplay between multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) thresholds and multipair resonances in the pair current. An approximate method, coined as "partially resummed perturbation theory in the number of nonlocal Green's functions", is presented that can be operational on a standard computer and demonstrates compatibility with results existing in the literature. In a linear structure made of two neighboring interfaces (with intermediate transparency) connected by a central superconductor, tunneling through each of the interfaces separately is taken into account to all orders. On the contrary, nonlocal processes connecting the two interfaces are accounted for at the lowest relevant order. This yields logarithmically divergent contributions at the gap edges, which are sufficient as a semi-quantitative description. The method is able to describe the current in the full two-dimensional voltage range, including commensurate as well as incommensurate values. The results found for the multipair (for instance quartet) current-phase characteristics as well as the MAR thresholds are compatible with previous results. At intermediate transparency, the multipair critical current is much larger than the background MAR current, which supports an experimental observation of the quartet and multipair resonances. The paper provides a proof of principle for addressing in the future the interplay between quasiparticles and multipairs in four-terminal structures.

  16. Crossover from retro to specular Andreev reflections in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efetov, Dmitri K.; Efetov, Konstantin B.

    2016-08-01

    Ongoing experimental progress in the preparation of ultraclean graphene/superconductor (SC) interfaces enabled the recent observation of specular interband Andreev reflections (ARs) at bilayer graphene (BLG )/NbSe2 van der Waals interfaces [Efetov et al., Nat. Phys. 12, 328 (2016), 10.1038/nphys3583]. Motivated by this experiment we theoretically study the differential conductance across a BLG/SC interface at the continuous transition from high to ultralow Fermi energies EF in BLG. Using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism we derive analytical expressions for the differential conductance across the BLG/SC interface. We find a characteristic signature of the crossover from intraband retro (high EF) to interband specular (low EF) ARs that manifests itself in a strongly suppressed interfacial conductance when the excitation energy |ɛ |=| EF|<Δ (the SC gap). The sharpness of these conductance dips is strongly dependent on the size of the potential step at the BLG/SC interface U0.

  17. Specular Andreev reflection in graphene-based superconducting junction with substate-induced spin orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chunxu, E-mail: chunxu_bai@semi.ac.cn [School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Yang, Yanling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China)

    2016-08-26

    Based on the Dirac–Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation, the chirality-resolved transport properties through a ballistic graphene-based superconducting heterojunction with both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction have been investigated. Our results show that, in contrast to the retro-Andreev reflection suppressed by the spin orbit interaction (SOI), the specular Andreev reflection (SAR) can be enhanced largely by the SOI. Moreover, the Fabry–Perot interferences in the barrier region lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. It is anticipated to apply the qualitative different results to diagnose the SAR in single layer graphene in the presence of both kinds of the SOI. - Highlights: • The retro-Andreev reflection in graphene is suppressed by the spin orbit interaction. • The specular Andreev reflection in graphene can be enhanced largely by the spin orbit interaction. • The Fabry–Perot interferences in the graphene-based barrier lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. • The spin orbit interaction is also vital in diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection in graphene.

  18. Specular Andreev reflection in graphene-based superconducting junction with substate-induced spin orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chunxu; Yang, Yanling

    2016-08-01

    Based on the Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, the chirality-resolved transport properties through a ballistic graphene-based superconducting heterojunction with both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction have been investigated. Our results show that, in contrast to the retro-Andreev reflection suppressed by the spin orbit interaction (SOI), the specular Andreev reflection (SAR) can be enhanced largely by the SOI. Moreover, the Fabry-Perot interferences in the barrier region lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. It is anticipated to apply the qualitative different results to diagnose the SAR in single layer graphene in the presence of both kinds of the SOI.

  19. Investigations of Crossed Andreev Reflection in Hybrid Superconductor-Ferromagnet Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colci O'Hara, Madalina

    2009-01-01

    Cooper pair splitting is predicted to occur in hybrid devices where a superconductor is coupled to two ferromagnetic wires placed at a distance less than the superconducting coherence length. This thesis searches for signatures of this process, called crossed Andreev reflection (CAR), in three device geometries. The first devices studied are…

  20. Point Contact Andreev Reflection Measurement of the Spin Polarization of Ferromagnetic Alloy NiFeSb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李壮志; 陶宏杰; 闻海虎; 张铭; 柳祝红; 崔玉亭; 吴光恒

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the temperature-dependent and barrier-strength-dependent Andreev reflection tunnelling spectroscopy with point contacts consisting of the newly synthesized half-metallic alloy NiFeSb and a Nb tip. By fitting the data to the generalized Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory, a spin polarization P = 0.52 has been obtained.

  1. Critical analysis of soft point contact Andreev reflection spectra between superconducting films and pressed In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Pradnya; Chauhan, Prashant; Muthurajan, H.; Bose, Sangita

    2017-04-01

    We present a critical analysis of an alternative technique of point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) spectroscopy used to extract energy resolved information of superconductors which is based on making ‘soft-contacts’ between superconductors and indium. This technique is not sensitive to mechanical vibrations and hence can be used in a cryogen free platform increasing its accessibility to users having no access to cryogenic liquids. Through our experiments on large number of superconducting films we show that the PCAR spectra below the T c of In show sub-harmonic gap structures consistent with the theory of multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) and a zero bias conductance (ZBC) anomaly associated with the Josephson supercurrent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that large contact resistance with low transparency ballistic contacts in the PCAR regime are required to obtain reliable spectroscopic data. One limitation of the technique arises for low contact resistance junctions where the superconducting proximity effect (SPE) reduces the value of the superconducting energy gap.

  2. Unconventional Andreev reflection on the quasi-one-dimensional superconductor Nb2PdxSe5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeping Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out Andreev reflection measurements on point contact junctions between normal metal and single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D superconductor Nb2PdxSe5 (Tc ∼ 5.5 K. The contacts of the junctions were made on either self-cleaved surfaces or crystal edges so that the current flow directions in the two types of junctions are different, and the measurements provide a directional probe for the order parameter of the superconductor. Junctions made in both configurations show typical resistances of ∼20-30 Ohms, and a clear double-gap Andreev reflection feature was consistently observed at low temperatures. Quantitative analysis of the conductance spectrum based on a modified Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK model suggests that the amplitudes of two order parameters may have angular dependence in the a-c plane. Moreover, the gap to transition temperature ratio (Δ/TC for the larger gap is substantially higher than the BCS ratio expected for phonon-mediated s-wave superconductors. We argue that the anisotropic superconducting order parameter and the extremely large gap to transition temperature ratio may be associated with an unconventional pairing mechanism in the inorganic Q1D superconductor.

  3. Ground-State Cooling of a Mechanical Oscillator by Interference in Andreev Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, P.; Belzig, W.; Rastelli, G.

    2016-11-01

    We study the ground-state cooling of a mechanical oscillator linearly coupled to the charge of a quantum dot inserted between a normal metal and a superconducting contact. Such a system can be realized, e.g., by a suspended carbon nanotube quantum dot with a capacitive coupling to a gate contact. Focusing on the subgap transport regime, we analyze the inelastic Andreev reflections which drive the resonator to a nonequilibrium state. For small coupling, we obtain that vibration-assisted reflections can occur through two distinct interference paths. The interference determines the ratio between the rates of absorption and emission of vibrational energy quanta. We show that ground-state cooling of the mechanical oscillator can be achieved for many of the oscillator's modes simultaneously or for single modes selectively, depending on the experimentally tunable coupling to the superconductor.

  4. Majorana Zero Mode Detected with Spin Selective Andreev Reflection in the Vortex of a Topological Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao-Hua; Zhang, Kai-Wen; Hu, Lun-Hui; Li, Chuang; Wang, Guan-Yong; Ma, Hai-Yang; Xu, Zhu-An; Gao, Chun-Lei; Guan, Dan-Dan; Li, Yao-Yi; Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Zhou, Yi; Fu, Liang; Li, Shao-Chun; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2016-06-24

    Recently, theory has predicted a Majorana zero mode (MZM) to induce spin selective Andreev reflection (SSAR), a novel magnetic property which can be used to detect the MZM. Here, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy or spectroscopy has been applied to probe SSAR of MZMs in a topological superconductor of the Bi_{2}Te_{3}/NbSe_{2} heterostructure. The zero-bias peak of the tunneling differential conductance at the vortex center is observed substantially higher when the tip polarization and the external magnetic field are parallel rather than antiparallel to each other. This spin dependent tunneling effect provides direct evidence of MZM and reveals its magnetic property in addition to the zero energy modes. Our work will stimulate MZM research on these novel physical properties and, hence, is a step towards experimental study of their statistics and application in quantum computing.

  5. Andreev reflection without Fermi surface alignment in high-T c van der Waals heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareapour, Parisa; Hayat, Alex; Zhao, Shu Yang F.; Kreshchuk, Michael; Xu, Zhijun; Liu, T. S.; Gu, G. D.; Jia, Shuang; Cava, Robert J.; Yang, H.-Y.; Ran, Ying; Burch, Kenneth S.

    2017-04-01

    We address the controversy over the proximity effect between topological materials and high-T c superconductors. Junctions are produced between Bi2Sr2CaCu2O{}8+δ and materials with different Fermi surfaces (Bi2Te3 and graphite). Both cases reveal tunneling spectra that are consistent with Andreev reflection. This is confirmed by a magnetic field that shifts features via the Doppler effect. This is modeled with a single parameter that accounts for tunneling into a screening supercurrent. Thus the tunneling involves Cooper pairs crossing the heterostructure, showing that the Fermi surface mismatch does not hinder the ability to form transparent interfaces, which is accounted for by the extended Brillouin zone and different lattice symmetries.

  6. Majorana Zero Mode Detected with Spin Selective Andreev Reflection in the Vortex of a Topological Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao-Hua; Zhang, Kai-Wen; Hu, Lun-Hui; Li, Chuang; Wang, Guan-Yong; Ma, Hai-Yang; Xu, Zhu-An; Gao, Chun-Lei; Guan, Dan-Dan; Li, Yao-Yi; Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Zhou, Yi; Fu, Liang; Li, Shao-Chun; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Recently, theory has predicted a Majorana zero mode (MZM) to induce spin selective Andreev reflection (SSAR), a novel magnetic property which can be used to detect the MZM. Here, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy or spectroscopy has been applied to probe SSAR of MZMs in a topological superconductor of the Bi2 Te3 /NbSe2 heterostructure. The zero-bias peak of the tunneling differential conductance at the vortex center is observed substantially higher when the tip polarization and the external magnetic field are parallel rather than antiparallel to each other. This spin dependent tunneling effect provides direct evidence of MZM and reveals its magnetic property in addition to the zero energy modes. Our work will stimulate MZM research on these novel physical properties and, hence, is a step towards experimental study of their statistics and application in quantum computing.

  7. Gate-voltage control of equal-spin Andreev reflection in half-metal/semiconductor/superconductor junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiuqiang, E-mail: xianqiangzhe@126.com [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Meng, Hao, E-mail: menghao1982@shu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)

    2016-04-22

    With the Blonder–Tinkham–Klapwijk (BTK) approach, we investigate conductance spectrum in Ferromagnet/Semiconductor/Superconductor (FM/Sm/SC) double tunnel junctions where strong Rashba spin–orbit interaction (RSOI) is taken into account in semiconductors. For the half-metal limit, we find that the in-gap conductance becomes finite except at zero voltage when inserting a ferromagnetic insulator (FI) at the Sm/SC interface, which means that the appearance of a long-range triplet states in the half-metal. This is because of the emergence of the unconventional equal-spin Andreev reflection (ESAR). When the FI locates at the FM/Sm interface, however, we find the vanishing in-gap conductance due to the absence of the ESAR. Moreover, the non-zero in-gap conductance shows a nonmonotonic dependence on RSOI which can be controlled by applying an external gate voltage. Our results can be used to generate and manipulate the long-range spin triplet correlation in the nascent field of superconducting spintronics. - Highlights: • We study the equal-spin Andreev reflection in half-metal/semiconductor/superconductor (HM/Sm/SC) junctions. • The equal-spin Andreev reflection appearance when inserting a ferromagnetic insulator at the Sm/SC interface. • The finite in-gap conductance is attributed to the emergence of the equal-spin Andreev reflection. • The finite in-gap conductance shows a nonmonotonic dependence on Rashba spin–orbit interaction. • The finite in-gap conductance can be controlled by applying an external gate voltage.

  8. Quantum charge pumping through resonant crossed Andreev reflection in a superconducting hybrid junction of silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ganesh C.; Saha, Arijit

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the phenomena of adiabatic quantum charge pumping through a normal-insulator-superconductor-insulator-normal (NISIN) setup of silicene within the scattering matrix formalism. Assuming a thin barrier limit, we consider the strength of the two barriers (χ1 and χ2) as the two pumping parameters in the adiabatic regime. Within this geometry, we obtain crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) with probability unity in the χ1-χ2 plane without concomitant transmission or elastic co-tunneling. Tunability of the band gap at the Dirac point by applying an external electric field perpendicular to the silicene sheet and variation of the chemical potential at the normal silicene region, open up the possibility of achieving either a perfect CAR or transmission process through our setup. This resonant behavior is periodic with the barrier strengths. We analyze the behavior of the pumped charge through the NISIN structure as a function of the pumping strength and angles of the incident electrons. We show that large (Q ˜2 e ) pumped charge can be obtained through our geometry when the pumping contour encloses either the CAR or transmission resonance in the pumping parameter space. We discuss possible experimental feasibility of our theoretical predictions.

  9. Andreev reflection and bound state formation in a ballistic two-dimensional electron gas probed by a quantum point contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Hiroshi; Todt, Clemens; Kumada, Norio; Harada, Yuichi; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Muraki, Koji

    2016-10-01

    We study coherent transport and bound state formation of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in a high-mobility I n0.75G a0.25As two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) coupled to a superconducting Nb electrode by means of a quantum point contact (QPC) as a tunable single-mode probe. Below the superconducting critical temperature of Nb, the QPC shows a single-channel conductance greater than the conductance quantum 2 e2/h at zero bias, which indicates the presence of Andreev-reflected quasiparticles, time-reversed states of the injected electron, returning back through the QPC. The marked sensitivity of the conductance enhancement to voltage bias and perpendicular magnetic field suggests a mechanism analogous to reflectionless tunneling—a hallmark of phase-coherent transport, with the boundary of the 2DEG cavity playing the role of scatterers. When the QPC transmission is reduced to the tunneling regime, the differential conductance vs bias voltage probes the single-particle density of states in the proximity area. Measured conductance spectra show a double peak within the superconducting gap of Nb, demonstrating the formation of Andreev bound states in the 2DEG. Both of these results, obtained in the open and closed geometries, underpin the coherent nature of quasiparticles, i.e., phase-coherent Andreev reflection at the InGaAs/Nb interface and coherent propagation in the ballistic 2DEG.

  10. Effect of Intra-Dot Coulomb Interaction on Andreev Reflection in Normal-Metal/Quantum-Dot/Superconductor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu; SUN Qing-Feng; LIN Tsung-Han

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the effect of intra-dot Coulomb interaction on the Andreev reflection in a normalmetal/quantum-dot/superconductor (N-QD-S) system with multiple levels in the quantum dot, in the regime where the intra-dot interacting constant is comparable to the energy gap of superconducting lead. By using nonequilibrium Green function method, the averaged occupation of electrons in the quantum dot and the Andreev reflection (AR) current are studied. Comparing to the case of non-interacting quantum dot, the system shows significant changes for the a two-step-like behavior; and the I-Vg shows two groups of peaks, separated by U and with equal heights, where Vg is the gate voltage and U denotes the intra-dot Coulomb interaction constant. (ii) For finite bias voltage, dips, superposed V ≥ U/2, extra AR current peaks occur between the two groups of the peaks. Besides, the properties of the heights of the AR current peaks are more complicated.``

  11. Admittance of a one-channel conductor containing a scat-tering region and Andreev reflection in an N-S mesoscopic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Gang(张刚); CAO; Zhiliang(曹志良); DUAN; Wenhui(段文晖); GU; Binglin(顾秉林)

    2002-01-01

    We introduce local density of states in normal-conductor-superconductor compound systems and injectivity, emissivity to describe the transmission properties in these systems. Then we study the admittance of a one-channel conductor which contains a scattering region and Andreev reflection with the discrete potential model and efiective scattering approach.

  12. Andreev reflection through a junction of a 3D topological insulator and an s-wave superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Son-Hsien; Sun, Shih-Jye

    2016-12-01

    We examine the retro and specular Andreev reflections (ARs) through a junction consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) Bi2Se3 topological insulator (TI) and an s-wave superconductor (SC) using spatially-resolved nonequilibrium Green function formalism in Nambu space. A 3DTI Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian is constructed. The retro (specular) AR is identified by the spatial distribution of charge (spin-y) current. When approaching the interface, unlike the specular AR, the retro AR exhibits a large amount of net charge flow near the top surface of the 3DTI. In the specular AR, a large parallel component of the spin-y flow is developed in the interface, which is not found in the retro AR. Diminished charge currents are found near the onset of the specular AR. The AR mechanism enhances the current-induced spin-y polarization flowing through the junction interface. In the TI phase, larger normal-transmission conductance {{G}\\text{NT}} in the normal-metal junction yields larger AR conductance {{G}\\text{AR}} in the corresponding SC junction. The Zeeman splitting perpendicular to the quintuple layers partially (completely) suppresses the {{G}\\text{AR}} in the finite (infinite thick) TI.

  13. Point contact Andreev reflection and the measurement of spin polarization: high fields and novel materials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenov, Plamen; Borisov, Kiril

    2016-10-01

    Point Contact Andreev Reflection (PCAR) is one of the few available methods for the determination of the Fermi level spin polarisation in metals and degenerate semiconductors. It has traditionally been applied at fixed (liquid He) temperatures, using pure niobium as the superconductor, and at essentially zero applied magnetic fields, all of which limit the amount of information that it can provide - i.e. do not allow for the extraction of the sign of the spin polarisation and make the assignment of the transport regime to ballistic or diffusive almost impossible. Here a series of experiments is described, aimed at the expansion of this parameter space to higher magnetic fields and to higher temperatures. These require redesigned experimental setups and the use of higher performance superconductors. Demonstrations are described of the determination of the sign of the spin polarisation, at fields of more than 5 Tesla using a low-Z superconductor, as well as operations beyond 9.2 K. Doubts about the practical reliability of the PCAR technique are dispersed using systematic series of samples - the heavy rare-earths and comparisons with alternatives, such as spin-polarised field emission, photo-emission and Tedrow-Meservey tunnelling. The specific material examples presented include 3d-metals, order-disorder transition alloys and zero-moment half-metals - Fe, FeAl and MnRuGa, alternative low-Z and high-Z superconductors - MgB2 and NbTi, and magnetic topological insulators, such as Cr- and V-doped (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3.

  14. Andreev reflection in two-dimensional relativistic materials with realistic tunneling transparency in normal-metal/superconductor junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Yeh; Mou, Chung-Yu; Chung, Chung-Hou

    2017-08-01

    The Andreev conductance across realistic two-dimensional (2D) normal-metal (N)/superconductor (SC) junctions with a relativistic Dirac spectrum is theoretically investigated within the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism with tunable tunneling transparency. It is known that due to the effect of Klein tunneling, impurity potentials at the interface of 2D relativistic materials will enhance (not suppress) the tunneling and therefore are not suitable to model a realistic tunnel junction of these materials. Here, we propose a way to construct a more realistic tunnel junction by adding a narrow, homogeneous local strain, which effectively generates a δ -gauge potential and variations of electron hopping at the interface, to adjust the transparency of the N/SC junction. Remarkable suppression of the Andreev conductance is indeed observed in the graphene N/SC junction as the strength of the local strain increases. We also explore the Andreev conductance in a topological N/SC junction at the two inequivalent Dirac points and predict the distinctive behaviors for the conductance across the chiral-to-helical topological phase transition. The relevance of our results for the adatom-doped graphene is discussed.

  15. Tunable spin-dependent Andreev reflection in a four-terminal Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with coherent indirect coupling and Rashba spin-orbit interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Long; Zhang, Rong; Duan, Chen-Long

    2012-12-10

    : Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we theoretically study the Andreev reflection(AR) in a four-terminal Aharonov-Bohm interferometer containing a coupled double quantum dot with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and the coherent indirect coupling via two ferromagnetic leads. When two ferromagnetic electrodes are in the parallel configuration, the spin-up conductance is equal to the spin-down conductance due to the absence of the RSOI. However, for the antiparallel alignment, the spin-polarized AR occurs resulting from the crossed AR (CAR) and the RSOI. The effects of the coherent indirect coupling, RSOI, and magnetic flux on the Andreev-reflected tunneling magnetoresistance are analyzed at length. The spin-related current is calculated, and a distinct swap effect emerges. Furthermore, the pure spin current can be generated due to the CAR when two ferromagnets become two half metals. It is found that the strong RSOI and the large indirect coupling are in favor of the CAR and the production of the strong spin current. The properties of the spin-related current are tunable in terms of the external parameters. Our results offer new ways to manipulate the spin-dependent transport.

  16. Dynamical Coulomb blockade of the nonlocal conductance in normalmetal/superconductor hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolenda, Stefan; Wolf, Michael J.; Beckmann, Detlef [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, KIT, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In normalmetal/superconductor hybrid structures nonlocal conductance is determined by crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) and elastic cotunneling (EC). This was investigated recently both experimentally and theoretically. Dynamical Coulomb blockade of EC and CAR was predicted theoretically. Here we report on experimental investigations of these effects. We found signatures of dynamical Coulomb blockade in local and nonlocal conductance in the normal state. In the superconducting state, we find s-shaped nonlocal differential conductance curves as a function of bias applied on both contacts. These curves were observed for bias voltages both below and above the gap. We compare our results to theory.

  17. Multigap superconductivity and strong electron-boson coupling in Fe-based superconductors: a point-contact Andreev-reflection study of Ba(Fe(1-x)Co(x))2As2 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortello, M; Daghero, D; Ummarino, G A; Stepanov, V A; Jiang, J; Weiss, J D; Hellstrom, E E; Gonnelli, R S

    2010-12-03

    Directional point-contact Andreev-reflection measurements in Ba(Fe(1-x)Co(x))2As2 single crystals (T(c) = 24.5 K) indicate the presence of two superconducting gaps with no line nodes on the Fermi surface. The point-contact Andreev-reflection spectra also feature additional structures related to the electron-boson interaction, from which the characteristic boson energy Ω(b)(T) is obtained, very similar to the spin-resonance energy observed in neutron scattering experiments. Both the gaps and the additional structures can be reproduced within a three-band s ± Eliashberg model by using an electron-boson spectral function peaked at Ω(0) = 12 meV ≃ Ω(b)(0).

  18. Energy gap and upper critical field of the new magnetic superconductor Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} found by the Andreev reflection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, V M [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rybaltchenko, L F [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Ishchenko, L A [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Khristenko, E V [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Bukowski, Z [W Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw 2 (Poland); Troc, R [W Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw 2 (Poland)

    2006-06-15

    We present the data of the point contact (PC) Andreev-reflection measurements on the new paramagnetic superconductor Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 7}, which were used for finding the energy gap {delta} and upper critical field H{sub c2} for this compound. The maximum gap value, reduced to the zero temperature via the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory, turned out to be {delta} (0) {approx_equal} 0.32 meV, which is slightly smaller than that expected from the BCS theory, {delta}{sup BCS} (0) {approx_equal} 0.35 meV. The temperature dependence of the gap obeys the BCS theory approximately. The H{sub c2}(0) value of about 16.5 kOe was obtained from fitting the experimental data to the conventional H(T) dependence, which is quadratic in temperature. This value is in close agreement with the result from magnetization measurements of 17.2 kOe.

  19. Evolution of superconducting gaps in Th-substituted Sm1 -xThxOFeAs studied by multiple Andreev reflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmicheva, T. E.; Kuzmichev, S. A.; Pervakov, K. S.; Pudalov, V. M.; Zhigadlo, N. D.

    2017-03-01

    Using intrinsic multiple Andreev reflections effect spectroscopy, we studied SnS contacts in the layered oxypnictide superconductors Sm1 -xThxOFeAs with various thorium doping and critical temperatures TC=21 -54 K. We observe a scaling between both superconducting gaps and TC. The determined BCS ratio for the large gap 2 ΔL/kBTC=5.0 -5.7 and its eigen-BCS ratio (in a hypothetical case of zero interband coupling) 2 ΔL/kBTCL=4.1 -4.6 both exceeding the weak-coupling limit 3.52, and for the small gap 2 ΔS/kBTC=1.2 -1.6 , remain nearly constant within all the TC range studied. The temperature dependences ΔL ,S(T ) agree well with a two-band BCS-like Moskalenko and Suhl model. We prove intraband coupling to be stronger than interband coupling, whereas Coulomb repulsion constants μ* are finite in Sm-based oxypnictides.

  20. Direct observation of hopping induced spin polarization current in oxygen deficient Co-doped ZnO by Andreev reflection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kung-Shang; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Dwivedi, G. D.; Lin, Lu-Kuei; Lee, Shang-Fan; Sun, Shih-Jye; Chou, Hsiung

    2017-07-01

    Oxygen vacancy induced ferromagnetic coupling in diluted magnetic oxide (DMO) semiconductors have been reported in several studies, but technologically more crucial spin-polarized current (SPC) is still under-developed in DMOs. Few studies have claimed that VRH mechanism can originate the SPC, but, how VRH mechanism associated with percolation path, is not clearly understood. We used Point-contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) technique to probe the SPC in Co-doped ZnO (CZO) films. Since the high resistance samples cause broadening in conductance(G)-voltage(V) curves, which may result in an unreliable evaluation of spin polarization, we include two extra parameters, (i) effective temperature and (ii) spreading resistance, for the simulation to avoid the uncertainty in extracting spin polarization. The effective G-V curves and higher spin polarization can be obtained above a certain oxygen vacancy concentration. The number of completed and fragmentary percolation paths is proportional to the concentration of oxygen vacancies. For low oxygen vacancy samples, the Pb-tip has a higher probability of covering fragmentary percolation paths than the complete ones, due to its small contact size. The completed paths may remain independent of one another and get polarized in different directions, resulting in lower spin-polarization value. High oxygen vacancy samples provide a high density of completed path, most of them link to one another by crossing over, and gives rise to high spin-polarization value.

  1. Crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional quantum Hall systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhe; Xing, Yanxia; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2016-08-01

    We study the crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional conductor/superconductor hybrid systems under a perpendicular magnetic field. Both a graphene/superconductor hybrid system and an electron gas/superconductor one are considered. It is shown that an exclusive crossed Andreev reflection, with other Andreev reflections being completely suppressed, is obtained in a high magnetic field because of the chiral edge states in the quantum Hall regime. Importantly, the exclusive crossed Andreev reflection not only holds for a wide range of system parameters, e.g., the size of system, the width of central superconductor, and the quality of coupling between the graphene and the superconductor, but also is very robust against disorder. When the applied bias is within the superconductor gap, a robust Cooper-pair splitting process with high-efficiency can be realized in this system.

  2. Andreev Tunneling Through a Ferromagnet/Quantum-Dot/Superconductor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Hong-Hu; ZHU Yu; LIN Tsung-Han

    2002-01-01

    We study Andreev tunneling through a ferromagnet/quantum-dot (QD)/superconductor system. By usingnonequilibrum Green function method, the averaged occupation of electrons in QD and the Andreev tunneling currentare studied. Comparing to the norma-metal/quantum-dot/superconductor, the system shows significant changes: (i)The averaged occupations of spin-up and spin-down electrons are not equal. (ii) With the increase of the polarizationof ferromagnetic lead, the Andreev reflection current decreases. (iii) However, even the ferromagnetic lead reaches fullpolarization, the averaged occupation of spin-down electrons is not zero. The physics of these changes is discussed.

  3. Andreev Spectra and Subgap Bound States in Multiband Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Golubov, A. A.; Brinkman, A.; Tanaka, Yukio; Mazin, I.I.; Dolgov, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    The theory of Andreev conductance is formulated for junctions involving normal metals (N) and multiband superconductors (S) and applied to the case of superconductors with nodeless extended $s_{\\pm}$-wave order parameter symmetry, as possibly realized in the recently discovered ferro pnictides. We find qualitative differences from tunneling into s-wave or d-wave superconductors that may help to identify such a state. First, interband interference leads to a suppression of Andreev reflection i...

  4. Electromagnetic reflection, transmission, and energy density at boundaries of nonlocal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R. J.; Philbin, T. G.

    2016-12-01

    We consider a semi-infinite spatially dispersive dielectric with unequal transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities. The effect of the boundary is characterized by arbitrary reflection coefficients for polarization waves in the material that propagate to the surface. Specific values of these coefficients correspond to various additional boundary conditions (ABCs) for Maxwell's equations. We derive the electromagnetic reflection and transmission coefficients at the boundary and investigate their dependence on material parameters and ABCs. We also investigate the electromagnetic zero-point and thermal spectral energy density outside the dielectric. The nonlocal response removes the boundary divergence of the spectral energy density that is present in a local model. The spectral energy density shows a large dependence on the difference between the transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities, even at distances up to 10 nm from the boundary.

  5. Electromagnetic reflection, transmission and energy density at boundaries of nonlocal media

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, R J

    2016-01-01

    We consider a semi-infinite spatially dispersive dielectric with unequal transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities. The effect of the boundary is characterized by arbitrary reflection coefficients for polarization waves in the material that propagate to the surface. Specific values of these coefficients correspond to various additional boundary conditions (ABC) for Maxwell's equations. We derive the electromagnetic reflection and transmission coefficients at the boundary and investigate their dependence on material parameters and ABC. We also investigate the electromagnetic zero-point and thermal spectral energy density outside the dielectric. The nonlocal response removes the boundary divergence of the spectral energy density that is present in a local model. The spectral energy density shows a large dependence on the difference between the transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities, even at distances up to 10nm from the boundary.

  6. Nonlocal thermoelectric effects and nonlocal Onsager relations in a three-terminal proximity-coupled superconductor-ferromagnet device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [SEPnet and Hubbard Theory Consortium, Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    We study thermal and charge transport in a three-terminal setup consisting of a superconducting and two ferromagnetic contacts. We predict that the simultaneous presence of spin-filtering and of spin-dependent scattering phase shifts at each of the two interfaces will lead to very large nonlocal thermoelectric effects both in clean and in disordered systems. The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. Our results show that a nonlocal version of the Onsager relations for thermoelectric currents holds in a three terminal quantum coherent ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and coherent electron transfer processes.

  7. Decay Lengths for Diffusive Transport Activated by Andreev Reflections in Al/n-GaAs/Al Superconductor-Semiconductor-Superconductor Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Clausen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    In a highly doped GaAs semiconductor with superconducting contacts of Al, clear conductance peaks are observed at zero voltage bias and at V = +/-2 Delta/e, +/-Delta/e. The subharmonic energy gap structure originates from Andreev scattering with diffusive, but energy conserving, transport in the Ga......As. The zero bias excess conductance is due to phase-coherent transport. Both effects are suppressed when the distance between the superconducting electrodes exceeds the inelastic diffusion length in the GaAs normal channel....

  8. High field magnetotransport and point contact Andreev reflection measurements on CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Br—Degenerate magnetic semiconductor single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, K., E-mail: borisovk@tcd.ie; Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, P. [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Alaria, J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-07

    Single crystals of the metallically degenerate fully magnetic semiconductors CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Br have been prepared by the Chemical Vapour Transport method, using either Se or Br as transport agents. The high-quality, millimetre-sized, octahedrally faceted, needle- and platelet-shaped crystals are characterised by means of high field magnetotransport (μ{sub 0}H≤ 14 T) and Point Contact Andreev Reflection. The relatively high spin polarisation observed |P|>0.56, together with the relatively low minority carrier effective mass of 0.25 m{sub e}, and long scattering time  10{sup −13} s, could poise these materials for integration in low- and close-to-room temperature minority injection bipolar heterojunction transistor demonstrations.

  9. Andreev Tunneling Through a Ferromagnet/Quantum-Dot/Superconductor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAOHong-Hu; ZHUYu; 等

    2002-01-01

    We study Andreev tunneling through a ferromagnet/quantum-dot(QD)/superconductor system,By using nonequilibrum Green function method.the averaged occupation of electrons in QD and the Andreev tunneling current are studied.Comparing to the norma-metal/quantum-dot/superconductor,the system shows significant changes:(i) The averaged occupations of spin-up and spin-down electrons are not equal,(ii)With the increase of the polaryzation of ferromagnetic lead,the Andreev reflection current decreases.(iii) However,even the ferromagnetic lead reaches full polarization,the averaged occupation of spin-dowm electrons is not zero,The physics of these changes is discussed.

  10. Andreev reflection in a T-shap ed double quantum-dot with coupled Ma jorana b ound states%耦合Ma jorana束缚态T形双量子点中的Andreev反射∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素新; 李玉现; 王宁; 刘建军

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their potential applications in topological quantum computation and because of their fundamental interest, Majorana fermions are currently attracting increasing attention. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies exactly show that the quantum dot (QD) structure is a good candidate for the detection of Majorana bound state (MBSs). QD system has many unique transport properties and interesting quantum phenomena, such as quantum interference effect, Fano effect, etc. In addition, compared with a single QD, a coupled QD structure has many adjustable parameters, and thus has more important theoretical and practical value, which provides an excellent platform to detect MBSs. In addition, QD coupled with normal metallic conductor and with superconducting electrode structure exhibits interesting transport properties. One of these properties is the so-called Andreev reflection (AR). Especially, in the subgap regime, the current almost entirely originates from the anomalous Andreev channel; such spectroscopy can thus directly probe any in-gap state. In the present paper, we consider a T-shaped double QD structure with side-coupled to MBSs and investigate the transport properties through the system by adding a normal and a superconducting lead. We calculate the AR conductance through the system in the subgap transport. Here we focus on the effects of MBSs on AR through the system. We find that the AR conductance presents a resonant peak around zero Fermi energy when only one QD (QD1) connects to metal and superconducting leads. As a consequence of quantum interference, when using another QD2 side-attached to QD1, a pair of new Fano-type resonant peaks appear and is distributed aside the zero point and the Fano antiresonant point is at the energy level of the QD2. If an MBS is introduced to couple to QD2, the AR conductance shows several new features. First, a pair of new Fano-type resonance curves appears and the original ones also persist except for the

  11. Spin Polarization and Andreev Conductance through a Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Quantum Wire with Spin-Orbit Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-Xian

    2008-01-01

    Spin-dependent Andreev reflection and spin polarization through a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wire coupled to normal metallic and superconductor electrodes are investigated using scattering theory. When the spin-orbit coupling is considered, more Andreev conductance steps appear at the same Fermi energy. Magnetic semiconductor quantum wire separates the spin-up and spin-down electrons. The Fermi energy, at which different-spin-state electrons begin to separate, becomes lower due to the effect of the spin-orbit interaction. The spin filter effect can be measured more easily by investigating the Andreev conductance than by investigating the normal conductance.

  12. Point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy in ReFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (Re = La, Sm): Possible evidence for two nodeless gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnelli, R.S., E-mail: renato.gonnelli@polito.i [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Tonga) (Italy); Daghero, D.; Tortello, M.; Ummarino, G.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Tonga) (Italy); Stepanov, V.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kremer, R.K.; Kim, J.S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhigadlo, N.D.; Karpinski, J. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETHZ, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-05-01

    A deep understanding of the character of superconductivity in the recently discovered Fe-based oxypnictides ReFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (Re = rare-earth) necessarily requires the determination of the number of the gaps and their symmetry in k space, which are fundamental ingredients of any model for the pairing mechanism in these new superconductors. In the present paper, we show that point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy experiments performed on LaFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (La-1111) polycrystals with T{sub c} approx 27 K and SmFeAsO{sub 0.8}F{sub 0.2} (Sm-1111) polycrystals with T{sub c} approx 53 K gave differential conductance curves exhibiting two peaks at low bias and two additional structures (peaks or shoulders) at higher bias voltages, an experimental situation quite similar to that observed by the same technique in pure and doped MgB{sub 2}. The single-band Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model is totally unable to properly fit the conductance curves, while the two-gap one accounts remarkably well for the shape of the whole experimental dI/dV vs. V curves. These results give direct evidence of two nodeless gaps in the superconducting state of ReFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (Re = La, Sm): a small gap, DELTA{sub 1}, smaller than the BCS value (2DELTA{sub 1}/k{sub B}T{sub c} approx 2.2-3.2) and a much larger gap DELTA{sub 2} which gives a ratio 2DELTA{sub 2}/k{sub B}T{sub c} approx 6.5-9.0. In Sm-1111 both gaps close at the same temperature, very similar to the bulk T{sub c}, and follow a BCS-like behaviour, while in La-1111 the situation is more complex, the temperature dependence of the gaps showing remarkable deviations from the BCS behaviour at T close to T{sub c}. The normal-state conductance reproducibly shows an unusual, but different, shape in La-1111 and Sm-1111 with a depression or a hump at zero bias, respectively. These structures survive in the normal state up to T* approx 140 K, close to the temperatures at which structural and magnetic transitions occur

  13. Chladni figures in Andreev billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libisch, F.; Rotter, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2007-06-01

    We study wave functions and their nodal patterns in Andreev billiards consisting of a normal-conducting (N) ballistic quantum dot in contact with a superconductor (S). The bound states in such systems feature an electron and a hole component which are coherently coupled by the scattering of electrons into holes at the S-N interface. The wave function “lives” therefore on two sheets of configuration space, each of which features, in general, distinct nodal patterns. By comparing the wave functions and their nodal patterns for holes and electrons detailed tests of semiclassical predictions become possible. One semiclassical theory based on ideal Andreev retroreflection predicts the electron- and hole eigenstates to perfectly mirror each other. We probe the limitations of validity of this model both in terms of the spectral density of the eigenstates and the shape of the wavefunctions in the electron and hole sheet. We identify cases where the Chladni figures for the electrons and holes drastically differ from each other and explain these discrepancies by limitations of the retroreflection picture.

  14. Nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...

  15. Quantum Nonlocality and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary; Gao, Shan

    2016-09-01

    Preface; Part I. John Stewart Bell: The Physicist: 1. John Bell: the Irish connection Andrew Whitaker; 2. Recollections of John Bell Michael Nauenberg; 3. John Bell: recollections of a great scientist and a great man Gian-Carlo Ghirardi; Part II. Bell's Theorem: 4. What did Bell really prove? Jean Bricmont; 5. The assumptions of Bell's proof Roderich Tumulka; 6. Bell on Bell's theorem: the changing face of nonlocality Harvey R. Brown and Christopher G. Timpson; 7. Experimental tests of Bell inequalities Marco Genovese; 8. Bell's theorem without inequalities: on the inception and scope of the GHZ theorem Olival Freire, Jr and Osvaldo Pessoa, Jr; 9. Strengthening Bell's theorem: removing the hidden-variable assumption Henry P. Stapp; Part III. Nonlocality: Illusions or Reality?: 10. Is any theory compatible with the quantum predictions necessarily nonlocal? Bernard d'Espagnat; 11. Local causality, probability and explanation Richard A. Healey; 12. Bell inequality and many-worlds interpretation Lev Vaidman; 13. Quantum solipsism and non-locality Travis Norsen; 14. Lessons of Bell's theorem: nonlocality, yes; action at a distance, not necessarily Wayne C. Myrvold; 15. Bell non-locality, Hardy's paradox and hyperplane dependence Gordon N. Fleming; 16. Some thoughts on quantum nonlocality and its apparent incompatibility with relativity Shan Gao; 17. A reasonable thing that just might work Daniel Rohrlich; 18. Weak values and quantum nonlocality Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; Part IV. Nonlocal Realistic Theories: 19. Local beables and the foundations of physics Tim Maudlin; 20. John Bell's varying interpretations of quantum mechanics: memories and comments H. Dieter Zeh; 21. Some personal reflections on quantum non-locality and the contributions of John Bell Basil J. Hiley; 22. Bell on Bohm Sheldon Goldstein; 23. Interactions and inequality Philip Pearle; 24. Gravitation and the noise needed in objective reduction models Stephen L. Adler; 25. Towards an objective

  16. Suppression of Andreev conductance in a topological insulator-superconductor nanostep junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi-Jie, Zheng; Jun-Tao, Song; Yu-Xian, Li

    2016-03-01

    When two three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) are brought close to each other with their surfaces aligned, the surfaces form a line junction. Similarly, three TI surfaces, not lying in a single plane, can form an atomic-scale nanostep junction. In this paper, Andreev reflection in a TI-TI-superconductor nanostep junction is investigated theoretically. Because of the existence of edge states along each line junction, the conductance for a nanostep junction is suppressed. When the incident energy (ɛ) of an electron is larger than the superconductor gap (Δ), the Andreev conductance in a step junction is less than unity while for a plane junction it is unity. The Andreev conductance is found to depend on the height of the step junction. The Andreev conductance exhibits oscillatory behavior as a function of the junction height with the amplitude of the oscillations remaining unchanged when ɛ = 0, but decreasing for ɛ = Δ, which is different from the case of the plane junction. The height of the step is therefore an important parameter for Andreev reflection in nanostep junctions, and plays a role similar to that of the delta potential barrier in normal metal-superconductor plane junctions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204065 and 11474085) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2013205168 and A2014205005).

  17. Andreev spectroscopy of FeSe: Evidence for two-gap superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, Ya. G.; Kuzmichev, S. A.; Mikheev, M. G.; Sudakova, M. V.; Tchesnokov, S. N.; Shanygina, T. E.; Volkova, O. S.; Vasiliev, A. N., E-mail: vasil@mig.phys.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Low Temperature Physics and Superconductivity Department (Russian Federation); Wolf, Th. [Institut fur Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of Andreev superconductor-constriction-superconductor (ScS) contacts in polycrystalline samples of FeSe with the critical temperature T{sub C} = (12 {+-} 1) K have been measured using the break-junction technique. In Sharvin-type nanocontacts, two sets of subharmonic gap structures were detected due to multiple Andreev reflections, indicating the existence of two nodeless superconducting gaps {Delta}{sub L} = (2.75 {+-} 0.3) meV and {Delta}{sub S} = (0.8 {+-} 0.2) meV. Well-shaped CVCs for stacks of Andreev contacts with up to five contacts were observed due to the layered structure of FeSe (the intrinsic multiple Andreev reflections effect). An additional fine structure in the CVCs of Andreev ScS nanocontacts is attributed to the existence of a Leggett mode. A linear relation between the superconducting gap {Delta}{sub L} and the magnetic resonance energy E{sub magres} Almost-Equal-To 2{Delta}{sub L} is found to be valid for layered iron pnictides.

  18. Quantum Dots and Andreev Reflections in Graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.L.

    2010-01-01

    Graphene is an exceptionally thin semiconductor that consists of only one atomic layer of carbon atoms. The electrons in graphene live in a strictly two-dimensional (2D) world. In addition to this remarkable 2Dness, it is also peculiar that the behavior of the electrons in graphene is governed by th

  19. Quantum Dots and Andreev Reflections in Graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.L.

    2010-01-01

    Graphene is an exceptionally thin semiconductor that consists of only one atomic layer of carbon atoms. The electrons in graphene live in a strictly two-dimensional (2D) world. In addition to this remarkable 2Dness, it is also peculiar that the behavior of the electrons in graphene is governed by th

  20. Full counting statistics of phonon-assisted Andreev tunneling through a quantum dot coupled to normal and superconducting leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bing; Ding, G. H.; Lei, X. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation for the full counting statistics of the Andreev tunneling through a quantum dot (QD) embedded between superconducting (SC) and normal leads in the presence of a strong on-site electron-phonon interaction using nonequilibrium Green function method. For this purpose, we generalize the dressed tunneling approximation (DTA) recently developed in dealing with inelastic tunneling in a normal QD system to the Andreev transport issue. This method takes account of vibrational effect in evaluation of electronic tunneling self energy in comparison with other simple approaches and meanwhile allows us to derive an explicit analytical formula for the cumulant generating function at the subgap region. We then analyze the interplay of polaronic and SC proximity effects on the Andreev reflection spectrum, current-voltage characteristics, and current fluctuations of the hybrid system. Our main findings include: (1) no phonon side peaks in the linear Andreev conductance; (2) a negative differential conductance stemming from the suppressed Andreev reflection spectrum; (3) a novel inelastic resonant peak in the differential conductance due to phonon assisted Andreev reflection; (4) enhancement or suppression of shot noise for the symmetric or asymmetric tunnel-coupling system, respectively.

  1. Andreev current for low temperature thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faivre, T., E-mail: timothe.faivre@aalto.fi; Pekola, J. P. [Low Temperature Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Golubev, D. S. [Low Temperature Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-05-04

    We demonstrate experimentally that disorder enhanced Andreev current in a tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor provides a method to measure electronic temperature, specifically at temperatures below 200 mK when aluminum is used. This Andreev thermometer has some advantages over conventional quasiparticle thermometers: For instance, it does not conduct heat and its reading does not saturate until at lower temperatures. Another merit is that the responsivity is constant over a wide temperature range.

  2. Thermal Conductance of Andreev Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Chandrasekhar, V.

    2005-04-01

    We calculate the thermal conductance GT of diffusive Andreev interferometers, which are hybrid loops with one superconducting arm and one normal-metal arm. The presence of the superconductor suppresses GT; however, unlike a conventional superconductor, GT/GTN does not vanish as the temperature T→0, but saturates at a finite value that depends on the resistance of the normal-superconducting interfaces, and their distance from the path of the temperature gradient. The reduction of GT is determined primarily by the suppression of the density of states in the proximity-coupled normal metal along the path of the temperature gradient. GT is also a strongly nonlinear function of the thermal current, as found in recent experiments.

  3. Tunnelling spectroscopy of Andreev states in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretheau, Landry; Wang, Joel I.-Jan; Pisoni, Riccardo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    A normal conductor placed in good contact with a superconductor can inherit its remarkable electronic properties. This proximity effect microscopically originates from the formation in the conductor of entangled electron-hole states, called Andreev states. Spectroscopic studies of Andreev states have been performed in just a handful of systems. The unique geometry, electronic structure and high mobility of graphene make it a novel platform for studying Andreev physics in two dimensions. Here we use a full van der Waals heterostructure to perform tunnelling spectroscopy measurements of the proximity effect in superconductor-graphene-superconductor junctions. The measured energy spectra, which depend on the phase difference between the superconductors, reveal the presence of a continuum of Andreev bound states. Moreover, our device heterostructure geometry and materials enable us to measure the Andreev spectrum as a function of the graphene Fermi energy, showing a transition between different mesoscopic regimes. Furthermore, by experimentally introducing a novel concept, the supercurrent spectral density, we determine the supercurrent-phase relation in a tunnelling experiment, thus establishing the connection between Andreev physics at finite energy and the Josephson effect. This work opens up new avenues for probing exotic topological phases of matter in hybrid superconducting Dirac materials.

  4. Effective action theory of Andreev level spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaktionov, Artem V.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of the Keldysh effective action technique we develop a microscopic theory describing Andreev level spectroscopy experiments in nontunnel superconducting contacts. We derive an effective impedance of such contacts which accounts for the presence of Andreev levels in the system. At subgap bias voltages and low temperatures, inelastic Cooper pair tunneling is accompanied by transitions between these levels resulting in a set of sharp current peaks. We evaluate the intensities of such peaks, establish their dependence on the external magnetic flux piercing the structure and estimate the thermal broadening of these peaks. We also specifically address the effect of capacitance renormalization in a nontunnel superconducting contact and its impact on both the positions and heights of the current peaks. At overgap bias voltages, the I -V curve is determined by quasiparticle tunneling and contains current steps related to the presence of discrete Andreev states in our system.

  5. Photon-assisted Andreev tunneling through a mesoscopic hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-Feng; Wang, Jian; Lin, Tsung-Han

    1999-05-01

    The electron tunneling through a mesoscopic hybrid system, a normal-metal-quantum-dot-superconductor (N-QD-S) system where the intradot Coulomb interaction is neglected, in the presence of the time-varying external fields, has been investigated. By using the nonequilibrium Green-function method, the time-dependent current jL(t) and the average current are derived. The photon-assisted Andreev tunneling (PAAT) and the normal photon-assisted tunneling (PAT) are studied in detail. In the case of ħω vs the gate voltage exhibits a series of equal-interval PAAT peaks, with negative peaks on the left-hand side and positive peaks on the right-hand side of the original resonant peak in the absence of the external fields. This is very different from the N-QD-N system. While for ħω>Δ, various PAT processes cause a rather complicated dependence of the current on the gate voltage. In addition, the current-bias-voltage characteristics become more complicated: each Andreev reflection peak is split into side-band peaks and each current plateau is split into substep plateaus.

  6. Nonlocal Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaby, Neil

    2008-01-01

    We consider the possibility of realizing inflation in nonlocal field theories containing infinitely many derivatives. Such constructions arise naturally in string field theory and also in a number of toy models, such as the p-adic string. After reviewing the complications (ghosts and instabilities) that arise when working with high derivative theories we discuss the initial value problem and perturbative stability of theories with infinitely many derivatives. Next, we examine the inflationary dynamics and phenomenology of such theories. Nonlocal inflation can proceed even when the potential is naively too steep and generically predicts large nongaussianity in the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  7. Andreev levels in a single-channel conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titov, M.; Mortensen, Asger; Schomerus, H.;

    2001-01-01

    state (Andreev level) is broadened by disorder. In the SNS case the twofold degeneracy of the Andreev levels is removed by disorder leading to a splitting in addition to the broadening. The distribution of the splitting is given precisely by Wigner's surmise from random-matrix theory. For strong...

  8. Nonviolent nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    If quantum mechanics governs nature, black holes must evolve unitarily, providing a powerful constraint on the dynamics of quantum gravity. Such evolution apparently must in particular be nonlocal, when described from the usual semiclassical geometric picture, in order to transfer quantum information into the outgoing state. While such transfer from a disintegrating black hole has the dangerous potential to be violent to generic infalling observers, this paper proposes the existence of a more innocuous form of information transfer, to relatively soft modes in the black hole atmosphere. Simplified models for such nonlocal transfer are described and parameterized, within a possibly more basic framework of a Hilbert tensor network. Sufficiently sensitive measurements by infalling observers may detect departures from Hawking's predictions, and in generic models black holes decay more rapidly. Constraints of consistency -- internally and with known and expected features of physics -- restrict the form of informati...

  9. Spins of Andreev states in double quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaoen; Chen, Jun; Yu, Peng; Hocervar, Moira; Plissard, Sebastien; Car, Diana; Tacla, Alexandre; Daley, Andrew; Pekker, David; Bakkers, Erik; Frolov, Sergey

    Andreev (or Shiba) states in coupled double quantum dots is an open field. Here we demonstrate the realization of Andreev states in double quantum dots in an InSb nanowire coupled to two NbTiN superconductors. The magnetic field dependence of the Andreev states has been explored to resolve the spins in different double dot configurations. The experiment helps to understand the interplay between pair correlation, exchange energy and charging energy with a well-controlled system. It also opens the possibility to implement Majorana modes in Kitaev chains made of such dots.

  10. Simple Floquet-Wannier-Stark-Andreev viewpoint and emergence of low-energy scales in a voltage-biased three-terminal Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélin, Régis; Caputo, Jean-Guy; Yang, Kang; Douçot, Benoît

    2017-02-01

    A three-terminal Josephson junction consists of three superconductors coupled coherently to a small nonsuperconducting island, such as a diffusive metal, a single or double quantum dot. A specific resonant single quantum dot three-terminal Josephson junction (Sa,Sb,Sc) biased with voltages (V ,-V ,0 ) is considered, but the conclusions hold more generally for resonant semiconducting quantum wire setups. A simple physical picture of the steady state is developed, using Floquet theory. It is shown that the equilibrium Andreev bound states (for V =0 ) evolve into nonequilibrium Floquet-Wannier-Stark-Andreev (FWS-Andreev) ladders of resonances (for V ≠0 ). These resonances acquire a finite width due to multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) processes. We also consider the effect of an extrinsic linewidth broadening on the quantum dot, introduced through a Dynes phenomenological parameter. The dc-quartet current manifests a crossover between the extrinsic relaxation dominated regime at low voltage to an intrinsic relaxation due to MAR processes at higher voltage. Finally, we study the coupling between the two FWS-Andreev ladders due to Landau-Zener-Stückelberg transitions, and its effect on the crossover in the relaxation mechanism. Three important low-energy scales are identified, and a perspective is to relate those low-energy scales to a recent noise cross-correlation experiment (Y. Cohen et al., arXiv:1606.08436).

  11. Temporal Non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  12. Nonlocal incoherent solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Wyller, John

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons.......We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons....

  13. Electron tunneling and point contact Andreev reflection studies of superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenqing

    The energy gap is the most fundamental property of a superconductor. Electron tunneling spectroscopy and point contact spectroscopy (PCS) are powerful techniques for studying the density of states and energy gap features of superconductors. Two different superconducting systems, multiband superconductor MgB2 and proximity induced topological superconductor NbSe2/Bi 2Se3 heterostructures were studied using either quasiparticle tunneling in planar tunnel junctions or PCS in this work. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  14. NONLOCAL SYMMETRIES AND NONLOCAL RECURSION OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An expose about covering method on differential equations was given. The general formulae to determine nonlocal symmetries were derived which are analogous to the prolongation formulae of generalized symmetries. In addition, a new definition of nonlocal recursion operators was proposed, which gave a satisfactory explalnation in covering theory for the integro-differcntial recursion operators.

  15. Fully nonlocal quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Aolita, Leandro; Acín, Antonio; Chiuri, Andrea; Vallone, Giuseppe; Mataloni, Paolo; Cabello, Adán

    2011-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is a nonlocal theory, but not as nonlocal as the no-signalling principle allows. However, there exist quantum correlations that exhibit maximal nonlocality: they are as nonlocal as any non-signalling correlations and thus have a local content, quantified by the fraction $p_L$ of events admitting a local description, equal to zero. Previous examples of maximal quantum nonlocality between two parties require an infinite number of measurements, and the corresponding Bell violation is not robust against noise. We show how every proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem gives rise to maximally nonlocal quantum correlations that involve a finite number of measurements and are robust against noise. We perform the experimental demonstration of a Bell test originating from the Peres-Mermin Kochen-Specker proof, providing an upper bound on the local content $p_L\\lesssim 0.22$.

  16. Nonlocal General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, B

    2014-01-01

    A brief account of the present status of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation is presented. The main physical assumptions that underlie this theory are described. We clarify the physical meaning and significance of Weitzenb\\"ock's torsion, and emphasize its intimate relationship with the gravitational field, characterized by the Riemannian curvature of spacetime. In this theory, nonlocality can simulate dark matter; in fact, in the Newtonian regime, we recover the phenomenological Tohline-Kuhn approach to modified gravity. To account for the observational data regarding dark matter, nonlocality is associated with a characteristic length scale of order 1 kpc. The confrontation of nonlocal gravity with observation is briefly discussed.

  17. Probing Andreev bound states in one-atom superconducting contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pothier, Hugues; Janvier, Camille; Tosi, Leandro; Girit, Caglar; Goffman, Marcelo; Esteve, Daniel; Urbina, Cristian [Quantronics Group, SPEC, CEA-Saclay (France)

    2015-07-01

    Superconductors are characterized by a dissipationless current. Since the work of Josephson 50 years ago, it is known that a supercurrent can even flow through tunnel junctions between superconductors. This Josephson effect also occurs through any type of ''weak links'' between superconductors: non-superconducting materials, constrictions,.. A unified understanding of the Josephson effect has emerged from a mesoscopic description of weak links. It relies on the existence of doublets of localized states that have energies below the superconducting gap: the Andreev bound states. I will present experiments performed on the simplest conductor possible, a single-atom contact between superconductors, that illustrate these concepts. The most recent work demonstrates time-domain manipulation of quantum superpositions of Andreev bound states.

  18. Andreev molecules in semiconductor nanowire double quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaoen; Tacla, Alexandre B; Hocevar, Moïra; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Daley, Andrew J; Pekker, David; Frolov, Sergey M

    2017-09-19

    Chains of quantum dots coupled to superconductors are promising for the realization of the Kitaev model of a topological superconductor. While individual superconducting quantum dots have been explored, control of longer chains requires understanding of interdot coupling. Here, double quantum dots are defined by gate voltages in indium antimonide nanowires. High transparency superconducting niobium titanium nitride contacts are made to each of the dots in order to induce superconductivity, as well as probe electron transport. Andreev bound states induced on each of dots hybridize to define Andreev molecular states. The evolution of these states is studied as a function of charge parity on the dots, and in magnetic field. The experiments are found in agreement with a numerical model.Quantum dots in a nanowire are one possible approach to creating a solid-state quantum simulator. Here, the authors demonstrate the coupling of electronic states in a double quantum dot to form Andreev molecule states; a potential building block for longer chains suitable for quantum simulation.

  19. Nonlocality from Local Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Heng; Hu, Xiao-Min; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Huang, Yun-Feng; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Cabello, Adán

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally show that nonlocality can be produced from single-particle contextuality by using two-particle correlations which do not violate any Bell inequality by themselves. This demonstrates that nonlocality can come from an a priori different simpler phenomenon, and connects contextuality and nonlocality, the two critical resources for, respectively, quantum computation and secure communication. From the perspective of quantum information, our experiment constitutes a proof of principle that quantum systems can be used simultaneously for both quantum computation and secure communication.

  20. Nonlocality from Local Contextuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Heng; Hu, Xiao-Min; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Huang, Yun-Feng; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Cabello, Adán

    2016-11-25

    We experimentally show that nonlocality can be produced from single-particle contextuality by using two-particle correlations which do not violate any Bell inequality by themselves. This demonstrates that nonlocality can come from an a priori different simpler phenomenon, and connects contextuality and nonlocality, the two critical resources for, respectively, quantum computation and secure communication. From the perspective of quantum information, our experiment constitutes a proof of principle that quantum systems can be used simultaneously for both quantum computation and secure communication.

  1. The effect of radioactive waste storage in Andreev Bay on contamination of the Barents Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, G. G.; Ilyin, G. V.; Usyagina, I. S.; Moiseev, D. V.; Dahle, Salve; Kasatkina, N. E.; Valuyskaya, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of temporary radioactive waste storage on the ecological status of the sea and biota in the littoral of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays and near the shore of Motovskii Gulf (including the mouth part of the Zapadnaya Litsa Bay) was analyzed. The littoral sediments contaminated by the 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, and 239,240Pu isotopes are located in the zones of constant groundwater discharge on the shores of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays. The littoral slopes and bottom depressions of the bays accumulate finely dispersed terrigenous material and 137Cs. The investigations have shown that the storage does not exert a significant adverse effect on the radioactive conditions and the status of the sea ecosystems beyond Andreev Bay.

  2. Making space for nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, James

    2016-04-01

    George Musser's book Spooky Action at a Distance focuses on one of quantum physics' more challenging concepts, nonlocality, and its multitude of implications, particularly its assault on space itself.

  3. Nonlocal continuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...

  4. Nonlocal Optics of Plasmonic Nanowire Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Brian M; Podolskiy, Viktor A

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical description of the nonlocal optical response of plasmonic nanowire metamaterials that enable negative refraction, subwavelength light manipulation, and emission lifetime engineering. We show that dispersion of optical waves propagating in nanowire media results from coupling of transverse and longitudinal electromagnetic modes supported by the composite and derive the nonlocal effective medium approximation for this dispersion. We derive the profiles of electric field across the unit cell, and use these expressions to solve the long-standing problem of additional boundary conditions in calculations of transmission and reflection of waves by nonlocal nanowire media. We verify our analytical results with numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations and discuss generalization of the developed formalism to other uniaxial metamaterials.

  5. Reflection and transmission of elastic waves in non-local band-gap metamaterials: A comprehensive study via the relaxed micromorphic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, Angela; Neff, Patrizio; Ghiba, Ionel-Dumitrel; Rosi, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we derive, by means of a suitable least action principle, the duality jump conditions to be imposed at surfaces of discontinuity of the material properties in non-dissipative, linear-elastic, isotropic, Mindlin's and relaxed micromorphic media, respectively. The introduced theoretical framework allows the transparent set-up of different types of micro-macro connections which are intrinsically compatible with the governing bulk equations. To illustrate the interest of the many introduced jump conditions, we focus on the case of an interface between a classical Cauchy continuum on one side and a relaxed micromorphic one on the other side. As expected, we find a complete reflection in the frequency intervals for which band-gaps are known to occur in the relaxed micromorphic continuum and precise microstructure-related reflective patterns are identified. We repeat a similar study for analogous connections between a classical Cauchy continuum and a Mindlin's micromorphic one and we show that the reflective properties of the considered interfaces are drastically modified due to the fact that band-gaps are not allowed in standard Mindlin's micromorphic media. The present work opens the way towards the possibility of conceiving complex metastructures in which band-gap metamaterials and classical materials are coupled together to produce structures with completely new and unorthodox properties with respect to wave propagation, transmission and reflection. Last, but not least, indirect measurements of the material coefficients of the relaxed micromorphic model based upon real experiments of reflection and transmission in band-gap metamaterials are uncovered by the present work which makes them finally realizable in the short term.

  6. Nonlocal diffusion and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Working in the fractional Laplace framework, this book provides models and theorems related to nonlocal diffusion phenomena. In addition to a simple probabilistic interpretation, some applications to water waves, crystal dislocations, nonlocal phase transitions, nonlocal minimal surfaces and Schrödinger equations are given. Furthermore, an example of an s-harmonic function, its harmonic extension and some insight into a fractional version of a classical conjecture due to De Giorgi are presented. Although the aim is primarily to gather some introductory material concerning applications of the fractional Laplacian, some of the proofs and results are new. The work is entirely self-contained, and readers who wish to pursue related subjects of interest are invited to consult the rich bibliography for guidance.

  7. Disentangling Nonlocality and Teleportation

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, L

    1999-01-01

    Quantum entanglement can be used to demonstrate nonlocality and to teleport a quantum state from one place to another. The fact that entanglement can be used to do both these things has led people to believe that teleportation is a nonlocal effect. In this paper it is shown that teleportation is conceptually independent of nonlocality. This is done by constructing a toy local theory in which cloning is not possible (without a no-cloning theory teleportation makes limited sense) but teleportation is. Teleportation in this local theory is achieved in an analogous way to the way it is done with quantum theory. This work provides some insight into what type of process teleportation is.

  8. Nonlocal N=1 Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Tetsuji; Noumi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    We construct $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric nonlocal theories in four dimension. We discuss higher derivative extensions of chiral and vector superfields, and write down generic forms of K\\"ahler potential and superpotential up to quadratic order. We derive the condition in which an auxiliary field remains non-dynamical, and the dynamical scalars and fermions are free from the ghost degrees of freedom. We also investigate the nonlocal effects on the supersymmetry breaking and find that supertrace (mass) formula is significantly modified even at the tree level.

  9. Observation of Andreev bound states at spin-active interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Detlef; Wolf, Michael Johannes [KIT, Institut fuer Nanotechnologie (Germany); Huebler, Florian [KIT, Institut fuer Nanotechnologie (Germany); KIT, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [KIT, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (Germany); KIT, Physikalisches Institut (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We report on high-resolution differential conductance experiments on nanoscale superconductor/ferromagnet tunnel junctions with ultra-thin oxide tunnel barriers. We observe subgap conductance features which are symmetric with respect to bias, and shift according to the Zeeman energy with an applied magnetic field. These features can be explained by resonant transport via Andreev bound states induced by spin-active scattering at the interface. From the energy and the Zeeman shift of the bound states, both the magnitude and sign of the spin-dependent interfacial phase shifts between spin-up and spin-down electrons can be determined. These results contribute to the microscopic insight into the triplet proximity effect at spin-active interfaces.

  10. Teaching Quantum Nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2012-01-01

    Nonlocality arises from the unified "all or nothing" interactions of a spatially extended field quantum such as a photon or an electron. In the double-slit experiment with light, for example, each photon comes through both slits and arrives at the viewing screen as an extended but unified energy bundle or "field quantum." When the photon interacts…

  11. Teaching Quantum Nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2012-01-01

    Nonlocality arises from the unified "all or nothing" interactions of a spatially extended field quantum such as a photon or an electron. In the double-slit experiment with light, for example, each photon comes through both slits and arrives at the viewing screen as an extended but unified energy bundle or "field quantum." When the photon interacts…

  12. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aurelien Drezet

    2007-03-01

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  13. Dual-switching behavior of nonlocal interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Curto, Julio; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2017-05-01

    Nonlinear interfaces separating two diffusive Kerr-type media exhibit dual switching between total internal reflection and transmission. This property is found within a weakly nonlocal regime when both a nonparaxial treatment of the problem and a full two-dimensional model for carrier diffusion are assumed. The theoretical model is shown to predict an effective cubic-quintic nonlinearity with competing terms that produces such property. The validity of the analysis is contrasted with a full set of numerical simulations.

  14. Characterizing 3-qubit UPB states: violations of LHV models, preparation via nonlocal unitaries and PPT entangled nonlocal orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Altafini, C

    2004-01-01

    For the 3-qubit UPB state, i.e., the bound entangled state constructed from an Unextendable Product Basis of Bennett et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 82:5385, 1999), we provide a set of violations of Local Hidden Variable (LHV) models based on the particular type of reflection symmetry encoded in this state. The explicit nonlocal unitary operation needed to prepare the state from its reflected separable mixture of pure states is given, as well as a nonlocal one-parameter orbit of states with Positive Partial Transpositions (PPT) which swaps the entanglement between a state and its reflection twice during a period.

  15. Nonlocal transformation optics

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldi, Giuseppe; Alu', Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2011-01-01

    We show that the powerful framework of transformation optics may be exploited for engineering the nonlocal response of artificial electromagnetic materials. Relying on the form-invariant properties of coordinate-transformed Maxwell's equations in the spectral domain, we derive the general constitutive "blueprints" of transformation media yielding prescribed nonlocal field-manipulation effects, and provide a physically-incisive and powerful geometrical interpretation in terms of deformation of the equi-frequency contours. In order to illustrate the potentials of our approach, we present an example of application to a wave-splitting refraction scenario, which may be implemented via a simple class of artificial materials. Our results provide a systematic and versatile framework which may open intriguing venues in dispersion engineering of artificial materials.

  16. Nonlocality of quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Streltsov, A; Roga, W; Bruß, D; Illuminati, F

    2012-01-01

    We show that only those composite quantum systems possessing nonvanishing quantum correlations have the property that any nontrivial local unitary evolution changes their global state. This type of nonlocality occurs also for states that do not violate a Bell inequality, such as, for instance, Werner states with a low degree of entanglement. We derive the exact relation between the global state change induced by local unitary evolutions and the amount of quantum correlations. We prove that the minimal change coincides with the geometric measure of discord, thus providing the latter with an operational interpretation in terms of the capability of a local unitary dynamics to modify a global state. We establish rigorously that Werner states are the maximally quantum correlated two-qubit states, and thus are the ones that maximize this novel type of nonlocality.

  17. Entanglement without hidden nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Flavien; Túlio Quintino, Marco; Bowles, Joseph; Vértesi, Tamás; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    We consider Bell tests in which the distant observers can perform local filtering before testing a Bell inequality. Notably, in this setup, certain entangled states admitting a local hidden variable model in the standard Bell scenario can nevertheless violate a Bell inequality after filtering, displaying so-called hidden nonlocality. Here we ask whether all entangled states can violate a Bell inequality after well-chosen local filtering. We answer this question in the negative by showing that there exist entangled states without hidden nonlocality. Specifically, we prove that some two-qubit Werner states still admit a local hidden variable model after any possible local filtering on a single copy of the state.

  18. Acausality in Nonlocal Gravity Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ying-li; Sasaki, Misao; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the nonlocal gravity theory by deriving nonlocal equations of motion using the traditional variation principle in a homogeneous background. We focus on a class of models with a linear nonlocal modification term in the action. It is found that the resulting equations of motion contain the advanced Green's function, implying that there is an acausality problem. As a consequence, a divergence arises in the solutions due to contributions from the future infinity unless the Universe will go back to the radiation dominated era or become the Minkowski spacetime in the future. We also discuss the relation between the original nonlocal equations and its biscalar-tensor representation and identify the auxiliary fields with the corresponding original nonlocal terms. Finally, we show that the acusality problem cannot be avoided by any function of nonlocal terms in the action.

  19. Causality, Nonlocality, and Negative Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcella, Davide; Prada, Claire; Carminati, Rémi

    2017-03-31

    The importance of spatial nonlocality in the description of negative refraction in electromagnetic materials has been put forward recently. We develop a theory of negative refraction in homogeneous and isotropic media, based on first principles, and that includes nonlocality in its full generality. The theory shows that both dissipation and spatial nonlocality are necessary conditions for the existence of negative refraction. It also provides a sufficient condition in materials with weak spatial nonlocality. These fundamental results should have broad implications in the theoretical and practical analyses of negative refraction of electromagnetic and other kinds of waves.

  20. Nonlocal gravity: Conformally flat spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato

    2016-01-01

    The field equations of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation are presented in a form that is reminiscent of general relativity. The implications of the nonlocal field equations are studied in the case of conformally flat spacetimes. Even in this simple case, the field equations are intractable. Therefore, to gain insight into the nature of these equations, we investigate the structure of nonlocal gravity in two-dimensional spacetimes. While any smooth 2D spacetime is conformally flat and satisfies Einstein's field equations, only a subset containing either a Killing vector or a homothetic Killing vector can satisfy the field equations of nonlocal gravity.

  1. Goos-Hänchen shifts of Helmholtz solitons at nonlocal nonlinear interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Shi; Jing, Xue; Jilong, Chen; Yang, Li; Huagang, Li

    2015-02-01

    We address the nonlinear Goos-Hänchen shift of Helmholtz solitons at a nonlocal nonlinear interface between a Kerr medium and a nonlocal nonlinear medium. Based on the framework of the Helmholtz theory, we have demonstrated that the Goos-Hänchen shift depends on the angle of the incidence, the linear and nonlinear refractive index mismatch at the interface, the nonparaxial parameter and the degree of nonlocality. Interestingly, internal and external refraction can be introduced when the nonlinear refractive index mismatch is greater than a threshold value. The total reflection will occur when the degree of nonlocality exceeds a value.

  2. Analytical theory of dark nonlocal solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Qian; Wang, Qi; Bang, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    We investigate properties of dark solitons in nonlocal materials with an arbitrary degree of nonlocality. We employ the variational technique and describe dark solitons, for the first time to our knowledge, in the whole range of degree of nonlocality.......We investigate properties of dark solitons in nonlocal materials with an arbitrary degree of nonlocality. We employ the variational technique and describe dark solitons, for the first time to our knowledge, in the whole range of degree of nonlocality....

  3. Optical Beams in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Królikowski, W.; Bang, Ole; Wyller, J.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons.......We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons....

  4. Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Lei; Luk, Ting S; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The optical nonlocality in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials is theoretically and experimentally investigated with respect to transverse-magnetic-polarized incident light. A nonlocal effective medium theory is derived from the transfer-matrix method to determine the nonlocal effective permittivity depending on both the frequency and wave vector in a symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer stack. In contrast to the local effective medium theory, our proposed nonlocal effective medium theory can accurately predict measured incident angle-dependent reflection spectra from a fabricated multilayer stack and provide nonlocal dispersion relations. Moreover, the bulk plasmon polaritons with large wave vectors supported in the multilayer stack are also investigated with the nonlocal effective medium theory through the analysis of the dispersion relation and eigenmode.

  5. Randomness and Non-Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senno, Gabriel; Bendersky, Ariel; Figueira, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The concepts of randomness and non-locality are intimately intertwined outcomes of randomly chosen measurements over entangled systems exhibiting non-local correlations are, if we preclude instantaneous influence between distant measurement choices and outcomes, random. In this paper, we survey some recent advances in the knowledge of the interplay between these two important notions from a quantum information science perspective.

  6. Observers in Spacetime and Nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, B

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of observers in relativity theory are critically examined. For field measurements in Minkowski spacetime, the Bohr-Rosenfeld principle implies that the connection between actual (i.e., noninertial) and inertial observers must be nonlocal. Nonlocal electrodynamics of non-uniformly rotating observers is discussed and the consequences of this theory for the phenomenon of spin-rotation coupling are briefly explored.

  7. Quadratic solitons as nonlocal solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, D.; Bang, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We show that quadratic solitons are equivalent to solitons of a nonlocal Kerr medium. This provides new physical insight into the properties of quadratic solitons, often believed to be equivalent to solitons of an effective saturable Kerr medium. The nonlocal analogy also allows for analytical...

  8. Fingerprint of topological Andreev bound states in phase-dependent heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothmann, Björn; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate that phase-dependent heat currents through superconductor-topological insulator Josephson junctions provide a useful tool to probe the existence of topological Andreev bound states, even for multichannel surface states. We predict that in the tunneling regime topological Andreev bound states lead to a minimum of the thermal conductance for a phase difference ϕ =π , in clear contrast to a maximum of the thermal conductance at ϕ =π that occurs for trivial Andreev bound states in superconductor-normal-metal tunnel junctions. This opens up the possibility that phase-dependent heat transport can distinguish between topologically trivial and nontrivial 4 π modes. Furthermore, we propose a superconducting quantum interference device geometry where phase-dependent heat currents can be measured using available experimental technology.

  9. An operational framework for nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Gallego, Rodrigo; Acín, Antonio; Navascués, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the importance of entanglement for quantum information purposes, a framework has been developed for its characterization and quantification as a resource based on the following operational principle: entanglement among $N$ parties cannot be created by local operations and classical communication, even when $N-1$ parties collaborate. More recently, nonlocality has been identified as another resource, alternative to entanglement and necessary for device-independent quantum information protocols. We introduce an operational framework for nonlocality based on a similar principle: nonlocality among $N$ parties cannot be created by local operations and allowed classical communication even when $N-1$ parties collaborate. We then show that the standard definition of multipartite nonlocality, due to Svetlichny, is inconsistent with this operational approach: according to it, genuine tripartite nonlocality could be created by two collaborating parties. We finally discuss alternative definitions for which consist...

  10. Nonlocal and quasilocal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomboulis, E. T.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonlocal field theories, a subject that has attracted some renewed interest in connection with nonlocal gravity models. We study, in particular, scalar theories of interacting delocalized fields, the delocalization being specified by nonlocal integral kernels. We distinguish between strictly nonlocal and quasilocal (compact support) kernels and impose conditions on them to insure UV finiteness and unitarity of amplitudes. We study the classical initial value problem for the partial integro-differential equations of motion in detail. We give rigorous proofs of the existence but accompanying loss of uniqueness of solutions due to the presence of future, as well as past, "delays," a manifestation of acausality. In the quantum theory we derive a generalization of the Bogoliubov causality condition equation for amplitudes, which explicitly exhibits the corrections due to nonlocality. One finds that, remarkably, for quasilocal kernels all acausal effects are confined within the compact support regions. We briefly discuss the extension to other types of fields and prospects of such theories.

  11. Spectrum of Andreev bound states in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Shiro, E-mail: s-kawabata@aist.go.jp [Nanosystem Research Institute (NRI), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Tanaka, Yukio [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Golubov, Alexander A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vasenko, Andrey S. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble (France); Asano, Yasuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Ferromagnetic-insulator (FI) based Josephson junctions are promising candidates for a coherent superconducting quantum bit as well as a classical superconducting logic circuit. Recently the appearance of an intriguing atomic-scale 0-{pi} transition has been theoretically predicted. In order to uncover the mechanism of this phenomena, we numerically calculate the spectrum of Andreev bound states in a FI barrier by diagonalizing the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation. We show that Andreev spectrum drastically depends on the parity of the FI-layer number L and accordingly the {pi}(0) state is always more stable than the 0 ({pi}) state if L is odd (even).

  12. Reprint of : Elementary Andreev Processes in a Driven Superconductor-Normal Metal Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzig, Wolfgang; Vanevic, Mihajlo

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the full counting statistics of a voltage-driven normal metal(N)-superconductor(S) contact. In the low-bias regime below the superconducting gap, the NS contact can be mapped onto a purely normal contact, albeit with doubled voltage and counting fields. Hence in this regime the transport characteristics can be obtained by the corresponding substitution of the normal metal results. The elementary processes are single Andreev transfers and electron- and hole-like Andreev transfers. Considering Lorentzian voltage pulses we find an optimal quantization for half-integer Levitons.

  13. The solutions of the strongly nonlocal spatial solitons with several types of nonlocal response functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Shi-Gen; Guo Qi; Lan Sheng; Wu Li-Jun

    2007-01-01

    The fundamental and second order strongly nonlocal solitons of the nonlocal nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation for several types of nonlocal responses are calculated by Ritz's variational method.For a specific type of nonlocal response, the solutions of the strongly nonlocal solitons with the same beam width but difierent degrees of nonlocality are identical except for an amplitude factor.For a nonlocal case where the nonlocal response function decays in direct proportion to the ruth power of the distance near the source point,the power and the phase constant of the strongly nonlocal soliton are in inverse proportion to the(m+2)th power of its beam width.

  14. Optimal measurements for nonlocal correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sacha; Stefanov, André; Wolf, Stefan; Montina, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    A problem in quantum information theory is to find the experimental setup that maximizes the nonlocality of correlations with respect to some suitable measure such as the violation of Bell inequalities. There are however some complications with Bell inequalities. First and foremost it is unfeasible to determine the whole set of Bell inequalities already for a few measurements and thus unfeasible to find the experimental setup maximizing their violation. Second, the Bell violation suffers from an ambiguity stemming from the choice of the normalization of the Bell coefficients. An alternative measure of nonlocality with a direct information-theoretic interpretation is the minimal amount of classical communication required for simulating nonlocal correlations. In the case of many instances simulated in parallel, the minimal communication cost per instance is called nonlocal capacity, and its computation can be reduced to a convex-optimization problem. This quantity can be computed for a higher number of measurements and turns out to be useful for finding the optimal experimental setup. Focusing on the bipartite case, we present a simple method for maximizing the nonlocal capacity over a given configuration space and, in particular, over a set of possible measurements, yielding the corresponding optimal setup. Furthermore, we show that there is a functional relationship between Bell violation and nonlocal capacity. The method is illustrated with numerical tests and compared with the maximization of the violation of CGLMP-type Bell inequalities on the basis of entangled two-qubit as well as two-qutrit states. Remarkably, the anomaly of nonlocality displayed by qutrits turns out to be even stronger if the nonlocal capacity is employed as a measure of nonlocality.

  15. Towards LHC physics with nonlocal Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tirthabir Biswas; Nobuchika Okada

    2015-01-01

    We take a few steps towards constructing a string-inspired nonlocal extension of the Standard Model. We start by illustrating how quantum loop calculations can be performed in nonlocal scalar field theory. In particular, we show the potential to address the hierarchy problem in the nonlocal framework. Next, we construct a nonlocal abelian gauge model and derive modifications of the gauge interaction vertex and field propagators. We apply the modifications to a toy version of the nonlocal Stan...

  16. A Note on the Uniqueness of Koebe-Andreev-Thurston Theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jun HUANG; Zi Peng WANG

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we present a new proof of the uniqueness of Koebe-Andreev-Thurston theorem.Our method is based on the argument principle in complex analysis and reviews the connection between the circle packing theorem and complex analysis.

  17. Solutions of Nonlocal -Laplacian Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Avci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of variational approach we discuss a nonlocal problem, that is, a Kirchhoff-type equation involving -Laplace operator. Establishing some suitable conditions, we prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions.

  18. Spontaneous Emission in Nonlocal Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Pavel; Nasir, Mazhar E; Olvera, Paulina Segovia; Krasavin, Alexey V; Levitt, James; Hirvonen, Liisa M; Wells, Brian; Suhling, Klaus; Richards, David; Podolskiy, Viktor A; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2016-01-01

    Light-matter interactions can be dramatically modified by the surrounding environment. Here we report on the first experimental observation of molecular spontaneous emission inside a highly nonlocal metamaterial based on a plasmonic nanorod assembly. We show that the emission process is dominated not only by the topology of its local effective medium dispersion, but also by the nonlocal response of the composite, so that metamaterials with different geometric parameters but the same local effective medium properties exhibit different Purcell factors. A record-high enhancement of a decay rate is observed, in agreement with the developed quantitative description of the Purcell effect in a nonlocal medium. An engineered material nonlocality introduces an additional degree of freedom into quantum electrodynamics, enabling new applications in quantum information processing, photo-chemistry, imaging, and sensing.

  19. Classical and Quantum Nonlocal Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giaccari, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We derive the N=1 supersymmetric extension for a class of weakly nonlocal four dimensional gravitational theories.The construction is explicitly done in the superspace and the tree-level perturbative unitarity is explicitly proved both in the superfield formalism and in field components. For the minimal nonlocal supergravity the spectrum is the same as in the local theory and in particular it is ghost-free. The supersymmetric extension of the super-renormalizable Starobinsky theory and of two alternative massive nonlocal supergravities are found as straightforward applications of the formalism. Power-counting arguments ensure super-renormalizability with milder requirement for the asymptotic behavior of form factors than in ordinary nonlocal gravity. The most noteworthy result, common to ordinary supergravity, is the absence of quantum corrections to the cosmological constant in any regularization procedure. We cannot exclude the usual one-loop quadratic divergences. However, local vertices in the superfields...

  20. Study of Nonlocal Optical Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is generally known that nuclear optical potentials are theoretically expected to be non-local.The non-locality arises from the exchange of particles between the projectile and target and from coupling tonon-elastic channels.This non-locality was first introduced by Frahn and Lemmer,and developed further by Perey and Buck(PB).The kernel is of the form

  1. Modelling population growth with delayed nonlocal reaction in 2-dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Wu, Jianhong; Zhang, Fan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the population growth of a single species living in a two-dimensional spatial domain. New reaction-difusion equation models with delayed nonlocal reaction are developed in two-dimensional bounded domains combining diferent boundary conditions. The important feature of the models is the reflection of the joint efect of the difusion dynamics and the nonlocal maturation delayed efect. We consider and ana- lyze numerical solutions of the mature population dynamics with some wellknown birth functions. In particular, we observe and study the occurrences of asymptotically stable steady state solutions and periodic waves for the two-dimensional problems with nonlocal delayed reaction. We also investigate numerically the efects of various parameters on the period, the peak and the shape of the periodic wave as well as the shape of the asymptotically stable steady state solution.

  2. Andreev and Majorana bound states in single and double quantum dot structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joelson F.; Vernek, E.

    2016-11-01

    We present a numerical study of the emergence of Majorana and Andreev bound states in a system composed of two quantum dots, one of which is coupled to a conventional superconductor, SC1, and the other connects to a topological superconductor, SC2. By controlling the interdot coupling we can drive the system from two single (uncoupled) quantum dots to double (coupled) dot system configurations. We employ a recursive Green’s function technique that provides us with numerically exact results for the local density of states of the system. We first show that in the uncoupled dot configuration (single dot behavior) the Majorana and the Andreev bound states appear in an individual dot in two completely distinct regimes. Therefore, they cannot coexist in the single quantum dot system. We then study the coexistence of these states in the coupled double dot configuration. In this situation we show that in the trivial phase of SC2, the Andreev states are bound to an individual quantum dot in the atomic regime (weak interdot coupling) or extended over the entire molecule in the molecular regime (strong interdot coupling). More interesting features are actually seen in the topological phase of SC2. In this case, in the atomic limit, the Andreev states appear bound to one of the quantum dots while a Majorana zero mode appears in the other one. In the molecular regime, on the other hand, the Andreev bound states take over the entire molecule while the Majorana state remains always bound to one of the quantum dots.

  3. Examining the effect of nonlocality in (d ,n ) transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.; Titus, L. J.; Nunes, F. M.

    2016-07-01

    Background: In the past year we have been exploring the effect of the explicit inclusion of nonlocality in (d ,p ) reactions. Purpose: The goal of this paper is to extend previous studies to (d ,n ) reactions, which, although similar to (d ,p ) reactions, have specific properties that merit inspection. Method: We apply our methods (both the distorted-wave Born approximation and the adiabatic wave approximation) to (d ,n ) reactions on 16O,40Ca,48Ca,126Sn,132Sn , and 208Pb at 20 and 50 MeV. Results: We look separately at the modifications introduced by nonlocality in the final bound and scattering states as well as the consequences reflected on the differential angular distributions. The cross sections obtained when using nonlocality explicitly are significantly different than those using the local approximation, just as in (d ,p ) reactions. Due to the particular role of the Coulomb force in the bound state, often we found the effects of nonlocality to be larger in (d ,n ) than in (d ,p ) reactions. Conclusions: Our results confirm the importance of including nonlocality explicitly in deuteron-induced reactions.

  4. Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Søren; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Wubs, Martijn; Asger Mortensen, N

    2015-05-13

    This review provides a broad overview of the studies and effects of nonlocal response in metallic nanostructures. In particular, we thoroughly present the nonlocal hydrodynamic model and the recently introduced generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model. The influence of nonlocal response on plasmonic excitations is studied in key metallic geometries, such as spheres and dimers, and we derive new consequences due to the GNOR model. Finally, we propose several trajectories for future work on nonlocal response, including experimental setups that may unveil further effects of nonlocal response.

  5. Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Wubs, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a broad overview of the studies and effects of nonlocal response in metallic nanostructures. In particular, we thoroughly present the nonlocal hydrodynamic model and the recently introduced generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model. The influence of nonlocal response...... on plasmonic excitations is studied in key metallic geometries, such as spheres and dimers, and we derive new consequences due to the GNOR model. Finally, we propose several trajectories for future work on nonlocal response, including experimental setups that may unveil further effects of nonlocal response....

  6. Majorana fermions and exotic surface Andreev bound states in topological superconductors: application to Cu(x)Bi2Se3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Timothy H; Fu, Liang

    2012-03-09

    The recently discovered superconductor Cu(x)Bi2Se3 is a candidate for three-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors, which are predicted to have robust surface Andreev bound states hosting massless Majorana fermions. In this work, we analytically and numerically find the linearly dispersing Majorana fermions at k=0, which smoothly evolve into a new branch of gapless surface Andreev bound states near the Fermi momentum. The latter is a new type of Andreev bound states resulting from both the nontrivial band structure and the odd-parity pairing symmetry. The tunneling spectra of these surface Andreev bound states agree well with a recent point-contact spectroscopy experiment [S. Sasaki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 217001 (2011)] and yield additional predictions for low temperature tunneling and photoemission experiments.

  7. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  8. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.

  9. Nonlocal Measurements via Quantum Erasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodutch, Aharon; Cohen, Eliahu

    2016-02-19

    Nonlocal observables play an important role in quantum theory, from Bell inequalities and various postselection paradoxes to quantum error correction codes. Instantaneous measurement of these observables is known to be a difficult problem, especially when the measurements are projective. The standard von Neumann Hamiltonian used to model projective measurements cannot be implemented directly in a nonlocal scenario and can, in some cases, violate causality. We present a scheme for effectively generating the von Neumann Hamiltonian for nonlocal observables without the need to communicate and adapt. The protocol can be used to perform weak and strong (projective) measurements, as well as measurements at any intermediate strength. It can also be used in practical situations beyond nonlocal measurements. We show how the protocol can be used to probe a version of Hardy's paradox with both weak and strong measurements. The outcomes of these measurements provide a nonintuitive picture of the pre- and postselected system. Our results shed new light on the interplay between quantum measurements, uncertainty, nonlocality, causality, and determinism.

  10. Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Raza, Søren; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a broad overview of the studies and effects of nonlocal response in metallic nanostructures. In particular, we thoroughly present the nonlocal hydrodynamic model and the recently introduced generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model. The influence of nonlocal response on plasmonic excitations is studied in key metallic geometries, such as spheres and dimers, and we derive new consequences due to the GNOR model. Finally, we propose several trajectories for future w...

  11. Order, disorder, and tunable gaps in the spectrum of Andreev bound states in a multiterminal superconducting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Reutlinger, Johannes; Belzig, Wolfgang; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the spectrum of Andreev bound states (ABSs) in an exemplary four-terminal superconducting structure where four chaotic cavities are connected by quantum point contacts to the terminals and to each other forming a ring. We nickname the resulting device 4T-ring. Such a tunable device can be realized in a 2D electron gas-superconductor or a graphene-based hybrid structure. We concentrate on the limit of a short structure and large conductance of the point contacts where there are many ABS in the device forming a quasicontinuous spectrum. The energies of the ABS can be tuned by changing the superconducting phases of the terminals. We observe the opening and closing of gaps in the spectrum upon changing the phases. This concerns the usual proximity gap that separates the levels from zero energy as well as less usual "smile" gaps that split the levels of the quasicontinuous spectrum. We demonstrate a remarkable crossover in the overall spectrum that occurs upon changing the ratio of conductances of the inner and outer point contacts. At big values of the ratio (closed limit), the levels exhibit a generic behavior expected for the spectrum of a disordered system manifesting level repulsion and Brownian "motion" upon changing the phases. At small values of the ratio (open limit), the levels are squeezed into narrow bunches separated by wide smile gaps. Each bunch consists of almost degenerate ABS formed by Andreev reflection between two adjacent terminals. We study in detail the properties of the spectrum in the limit of a small ratio, paying special attention to the crossings of bunches. We distinguish two types of crossings: (i) with a regular phase dependence of the levels and (ii) crossings where the Brownian motion of the levels leads to an apparently irregular phase dependence. We work out a perturbation theory that explains the observations both at a detailed level of random scattering in the device and at a phenomenological level of positively defined

  12. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove that the solutions of the nonlocal problem converge to the solution of the higher order problem with the right-hand side given by powers of the Laplacian when the kernel J is rescaled in an appropriate way. Moreover, we prove that solutions to both equations have the same asymptotic decay rate as t goes to infinity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  13. Totality of Subquantum Nonlocal Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In a series of previous papers we developed a purely field model of microphenomena, so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of QM including correlations for entangled systems, but it also gives a possibility to go beyond quantum mechanics (QM), i.e., to make predictions of phenomena which could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper we discuss one of such predictions - existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to {\\it all} quantum systems. (And by PCSFT quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are "entangled", but in the sense of classical signal theory. On one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random back...

  14. Anderson Localization in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media

    CERN Document Server

    Folli, Viola; 10.1364/OL.37.000332

    2012-01-01

    The effect of focusing and defocusing nonlinearities on Anderson localization in highly nonlocal media is theoretically and numerically investigated. A perturbative approach is developed to solve the nonlocal nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the presence of a random potential, showing that nonlocality stabilizes Anderson states.

  15. Solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media: Exact solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of one-dimensional bright and dark spatial solitons in a nonlocal Kerr-like media, in which the nonlocality is of general form. We find an exact analytical solution to the nonlinear propagation equation in the case of weak nonlocality. We study the properties...

  16. Exact Solutions in Nonlocal Linear Models

    OpenAIRE

    Vernov, S. Yu.

    2008-01-01

    A general class of cosmological models driven by a nonlocal scalar field inspired by the string field theory is studied. Using the fact that the considering linear nonlocal model is equivalent to an infinite number of local models we have found an exact special solution of the nonlocal Friedmann equations. This solution describes a monotonically increasing Universe with the phantom dark energy.

  17. Zeeman and spin-orbit effects in the Andreev spectra of nanowire junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heck, B.; Väyrynen, J. I.; Glazman, L. I.

    2017-08-01

    We study the energy spectrum and the electromagnetic response of Andreev bound states in short Josephson junctions made of semiconducting nanowires. We focus on the joint effect of Zeeman and spin-orbit coupling on the Andreev level spectra. Our model incorporates the penetration of the magnetic field in the proximitized wires, which substantially modifies the spectra. We pay special attention to the occurrence of fermion-parity switches at increasing values of the field and to the magnetic field dependence of the absorption strength of microwave-induced transitions. Our calculations can be used to extract quantitative information from microwave and tunneling spectroscopy experiments, such as the recently reported measurements in Van Woerkom et al. [Nat. Phys. (2017), doi:, 10.1038/nphys4150].

  18. Gate-tunable Andreev bound states in InSb nanowire Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ning; Li, Sen; Fan, Dingxun; Xu, Hongqi [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Caroff, Philippe [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, P. O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid InSb nanowire-superconductor devices are promising candidates for investigating Majorana modes in solid-state devices and future technologies of topological quantum manipulation. Here, we report low-temperature transport measurements on an individual InSb nanowire quantum dot coupled to superconducting contacts that exhibit an interplay between the Kondo effects and superconductivity. We observed two types of subgap resonance states within the superconducting gap, which can be attributed to gate-tunable Andreev bound states in Coulomb valleys with different Kondo temperatures. The presence of the gate-tunable 0 and pi junction allow us to investigate the fundamental 0- pi transition. Detailed magnetic field and temperature evolution of level spectroscopy demonstrate different behavior of two types of the Andreev bound states. Our results exhibit that the InSb nanowires can provide a promising platform for exploring phase coherence transport and the effect of spin-orbit coupling in semiconductor nanowire-superconductor hybrid device.

  19. Magnetoelectric Andreev Effect due to Proximity-Induced Nonunitary Triplet Superconductivity in Helical Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachov, G.

    2017-01-01

    Noncentrosymmetric superconductors exhibit the magnetoelectric effect, which manifests itself in the appearance of the magnetic spin polarization in response to a dissipationless electric current (supercurrent). While much attention has been dedicated to the thermodynamic version of this phenomenon (Edelstein effect), nonequilibrium transport magnetoelectric effects have not been explored yet. We propose the magnetoelectric Andreev effect (MAE), which consists in the generation of spin-polarized triplet Andreev conductance by an electric supercurrent. The MAE stems from the spin polarization of the Cooper-pair condensate due to a supercurrent-induced nonunitary triplet pairing. We propose the realization of such a nonunitary pairing and MAE in superconducting proximity structures based on two-dimensional helical metals—strongly spin-orbit-coupled electronic systems with the Dirac spectrum such as the topological surface states. Our results uncover an unexplored route towards electrically controlled superconducting spintronics and are a smoking gun for induced unconventional superconductivity in spin-orbit-coupled materials.

  20. Nonlocally Centralized Simultaneous Sparse Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷阳; 宋占杰

    2016-01-01

    The concept of structured sparse coding noise is introduced to exploit the spatial correlations and nonlo-cal constraint of the local structure. Then the model of nonlocally centralized simultaneous sparse coding(NC-SSC)is proposed for reconstructing the original image, and an algorithm is proposed to transform the simultaneous sparse coding into reweighted low-rank approximation. Experimental results on image denoisng, deblurring and super-resolution demonstrate the advantage of the proposed NC-SSC method over the state-of-the-art image resto-ration methods.

  1. The non-local oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccari, A. [Istituto Tecnico `G. Cardano`, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy)

    1996-08-01

    The most important characteristics of the non-local oscillator, an oscillator subjected to an additional non-local force, are extensively studied by means of a new asymptotic perturbation method that is able to furnish an approximate solution of weakly non-linear differential equations. The resulting motion is doubly periodic, because a second little frequency appears, in addition to the fundamental harmonic frequency. Comparison with the numerical solution obtained by the Runge-Kitta method confirms the validity of the asymptotic perturbation method and its importance for the study of non-linear dynamical systems.

  2. The existential consciousness of prose of Leonid Andreev and Smagul Elubay

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Works of Andreev («Life of Basil Thebes») and Elubay («The century of doomsday») are considered in a view of an existential orientation in the article. Research of the existential problematics uniting work of Russian and Kazakh writers, opens new senses and possibilities of the further interpretation in a vein of research of modern literary and art paradigms.

  3. Nonlocal Response in Plasmonic Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    After a brief overview of nanoplasmonics experiments that defy explanation with classical electrodynamics, we introduce nonlocal response as a main reason for non-classical effects. This concept is first introduced phenomenologically, and afterwards based on the semi-classical hydrodynamic Drude ...

  4. Quantum nonlocality does not exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J

    2014-08-05

    Quantum nonlocality is shown to be an artifact of the Copenhagen interpretation, in which each observed quantity has exactly one value at any instant. In reality, all physical systems obey quantum mechanics, which obeys no such rule. Locality is restored if observed and observer are both assumed to obey quantum mechanics, as in the many-worlds interpretation (MWI). Using the MWI, I show that the quantum side of Bell's inequality, generally believed nonlocal, is really due to a series of three measurements (not two as in the standard, oversimplified analysis), all three of which have only local effects. Thus, experiments confirming "nonlocality" are actually confirming the MWI. The mistaken interpretation of nonlocality experiments depends crucially on a question-begging version of the Born interpretation, which makes sense only in "collapse" versions of quantum theory, about the meaning of the modulus of the wave function, so I use the interpretation based on the MWI, namely that the wave function is a world density amplitude, not a probability amplitude. This view allows the Born interpretation to be derived directly from the Schrödinger equation, by applying the Schrödinger equation to both the observed and the observer.

  5. A nonlocal discretization of fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, R G; Pimentel, L O; Campos, Rafael G.; Tututi, Eduardo S.

    2001-01-01

    A nonlocal method to obtain discrete classical fields is presented. This technique relies on well-behaved matrix representations of the derivatives constructed on a non--equispaced lattice. The drawbacks of lattice theory like the fermion doubling or the breaking of chiral symmetry for the massless case, are absent in this method.

  6. Learning Non-Local Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gustav; Dienes, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of the temporary storage buffer used in implicit or statistical learning. Kuhn and Dienes [Kuhn, G., & Dienes, Z. (2005). Implicit learning of nonlocal musical rules: implicitly learning more than chunks. "Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition," 31(6) 1417-1432] showed that people could…

  7. Learning Non-Local Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gustav; Dienes, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of the temporary storage buffer used in implicit or statistical learning. Kuhn and Dienes [Kuhn, G., & Dienes, Z. (2005). Implicit learning of nonlocal musical rules: implicitly learning more than chunks. "Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition," 31(6) 1417-1432] showed that people could…

  8. Extreme nonlocality with one photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, Libby; Vedral, Vlatko [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Santos, Marcelo Franca, E-mail: l.heaney1@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: adan@us.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Caixa Postal 702, 30123-970, MG (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Quantum nonlocality is typically assigned to systems of two or more well-separated particles, but nonlocality can also exist in systems consisting of just a single particle when one considers the subsystems to be distant spatial field modes. Single particle nonlocality has been confirmed experimentally via a bipartite Bell inequality. In this paper, we introduce an N-party Hardy-like proof of the impossibility of local elements of reality and a Bell inequality for local realistic theories in the case of a single particle superposed symmetrically over N spatial field modes (i.e. N qubit W state). We show that, in the limit of large N, the Hardy-like proof effectively becomes an all-versus-nothing (or Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like) proof, and the quantum-classical gap of the Bell inequality tends to be the same as that in a three-particle GHZ experiment. We describe how to test the nonlocality in realistic systems.

  9. Andreev reflections at interfaces between delta-doped GaAs and superconducting Al films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev;

    1996-01-01

    By placing several Si delta-doped layers close to the surface of a GaAs molecular beam epitaxy-grown crystal, we achieve a compensation of the Schottky barrier and obtain a good Ohmic contact between an in situ deposited (without breaking the vacuum) Al metallization layer and a highly modulation...... in a planar geometry where the Al has been removed in a thin stripe. We find a manifestation of the superconducting energy gap and a rich fine structure at injection energies both below and above the gap. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....

  10. Spin-accumulation and Andreev-reflection in a mesoscopic ferromagnetic wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzig, W.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2000-01-01

    The electron transport though ferromagnetic metal-superconducting hybrid devices is considered in the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism in the quasiclassical approximation. Attention if focused on the limit in which the exchange splitting in the ferromagnet is much larger than the supercond

  11. Nonlocal elasticity tensors in dislocation and disclination cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, V.; Gbemou, K.; Fressengeas, C.; Capolungo, L.

    2017-03-01

    Nonlocal elastic constitutive laws are introduced for crystals containing defects such as dislocations and disclinations. In addition to pointwise elastic moduli tensors adequately reflecting the elastic response of defect-free regions by relating stresses to strains and couple-stresses to curvatures, elastic cross-moduli tensors relating strains to couple-stresses and curvatures to stresses within convolution integrals are derived from a nonlocal analysis of strains and curvatures in the defects cores. Sufficient conditions are derived for positive-definiteness of the resulting free energy, and stability of elastic solutions is ensured. The elastic stress/couple stress fields associated with prescribed dislocation/disclination density distributions and solving the momentum and moment of momentum balance equations in periodic media are determined by using a Fast Fourier Transform spectral method. The convoluted cross-moduli bring the following results: (i) Nonlocal stresses and couple stresses oppose their local counterparts in the defects core regions, playing the role of restoring forces and possibly ensuring spatio-temporal stability of the simulated defects, (ii) The couple stress fields are strongly affected by nonlocality. Such effects favor the stability of the simulated grain boundaries and allow investigating their elastic interactions with extrinsic defects, (iii) Driving forces inducing grain growth or refinement derive from the self-stress and couple stress fields of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline configurations.

  12. Collapse arrest and soliton stabilization in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Wyller, John

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the properties of localized waves in cubic nonlinear materials with a symmetric nonlocal nonlinear response of arbitrary shape and degree of nonlocality, described by a general nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger type equation. We prove rigorously by bounding the Hamiltonian that nonloc......We investigate the properties of localized waves in cubic nonlinear materials with a symmetric nonlocal nonlinear response of arbitrary shape and degree of nonlocality, described by a general nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger type equation. We prove rigorously by bounding the Hamiltonian...

  13. Angle dependence of Andreev scattering at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    and increase of the probability of normal reflection. We show that in the presence of a Fermi velocity mismatch between the semiconductor and the superconductor the angles of incidence and transmission are related according to the well-known Snell's law in optics. As a consequence there is a critical angle...

  14. Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects

  15. WITH THE DIFFERENCE OF HALF A CENTURY OR TWO ESOTERIC CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL FINALISM (BASED ON THE WORKS OF ELENA BLAVATSKAYA AND DANIEL ANDREEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vladimirovna Privalova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author makes a comparative analysis of two concepts of social finalism formulated with the difference of fifty years. Researchers consider.both authors to be esoteric thinkers. Daniel Andreev was fascinated with the doctrine of Elena Blavatskaya. That’s the main reason why the finalistic concepts of the above-mentioned authors are examined as interrelated ones. The definition of «social finalism» is given in the article. According to classical interpretation of the concept, finalism (from Lat. Finalis means final, being the final goal. So, under this concept the author understands the achievement of a certain final level of social development, according to the goals. Each thinker offers his/her own goals and ways of achieving, the analysis of finalistic concepts helps to identify the most common and often allocated by philosophers, and hence universal goals, ways, means and conditions; which are, in our opinion, the ones reflecting the true preferences of mankind in the choice of the future for people themselves and their descendants. In this case, the esoteric concepts are analyzed. This fact in the author’s opinion is quite relevant, since the number of people who position themselves as adherents of esoteric teachings is steadily increasing. In the social finalistic concept of Blavatskaya the purpose – «brotherhood of all mankind», means of achieving – the Duty, Mercy, Self-sacrifice, and obstacles to the achievement of the final stage of society today are considered. The article shows that all necessary changes to achieve the ideal state of society, according to Andreev, should be carried out in all spheres of public life. This study will help to understand the aspirations and hopes for social transformations of people practicing esoteric approach to the perception of life.

  16. Non-Local Euclidean Medians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Singer, Amit

    2012-11-01

    In this letter, we note that the denoising performance of Non-Local Means (NLM) can be improved at large noise levels by replacing the mean by the Euclidean median. We call this new denoising algorithm the Non-Local Euclidean Medians (NLEM). At the heart of NLEM is the observation that the median is more robust to outliers than the mean. In particular, we provide a simple geometric insight that explains why NLEM performs better than NLM in the vicinity of edges, particularly at large noise levels. NLEM can be efficiently implemented using iteratively reweighted least squares, and its computational complexity is comparable to that of NLM. We provide some preliminary results to study the proposed algorithm and to compare it with NLM.

  17. Extreme nonlocality with one photon

    CERN Document Server

    Heaney, Libby; Santos, Marcelo F; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    The bizarre concept of nonlocality appears in quantum mechanics because the properties of two or more particles may be assigned globally and are not always pinned to each particle individually. Experiments using two, three, or more of these entangled particles have strongly rejected a local realist interpretation of nature. Nonlocality is also argued to be an intrinsic property of a quantum field, implying that just one excitation, a photon for instance, could also by itself violate local realism. Here we show that one photon superposed symmetrically over many distant sites (which in quantum information terms is a W-state) can give a stunning all-versus-nothing demolition of local realism in an identical manner to the GHZ class of states. The elegance of this result is that it is due solely to the wave-particle duality of light and matter. We present experimental implementations capable of testing our predictions.

  18. Percolation transitions with nonlocal constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Pyoung-Seop; Lee, Hyun Keun; Noh, Jae Dong

    2012-09-01

    We investigate percolation transitions in a nonlocal network model numerically. In this model, each node has an exclusive partner and a link is forbidden between two nodes whose r-neighbors share any exclusive pair. The r-neighbor of a node x is defined as a set of at most N(r) neighbors of x, where N is the total number of nodes. The parameter r controls the strength of a nonlocal effect. The system is found to undergo a percolation transition belonging to the mean-field universality class for r1/2, the system undergoes a peculiar phase transition from a nonpercolating phase to a quasicritical phase where the largest cluster size G scales as G~N(α) with α=0.74(1). In the marginal case with r=1/2, the model displays a percolation transition that does not belong to the mean-field universality class.

  19. Rogue waves in nonlocal media

    CERN Document Server

    Horikis, Theodoros P

    2016-01-01

    The generation of rogue waves is investigated via a nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation. In this system, modulation instability is suppressed and is usually expected that rogue wave formation would also be limited. On the contrary, a parameter regime is identified where the instability is suppressed but nevertheless the number and amplitude of the rogue events increase, as compared to the standard NLS (which is a limit of the nonlocal system). Furthermore, the nature of these waves is investigated; while no analytical solutions are known to model these events, numerically it is shown that they differ significantly from either the rational (Peregrine) or soliton solution of the limiting NLS equation. As such, these findings may also help in rogue wave realization experimentally in these media.

  20. Nonlocal Quantum Effects in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dumin, Yurii V

    2014-01-01

    Since it is commonly believed that the observed large-scale structure of the Universe is an imprint of quantum fluctuations existing at the very early stage of its evolution, it is reasonable to pose the question: Do the effects of quantum nonlocality, which are well established now by the laboratory studies, manifest themselves also in the early Universe? We try to answer this question by utilizing the results of a few experiments, namely, with the superconducting multi-Josephson-junction loops and the ultracold gases in periodic potentials. Employing a close analogy between the above-mentioned setups and the simplest one-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model, we show that the specific nonlocal correlations revealed in the laboratory studies might be of considerable importance also in treating the strongly-nonequilibrium phase transitions of Higgs fields in the early Universe. Particularly, they should substantially reduce the number of topological defects (e.g., domain walls) expected du...

  1. Gravity and non-locality

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, Pablo; Walton, Mark

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the relation between gravity and non-locality at the classical level, we study a bilocal scalar field model. Bilocality introduces new (internal) degrees of freedom that can potentially reproduce gravity. We show that the equations of motion of the massless branch of the free bilocal model match those of linearized gravity. We also discuss higher orders of perturbation theory, where there is self-interaction in both gravity and the bilocal field sectors.

  2. Boundary fluxes for nonlocal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  3. Modulational instability in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    We study modulational instability (MI) of plane waves in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media. For a focusing nonlinearity we show that, although the nonlocality tends to suppress MI, it can never remove it completely, irrespective of the particular profile of the nonlocal response function....... For a defocusing nonlinearity the stability properties depend sensitively on the response function profile: for a smooth profile (e.g., a Gaussian) plane waves are always stable, but MI may occur for a rectangular response. We also find that the reduced model for a weak nonlocality predicts MI in defocusing media...... for arbitrary response profiles, as long as the intensity exceeds a certain critical value. However, it appears that this regime of MI is beyond the validity of the reduced model, if it is to represent the weakly nonlocal limit of a general nonlocal nonlinearity, as in optics and the theory of Bose...

  4. Towards LHC physics with nonlocal Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthabir Biswas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We take a few steps towards constructing a string-inspired nonlocal extension of the Standard Model. We start by illustrating how quantum loop calculations can be performed in nonlocal scalar field theory. In particular, we show the potential to address the hierarchy problem in the nonlocal framework. Next, we construct a nonlocal abelian gauge model and derive modifications of the gauge interaction vertex and field propagators. We apply the modifications to a toy version of the nonlocal Standard Model and investigate collider phenomenology. We find the lower bound on the scale of nonlocality from the 8 TeV LHC data to be 2.5–3 TeV.

  5. Nonlocal transport in superconducting oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazey, Joshua; Cheng, Guanglei; Lu, Shicheng; Tomczyk, Michelle; Irvin, Patrick; Huang, Mengchen; Wung Bark, Chung; Ryu, Sangwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Levy, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    We report nonlocal transport signatures in the superconducting state of nanostructures formed[2] at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface using conductive AFM lithography. Nonlocal resistances (nonlocal voltage divided by current) are as large as 200 Ω when 2-10 μm separate the current-carrying segments from the voltage-sensing leads. The nonlocal resistance reverses sign at the local critical current of the superconducting state. Features observed in the nonlocal V-I curves evolve with back gate voltage and magnetic field, and are correlated with the local four-terminal V-I curves. We discuss how nonlocal and local transport effects in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 nanostructures may result from the electronic phase separation and superconducting inhomogeneity reported by others in planar structures[3]. This work is supported by AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0524) and NSF DMR-0906443

  6. Detrimental nonlocality in luminescence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluska, Mariusz; Czerwinski, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    Luminescence studies are used to investigate the local properties of various light-emitting materials. A critical issue of these studies is presented that the signals often lack all advantages of luminescence-studies of high locality, and may originate from an extended spatial region of even a few millimeters in size or the whole sample, i.e., places other than intended for investigation. This is a key problem for research and development in photonics. Due to this nonlocality, information indicating defects, irregularities, nonuniformities and inhomogeneities is lost. The issue refers to typical structures with a strong built-in electric field. Such fields exist intentionally in most photonic structures and occur unintentionally in many other materials investigated by applied physics. We reveal [using test samples prepared with focused ion beam (FIB) on an AlGaAs/GaAs laser heterostructure with an InGaAs quantum well (QW)] that nonlocality increases at low temperatures. This is contrary to the widely expected outcome, as low-temperature luminescence measurements are usually assumed to be free from disturbances. We explain many effects observed due to nonlocality in luminescence studies and prove that separation of the investigated area by focused ion beam milling is a practical solution enabling truly local luminescence measurements. All conclusions drawn using the example of cathodoluminescence are useful for other luminescence techniques.

  7. Non-local massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Modesto, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We present a general covariant action for massive gravity merging together a class of "non-polynomial" and super-renormalizable or finite theories of gravity with the non-local theory of gravity recently proposed by Jaccard, Maggiore and Mitsou (arXiv:1305.3034 [hep-th]). Our diffeomorphism invariant action gives rise to the equations of motion appearing in non-local massive massive gravity plus quadratic curvature terms. Not only the massive graviton propagator reduces smoothly to the massless one without a vDVZ discontinuity, but also our finite theory of gravity is unitary at tree level around the Minkowski background. We also show that, as long as the graviton mass $m$ is much smaller the today's Hubble parameter $H_0$, a late-time cosmic acceleration can be realized without a dark energy component due to the growth of a scalar degree of freedom. In the presence of the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$, the dominance of the non-local mass term leads to a kind of "degravitation" for $\\Lambda$ at the late cos...

  8. Nonlocal response of hyperbolic metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correas-Serrano, D; Gomez-Diaz, J S; Tymchenko, M; Alù, A

    2015-11-16

    We analyze and model the nonlocal response of ultrathin hyperbolic metasurfaces (HMTSs) by applying an effective medium approach. We show that the intrinsic spatial dispersion in the materials employed to realize the metasurfaces imposes a wavenumber cutoff on the hyperbolic isofrequency contour, inversely proportional to the Fermi velocity, and we compare it with the cutoff arising from the structure granularity. In the particular case of HTMSs implemented by an array of graphene nanostrips, we find that graphene nonlocality can become the dominant mechanism that closes the hyperbolic contour - imposing a wavenumber cutoff at around 300k(0) - in realistic configurations with periodicity Lnonlocal response is mainly relevant in hyperbolic metasurfaces and metamaterials with periodicity below a few nm, being very weak in practical scenarios. In addition, we investigate how spatial dispersion affects the spontaneous emission rate of emitters located close to HMTSs. Our results establish an upper bound set by nonlocality to the maximum field confinement and light-matter interactions achievable in practical HMTSs, and may find application in the practical development of hyperlenses, sensors and on-chip networks.

  9. Making nonlocal reality compatible with relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, H.

    2010-01-01

    It is often argued that hypothetic nonlocal reality responsible for nonlocal quantum correlations between entangled particles cannot be consistent with relativity. I review the most frequent arguments of that sort, explain how they can all be circumvented, and present an explicit Bohmian model of nonlocal reality (compatible with quantum phenomena) that fully obeys the principle of relativistic covariance and does not involve a preferred Lorentz frame.

  10. Observation of Supercurrent Enhancement in SNS Junctions by Nonequilibrium Injection into Supercurrent Carrying Bound Andreev States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Taboryski, Rafael; Sørensen, Claus B.

    1999-01-01

    We report for the first time enhancement of the supercurrent by means of injection in a mesoscopic three terminal planar SN-SNS device made of Al on GaAs. When a current is injected from one of the superconducting Al electrodes at an injection bias V = Δ(T)/e, the dc Josephson current between the...... the other two superconducting electrodes has a maximum, giving evidence for an enhancement due to a nonequilibrium injection into bound Andreev states of the underlying semiconductor. The effect persists to temperatures where the equilibrium supercurrent has vanished....

  11. Nonlocal Gravity in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Chicone, C

    2015-01-01

    The implications of the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation for gravitational physics in the Solar System are investigated. In this theory, the nonlocal character of gravity simulates dark matter. Nonlocal gravity in the Newtonian regime involves a reciprocal kernel with three spatial parameters, of which two have already been determined from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies and the internal dynamics of clusters of galaxies. However, the short-range parameter a_0 remains to be determined. In this connection, the nonlocal contribution to the perihelion precession of a planetary orbit is estimated and a preliminary lower limit on a_0 is determined.

  12. Nonlocal gravity in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.

    2016-04-01

    The implications of the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation for gravitational physics in the solar system are investigated. In this theory, the nonlocal character of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. Nonlocal gravity in the Newtonian regime involves a reciprocal kernel with three spatial parameters, of which two have already been determined from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies and the internal dynamics of clusters of galaxies. However, the short-range parameter a 0 remains to be determined. In this connection, the nonlocal contribution to the perihelion precession of a planetary orbit is estimated and a preliminary lower limit on a 0 is determined.

  13. Origin of Dynamical Quantum Non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachon, Cesar E.; Pachon, Leonardo A.

    2014-03-01

    Non-locality is one of the hallmarks of quantum mechanics and is responsible for paradigmatic features such as entanglement and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Non-locality comes in two ``flavours'': a kinematic non-locality- arising from the structure of the Hilbert space- and a dynamical non-locality- arising from the quantum equations of motion-. Kinematic non-locality is unable to induce any change in the probability distributions, so that the ``action-at-a-distance'' cannot manifest. Conversely, dynamical non-locality does create explicit changes in probability, though in a ``causality-preserving'' manner. The origin of non-locality of quantum measurements and its relations to the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, such as the uncertainty principle, have been only recently elucidated. Here we trace the origin of dynamical non-locality to the superposition principle. This relation allows us to establish and identify how the uncertainty and the superposition principles determine the non-local character of the outcome of a quantum measurement. Being based on group theoretical and path integral formulations, our formulation admits immediate generalizations and extensions to to, e.g., quantum field theory. This work was supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion -COLCIENCIAS- of Colombia under the grant number 111556934912.

  14. Perturbative loop corrections and nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Maggiore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocal gravity has been shown to provide a phenomenologically viable infrared modification of GR. A natural question is whether the required nonlocality can emerge from perturbative quantum loop corrections due to light particles. We show that this is not the case. For the value of the mass scale of the non-local models required by cosmology, the perturbative form factors obtained from the loop corrections, in the present cosmological epoch, are in the regime where they are local. The mechanism behind the generation of the required nonlocality must be more complex, possibly related to strong infrared effects and non-perturbative mass generation for the conformal mode.

  15. Local and Nonlocal Regularization to Image Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image interpolation model with local and nonlocal regularization. A nonlocal bounded variation (BV regularizer is formulated by an exponential function including gradient. It acts as the Perona-Malik equation. Thus our nonlocal BV regularizer possesses the properties of the anisotropic diffusion equation and nonlocal functional. The local total variation (TV regularizer dissipates image energy along the orthogonal direction to the gradient to avoid blurring image edges. The derived model efficiently reconstructs the real image, leading to a natural interpolation which reduces blurring and staircase artifacts. We present experimental results that prove the potential and efficacy of the method.

  16. Causality, Non-Locality and Negative Refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Forcella, Davide; Carminati, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    The importance of spatial non-locality in the description of negative refraction in electromagnetic materials has been put forward recently. We develop a theory of negative refraction in homogeneous and isotropic media, based on first principles, and that includes non-locality in its full generality. The theory shows that both dissipation and spatial non-locality are necessary conditions for the existence of negative refraction. It also provides a sufficient condition in materials with weak spatial non-locality. These fundamental results should have broad implications in the theoretical and practical analyses of negative refraction of electromagnetic and other kinds of waves.

  17. Nonlocal response in thin-film waveguides: loss versus nonlocality and breaking of complementarity

    CERN Document Server

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Mortensen, N Asger

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of nonlocal response on the surface-plasmon polariton guiding properties of the metal-insulator (MI), metal-insulator-metal (MIM), and insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) waveguides. The nonlocal effects are described by a linearized hydrodynamic model, which includes the Thomas-Fermi internal kinetic energy of the free electrons in the metal. We derive the nonlocal dispersion relations of the three waveguide structures taking into account also retardation and interband effects, and examine the delicate interplay between nonlocal response and absorption losses in the metal. We also show that nonlocality breaks the complementarity of the MIM and IMI waveguides found in the non-retarded limit.

  18. Fano effect and Andreev bound states in a hybrid superconductor–ferromagnetic nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, E.C., E-mail: ezcostta@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR, 84016210, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Orellana, P.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 3939, Santiago (Chile); Cestari, R.C. [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Figueira, M.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas 13083-859, SP (Brazil)

    2015-10-16

    In this work, it is considered a hybrid nanostructure composed by a quantum dot coupled to two ferromagnetic leads and a superconductor lead. It is shown that the zero-bias transmittance for the co-tunneling between the ferromagnetic leads presents Fano anti-resonances due to the destructive interference between the two spin channels mixing by the relative orientation of the magnetizations in the leads. When the superconductor is coupled to the system, electron–hole correlations between different spin states lead to a resonance in the place of the dip appearing in the transmittance. Such an effect is accompanied by two Fano anti-resonances explained by a “leakage” of conduction channels from the co-tunneling to the Andreev transport. In the non-equilibrium regime, correlations within the quantum dot introduce a dependence of the resonance condition on the finite bias applied to the ferromagnetic leads. However, it is still possible to observe signatures of the same interference effect in the electrical current. - Highlights: • We have studied an hybrid nanostructure composed by quantum dot coupled to a superconductor and two ferromagnets. • The interplay between spin polarization and Andreev bound states leads to a Fano-like effect. • The Fano-like effect manifests as a resonance in the transmittance for the transport between the ferromagnets.

  19. Nonlocality of a single particle

    OpenAIRE

    Dunningham, Jacob; Vedral, Vlatko

    2007-01-01

    There has been a great deal of debate surrounding the issue of whether it is possible for a single photon to exhibit nonlocality. A number of schemes have been proposed that claim to demonstrate this effect, but each has been met with significant opposition. The objections hinge largely on the fact that these schemes use unobservable initial states and so, it is claimed, they do not represent experiments that could actually be performed. Here we show how it is possible to overcome these objec...

  20. Non-Local Means Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a new denoising method called non-local means. The method is based on a simple principle: replacing the color of a pixel with an average of the colors of similar pixels. But the most similar pixels to a given pixel have no reason to be close at all. It is therefore licit to scan a vast portion of the image in search of all the pixels that really resemble the pixel one wants to denoise. The paper presents two implementations of the method and displays some results.

  1. Monotone method for nonlinear nonlocal hyperbolic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmy S. Ackleh

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results concerning the application of the monotone method for studying existence and uniqueness of solutions to general first-order nonlinear nonlocal hyperbolic problems. The limitations of comparison principles for such nonlocal problems are discussed. To overcome these limitations, we introduce new definitions for upper and lower solutions.

  2. Nonlocality as Evidence for a Multiverse Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tipler, Frank J

    2010-01-01

    I show that observations of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as purely local phenomena, provided one assumes that the cosmos is a multiverse. Conversely, the observation of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as observation evidence for a multiverse cosmology, just as observation of the setting of the Sun can be interpreted as evidence for the Earth's rotation.

  3. Nonlocal study of ultimate plasmon hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    Within our recently proposed generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model, where nonlocal response is included by taking into account both convective and diffusive currents of the conduction electrons, we revisit the fundamental problem of an optically excited plasmonic dimer. We consider...

  4. A New Model of Nonlocal Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Ivan; Grujic, Jelena; Rakic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    We consider a new modified gravity model with nonlocal term of the form $R^{-1} \\mathcal{F}(\\Box) R. $ This kind of nonlocality is motivated by investigation of applicability of a few unusual ans\\"atze to obtain some exact cosmological solutions. In particular, we find attractive and useful quadratic ansatz $\\Box R = q R^{2}.$

  5. Attraction of nonlocal dark optical solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, Dragomir; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2004-01-01

    We study the formation and interaction of spatial dark optical solitons in materials with a nonlocal nonlinear response. We show that unlike in local materials, where dark solitons typically repel, the nonlocal nonlinearity leads to a long-range attraction and formation of stable bound states...... of dark solitons. (C) 2004 Optical Society of America...

  6. On instabilities in tensorial nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Nersisyan, Henrik; Amendola, Luca; Koivisto, Tomi S; Rubio, Javier; Solomon, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the cosmological implications of nonlocal modifications of general relativity containing tensorial structures. Assuming the presence of standard radiation- and matter-dominated eras, we show that, except in very particular cases, the nonlocal terms contribute a rapidly-growing energy density. These models therefore generically do not have a stable cosmological evolution.

  7. Multipole vector solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis; Vysloukh, Victor A; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2006-05-15

    We show that multipole solitons can be made stable via vectorial coupling in bulk nonlocal nonlinear media. Such vector solitons are composed of mutually incoherent nodeless and multipole components jointly inducing a nonlinear refractive index profile. We found that stabilization of the otherwise highly unstable multipoles occurs below certain maximum energy flow. Such a threshold is determined by the nonlocality degree.

  8. Creation of Entanglement with Nonlocal Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; CAO Wan-Cang; LONG Gui-Lu

    2005-01-01

    We discuss how to create more entanglement with nonlocal operations acting on two-particle states. For a given nonlocal operation, we find that some input states cannot produce entanglement and some produce the maximal entanglement, and find that any initial entangled states can produce more entanglement than initial product states.

  9. Spectral Dimension from Causal Set Nonlocal Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Belenchia, Alessio; Marciano, Antonino; Modesto, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spectral dimension obtained from non-local continuum d'Alembertians derived from causal sets. We find a universal dimensional reduction to 2 dimensions, in all dimensions. We conclude by discussing the validity and relevance of our results within the broader context of quantum field theories based on these nonlocal dynamics.

  10. Nonlocal and quasi-local field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Tomboulis, E T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate nonlocal field theories, a subject that has attracted some renewed interest in connection with nonlocal gravity models. We study, in particular, scalar theories of interacting delocalized fields, the delocalization being specified by nonlocal integral kernels. We distinguish between strictly nonlocal and quasi-local (compact support) kernels and impose conditions on them to insure UV finiteness and unitarity of amplitudes. We study the classical initial value problem for the partial integro-differential equations of motion in detail. We give rigorous proofs of the existence but accompanying loss of uniqueness of solutions due to the presence of future, as well as past, "delays," a manifestation of acausality. In the quantum theory we derive a generalization of the Bogoliubov causality condition equation for amplitudes, which explicitly exhibits the corrections due to nonlocality. One finds that, remarkably, for quasi-local kernels all acausal effects are confined within the compact support regi...

  11. Nonlocal Galileons and self-acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Yu, Siqing

    2017-05-01

    A certain class of nonlocal theories eliminates an arbitrary cosmological constant (CC) from a universe that can be perceived as our world. Dark energy then cannot be explained by a CC; it could however be due to massive gravity. We calculate the new corrections, which originate from the nonlocal terms that eliminate the CC, to the decoupling limit Lagrangian of massive gravity. The new nonlocal terms also have internal field space Galilean symmetry and are referred here as ;nonlocal Galileons.; We then study a self-accelerated solution and show that the new nonlocal terms change the perturbative stability analysis. In particular, small fluctuations are now stable and non-superluminal for some simple parameter choices, whereas for the same choices the pure massive gravity fluctuations are unstable. We also study stable spherically symmetric solutions on this background.

  12. Nonlocal Galileons and self-acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gabadadze

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A certain class of nonlocal theories eliminates an arbitrary cosmological constant (CC from a universe that can be perceived as our world. Dark energy then cannot be explained by a CC; it could however be due to massive gravity. We calculate the new corrections, which originate from the nonlocal terms that eliminate the CC, to the decoupling limit Lagrangian of massive gravity. The new nonlocal terms also have internal field space Galilean symmetry and are referred here as “nonlocal Galileons.” We then study a self-accelerated solution and show that the new nonlocal terms change the perturbative stability analysis. In particular, small fluctuations are now stable and non-superluminal for some simple parameter choices, whereas for the same choices the pure massive gravity fluctuations are unstable. We also study stable spherically symmetric solutions on this background.

  13. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Mashhoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for “isolated” astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy’s baryonic diameter D 0 —namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time—is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction f D M times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale λ 0 ≈ 3 ± 2 kpc.

  14. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we......We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves...... of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens...

  15. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-06-17

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we propose to measure the near-field distribution of a hyperbolic metamaterial lens.

  16. Nonlocal thermal transport in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpen, Judith T.; Devore, C. Richard

    1987-01-01

    A flaring solar atmosphere is modeled assuming classical thermal transport, locally limited thermal transport, and nonlocal thermal transport. The classical, local, and nonlocal expressions for the heat flux yield significantly different temperature, density, and velocity profiles throughout the rise phase of the flare. Evaporation of chromospheric material begins earlier in the nonlocal case than in the classical or local calculations, but reaches much lower upward velocities. Much higher coronal temperatures are achieved in the nonlocal calculations owing to the combined effects of delocalization and flux limiting. The peak velocity and momentum are roughly the same in all three cases. A more impulsive energy release influences the evolution of the nonlocal model more than the classical and locally limited cases.

  17. Non-local parallel transport in BOUT++

    CERN Document Server

    Omotani, J T; Havlickova, E; Umansky, M

    2015-01-01

    Non-local closures allow kinetic effects on parallel transport to be included in fluid simulations. This is especially important in the scrape-off layer, but to be useful there the non-local model requires consistent kinetic boundary conditions at the sheath. A non-local closure scheme based on solution of a kinetic equation using a diagonalized moment expansion has been previously reported. We derive a method for imposing kinetic boundary conditions in this scheme and discuss their implementation in BOUT++. To make it feasible to implement the boundary conditions in the code, we are lead to transform the non-local model to a different moment basis, better adapted to describe parallel dynamics. The new basis has the additional benefit of enabling substantial optimization of the closure calculation, resulting in an O(10) speedup of the non-local code.

  18. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, B

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for "isolated" astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy's baryonic diameter---namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time---is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale of about 3 kpc.

  19. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2016-05-01

    Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for "isolated" astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy's baryonic diameter---namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time---is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale of about 3 kpc.

  20. Nonlocal Quantum Effects in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii V. Dumin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since it is commonly believed that the observed large-scale structure of the universe is an imprint of quantum fluctuations existing at the very early stage of its evolution, it is reasonable to pose the question: do the effects of quantum nonlocality, which are well established now by the laboratory studies, manifest themselves also in the early universe? We try to answer this question by utilizing the results of a few experiments, namely, with the superconducting multi-Josephson-junction loops and the ultracold gases in periodic potentials. Employing a close analogy between the above-mentioned setups and the simplest one-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model, we show that the specific nonlocal correlations revealed in the laboratory studies might be of considerable importance also in treating the strongly nonequilibrium phase transitions of Higgs fields in the early universe. Particularly, they should substantially reduce the number of topological defects (e.g., domain walls expected due to independent establishment of the new phases in the remote spatial regions. This gives us a hint on resolving a long-standing problem of the excessive concentration of topological defects, inconsistent with observational constraints. The same effect may be also relevant to the recent problem of the anomalous behavior of cosmic microwave background fluctuations at large angular scales.

  1. The neglected nonlocal effects of deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, Johannes; Reick, Christian; Pongratz, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation changes surface temperature locally via biogeophysical effects by changing the water, energy and momentum balance. Adding to these locally induced changes (local effects), deforestation at a given location can cause changes in temperature elsewhere (nonlocal effects). Most previous studies have not considered local and nonlocal effects separately, but investigated the total (local plus nonlocal) effects, for which global deforestation was found to cause a global mean cooling. Recent modeling and observational studies focused on the isolated local effects: The local effects are relevant for local living conditions, and they can be obtained from in-situ and satellite observations. Observational studies suggest that the local effects of potential deforestation cause a warming when averaged globally. This contrast between local warming and total cooling indicates that the nonlocal effects of deforestation are causing a cooling and thus counteract the local effects. It is still unclear how the nonlocal effects depend on the spatial scale of deforestation, and whether they still compensate the local warming in a more realistic spatial distribution of deforestation. To investigate this, we use a fully coupled climate model and separate local and nonlocal effects of deforestation in three steps: Starting from a forest world, we simulate deforestation in one out of four grid boxes using a regular spatial pattern and increase the number of deforestation grid boxes step-wise up to three out of four boxes in subsequent simulations. To compare these idealized spatial distributions of deforestation to a more realistic case, we separate local and nonlocal effects in a simulation where deforestation is applied in regions where it occurred historically. We find that the nonlocal effects scale nearly linearly with the number of deforested grid boxes, and the spatial distribution of the nonlocal effects is similar for the regular spatial distribution of deforestation

  2. Can EPR non-locality be geometrical?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ne`eman, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences]|[Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Particle Physics; Botero, A. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The presence in Quantum Mechanics of non-local correlations is one of the two fundamentally non-intuitive features of that theory. The non-local correlations themselves fall into two classes: EPR and Geometrical. The non-local characteristics of the geometrical type are well-understood and are not suspected of possibly generating acausal features, such as faster-than-light propagation of information. This has especially become true since the emergence of a geometrical treatment for the relevant gauge theories, i.e. Fiber Bundle geometry, in which the quantum non-localities are seen to correspond to pure homotopy considerations. This aspect is reviewed in section 2. Contrary-wise, from its very conception, the EPR situation was felt to be paradoxical. It has been suggested that the non-local features of EPR might also derive from geometrical considerations, like all other non-local characteristics of QM. In[7], one of the authors was able to point out several plausibility arguments for this thesis, emphasizing in particular similarities between the non-local correlations provided by any gauge field theory and those required by the preservation of the quantum numbers of the original EPR state-vector, throughout its spatially-extended mode. The derivation was, however, somewhat incomplete, especially because of the apparent difference between, on the one hand, the closed spatial loops arising in the analysis of the geometrical non-localities, from Aharonov-Bohm and Berry phases to magnetic monopoles and instantons, and on the other hand, in the EPR case, the open line drawn by the positions of the two moving decay products of the disintegrating particle. In what follows, the authors endeavor to remove this obstacle and show that as in all other QM non-localities, EPR is somehow related to closed loops, almost involving homotopy considerations. They develop this view in section 3.

  3. Local, nonlocal quantumness and information theoretic measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Sazim, Sk; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Pati, Arun K.

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that there may exist quantum correlations that go beyond entanglement. The existence of such correlations can be revealed by information theoretic quantities such as quantum discord, but not by the conventional measures of entanglement. We argue that a state displays quantumness, that can be of local and nonlocal origin. Information theoretic measures not only characterize the nonlocal quantumness, but also the local quantumness, such as the “local superposition”. This can be a reason, why such measures are nonzero, when there is no entanglement. We consider a generalized version of the Werner state to demonstrate the interplay of local quantumness, nonlocal quantumness and classical mixedness of a state.

  4. Nonlocal study of ultimate plasmon hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Mortensen, N Asger

    2015-03-01

    Within our recently proposed generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model, where nonlocal response is included by taking into account both convective and diffusive currents of the conduction electrons, we revisit the fundamental problem of an optically excited plasmonic dimer. We consider the transition from separated dimers via touching dimers to finally overlapping dimers. In particular, we focus on the touching case, showing a fundamental limit on the hybridization of the bonding plasmon modes due to nonlocality. Using transformation optics, we determine a simple analytical equation for the resonance energies.

  5. Nonlocal-response diffusion model of holographic recording in photopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, John T.; Lawrence, Justin R.

    2000-01-01

    The standard one-dimensional diffusion equation is extended to include nonlocal temporal and spatial medium responses. How such nonlocal effects arise in a photopolymer is discussed. It is argued that assuming rapid polymer chain growth, any nonlocal temporal response can be dealt with so that the response can be completely understood in terms of a steady-state nonlocal spatial response. The resulting nonlocal diffusion equation is then solved numerically, in low-harmonic approximation, to de...

  6. Film edge nonlocal spin valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Andrew T; Johnson, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Spintronics is a new paradigm for integrated digital electronics. Recently established as a niche for nonvolatile magnetic random access memory (MRAM), it offers new functionality while demonstrating low-power and high-speed performance. However, to reach high density spintronic technology must make a transition to the nanometer scale. Prototype devices are presently made using a planar geometry and have an area determined by the lithographic feature size, currently about 100 nm. Here we present a new nonplanar geometry in which one lateral dimension is given by a film thickness, on the order of 10 nm. With this new approach, cell sizes can shrink by an order of magnitude. The geometry is demonstrated with a nonlocal spin valve, where we study devices with an injector/detector separation much less than the spin diffusion length.

  7. Nonlocality in uniaxially polarizable media

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlach, Maxim A

    2015-01-01

    We reveal extraordinary electromagnetic properties for a general class of uniaxially polarizable media. Depending on parameters, such metamaterials may have wide range of nontrivial shapes of isofrequency contours including lemniscate, diamond and multiply connected curves with connectivity number reaching five. The possibility of the dispersion engineering paves a way to more flexible manipulation of electromagnetic waves. Employing first-principle considerations we prove that uniaxially polarizable media should be described in terms of the nonlocal permittivity tensor which by no means can be reduced to local permittivity and permeability even in the long-wavelength limit. We introduce an alternative set of local material parameters including quadrupole susceptibility capable to capture all of the second-order spatial dispersion effects.

  8. Experimental many-pairs nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Hou Shun; Cerè, Alessandro; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Cai, Yu; Sangouard, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Collective measurements on large quantum systems together with a majority voting strategy can lead to a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. In the presence of many entangled pairs, this violation decreases quickly with the number of pairs and vanishes for some critical pair number that is a function of the noise present in the system. Here we show that a different binning strategy can lead to a more substantial Bell violation when the noise is sufficiently small. Given the relation between the critical pair number and the source noise, we then present an experiment where the critical pair number is used to quantify the quality of a high visibility photon pair source. Our results demonstrate nonlocal correlations using collective measurements operating on clusters of more than 40 photon pairs.

  9. Experimental test of nonlocal causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell's local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect.

  10. Experimental test of nonlocal causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell’s local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect. PMID:27532045

  11. Nonlocal response in thin-film waveguides: Loss versus nonlocality and breaking of complementarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Christensen, Thomas; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of nonlocal response on the surface-plasmon polariton guiding properties of the metal-insulator (MI), metal-insulator-metal (MIM), and insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) waveguides. The nonlocal effects are described by a linearized hydrodynamic model, which includes...... in the metal. We also show that nonlocality breaks the complementarity of the MIM and IMI waveguides found in the nonretarded limit....

  12. Probing the dynamics of Andreev states in a coherent normal/superconducting ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, F; Ferrier, M; Tikhonov, K; Virtanen, P; Heikkilä, T T; Feigelman, M; Guéron, S; Bouchiat, H

    2011-01-01

    The supercurrent that establishes between two superconductors connected through a normal N mesoscopic link is carried by quasiparticule states localized within the link, the "Andreev bound states (ABS)". Whereas the dc properties of this supercurrent in SNS junctions are now well understood, its dynamical properties are still an unresolved issue. In this letter we probe this dynamics by inductively coupling an NS ring to a multimode superconducting resonator, thereby implementing both a phase bias and current detection at high frequency. Whereas at very low temperatures we essentially measure the phase derivative of the supercurrent, at higher temperature we find a surprisingly strong frequency dependence in the current response of the ring: the ABS do not follow adiabatically the phase modulation. This experiment also illustrates a new tool to probe the fundamental time scales of phase coherent systems that are decoupled from macroscopic normal contacts and thermal baths.

  13. General investigation for longitudinal wave propagation under magnetic field effect via nonlocal elasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.GÜVEN

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the propagation of longitudinal stress waves under a longitu-dinal magnetic field is addressed using a unified nonlocal elasticity model with two scale coefficients. The analysis of wave motion is mainly based on the Love rod model. The effect of shear is also taken into account in the framework of Bishop’s correction. This analysis shows that the classical theory is not sufficient for this subject. However, this unified nonlocal elasticity model solely used in the present study reflects in a manner fairly realistic for the effect of the longitudinal magnetic field on the longitudinal wave propagation.

  14. Some generalizations of the nonlocal transformations approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tychynin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some generalizations of a method of nonlocal transformations are proposed: a con­nection of given equations via prolonged nonlocal transformations and finding of an adjoint solution to the solutions of initial equation are considered. A concept of nonlocal transformation with additional variables is introduced, developed and used for searching symmetries of differential equations. A problem of inversion of the nonlocal transforma­tion with additional variables is investigated and in some cases solved. Several examples are presented. Derived technique is applied for construction of the algorithms and for­mulae of generation of solutions. The formulae derived are used for construction of exact solutions of some nonlinear equations.

  15. Dispersive shock waves with nonlocal nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Barsi, Christopher; Sun, Can; Fleischer, Jason W

    2007-01-01

    We consider dispersive optical shock waves in nonlocal nonlinear media. Experiments are performed using spatial beams in a thermal liquid cell, and results agree with a hydrodynamic theory of propagation.

  16. Dispersive shock waves with nonlocal nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie; Sun, Can; Fleischer, Jason W

    2007-10-15

    We consider dispersive optical shock waves in nonlocal nonlinear media. Experiments are performed using spatial beams in a thermal liquid cell, and results agree with a hydrodynamic theory of propagation.

  17. Family of nonlocal bound entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sixia; Oh, C. H.

    2017-03-01

    Bound entanglement, being entangled yet not distillable, is essential to our understanding of the relations between nonlocality and entanglement besides its applications in certain quantum information tasks. Recently, bound entangled states that violate a Bell inequality have been constructed for a two-qutrit system, disproving a conjecture by Peres that bound entanglement is local. Here we construct this kind of nonlocal bound entangled state for all finite dimensions larger than two, making possible their experimental demonstration in most general systems. We propose a Bell inequality, based on a Hardy-type argument for nonlocality, and a steering inequality to identify their nonlocality. We also provide a family of entanglement witnesses to detect their entanglement beyond the Bell inequality and the steering inequality.

  18. Employee Travel Data (Non-Local)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — ‘This dataset provides information regarding the total approved actual expenses incurred by Montgomery County government employees traveling non-locally (over 75...

  19. Nonlocal optical effects on the Goos-Hänchen shift at an interface of a composite material of metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J H; Leung, P T

    2013-07-01

    We present a theoretical study on the nonlocal optical effects on the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift of reflected light from a composite material of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs). Using different nonlocal effective medium models, it is observed that such effects can be significant for small MNP of sizes down to a few nanometers. For small metallic volume fractions, the composite behaves like dielectric and the nonlocal effects lead to significant different Brewster angles, at which large negative GH shifts take place. For larger volume fractions or shorter wavelengths, the composite behaves more like metals and the nonlocal effects also lead to different Brewster angles but at values close to grazing incidence. These results will have significant implications in the application of different effective medium models for the characterization of these nanometallic composites when the MNPs are down to a few nanometers in size.

  20. Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian [CNRS LTCI, Département Informatique et Réseaux, Telecom ParisTech, 23 avenue d' Italie, CS 51327, 75214 Paris CEDEX 13 (France)

    2014-12-04

    The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.

  1. On a Nonlocal Damping Model in Ferromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moumni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model describing nonlocal damping in magnetization dynamics. The model consists of a modified form of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation for the evolution of the magnetization vector in a rigid ferromagnet. We give a global existence result and characterize the long time behaviour of the obtained solutions. The sensitivity of the model with respect to large and small nonlocal damping parameters is also discussed.

  2. Quantum theory of nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Vyas, Vivek M

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger model is quantised and exactly solved using the canonical framework. It is found that the usual canonical quantisation of the model leads to a theory with pathological inner product. This problem is resolved by constructing another inner product over the vector space of the theory. The resultant theory is found to be identical to that of nonrelativistic bosons with delta function interaction potential, devoid of any nonlocality. The exact eigenstates are found using the Bethe ansatz technique.

  3. Experimental falsification of Leggett's nonlocal variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciard, Cyril; Ling, Alexander; Gisin, Nicolas; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Scarani, Valerio

    2007-11-23

    Bell's theorem guarantees that no model based on local variables can reproduce quantum correlations. Also, some models based on nonlocal variables, if subject to apparently "reasonable" constraints, may fail to reproduce quantum physics. In this Letter, we introduce a family of inequalities, which use a finite number of measurement settings, and which therefore allow testing Leggett's nonlocal model versus quantum physics. Our experimental data falsify Leggett's model and are in agreement with quantum predictions.

  4. Nonlocal optical effects on the Goos-Hänchen shifts at multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Bian, Tingting; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Leung, P. T.

    2016-02-01

    The lateral beam shift of light incident on a multilayered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) is investigated using a theoretical model which emphasizes the nonlocal optical response of the indefinite material. By applying an effective local response theory formulated recently in the literature, it is found that nonlocal effects only affect p polarized light in this Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift of the incident beam; leading to a blue-shifted peak for positive shifts at high frequencies and red-shifted dip for negative shifts at low frequencies in the GH shift spectrum. An account for the observed phenomenon is given by referring to the ‘Brewster condition’ for the reflected wave from the HMM. This observation thus provides a relatively direct probe for the nonlocal response of the HMM.

  5. Robust non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.

  6. Nonlocal Infrared Modifications of Gravity. A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Maggiore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We review an approach developed in the last few years by our group in which GR is modified in the infrared, at an effective level, by nonlocal terms associated to a mass scale. We begin by recalling the notion of quantum effective action and its associated nonlocalities, illustrating some of their features with the anomaly-induced effective actions in $D=2$ and $D=4$. We examine conceptual issues of nonlocal theories such as causality, degrees of freedoms and ghosts, stressing the importance of the fact that these nonlocalities only emerge at the effective level. We discuss a particular class of nonlocal theories where the nonlocal operator is associated to a mass scale, and we show that they perform very well in the comparison with cosmological observations, to the extent that they fit CMB, supernovae, BAO and structure formation data at a level fully competitive with $\\Lambda$CDM, with the same number of free parameters. We explore some extensions of these `minimal' models, and we finally discuss some direc...

  7. Effects of Nonlocality on Transfer Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Titus, Luke J

    2016-01-01

    We solved the nonlocal scattering and bound state equations using the Perey-Buck type interaction, and compared to local equivalent calculations. Using the distorted wave Born approximation we construct the T-matrix for (p,d) transfer on 17O, 41Ca, 49Ca, 127Sn, 133Sn, and 209Pb at 20 and 50 MeV. Additionally we studied (p,d) reactions on 40Ca using the the nonlocal dispersive optical model. We have also included nonlocality consistently into the adiabatic distorted wave approximation and have investigated the effects of nonlocality on on (d,p) transfer reactions for deuterons impinged on 16O, 40Ca, 48Ca, 126Sn, 132Sn, 208Pb at 10, 20, and 50 MeV. We found that for bound states the Perry corrected wave functions resulting from the local equation agreed well with that from the nonlocal equation in the interior region, but discrepancies were found in the surface and peripheral regions. Overall, the Perey correction factor was adequate for scattering states, with the exception for a few partial waves. Nonlocality...

  8. Nonlocality without inequality for almost all two-qubit entangled states based on Cabello's nonlocality argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkri, Samir; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Ahanj, Ali; Joag, Pramod

    2006-02-01

    Here we deal with a nonlocality argument proposed by Cabello, which is more general than Hardy’s nonlocality argument, but still maximally entangled states do not respond. However, for most of the other entangled states, maximum probability of success of this argument is more than that of the Hardy’s argument.

  9. Spiralling solitons and multipole localized modes in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the propagation of rotating multi-soliton localized structures in optical media with spatially nonlocal nonlinearity. We demonstrate that nonlocality stabilizes the azimuthal breakup of rotating dipole as well as multipole localized soliton modes. We compare the results for two differe...... models of nonlocal nonlinearity and suggest that the stabilization mechanism is a generic property of a spatial nonlocal nonlinear response independent of its particular functional form.......We analyze the propagation of rotating multi-soliton localized structures in optical media with spatially nonlocal nonlinearity. We demonstrate that nonlocality stabilizes the azimuthal breakup of rotating dipole as well as multipole localized soliton modes. We compare the results for two different...

  10. Non-local Optical Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2010-11-01

    In all direct reactions to probe the structure of exotic nuclei at FRIB, optical potentials will be needed in the entrance and exit channels. At high energies Glauber approximations may be useful, but a low energies (5 to 20 MeV/nucleon) other approaches are required. Recent work of the UNEDF project [1] has shown that reaction cross sections at these energies can be accounted for by calculating all inelastic and transfer channels reachable by one particle-hole transitions from the elastic channel. In this model space, we may also calculate the two-step dynamic polarization potential (DPP) that adds to the bare folded potential to form the complex optical potential. Our calculations of the DPP, however, show that its non-localities are very significant, as well as the partial-wave dependence of both its real and imaginary components. The Perey factors (the wave function ratio to that from an equivalent local potential) are more than 20% different from unity, especially for partial waves inside grazing. These factors combine to suggest a reexamination of the validity of local and L-independent fitted optical potentials, especially for capture reactions that are dominated by low partial waves. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. [1] G.P.A. Nobre, F.S. Dietrich, J.E. Escher, I.J. Thompson, M. Dupuis, J. Terasaki and J. Engel, submitted to Phys. Rev. Letts., 2010.

  11. Slater's nonlocal exchange potential and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, I. A.; March, N. H.

    The local density approximation (LDA) to the exchange potential Vx(r), namely the ρ1/3 electron gas form, was already transcended in Slater's 1951 paper. Here, using Dirac's 1930 form for the exchange energy density γx(r), the Slater (Sl) nonlocal exchange potential V Slx(r) is defined by 2γx(r)/ρ(r). In spherical atomic ions, say the Be or Ne-like series, this form V Slx(r) already has the correct behavior in both r → 0 and r → ∞ limits when known properties of the exchange energy density γx(r) and the ground-state electron density ρ(r) are invoked. As examples, some emphasis will first be given to the use of the so-called 1/Z expansion in such spherical atomic ions, for which analytic results can be obtained for both γx(r) and ρ(r) as the atomic number Z becomes large. The usefulness of the 1/Z expansion is directly demonstrated for the U atomic ion with 18 electrons by comparison with the optimized effective potential prediction. A rather general integral equation for the exchange potential is then proposed. Finally, without appeal to large Z, two-level systems are considered, with specific reference to the Be atom and to the LiH molecule. In all cases treated, the Slater potential V Slx(r) is a valuable starting point, even though it needs appreciable quantitative corrections reflecting directly atomic shell structure.

  12. A Generalized Nonlocal Calculus with Application to the Peridynamics Model for Solid Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2014-01-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in [2] that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A generalization is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal...

  13. Josephson current and Andreev level dynamics in nanoscale superconducting weak links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Aldo

    2014-11-15

    In this thesis we focus on the interplay between proximity induced superconducting correlations and Coulomb interactions in a Josephson junction: i.e., in a system where two superconductors modeled as two s-wave superconductors at a phase difference φ are contacted by means of a weak link, in our case a quantum dot located in the contact. In the first part we study the Josephson current-phase relation for a multi-level quantum dot tunnel-contacted by two conventional s-waves superconductors. We determine in detail the conditions for observing a finite anomalous Josephson current, i.e. a supercurrent flowing at zero phase difference in a two-level dot with spin-orbit interactions, a weak magnetic (Zeeman) field, and in the presence of Coulomb interactions. This leads to an onset behavior I{sub a}∝sgn(B), interpreted as the sign of an incipient spontaneous breakdown of time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, we will provide conditions for realizing spatially separated - but topologically unprotected - Majorana bound states, whose signature in the system will be detectable via the current-phase relation. In the second part of the thesis, we address the Andreev bound state population dynamics in superconducting weak links (a superconducting 'atomic contact'), in which a poisoning mechanism due to the trapping of single quasiparticles can occur. Our motivation is that quantum coherent superconducting circuits are the most promising candidates for future large-scale quantum information processing devices. Moreover, quasiparticle poisoning has recently been observed in devices which contain a short superconducting weak link with few transport channels. We discuss a novel charge imbalance effect in the continuum quasiparticle population, which is due to phase fluctuations of the environment weakly coupled to the superconducting contact. This coupling enters the system as a transition rate connecting continuum quasiparticles and the Andreev bound state system. The

  14. Dynamics in Nonlocal Cosmological Models Derived from String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Joukovskaya, Liudmila

    2007-01-01

    A general class of nonlocal cosmological models is considered. A new method for solving nonlocal Friedmann equations is proposed, and solutions of the Friedmann equations with nonlocal operator are presented. The cosmological properties of these solutions are discussed. Especially indicated is $p$-adic cosmological model in which we have obtained nonsingular bouncing solution and string field theory tachyon model in which we have obtained full solution of nonlocal Friedmann equations with $w=...

  15. Transfer reaction code with nonlocal interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Titus, L J; Nunes, F M

    2016-01-01

    We present a suite of codes (NLAT for nonlocal adiabatic transfer) to calculate the transfer cross section for single-nucleon transfer reactions, $(d,N)$ or $(N,d)$, including nonlocal nucleon-target interactions, within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. For this purpose, we implement an iterative method for solving the second order nonlocal differential equation, for both scattering and bound states. The final observables that can be obtained with NLAT are differential angular distributions for the cross sections of $A(d,N)B$ or $B(N,d)A$. Details on the implementation of the T-matrix to obtain the final cross sections within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation method are also provided. This code is suitable to be applied for deuteron induced reactions in the range of $E_d=10-70$ MeV, and provides cross sections with $4\\%$ accuracy.

  16. Transfer reaction code with nonlocal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, L. J.; Ross, A.; Nunes, F. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a suite of codes (NLAT for nonlocal adiabatic transfer) to calculate the transfer cross section for single-nucleon transfer reactions, (d , N) or (N , d) , including nonlocal nucleon-target interactions, within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. For this purpose, we implement an iterative method for solving the second order nonlocal differential equation, for both scattering and bound states. The final observables that can be obtained with NLAT are differential angular distributions for the cross sections of A(d , N) B or B(N , d) A. Details on the implementation of the T-matrix to obtain the final cross sections within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation method are also provided. This code is suitable to be applied for deuteron induced reactions in the range of Ed =10-70 MeV, and provides cross sections with 4% accuracy.

  17. Towards an emerging understanding of non-locality phenomena and non-local transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K.; Shi, Z.; Sun, H. J.; Inagaki, S.; Kamiya, K.; Rice, J. E.; Tamura, N.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Zou, X. L.; Itoh, K.; Sugita, S.; Gürcan, O. D.; Estrada, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Hahm, T. S.; Field, A.; Ding, X. T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Oldenbürger, S.; Yoshinuma, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Jiang, M.; Hahn, S. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Hong, S. H.; Kosuga, Y.; Dong, J.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, recent progress on experimental analysis and theoretical models for non-local transport (non-Fickian fluxes in real space) is reviewed. The non-locality in the heat and momentum transport observed in the plasma, the departures from linear flux-gradient proportionality, and externally triggered non-local transport phenomena are described in both L-mode and improved-mode plasmas. Ongoing evaluation of ‘fast front’ and ‘intrinsically non-local’ models, and their success in comparisons with experimental data, are discussed

  18. Classification of scalar and dyadic nonlocal optical response models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal optical response is one of the emerging effects on the nanoscale for particles made of metals or doped semiconductors. Here we classify and compare both scalar and tensorial nonlocal response models. In the latter case the nonlocality can stem from either the longitudinal response...

  19. Nonlocal regularization of abelian models with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate how nonlocal regularization is applied to gauge invariant models with spontaneous symmetry breaking. Motivated by the ability to find a nonlocal BRST invariance that leads to the decoupling of longitudinal gauge bosons from physical amplitudes, we show that the original formulation of the method leads to a nontrivial relationship between the nonlocal form factors that can appear in the model.

  20. Nonlocality and entanglement as opposite properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vallone, G; Gómez, E S; Cañas, G; Larsson, J -A; Mataloni, P; Cabello, A

    2011-01-01

    We show that, for any chained Bell inequality with any number of settings, nonlocality and entanglement are not only essentially different properties but opposite ones. We first show that, in the absence of noise, the threshold detection efficiency for a loophole-free Bell test increases with the degree of entanglement, so that the closer the quantum states are to product states, the harder it is to reproduce the quantum predictions with local models. In the presence of white noise, we show that nonlocality and entanglement are simultaneously maximized only in the presence of extreme noise; in any other case, the lowest threshold detection efficiency is obtained by reducing the entanglement.

  1. A Classical Framework for Nonlocality and Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Groessing, Gerhard; Pascasio, Johannes Mesa; Schwabl, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Based on our model of quantum systems as emerging from the coupled dynamics between oscillating "bouncers" and the space-filling zero-point field, a sub-quantum account of nonlocal correlations is given. This is explicitly done for the example of the "double two-slit" variant of two-particle interferometry. However, it is also shown that the entanglement in two-particle interferometry is only a natural consequence of the fact that already a "single" two-slit experiment can be described on a sub-quantum level with the aid of "entangling currents" of a generally nonlocal nature.

  2. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction.

  3. Reversed rainbow with a nonlocal metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Tiago A., E-mail: tiago.morgado@co.it.pt; Marcos, João S.; Silveirinha, Mário G., E-mail: mario.silveirinha@co.it.pt [Department of Electrical Engineering, Instituto de Telecomunicações, University of Coimbra, 3030 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, João T. [CST AG, Bad Nauheimer Strasse 19, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Costa, Jorge R. [Instituto de Telecomunicações and Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), 1649-026 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, Carlos A. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, and Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-12-29

    One of the intriguing potentials of metamaterials is the possibility to realize a nonlocal electromagnetic reaction, such that the effective medium response at a given point is fundamentally entangled with the macroscopic field distribution at long distances. Here, it is experimentally and numerically verified that a microwave nonlocal metamaterial formed by crossed metallic wires enables a low-loss broadband anomalous material response such that the refractive index decreases with frequency. Notably, it is shown that an electromagnetic beam refracted by our metamaterial prism creates a reversed microwave rainbow.

  4. Breather solitons in highly nonlocal media

    CERN Document Server

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the breathing of optical spatial solitons in highly nonlocal media. Generalizing the Ehrenfest theorem, we demonstrate that oscillations in beam width obey a fourth-order ordinary differential equation. Moreover, in actual highly nonlocal materials, the original accessible soliton model by Snyder and Mitchell [Science \\textbf{276}, 1538 (1997)] cannot accurately describe the dynamics of self-confined beams as the transverse size oscillations have a period which not only depends on power but also on the initial width. Modeling the nonlinear response by a Poisson equation driven by the beam intensity we verify the theoretical results against numerical simulations.

  5. Low energy signatures of nonlocal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Saravani, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    The response of inertial particle detectors coupled to a scalar field satisfying nonlocal dynamics described by nonanalytic functions of the d'Alembertian operator □ is studied. We show that spontaneous emission processes of a low energy particle detector are very sensitive to high-energy nonlocality scales. This allows us to suggest a nuclear physics experiment (˜MeV energy scales) that outperforms the sensitivity of LHC experiments by many orders of magnitude. This may have implications for the falsifiability of theoretical proposals of quantum gravity.

  6. Quadratic solitons for negative effective second-harmonic diffraction as nonlocal solitons with periodic nonlocal response function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B.K.; Bache, Morten; Krolikowski, W.;

    2012-01-01

    We employ the formal analogy between quadratic and nonlocal solitons to investigate analytically the properties of solitons and soliton bound states in second-harmonic generation in the regime of negative diffraction or dispersion of the second harmonic. We show that in the nonlocal description t...... this regime corresponds to a periodic nonlocal response function. We then use the strongly nonlocal approximation to find analytical solutions of the families of single bright solitons and their bound states in terms of Mathieu functions....

  7. Nonlocality without inequalities for two-qubit mixed states based on Cabello's nonlocality [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin-mei; Li, Cheng-zu

    2005-02-01

    This Letter presents nonlocality without inequalities for two-qubit mixed states. This Letter was mainly sparked by Cabello's work [Phys. Rev. A 65 (2003) 032108] and is an extension of our recent work [Phys. Lett. A 318 (2003) 300].

  8. Interaction of Nonlocal Incoherent White-Light Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Chun-Fu; GUO Qi

    2007-01-01

    The propagation and interaction of nonlocal incoherent white-light solitons in strongly nonlocal kerr media is investigated. Numerical simulations show that the interaction properties of nonlocal incoherent white-light solitons are different from the case in local media. The interactions of nonlocal incoherent white-light solitons are always attractive independent of their relative phase, while the other parameters such as the extent of nonlocality and the input power have a great impact on the soliton interactions. Pertinent numerical examples are presented to show their propagation and interaction behaviour further.

  9. Consequences and applications of the completeness of Hardy's nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Shane

    2017-02-01

    Logical nonlocality is completely characterized by Hardy's "paradox" in (2 ,2 ,l ) and (2 ,k ,2 ) scenarios. We consider a variety of consequences and applications of this fact. (i) Polynomial algorithms may be given for deciding logical nonlocality in these scenarios. (ii) Bell states are the only entangled two-qubit states which are not logically nonlocal under projective measurements. (iii) It is possible to witness Hardy nonlocality with certainty in a simple tripartite quantum system. (iv) Noncommutativity of observables is necessary and sufficient for enabling logical nonlocality.

  10. On nonlocal problems for ordinary differential equations and on a nonlocal parabolic transmission problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Denche

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we study nonlocal problems for ordinary differential equations with a discontinuous coefficient for the high order derivative. We establish sufficient conditions, known as regularity conditions, which guarantee the coerciveness for both the space variable and the spectral parameter, as well as guarantee the completeness of the system of root functions. The results obtained are then applied to the study of a nonlocal parabolic transmission problem.

  11. Nonlocality as Evidence for a Multiverse Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    We show that observations of quantum nonlocaltiy can be interpreted as purely local phenomena, provided one assumes that the cosmos is a multiverse. Conversely, the observation of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as observation evidence for a multiverse cosmology, just as observation of the setting of the Sun can be interpreted as evidence for the Earth's rotation.

  12. Nonlocal dynamics of dissipative phononic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Navid; Lee, Yoonkyung E.; Lafarge, Denis; Duclos, Aroune; Fang, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    We describe the nonlocal effective properties of a two-dimensional dissipative phononic crystal made by periodic arrays of rigid and motionless cylinders embedded in a viscothermal fluid such as air. The description is based on a nonlocal theory of sound propagation in stationary random fluid/rigid media that was proposed by Lafarge and Nemati [Wave Motion 50, 1016 (2013), 10.1016/j.wavemoti.2013.04.007]. This scheme arises from a deep analogy with electromagnetism and a set of physics-based postulates including, particularly, the action-response procedures, whereby the effective density and bulk modulus are determined. Here, we revisit this approach, and clarify further its founding physical principles through presenting it in a unified formulation together with the two-scale asymptotic homogenization theory that is interpreted as the local limit. Strong evidence is provided to show that the validity of the principles and postulates within the nonlocal theory extends to high-frequency bands, well beyond the long-wavelength regime. In particular, we demonstrate that up to the third Brillouin zone including the Bragg scattering, the complex and dispersive phase velocity of the least-attenuated wave in the phononic crystal which is generated by our nonlocal scheme agrees exactly with that reproduced by a direct approach based on the Bloch theorem and multiple scattering method. In high frequencies, the effective wave and its associated parameters are analyzed by treating the phononic crystal as a random medium.

  13. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.;

    2005-01-01

    or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  14. Nonlocality and discrete cellular methods in optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C.M.J.; Boeij, de P.L.

    2001-01-01

    A subdivision of space into discrete cells underlies the traditional discrete dipole model. This model presumes that only nonlocal electric interactions between cells govern the electromagnetic response of a condensed matter system. Apart from the case of simple dielectrics, this is not realistic. C

  15. Circumferential nonlocal effect on the buckling and vibration of nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng Yuan, E-mail: cywang@ujs.edu.cn; Li, Xiao Hu; Luo, Ying

    2016-04-01

    The nonlocal beam theories are widely used to study the mechanics of cylindrical nanotubes (NTs). The one-dimensional models however are unable to account for the nonlocal effect in the circumferential direction, which may substantially affect the applicability of the nonlocal beam models. To address the issue this letter examines the circumferential nonlocal effect (CNE) on the buckling and vibration of the NTs. Here the CNE is characterized by the difference between the nonlocal beam model considering the axial nonlocal effect only and the nonlocal shell model with both axial and circumferential nonlocal effects. The aspect ratio and radius-dependence of the CNE are calculated for the singlewall carbon NTs selected as a typical example. The results show that the CNE is substantial for the buckling and vibration of the NTs with small radius (e.g., <1 nm) and aspect ratio (e.g., <15). It however decreases with the rising radius and the aspect ratio, and turns out to be small for relatively wide and long NTs. The nonlocal beam theories thus may overestimate the buckling load and vibration frequency for the thin and short NTs. - Highlights: • First revealed the substantial circumferential nonlocal effect (CNE) on nanotube buckling. • Achieved radius/aspect ratio-dependence of CNE on nanotube buckling and vibration. • Located the range of applicability of the nonlocal beam theory without CNE.

  16. Examining the effect of nonlocality in $(d,n)$ transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, A; Nunes, F M

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the last year we have been exploring the effect of the explicit inclusion of nonlocality in (d,p) reactions. Purpose: The goal of this work is to extend previous studies to (d,n) reactions, which, although similar to (d,p), have specific properties that merit inspection. Method: We apply our methods (both the distorted wave Born approximation and the adiabatic wave approximation) to $(d,n)$ reactions on $^{16}$O, $^{40}$Ca, $^{48}$Ca, $^{126}$Sn, $^{132}$Sn, and $^{208}$Pb at $20$ and $50$ MeV. Results: We look separately at the modifications introduced by nonlocality in the final bound and scattering states, as well as the consequences reflected on the differential angular distributions. The cross sections obtained when using nonlocality explicitly are significantly different than those using the local approximation, just as in (d,p). Due to the particular role of Coulomb in the bound state, often we found the effects of nonlocality to be larger in (d,n) than in (d,p). Conclusions: Our results...

  17. Seismic data filtering using non-local means algorithm based on structure tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Chen, Anqing; Chen, Hongde

    2017-05-01

    Non-Local means algorithm is a new and effective filtering method. It calculates weights of all similar neighborhoods' center points relative to filtering point within searching range by Gaussian weighted Euclidean distance between neighborhoods, then gets filtering point's value by weighted average to complete the filtering operation. In this paper, geometric distance of neighborhood's center point is taken into account in the distance measure calculation, making the non-local means algorithm more reasonable. Furthermore, in order to better protect the geometry structure information of seismic data, we introduce structure tensor that can depict the local geometrical features of seismic data. The coherence measure, which reflects image local contrast, is extracted from the structure tensor, is integrated into the non-local means algorithm to participate in the weight calculation, the control factor of geometry structure similarity is added to form a non-local means filtering algorithm based on structure tensor. The experimental results prove that the algorithm can effectively restrain noise, with strong anti-noise and amplitude preservation effect, improving PSNR and protecting structure information of seismic image. The method has been successfully applied in seismic data processing, indicating that it is a new and effective technique to conduct the structure-preserved filtering of seismic data.

  18. Low-damping epsilon-near-zero slabs: nonlinear and nonlocal optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    de Ceglia, Domenico; Campione, Salvatore; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; Capolino, Filippo; Scalora, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate second harmonic generation, low-threshold multistability, all-optical switching, and inherently nonlocal effects due to the free-electron gas pressure in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial slab made of cylindrical, plasmonic nanoshells illuminated by TM-polarized light. Damping compensation in the ENZ frequency region, achieved by using gain medium inside the shells' dielectric cores, enhances the nonlinear properties. Reflection is inhibited and the electric field compone...

  19. Coherent diffusive transport mediated by Andreev reflections at V=Delta/e in a mesoscopic superconductor/semiconductor/superconductor junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Kuhn, Oliver

    1997-01-01

    We present experiments revealing a singularity in the coherent current across a superconductor/semiconductor/superconductor (SSmS) junction at the bias voltage corresponding to the superconducting energy gap V=Delta/e. The SSmS structure consists of highly doped GaAs with superconducting electrodes...

  20. Classification of scalar and dyadic nonlocal optical response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubs, M

    2015-11-30

    Nonlocal optical response is one of the emerging effects on the nanoscale for particles made of metals or doped semiconductors. Here we classify and compare both scalar and tensorial nonlocal response models. In the latter case the nonlocality can stem from either the longitudinal response, the transverse response, or both. In phenomenological scalar models the nonlocal response is described as a smearing out of the commonly assumed infinitely localized response, as characterized by a distribution with a finite width. Here we calculate explicitly whether and how tensorial models, such as the hydrodynamic Drude model and generalized nonlocal optical response theory, follow this phenomenological description. We find considerable differences, for example that nonlocal response functions, in contrast to simple distributions, assume negative and complex values. Moreover, nonlocal response regularizes some but not all diverging optical near fields. We identify the scalar model that comes closest to the hydrodynamic model. Interestingly, for the hydrodynamic Drude model we find that actually only one third (1/3) of the free-electron response is smeared out nonlocally. In that sense, nonlocal response is stronger for transverse and scalar nonlocal response models, where the smeared-out fractions are 2/3 and 3/3, respectively. The latter two models seem to predict novel plasmonic resonances also below the plasma frequency, in contrast to the hydrodynamic model that predicts standing pressure waves only above the plasma frequency.

  1. Higher harmonic nonlocal polymerization driven diffusion model: generalized nonlinearities and nonlocal responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John V.; O'Brien, Jeff; O'Neill, Feidhlim T.; Gleeson, Michael R.; Sheridan, John T.

    2004-10-01

    Non-local and non-linear models of photopolymer materials, which include diffusion effects, have recently received much attention in the literature. The material response is non-local as it is assumed that monomers are polymerised to form polymer chains and that these chains grow away from a point of initiation. The non-locality is defined in terms of a spatial non-local material response function. The numerical method of solution typically involves retaining either two or four harmonics of the Fourier series of monomer concentration in the calculation. In this paper a general set of equations is derived which allows inclusion of higher number of harmonics for any response function. The numerical convergence for varying number of harmonics retained is investigated with special care being taken to note the effect of the; non-local material variance s, the power law degree k, and the rates of diffusion, D, and polymerisation F0. General non-linear material responses are also included.

  2. Nonlocal Operational Calculi for Dunkl Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Dimovski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional Dunkl operator $D_k$ with a non-negative parameter $k$, is considered under an arbitrary nonlocal boundary value condition. The right inverse operator of $D_k$, satisfying this condition is studied. An operational calculus of Mikusinski type is developed. In the frames of this operational calculi an extension of the Heaviside algorithm for solution of nonlocal Cauchy boundary value problems for Dunkl functional-differential equations $P(D_ku = f$ with a given polynomial $P$ is proposed. The solution of these equations in mean-periodic functions reduces to such problems. Necessary and sufficient condition for existence of unique solution in mean-periodic functions is found.

  3. Nonlocal diffusion second order partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, I.; Loi, N. V.; Malaguti, L.; Taddei, V.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with a second order integro-partial differential equation in Rn with a nonlocal, degenerate diffusion term. Nonlocal conditions, such as the Cauchy multipoint and the weighted mean value problem, are investigated. The existence of periodic solutions is also studied. The dynamic is transformed into an abstract setting and the results come from an approximation solvability method. It combines a Schauder degree argument with an Hartman-type inequality and it involves a Scorza-Dragoni type result. The compact embedding of a suitable Sobolev space in the corresponding Lebesgue space is the unique amount of compactness which is needed in this discussion. The solutions are located in bounded sets and they are limits of functions with values in finitely dimensional spaces.

  4. Quantum Loops in Non-Local Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Talaganis, Spyridon

    2015-01-01

    In this proceedings, I will consider quantum aspects of a non-local, infinite-derivative scalar field theory - a ${\\it toy \\, model}$ depiction of a covariant infinite-derivative, non-local extension of Einstein's general relativity which has previously been shown to be free from ghosts around the Minkowski background. The graviton propagator in this theory gets an exponential suppression making it ${\\it asymptotically \\, free}$, thus providing strong prospects of resolving various classical and quantum divergences. In particular, I will find that at $1$-loop, the $2$-point function is still divergent, but once this amplitude is renormalized by adding appropriate counter terms, the ultraviolet (UV) behavior of all other $1$-loop diagrams as well as the $2$-loop, $2$-point function remains well under control. I will go on to discuss how one may be able to generalize our computations and arguments to arbitrary loops.

  5. Nonlocal Condensate Model for QCD Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Ron-Chou

    2009-01-01

    We include effects of nonlocal quark condensates into QCD sum rules (QSR) via the K$\\ddot{\\mathrm{a}}$ll$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$n-Lehmann representation for a dressed fermion propagator, in which a negative spectral density function manifests their nonperturbative nature. Applying our formalism to the pion form factor as an example, QSR results are in good agreement with data for momentum transfer squared up to $Q^2 \\approx 10 $ GeV$^2$. It is observed that the nonlocal quark-condensate contribution descends like $1/Q^4$, different from the exponential decrease in $Q^2$ obtained in the literature, and contrary to the linear rise in the local-condensate approximation.

  6. Nonlocal inhomogeneous broadening in plasmonic nanoparticle ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    Nonclassical effects are increasingly more relevant in plasmonics as modern nanofabrication techniques rapidly approach the extreme nanoscale limits, for which departing from classical electrodynamics becomes important. One of the largest-scale necessary corrections towards this direction...... is to abandon the local response approximation (LRA) and take the nonlocal response of the metal into account, typically through the simple hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM), which predicts a sizedependent deviation of plasmon modes from the quasistatic (QS) limit. While this behaviour has been explored for simple...... averaging through both HDM and the recent Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response (GNOR) theory, which apart from the resonance frequency shifts accounts successfully for size-dependent damping as well. We examine NPs made of either ideal Drude-like metals [of plasmon frequency (wavelength) ωp (λp...

  7. An Adaptive Iterated Nonlocal Interferometry Filtering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interferometry filtering is one of the key steps in obtain high-precision Digital Elevation Model (DEM and Digital Orthophoto Map (DOM. In the case of low-correlation or complicated topography, traditional phase filtering methods fail in balancing noise elimination and phase preservation, which leads to inaccurate interferometric phase. This paper proposed an adaptive iterated nonlocal interferometry filtering method to deal with the problem. Based on the thought of nonlocal filtering, the proposed method filters the image with utilization of the image redundancy information. The smoothing parameter of the method is adaptive to the interferometry, and automatic iteration, in which the window size is adjusted, is applied to improve the filtering precision. Validity of the proposed method is verified by simulated and real data. Comparison with existed methods is given at the same time.

  8. Nonlocal neurology: beyond localization to holonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, G G; O'Carroll, C P

    2010-11-01

    The concept of local pathology has long served neurology admirably. Relevant models include self-organizing nonlinear brain dynamics, global workspace and dynamic core theories. However such models are inconsistent with certain clinical phenomena found in Charles Bonnet syndrome, disjunctive agnosia and schizophrenia, where there is disunity of content within the unity of consciousness. This is contrasted with the split-brain case where there is disunity of content and disunity of consciousnesses. The development of quantum brain theory with it nonlocal mechanisms under the law of the whole ("holonomy") offers new possibilities for explaining disintegration within unity. Dissipative quantum brain dynamics and its approach to the binding problem, memory and consciousness are presented. A nonlocal neurology armed with a holonomic understanding might see more deeply into what clinical neurology has always aspired to: the patient as a whole.

  9. Non-local geometry inside Lifshitz horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi; Lee, Sung-Sik

    2017-07-01

    Based on the quantum renormalization group, we derive the bulk geometry that emerges in the holographic dual of the fermionic U( N ) vector model at a nonzero charge density. The obstruction that prohibits the metallic state from being smoothly deformable to the direct product state under the renormalization group flow gives rise to a horizon at a finite radial coordinate in the bulk. The region outside the horizon is described by the Lifshitz geometry with a higher-spin hair determined by microscopic details of the boundary theory. On the other hand, the interior of the horizon is not described by any Riemannian manifold, as it exhibits an algebraic non-locality. The non-local structure inside the horizon carries the information on the shape of the filled Fermi sea.

  10. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: nonlocal limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, S.; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2012-01-01

    Giant field enhancement and field singularities are a natural consequence of the commonly employed local-response framework. We show that a more general nonlocal treatment of the plasmonic response leads to new and possibly fundamental limitations on field enhancement with important consequences ...... by periodic arrays of half-cylinders (up to 120 nm in radius), we find no enhancement factors exceeding 10 orders of magnitude (10(10)). (C) 2012 Optical Society of America...

  11. Structure of Nonlocal Vacuum Condensate of Quarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽娟; 马维兴

    2003-01-01

    The Dyson-Schwinger formalism is used to derive a fully dressed quark propagator. By use of the derived form of the quark propagator, the structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate is studied, and the values of local quark vacuum condensate as well as quark gluon mixed condensate are calculated. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the empirical one used commonly in the literature.

  12. Popper's experiment, Copenhagen Interpretation and Nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, T

    2003-01-01

    A thought experiment, proposed by Karl Popper, which has been experimentally realized recently, is critically examined. A basic flaw in Popper's argument which has also been prevailing in subsequent debates, is pointed out. It is shown that Popper's experiment can be understood easily within the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. An alternate experiment, based on discrete variables, is proposed, which constitutes Popper's test in a clearer way. It refutes the argument of absence of nonlocality in quantum mechanics.

  13. Nonlocal Optical Response of Plasmonic Nanowire Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    exceptional properties that are not readily found in nature. There are numerous applications in modern optics which can be realized through the study and...K., R. C. McPhedran, and Vladimir M. Shalaev. " Electrodynamics of metal-dielectric composites and electromagnetic crystals." Physical Review B 62.12...16.10 (2008): 7460-7470. [41] Pokrovsky, A. L., and A. L. Efros. "Nonlocal electrodynamics of two-dimensional wire mesh photonic crystals." Physical

  14. Fully nonlocal, monogamous and random genuinely multipartite quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Aolita, Leandro; Cabello, Adán; Acín, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Local measurements on bipartite maximally entangled states can yield correlations that are maximally nonlocal, monogamous, and associated to fully random outcomes. This makes these states ideal for bipartite cryptographic tasks. Genuine-multipartite nonlocality constitutes a stronger notion of nonlocality that appears in the multipartite case. Maximal genuine-multipartite nonlocality, monogamy and full random outcomes are thus highly desired properties for multipartite correlations in intrinsically genuine-multipartite cryptographic scenarios. We prove that local measurements on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, for all local dimension and number of parts, can produce correlations that are fully genuine-multipartite nonlocal, monogamous and with fully random outcomes. A key ingredient in our proof is a multipartite chained Bell inequality detecting genuine-multipartite nonlocality, which we introduce. Finally, we discuss the applications of our results for intrinsically genuine-multipartite cryptographic pr...

  15. FILAMENTATION INSTABILITY OF LASER BEAMS IN NONLOCAL NONLINEAR MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文双春; 范滇元

    2001-01-01

    The filamentation instability of laser beams propagating in nonlocal nonlinear media is investigated. It is shown that the filamentation instability can occur in weakly nonlocal self-focusing media for any degree of nonlocality, and in defocusing media for the input light intensity exceeding a threshold related to the degree of nonlocality. A linear stability analysis is used to predict the initial growth rate of the instability. It is found that the nonlocality tends to suppress filamentation instability in self-focusing media and to stimulate filamentation instability in self-defocusing media. Numerical simulations confirm the results of the linear stability analysis and disclose a recurrence phenomenon in nonlocal self-focusing media analogous to the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem.

  16. Maximum quantum nonlocality between systems that never interacted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabello, Adán, E-mail: adan@us.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-12-03

    We show that there is a stronger form of bipartite quantum nonlocality in which systems that never interacted are as nonlocal as allowed by no-signaling. For this purpose, we first show that nonlocal boxes, theoretical objects that violate a bipartite Bell inequality as much as the no-signaling principle allows and which are physically impossible for most scenarios, are feasible if the two parties have 3 measurements with 4 outputs. Then we show that, in this case, entanglement swapping allows us to prepare mixtures of nonlocal boxes using systems that never interacted. -- Highlights: ► We show quantum correlations as nonlocal as allowed by no-signaling between systems that never interacted. ► We show that nonlocal boxes are feasible if 2 parties have 3 measurements with 4 outputs. ► Experimental implementations of 1 and 2 are proposed.

  17. Nonlocal modeling of granular flows down inclines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrin, Ken; Henann, David L

    2015-01-07

    Flows of granular media down a rough inclined plane demonstrate a number of nonlocal phenomena. We apply the recently proposed nonlocal granular fluidity model to this geometry and find that the model captures many of these effects. Utilizing the model's dynamical form, we obtain a formula for the critical stopping height of a layer of grains on an inclined surface. Using an existing parameter calibration for glass beads, the theoretical result compares quantitatively to existing experimental data for glass beads. This provides a stringent test of the model, whose previous validations focused on driven steady-flow problems. For layers thicker than the stopping height, the theoretical flow profiles display a thickness-dependent shape whose features are in agreement with previous discrete particle simulations. We also address the issue of the Froude number of the flows, which has been shown experimentally to collapse as a function of the ratio of layer thickness to stopping height. While the collapse is not obvious, two explanations emerge leading to a revisiting of the history of inertial rheology, which the nonlocal model references for its homogeneous flow response.

  18. Relativistic three-partite non-locality

    CERN Document Server

    Montakhab, A

    2015-01-01

    Bell-like inequalities have been used in order to distinguish non-local quantum pure states by various authors. The behavior of such inequalities under Lorentz transformation has been a source of debate and controversies in the past. In this paper, we consider the two most commonly studied three-particle pure states, that of W and GHZ states which exhibit distinctly different type of entanglement. We discuss the various types of three-particle inequalities used in previous studies and point to their corresponding shortcomings and strengths. Our main result is that if one uses Svetlichny's inequality as the main measure of non-locality and uses the same angles in the rest frame ($S$) as well as the moving frame ($S^{\\prime}$), then maximally violated inequality in $S$ will decrease in the moving frame, and will eventually lead to lack of non-locality ( i.e. satisfaction of inequality) in the $v \\rightarrow c$ limit. This is shown for both GHZ and W states and in two different configurations which are commonly ...

  19. Nonlocal Gravity and Structure in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Park, Sohyun [Penn State U., University Park, IGC

    2014-08-26

    The observed acceleration of the Universe can be explained by modifying general relativity. One such attempt is the nonlocal model of Deser and Woodard. Here we fix the background cosmology using results from the Planck satellite and examine the predictions of nonlocal gravity for the evolution of structure in the universe, confronting the model with three tests: gravitational lensing, redshift space distortions, and the estimator of gravity $E_G$. Current data favor general relativity (GR) over nonlocal gravity: fixing primordial cosmology with the best fit parameters from Planck leads to weak lensing results favoring GR by 5.9 sigma; redshift space distortions measurements of the growth rate preferring GR by 7.8 sigma; and the single measurement of $E_G$ favoring GR, but by less than 1-sigma. The significance holds up even after the parameters are allowed to vary within Planck limits. The larger lesson is that a successful modified gravity model will likely have to suppress the growth of structure compared to general relativity.

  20. The frustrated Brownian motion of nonlocal solitary waves

    CERN Document Server

    Folli, Viola

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of solitary waves in a nonlocal medium in the presence of disorder. By using a perturbational approach, we show that an increasing degree of nonlocality may largely hamper the Brownian motion of self-trapped wave-packets. The result is valid for any kind of nonlocality and in the presence of non-paraxial effects. Analytical predictions are compared with numerical simulations based on stochastic partial differential equation

  1. The non-local content of quantum operations

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, D; Popescu, S; Collins, Daniel; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu

    2000-01-01

    We show that quantum operations on multi-particle systems have a non-local content; this mirrors the non-local content of quantum states. We introduce a general framework for discussing the non-local content of quantum operations, and give a number of examples. Quantitative relations between quantum actions and the entanglement and classical communication resources needed to implement these actions are also described. We also show how entanglement can catalyse classical communication from a quantum action.

  2. A Nonlocal Model for Carbon Nanotubes under Axial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Barretta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various beam theories are formulated in literature using the nonlocal differential constitutive relation proposed by Eringen. A new variational framework is derived in the present paper by following a consistent thermodynamic approach based on a nonlocal constitutive law of gradient-type. Contrary to the results obtained by Eringen, the new model exhibits the nonlocality effect also for constant axial load distributions. The treatment can be adopted to get new benchmarks for numerical analyses.

  3. Proposal for revealing quantum nonlocality via local contextuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Adán

    2010-06-04

    Two distant systems can exhibit quantum nonlocality even though the correlations between them admit a local model. This nonlocality can be revealed by testing extra correlations between successive measurements on one of the systems which do not admit a noncontextual model whatever the reduced state of this system is. This shows that quantum contextuality plays a fundamental role in quantum nonlocality, and allows an experimental test of the Kochen-Specker with locality theorem.

  4. Low-damping epsilon-near-zero slabs: nonlinear and nonlocal optical properties

    CERN Document Server

    de Ceglia, Domenico; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; Capolino, Filippo; Scalora, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate second harmonic generation, low-threshold multistability, all-optical switching, and inherently nonlocal effects due to the free-electron gas pressure in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial slab made of cylindrical, plasmonic nanoshells illuminated by TM-polarized light. Damping compensation in the ENZ frequency region, achieved by using gain medium inside the shells' dielectric cores, enhances the nonlinear properties. Reflection is inhibited and the electric field component normal to the slab interface is enhanced near the effective pseudo-Brewster angle, where the effective \\epsilon-near-zero condition triggers a non-resonant, impedance-matching phenomenon. We show that the slab displays a strong effective, spatial nonlocality associated with leaky modes that are mediated by the compensation of damping. The presence of these leaky modes then induces further spectral and angular conditions where the local fields are enhanced, thus opening new windows of opportunity for the enhancement of ...

  5. Effects of nonlocal response on the density of states of hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    Metamaterials with a hyperbolic dispersion curve, called hyperbolic metamaterials, exhibit an amazing broad-band singularity in the photonic density of states in the usual local-response approximation. In this paper, under the framework of the hydrodynamic Drude model, we discuss the effects...... of the nonlocal response of the electron gas in the metal on the hyperbolic metamaterials. By using mean field theory, we derive the effective material parameters of the hyperbolic metamaterials. The original unbounded hyperbolic dispersion is found to be cut off at the wavevector inverse to the Fermi velocity....... By expanding the Green function in a plane-wave basis and using the transfer matrix method to calculate the reflection coefficients, we study the local density of states (LDOS) of hyperbolic metamaterials. We show that the nonlocal response of the electron gas in the metal removes the singularity of both...

  6. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palazuelos, Carlos, E-mail: cpalazue@mat.ucm.es [Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vidick, Thomas, E-mail: vidick@cms.caltech.edu [Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.

  7. Nonlocal effects on dynamic damage accumulation in brittle solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, E.P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a nonlocal analysis of the dynamic damage accumulation processes in brittle solids. A nonlocal formulation of a microcrack based continuum damage model is developed and implemented into a transient dynamic finite element computer code. The code is then applied to the study of the damage accumulation process in a concrete plate with a central hole and subjected to the action of a step tensile pulse applied at opposite edges of the plate. Several finite element discretizations are used to examine the mesh size effect. Comparisons between calculated results based on local and nonlocal formulations are made and nonlocal effects are discussed.

  8. Implementation of nonlocal quantum swap operation on two entangled pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亦庄; 顾永建; 陈立冰; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the implementation of nonlocal quantum swap operation on two spatially separated entangled pairs and we show that the operation can swap two qubits of these entangled pairs. We discuss the resourcesof the entangled qubits and classical communication bits required for the optimal implementation of the nonlocal quantum swap operation. We also put forward a scheme for probabilistic implementation of nonlocal swap operation via a nonmaximally entangled quantum channel. The probability of a successful nonlocal swap operation is obtained by introducing a collective unitary transformation.

  9. Nonlocality Sudden Birth and Transfer in System and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Liang

    2011-01-01

    Dynamics of the nonlocality measured by the violation of Svetlichny's Bell-type inequality is investigated in the non-Markovian model. The phenomenon of nonlocality sudden birth for the atoms and the reservoirs is obtained.The evolution of the nonlocality among the atoms or the reservoirs depends on the choice of the atom detuning from the cavity pseudomode, the cavity pseudomode decay and the rotation angles. For the small pseudomode decay in the near-resonance regime, the initial atomic nonlocality is completely transferred to the reservoirs ultimately.

  10. On a Nonlocal Problem Modelling Ohmic Heating in Planar Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei LIANG; Qi Lin LIU; Yu Xiang LI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the nonlocal problem of the form ut-△u=λe-u/(∫Ωe-udx)2,x∈Ω,t>0 and the associated nonlocal stationary problem -△v=λe-v/(∫Ωe-vdx)2,x∈Ω, where A is a positive parameter. For Ω to be an annulus, we prove that the nonlocal stationary problem has a unique solution if and only if λ < 2|(6)Ω|2, and for A = 2|(6)Ω|2, the solution of the nonlocal parabolic problem grows up globally to infinity as t → ∞.

  11. Nonlocal optical properties in periodic lattice of graphene layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Ruey-Lin; Han, Dezhuan

    2014-02-24

    Based on the effective medium model, nonlocal optical properties in periodic lattice of graphene layers with the period much less than the wavelength are investigated. Strong nonlocal effects are found in a broad frequency range for TM polarization, where the effective permittivity tensor exhibits the Lorentzian resonance. The resonance frequency varies with the wave vector and coincides well with the polaritonic mode. Nonlocal features are manifest on the emergence of additional wave and the occurrence of negative refraction. By examining the characters of the eigenmode, the nonlocal optical properties are attributed to the excitation of plasmons on the graphene surfaces.

  12. Nonlocalization of Nonlocal Symmetry and Symmetry Reductions of the Burgers Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金艳; 贾曼; 楼森岳

    2012-01-01

    Symmetry reduction method is one of the best ways to find exact solutions. In this paper, we study the possibility of symmetry reductions of the well known Burgers equation including the nonlocal symmetry. The related new group Jnvariant solutions are obtained. Especially, the interactions among solitons, Airy waves, and Kummer waves are explicitly given.

  13. Andreev reflection through a ferromagnet-quantum dot-superconductor system with intradot Coulomb correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudziński Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-dependent tunneling through a quantum dot coupled to one ferromagnetic and one superconducting electrodes is studied in the Andreev reflection (AR regime. Electrical conductance is calculated within the nonequilibrium Green function technique. Effects due to a competition between the Coulomb correlations on the dot and intradot spin-flip processes are considered in the linear transport regime and for different coupling strengths between the dot and the external electrodes. It is shown that when a coherent spin rotation is present on the dot, Coulomb interactions may lead to a significant enhancement of the AR tunneling current and even to the perfect AR transmission. Origin of occurrence of a variety of the multipeak structure of the linear conductance is also discussed.

  14. Nonlocal Transport in the Reversed Field Pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spizzo, G.; White, R. B.; Cappello, S.; Marrelli, L.

    2009-09-21

    Several heuristic models for nonlocal transport in plasmas have been developed, but they have had a limited possibility of detailed comparision with experimental data. Nonlocal aspects introduced by the existence of a known spectrum of relatively stable saturated tearing modes in a low current reversed field pinch offers a unique possibility for such a study. A numerical modelling of the magnetic structure and associated particle transport is carried out for the reversed-field pinch experiment at the Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy. A reproduction of the tearing mode spectrum with a guiding center code1 reliably reproduces the observed soft X-ray tomography. Following particle trajectories in the stochastic magnetic field shows the transport across the unperturbed flux surfaces to be due to a spectrum of Levy flights, with the details of the spectrum position dependent. The resulting transport is subdiffusive, and cannot be described by Rechester-Rosenbluth diffusion, which depends on a random phase approximation. If one attempts to fit the local transport phenomenologically, the subdiffusion can be fit with a combination of diffusion and inward pinch2. It is found that whereas passing particles explore the stochastic field and hence participate in Levy flights, the trapped particles experience normal neoclassical diffusion. A two fluid nonlocal Montroll equation is used to model this transport, with a Levy flight defined as the motion of an ion during the period that the pitch has one sign. The necessary input to the Montroll equation consists of a time distribution for the Levy flights, given by the pitch angle scattering operator, and a distribution of the flight distances, determined numerically using a guiding center code. Results are compared to experiment. The relation of this formulation to fractional kinetics is also described.

  15. Nonlocal Crowd Dynamics Models for several Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Colombo, Rinaldo M

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the basic analytical theory related to some recently introduced crowd dynamics models. Where well posedness was known only locally in time, it is here extended to all of $\\reali^+$. The results on the stability with respect to the equations are improved. Moreover, here the case of several populations is considered, obtaining the well posedness of systems of multi-D non-local conservation laws. The basic analytical tools are provided by the classical Kruzkov theory of scalar conservation laws in several space dimensions.

  16. The nonlocal elastomagnetoelectrostatics of disordered micropolar media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabychenkov, A. F.; Lisiovskii, F. V., E-mail: lisf@rambler.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The interactions of electric, magnetic, and elastic subsystems in nonlinear disordered micropolar media that possess a bending–torsion tensor and an nonsymmetric strain tensor have been studied in the framework of phenomenological elastomagnetoelectrostatics. A system of nonlinear equations for determining the ground state of these media has been obtained by the variational method. It is shown that nonuniform external and internal rotations not only create elastic stresses, but also generate additional electric and magnetic fields, while nonuniform elastic stresses and external fields induce internal rotations. The nonlocal character of the micropolar media significantly influences elementary excitations and nonlinear dynamic processes.

  17. Non-local modeling of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    Numerical studies of non-local plasticity effects on different materials and problems are carried out. Two different theories are used. One is of lower order in that it retains the structure of a conventional plasticity boundary value problem, while the other is of higher order and employs higher...... order stresses as work conjugates to higher order strains and uses higher order boundary conditions. The influence of internal material length parameters is studied, and the effects of higher order boundary conditions are analyzed. The focus of the thesis is on metal-matrix composites, and non...

  18. Uncertainty, non-locality and Bell's inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Pati, A K

    1998-01-01

    We derive a Bell-like inequality involving all correlations in local observables with uncertainty free states and show that the inequality is violated in quantum mechanics for EPR and GHZ states. If the uncertainties are allowed in local observables then the statistical predictions of hidden variable theory is well respected in quantum world. We argue that the uncertainties play a key role in understanding the non-locality issues in quantum world. Thus we can not rule out the possibility that a local, realistic hidden variable theory with statistical uncertainties in the observables might reproduce all the results of quantum theory.

  19. NONLOCAL CROWD DYNAMICS MODELS FOR SEVERAL POPULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rinaldo M. Colombo; Magali Lécureux-Mercier

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the basic analytical theory related to some recently introduced crowd dynamics models.Where well posedness was known only locally in time,it is here extended to all of R+.The results on the stability with respect to the equations are improved.Moreover,here the case of several populations is considered,obtaining the well posedness of systems of multi-D non-local conservation laws.The basic analytical tools are provided by the classical Kru(z)kov theory of scalar conservation laws in several space dimensions.

  20. Nonlocal calculation for nonstrange dibaryons and tribaryons

    CERN Document Server

    Mota, R D; Fernández, F; Entem, D R; Garcilazo, H

    2002-01-01

    We study the possible existence of nonstrange dibaryons and tribaryons by solving the bound-state problem of the two- and three-body systems composed of nucleons and deltas. The two-body systems are $NN$, $N\\Delta$, and $\\Delta\\Delta$, while the three-body systems are $NNN$, $NN\\Delta$, $N\\Delta\\Delta$, and $\\Delta\\Delta\\Delta$. We use as input the nonlocal $NN$, $N\\Delta$, and $\\Delta\\Delta$ potentials derived from the chiral quark cluster model by means of the resonating group method. We compare with previous results obtained from the local version based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

  1. Nonlocal formalism for nanoplasmonics: Phenomenological and semi-classical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    The plasmon response of metallic nanostructures is anticipated to exhibit nonlocal dynamics of the electron gas when exploring the true nanoscale. We extend the local-response approximation (based on Ohm's law) to account for a general short-range nonlocal response of the homogeneous electron gas...

  2. Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K. S.; Abulizi, G.; de Jong, M. P.; van der Wiel, W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing.

  3. On nonlocal symmetries of some shallow water equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Enrique G [Departamento de Matematicas y Ciencia de la Computacion, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307 Correo 2 Santiago (Chile)

    2007-04-27

    A recent construction of nonlocal symmetries for the Korteweg-de Vries, Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton equations is reviewed, and it is pointed out that-in the Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton case-these symmetries can be considered as (nonlocal) symmetries of integro-differential equations.

  4. Solutions to nonlocal fractional differential equations using a noncompact semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochun Ji

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the existence of solutions to nonlocal fractional differential equations in Banach spaces. By using a type of newly-defined measure of noncompactness, we discuss this problem in general Banach spaces without any compactness assumptions to the operator semigroup. Some existence results are obtained when the nonlocal term is compact and when is Lipschitz continuous.

  5. Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K. S.; Abulizi, G.; de Jong, M. P.; van der Wiel, W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing. PMID:26732751

  6. Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K.S.; Abulizi, G.; Jong, de M.P.; Wiel, van der W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is we

  7. A Note on a Nonlocal Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We give an application of the Crandall-Rabinowitz theorem on local bifurcation to a system of nonlinear parabolic equations with nonlocal reaction and cross-diffusion terms as well as nonlocal initial conditions. The system arises as steady-state equations of two interacting age-structured populations.

  8. Nonlocal thin films in calculations of the Casimir force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.; Svetovoy, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Casimir force is calculated between plates with thin metallic coating. Thin films are described with spatially dispersive (nonlocal) dielectric functions. For thin films the nonlocal effects are more relevant than for half-spaces. However, it is shown that even for film thickness smaller than th

  9. Anomalous interaction of nonlocal solitons in media with competing nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B. K.; Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate properties of individual bright spatial solitons and their interaction in nonlocal media with competing focusing and defocusing nonlinearities. We consider the general case with both nonlinear responses characterized by different strengths and degrees of nonlocality. We...... and interaction of solitons using numerical simulations of the full model of beam propagation. The numerical simulations fully confirm our analytical results....

  10. Spectral dimension from nonlocal dynamics on causal sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Marcianò, Antonino; Modesto, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the spectral dimension obtained from nonlocal continuum d'Alembertians derived from causal sets. We find a universal dimensional reduction to two dimensions, in all dimensions. We conclude by discussing the validity and relevance of our results within the broader context of quantum field theories based on these nonlocal dynamics.

  11. Origin and effect of nonlocality in a layered composite.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A simple demonstration of nonlocality in a heterogeneous material is presented. By analysis of the microscale deformation of a two-component layered medium, it is shown that nonlocal interactions necessarily appear in a homogenized model of the system. Explicit expressions for the nonlocal forces are determined. The way these nonlocal forces appear in various nonlocal elasticity theories is derived. The length scales that emerge involve the constituent material properties as well as their geometrical dimen- sions. A peridynamic material model for the smoothed displacement eld is derived. It is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data that the incorporation of non- locality in modeling dramatically improves the prediction of the stress concentration in an open hole tension test on a composite plate.

  12. Modulational instability in the nonlocal chi(2)-model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyller, John Andreas; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole

    2007-01-01

    We investigate in detail the linear regime of the modulational instability (MI) properties of the plane waves of the nonlocal model for chi((2))- media formulated in Nikolov et al. [N.I. Nikolov, D. Neshev, O. Bang, W.Z. Krolikowski, Quadratic solitons as nonlocal solitons, Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003...... in the parameter space for which a fundamental gain band exists, and regions for which higher order gain bands and modulational stability exist. We also show that the MI analysis for the nonlocal model is applicable in the finite walk-off case. Finally, we show that the plane waves of the nonlocal chi((2))-model...... of the nonlocal chi((2))-model, by using the singular perturbational approach. The other branch of the plane waves (i.e. the nonadiabatic branch or the optical branch) is always modulationally unstable. We compare the MI results for the adiabatic branch with the predictions obtained from the full chi((2))-model...

  13. Origin and effect of nonlocality in a layered composite.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A simple demonstration of nonlocality in a heterogeneous material is presented. By analysis of the microscale deformation of a two-component layered medium, it is shown that nonlocal interactions necessarily appear in a homogenized model of the system. Explicit expressions for the nonlocal forces are determined. The way these nonlocal forces appear in various nonlocal elasticity theories is derived. The length scales that emerge involve the constituent material properties as well as their geometrical dimen- sions. A peridynamic material model for the smoothed displacement eld is derived. It is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data that the incorporation of non- locality in modeling dramatically improves the prediction of the stress concentration in an open hole tension test on a composite plate.

  14. Notes on nonlocal projective measurements in relativistic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yuin

    2013-01-01

    In quantum mechanical bipartite systems, naive extensions of von Neumann's projective measurement to nonlocal variables can produce superluminal signals and thus violate causality. We analyze the projective quantum nondemolition state-verification in a two-spin system and see how the projection introduces nonlocality without entanglement. For the ideal measurements of "R-nonlocal" variables, we argue that causality violation can be resolved by introducing further restrictions on the post-measurement states, which makes the measurement "Q-nonlocal". After we generalize these ideas to quantum mechanical harmonic oscillators, we look into the projective measurements of the particle number of a single mode or a wave-packet of a relativistic quantum field in Minkowski space. It turns out that the causality-violating terms in the expectation values of the local operators, generated either by the ideal measurement of the "R-nonlocal" variable or the quantum nondemolition verification of a Fock state, are all suppres...

  15. Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2016-04-22

    Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.

  16. Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.

  17. Resonance frequency and mass identification of zeptogram-scale nanosensor based on the nonlocal beam theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Fang; Tang, Guo-Jin; Shen, Zhi-Bin; Lee, Kang Yong

    2015-01-01

    Free vibration and mass detection of carbon nanotube-based sensors are studied in this paper. Since the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes possess a size effect, the nonlocal beam model is used to characterize flexural vibration of nanosensors carrying a concentrated nanoparticle, where the size effect is reflected by a nonlocal parameter. For nanocantilever or bridged sensor, frequency equations are derived when a nanoparticle is carried at the free end or the middle, respectively. Exact resonance frequencies are numerically determined for clamped-free, simply-supported, and clamped-clamped resonators. Alternative approximations of fundamental frequency are given in closed form within the relative error less than 0.4%, 0.6%, and 1.4% for cantilever, simply-supported, and bridged sensors, respectively. Mass identification formulae are derived in terms of the frequency shift. Identified masses via the present approach coincide with those using the molecular mechanics approach and reach as low as 10(-24)kg. The obtained results indicate that the nonlocal effect decreases the resonance frequency except for the fundamental frequency of nanocantilever sensor. These results are helpful to the design of micro/nanomechanical zeptogram-scale biosensor.

  18. Nonlocalized cluster dynamics and nuclear molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Bo; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Ren, Zhongzhou; Röpke, Gerd; Schuck, Peter; Tohsaki, Akihiro; Xu, Chang; Yamada, Taiichi

    2013-01-01

    A container picture is proposed for understanding cluster dynamics where the clusters make nonlocalized motion occupying the lowest orbit of the cluster mean-field potential characterized by the size parameter $``B"$ in the THSR (Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-R\\"{o}pke) wave function. The nonlocalized cluster aspects of the inversion-doublet bands in $^{20}$Ne which have been considered as a typical manifestation of localized clustering are discussed. So far unexplained puzzling features of the THSR wave function, namely that after angular-momentum projection for two cluster systems the prolate THSR wave function is almost 100$\\%$ equivalent to an oblate THSR wave function is clarified. It is shown that the true intrinsic two-cluster THSR configuration is nonetheless prolate. The proposal of the container picture is based on the fact that typical cluster systems, 2$\\alpha$, 3$\\alpha$, and $\\alpha$+$^{16}$O, are all well described by a single THSR wave function. It will be shown for the case of linear-chain states w...

  19. Nonlinear structure formation in Nonlocal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Barreira, Alexandre; Hellwing, Wojciech A; Baugh, Carlton M; Pascoli, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    We study the nonlinear growth of structure in nonlocal gravity models with the aid of N-body simulation and the spherical collapse and halo models. We focus on a model in which the inverse-squared of the d'Alembertian operator acts on the Ricci scalar in the action. For fixed cosmological parameters, this model differs from $\\Lambda{\\rm CDM}$ by having a lower late-time expansion rate and an enhanced and time-dependent gravitational strength ($\\sim 6\\%$ larger today). Compared to $\\Lambda{\\rm CDM}$ today, in the nonlocal model, massive haloes are slightly more abundant (by $\\sim 10\\%$ at $M \\sim 10^{14} M_{\\odot}/h$) and concentrated ($\\approx 8\\%$ enhancement over a range of mass scales), but their linear bias remains almost unchanged. We find that the Sheth-Tormen formalism describes the mass function and halo bias very well, with little need for recalibration of free parameters. The fitting of the halo concentrations is however essential to ensure the good performance of the halo model on small scales. For...

  20. Structure of nonlocality of plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürcan, Ö. D.; Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Berionni, V.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; McDevitt, C. J.; Morel, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Storelli, A.; Bourdelle, C.; the Tore Supra Team

    2013-07-01

    Various indications on the weakly nonlocal character of turbulent plasma transport both from experimental fluctuation measurements from Tore Supra and observations from the full-f, flux-driven gyrokinetic code GYSELA are reported. A simple Fisher equation model of this weakly nonlocal dynamics can be formulated in terms of an evolution equation for the turbulent entropy density, which contains the basic phenomenon of radial turbulence spreading in addition to avalanche-like dynamics via coupling to profile modulations. A derivation of this model, which contains the so-called beach effect, a diffusive and convective flux components for the flux of turbulence intensity, in addition to linear group propagation is given, starting from the drift-kinetic equation. The proposed model has the form of a transport equation for turbulence intensity, and may be considered as an addition to transport modelling. The kinetic fluxes given, can be computed using model closures, or local gyrokinetics. The model is also used in a particular setup that represents the near edge region as a relatively stable zone between the core and edge region where the energy injection is locally more substantial. It is observed that with constant, physical coefficients, the model gives a convincing qualitative profile of fluctuation intensity when the turbulence is coming from the core region with either a group velocity or a convective flux.

  1. Non-local models for ductile failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    César de Sá, José; Azinpour, Erfan; Santos, Abel

    2016-08-01

    Ductile damage can be dealt with continuous descriptions of material, resorting, for example, to continuous damage mechanic descriptions or micromechanical constitutive models. When it comes to describe material behaviour near and beyond fracture these approaches are no longer sufficient or valid and continuous/discontinuous approaches can be adopted to track fracture initiation and propagation. Apart from more pragmatic solutions like element erosion or remeshing techniques more advanced approaches based on the X-FEM concept, in particular associated with non-local formulations, may be adopted to numerically model these problems. Nevertheless, very often, for practical reasons, some important aspects are somewhat left behind, specially energetic requirements to promote the necessary transition of energy release associated with material damage and fracture energy associated to a crack creation and evolution. Phase-field methods may combine advantages of regularised continuous models by providing a similar description to non-local thermodynamical continuous damage mechanics, as well as, a "continuous" approach to numerically follow crack evolution and branching

  2. Nonlocal Mumford-Shah regularizers for color image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miyoun; Bresson, Xavier; Chan, Tony F; Vese, Luminita A

    2011-06-01

    We propose here a class of restoration algorithms for color images, based upon the Mumford-Shah (MS) model and nonlocal image information. The Ambrosio-Tortorelli and Shah elliptic approximations are defined to work in a small local neighborhood, which are sufficient to denoise smooth regions with sharp boundaries. However, texture is nonlocal in nature and requires semilocal/non-local information for efficient image denoising and restoration. Inspired from recent works (nonlocal means of Buades, Coll, Morel, and nonlocal total variation of Gilboa, Osher), we extend the local Ambrosio-Tortorelli and Shah approximations to MS functional (MS) to novel nonlocal formulations, for better restoration of fine structures and texture. We present several applications of the proposed nonlocal MS regularizers in image processing such as color image denoising, color image deblurring in the presence of Gaussian or impulse noise, color image inpainting, color image super-resolution, and color filter array demosaicing. In all the applications, the proposed nonlocal regularizers produce superior results over the local ones, especially in image inpainting with large missing regions. We also prove several characterizations of minimizers based upon dual norm formulations.

  3. Quantum non-locality and relativity metaphysical intimations of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maudlin, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The third edition of Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity has been carefully updated to reflect significant developments, including a new chapter covering important recent work in the foundations of physics. A new edition of the premier philosophical study of Bell's Theorem and its implication for the relativistic account of space and timeDiscusses Roderich Tumiulka's explicit, relativistic theory that can reproduce the quantum mechanical violation of Bell's inequality. Discusses the "Free Will Theorem" of John Conway and Simon KochenIntroduces philosophers to the relevant physics and demonstra

  4. 14C/C measurements support Andreev's internode method to determine lichen growth rates in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E; Bench, G

    2007-12-05

    Growth rates and the ability to date an organism can greatly contribute to understanding its population biology and community dynamics. 1n 1954, Andreev proposed a method to date Cladina, a fruticose lichen, using total thallus length and number of internodes. No research, however, has demonstrated the reliability of this technique or compared its estimates to those derived by other means. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of {sup 14}C/C ratios to determine lichen age and growth rate in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti collected from northwestern Alaska, USA. The average growth rate using {sup 14}C/C ratios was 6.5 mm {center_dot} yr{sup -1}, which was not significantly different from growth rates derived by Andreev's internode method (average = 6.2 mm {center_dot} yr{sup -1}); thus, suggesting the reliability of Andreev's simple field method for dating lichens. In addition, we found lichen growth rates appeared to differ with geographic location, yet did not seem related to ambient temperature and total precipitation.

  5. Degenerate-band-edge engineering inspired by nonlocal transformation optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moccia Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the engineering of degenerate-band-edge effects in nonlocal metamaterials. Our approach, inspired by nonlocal-transformation-optics concepts, is based on the approximation of analytically-derived nonlocal constitutive “blueprints”. We illustrate the synthesis procedure, and present and validate a possible implementation based on multilayered metamaterials featuring anisotropic constituents. We also elucidate the physical mechanisms underlying our approach and proposed configuration, and highlight the substantial differences with respect to other examples available in the topical literature.

  6. Degenerate-band-edge engineering inspired by nonlocal transformation optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moccia Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the engineering of degenerate-band-edge effects in nonlocal metamaterials. Our approach, inspired by nonlocal-transformation-optics concepts, is based on the approximation of analytically-derived nonlocal constitutive “blueprints”. We illustrate the synthesis procedure, and present and validate a possible implementation based on multilayered metamaterials featuring anisotropic constituents. We also elucidate the physical mechanisms underlying our approach and proposed configuration, and highlight the substantial differences with respect to other examples available in the topical literature.

  7. Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rogério F.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2009-09-01

    The nonlocal nonlinearity of castor oil was investigated using the Z-scan technique in the CW regime at 514 nm and in femtosecond regime at 810 nm. Large negative nonlinear refractive indexes of thermal origin, thermo-optical coefficients and degree of nonlocality were obtained for both laser excitation wavelengths. The results indicate that the electronic part of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption were negligible. Our results suggest that castor oil is promising candidate as a nonlinear medium for several nonlocal optical applications, such as in spatial soliton propagation, as well as a dispersant agent in the measurement of absorptive properties of nanoparticles.

  8. Generic features of modulational instability in nonlocal Kerr media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyller, John; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole

    2002-01-01

    The modulational instability (MI) of plane waves in nonlocal Kerr media is studied for a general response function. Several generic properties are proven mathematically, with emphasis on how new gain bands are formed through a bifurcation process when the degree of nonlocality, sigma, passes...... the nonlocality tends to suppress MI, but can never remove it completely, irrespectively of the shape of the response function. For a defocusing nonlinearity the stability properties depend sensitively on the profile of the response function. For response functions with a positive-definite spectrum...

  9. Unusual resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Toscano, Giuseppe; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    We study the nonlocal response of a confined electron gas within the hydrodynamical Drude model. We address the question as to whether plasmonic nanostructures exhibit nonlocal resonances that have no counterpart in the local-response Drude model. Avoiding the usual quasistatic approximation, we...... find that such resonances do indeed occur, but only above the plasma frequency. Thus the recently found nonlocal resonances at optical frequencies for very small structures, obtained within quasistatic approximation, are unphysical. As a specific example we consider nanosized metallic cylinders...

  10. Theory of nonlocal soliton interaction in nematic liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2005-01-01

    We investigate interactions between spatial nonlocal bright solitons in nematic liquid crystals using an analytical “effective particle” approach as well as direct numerical simulations. The model predicts attraction of out-of-phase solitons and the existence of their stable bound state....... This nontrivial property is solely due to the nonlocal nature of the nonlinear response of the liquid crystals. We further predict and verify numerically the critical outwards angle and degree of nonlocality which determine the transition between attraction and repulsion of out-of-phase solitons....

  11. Strain analysis of nonlocal viscoelastic Kelvin bar in tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue-chuan; LEI Yong-jun; ZHOU Jian-ping

    2008-01-01

    Based on viscoelastic Kelvin model and nonlocal relationship of strain and stress, a nonlocal constitutive relationship of viscoelasticity is obtained and the strain response of a bar in tension is studied. By transforming governing equation of the strain analysis into Volterra integration form and by choosing a symmetric exponential form of kernel function and adapting Neumann series, the closed-form solution of strain field of the bar is obtained. The creep process of the bar is presented. When time approaches infinite, the strain of bar is equal to the one of nonlocal elasticity.

  12. Stochastic waves in a Brusselator model with nonlocal interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancalani, Tommaso; Galla, Tobias; McKane, Alan J

    2011-08-01

    We show that intrinsic noise can induce spatiotemporal phenomena such as Turing patterns and traveling waves in a Brusselator model with nonlocal interaction terms. In order to predict and to characterize these stochastic waves we analyze the nonlocal model using a system-size expansion. The resulting theory is used to calculate the power spectra of the stochastic waves analytically and the outcome is tested successfully against simulations. We discuss the possibility that nonlocal models in other areas, such as epidemic spread or social dynamics, may contain similar stochastically induced patterns.

  13. Non-local thin films in Casimir force calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, R

    2005-01-01

    he Casimir force is calculated between plates with thin metallic coating. Thin films are described with spatially dispersive (nonlocal) dielectric functions. For thin films the nonlocal effects are more relevant than for half-spaces. However, it is shown that even for film thickness smaller than the mean free path for electrons, the difference between local and nonlocal calculations of the Casimir force is of the order of a few tenths of a percent. Thus the local description of thin metallic films is adequate within the current experimental precision and range of separations.

  14. Incompressible turbulence as non-local field theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahendra K Verma

    2005-03-01

    It is well-known that incompressible turbulence is non-local in real space because sound speed is infinite in incompressible fluids. The equation in Fourier space indicates that it is non-local in Fourier space as well. However, the shell-to-shell energy transfer is local. Contrast this with Burgers equation which is local in real space. Note that the sound speed in Burgers equation is zero. In our presentation we will contrast these two equations using non-local field theory. Energy spectrum and renormalized parameters will be discussed.

  15. Nonlocality Distillation and Trivial Communication Complexity for High-Dimensional Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Xiang-Jun Ye; Jing-Ling Chen

    2016-01-01

    A nonlocality distillation protocol for arbitrary high-dimensional systems is proposed.We study the nonlocality distillation in the 2-input d-output bi-partite case.Firstly,we give the one-parameter nonlocal boxes and their correlated distilling protocol.Then,we generalize the one-parameter nonlocality distillation protocol to the two-parameter case.Furthermore,we introduce a contracting protocol testifying that the 2-input d-output nonlocal boxes make communication complexity trivial.

  16. Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, P. G. L.; Karasu Kalkanli, A.; Nucci, M. C.; Andriopoulos, K.

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R). The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.

  17. Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G.L. Leach

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R. The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.

  18. The quantum handshake entanglement, nonlocality and transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cramer, John G

    2016-01-01

    This book shines bright light into the dim recesses of quantum theory, where the mysteries of entanglement, nonlocality, and wave collapse have motivated some to conjure up multiple universes, and others to adopt a "shut up and calculate" mentality. After an extensive and accessible introduction to quantum mechanics and its history, the author turns attention to his transactional model. Using a quantum handshake between normal and time-reversed waves, this model provides a clear visual picture explaining the baffling experimental results that flow daily from the quantum physics laboratories of the world. To demonstrate its powerful simplicity, the transactional model is applied to a collection of counter-intuitive experiments and conceptual problems.

  19. Understanding quantum interference in General Nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Wanng, Hai-Jhun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to give an understanding of quantum double-slit interference of fermions in the framework of General Nonlocality (GN) [J. Math. Phys. 49, 033513 (2008)] by studying the self-interaction of matter wave. From the metric of the GN, we derive a special formalism to interpret the interference contrast when the self-interaction is perturbative. According to the formalism, the characteristic of interference pattern is in agreement with experiment qualitatively. As examples, we apply the formalism to the cases governed by Schr\\"odinger current and Dirac current respectively, both of which are relevant to topology. The gap between these two cases corresponds to a spin-current effect, which is possible to test in the near future. In addition, a general interference formalism for both perturbative and non-perturbative self-interactions is presented. By analyzing the general formalism we predict that in the nonperturbative limit there is no interference at all.

  20. A nonlocal spatial model for Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of a nonlocal and time-delayed reaction-diffusion model for Lyme disease with a spatially heterogeneous structure. In the case of a bounded domain, we first prove the existence of the positive steady state and a threshold type result for the disease-free system, and then establish the global dynamics for the model system in terms of the basic reproduction number. In the case of an unbound domain, we obtain the existence of the disease spreading speed and its coincidence with the minimal wave speed. At last, we use numerical simulations to verify our analytic results and investigate the influence of model parameters and spatial heterogeneity on the disease infection risk.

  1. Photonic multipartite entanglement conversion using nonlocal operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, T.; Tame, M. S.; Özdemir, Ş. K.; Nori, F.; Koashi, M.; Weinfurter, H.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a simple setup for the conversion of multipartite entangled states in a quantum network with restricted access. The scheme uses nonlocal operations to enable the preparation of states that are inequivalent under local operations and classical communication, but most importantly does not require full access to the states. It is based on a flexible linear optical conversion gate that uses photons, which are ideally suited for distributed quantum computation and quantum communication in extended networks. In order to show the basic working principles of the gate, we focus on converting a four-qubit entangled cluster state to other locally inequivalent four-qubit states, such as the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and symmetric Dicke states. We also show how the gate can be incorporated into extended graph state networks and can be used to generate variable entanglement and quantum correlations without entanglement but nonvanishing quantum discord.

  2. A simple nonlocal model for exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G

    2009-12-21

    This work presents a new nonlocal model for the exchange energy density. The model is obtained from the product of the Kohn-Sham one-particle density matrix used to construct exact [Hartree-Fock-like (HF)] exchange, and an approximate density matrix used to construct local spin-density approximation (LSDA) exchange. The proposed exchange energy density has useful formal properties, including correct spin and coordinate scaling and the correct uniform limit. It can readily be evaluated in finite basis sets, with a computational scaling intermediate between HF exchange and semilocal quantities such as the noninteracting kinetic energy density. Applications to representative systems indicate that its properties are typically intermediate between HF and LSDA exchange, and often similar to global hybrids of HF and LSDA exchange. The model is proposed as a novel "Rung 3.5" ingredient for constructing approximate exchange-correlation functionals.

  3. A quantum loophole to Bell nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Romero-Rochin, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the conclusion of Bell theorem, namely, that there must be spatial non-local correlations in certain experimental situations, does not apply to typical individual measurements performed on entangled EPR pairs. Our claim is based on three points, (i) on the notion of quantum {\\it complete measurements}; (ii) on Bell results on local yet distant measurements; and (iii) on the fact that perfect simultaneity is banned by the quantum mechanics. We show that quantum mechanics indicates that, while the measurements of the pair members are indeed space-like separated, the pair measurement is actually a sequence of two complete measurements, the first one terminating the entanglement and, therefore, the second one becoming unrelated to the initial preparation of the entangled pair. The outstanding feature of these measurements is that neither of them violates the principle of locality. We discuss that the present measurement viewpoint appears to run contrary to the usual interpretation of "superposition"...

  4. Construction of nonlocal multipartite quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Zhang, Ke-Jia; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Oh, C. H.

    2017-05-01

    For general bipartite quantum systems, many sets of locally indistinguishable orthogonal product states have been constructed so far. Here, we first present a general method to construct multipartite orthogonal product states in d1⊗d2⊗⋯⊗dn(d1 ,2 ,⋯,n≥3 ,n ≥4 ) by using some locally indistinguishable bipartite orthogonal product states. And we prove that these multipartite orthogonal quantum states cannot be distinguished by local operations and classical communication. Furthermore, in d1⊗d2⊗⋯⊗dn(d1 ,2 ,⋯,n≥3 ,n ≥5 ) , we give a general method to construct a much smaller number of locally indistinguishable multipartite orthogonal product states for even and odd n separately. In addition, we also present a general method to construct complete orthogonal product bases for the multipartite quantum systems. Our results demonstrate the phenomenon of nonlocality without entanglement for the multipartite quantum systems.

  5. Non-local plasticity effects on fracture toughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    The Mode I fracture strength in a nonlocal elastic-plastic material is analyzed under quasi-static steady crack growth. The plastic deformations are modelled using a constitutive model, where nonlocal plasticity effects are included in the instantaneous hardening moduli through a gradient measure...... of the effective plastic strain. Fracture is modelled by a cohesive zone criterion. Results on the numerically obtained stress fields are presented, as well as results on the steady-state fracture toughness. It is shown that the nonlocal theory predicts lower steady-state fracture toughness compared to predictions...... by conventional J2-flow theory, since higher normal stresses in front of the crack tip are predicted. Furthermore, the nonlocal material description increases the range of applicability of the cohesive zone model, since steady-state crack growth is possible for significantly larger values of the maximum stress...

  6. Discrete model of dislocations in fractional nonlocal elasticity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2016-01-01

    Discrete models of dislocations in fractional nonlocal materials are suggested. The proposed models are based on fractional-order differences instead of finite differences of integer orders that are usually used...

  7. Nonlocal viscous transport and the effect on fluid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B D; Hansen, J S

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate that, in general, only for fluid flows in which the gradient of the strain rate is constant or zero can the classical Navier-Stokes equations with constant transport coefficients be considered exact. This is typical of two of the most common types of flow: Couette and Poiseuille. For more complicated flow fields in which the streaming velocity involves higher order nonlinear terms, the use of nonlocal constitutive equations gives an exact description of the flow. These constitutive equations involve nonlocal transport kernels. For momentum transport we demonstrate that nonlocality will be significant for any particular flow field if the even moments of the nonlocal viscosity kernel are non-negligible. This corresponds to the condition that the strain rate varies appreciably over the width of the kernel in real space. Such conditions are likely to be dominant for nanofluidic flows.

  8. NONDENSELY DEFINED IMPULSIVE NEUTRAL FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL INCLUSIONS WITH NONLOCAL CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueju Cao; Xianlong Fu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, using a fixed point theorem for condensing multi-valued maps, we investigate the existence of integral solutions to a class of nondensely defined neutral evolution impulsive differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces.

  9. Controllability of semilinear integrodifferential equations with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahima Atmania

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We establish sufficient conditions for the controllability of some semilinear integrodifferential systems with nonlocal condition in a Banach space. The results are obtained using the Schaefer fixed-point theorem and semigroup theory.

  10. Tests of quantum-gravity-induced nonlocality via optomechanical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    The nonrelativistic limit of nonlocal modifications to the Klein-Gordon operator is studied, and the experimental possibilities of casting stringent constraints on the nonlocality scale via planned and/or current optomechanical experiments are discussed. Details of the perturbative analysis and semianalytical simulations leading to the dynamic evolution of a quantum harmonic oscillator in the presence of nonlocality reported in [A. Belenchia, D. M. T. Benincasa, S. Liberati, F. Marin, F. Marino, and A. Ortolan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 161303 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.161303] are given, together with a comprehensive account of the experimental methodology with particular regard to sensitivity limitations related to thermal decoherence time and active cooling of the oscillator. Finally, a strategy for detecting nonlocality scales of the order of 10-22÷10-26 m by means of the spontaneous time-periodic squeezing of quantum-coherent states is provided.

  11. Controllability of impulsive functional differential systems with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the controllability of impulsive functional differential equations with nonlocal conditions. We establish sufficient conditions for controllability, via the measure of noncompactness and Monch fixed point theorem.

  12. Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Anne

    2016-08-01

    In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the parties share nonlocal correlations as given by the Popescu-Rohrlich box. This means that communication is not required for efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation. Exploiting the well-known relation to position-based cryptography, our result also implies the impossibility of secure position-based cryptography against adversaries with nonsignaling correlations. Furthermore, our construction establishes a quantum analog of the classical communication complexity collapse under nonsignaling correlations.

  13. Non-local plasticity effects on fracture toughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    The Mode I fracture strength in a nonlocal elastic-plastic material is analyzed under quasi-static steady crack growth. The plastic deformations are modelled using a constitutive model, where nonlocal plasticity effects are included in the instantaneous hardening moduli through a gradient measure...... of the effective plastic strain. Fracture is modelled by a cohesive zone criterion. Results on the numerically obtained stress fields are presented, as well as results on the steady-state fracture toughness. It is shown that the nonlocal theory predicts lower steady-state fracture toughness compared to predictions...... by conventional J2-flow theory, since higher normal stresses in front of the crack tip are predicted. Furthermore, the nonlocal material description increases the range of applicability of the cohesive zone model, since steady-state crack growth is possible for significantly larger values of the maximum stress...

  14. Entanglement and nonlocality in multi-particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, M D; Drummond, P D

    2011-01-01

    Entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell's failure of local-hidden-variable (LHV) theories are three historically famous forms of "quantum nonlocality". We give experimental criteria for these three forms of nonlocality in multi-particle systems, with the aim of better understanding the transition from microscopic to macroscopic nonlocality. We examine the nonlocality of N separated spin J systems. First, we obtain multipartite Bell inequalities that address the correlation between spin values measured at each site, and then we review spin squeezing inequalities that address the degree of reduction in the variance of collective spins. The latter have been particularly useful as a tool for investigating entanglement in Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). We present solutions for two topical quantum states: multi-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, and the ground state of a two-well BEC.

  15. Self-adjoint integral operator for bounded nonlocal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.

    2016-11-01

    An integral operator is developed to describe nonlocal transport in a one-dimensional system bounded on both ends by material walls. The "jump" distributions associated with nonlocal transport are taken to be Lévy α -stable distributions, which become naturally truncated by the bounding walls. The truncation process results in the operator containing a self-consistent, convective inward transport term (pinch). The properties of the integral operator as functions of the Lévy distribution parameter set [α ,γ ] and the wall conductivity are presented. The integral operator continuously recovers the features of local transport when α =2 . The self-adjoint formulation allows for an accurate description of spatial variation in the Lévy parameters in the nonlocal system. Spatial variation in the Lévy parameters is shown to result in internally generated flows. Examples of cold-pulse propagation in nonlocal systems illustrate the capabilities of the methodology.

  16. Understanding quantum non-locality through pseudo-telepathy game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkri, Samir

    2006-11-01

    Usually by quantum non-locality we mean that quantum mechanics can not be replaced by local realistic theory. On the other hand this nonlocal feature of quantum mechanics can not be used for instantaneous communication and hence it respect Einstein's special theory of relativity. But still it is not trivial as proved by various quantum information processing using entangled states. Recently there have been studies of hypothetical non-local system again respecting no-signalling which is beyond quantum mechanics. Here we study the power of such a hypothetical nonlocal box first suggested by Popescu et.al. in the context of recently suggested pseudo-telepathy game constructed from a Kochen-Specker set.

  17. Local orthogonality provides a tight upper bound for Hardy's nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhadipa; Banik, Manik; Gazi, Md. Rajjak; Rai, Ashutosh; Kunkri, Samir

    2013-12-01

    The amount of nonlocality in quantum theory is limited compared to that allowed in generalized no-signaling theory [S. Popescu and D. Rohrlich, Found. Phys.FNDPA40015-901810.1007/BF02058098 24, 379 (1994)]. This feature, for example, gets manifested in the amount of Bell inequality violation as well as in the degree of success probability of Hardy's (Cabello's) nonlocality argument. Physical principles like information causality and macroscopic locality have been proposed for analyzing restricted nonlocality in quantum mechanics, viz. explaining the Cirel'son bound. However, these principles are not very successful in explaining the maximum success probability of Hardy's as well as Cabello's argument in quantum theory. Here we show that a recently proposed physical principle, namely local orthogonality, does better by providing a tighter upper bound on the success probability for Hardy's nonlocality. This bound is relatively closer to the corresponding quantum value compared to the bounds achieved from other principles.

  18. Causal Set theory, non-locality and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Belenchia, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    This proceeding is based on a talk prepared for the XIV Marcel Grossmann meeting. We review some results on causal set inspired non-local theories as well as work in progress concerning their phenomenology.

  19. Observation of two-dimensional nonlocal gap solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Bennett, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, the existence of nonlocal gap solitons in twodimensional periodic photonic structures with defocusing thermal nonlinearity. We employ liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers and show how the system geometry can modify the effective respons...

  20. Nonlocal quintic nonlinearity by cascaded THG in dispersive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberger, F.; Bache, Morten; Minardi, S.;

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a perturbed nonlocal cubicquintic equation describing the propagation of light pulses in a dispersive, cubic nonlinearmedium in the presence of phase and velocity mismatched third harmonic generation....

  1. Nonlocal scalar quantum field theory from causal sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    We study a non-local scalar quantum field theory in flat spacetime derived from the dynamics of a scalar field on a causal set. We show that this non-local QFT contains a continuum of massive modes in any dimension. In 2 dimensions the Hamiltonian is positive definite and therefore the quantum theory is well-defined. In 4-dimensions, we show that the unstable modes of the non-local d'Alembertian are propagated via the so called Wheeler propagator and hence do not appear in the asymptotic states. In the free case studied here the continuum of massive mode are shown to not propagate in the asymptotic states. However the Hamiltonian is not positive definite, therefore potential issues with the quantum theory remain. Finally, we conclude with hints toward what kind of phenomenology one might expect from such non-local QFTs.

  2. Nonlocal Scalar Quantum Field Theory from Causal Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Belenchia, Alessio; Liberati, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We study a non-local scalar quantum field theory in flat spacetime derived from the dynamics of a scalar field on a causal set. We show that this non-local QFT contains a continuum of massive modes in any dimension. In 2 dimensions the Hamiltonian is positive definite and therefore the quantum theory is well-defined. In 4-dimensions, we show that the unstable modes of the non-local d'Alembertian are propagated via the so called Wheeler propagator and hence do not appear in the asymptotic states. In the free case studied here the continuum of massive mode are shown to not propagate in the asymptotic states. However the Hamiltonian is not positive definite, therefore potential issues with the quantum theory remain. Finally, we conclude with hints toward what kind of phenomenology one might expect from such non-local QFTs.

  3. Local implementation of nonlocal operations with block forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning Bo; Wang, An Min

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the local implementation of nonlocal operations with the block matrix form, and propose a protocol for any diagonal or offdiagonal block operation. We generalize this method to the two-party multiqubit case and the multiparty case. We also compare the local implementation of nonlocal block operations with the remote implementation of local operations [Huelga , Phys. Rev. A 63, 042303 (2001)], and point out a relation between them.

  4. Acceleration-Induced Nonlocal Electrodynamics in Minkowski Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Muench, U; Mashhoon, B; Muench, Uwe; Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2000-01-01

    We discuss two nonlocal models of electrodynamics in which the nonlocality is induced by the acceleration of the observer. Such an observer actually measures an electromagnetic field that exhibits persistent memory effects. We compare Mashhoon's model with a new ansatz developed here in the framework of charge & flux electrodynamics with a constitutive law involving the Levi-Civita connection as seen from the observer's local frame and conclude that they are in partial agreement only for the case of constant acceleration.

  5. Noether's theorem in non-local field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoruchenko, M I

    2016-01-01

    Explicit expressions are constructed for a locally conserved vector current associated with a continuous internal symmetry and for energy-momentum and angular-momentum density tensors associated with the Poincar\\'e group in field theories with higher-order derivatives and in non-local field theories. An example of non-local charged scalar field equations with broken C and CPT symmetries is considered. For this case, we find simple analytical expressions for the conserved currents.

  6. Nonlocal correlations: Fair and Unfair Strategies in Bayesian Game

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Arup; Mukherjee, Amit; Guha, Tamal; Ghosh, Sibasish; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Banik, Manik

    2016-01-01

    Interesting connection has been established between two apparently unrelated concepts, namely, quantum nonlocality and Bayesian game theory. It has been shown that nonlocal correlations in the form of advice can outperform classical equilibrium strategies in common interest Bayesian games and also in conflicting interest games. However, classical equilibrium strategies can be of two types, fair and unfair. Whereas in fair equilibrium payoffs of different players are same, in unfair case they ...

  7. Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation

    OpenAIRE

    Broadbent, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the pa...

  8. Self-organization analysis for a nonlocal convective Fisher equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, J.A.R. da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Penna, A.L.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil)], E-mail: penna.andre@gmail.com; Vainstein, M.H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Morgado, R. [International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Departamento de Matematica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Oliveira, F.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil)

    2009-02-02

    Using both an analytical method and a numerical approach we have investigated pattern formation for a nonlocal convective Fisher equation with constant and spatial velocity fields. We analyze the limits of the influence function due to nonlocal interaction and we obtain the phase diagram of critical velocities v{sub c} as function of the width {mu} of the influence function, which characterize the self-organization of a finite system.

  9. Twisted Backgrounds, PP-Waves and Nonlocal Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Alishahiha, M; Alishahiha, Mohsen; Ganor, Ori J.

    2003-01-01

    We study partially supersymmetric plane-wave like deformations of string theories and M-theory on brane backgrounds. These deformations are dual to nonlocal field theories. We calculate various expectation values of configurations of closed as well as open Wilson loops and Wilson surfaces in those theories. We also discuss the manifestation of the nonlocality structure in the supergravity backgrounds. A plane-wave like deformation of little string theory has also been studied.

  10. Nonlocal Problems for Fractional Differential Equations via Resolvent Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbin Fan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the continuity of analytic resolvent in the uniform operator topology and then obtain the compactness of Cauchy operator by means of the analytic resolvent method. Based on this result, we derive the existence of mild solutions for nonlocal fractional differential equations when the nonlocal item is assumed to be Lipschitz continuous and neither Lipschitz nor compact, respectively. An example is also given to illustrate our theory.

  11. A Systems-Theoretical Generalization of Non-Local Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stillfried, Nikolaus

    Non-local correlations between quantum events are not due to a causal interaction in the sense of one being the cause for the other. In principle, the correlated events can thus occur simultaneously. Generalized Quantum Theory (GQT) formalizes the idea that non-local phenomena are not exclusive to quantum mechanics, e.g. due to some specific properties of (sub)atomic particles, but that they instead arise as a consequence of the way such particles are arranged into systems. Non-local phenomena should hence occur in any system which fulfils the necessary systems-theoretical parameters. The two most important parameters with respect to non-local correlations seem to be a conserved global property of the system as a whole and sufficient degrees of freedom of the corresponding property of its subsystems. Both factors place severe limitations on experimental observability of the phenomena, especially in terms of replicability. It has been suggested that reported phenomena of a so-called synchronistic, parapsychological or paranormal kind could be understood as instances of systems-inherent non-local correlations. From a systems-theoretical perspective, their phenomenology (including the favorable conditions for their occurrence and their lack of replicability) displays substantial similarities to non-local correlations in quantum systems and matches well with systems-theoretical parameters, thus providing circumstantial evidence for this hypothesis.

  12. Nonlocality and purity in atom-field coupling system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Xin; Huang Guang-Ming; Li Gao-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    The effects of initial field state and thermal environment on quantum nonlocality and linear entropy in an atomfield coupling system are investigated. We found that if the cavity is lossless and the reservoir is in vacuum, the atom-field state can exhibit quantum nonlocality periodically and the linear entropies of the atom and the field also oscillate periodically with a period the same as that of quantum nonlocality. And if the cavity dissipation is very weak and the average photon number of the reservoir is very small, the quantum nonlocality will be lost and the linear entropies of the atom and the field oscillate with a decreasing amplitude. The rapidity of the loss of the quantum nonlocality depends on the amplitude of the initial squeezed coherent state, the cavity damping constant κ and the average photon number N of the thermal reservoir. The stronger the field and the larger the constant κ and the average photon number N could be, the more rapidly the nonlocality decreases.

  13. On the power of non-local boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Broadbent, A J

    2005-01-01

    A non-local box is a virtual device that has the following property: given that Alice inputs a bit at her end of the device and that Bob does likewise, it produces two bits, one at Alice's end and one at Bob's end, such that the XOR of the outputs is equal to the AND of the inputs. This box, inspired from the CHSH inequality, was first proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich to examine the question: given that a maximally entangled pair of qubits is non-local, why is it not maximally non-local? We believe that understanding the power of this box will yield insight into the non-locality of quantum mechanics. It was shown recently by Cerf, Gisin, Massar and Popescu, that this imaginary device is able to simulate correlations from any measurement on a singlet state. Here, we show that the non-local box can in fact do much more: through the simulation of the magic square pseudo-telepathy game and the Mermin-GHZ pseudo-telepathy game, we show that the non-local box can simulate quantum correlations that no entangled pair...

  14. Coupling of nonlocal and local continuum models by the Arlequinapproach

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2011-08-09

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply the Arlequin framework to couple nonlocal and local continuum mechanical models. A mechanically-based model of nonlocal elasticity, which involves both contact and long-range forces, is used for the \\'fine scale\\' description in which nonlocal interactions are considered to have non-negligible effects. Classical continuum mechanics only involving local contact forces is introduced for the rest of the structure where these nonlocal effects can be neglected. Both models overlap in a coupling subdomain called the \\'gluing area\\' in which the total energy is separated into nonlocal and local contributions by complementary weight functions. A weak compatibility is ensured between kinematics of both models using Lagrange multipliers over the gluing area. The discrete formulation of this specific Arlequin coupling framework is derived and fully described. The validity and limits of the technique are demonstrated through two-dimensional numerical applications and results are compared against those of the fully nonlocal elasticity method. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Reflection has moved from the margins to the mainstream in supervision. Notions of reflection have become well established since the late 1980s. These notions have provided useful framing devices to help conceptualize some important processes in guidance and counseling. However, some applications...

  16. Nonlocally of plasma fluctuations and transport in magnetically confined plasmas theoretical background of nonlocality in fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2002-09-01

    Nonlocal properties of fluctuations in confined plasmas are briefly surveyed. Contributions to understanding the bifurcation phenomena, improved confinement, and transient transport problem are explained. The theoretical progress in this aspect is addressed: Namely, the fluctuations are not excited by linear instabilities but are dressed with other turbulent fluctuations or fluctuations of meso-scale. Nonlinear interactions of fluctuations with different scale lengths are essential in dictating the dynamics of turbulence and turbulent transport. There are activators and suppressers in global inhomogeneities for evolution of turbulence. Turbulent fluctuations, on the other hand, induce or destroy these global inhomogeneities. Finally, statistical nature of turbulence is addressed. (author)

  17. Lorentz Invariant CPT Violating Effects for a Class of Gauge-invariant Nonlocal Thirring Models

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Pinaki

    2013-01-01

    CPT violation and Lorentz invariance can coexist in the framework of non-local field theory. Local gauge-invariance may not hold for the few non-local interaction terms. However, the gauge-invariance for the non-local interaction term can be formulated by the inclusion of Swinger non-integrable phase factor. In this article we have proposed a class of CPT violating Lorentz invariant Nonlocal Gauge-invariant models which can be termed as non-local gauge-invariant Thirring models. The inclusion of non-locality will modify the current conservation laws. Also, the possible particle antiparticle mass-splitting in this respect is discussed.

  18. Derivation of a non-local interfacial Hamiltonian for short-ranged wetting: II. General diagrammatic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A. O.; Rascón, C.; Bernardino, N. R.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.

    2007-10-01

    In our first paper, we showed how a non-local effective Hamiltonian for short-ranged wetting may be derived from an underlying Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model. Here, we combine the Green's function method with standard perturbation theory to determine the general diagrammatic form of the binding potential functional beyond the double-parabola approximation for the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson bulk potential. The main influence of cubic and quartic interactions is simply to alter the coefficients of the double parabola-like zigzag diagrams and also to introduce curvature and tube-interaction corrections (also represented diagrammatically), which are of minor importance. Non-locality generates effective long-ranged many-body interfacial interactions due to the reflection of tube-like fluctuations from the wall. Alternative wall boundary conditions (with a surface field and enhancement) and the diagrammatic description of tricritical wetting are also discussed.

  19. Derivation of a non-local interfacial Hamiltonian for short-ranged wetting: II. General diagrammatic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, A O [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Rascon, C [Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Madrid) (Spain); Bernardino, N R [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Romero-Enrique, J M [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado de Correos 1065, 41080 Seville (Spain)

    2007-10-17

    In our first paper, we showed how a non-local effective Hamiltonian for short-ranged wetting may be derived from an underlying Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model. Here, we combine the Green's function method with standard perturbation theory to determine the general diagrammatic form of the binding potential functional beyond the double-parabola approximation for the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson bulk potential. The main influence of cubic and quartic interactions is simply to alter the coefficients of the double parabola-like zigzag diagrams and also to introduce curvature and tube-interaction corrections (also represented diagrammatically), which are of minor importance. Non-locality generates effective long-ranged many-body interfacial interactions due to the reflection of tube-like fluctuations from the wall. Alternative wall boundary conditions (with a surface field and enhancement) and the diagrammatic description of tricritical wetting are also discussed.

  20. Diagnostics of nonlocal plasmas: advanced techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Grabovskiy, Artiom; Strakhova, Anastasiya; Soukhomlinov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    This talk generalizes our recent results, obtained in different directions of plasma diagnostics. First-method of flat single-sided probe, based on expansion of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in series of Legendre polynomials. It will be demonstrated, that flat probe, oriented under different angles with respect to the discharge axis, allow to determine full EVDF in nonlocal plasmas. It is also shown, that cylindrical probe is unable to determine full EVDF. We propose the solution of this problem by combined using the kinetic Boltzmann equation and experimental probe data. Second-magnetic diagnostics. This method is implemented in knudsen diode with surface ionization of atoms (KDSI) and based on measurements of the magnetic characteristics of the KDSI in presence of transverse magnetic field. Using magnetic diagnostics we can investigate the wide range of plasma processes: from scattering cross-sections of electrons to plasma-surface interactions. Third-noncontact diagnostics method for direct measurements of EVDF in remote plasma objects by combination of the flat single-sided probe technique and magnetic polarization Hanley method.

  1. Let's call it Nonlocal Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Requardt, M

    2000-01-01

    In the following we undertake to derive quantum theory as a stochastic low-energy and coarse-grained theory from a more primordial discrete and basically geometric theory living on the Planck scale and which (as we argue) possibly underlies also \\tit{string theory}. We isolate the so-called \\tit{ideal elements} which represent at the same time the cornerstones of the framework of ordinary quantum theory and show how and why they encode the \\tit{non-local} aspects, being ubiquituous in the quantum realm, in a, on the surface, local way. We show that the quantum non-locality emerges in our approach as a natural consequence of the underlying \\tit{two-storey} nature of space-time or the physical vacuum, that is, quantum theory turns out to be a residual effect of the geometric depth structure of space-time on the Planck scale. We indicate how the \\tit{measurement problem} and the emergence of the \\tit{macroscopic sub-regime} can be understood in this framework.

  2. Exploring nonlocal observables in shock wave collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, Christian; Stanzer, Philipp; Stricker, Stefan A; van der Schee, Wilke

    2016-01-01

    We study the time evolution of 2-point functions and entanglement entropy in strongly anisotropic, inhomogeneous and time-dependent N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the large N and large 't Hooft coupling limit using AdS/CFT. On the gravity side this amounts to calculating the length of geodesics and area of extremal surfaces in the dynamical background of two colliding gravitational shockwaves, which we do numerically. We discriminate between three classes of initial conditions corresponding to wide, intermediate and narrow shocks, and show that they exhibit different phenomenology with respect to the nonlocal observables that we determine. Our results permit to use (holographic) entanglement entropy as an order parameter to distinguish between the two phases of the cross-over from the transparency to the full-stopping scenario in dynamical Yang-Mills plasma formation, which is frequently used as a toy model for heavy ion collisions. The time evolution of entanglement entropy allows to discern four regimes: hi...

  3. Nonperturbative embedding for highly nonlocal Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subaşı, Yiǧit; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The need for Hamiltonians with many-body interactions arises in various applications of quantum computing. However, interactions beyond two-body are difficult to realize experimentally. Perturbative gadgets were introduced to obtain arbitrary many-body effective interactions using Hamiltonians with at most two-body interactions. Although valid for arbitrary k -body interactions, their use is limited to small k because the strength of interaction is k th order in perturbation theory. In this paper we develop a nonperturbative technique for obtaining effective k -body interactions using Hamiltonians consisting of at most l -body interactions with l effect of this procedure is shown to be equivalent to evolving the system with the original nonlocal Hamiltonian. This technique does not suffer from the aforementioned shortcoming of perturbative methods and requires only one ancilla qubit for each k -body interaction irrespective of the value of k . It works best for Hamiltonians with a few many-body interactions involving a large number of qubits and can be used together with perturbative gadgets to embed Hamiltonians of considerable complexity in proper subspaces of two-local Hamiltonians. We describe how our technique can be implemented in a hybrid (gate-based and adiabatic) as well as solely adiabatic quantum computing scheme.

  4. Nonlinear and Nonlocal Feedbacks in an Aquaplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldl, N.; Roe, G.

    2012-12-01

    The power of the feedback framework lies in its ability to reveal the energy pathways by which the climate system adjusts to an imposed forcing. By understanding the closure of the energy budget in as much detail and precision as possible, and within as clean an experimental set-up as possible, we are also able to isolate nonlinear interactions between feedbacks. For an aquaplanet simulation under perpetual equinox conditions, we account for rapid tropospheric adjustments to CO2 and diagnose radiative kernels for this precise model set-up. We characterize the contributions of feedbacks, heat transport, and nonlinearities in controlling the meridional structure of the climate response. The presence of strongly positive subtropical feedbacks, combined with polar amplification, implies a critical role for transport and nonlinear effects, with the latter acting to substantially reduce global climate sensitivity. At the hemispheric scale, a rich picture emerges: net heat divergence away from strong positive feedbacks in the tropics; nonlinearities induced by circulation changes that cool the tropics and warm the high-latitudes; and strong ice-line feedbacks that drive further amplification of polar warming. Overall, these results highlight how spatial patterns in feedbacks affect both the local and nonlocal climate response, with implications for regional predictability.

  5. Impact of nonlocal correlations over different energy scales: A dynamical vertex approximation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohringer, G.; Toschi, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate how nonlocal correlations affect, selectively, the physics of correlated electrons over different energy scales, from the Fermi level to the band edges. This goal is achieved by applying a diagrammatic extension of dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), the dynamical vertex approximation (D Γ A ), to study several spectral and thermodynamic properties of the unfrustrated Hubbard model in two and three dimensions. Specifically, we focus first on the low-energy regime by computing the electronic scattering rate and the quasiparticle mass renormalization for decreasing temperatures at a fixed interaction strength. This way, we obtain a precise characterization of the several steps through which the Fermi-liquid physics is progressively destroyed by nonlocal correlations. Our study is then extended to a broader energy range, by analyzing the temperature behavior of the kinetic and potential energy, as well as of the corresponding energy distribution functions. Our findings allow us to identify a smooth but definite evolution of the nature of nonlocal correlations by increasing interaction: They either increase or decrease the kinetic energy w.r.t. DMFT depending on the interaction strength being weak or strong, respectively. This reflects the corresponding evolution of the ground state from a nesting-driven (Slater) to a superexchange-driven (Heisenberg) antiferromagnet (AF), whose fingerprints are, thus, recognizable in the spatial correlations of the paramagnetic phase. Finally, a critical analysis of our numerical results of the potential energy at the largest interaction allows us to identify possible procedures to improve the ladder-based algorithms adopted in the dynamical vertex approximation.

  6. Non-local magnetoresistance in YIG/Pt nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B., E-mail: goennenwein@wmi.badw.de; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstraße 4, 80799 München (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schlitz, Richard; Ganzhorn, Kathrin [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Althammer, Matthias [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-26

    We study the local and non-local magnetoresistance of thin Pt strips deposited onto yttrium iron garnet. The local magnetoresistive response, inferred from the voltage drop measured along one given Pt strip upon current-biasing it, shows the characteristic magnetization orientation dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance. We simultaneously also record the non-local voltage appearing along a second, electrically isolated, Pt strip, separated from the current carrying one by a gap of a few 100 nm. The corresponding non-local magnetoresistance exhibits the symmetry expected for a magnon spin accumulation-driven process, confirming the results recently put forward by Cornelissen et al. [“Long-distance transport of magnon spin information in a magnetic insulator at room temperature,” Nat. Phys. (published online 14 September 2015)]. Our magnetotransport data, taken at a series of different temperatures as a function of magnetic field orientation, rotating the externally applied field in three mutually orthogonal planes, show that the mechanisms behind the spin Hall and the non-local magnetoresistance are qualitatively different. In particular, the non-local magnetoresistance vanishes at liquid Helium temperatures, while the spin Hall magnetoresistance prevails.

  7. Nonlocal dielectric effects in core-shell nanowires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J. M.; Gray, S. K.; Schatz, G. C. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( CSE); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2010-01-01

    We study the optical spectra and near fields of core-shell nanowires (nanoshells), using a recently developed finite-difference method that allows for a spatially nonlocal dielectric response. We first analyze the parameters of the nonlocal model by making comparisons with related experimental data and previous theoretical work. We then investigate how nonlocal effects are dependent on nanoshell features, such as shell thickness, overall size, and the ratio of core radius to shell radius. We demonstrate that the shell thickness along the longitudinal direction of the incident light is the primary controlling factor of nonlocal effects, which appear as anomalous absorption resonances and blueshifts in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) positions, relative to local theory. In addition, we show that the amount of blueshift depends on the order of the LSPR. The optical responses of nanoshells immersed in various refractive index (RI) environments are also studied. We show that the nonlocal anomalous absorption features are relatively insensitive to RI changes, but the blueshift of the dipolar LSPR varies nonlinearly.

  8. Localized solutions for a nonlocal discrete NLS equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, Roberto I. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, J.M. Gutiérrez 1150, 1613 Los Polvorines (Argentina); Cisneros Ake, Luís [Department of Mathematics, ESFM, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos Edificio 9, 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Minzoni, A.A. [Depto. Matemáticas y Mecánica, I.I.M.A.S.-U.N.A.M., Apdo. Postal 20-726, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Panayotaros, Panayotis, E-mail: panos@mym.iimas.unam.mx [Depto. Matemáticas y Mecánica, I.I.M.A.S.-U.N.A.M., Apdo. Postal 20-726, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-09-04

    We study spatially localized time-periodic solutions of breather type for a cubic discrete NLS equation with a nonlocal nonlinearity that models light propagation in a liquid crystal waveguide array. We show the existence of breather solutions in the limit where both linear and nonlinear intersite couplings vanish, and in the limit where the linear coupling vanishes with arbitrary nonlinear intersite coupling. Breathers of this nonlocal regime exhibit some interesting features that depart from what is seen in the NLS breathers with power nonlinearity. One property we see theoretically is the presence of higher amplitude at interfaces between sites with zero and nonzero amplitude in the vanishing linear coupling limit. A numerical study also suggests the presence of internal modes of orbitally stable localized modes. - Highlights: • Show existence of spatially localized solutions in nonlocal discrete NLS model. • Study spatial properties of localized solutions for arbitrary nonlinear nonlocal coupling. • Present numerical evidence that nonlocality leads to internal modes around stable breathers. • Present theoretical and numerical evidence for amplitude maxima at interfaces.

  9. Evidence of Non-local Chemical, Thermal and Gravitational Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu H.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entanglement is ubiquitous in the microscopic world and manifests itself macroscopically under some circumstances. But common belief is that it alone cannot be used to transmit information nor could it be used to produce macroscopic non- local effects. Yet we have recently found evidence of non-local effects of chemical substances on the brain produced through it. While our reported results are under independent verifications by other groups, we report here our experimental findings of non-local chemical, thermal and gravitational effects in simple physical systems such as reservoirs of water quantum-entangled with water being manipulated in a remote reservoir. With the aids of high-precision instruments, we have found that the pH value, temperature and gravity of water in the detecting reservoirs can be non-locally affected through manipulating water in the remote reservoir. In particular, the pH value changes in the same direction as that being manipulated; the temperature can change against that of local environment; and the gravity apparently can also change against local gravity. These non-local effects are all reproducible and can be used for non-local signalling and many other purposes. We suggest that they are mediated by quantum entanglement between nuclear and/or electron spins in treated water and discuss the implications of these results.

  10. Nonlocal Total Variation Subpixel Mapping for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyi Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subpixel mapping is a method of enhancing the spatial resolution of images, which involves dividing a mixed pixel into subpixels and assigning each subpixel to a definite land-cover class. Traditionally, subpixel mapping is based on the assumption of spatial dependence, and the spatial correlation information among pixels and subpixels is considered in the prediction of the spatial locations of land-cover classes within the mixed pixels. In this paper, a novel subpixel mapping method for hyperspectral remote sensing imagery based on a nonlocal method, namely nonlocal total variation subpixel mapping (NLTVSM, is proposed to use the nonlocal self-similarity prior to improve the performance of the subpixel mapping task. Differing from the existing spatial regularization subpixel mapping technique, in NLTVSM, the nonlocal total variation is used as a spatial regularizer to exploit the similar patterns and structures in the image. In this way, the proposed method can obtain an optimal subpixel mapping result and accuracy by considering the nonlocal spatial information. Compared with the classical and state-of-the-art subpixel mapping approaches, the experimental results using a simulated hyperspectral image, two synthetic hyperspectral remote sensing images, and a real hyperspectral image confirm that the proposed algorithm can obtain better results in both visual and quantitative evaluations.

  11. Collapse suppression and soliton stabilization through nonlocality in bulk Kerr media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Chemineau, E. T.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2000-01-01

    We show that self-focusing cannot occur in bulk Kerr media with a nonlocal nonlinear response. We find the stationary solutions and show that nonlocality makes them stable. The results are verified numerically....

  12. Nonlocal means filter-based speckle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsham, Narges; Rasoulian, Abtin; Najafi, Mohammad; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Rohling, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The objective of sensorless freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging is to eliminate the need for additional tracking hardware and reduce cost and complexity. However, the accuracy of current out-of-plane pose estimation is main obstacle for full 6-degree-of-freedom (DoF) tracking. We propose a new filter-based speckle tracking framework to increase the accuracy of out-of-plane displacement estimation. In this framework, we use the displacement estimation not only for the specific speckle pattern, but for the entire image. We develop a nonlocal means (NLM) filter based on a probabilistic normal variance mixture model of ultrasound, known as Rician-inverse Gaussian (RiIG). To aggregate the local displacement estimations, Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE) is used as a quality measure of the estimations. We derive an explicit analytical form of SURE for the RiIG model and use it as a weight factor. The proposed filter-based speckle tracking framework is formulated and evaluated for three commonly used noise models, including the RiIG model. The out-of-plane estimations are compared with our previously proposed model-based algorithm in a set of ex vivo experiments for different tissue types. We show that the proposed RiIG filter-based method is more accurate and less tissue-dependent than the other methods. The proposed method is also evaluated in vivo on the spines of five different subjects to assess the feasibility of a clinical application. The 6-DoF transform parameters are estimated and compared with the electromagnetic tracker measurements. The results show higher tracking accuracy for typical small lateral displacements and tilt rotations between image pairs.

  13. Analysis of radial nonlocal effect on the structural response of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, S.C., E-mail: scp@aero.iitkgp.ernet.in; Mandal, U.

    2013-11-01

    In this Letter, finite element model is developed to study the effect of nonlocal parameter in the radial structural response of carbon nanotubes. Timoshenko beam model is employed. The influence of nonlocal parameter in the radial direction due to interaction of atoms is defined as the radial nonlocal effect. It is found that there is significant influence of radial nonlocal effect on the structural response of the carbon nanotubes.

  14. Generalized non-local responses and higher harmonic retention in non-local polymerization driven diffusion model based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, J. T.; Kelly, J. V.; O'Brien, G.; Gleeson, M. R.; O'Neill, F. T.

    2004-12-01

    Non-local and non-linear models of photopolymer materials, which include diffusion effects, have recently received much attention in the literature. The material response is described as non-local as it is assumed that monomers are polymerized to form polymer chains and that these chains grow away from a point of initiation. The non-locality is defined in terms of a spatial non-local material response function. The material model is non-linear as a general non-linear material response to the incident light is included. Typically the numerical method of solution has involved retaining only up to four harmonics of the Fourier series of monomer concentration in the calculations. In this paper a general set of coupled first-order differential equations is derived which allow the inclusion of a higher number of harmonics. The resulting effect on the convergence of the algorithm, as the number of harmonics retained is increased, is investigated. Special care is taken to note the effect of physical parameters, i.e. the non-local material variance σ, the power-law degree k, and the rates of diffusion, D, and polymerization, F0.

  15. Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes using nonlocal elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Metin

    2016-03-01

    Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes is studied in the present work. Governing equation of motion of multiwalled carbon nanotube is obtained using Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. The effect of van der Waals interaction coefficient is considered between inner and outer nanotubes. Dispersion relations are obtained and discussed in detail. Effect of nonlocal parameter and van der Waals interaction to the torsional wave propagation behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes is investigated. It is obtained that torsional van der Waals interaction between adjacent tubes can change the rotational direction of multiwalled carbon nanotube as in-phase or anti-phase. The group and escape velocity of the waves converge to a limit value in the nonlocal elasticity approach.

  16. Bell on Bell's theorem: The changing face of nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Harvey R

    2015-01-01

    Between 1964 and 1990, the notion of nonlocality in Bell's papers underwent a profound change as his nonlocality theorem gradually became detached from quantum mechanics, and referred to wider probabilistic theories involving correlations between separated beables. The proposition that standard quantum mechanics is itself nonlocal (more precisely, that it violates `local causality') became divorced from the Bell theorem per se from 1976 on, although this important point is widely overlooked in the literature. In 1990, the year of his death, Bell would express serious misgivings about the mathematical form of the local causality condition, and leave ill-defined the issue of the consistency between special relativity and violation of the Bell-type inequality. In our view, the significance of the Bell theorem, both in its deterministic and stochastic forms, can only be fully understood by taking into account the fact that a fully Lorentz-covariant version of quantum theory, free of action-at-a-distance, can be a...

  17. Bounding the persistency of the nonlocality of W states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviánszky, Péter; Trencsényi, Réka; Bene, Erika; Vértesi, Tamás

    2016-04-01

    The nonlocal properties of the W states are investigated under particle loss. By removing all but two particles from an N -qubit W state, the resulting two-qubit state is still entangled. Hence, the W state has high persistency of entanglement. We ask an analogous question regarding the persistency of nonlocality [see N. Brunner and T. Vértesi, Phys. Rev. A 86, 042113 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.042113]. Namely, we inquire what is the minimal number of particles that must be removed from the W state so that the resulting state becomes local. We bound this value in function of N qubits by considering Bell nonlocality tests with two alternative settings per site. In particular, we find that this value is between 2 N /5 and N /2 for large N . We also develop a framework to establish bounds for more than two settings per site.

  18. Near field radiative heat transfer between two nonlocal dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, F; Joulain, Karl

    2015-01-01

    We explore in the present work the near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel nonlocal dielectric planes by means of fluctuational electrodynamics. We use atheory for the nonlocal dielectric permittivityfunction proposed byHalevi and Fuchs. This theory has the advantage to includedifferent models performed in the literature. According to this theory, the nonlocal dielectric function is described by a Lorenz-Drude like single oscillator model, in which the spatial dispersion effects are represented by an additional term depending on the square of the total wavevector k. The theory takes into account the scattering of the electromagneticexcitation at the surface of the dielectric material, which leads to the need of additional boundary conditions in order to solve Maxwell's equations and treat the electromagnetic transmission problem. The additional boundary conditions appear as additional surface scattering parameters in the expressions of the surface impedances. It is shown that the...

  19. Quantum theory is classical mechanics with non-local existence

    CERN Document Server

    Hegseth, John

    2009-01-01

    I propose a new and direct connection between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics where I derive the quantum mechanical propagator from a variational principle. This variational principle is Hamilton's modified principle generalized to allow many paths due to the non-local existence of particles in phase space. This principle allows a physical system to evolve non-locally in phase space while still allowing a representation that uses many classical paths. Whereas a point in phase space represents a classical system's state, I represent the state of a non-local system by a mixed trajectory. This formulation naturally leads to the transactional interpretation for resolving the paradoxes of the measurement problem. This principle also suggests a more flexible framework for formulating theories based on invariant actions and provides a single conceptual framework for discussing many areas of science.

  20. Extremely nonlocal optical nonlinearities in atoms trapped near a waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Stimming, Hans Peter; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear optical phenomena are typically local. Here we predict the possibility of highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities for light propagating in atomic media trapped near a nano-waveguide, where long-range interactions between the atoms can be tailored. When the atoms are in an electromagnetically-induced transparency configuration, the atomic interactions are translated to long-range interactions between photons and thus to highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities. We derive and analyze the governing nonlinear propagation equation, finding a roton-like excitation spectrum for light and the emergence of long-range order in its output intensity. These predictions open the door to studies of unexplored wave dynamics and many-body physics with highly-nonlocal interactions of optical fields in one dimension.

  1. Nonlocal Measurements in the Time-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Vaidman, L; Vaidman, Lev; Nevo, Izhar

    2005-01-01

    Although nondemolition, reliable, and instantaneous quantum measurements of some nonlocal variables are impossible, demolition reliable instantaneous measurements are possible for all variables. It is shown that this is correct also in the framework of the time-symmetric quantum formalism, i.e. nonlocal variables of composite quantum systems with quantum states evolving both forward and backward in time are measurable in a demolition way. The result follows from the possibility to reverse with certainty the time direction of a backward evolving quantum state. Demolition measurements of nonlocal backward evolving quantum states require remarkably small resources. This is so because the combined operation of time reversal and teleportation of a local backward evolving quantum state requires only a single quantum channel and no transmission of classical information.

  2. A Caveat on Building Nonlocal Models of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, N C

    2014-01-01

    Nonlocal models of cosmology might derive from graviton loop corrections to the effective field equations from the epoch of primordial inflation. Although the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism would automatically produce causal and conserved effective field equations, the models so far proposed have been purely phenomenological. Two techniques have been employed to generate causal and conserved field equations: either varying an invariant nonlocal effective action and then enforcing causality by the ad hoc replacement of any advanced Green's function with its retarded counterpart, or else introducing causal nonlocality into a general ansatz for the field equations and then enforcing conservation. We point out here that the two techniques access very different classes of models, and that neither one of them may represent what would actually arise from fundamental theory.

  3. Generalized conservation laws in non-local field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegeles, Alexander; Oriti, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    We propose a geometrical treatment of symmetries in non-local field theories, where the non-locality is due to a lack of identification of field arguments in the action. We show that the existence of a symmetry of the action leads to a generalized conservation law, in which the usual conserved current acquires an additional non-local correction term, obtaining a generalization of the standard Noether theorem. We illustrate the general formalism by discussing the specific physical example of complex scalar field theory of the type describing the hydrodynamic approximation of Bose-Einstein condensates. We expect our analysis and results to be of particular interest for the group field theory formulation of quantum gravity.

  4. Generalised conservation laws in non-local field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kegeles, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We propose a geometrical treatment of symmetries in non-local field theories, where the non-locality is due to a lack of identification of field arguments in the action. We show that the existence of a symmetry of the action leads to a generalised conservation law, in which the usual conserved current acquires an additional non-local correction term, obtaining a generalisation of the standard Noether theorem. We illustrate the general formalism by discussing the specific physical example of complex scalar field theory of the type describing the hydrodynamic approximation of Bose-Einstein condensates. We expect our analysis and results to be of particular interest for the group field theory formulation of quantum gravity.

  5. The Nonlocal p-Laplacian Evolution for Image Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image interpolation model with nonlocal p-Laplacian regularization. The nonlocal p-Laplacian regularization overcomes the drawback of the partial differential equation (PDE proposed by Belahmidi and Guichard (2004 that image density diffuses in the directions pointed by local gradient. The grey values of images diffuse along image feature direction not gradient direction under the control of the proposed model, that is, minimal smoothing in the directions across the image features and maximal smoothing in the directions along the image features. The total regularizer combines the advantages of nonlocal p-Laplacian regularization and total variation (TV regularization (preserving discontinuities and 1D image structures. The derived model efficiently reconstructs the real image, leading to a natural interpolation, with reduced blurring and staircase artifacts. We present experimental results that prove the potential and efficacy of the method.

  6. Nonlocal quartic interactions and universality classes in perovskite manganites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Dutta, Kishore; Nandy, Malay K

    2015-07-01

    A modified Ginzburg-Landau model with a screened nonlocal interaction in the quartic term is treated via Wilson's renormalization-group scheme at one-loop order to explore the critical behavior of the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition in perovskite manganites. We find the Fisher exponent η to be O(ε) and the correlation exponent to be ν=1/2+O(ε) through epsilon expansion in the parameter ε=d(c)-d, where d is the space dimension, d(c)=4+2σ is the upper critical dimension, and σ is a parameter coming from the nonlocal interaction in the model Hamiltonian. The ensuing critical exponents in three dimensions for different values of σ compare well with various existing experimental estimates for perovskite manganites with various doping levels. This suggests that the nonlocal model Hamiltonian contains a wide variety of such universality classes.

  7. Nonlocal thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Huxtable, Scott T; Yang, Bao; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2014-12-17

    Thermal transport across the interfaces between few-layer graphene sheets and soft materials exhibits intriguing anomalies when interpreted using the classical Kapitza model, e.g. the conductance of the same interface differs greatly for different modes of interfacial thermal transport. Using atomistic simulations, we show that such thermal transport follows a nonlocal flux-temperature drop constitutive law and is characterized jointly by a quasi-local conductance and a nonlocal conductance instead of the classical Kapitza conductance. The nonlocal model enables rationalization of many anomalies of the thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets and should be used in studies of interfacial thermal transport involving few-layer graphene sheets or other ultra-thin layered materials.

  8. Image and video restorations via nonlocal kernel regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haichao; Yang, Jianchao; Zhang, Yanning; Huang, Thomas S

    2013-06-01

    A nonlocal kernel regression (NL-KR) model is presented in this paper for various image and video restoration tasks. The proposed method exploits both the nonlocal self-similarity and local structural regularity properties in natural images. The nonlocal self-similarity is based on the observation that image patches tend to repeat themselves in natural images and videos, and the local structural regularity observes that image patches have regular structures where accurate estimation of pixel values via regression is possible. By unifying both properties explicitly, the proposed NL-KR framework is more robust in image estimation, and the algorithm is applicable to various image and video restoration tasks. In this paper, we apply the proposed model to image and video denoising, deblurring, and superresolution reconstruction. Extensive experimental results on both single images and realistic video sequences demonstrate that the proposed framework performs favorably with previous works both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  9. Stability Analysis of Continuous Waves in Nonlocal Random Nonlinear Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim A. Molchan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the competing cubic-quintic nonlinearity model, stability (instability of continuous waves in nonlocal random non-Kerr nonlinear media is studied analytically and numerically. Fluctuating media parameters are modeled by the Gaussian white noise. It is shown that for different response functions of a medium nonlocality suppresses, as a rule, both the growth rate peak and bandwidth of instability caused by random parameters. At the same time, for a special form of the response functions there can be an ''anomalous'' subjection of nonlocality to the instability development which leads to further increase of the growth rate. Along with the second-order moments of the modulational amplitude, higher-order moments are taken into account.

  10. Theory of genuine tripartite nonlocality of Gaussian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Piano, Samanta

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the genuine multipartite nonlocality of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For pure states, we present a simplified procedure to obtain the maximum violation of the Svetlichny inequality based on displaced parity measurements, and we analyze its interplay with genuine tripartite entanglement measured via Rényi-2 entropy. The maximum Svetlichny violation admits tight upper and lower bounds at fixed tripartite entanglement. For mixed states, no violation is possible when the purity falls below 0.86. We also explore a set of recently derived weaker inequalities for three-way nonlocality, finding violations for all tested pure states. Our results provide a strong signature for the nonclassical and nonlocal nature of Gaussian states despite their positive Wigner function, and lead to precise recipes for its experimental verification.

  11. Bound on Hardy's nonlocality from the principle of information causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanj, Ali; Kunkri, Samir; Rai, Ashutosh; Rahaman, Ramij; Joag, Pramod S.

    2010-03-01

    Recently, the principle of nonviolation of information causality [Nature 461, 1101 (2009)] has been proposed as one of the foundational properties of nature. We explore the Hardy’s nonlocality theorem for two-qubit systems, in the context of generalized probability theory, restricted by the principle of nonviolation of information causality. Applying a sufficient condition for information causality violation, we derive an upper bound on the maximum success probability of Hardy’s nonlocality argument. We find that the bound achieved here is higher than that allowed by quantum mechanics but still much less than what the no-signaling condition permits. We also study the Cabello type nonlocality argument (a generalization of Hardy’s argument) in this context.

  12. Reflective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  13. Compressive Sensing Image Restoration Using Adaptive Curvelet Thresholding and Nonlocal Sparse Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslahi, Nasser; Aghagolzadeh, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a recently emerging technique and an extensively studied problem in signal and image processing, which suggests a new framework for the simultaneous sampling and compression of sparse or compressible signals at a rate significantly below the Nyquist rate. Maybe, designing an effective regularization term reflecting the image sparse prior information plays a critical role in CS image restoration. Recently, both local smoothness and nonlocal self-similarity have led to superior sparsity prior for CS image restoration. In this paper, first, an adaptive curvelet thresholding criterion is developed, trying to adaptively remove the perturbations appeared in recovered images during CS recovery process, imposing sparsity. Furthermore, a new sparsity measure called joint adaptive sparsity regularization (JASR) is established, which enforces both local sparsity and nonlocal 3-D sparsity in transform domain, simultaneously. Then, a novel technique for high-fidelity CS image recovery via JASR is proposed-CS-JASR. To efficiently solve the proposed corresponding optimization problem, we employ the split Bregman iterations. Extensive experimental results are reported to attest the adequacy and effectiveness of the proposed method comparing with the current state-of-the-art methods in CS image restoration.

  14. Optical Observation of Plasmonic Nonlocal Effects in a 2D Superlattice of Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Ferrari, Lorenzo; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Mortensen, N Asger; Gwo, Shangjr; Liu, Zhaowei

    2017-03-02

    The advances in recent nanofabrication techniques have facilitated explorations of metal structures into nanometer scales, where the traditional local-response Drude model with hard-wall boundary conditions fails to accurately describe their optical responses. The emerging nonlocal effects in single ultrasmall silver nanoparticles have been experimentally observed in single-particle spectroscopy enabled by the unprecedented high spatial resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). However, the unambiguous optical observation of such new effects in gold nanoparticles has yet not been reported, due to the extremely weak scattering and the obscuring fingerprint of strong interband transitions. Here we present a nanosystem, a superlattice monolayer formed by sub-10 nm gold nanoparticles. Plasmon resonances are spectrally well-separated from interband transitions, while exhibiting clearly distinguishable blueshifts compared to predictions by the classical local-response model. Our far-field spectroscopy was performed by a standard optical transmission and reflection setup, and the results agreed excellently with the hydrodynamic nonlocal model, opening a simple and widely accessible way for addressing quantum effects in nanoplasmonic systems.

  15. Non-locality of Entangled Coherent States and Its Evolution in a Thermal Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Ren-Shan

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the necessary and sufficient condition violating Bell-CHSH's inequality as criterion for nonlocality of entangled states, we present a perturbative calculation determining non-locality of evolving entangled states.Furthermore, by means of the perturbative calculation, the non-locality and its evolution of two kinds of entangled coherent states in a thermal reservoir are discussed.

  16. Discrete model of dislocations in fractional nonlocal elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily E. Tarasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete models of dislocations in fractional nonlocal materials are suggested. The proposed models are based on fractional-order differences instead of finite differences of integer orders that are usually used. The fractional differences allow us to describe long-range interactions in materials. In continuous limit the suggested discrete models give continuum models of dislocations in nonlocal continua. Fractional generalization of the Frenkel–Kontorova model by using long-range interactions is suggested. We also propose a fractional generalization of interacting atomic chains (IAC model of dislocations by considering long-range interacting chains.

  17. Nonlocal plasticity effects on interaction of different size voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2004-01-01

    A nonlocal elastic-plastic material model is used to show that the rate of void growth is significantly reduced when the voids are small enough to be comparable with a characteristic material length. For a very small void in the material between much larger voids the competition between...... an increased growth rate due to the stress concentrations around the larger voids and a reduced growth rate due to the nonlocal effects is studied. The analyses are based on an axisymmetric unit cell model with special boundary conditions, which allow for a relatively simple investigation of a full three...

  18. Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silling, Stewart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, John A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seleson, Pablo D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, Daniel Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ostien, Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunzburger, Max [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Peridynamics, a nonlocal extension of continuum mechanics, is unique in its ability to capture pervasive material failure. Its use in the majority of system-level analyses carried out at Sandia, however, is severely limited, due in large part to computational expense and the challenge posed by the imposition of nonlocal boundary conditions. Combined analyses in which peridynamics is em- ployed only in regions susceptible to material failure are therefore highly desirable, yet available coupling strategies have remained severely limited. This report is a summary of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project "Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Inte- grated Fracture Modeling," completed within the Computing and Information Sciences (CIS) In- vestment Area at Sandia National Laboratories. A number of challenges inherent to coupling local and nonlocal models are addressed. A primary result is the extension of peridynamics to facilitate a variable nonlocal length scale. This approach, termed the peridynamic partial stress, can greatly reduce the mathematical incompatibility between local and nonlocal equations through reduction of the peridynamic horizon in the vicinity of a model interface. A second result is the formulation of a blending-based coupling approach that may be applied either as the primary coupling strategy, or in combination with the peridynamic partial stress. This blending-based approach is distinct from general blending methods, such as the Arlequin approach, in that it is specific to the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics. Facilitating the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics has also required innovations aimed directly at peridynamic models. Specifically, the properties of peridynamic constitutive models near domain boundaries and shortcomings in available discretization strategies have been addressed. The results are a class of position-aware peridynamic constitutive laws for

  19. Single-particle nonlocality and entanglement with the vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Björk, G; Sánchez-Soto, L L

    2001-01-01

    We propose a single-particle experiment that is equivalent to the conventional two-particle experiment used to demonstrate a violation of Bell's inequalities. Hence, we argue that quantum mechanical nonlocality can be demonstrated by single-particle states. The validity of such a claim has been discussed in the literature, but without reaching a clear consensus. We show that the disagreement can be traced to what part of the total state of the experiment one assigns to the (macroscopic) measurement apparatus. However, with a conventional and legitimate interpretation of the measurement process one is led to the conclusion that even a single particle can show nonlocal properties.

  20. Nonlocal Classical Matter in Self-contained Machian Relativism

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyzhenkov-Widicker, I E

    2007-01-01

    The continuous elementary source in Einstein's gravitational theory is the r^{-4} radial distribution of the energy-momentum tensor density. The space energy integral of such an infinite (astro)source-particle is finite and determines its nonlocal gravitational charge for the energy-to-energy attraction of other (astro)particles. Non-empty flat space of the undivided material Universe is charged continuously by the world energy density of the global ensemble of overlapping radial particles. Nonlocal gravitational/inertial energy-charges incorporate Machian relativism quantitatively into Einstein's gravitation for self-contained GR-SR relations without references to Newton's mass-to-mass attraction.

  1. Accelerating cosmologies from non-local higher-derivative gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2008-01-01

    We study accelerating cosmological solutions of a general class of non-linear gravities which depend on Gauss-Bonnet and other higher derivative invariants. To achieve this goal a local formulation with auxiliary scalars for arbitrary higher-derivative non-local gravity is developed. It is demonstrated that non-local Gauss-Bonnet gravity can be reduced, in the local formulation, to a model of string-inspired scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. A natural unification, in the theory here developed, of the early-time inflation epoch with a late-time acceleration stage can also be realized.

  2. Accelerating cosmologies from non-local higher-derivative gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozziello, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Elizalde, Emilio [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ICE/CSIC-IEEC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Parell-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Nojiri, Shin' ichi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)], E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Odintsov, Sergei D. [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA) and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-01-12

    We study accelerating cosmological solutions of a general class of non-linear gravities which depend on Gauss-Bonnet and other higher derivative invariants. To achieve this goal a local formulation with auxiliary scalars for arbitrary higher-derivative non-local gravity is developed. It is demonstrated that non-local Gauss-Bonnet gravity can be reduced, in the local formulation, to a model of string-inspired scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. A natural unification, in the theory here developed, of the early-time inflation epoch with a late-time acceleration stage can also be realized.

  3. Genuine multipartite nonlocality of permutationally invariant Gaussian states

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Buqing; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate genuine multipartite nonlocality of pure permutationally invariant multimode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, as detected by the violation of Svetlichny inequality. We identify the phase space settings leading to the largest violation of the inequality when using displaced parity measurements, distinguishing between even and odd number of modes. We further consider pseudospin measurements and show that, for three-mode states with asymptotically large squeezing degree, particular settings of these measurements allow one to approach the maximum violation allowed by quantum mechanics. This indicates that the highest possible genuine multipartite quantum nonlocality is in principle verifiable on Gaussian states.

  4. Localization of Nonlocal Symmetries and Symmetry Reductions of Burgers Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Wen; Lou, Sen-Yue; Yu, Jun

    2017-05-01

    The nonlocal symmetries of the Burgers equation are explicitly given by the truncated Painlevé method. The auto-Bäcklund transformation and group invariant solutions are obtained via the localization procedure for the nonlocal residual symmetries. Furthermore, the interaction solutions of the solition-Kummer waves and the solition-Airy waves are obtained. Supported by the Global Change Research Program China under Grant No. 2015CB953904, the National Natural Science Foundations of China under Grant Nos. 11435005, 11175092, and 11205092, Shanghai Knowledge Service Platform for Trustworthy Internet of Things under Grant No. ZF1213, and K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University

  5. Dynamical quenching with non-local alpha and downward pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, A; Käpylä, P J

    2014-01-01

    In light of new results, the one-dimensional mean-field dynamo model of Brandenburg & Kapyla (2007) with dynamical quenching and a nonlocal Babcock-Leighton alpha effect is re-examined for the solar dynamo. We extend the one-dimensional model to include the effects of turbulent downward pumping (Kitchatinov & Olemskoy 2011), and to combine dynamical quenching with shear. We use both the conventional dynamical quenching model of Kleeorin & Ruzmaikin (1982) and the alternate one of Hubbard & Brandenburg (2011), and confirm that with varying levels of non-locality in the alpha effect, and possibly shear as well, the saturation field strength can be independent of the magnetic Reynolds number.

  6. Inhomogeneous broadening in non-interacting nonlocal plasmonic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of inhomogeneous broadening due to the size dependence of plasmon resonances in few-nm metallic particle ensembles is investigated through different models describing the nonlocal optical response of plasmonic nanospheres. Modal shifts and plasmon line broadening are shown to become...... important within the first-order correction to classical electrodynamics provided by the hydrodynamic Drude model, but turn out to be less prominent once additional single-particle size-dependent damping mechanisms are accounted for through the recently developed Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response theory...

  7. Dynamical nonlocal coherent-potential approximation for itinerant electron magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, D A; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-11-26

    A dynamical generalisation of the nonlocal coherent-potential approximation is derived based upon the functional integral approach to the interacting electron problem. The free energy is proven to be variational with respect to the self-energy provided a self-consistency condition on a cluster of sites is satisfied. In the present work, calculations are performed within the static approximation and the effect of the nonlocal physics on the formation of the local moment state in a simple model is investigated. The results reveal the importance of the dynamical correlations.

  8. A Nonlocal Poisson-Fermi Model for Ionic Solvent

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Dexuan; Eisenberg, Bob; Scott, L Ridgway

    2016-01-01

    We propose a nonlocal Poisson-Fermi model for ionic solvent that includes ion size effects and polarization correlations among water molecules in the calculation of electrostatic potential. It includes the previous Poisson-Fermi models as special cases, and its solution is the convolution of a solution of the corresponding nonlocal Poisson dielectric model with a Yukawa-type kernel function. Moreover, the Fermi distribution is shown to be a set of optimal ionic concentration functions in the sense of minimizing an electrostatic potential free energy. Finally, numerical results are reported to show the difference between a Poisson-Fermi solution and a corresponding Poisson solution.

  9. Nonlocal Poisson-Fermi model for ionic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dexuan; Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-07-01

    We propose a nonlocal Poisson-Fermi model for ionic solvent that includes ion size effects and polarization correlations among water molecules in the calculation of electrostatic potential. It includes the previous Poisson-Fermi models as special cases, and its solution is the convolution of a solution of the corresponding nonlocal Poisson dielectric model with a Yukawa-like kernel function. The Fermi distribution is shown to be a set of optimal ionic concentration functions in the sense of minimizing an electrostatic potential free energy. Numerical results are reported to show the difference between a Poisson-Fermi solution and a corresponding Poisson solution.

  10. Strong field ionization and gauge dependence of nonlocal potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rensink, T C

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocal potential models have been used in place of the Coulomb potential in the Schrodinger equation as an efficient means of exploring high field laser-atom interaction in previous works. Al- though these models have found use in modeling phenomena including photo-ionization and ejected electron momentum spectra, they are known to break electromagnetic gauge invariance. This paper examines if there is a preferred gauge for the linear field response and photoionization characteristics of nonlocal atomic binding potentials in the length and velocity gauges. It is found that the length gauge is preferable for a wide range of parameters.

  11. Nonlocal and nonlinear electrostatics of a dipolar Coulomb fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Buyukdagli; Ralf, Blossey

    2014-07-16

    We study a model Coulomb fluid consisting of dipolar solvent molecules of finite extent which generalizes the point-like dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model (DPB) previously introduced by Coalson and Duncan (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 2612) and Abrashkin et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 077801). We formulate a nonlocal Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NLPB) and study both linear and nonlinear dielectric response in this model for the case of a single plane geometry. Our results shed light on the relevance of nonlocal versus nonlinear effects in continuum models of material electrostatics.

  12. To the non-local theory of cold nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we revisit the cold fusion (CF) phenomenon using the generalized Bolzmann kinetics theory which can represent the non-local physics of this CF phenomenon. This approach can identify the conditions when the CF can take place as the soliton creation under the influence of the intensive sound waves. The vast mathematical modelling leads to affirmation that all parts of soliton move with the same velocity and with the small internal change of the pressure. The zone of the high density is shaped on the soliton's front. It means that the regime of the 'acoustic CF' could be realized from the position of the non-local hydrodynamics.

  13. Low-Energy Signatures of Nonlocal Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Belenchia, Alessio; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Saravani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The response of inertial particle detectors coupled to a scalar field satisfying nonlocal dynamics described by non-analytic functions of the d'Alembertian operator $\\Box$ is studied. We show that spontaneous emission processes of a low energy particle detector are very sensitive to high-energy non-locality scales. This allows us to suggest a nuclear physics experiment ($\\sim$ MeV energy scales) that outperforms the sensitivity of LHC experiments by many orders of magnitude. This may have implications for the falsifiability of theoretical proposals of quantum gravity.

  14. A higher-order nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory and its applications in wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. W.; Zhang, G.; Reddy, J. N.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years there have been many papers that considered the effects of material length scales in the study of mechanics of solids at micro- and/or nano-scales. There are a number of approaches and, among them, one set of papers deals with Eringen's differential nonlocal model and another deals with the strain gradient theories. The modified couple stress theory, which also accounts for a material length scale, is a form of a strain gradient theory. The large body of literature that has come into existence in the last several years has created significant confusion among researchers about the length scales that these various theories contain. The present paper has the objective of establishing the fact that the length scales present in nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory describe two entirely different physical characteristics of materials and structures at nanoscale. By using two principle kernel functions, the paper further presents a theory with application examples which relates the classical nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory and it results in a higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory. In this theory, a higher-order nonlocal strain gradient elasticity system which considers higher-order stress gradients and strain gradient nonlocality is proposed. It is based on the nonlocal effects of the strain field and first gradient strain field. This theory intends to generalize the classical nonlocal elasticity theory by introducing a higher-order strain tensor with nonlocality into the stored energy function. The theory is distinctive because the classical nonlocal stress theory does not include nonlocality of higher-order stresses while the common strain gradient theory only considers local higher-order strain gradients without nonlocal effects in a global sense. By establishing the constitutive relation within the thermodynamic framework, the governing equations of equilibrium and all boundary conditions are derived via the variational

  15. Are There Quantum Effects Coming from Outside Space-time? Nonlocality, free will and "no many-worlds"

    CERN Document Server

    Gisin, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Observing the violation of Bell's inequality tells us something about all possible future theories: they must all predict nonlocal correlations. Hence Nature is nonlocal. After an elementary introduction to nonlocality and a brief review of some recent experiments, I argue that Nature's nonlocality together with the existence of free will is incompatible with the many-worlds view of quantum physics.

  16. Effect of nonlocal dispersion on self-interacting excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim; Gaididei, Yu.B.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of self-interacting quasiparticles in 1Dsystems with long-range dispersive interactions isexpressed in terms of a nonlocal nonlinear Schrödingerequation. Two branches of stationary solutions are found.The new branch which contains a cusp soliton is shown to beunstable and blowup is o...

  17. Acceleration-induced nonlocality: kinetic memory versus dynamic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the memory of accelerated motion in Minkowski spacetime are discussed within the framework of the nonlocal theory of accelerated observers. Two types of memory are distinguished: kinetic and dynamic. We show that only kinetic memory is acceptable, since dynamic memory leads to divergences for nonuniform accelerated motion.

  18. A nonlocal parabolic system with application to a thermoelastic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lin

    1999-01-01

    problem is first transformed into an equivalent nonlocal parabolic systems using a transformation, and then the existence and uniqueness of the solutions are demonstrated via the theoretical potential representation theory of the parabolic equations. Finally some realistic situations in the applications are discussed using the results obtained in this paper.

  19. Nonlocal theory of longitudinal waves in thermoelastic bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Inan

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available The longitudinal waves in thermoelastic bars are investigated in the context of nonlocal theory. Using integral forms of constitutive equations, balance of momenta and energy, field equations are obtained. Then the frequency equation is found in generalized form. To obtain tangible results, an approximate procedure is applied and numerical results are given for short waves.

  20. THE NONLOCAL INITIAL PROBLEMS OF A SEMILINEAR EVOLUTION EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远弟; 冉启康

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the existence of solutions to a nonlocal Cauchy problem for an evolution equation. The methods used here include the abstract semigroup methods in proper spaces and Schauder's theorem.And the abstract results are applied to a system of nonlinear partial differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions.

  1. Non-local common cause explanations for EPR

    CERN Document Server

    Egg, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The paper argues that a causal explanation of the correlated outcomes of EPR-type experiments is desirable and possible. It shows how Bohmian mechanics and the GRW mass density theory offer such an explanation in terms of a non-local common cause.

  2. Nonlocal response in plasmonic waveguiding with extreme light confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Yan, Wei;

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel wave equation for linearized plasmonic response, obtained by combining the coupled real-space differential equations for the electric field and current density. Nonlocal dynamics are fully accounted for, and the formulation is very well suited for numerical implementation, allo...... Purcell factors, and thus has important implications for quantum plasmonics....

  3. Vortex stabilization by means of spatial solitons in nonlocal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebskaya, Yana; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Smyth, Noel F.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-05-01

    We investigate how optical vortices, which tend to be azimuthally unstable in local nonlinear materials, can be stabilized by a copropagating coaxial spatial solitary wave in nonlocal, nonlinear media. We focus on the formation of nonlinear vortex-soliton vector beams in reorientational soft matter, namely nematic liquid crystals, and report on experimental results, as well as numerical simulations.

  4. Nonlocal description of X waves in quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Ulrik Vingaard; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Bang, Ole

    2006-01-01

    We study localized light bullets and X-waves in quadratic media and show how the notion of nonlocality can provide an alternative simple physical picture of both types of multi-dimensional nonlinear waves. For X-waves we show that a local cascading limit in terms of a nonlinear Schrodinger equation...

  5. Nonlocal dispersive optical model ingredients for ${}^{40}$Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Mahzoon, M H; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Waldecker, S J

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive description of all single-particle properties associated with the nucleus ${}^{40}$Ca has been generated by employing a nonlocal dispersive optical potential capable of simultaneously reproducing all relevant data above and below the Fermi energy. We gather all relevant functional forms and the numerical values of the parameters in this contribution.

  6. Fractional evolution equation nonlocal problems with noncompact semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuping Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the existence results of mild solutions to the nonlocal problem of fractional semilinear integro-differential evolution equations. New existence theorems are obtained by means of the fixed point theorem for condensing maps. The results extend and improve some related results in this direction.

  7. Nonlocal effects on localization in a void-sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    1997-01-01

    solid under plane strain conditions are here used to compare with predictions of a nonlocal Version of a porous ductile material model. Both the critical strain for the onset of plastic flow localization and the slope of the stress-strain curve in the post-localization range are compared...

  8. Theory of nonlocal heat transport in fully ionized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maximov, A.V. (Tesla Labs., Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States)); Silin, V.P. (P.N. Lebedev Inst., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia))

    1993-01-25

    A new analytic solution of the electron kinetic equation describing the interacting of the electromagnetic heating field with plasma is obtained in the region of plasma parameters where the Spitzer-Harm classical theory is invalid. A novel expression for the nonlocal electron thermal conductivity is derived. (orig.).

  9. On nonlocal problems for fractional differential equations in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiWang Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the nonlocal problems for the fractional differential equation in Banach spaces. New sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solutions are established by means of fractional calculus and fixed point method under some suitable conditions. Two examples are given to illustrate the results.

  10. Nonlocal Cauchy problem for nonlinear mixed integrodifferential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Tidke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the existence and uniqueness of mild and strong solutions of a nonlinear mixed Volterra-Fredholm integrodifferential equation with nonlocal condition. The results obtained by using Schauder fixed point theorem and the theory of semigroups.

  11. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal optical media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2006-01-01

    We reveal that nonlocality can provide a simplæe physical mechanism for stabilization of multihump optical solitons and present what we believe to be the first example of stable rotating dipole solitons and soliton spiraling, which we are known to be unstable in all types of realistic nonlinear...

  12. Effect of nonlocal dispersion on self-interacting excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim; Gaididei, Yu.B.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of self-interacting quasiparticles in 1Dsystems with long-range dispersive interactions isexpressed in terms of a nonlocal nonlinear Schrödingerequation. Two branches of stationary solutions are found.The new branch which contains a cusp soliton is shown to beunstable and blowup...

  13. Flare loop radiative hydrodynamics. III - Nonlocal radiative transfer effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, R. C.; Fisher, G. H.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1983-01-01

    The study has three goals. The first is to demonstrate that processes exist whose intrinsic nonlocal nature cannot be represented by local approximations. The second is to elucidate the physical nature and origins of these nonlocal processes. The third is to suggest that the methods and results described here may prove useful in constructing semiempirical models of the chromosphere by means more efficient than trial and error. Matrices are computed that describe the effect of a temperature perturbation at an arbitrary point in the loop on density, hydrogen ionized fraction, total radiative loss rate, and radiative loss rate of selected hydrogen lines and continua at all other points. It is found that the dominant nonlocal radiative transfer effects can be separated into flux divergence coefficient effects and upper level population effects. The former are most important when the perturbation takes place in a region of significant opacity. Upper level population effects arise in both optically thick and thin regions in response to nonlocal density, ionization, and interlocking effects.

  14. Numerical computation of a nonlocal double obstacle problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a nonlocal double obstacle problem. This type of problems comes in various biological and physical situations, e.g., in phase transition models. We focus on numerical approximations and fast computation of such a model. We start with considering piece-wise basis functions for spatial app

  15. Sparse representation based image interpolation with nonlocal autoregressive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weisheng; Zhang, Lei; Lukac, Rastislav; Shi, Guangming

    2013-04-01

    Sparse representation is proven to be a promising approach to image super-resolution, where the low-resolution (LR) image is usually modeled as the down-sampled version of its high-resolution (HR) counterpart after blurring. When the blurring kernel is the Dirac delta function, i.e., the LR image is directly down-sampled from its HR counterpart without blurring, the super-resolution problem becomes an image interpolation problem. In such cases, however, the conventional sparse representation models (SRM) become less effective, because the data fidelity term fails to constrain the image local structures. In natural images, fortunately, many nonlocal similar patches to a given patch could provide nonlocal constraint to the local structure. In this paper, we incorporate the image nonlocal self-similarity into SRM for image interpolation. More specifically, a nonlocal autoregressive model (NARM) is proposed and taken as the data fidelity term in SRM. We show that the NARM-induced sampling matrix is less coherent with the representation dictionary, and consequently makes SRM more effective for image interpolation. Our extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed NARM-based image interpolation method can effectively reconstruct the edge structures and suppress the jaggy/ringing artifacts, achieving the best image interpolation results so far in terms of PSNR as well as perceptual quality metrics such as SSIM and FSIM.

  16. Nonlocal correlations: Fair and unfair strategies in Bayesian games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arup; Mukherjee, Amit; Guha, Tamal; Ghosh, Sibasish; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Banik, Manik

    2016-09-01

    An interesting connection has been established between two apparently unrelated concepts, namely, quantum nonlocality and Bayesian game theory. It has been shown that nonlocal correlations in the form of advice can outperform classical equilibrium strategies in common-interest Bayesian games and also in conflicting-interest Bayesian games. Classical equilibrium strategies can be of two types, fair and unfair. Whereas in fair equilibrium payoffs of different players are equal, in the unfair case they differ. An advantage of nonlocal correlation has been demonstrated over fair strategies only. We show that quantum strategies can outperform even the unfair classical equilibrium strategies. For this purpose we consider a class of two-player Bayesian games. It becomes that such games can have only fair equilibria, both fair and unfair equilibria, or only unfair ones. We provide a simple analytic method to characterize the nonlocal correlations that are advantageous over the classical equilibrium strategies in these games. We also show that quantum advice provides a better social optimality solution (a relevant notion of equilibrium for the unfair case) over the classical one.

  17. Inhomogeneous broadening in non-interacting nonlocal plasmonic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    2016-01-01

    important within the first-order correction to classical electrodynamics provided by the hydrodynamic Drude model, but turn out to be less prominent once additional single-particle size-dependent damping mechanisms are accounted for through the recently developed Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response theory....... Our work is therefore expected to provide insight and facilitate the design of nanoscale spectroscopy experiments....

  18. Non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Takuya [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    1998-10-01

    A new theoretical model equation which includes the non-local effect in the heat flux is proposed to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the experimental results from the power switching [Stroth U, et al 1996 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 1087] and the power modulation experiments [Giannone L, et al 1992 Nucl. Fusion 32 1985] in the W7-AS stellarator. A small fraction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in modifying the response against an external modulation. The transient feature of the transport property, which are observed in the response of heat pulse propagation, are qualitatively reproduced by the transport simulations based on this model. A possibility is discussed to determine the correlation length of the non-local effect experimentally by use of the results of transport simulations. (author)

  19. Theoretical Foundations of Incorporating Local Boundary Conditions into Nonlocal Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoylu, Burak; Beyer, Horst Reinhard; Celiker, Fatih

    2017-08-01

    We study nonlocal equations from the area of peridynamics on bounded domains. We present four main results. In our recent paper, we have discovered that, on R, the governing operator in peridynamics, which involves a convolution, is a bounded function of the classical (local) governing operator. Building on this, as main result 1, we construct an abstract convolution operator on bounded domains which is a generalization of the standard convolution based on integrals. The abstract convolution operator is a function of the classical operator, defined by a Hilbert basis available due to the purely discrete spectrum of the latter. As governing operator of the nonlocal equation we use a function of the classical operator, this allows us to incorporate local boundary conditions into nonlocal theories. As main result 2, we prove that the solution operator can be uniquely decomposed into a Hilbert-Schmidt operator and a multiple of the identity operator. As main result 3, we prove that Hilbert-Schmidt operators provide a smoothing of the input data in the sense a square integrable function is mapped into a function that is smooth up to boundary of the domain. As main result 4, for the homogeneous nonlocal wave equation, we prove that continuity is preserved by time evolution. Namely, the solution is discontinuous if and only if the initial data is discontinuous. As a consequence, discontinuities remain stationary.

  20. Nonlocal effect in surface plasmon polariton of ultrathin metal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Hong-jie; Yu, Yabin, E-mail: apybyu@hnu.edu.cn; Wu, Reng-lai; Yu, Yan-qin; Wang, Ya-xin

    2015-09-01

    Using the nonlocal conductivity based on quantum response theory, we study the optical properties of p-polarized wave in quartz–metal–film–air structures, especially the influence of nonlocal effect on the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) resonance. In absorption spectrum, the resonant peak of SPP is found, and the dependence of the resonant peak on film thickness shows that nonlocal effect in the SPP resonance is enhanced significantly with the decrease of film-thickness, especially in the less than 20 nm metal film. We calculate the surface charge density as a function of frequency, and find that the frequencies at the charge and absorption peaks are the same. This clearly confirms that the absorption peak stems from SPP resonance excitation, and SPPs absorb the energy of the electromagnetic wave via charge oscillations. In the case of SPP resonance, the charge and electric field on the down-surface of thin film are always greater than that on the up-surface; however, the situation is just opposite in the case of no SPP resonance. This implies that the SPP resonance occurs near the down-surface of the film. Moreover, due to the nonlocal response of electric current to the electric field, the energy flow and electric current show anomalous oscillations, and with the increase of film thickness the anomalous oscillations exhibit obvious attenuation.

  1. ON SOLUTIONS TO SEMILINEAR INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH NONLOCAL CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, using the theory of resolvent operators, Banach,s contraction prin-ciple and Schauder,s fixed point theorem, we study the existence of integral solutions to semilinear integrodifferential equations under nonlocal conditions in Banach space. An example is provided to illustrate the results obtained.

  2. Controllable nonlocal behaviour by cascaded second-harmonic generation of fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2008-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) of ultra-short pulses can act as a prototypical nonlocal nonlinear model, since the strength and nature of the temporal nonlocality can be controlled through the phase-mismatch parameter. The presence of a group-velocity mismatch namely implies that when the phase...... compression to few-cycle pulses in the cascaded quadratic soliton compressor, the spectral content of the full coupled SHG model is predicted by the nonlocal model even when few-cycle pulses are interacting....... mismatch is small the nonlocal response function becomes oscillatory, while for large phase mismatch it becomes localized. In the transition between the two regimes the strength of the nonlocality diverges, and the system goes from a weakly nonlocal to a strongly nonlocal state. When simulating soliton...

  3. The relation between Hardy's non-locality and violation of Bell inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yang

    2011-06-01

    We give an analytic quantitative relation between Hardy's non-locality and Bell operator. We find that Hardy's non-locality is a sufficient condition for the violation of Bell inequality, the upper bound of Hardy's non-locality allowed by information causality just corresponds to Tsirelson bound of Bell inequality and the upper bound of Hardy's non-locality allowed by the principle of no-signaling just corresponds to the algebraic maximum of Bell operator. Then we study the Cabello's argument of Hardy's non-locality (a generalization of Hardy's argument) and find a similar relation between it and violation of Bell inequality. Finally, we give a simple derivation of the bound of Hardy's non-locality under the constraint of information causality with the aid of the above derived relation between Hardy's non-locality and Bell operator.

  4. Theory connecting nonlocal sediment transport, earth surface roughness, and the Sadler effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Rina; Taloni, Alessandro; Furbish, David Jon

    2017-03-01

    Earth surface evolution, like many natural phenomena typified by fluctuations on a wide range of scales and deterministic smoothing, results in a statistically rough surface. We present theory demonstrating that scaling exponents of topographic and stratigraphic statistics arise from long-time averaging of noisy surface evolution rather than specific landscape evolution processes. This is demonstrated through use of "elastic" Langevin equations that generically describe disturbance from a flat earth surface using a noise term that is smoothed deterministically via sediment transport. When smoothing due to transport is a local process, the geologic record self organizes such that a specific Sadler effect and topographic power spectral density (PSD) emerge. Variations in PSD slope reflect the presence or absence and character of nonlocality of sediment transport. The range of observed stratigraphic Sadler slopes captures the same smoothing feature combined with the presence of long-range spatial correlation in topographic disturbance.

  5. On wave propagation characteristics in fluid saturated porous materials by a nonlocal Biot theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lihong; Yu, Yang; Hu, Wentao; Shi, Yufeng; Xu, Changjie

    2016-09-01

    A nonlocal Biot theory is developed by combing Biot theory and nonlocal elasticity theory for fluid saturated porous material. The nonlocal parameter is introduced as an independent variable for describing wave propagation characteristics in poroelastic material. A physical insight on nonlocal term demonstrates that the nonlocal term is a superposition of two effects, one is inertia force effect generated by fluctuation of porosity and the other is pore size effect inherited from nonlocal constitutive relation. Models for situations of excluding fluid nonlocal effect and including fluid nonlocal effect are proposed. Comparison with experiment confirms that model without fluid nonlocal effect is more reasonable for predicting wave characteristics in saturated porous materials. The negative dispersion is observed theoretically which agrees well with the published experimental data. Both wave velocities and quality factors as functions of frequency and nonlocal parameter are examined in practical cases. A few new physical phenomena such as backward propagation and disappearance of slow wave when exceeding critical frequency and disappearing shear wave in high frequency range, which were not predicted by Biot theory, are demonstrated.

  6. Andreev reflection and spin polarization of SrRuO{sub 3} thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} (111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, M; Rigato, F; Fontcuberta, J [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona - CSIC, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Piano, S; Mellor, C J, E-mail: mfoerster@icmab.es [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-06

    Epitaxial SrRuO{sub 3} thin films with an extremely flat surface morphology suitable for the use in thin film heterostructures have been grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (111) substrates. The transport spin polarization was measured by point contact spectroscopy for SrRuO{sub 3} films on SrTiO{sub 3} (111) and comparable samples on SrTiO{sub 3} (001). The measured polarization for both types of samples is slightly smaller than previously measured by the same technique. Possible reasons for this difference are discussed.

  7. The Influence of Andreev Reflection on Quantum Transport Properties%Andreev反射对量子输运性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪少春

    2007-01-01

    研究了Andreev反射和交叉Andreev反射的物理过程,分析Andreev反射和电子的正常反射在物理图象上的区别,讨论这两种过程对量子输运性质的影响,并得出了铁磁金属-非磁半导体-超导体结构中自旋相关电流的具体产生过程及其他结论.

  8. Dynamic crack growth in a nonlocal progressively cavitating solid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needleman, A.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic crack growth is analyzed numerically using a nonlocal constitutive formulation for a porous ductile material. The delocalization relates to the void growth and coalescence mechanism and is incorporated in terms of an integral condition on the rate of increase of the void volume fraction....... The material is modeled as elastic-viscoplastic with the thermal softening due to adiabatic heating accounted for. Finite element computations are carried our for edge cracked specimens subject to tensile impact loading. Two values of the material characteristic length and two finite-element discretizations...... to increase and the crack speed to decrease with increasing values of the material characteristic length. The crack growth predictions using the nonlocal constitutive model exhibit less mesh sensitivity than the corresponding ones based on the local constitutive relation. However, for the largest value...

  9. Quantum non-locality - It ain't necessarily so...

    CERN Document Server

    Zukowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Bell's theorem is 50 years old. Still there is a controversy about its implications. Much of it has its roots in confusion regarding the premises from which the theorem can be derived. Some claim that a derivation of Bell's inequalities requires just locality assumption, and nothing more. Violations of the inequalities are then interpreted as ``nonlocality'' or ``quantum nonlocality''. We show that such claims are unfounded and that every derivation of Bell's inequalities requires a premise -- in addition to locality and freedom of choice -- which is either assumed tacitly, or unconsciously, or is embedded in a single compound condition (like Bell's ``local causality''). The premise is equivalent to the assumption of existence of additional variables which do not appear in the quantum formalism (in form of determinism, or joint probability for outcomes of all conceivable measurements, or ``additional causes`'', or ``hidden variables'', ``complete description of the state'' or counterfactual definiteness, etc....

  10. Retarded versus time-nonlocal quantum kinetic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawetz, K. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Spicka, V.; Lipavsky, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Praha (Czech Republic)

    2000-07-01

    The finite duration of the collisions in Fermionic systems as expressed by the retardation time in the non-Markovian Levinson equation is discussed in the quasiclassical limit. The separate individual contributions included in the memory effect resulting in (i) off-shell tails of the Wigner distribution, (ii) renormalization of scattering rates and (iii) of the single-particle energy, (iv) collision delay and (v) related non-local corrections to the scattering integral. In this way we transform the Levison equation into the Landau-Silin equation extended by the non-local corrections known from the theory of dense gases. The derived kinetic equation unifies the Landau theory of quasiparticle transport with the classical kinetic theory of dense gases. The space-time symmetry is discussed versus particle-hole symmetry and a solution is proposed which transforms these two exclusive pictures into each other. (authors)

  11. Wave propagation in nanostructures nonlocal continuum mechanics formulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Wave Propagation in Nanostructures describes the fundamental and advanced concepts of waves propagating in structures that have dimensions of the order of nanometers. The book is fundamentally based on non-local elasticity theory, which includes scale effects in the continuum model. The book predominantly addresses wave behavior in carbon nanotubes and graphene structures, although the methods of analysis provided in this text are equally applicable to other nanostructures. The book takes the reader from the fundamentals of wave propagation in nanotubes to more advanced topics such as rotating nanotubes, coupled nanotubes, and nanotubes with magnetic field and surface effects. The first few chapters cover the basics of wave propagation, different modeling schemes for nanostructures and introduce non-local elasticity theories, which form the building blocks for understanding the material provided in later chapters. A number of interesting examples are provided to illustrate the important features of wave behav...

  12. Structure-Aware Nonlocal Optimization Framework for Image Colorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Li Zhao; Gui-Zhi Nie; Xu-Jie Li; CCF Xiao-Gang Jin; Zhi-Geng Pan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a structure-aware nonlocal energy optimization framework for interactive image colo-rization with sparse scribbles. Our colorization technique propagates colors to both local intensity-continuous regions and remote texture-similar regions without explicit image segmentation. We implement the nonlocal principle by computing k nearest neighbors in the high-dimensional feature space. The feature space contains not only image coordinates and intensities but also statistical texture features obtained with the direction-aligned Gabor wavelet filter. Structure maps are utilized to scale texture features to avoid artifacts along high-contrast boundaries. We show various experimental results and comparisons on image colorization, selective recoloring and decoloring, and progressive color editing to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Symmetry reduction related with nonlocal symmetry for Gardner equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Based on the truncated Painlevé method or the Möbious (conformal) invariant form, the nonlocal symmetry for the (1+1)-dimensional Gardner equation is derived. The nonlocal symmetry can be localized to the Lie point symmetry by introducing one new dependent variable. Thanks to the localization procedure, the finite symmetry transformations are obtained by solving the initial value problem of the prolonged systems. Furthermore, by using the symmetry reduction method to the enlarged systems, many explicit interaction solutions among different types of solutions such as solitary waves, rational solutions, Painlevé II solutions are given. Especially, some special concrete soliton-cnoidal interaction solutions are analyzed both in analytical and graphical ways.

  14. Kinematical and nonlocality effects on the nonmesonic weak hypernuclear decay

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, C; Galeao, A P; Krmpotic, F

    2003-01-01

    We derive in detail the transition potential for nonmesonic lambda-hypernuclear decay in a one-meson-exchange model involving the full pseudoscalar and vector meson octets and including two effects that have been systematically omitted in the literature, or, at best, only partially considered. These are the kinematical effects due to the difference between the lambda and nucleon masses, and the first-order nonlocality corrections, i.e., those involving up to first-order differential operators. Numerical results for $^{12}_\\Lambda$C are presented and they show that the kinematical plus nonlocal corrections have an appreciable influence on the partial decay rates. However, this is somewhat diminished in the total rate. Also the ratio of neutron-induced to proton-induced transitions is only slightly affected, and still cannot be reconciled with the available experimental data. We give indications that the combined effect should be most significant for observables that distinguish between parity-conserving and pa...

  15. Quantum nonlocality in weak-thermal-light interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Mankei

    2011-12-30

    In astronomy, interferometry of light collected by separate telescopes is often performed by physically bringing the optical paths together in the form of Young's double-slit experiment. Optical loss severely limits the efficiency of this so-called direct detection method, motivating the fundamental question of whether one can achieve a comparable performance using separate optical measurements at the two telescopes before combining the measurement results. Using quantum mechanics and estimation theory, here I show that any such spatially local measurement scheme, such as heterodyne detection, is fundamentally inferior to coherently nonlocal measurements, such as direct detection, for estimating the mutual coherence of bipartite thermal light when the average photon flux is low. This surprising result reveals an overlooked signature of quantum nonlocality in a classic optics experiment.

  16. On a class of nonlocal wave equations from applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Horst Reinhard; Aksoylu, Burak; Celiker, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    We study equations from the area of peridynamics, which is a nonlocal extension of elasticity. The governing equations form a system of nonlocal wave equations. We take a novel approach by applying operator theory methods in a systematic way. On the unbounded domain ℝn, we present three main results. As main result 1, we find that the governing operator is a bounded function of the governing operator of classical elasticity. As main result 2, a consequence of main result 1, we prove that the peridynamic solutions strongly converge to the classical solutions by utilizing, for the first time, strong resolvent convergence. In addition, main result 1 allows us to incorporate local boundary conditions, in particular, into peridynamics. This avenue of research is developed in companion papers, providing a remedy for boundary effects. As main result 3, employing spherical Bessel functions, we give a new practical series representation of the solution which allows straightforward numerical treatment with symbolic computation.

  17. Nonlocal excitonic–mechanical interaction in a nanosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabolotskii, A. A., E-mail: zabolotskii@iae.nsk.su [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automatics and Electrometry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The dynamics of a nanoparticle during its dipole interaction with an excitonic excitation in an extended quasi-one-dimensional polarizable medium is investigated. Bundles of J-aggregates of dye molecules are considered as an example of the latter. The nonlocal excitonic–mechanical interaction between the field of an amplifying or absorbing nanoparticle and excitons in a bundle has been simulated numerically. It has been found that the interaction between the field of the induced nanoparticle dipole and the fields of the molecular dipoles in an aggregate can lead to a change in the particle trajectory and excitonic pulse shape. The possibility of controlling the nanoparticle by excitonic pulses and the reverse effect of the nanoparticle field on the dynamics of excitons due to the nonlocal excitonic–mechanical interaction has been demonstrated.

  18. Deterministic error correction for nonlocal spatial-polarization hyperentanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Guan-Yu; Deng, Fu-Guo; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-02-10

    Hyperentanglement is an effective quantum source for quantum communication network due to its high capacity, low loss rate, and its unusual character in teleportation of quantum particle fully. Here we present a deterministic error-correction scheme for nonlocal spatial-polarization hyperentangled photon pairs over collective-noise channels. In our scheme, the spatial-polarization hyperentanglement is first encoded into a spatial-defined time-bin entanglement with identical polarization before it is transmitted over collective-noise channels, which leads to the error rejection of the spatial entanglement during the transmission. The polarization noise affecting the polarization entanglement can be corrected with a proper one-step decoding procedure. The two parties in quantum communication can, in principle, obtain a nonlocal maximally entangled spatial-polarization hyperentanglement in a deterministic way, which makes our protocol more convenient than others in long-distance quantum communication.

  19. Nonlocal spin-transport measurement of superconductor-ferromagnet nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolenda, Stefan; Wolf, Michael J.; Huebler, Florian; Beckmann, Detlef [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We present measurements of the nonlocal conductance of nanostructures with several ferromagnetic electrodes lying perpendicular on a superconducting wire. In these structures nonlocal conductance is mostly given by diffusion of quasiparticles, which are injected by one of the electrodes and detected by an other one. Applying a magnetic field induces a Zeeman splitting in the quasiparticles density of states, which suppresses the relaxation of injected spin imbalance, thus spin transport over distances of several micrometers is found. While in the previous experiments the magnetic field was aligned parallel to the ferromagnetic electrodes, we also show measurements applying the magnetic field noncollinear with the magnetization of the ferromagnetic electrodes. We compare our results to the previous case.

  20. Evidence for nonlocal electrodynamics in planar Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, A A; Rydh, A; Golod, T; Motzkau, H; Klushin, A M; Krasnov, V M

    2013-09-13

    We study the temperature dependence of the critical current modulation I(c)(H) for two types of planar Josephson junctions: a low-Tc Nb/CuNi/Nb and a high-Tc YBa2Cu3O(7-δ) bicrystal grain-boundary junction. At low T both junctions exhibit a conventional behavior, described by the local sine-Gordon equation. However, at elevated T the behavior becomes qualitatively different: the I(c)(H) modulation field ΔH becomes almost T independent and neither ΔH nor the critical field for the penetration of Josephson vortices vanish at Tc. Such an unusual behavior is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for junctions with nonlocal electrodynamics. We extract absolute values of the London penetration depth λ from our data and show that a crossover from local to nonlocal electrodynamics occurs with increasing T when λ(T) becomes larger than the electrode thickness.

  1. Explaination of nonlocal granular fluidity in terms of microscopic fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Kamrin, Ken

    A recently proposed granular constitutive law has shown capability to predict nonlocal granular rheology using a variable denoted ``granular fluidity''. This work is aimed at finding the microscopic physical meaning of fluidity in terms of fluctuations such as fluctuation of normalized shear stress and fluctuation of velocity. We try to predict the fluidity as a function of the fluctuation of normalized shear stress, and also test Eyring equation and kinetic theory based on the theoretical prediction proposed in other work. We find a consistent definition for the fluidity to be proportional to the product of the velocity fluctuations and some function of packing fraction divided by the average diameter of the grains. This definition shows predictive ability in multiple geometries for which flow behavior is nonlocal. It is notable that the fluidity is well-defined as a function of kinematic state variables, as one would hope for a quantity of this nature.

  2. Uncertainty estimation in diffusion MRI using the nonlocal bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Pew-Thian; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yasheng; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new bootstrap scheme, called the nonlocal bootstrap (NLB) for uncertainty estimation. In contrast to the residual bootstrap, which relies on a data model, or the repetition bootstrap, which requires repeated signal measurements, NLB is not restricted by the data structure imposed by a data model and obviates the need for time-consuming multiple acquisitions. NLB hinges on the observation that local imaging information recurs in an image. This self-similarity implies that imaging information coming from spatially distant (nonlocal) regions can be exploited for more effective estimation of statistics of interest. Evaluations using in silico data indicate that NLB produces distribution estimates that are in closer agreement with those generated using Monte Carlo simulations, compared with the conventional residual bootstrap. Evaluations using in vivo data demonstrate that NLB produces results that are in agreement with our knowledge on white matter architecture.

  3. Plasmon-enhanced fluorescence near nonlocal metallic nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Stefanou, N.; Wubs, Martijn

    ) of a dipole emitter. Here we explore the importance of hitherto disregarded nonclassical effects in the description of emitter-plasmon hybrids, focusing on the roles of metal nonlocal optical response and size-dependent plasmon damping [1]. Comparison between the common local response approximation (LRA......) and the generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) theory [2] shows that a significant decrease in fluorescence enhancement is obtained for emitters close to small metallic nanospheres or thin metallic nanoshells, while the optimum emitter position is also affected. In this respect, our recent work introduces...... the study of emitterplasmon coupling (in the weak-coupling limit) as a sensitive test for the validity of stateof-the-art nonclassical models. For the regime of strong emitter-plasmon coupling, we anticipate an analogously wide importance of a description beyond classical electrodynamics, particularly once...

  4. Axial vibration analysis of nanocones based on nonlocal elasticity theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Qi Guo; Shao-Pu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanocones have quite fascinating electronic and structural properties,whose axial vibration is seldom investigated in previous studies.In this paper,based on a nonlocal elasticity theory,a nonuniform rod model is applied to investigate the small-scale effect and the nonuniform effect on axial vibration of nanocones.Using the modified Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WBK) method,an asymptotic solution is obtained for the axial vibration of general nonuniform nanorods.Then,using similar procedure,the axial vibration of nanocones is analyzed for nonuniform parameters,mode number and nonlocal parameters.Explicit expressions are derived for mode frequencies of clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions.It is found that axial vibration frequencies are highly overestimated by the classical rod model because of ignorance of the effect of small length scale.

  5. Optimizing plasmon-enhanced fluorescence with nonlocal metallic nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Stefanou, Nikolaos; Wubs, Martijn

    nonlocal corrections, the plasmon blueshift predicted by the hydrodynamic Drude model [1] leads to a small reduction of η. If however the plasmonic mode does not coincide exactly with λem, this blueshift can tune the mode to increase η. Nevertheless, when size-dependent losses are also taken into account......The fluorescence signal η of molecules coupled to plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is optimized through extended simulations, taking the metal nonlocal optical response fully into account. Solid Au and Ag nanospheres, as well as SiO2/Au(Ag) core/shell NPs (of total radius R), are engineered...... to maximize the ratio of radiative to nonradiative losses and match the emitter emission wavelength, λem. For a molecule modeled as an electric dipole p, oriented parallel to the incident field E, the optimal emitter-NP distance is then identified within the local response approximation (LRA). Introducing...

  6. Conserved nonlocal dynamics and critical behavior of uranium ferromagnetic superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Dutta, Kishore; Nandy, Malay K

    2017-01-01

    A recent theoretical study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 037202 (2014)10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.037202] has revealed that systems such as uranium ferromagnetic superconductors obey conserved dynamics. To capture the critical behavior near the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition of these compounds, we study the conserved critical dynamics of a nonlocal Ginzburg-Landau model. A dynamic renormalization-group calculation at one-loop order yields the critical indices in the leading order of ε=d_{c}-d, where d_{c}=4-2ρ is the upper critical dimension, with ρ an exponent in the nonlocal interaction. The predicted static critical exponents are found to be comparable with the available experimentally observed critical exponents for strongly uniaxial uranium ferromagnetic superconductors. The corresponding dynamic exponent z and linewidth exponent w are found to be z=4-ρε/4+O(ε^{2}) and w=1+ρ+3ε/4+O(ε^{2}).

  7. On the compatible weakly nonlocal Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ya. Maltsev

    2002-01-01

    of hydrodynamic type (Ferapontov brackets and the corresponding integrable hierarchies. We show that, under the requirement of the nondegeneracy of the corresponding “first” pseudo-Riemannian metric g(0 νμ and also some nondegeneracy requirement for the nonlocal part, it is possible to introduce a “canonical” set of “integrable hierarchies” based on the Casimirs, momentum functional and some “canonical Hamiltonian functions.” We prove also that all the “higher” “positive” Hamiltonian operators and the “negative” symplectic forms have the weakly nonlocal form in this case. The same result is also true for “negative” Hamiltonian operators and “positive” symplectic structures in the case when both pseudo-Riemannian metrics g(0 νμ and g(1 νμ are nondegenerate.

  8. On the no-signaling approach to quantum nonlocality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Méndez, J. M., E-mail: manolo@ifisica.uaslp.mx; Urías, Jesús, E-mail: jurias@ifisica.uaslp.mx [Instituto de Física, UASLP, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    The no-signaling approach to nonlocality deals with separable and inseparable multiparty correlations in the same set of probability states without conflicting causality. The set of half-spaces describing the polytope of no-signaling probability states that are admitted by the most general class of Bell scenarios is formulated in full detail. An algorithm for determining the skeleton that solves the no-signaling description is developed upon a new strategy that is partially pivoting and partially incremental. The algorithm is formulated rigorously and its implementation is shown to be effective to deal with the highly degenerate no-signaling descriptions. Several applications of the algorithm as a tool for the study of quantum nonlocality are mentioned. Applied to a large set of bipartite Bell scenarios, we found that the corresponding no-signaling polytopes have a striking high degeneracy that grows up exponentially with the size of the Bell scenario.

  9. Conserved nonlocal dynamics and critical behavior of uranium ferromagnetic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Dutta, Kishore; Nandy, Malay K.

    2017-01-01

    A recent theoretical study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 037202 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.037202] has revealed that systems such as uranium ferromagnetic superconductors obey conserved dynamics. To capture the critical behavior near the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition of these compounds, we study the conserved critical dynamics of a nonlocal Ginzburg-Landau model. A dynamic renormalization-group calculation at one-loop order yields the critical indices in the leading order of ɛ =dc-d , where dc=4 -2 ρ is the upper critical dimension, with ρ an exponent in the nonlocal interaction. The predicted static critical exponents are found to be comparable with the available experimentally observed critical exponents for strongly uniaxial uranium ferromagnetic superconductors. The corresponding dynamic exponent z and linewidth exponent w are found to be z =4 -ρ ɛ /4 +O (ɛ2) and w =1 +ρ +3 ɛ /4 +O (ɛ2) .

  10. Magnified imaging based on non-Hermitian nonlocal cylindrical metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Silvio; Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Monticone, Francesco; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo; Alà, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    We show that a cylindrical lensing system composed of two metasurfaces with suitably tailored non-Hermitian (i.e., with distributed gain and loss) and nonlocal (i.e., spatially dispersive) properties can perform magnified imaging with reduced aberrations. More specifically, we analytically derive the idealized surface-impedance values that are required for "perfect" magnification and imaging and elucidate the role and implications of non-Hermiticity and nonlocality in terms of spatial resolution and practical implementation. For a basic demonstration, we explore some proof-of-principle quasilocal and multilayered implementations and independently validate the outcomes via full-wave numerical simulations. We also show that the metasurface frequency-dispersion laws can be chosen so as to ensure unconditional stability with respect to arbitrary temporal excitations. These results, which extend previous studies on planar configurations, may open intriguing venues in the design of metastructures for field imaging and processing.

  11. Entropic Tests of Multipartite Nonlocality and State-Independent Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Sadegh; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a multipartite extension of an information-theoretic distance introduced by Zurek [Nature (London) 341, 119 (1989)]. We use it to develop a new tool for studying quantum correlations from an information-theoretic perspective. In particular, we derive entropic tests of multipartite nonlocality for three qubits and for an arbitrary even number of qubits as well as a test of state-independent contextuality. In addition, we rederive the tripartite Mermin inequality and a state-independent noncontextuality inequality by Cabello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 210401 (2008)]. This suggests that the information-theoretic distance approach to multipartite nonlocality and state-independent contextuality can provide a more general treatment of nonclassical correlations than the orthodox approach based on correlation functions.

  12. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...... a contribution to the discussions about the role of reflection in design work and in learning situations at large. By engaging with the dialogic reflection, which is one of the four essential types of reflection, (the three others being descriptive writing, descriptive reflection and critical reflection...

  13. A histories perspective on characterising quantum non-locality

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, Fay; Wallden, Petros

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a framework for studying non-locality and contextuality inspired by the path integral formulation of quantum theory. We prove that the existence of a strongly positive joint quantum measure -- the quantum analogue of a joint probability measure -- on a set of experimental probabilities implies the Navascues-Pironio-Acin (NPA) condition $Q^1$ and is implied by the stronger NPA condition $Q^{1+AB}$. A related condition is shown to be equivalent to $Q^{1+AB}$.

  14. Ground state solutions for non-local fractional Schrodinger equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Pu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a time-independent fractional Schrodinger equation with non-local (regional diffusion $$ (-\\Delta^{\\alpha}_{\\rho}u + V(xu = f(x,u \\quad \\text{in }\\mathbb{R}^{N}, $$ where $\\alpha \\in (0,1$, $N > 2\\alpha$. We establish the existence of a non-negative ground state solution by variational methods.

  15. Nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in distant cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Tao; Zhu Ai-Dong; Zhang Shou

    2012-01-01

    A scheme for implementing nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in cavities is proposed.By modulating the parameters of the system,the optimal 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning machine,1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning machine,and 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning machine are constructed.The present scheme,which is attainable with current technology,saves two qubits compared with previous cloning machines.

  16. Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E

    1998-01-01

    The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.

  17. Nonlocal Symmetries and Exact Solutions for PIB Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiang-Peng; Miao, Qian; Chen, Yong

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, the symmetry group of the (2+1)-dimensional Painlevé integrable Burgers (PIB) equations is studied by means of the classical symmetry method. Ignoring the discussion of the infinite-dimensional subalgebra, we construct an optimal system of one-dimensional group invariant solutions. Furthermore, by using the conservation laws of the reduced equations, we obtain nonlocal symmetries and exact solutions of the PIB equations.

  18. Mild Solutions for Fractional Differential Equations with Nonlocal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of the fractional differential equations with nonlocal conditions dqx(t/dtq=−Ax(t+f(t,x(t,Gx(t,  t∈[0,T],   and  x(0+g(x=x0, in a Banach space X, where 0

  19. The averaging of nonlocal Hamiltonian structures in Whitham's method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ya. Maltsev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the m-phase Whitham's averaging method and propose the procedure of “averaging” nonlocal Hamiltonian structures. The procedure is based on the existence of a sufficient number of local-commuting integrals of the system and gives the Poisson bracket of Ferapontov type for Whitham's system. The method can be considered as the generalization of the Dubrovin-Novikov procedure for the local field-theoretical brackets.

  20. Non-local gravity with a Weyl-square term

    CERN Document Server

    Cusin, Giulia; Maggiore, Michele; Mancarella, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has shown that modifications of General Relativity based on the addition of a non-local term $R\\,\\Box^{-2}R$ produce a dynamical model of dark energy, which is cosmologically viable both at the background level and at the level of cosmological perturbations. We explore a more general class of models based on the addition of terms proportional to $R_{\\mu\