Cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Hog Lejre, Anne-Lise
2012-01-01
Observations are reported in tensile relaxation tests under stretching and retraction on poly-propylene/clay nanocomposites with various contents of filler. A two-phase constitutive model is developed in cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of hybrid nanocomposites. Adjustable parameters...
Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic Modelling of the Scratch Response of PMMA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Kermouche
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding how to model the time-dependent behavior of PMMA during a scratch loading at a constant speed and at middle strain levels. A brief experimental study is first presented, consisting of the analysis of microscratches carried out at various scratching velocities and normal loads. The loading conditions have been chosen in such a way that neither (viscoelasticity nor (viscoplasticity of the PMMA may be neglected a priori. The main analyzed parameter is the tip penetration depth measured during the steady state. Then, a finite element model is used to investigate the potential of classical elastic-viscoplastic constitutive models to reproduce these experimental results. It is mainly shown that these models lead to unsatisfying results. More specifically, it is pointed out here that the time-independent Young modulus used in such models is not suitable. To take into account this feature, a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model based on the connection in series of a viscoelastic part with a viscoplastic part is proposed. It is shown that it leads to more acceptable results, which points out the importance of viscoelasticity in the scratch behavior of solid polymers.
A finite deformation viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model for self-healing materials
Shahsavari, H.; Naghdabadi, R.; Baghani, M.; Sohrabpour, S.
2016-12-01
In this paper, employing the Hencky strain, viscoelastic-viscoplastic response of self-healing materials is investigated. Considering the irreversible thermodynamics and using the effective configuration in the Continuum Damage-Healing Mechanics (CDHM), a phenomenological finite strain viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model is presented. Considering finite viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformations, total deformation gradient is multiplicatively decomposed into viscoelastic and viscoplastic parts. Due to mathematical advantages and physical meaning of Hencky strain, this measure of strain is employed in the constitutive model development. In this regard, defining the damage and healing variables and employing the strain equivalence hypothesis, the strain tensor is determined in the effective configuration. Satisfying the Clausius-Duhem inequality, the evolution equations are introduced for the viscoelastic and viscoplastic strains. The damage and healing variables also evolve according to two different prescribed functions. To employ the proposed model in different loading conditions, the model is discretized in the semi-implicit form. Material parameters of the model are identified employing experimental tests on asphalt mixes available in the literature. Finally, capability of the model is demonstrated comparing the model predictions in the creep-recovery and repeated creep-recovery with the experimental results available in the literature and a good agreement between predicted and test results is revealed.
Chen, X; Ashcroft, I A; Wildman, R D; Tuck, C J
2015-11-08
A method using experimental nanoindentation and inverse finite-element analysis (FEA) has been developed that enables the spatial variation of material constitutive properties to be accurately determined. The method was used to measure property variation in a three-dimensional printed (3DP) polymeric material. The accuracy of the method is dependent on the applicability of the constitutive model used in the inverse FEA, hence four potential material models: viscoelastic, viscoelastic-viscoplastic, nonlinear viscoelastic and nonlinear viscoelastic-viscoplastic were evaluated, with the latter enabling the best fit to experimental data. Significant changes in material properties were seen in the depth direction of the 3DP sample, which could be linked to the degree of cross-linking within the material, a feature inherent in a UV-cured layer-by-layer construction method. It is proposed that the method is a powerful tool in the analysis of manufacturing processes with potential spatial property variation that will also enable the accurate prediction of final manufactured part performance.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Sanporean, Catalina-Gabriela
2012-01-01
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to perform experimental investigation and constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of metallocene catalyzed polypropylene (mPP) with application to lifetime assessment under conditions of creep rupture. Design/methodology/approach ...... in long-term creep tests. Keywords Metallocene catalyzed polypropylene, Viscoelasticity, Viscoplasticity, Creep rupture, Constitutive modeling, Elastoplastic analysis, Viscosity, Creep, Physical properties of materials Paper type Research paper....../methodology/approach – Three series of experiments are conducted where the mechanical response of mPP is analyzed in tensile tests with various strain rates, relaxation tests with various strains, and creep tests with various stresses at room temperature. A constitutive model is derived for semicrystalline polymers under......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to perform experimental investigation and constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of metallocene catalyzed polypropylene (mPP) with application to lifetime assessment under conditions of creep rupture. Design...
Vaidyanathan, Tritala K; Vaidyanathan, Jayalakshmi; Arghavani, David
2016-12-01
Purpose: The goal of this investigation was to characterize the compliance properties in selected polymers used for temporary (provisional crown and bridge) applications. Method: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)- and polyethyl methacrylate (PEMA)-based JET and TRIM II were investigated along with two bisacryl composite resins (LUXATEMP and PROTEMP 3 GARANT). Rectangular samples of the resins were subjected to creep-recovery tests in a dynamic mechanical analyzer at and near the oral temperature (27 °C, 37 °C and 47 °C). The instantaneous (elastic), and time-dependent viscoelastic, and viscoplastic compliance profiles of the materials were determined and analyzed as a function of materials and temperature. Results: Highly significant (p = 0.0001) differences among means of elastic, viscoelastic and viscoplastic compliance values were found as a function of materials. TRIM II showed an order of magnitude higher viscoplastic deformation than the other three materials (LUXATEMP, PROTEMP 3 GARANT and JET). Conclusions: The results indicate that PEMA is susceptible to significantly greater elastic, viscoelastic, and more importantly to viscoplastic compliant behavior compared with bisacryl composite and PMMA provisional crown and bridge materials. This indicates high-dimensional instability and poor stiffness and resiliency in PEMA appliances vis-à-vis those of PMMA and bisacryl composites.
Exposing the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of asphalt-aggregate mixes
Levenberg, Eyal; Uzan, Jacob
2012-05-01
In this study asphalt-aggregate mixes are treated as both viscoelastic and viscoplastic. Following a damage mechanics approach, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive formulation is generated from a linear formulation by replacing `applied stresses' with `effective viscoelastic stresses'. A non-dimensional scalar entity called `relative viscoelastic stiffness' is introduced; it is defined as the ratio of applied to effective viscoelastic stress and encapsulates different types of nonlinearities. The paper proposes a computational scheme for exposing these nonlinearities by uncovering, through direct analysis of any test data, changes experienced by the `relative viscoelastic stiffness'. In general terms, the method is based on simultaneous application of creep and relaxation formulations while preserving the interrelationship between the corresponding time functions. The proposed scheme is demonstrated by analyzing a uniaxial tension test and a uniaxial compression test (separately). Results are presented and discussed, unveiling and contrasting the character of viscoelastic nonlinearities in both cases. A conceptual viewpoint is offered to explain the observations, illustrating the requirements from any candidate constitutive theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nciri M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative approach for the modelling of viscous behaviour of short-fibre reinforced composites (SFRC with complex distributions of fibre orientations and for a wide range of strain rates. As an alternative to more complex homogenisation methods, the model is based on an additive decomposition of the state potential for the computation of composite’s macroscopic behaviour. Thus, the composite material is seen as the assembly of a matrix medium and several linear elastic fibre media. The division of short fibres into several families means that complex distributions of orientation or random orientation can be easily modelled. The matrix behaviour is strain-rate sensitive, i.e. viscoelastic and/or viscoplastic. Viscoelastic constitutive laws are based on a generalised linear Maxwell model and the modelling of the viscoplasticity is based on an overstress approach. The model is tested for the case of a polypropylene reinforced with short-glass fibres with distributed orientations and subjected to uniaxial tensile tests, in different loading directions and under different strain rates. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the model over a wide range of strain rates.
Nonlinear Viscoelastic Characterization of Structural Adhesives.
1983-06-01
neat resin properties 20. ABSTRACT (Cainlnuo OR revaWco aide II necessay amd identify br blck number) Measurements of the nonlinear viscoelastic...which is utilized. 17. Key Words and Document Analysis. l7a. Descriptors Adhesives, nonlinear viscoelasticity, FM-73 and FM-300 neat resin properties 17b
Nonlinear Dynamics of Coiling in Viscoelastic Jets
Majmudar, Trushant; Hartt, William; McKinley, Gareth
2010-01-01
Instabilities in free surface continuous jets of non-Newtonian fluids, although relevant for many industrial processes, remain less well understood in terms of fundamental fluid dynamics. Inviscid, and viscous Newtonian jets have been studied in great detail; buckling instability in viscous jets leads to regular periodic coiling of the jet that exhibits a non-trivial frequency dependence with the height of the fall. Very few experimental or theoretical studies exist for continuous viscoelastic jets beyond the onset of the first instability. Here, we present a systematic study of the effects of viscoelasticity on the dynamics of free surface continuous jets of surfactant solutions that form worm-like micelles. We observe complex nonlinear spatio-temporal dynamics of the jet and uncover a transition from periodic to doubly-periodic or quasi-periodic to a multi-frequency, possibly chaotic dynamics. Beyond this regime, the jet dynamics smoothly crosses over to exhibit the "leaping shampoo effect" or the Kaye effe...
A nonlinear dynamical system approach for the yielding behaviour of a viscoplastic material.
Burghelea, Teodor; Moyers-Gonzalez, Miguel; Sainudiin, Raazesh
2017-02-15
A nonlinear dynamical system model that approximates a microscopic Gibbs field model for the yielding of a viscoplastic material subjected to varying external stresses recently reported in R. Sainudiin, M. Moyers-Gonzalez and T. Burghelea, Soft Matter, 2015, 11(27), 5531-5545 is presented. The predictions of the model are in fair agreement with microscopic simulations and are in very good agreement with the micro-structural semi-empirical model reported in A. M. V. Putz and T. I. Burghelea, Rheol. Acta, 2009, 48, 673-689. With only two internal parameters, the nonlinear dynamical system model captures several key features of the solid-fluid transition observed in experiments: the effect of the interactions between microscopic constituents on the yield point, the abruptness of solid-fluid transition and the emergence of a hysteresis of the micro-structural states upon increasing/decreasing external forces. The scaling behaviour of the magnitude of the hysteresis with the degree of the steadiness of the flow is consistent with previous experimental observations. Finally, the practical usefulness of the approach is demonstrated by fitting a rheological data set measured with an elasto-viscoplastic material.
A nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation - Yield predictions in multiaxial deformations
Shay, R. M., Jr.; Caruthers, J. M.
1987-01-01
Yield stress predictions of a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation for amorphous polymer solids have been obtained and are compared with the phenomenological von Mises yield criterion. Linear viscoelasticity theory has been extended to include finite strains and a material timescale that depends on the instantaneous temperature, volume, and pressure. Results are presented for yield and the correct temperature and strain-rate dependence in a variety of multiaxial deformations. The present nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation can be formulated in terms of either a Cauchy or second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, and in terms of either atmospheric or hydrostatic pressure.
A computer program for predicting nonlinear uniaxial material responses using viscoplastic models
Chang, T. Y.; Thompson, R. L.
1984-01-01
A computer program was developed for predicting nonlinear uniaxial material responses using viscoplastic constitutive models. Four specific models, i.e., those due to Miller, Walker, Krieg-Swearengen-Rhode, and Robinson, are included. Any other unified model is easily implemented into the program in the form of subroutines. Analysis features include stress-strain cycling, creep response, stress relaxation, thermomechanical fatigue loop, or any combination of these responses. An outline is given on the theoretical background of uniaxial constitutive models, analysis procedure, and numerical integration methods for solving the nonlinear constitutive equations. In addition, a discussion on the computer program implementation is also given. Finally, seven numerical examples are included to demonstrate the versatility of the computer program developed.
Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic arterial wall models: application on animals
Ghigo, Arthur; Armentano, Ricardo; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria
2016-01-01
This work deals with the viscoelasticity of the arterial wall and its influence on the pulse waves. We describe the viscoelasticity by a non-linear Kelvin-Voigt model in which the coefficients are fitted using experimental time series of pressure and radius measured on a sheep's arterial network. We obtained a good agreement between the results of the nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model and the experimental measurements. We found that the viscoelastic relaxation time-defined by the ratio between the viscoelastic coefficient and the Young's modulus-is nearly constant throughout the network. Therefore, as it is well known that smaller arteries are stiffer, the viscoelastic coefficient rises when approaching the peripheral sites to compensate the rise of the Young's modulus, resulting in a higher damping effect. We incorporated the fitted viscoelastic coefficients in a nonlinear 1D fluid model to compute the pulse waves in the network. The damping effect of viscoelasticity on the high frequency waves is clear especiall...
Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.; Castelli, M. G.
1995-01-01
Specific forms for both the Gibb's and complementary dissipation potentials are chosen such that a complete (i.e., fully associative) potential base multiaxial, nonisothermal unified viscoplastic model is obtained. This model possesses one tensorial internal state variable (that is, associated with dislocation substructure) and an evolutionary law that has nonlinear kinematic hardening and both thermal and strain induced recovery mechanisms. A unique aspect of the present model is the inclusion of nonlinear hardening through the use of a compliance operator, derived from the Gibb's potential, in the evolution law for the back stress. This nonlinear tensorial operator is significant in that it allows both the flow and evolutionary laws to be fully associative (and therefore easily integrated), greatly influences the multiaxial response under non-proportional loading paths, and in the case of nonisothermal histories, introduces an instantaneous thermal softening mechanism proportional to the rate of change in temperature. In addition to this nonlinear compliance operator, a new consistent, potential preserving, internal strain unloading criterion has been introduced to prevent abnormalities in the predicted stress-strain curves, which are present with nonlinear hardening formulations, during unloading and reversed loading of the external variables. The specific model proposed is characterized for a representative titanium alloy commonly used as the matrix material in SiC fiber reinforced composites, i.e., TIMETAL 21S. Verification of the proposed model is shown using 'specialized' non-standard isothermal and thermomechanical deformation tests.
A Fully Associative, Non-Linear Kinematic, Unified Viscoplastic Model for Titanium Based Matrices
Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.; Castelli, M. G.
1994-01-01
Specific forms for both the Gibb's and complementary dissipation potentials are chosen such that a complete (i.e., fully associative) potential based multiaxial unified viscoplastic model is obtained. This model possesses one tensorial internal state variable that is associated with dislocation substructure, with an evolutionary law that has nonlinear kinematic hardening and both thermal and strain induced recovery mechanisms. A unique aspect of the present model is the inclusion of non-linear hardening through the use of a compliance operator, derived from the Gibb's potential, in the evolution law for the back stress. This non-linear tensorial operator is significant in that it allows both the flow and evolutionary laws to be fully associative (and therefore easily integrated) and greatly influences the multiaxial response under non-proportional loading paths. In addition to this nonlinear compliance operator, a new consistent, potential preserving, internal strain unloading criterion has been introduced to prevent abnormalities in the predicted stress-strain curves, which are present with nonlinear hardening formulations, during unloading and reversed loading of the external variables. Specification of an experimental program for the complete determination of the material functions and parameters for characterizing a metallic matrix, e.g., TIMETAL 21S, is given. The experiments utilized are tensile, creep, and step creep tests. Finally, a comparison of this model and a commonly used Bodner-Partom model is made on the basis of predictive accuracy and numerical efficiency.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
盛冬发; 张燕; 程昌钧
2004-01-01
Based on convolution-type constitutive equations for linear viscoelastic materials with damage and the hypotheses of Timoshenko beams with large deflections, the nonlinear equations governing dynamical behavior of Timoshenko beams with damage on viscoelastic foundation were firstly derived. By using the Galerkin method in spatial domain, the nonlinear integro-partial differential equations were transformed into a set of integro-ordinary differential equations. The numerical methods in nonlinear dynamical systems, such as the phase-trajectory diagram, Poincare section and bifurcation figure, were used to solve the simplified systems of equations. It could be seen that simplified dynamical systems possess the plenty of nonlinear dynamical properties. The influence of load and material parameters on the dynamic behavior of nonlinear system were investigated in detail.
NON-LINEAR FORCED VIBRATION OF AXIALLY MOVING VISCOELASTIC BEAMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Xiaodong; Chen Li-Qun
2006-01-01
The non-linear forced vibration of axially moving viscoelastic beams excited by the vibration of the supporting foundation is investigated. A non-linear partial-differential equation governing the transverse motion is derived from the dynamical, constitutive equations and geometrical relations. By referring to the quasi-static stretch assumption, the partial-differential non-linearity is reduced to an integro-partial-differential one. The method of multiple scales is directly applied to the governing equations with the two types of non-linearity, respectively. The amplitude of near- and exact-resonant steady state is analyzed by use of the solvability condition of eliminating secular terms. Numerical results are presented to show the contributions of foundation vibration amplitude, viscoelastic damping, and nonlinearity to the response amplitude for the first and the second mode.
VOID GROWTH AND CAVITATION IN NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC SOLIDS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张赟; 黄筑平
2003-01-01
This paper discusses the growth of a pre-existing void in a nonlinear viscoelastic material subjected to remote hydrostatic tensions with different loading rates. The constitutive relation of this viscoelastic material is the one recently proposed by the present authors, which may be considered as a generalization of the non-Gaussian statistical theory in rubber elasticity. As the first order approximation, the above constitutive relation can be reduced to the "neo-Hookean" type viscoelastic one.Investigations of the influences of the material viscosity and the loading rate on the void growth, or on the cavitation are carried out. It is found that: (1) for generalized "inverse Langevin approximation"nonlinear viscoelastic materials, the cavitation limit does not exist, but there is a certain (remote)stress level at which the void will grow rapidly; (2) for generalized "Gaussian statistics" (neo-Hookean type) viscoelastic materials, the cavitation limit exists, and is an increasing function of the loading rate.The present discussions may be of importance in understanding the material failure process under high triaxial stress.
Swimming speeds of filaments in nonlinearly viscoelastic fluids
Fu, Henry C; Powers, Thomas R; 10.1063/1.3086320
2010-01-01
Many microorganisms swim through gels and non-Newtonian fluids in their natural environments. In this paper, we focus on microorganisms which use flagella for propulsion. We address how swimming velocities are affected in nonlinearly viscoelastic fluids by examining the problem of an infinitely long cylinder with arbitrary beating motion in the Oldroyd-B fluid. We solve for the swimming velocity in the limit in which deflections of the cylinder from its straight configuration are small relative to the radius of the cylinder and the wavelength of the deflections; furthermore, the radius of the cylinder is small compared to the wavelength of deflections. We find that swimming velocities are diminished by nonlinear viscoelastic effects. We apply these results to examine what types of swimming motions can produce net translation in a nonlinear fluid, comparing to the Newtonian case, for which Purcell's "scallop" theorem describes how time-reversibility constrains which swimming motions are effective. We find that...
Georgievskii, D. V.
2007-06-01
Material functions are necessary element of the constitutive relations determining any model of continuum. These functions can be defined as a collection of objects from which the operator of constitutive relations can be reconstructed completely. The material functions are found in test experiments and show the differences between a given medium and other media in the framework of the same model [1]. The "test experiment theory" is an important part of modern experimental mechanics. Just as in any experiment, from determining the viscosity coefficient by using the rotational viscosimeters to constructing the yield surface by using machines combined loading, the material functions are determined with an unavoidable error. For example, experimenters know that, in experiments with arbitrary accuracy, the moduli of elasticity can only be measured with an unimprovable tolerance of about 7%. Starting already from [2], the investigators' attention has been repeatedly drawn to the fact that it is necessary to take into account this tolerance in determining the material constants, functions, and functionals in problems of mechanics and especially in analyzing the stability of deformation processes. Mathematically, this means that problems of stability under perturbations of the initial data, external constantly acting forces, domain boundaries, etc. should be supplemented with the assumption that the material functions have unknown perturbations of a certain class [3]. The variations of material functions in the framework of the linearized stability theory were considered in [2, 4, 5]. In what follows, we study isotropic tensor functions in the most general case of scalar and tensor nonlinearity. These functions are assigned the meaning of constitutive relations between the stress and strain rate tensors in continuum. These constitutive relations contain scalar material functions of invariants on which, as follows from the above, some variations proportional to a small
Nonlinear viscoelasticity and generalized failure criterion for biopolymer gels
Divoux, Thibaut; Keshavarz, Bavand; Manneville, Sébastien; McKinley, Gareth
2016-11-01
Biopolymer gels display a multiscale microstructure that is responsible for their solid-like properties. Upon external deformation, these soft viscoelastic solids exhibit a generic nonlinear mechanical response characterized by pronounced stress- or strain-stiffening prior to irreversible damage and failure, most often through macroscopic fractures. Here we show on a model acid-induced protein gel that the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of the gel can be described in terms of a 'damping function' which predicts the gel mechanical response quantitatively up to the onset of macroscopic failure. Using a nonlinear integral constitutive equation built upon the experimentally-measured damping function in conjunction with power-law linear viscoelastic response, we derive the form of the stress growth in the gel following the start up of steady shear. We also couple the shear stress response with Bailey's durability criteria for brittle solids in order to predict the critical values of the stress σc and strain γc for failure of the gel, and how they scale with the applied shear rate. This provides a generalized failure criterion for biopolymer gels in a range of different deformation histories. This work was funded by the MIT-France seed fund and by the CNRS PICS-USA scheme (#36939). BK acknowledges financial support from Axalta Coating Systems.
Three-sphere swimmer in a nonlinear viscoelastic medium
Curtis, Mark P.
2013-04-10
A simple model for a swimmer consisting of three colinearly linked spheres attached by rods and oscillating out of phase to break reciprocal motion is analyzed. With a prescribed forcing of the rods acting on the three spheres, the swimming dynamics are determined analytically in both a Newtonian Stokes fluid and a zero Reynolds number, nonlinear, Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluid with Deborah numbers of order one (or less), highlighting the effects of viscoelasticity on the net displacement of swimmer. For instance, the model predicts that the three-sphere swimmer with a sinusoidal, but nonreciprocal, forcing cycle within an Oldroyd-B representation of a polymeric Boger fluid moves a greater distance with enhanced efficiency in comparison with its motility in a Newtonian fluid of the same viscosity. Furthermore, the nonlinear contributions to the viscoelastic constitutive relation, while dynamically nontrivial, are predicted a posteriori to have no effect on swimmer motility at leading order, given a prescribed forcing between spheres. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Nonlinear waves in a fluid-filled thin viscoelastic tube
Zhang, Shan-Yuan; Zhang, Tao
2010-11-01
In the present paper the propagation property of nonlinear waves in a thin viscoelastic tube filled with incompressible inviscid fluid is studied. The tube is considered to be made of an incompressible isotropic viscoelastic material described by Kelvin—Voigt model. Using the mass conservation and the momentum theorem of the fluid and radial dynamic equilibrium of an element of the tube wall, a set of nonlinear partial differential equations governing the propagation of nonlinear pressure wave in the solid—liquid coupled system is obtained. In the long-wave approximation the nonlinear far-field equations can be derived employing the reductive perturbation technique (RPT). Selecting the exponent α of the perturbation parameter in Gardner—Morikawa transformation according to the order of viscous coefficient η, three kinds of evolution equations with soliton solution, i.e. Korteweg—de Vries (KdV)—Burgers, KdV and Burgers equations are deduced. By means of the method of traveling-wave solution and numerical calculation, the propagation properties of solitary waves corresponding with these evolution equations are analysed in detail. Finally, as a example of practical application, the propagation of pressure pulses in large blood vessels is discussed.
Nonlinear waves in a fluid-filled thin viscoelastic tube
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Shan-Yuan; Zhang Tao
2010-01-01
In the present paper the propagation property of nonlinear waves in a thin viscoelastic tube filled with incom-pressible inviscid fluid is studied. The tube is considered to be made of an incompressible isotropic viscoelastic material described by Kelvin-Voigt model. Using the mass conservation and the momentum theorem of the fluid and radial dynamic equilibrium of an element of the tube wall, a set of nonlinear partial differential equations governing the prop-agation of nonlinear pressure wave in the solid-liquid coupled system is obtained. In the long-wave approximation the nonlinear far-field equations can be derived employing the reductive perturbation technique (RPT). Selecting the expo-η, three kinds of evolution equations with soliton solution, i.e. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-Burgers, KdV and Burgers equations are deduced. By means of the method of traveling-wave solution and numerical calculation, the propagation properties of solitary waves corresponding with these evolution equations are analysed in detail. Finally, as a example of practical application, the propagation of pressure pulses in large blood vessels is discussed.
Superpressure Balloon Design Using Nonlinear Viscoelasticity
Rand, James; Rand, James; Wakefield, David
both the deployment and pressurization of a pumpkin shaped balloon, excess material should be removed. However, the stresses in the circumferential direction increase as the gore width is reduced which has led to the fear that "tertiary" creep may occur. The concept of "strain arrest" is now being introduced into the design procedure which will permit the use polyethylene film in a biaxial state of stress with confidence. This concept is based on the observation that the deformation of the material is time dependent and nonlinear. As the envelope material creeps in the circumferential direction, the film will elongate and form a lobe with a smaller radius of curvature. This will cause the stress to decrease and achieve a stable state of equilibrium. This paper will demonstrate the need for an accurate constitutive relation for the material which includes both the nonlinear and time dependent nature of the film in a biaxial stress state. In addition, analysis techniques must be able to describe the response of the system to the time dependent changes in temperature and pressure. Both of these requirements have now been accomplished and will be demonstrated.
Nonlinear Viscoelastic Mechanism for Aftershock Triggering and Decay
Shcherbakov, R.; Zhang, X.
2016-12-01
Aftershocks are ubiquitous in nature. They are the manifestation of relaxation phenomena observed in various physical systems. In one prominent example, they typically occur after large earthquakes. They also occur in other natural or experimental systems, for example, in solar flares, in fracture experiments on porous materials and acoustic emissions, after stock market crashes, in the volatility of stock prices returns, in internet traffic variability and e-mail spamming, to mention a few. The observed aftershock sequences usually obey several well defined non-trivial empirical laws in magnitude, temporal, and spatial domains. In many cases their characteristics follow scale-invariant distributions. The occurrence of aftershocks displays a prominent temporal behavior due to time-dependent mechanisms of stress and/or energy transfer. In this work, we consider a slider-block model to mimic the behavior of a seismogenic fault. In the model, we introduce a nonlinear viscoelastic coupling mechanism to capture the essential characteristics of crustal rheology and stress interaction between the blocks and the medium. For this purpose we employ nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt elements consisting of an elastic spring and a dashpot assembled in parallel to introduce viscoelastic coupling between the blocks and the driving plate. By mapping the model into a cellular automaton we derive the functional form of the stress transfer mechanism in the model. We show that the nonlinear viscoelasticity plays a critical role in triggering of aftershocks. It explains the functional form of the Omori-Utsu law and gives physical interpretation of its parameters. The proposed model also suggests that the power-law rheology of the fault gauge and underlying lower crust and upper mantle control the decay rate of aftershocks. To verify this, we analyze several prominent aftershock sequences to estimate their decay rates and correlate with the rheological properties of the underlying lower crust and
Blow-up of a hyperbolic equation of viscoelasticity with supercritical nonlinearities
Guo, Yanqiu; Rammaha, Mohammad A.; Sakuntasathien, Sawanya
2017-02-01
We investigate a hyperbolic PDE, modeling wave propagation in viscoelastic media, under the influence of a linear memory term of Boltzmann type, and a nonlinear damping modeling friction, as well as an energy-amplifying supercritical nonlinear source:
Multiaxial nonlinear viscoelastic characterization and modeling of a structural adhesive
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popelar, C.F.; Liechti, K.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
1997-07-01
Many polymeric materials, including structural adhesives, exhibit a nonlinear viscoelastic response. The nonlinear free volume approach is based on the Doolittle concept that the free volume controls the mobility of polymer molecules and, thus, the inherent time scale of the material. It then follows that factors such as temperature and moisture, which change the free volume, will influence the time scale. Furthermore, stress-induced dilatation will also affect the free volume and, hence, the time scale. However, during this investigation dilatational effects alone were found to be insufficient in describing the response of near pure shear tests performed on a bisphenol A epoxy with an amido amine hardener. Thus, the free volume approach presented here has been modified to include distortional effects in the inherent time scale of the material. In addition to predicting the global response under a variety of multiaxial stress states, the modified free volume theory also accurately predicts the local displacement fields, including those associated with a localized region, as determined from geometric moire measurements at various stages of deformation.
Radially Symmetric Motions of Nonlinearly Viscoelastic Bodies Under Live Loads
Stepanov, Alexey B.; Antman, Stuart S.
2017-08-01
This paper treats radially symmetric motions of nonlinearly viscoelastic circular-cylindrical and spherical shells subjected to the live loads of centrifugal force and (time-dependent) hydrostatic pressures. The governing equations are exact versions of those for 3-dimensional continuum mechanics (so shell does not connote an approximate via some shell theory). These motions are governed by quasilinear third-order parabolic-hyperbolic equations having but one independent spatial variable. The principal part of such a partial differential equation is determined by a general family of nonlinear constitutive equations. The presence of strains in two orthogonal directions requires a careful treatment of constitutive restrictions that are physically natural and support the analysis. The interaction of geometrically exact formulations, the compatible use of general constitutive equations for material response, and the presence of live loads show how these factors play crucial roles in the behavior of solutions. In particular, for different kinds of live loads there are thresholds separating materials that produce qualitatively different dynamical behavior. The analysis (using classical methods) covers infinite-time blowup for cylindrical shells subject to centrifugal forces, infinite-time blowup for cylindrical shells subject to steady and time-dependent hydrostatic pressures, finite-time blowup for spherical shells subject to steady and time-dependent hydrostatic pressures, and the preclusion of total compression. This paper concludes with a sketch (using some modern methods) of the existence of regular solutions until the time of blowup.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FuYiming; LiPing＇en; ZhengYufang
2004-01-01
Based on the Schapery three-dimensional viscoelastic constitutive relationship with growing damage, a damage model with transverse matrix cracks for the unidirectional fibre reinforced viscoelastic composite plates is developed. By using Karman theory, the nonlinear dynamic governing equations of the viscoelastic composite plates under transverse periodic loading are established. By applying the finite difference method in spatial domain and the Newton-Newmark method in time domain, and using the iterative procedure, the integral-partial differential governing equations are solved. Some examples are given and the results are compared with available data.
Aftershocks and Omori's law in a modified Carlson-Langer model with nonlinear visco-elasticity
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu
2015-01-01
A modified Carlson-Langer model for earthquakes is proposed, which includes nonlinear visco-elasticity. Several aftershocks are generated after the main shock owing to the damping of the additional visco-elastic force. Both the Gutenberg-Richter law and Omori's law are reproduced in a numerical simulation of the modified Carlson-Langer model on a critical percolation cluster of a square lattice.
Nonlinear electroelastic vibration analysis of NEMS consisting of double-viscoelastic nanoplates
Ebrahimy, Farzad; Hosseini, S. Hamed S.
2016-10-01
The nonlinear electroelastic vibration behavior of viscoelastic nanoplates is investigated based on nonlocal elasticity theory. Employing nonlinear strain-displacement relations, the geometrical nonlinearity is modeled while governing equations are derived through Hamilton's principle and they are solved applying semi-analytical generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory takes into account the effect of small size, which enables the present model to become effective in the analysis and design of nanosensors and nanoactuators. Based on Kelvin-Voigt model, the influence of the viscoelastic coefficient is also discussed. It is demonstrated that the GDQ method has high precision and computational efficiency in the vibration analysis of viscoelastic nanoplates. The good agreement between the results of this article and those available in literature validated the presented approach. The detailed mathematical derivations are presented and numerical investigations are performed while the emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of the several parameters such as electric voltage, small-scale effects, van der Waals interaction, Winkler and Pasternak elastic coefficients, the viscidity and aspect ratio of the nanoplate on its nonlinear vibrational characteristics. It is explicitly shown that the electroelastic vibration behavior of viscoelastic nanoplates is significantly influenced by these effects. Numerical results are presented to serve as benchmarks for future analyses of viscoelastic nanoplates which are fundamental elements in nanoelectromechanical systems.
Nonlinear shear wave in a non Newtonian visco-elastic medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, D.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Chaudhuri, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching (Germany)
2012-06-15
An analysis of nonlinear transverse shear wave has been carried out on non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquid using generalized hydrodynamic model. The nonlinear viscoelastic behavior is introduced through velocity shear dependence of viscosity coefficient by well known Carreau-Bird model. The dynamical feature of this shear wave leads to the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem. Numerical solution has been obtained which shows that initial periodic solutions reoccur after passing through several patterns of periodic waves. A possible explanation for this periodic solution is given by constructing modified Korteweg de Vries equation. This model has application from laboratory to astrophysical plasmas as well as in biological systems.
Nonlinear Shear Wave in a Non Newtonian Visco-elastic Medium
Janaki, D Banerjee M S; Chaudhuri, M
2013-01-01
An analysis of nonlinear transverse shear wave has been carried out on non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquid using generalized hydrodynamic(GH) model. The nonlinear viscoelastic behavior is introduced through velocity shear dependence of viscosity coefficient by well known Carreau -Bird model. The dynamical feature of this shear wave leads to the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) problem. Numerical solution has been obtained which shows that initial periodic solutions reoccur after passing through several patterns of periodic waves. A possible explanation for this periodic solution is given by constructing modified Korteweg de Vries (mKdV) equation. This model has application from laboratory to astrophysical plasmas as well as biological systems.
Structure-induced nonlinear viscoelasticity of non-woven fibrous matrices.
Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Pal, Anupam; Das, Sovan Lal
2016-12-01
Fibrous materials are widely utilized as tissue engineering scaffolds for tissue regeneration and other bioengineering applications. The structural as well as mechanical characteristics of the fibrous matrices under static and dynamic mechanical loading conditions influence the response of the cells. In this paper, we study the mechanical response of the non-woven fibrous matrices under oscillatory loading conditions and its dependence on the structural properties of fibrous matrix. We demonstrate that under oscillatory shear and elongation, the fibrous matrices demonstrate nonlinear viscoelasticity at all strain amplitudes. This is contrary to the behavior of other soft polymeric materials for which nonlinearity in the viscoelastic response vanishes for small strains. These observations suggest that despite their prevalence, the measures of linear viscoelasticity (e.g., storage and loss moduli) are inadequate for the general description of the viscoelastic nature of the fibrous materials. It was, however, found that linear viscoelastic nature of fibrous matrices for small amplitudes is restored when a pre-stretch is applied to the fibrous matrix along with oscillatory strains. Further, we also explored the influence of the structural properties of the fibrous matrices (fiber orientation, alignment and curvature) on their viscoelastic nature.
Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.
1989-01-01
In response to the tremendous growth in the development of advanced materials, such as fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials, a new numerical method is developed to analyze and predict the time-dependent properties of these materials. Basic concepts in viscoelasticity, laminated composites, and previous viscoelastic numerical methods are presented. A stable numerical method, called the nonlinear differential equation method (NDEM), is developed to calculate the in-plane stresses and strains over any time period for a general laminate constructed from nonlinear viscoelastic orthotropic plies. The method is implemented in an in-plane stress analysis computer program, called VCAP, to demonstrate its usefulness and to verify its accuracy. A number of actual experimental test results performed on Kevlar/epoxy composite laminates are compared to predictions calculated from the numerical method.
Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitra, Aniruddha, E-mail: anibabun@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rajdaju@rediffmail.com [Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700075 (India); Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata 700006 (India); Bhar, Radhaballav [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Khan, Manoranjan, E-mail: mkhan.ju@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India)
2017-02-12
The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through ‘viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation’ in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem. - Highlights: • In weak gravitational field, viscoelastic quantum fluid exhibits symmetry breaking instability. • Gaussian perturbation produces quasi-periodic gravito-acoustic waves into the system. • There exists no chaotic state of the system against long wavelength perturbations.
EFFECT OF DAMAGE ON NONLINEAR DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF VISCOELASTIC RECTANGULAR PLATES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Yu-fang; FU Yi-ming
2005-01-01
The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of viscoelastic rectangular plates including the damage effects under the action of a transverse periodic load were studied. Using the von Karman equations, Boltzmann superposition principle and continuum damage mechanics, the nonlinear dynamic equations in terms of the mid-plane displacements for the viscoelastic thin plates with damage effect were derived. By adopting the finite difference method and Newmark method, these equations were solved. The results were compared with the available data. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the external loading parameters and geometric dimensions of the plate on the nonlinear dynamic responses of the plate were discussed. Research results show that the nonlinear dynamic response of the structure will change remarkably when the damage effect is considered.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esfandiar, H.
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, based on the VoigtKelvin constitutive model, nonlinear dynamic modelling and state space representation of a viscoelastic beam acting as a flexible robotic manipulator is investigated. Complete nonlinear dynamic modelling of a viscoelastic beam without premature linearisation of dynamic equations is developed. The adopted method is capable of reproducing nonlinear dynamic effects, such as beam stiffening due to centrifugal and Coriolis forces induced by rotation of the joints. Structural damping effects on the models dynamic behaviour are also shown. A reliable model for a viscoelastic beam is subsequently presented. The governing equations of motion are derived using Hamiltons principle, and using the finite difference method, nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations. For the purpose of flexible manipulator control, the standard form of state space equations for the viscoelastic link and the actuator is obtained. Simulation results indicate substantial improvements in dynamic behaviour, and a parameter sensitivity study is carried out to investigate the effect of structural damping on the vibration amplitude.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HAMMERAND,DANIEL C.; KAPANIA,RAKESH K.
2000-05-01
A triangular flat shell element for large deformation analysis of linear viscoelastic laminated composites is presented. Hygrothermorheologically simple materials are considered for which a change in the hygrothermal environment results in a horizontal shifting of the relaxation moduli curves on a log time scale, in addition to the usual hygrothermal loads. Recurrence relations are developed and implemented for the evaluation of the viscoelastic memory loads. The nonlinear deformation process is computed using an incremental/iterative approach with the Newton-Raphson Method used to find the incremental displacements in each step. The presented numerical examples consider the large deformation and stability of linear viscoelastic structures under deformation-independent mechanical loads, deformation-dependent pressure loads, and thermal loads. Unlike elastic structures that have a single critical load value associated with a given snapping of buckling instability phenomenon, viscoelastic structures will usually exhibit a particular instability for a range of applied loads over a range of critical times. Both creep buckling and snap-through examples are presented here. In some cases, viscoelastic results are also obtained using the quasielastic method in which load-history effects are ignored, and time-varying viscoelastic properties are simply used in a series of elastic problems. The presented numerical examples demonstrate the capability and accuracy of the formulation.
Padovan, Joe
1987-01-01
In a three-part series of papers, a generalized finite element analysis scheme is developed to handle the steady and transient response of moving/rolling nonlinear viscoelastic structure. This paper considers the development of the moving/rolling element strategy, including the effects of large deformation kinematics and viscoelasticity modeled by fractional integrodifferential operators. To improve the solution strategy, a special hierarchical constraint procedure is developed for the case of steady rolling/translating, as well as a transient scheme involving the use of a Grunwaldian representation of the fractional operator.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Liqun; Jean W.ZU; WU Jun
2004-01-01
To investigate the principal resonance in transverse nonlinear parametric vibration of an axially accelerating viscoelastic string, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the nonlinear partial differential equation that governs the transverse vibration of the string. To derive the governing equation, Newton's second law, Lagrangean strain, and Kelvin's model are respectively used to account the dynamical relation, geometric nonlinearity and the viscoelasticity of the string material.Based on the solvability condition of eliminating the secular terms, closed form solutions are obtained for the amplitude and the existence conditions of nontrivial steady-state response of the principal parametric resonance. The Lyapunov linearized stability theory is employed to analyze the stability of the trivial and nontrivial solutions in the principal parametric resonance. Some numerical examples are presented to show the effects of the mean transport speed, the amplitude and the frequency of speed variation.
Creep characterization of gels and nonlinear viscoelastic material model
Ishikawa, Kiyotaka; Fujikawa, Masaki; Makabe, Chobin; Tanaka, Kou
2016-07-01
In this paper, we examine gel creep behavior and develop a material model for useful and simple numerical simulation of this behavior. This study has three stages and aims: (1) gel creep behavior is examined; (2) the material model is determined and the material constants are identified; and (3) the versatility of the material model and the constants are evaluated. The creep behavior is found to be independent of the initial stress level in the present experiment. Thus, the viscoelastic model proposed by Simo is selected, and its material constants are identified using the results of creep tests. Moreover, from the results of numerical calculations and experiments, it is found that the chosen material model has good reproducibility, predictive performance and high versatility.
Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid
Mitra, Aniruddha; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar; Bhar, Radhaballav; Khan, Manoranjan
2017-02-01
The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through 'viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation' in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Ding; Li-Qun Chen
2011-01-01
Steady-state periodical response is investigated for an axially moving viscoelastic beam with hybrid supports via approximate analysis with numerical confirmation.It is assumed that the excitation is spatially uniform and temporally harmonic. The transverse motion of axially moving beams is governed by a nonlinear partial-differential equation and a nonlinear integro-partial-differential equation. The material time derivative is used in the viscoelastic constitutive relation. The method of multiple scales is applied to the governing equations to investigate primary resonances under general boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that the mode uninvolved in the resonance has no effect on the steady-state response. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effects of the boundary constraint stiffness on the amplitude and the stability of the steady-state response. The results derived for two governing equations are qualitatively the same, but quantitatively different. The differential quadrature schemes are developed to verify those results via the method of multiple scales.
Nonlinear static and dynamic responses of an electrically actuated viscoelastic microbeam
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Y. M. Fu; J. Zhang
2009-01-01
On the basis of the Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis,nonlinear static and dynamic responses of a viscoelastic microbeam under two kinds of electric forces [a purely direct current (DC) and a combined current composed of a DC and an alternating current] are studied. By using Taylor series expansion, a governing equation of nonlinear integro-differential type is derived, and numerical analyses are performed.When a purely DC is applied, there exist an instantaneous pull-in voltage and a durable pull-in voltage of which the physical meanings are also given, whereas under an applied combined current, the effect of the element relaxation coefficient on the dynamic pull-in phenomenon is observed where the largest Lyapunov exponent is taken as a criterion for the dynamic pull-in instability of viscoelastic microbeams.
Nonlinear thermal convection in a viscoelastic nanofluid saturated porous medium under gravity mod
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Palle Kiran
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper carried out a nonlinear thermal convection in a porous medium saturated with viscoelastic nanofluid under vibrations. The Darcy model has been used for the porous medium, while the nanofluid layer incorporates the effect of Brownian motion along with thermophoresis. An Oldroyd-B type constitutive equation was used to describe the rheological behavior of viscoelastic nanofluids. The non-uniform vertical vibrations of the system, which can be realized by oscillating the system vertically, is considered to vary sinusoidally with time. In order to find the heat and mass transports for unsteady state, a nonlinear analysis, using a minimal representation of the truncated Fourier series of two terms, has been performed. Effect of various parameters has been investigated on heat and mass transport and then presented graphically. It is found that gravity modulation can be used effectively to regulate either heat or mass transports in the system.
ON TRANSMISSION PROBLEM FOR VISCOELASTIC WAVE EQUATION WITH A LOCALIZED A NONLINEAR DISSIPATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jeong Ja BAE; Seong Sik KIM
2013-01-01
In this article,we consider the global existence and decay rates of solutions for the transmission problem of Kirchhoff type wave equations consisting of two physically different types of materials,one component being a Kirchhoff type wave equation with time dependent localized dissipation which is effective only on a neighborhood of certain part of boundary,while the other being a Kirchhoff type viscoelastic wave equation with nonlinear memory.
LARGE TIME BEHAVIOR OF SOLUTIONS TO NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC MODEL WITH FADING MEMORY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yanni Zeng
2012-01-01
We study the Cauchy problem of a one-dimensional nonlinear viscoelastic model with fading memory. By introducing appropriate new variables we convert the integro-partial differential equations into a hyperbolic system of balance laws.When it is a perturbation of a constant state,the solution is shown time asymptotically approaching to predetermined diffusion waves.Pointwise estimates on the convergence details are obtained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng Yu-Lin; Liu Xiao-Zhou; Liu Jie-Hui; Ma Li
2009-01-01
Based on an equivalent medium approach,this paper presents a model describing the nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in a viscoelastic medium containing cylindrical micropores. The influences of pores' nonlinear oscillations on sound attenuation,sound dispersion and an equivalent acoustic nonlinearity parameter are discussed. The calculated results show that the attenuation increases with an increasing volume fraction of mieropores. The peak of sound velocity and attenuation occurs at the resonant frequency of the micropores while the peak of the equivalent acoustic nonlinearity parameter occurs at the half of the resonant frequency of the micropores. Furthermore,multiple scattering has been taken into account,which leads to a modification to the effective wave number in the equivalent medium approach. We find that these linear and nonlinear acoustic parameters need to be corrected when the volume fraction of micropores is larger than 0.1%.
Experimental Characterization of Nonlinear Viscoelastic and Adhesive Properties of Elastomers
2006-07-27
constant strain rate " = 7rn,, / L was imposed over the entire rod. The material was modeled as a hypoelastic material derived from Storen and Rice (1975...constitutive models that are based on free volume or enthalpy for their nonlinear contribution. The confined compression experiment provides an appropriate...the need to test the evolving constitutive model on physically well described and experimentally well documented situations that are not overshadowed
Khan, Kamran
2012-11-09
We formulate a constitutive framework for biodegradable polymers that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior under regimes with large deformation. The generalized Maxwell model is used to represent the degraded viscoelastic response of a polymer. The large-deformation, time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic solids is described using an Ogden-type hyperviscoelastic model. A deformation-induced degradation mechanism is assumed in which a scalar field depicts the local state of the degradation, which is responsible for the changes in the material\\'s properties. The degradation process introduces another timescale (the intrinsic material clock) and an entropy production mechanism. Examples of the degradation of a polymer under various loading conditions, including creep, relaxation and cyclic loading, are presented. Results from parametric studies to determine the effects of various parameters on the process of degradation are reported. Finally, degradation of an annular cylinder subjected to pressure is also presented to mimic the effects of viscoelastic arterial walls (the outer cylinder) on the degradation response of a biodegradable stent (the inner cylinder). A general contact analysis is performed. As the stiffness of the biodegradable stent decreases, stress reduction in the stented viscoelastic arterial wall is observed. The integration of the proposed constitutive model with finite element software could help a designer to predict the time-dependent response of a biodegradable stent exhibiting finite deformation and under complex mechanical loading conditions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.
Ansari, R.; Faraji Oskouie, M.; Gholami, R.
2016-01-01
In recent decades, mathematical modeling and engineering applications of fractional-order calculus have been extensively utilized to provide efficient simulation tools in the field of solid mechanics. In this paper, a nonlinear fractional nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model is established using the concept of fractional derivative and nonlocal elasticity theory to investigate the size-dependent geometrically nonlinear free vibration of fractional viscoelastic nanobeams. The non-classical fractional integro-differential Euler-Bernoulli beam model contains the nonlocal parameter, viscoelasticity coefficient and order of the fractional derivative to interpret the size effect, viscoelastic material and fractional behavior in the nanoscale fractional viscoelastic structures, respectively. In the solution procedure, the Galerkin method is employed to reduce the fractional integro-partial differential governing equation to a fractional ordinary differential equation in the time domain. Afterwards, the predictor-corrector method is used to solve the nonlinear fractional time-dependent equation. Finally, the influences of nonlocal parameter, order of fractional derivative and viscoelasticity coefficient on the nonlinear time response of fractional viscoelastic nanobeams are discussed in detail. Moreover, comparisons are made between the time responses of linear and nonlinear models.
Hammerand, Daniel C.
Over the past several decades, the use of composite materials has grown considerably. Typically, fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites are modeled as being linear elastic. However, it is well-known that polymers are viscoelastic in nature. Furthermore, the analysis of complex structures requires a numerical approach such as the finite element method. In the present work, a triangular flat shell element for linear elastic composites is extended to model linear viscoelastic composites. Although polymers are usually modeled as being incompressible, here they are modeled as compressible. Furthermore, the macroscopic constitutive properties for fiber-reinforced composites are assumed to be known and are not determined using the matrix and fiber properties along with the fiber volume fraction. Hygrothermo-rheologically simple materials are considered for which a change in the hygrothermal environment results in a horizontal shifting of the relaxation moduli curves on a log time scale, in addition to the usual hygrothermal loads. Both the temperature and moisture are taken to be prescribed. Hence, the heat energy generated by the viscoelastic deformations is not considered. When the deformations and rotations are small under an applied load history, the usual engineering stress and strain measures can be used and the time history of a viscoelastic deformation process is determined using the original geometry of the structure. If, however, sufficiently large loads are applied, the deflections and rotations will be large leading to changes in the structural stiffness characteristics and possibly the internal loads carried throughout the structure. Hence, in such a case, nonlinear effects must be taken into account and the appropriate stress and strain measures must be used. Although a geometrically-nonlinear finite element code could always be used to compute geometrically-linear deformation processes, it is inefficient to use such a code for small deformations, due to
Padovan, Joe
1986-01-01
In a three part series of papers, a generalized finite element analysis scheme is developed to handle the steady and transient response of moving/rolling nonlinear viscoelastic structure. This paper considers the development of the moving/rolling element strategy, including the effects of large deformation kinematics and viscoelasticity modelled by fractional integro-differential operators. To improve the solution strategy, a special hierarchical constraint procedure is developed for the case of steady rolling/translating as well as a transient scheme involving the use of a Grunwaldian representation of the fractional operator. In the second and third parts of the paper, 3-D extensions are developed along with transient contact strategies enabling the handling of impacts with obstructions. Overall, the various developments are benchmarked via comprehensive 2- and 3-D simulations. These are correlated with experimental data to define modelling capabilities.
Fully non-linear hyper-viscoelastic modeling of skeletal muscle in compression.
Wheatley, Benjamin B; Pietsch, Renée B; Haut Donahue, Tammy L; Williams, Lakiesha N
2016-01-01
Understanding the behavior of skeletal muscle is critical to implementing computational methods to study how the body responds to compressive loading. This work presents a novel approach to studying the fully nonlinear response of skeletal muscle in compression. Porcine muscle was compressed in both the longitudinal and transverse directions under five stress relaxation steps. Each step consisted of 5% engineering strain over 1 s followed by a relaxation period until equilibrium was reached at an observed change of 1 g/min. The resulting data were analyzed to identify the peak and equilibrium stresses as well as relaxation time for all samples. Additionally, a fully nonlinear strain energy density-based Prony series constitutive model was implemented and validated with independent constant rate compressive data. A nonlinear least squares optimization approach utilizing the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was implemented to fit model behavior to experimental data. The results suggested the time-dependent material response plays a key role in the anisotropy of skeletal muscle as increasing strain showed differences in peak stress and relaxation time (p 0.05). The optimizing procedure produced a single set of hyper-viscoelastic parameters which characterized compressive muscle behavior under stress relaxation conditions. The utilized constitutive model was the first orthotropic, fully nonlinear hyper-viscoelastic model of skeletal muscle in compression while maintaining agreement with constitutive physical boundaries. The model provided an excellent fit to experimental data and agreed well with the independent validation in the transverse direction.
On a shock problem involving a nonlinear viscoelastic bar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tran Ngoc Diem
2005-11-01
Full Text Available We treat an initial boundary value problem for a nonlinear wave equation uttÃ¢ÂˆÂ’uxx+K|u|ÃŽÂ±u+ÃŽÂ»|ut|ÃŽÂ²ut=f(x,t in the domain 0
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
侯之超; 祖武争
2004-01-01
Nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed on moving belts subjected to geometric nonlinearity and initial tension fluctuation.To incorporate more accurately the damping mechanism of belt material, linear viscoelastic models are adopted in a unified form of differential operators.To circumvent high-order differential vibration equation of time-varying coefficients and with gyroscopic and nonlinear terms, where analytical solution is almost impossible, a systematic approach is presented by reforming the motion equation and directly using the method of multiple scales.To exemplify the procedure, the solutions at principal resonance are obtained and their stability conditions are derived for employing a Kelvin-Voigt model to reflect the property of the belt material.The solutions and stability conditions successfully reduce to those for using Kelvin model and elastic model, which validate the present approaches.Numerical simulations highlight the effects of tension fluctuations and translating speeds on the stability of the belt vibration.
The role of nonlinear viscoelasticity on the functionality of laminating shortenings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macias-Rodriguez, Braulio A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G.
2017-11-01
The rheology of fats is essential for the development of homogeneous and continuous layered structures of doughs. Here, we define laminating shortenings in terms of rheological behavior displayed during linear-to-nonlinear shear deformations, investigated by large amplitude oscillatory shear rheology. Likewise, we associate the rheological behavior of the shortenings with structural length scales elucidated by ultra-small angle x-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy. Shortenings exhibited solid-like viscoelastic and viscoelastoplastic behaviors in the linear and nonlinear regimes respectively. In the nonlinear region, laminating shortenings dissipated more viscous energy (larger normalized dynamic viscosities) than a cake bakery shortening. The fat solid-like network of laminating shortening displayed a three-hierarchy structure and layered crystal aggregates, in comparison to two-hierarchy structure and spherical-like crystal aggregates of a cake shortening. We argue that the observed rheology, correlated to the structural network, is crucial for optimal laminating performance of shortenings.
General decay of solutions of a nonlinear system of viscoelastic wave equations
Said-Houari, Belkacem
2011-04-16
This work is concerned with a system of two viscoelastic wave equations with nonlinear damping and source terms acting in both equations. Under some restrictions on the nonlinearity of the damping and the source terms, we prove that, for certain class of relaxation functions and for some restrictions on the initial data, the rate of decay of the total energy depends on those of the relaxation functions. This result improves many results in the literature, such as the ones in Messaoudi and Tatar (Appl. Anal. 87(3):247-263, 2008) and Liu (Nonlinear Anal. 71:2257-2267, 2009) in which only the exponential and polynomial decay rates are considered. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.
Sunbuloglu, Emin; Bozdag, Ergun; Toprak, Tuncer; Islak, Civan
2013-01-01
This study is aimed at setting a method of experimental parameter estimation for large-deforming nonlinear viscoelastic continuous fibre-reinforced composite material model. Specifically, arterial tissue was investigated during experimental research and parameter estimation studies, due to medical, scientific and socio-economic importance of soft tissue research. Using analytical formulations for specimens under combined inflation/extension/torsion on thick-walled cylindrical tubes, in vitro experiments were carried out with fresh sheep arterial segments, and parameter estimation procedures were carried out on experimental data. Model restrictions were pointed out using outcomes from parameter estimation. Needs for further studies that can be developed are discussed.
Viscoelastic Characterization of a Nonlinear, Glass/Epoxy Composite Including the Effects of Damage
1974-10-01
Compliac Figue 12. oparion o exerimnta initliancorn 58-8R pox rsin. 6 270 11 Co CII (1a) V Q) 0 ) CD CJ. CL ~4-) ~ CU 4 0 ; &-* S- C ’L - SL 4- LL ) I C)C...34 Brown University, Technical Report No. 3, January 1968. 114. W. G. Gottenberg, J. 0. Bird and G. L. Agrawal, " An Experimental Study of Nonlinear...the Society of Rheology, Vol. 12 (1968), p. 155. 126. H. B3. Bird and B. 0. Marsh, "Viscoelastic Hysteresis Part 1, Model Prediction; Part II
Khan, Kamran
2012-11-10
We formulate a variational constitutive framework that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior of electrically sensitive polymers, specifically Dielectric Elastomers (DEs), under large deformation. DEs are highly viscoelastic and their actuation response is greatly affected in dynamic applications. We used the generalized Maxwell model to represent the viscoelastic response of DE allowing the material to relax with multiple mechanisms. The constitutive updates at each load increment are obtained by minimizing an objective function formulated using the free energy and electrostatic energy of the elastomer, in addition to the viscous dissipation potential of the dashpots in each Maxwell branch. The model is then used to predict the electromechanical instability (EMI) of DE. The electro-elastic response of the DE is verified with available analytical solutions in the literature and then the material parameters are calibrated using experimental data. The model is integrated with finite element software to perform a variety of simulations on different types of electrically driven actuators under various electromechanical loadings. The electromechanical response of the DE and the critical conditions at which EMI occurs were found to be greatly affected by the viscoelasticity. Our model predicts that under a dead load EMI can be avoided if the DE operates at a high voltage rate. Subjected to constant, ramp and cyclic voltage, our model qualitatively predicts responses similar to the ones obtained from the analytical solutions and experimental data available in the literature. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Structure of a viscoplastic theory
Freed, Alan D.
1988-01-01
The general structure of a viscoplastic theory is developed from physical and thermodynamical considerations. The flow equation is of classical form. The dynamic recovery approach is shown to be superior to the hardening function approach for incorporating nonlinear strain hardening into the material response through the evolutionary equation for back stress. A novel approach for introducing isotropic strain hardening into the theory is presented, which results in a useful simplification. In particular, the limiting stress for the kinematic saturation of state (not the drag stress) is the chosen scalar-valued state variable. The resulting simplification is that there is no coupling between dynamic and thermal recovery terms in each evolutionary equation. The derived theory of viscoplasticity has the structure of a two-surface plasticity theory when the response is plasticlike, and the structure of a Bailey-Orowan creep theory when the response is creeplike.
Electrically actuated MEMS resonators: Effects of fringing field and nonlinear viscoelasticity
Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.
2017-10-01
This paper studies the nonlinear electromechanical response of a MEMS resonator numerically. A nonlinear continuous multi-physics model of the MEMS resonator is developed taking into account the effects of fringing field, size, residual axial load, and viscoelasticity. Moreover, both longitudinal and transverse motions are accounted for in the system modelling and simulations. The equations of motion of the MEMS resonator are obtained employing Hamilton's principle together with the modified version of the couple stress based theory (to account for size effects) and the Kelvin-Voigt model (to account for nonlinear energy dissipation). The Meijs-Fokkema electrostatic load formula is used to reliably model the fringing field effects. The continuous multi-physics model, consisting of geometrical, electrical, and viscos nonlinearities is discretised via a weighted-residual method, yielding a set of nonlinearly coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The resultant set of ODEs is solved numerically when the microresonator is actuated by a biased DC voltage and an AC voltage. The results of the numerical simulations are presented in the form of DC voltage-deflection, DC voltage-natural frequency, and AC frequency-displacement diagrams. The effects of fringing field, residual axial load, small-scale, and nonlinear energy dissipation are highlighted. It is shown that fringing field effects are significant on both static and dynamic electromechanical responses of the MEMS resonator.
Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity
Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.
Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may
Visco-elastic response of thermoplastics
Kristensen, Vegard Berge
2013-01-01
In this study a recently developed visco-elastic visco-plastic material model has been evaluated with the intention of improving the simulated behaviour of polymers. In order for polymers to become a more reliable construction material the behaviour has to be rendered realistically in simulations. A set of eleven experimental tests have been conducted to establish a database for further simulations. By use of some of these experimental tests the visco-elastic visco-plastic material model has ...
NONLINEAR TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF STAY CABLE WITH VISCOELASTICITY DAMPER IN CABLE-STAYED BRIDGE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈水生; 孙炳楠; 冯义卿
2004-01-01
Taking the bending stiffness,static sag,and geometric non-linearity into consideration,the space nonlinear vibration partial differential equations were derived.The partical differential equations were discretized in space by finite center difference approximation,then the nonlinear ordinal differential equations were obtained.A hybrid method involving the combination of the Newmark method and the pseudo-force strategy was proposed to analyze the nonlinear transient response of the inclined cable-dampers system subjected to arbitrary dynamic loading.As an example,two typical stay cables were calculated by the present method.The results reveal both the validity and the deficiency of the viscoelasticity damper for vibration control of stay cables.The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method is also verified by comparing the results with those obtained by using Runge-Kutta direct integration technique.A new time history analysis method is provided for the research on the stay cable vibration control.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A.; Alhuthali, M.S. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2015-07-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of couple stress nanofluid in the presence of thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects is analyzed. Energy equation subject to nonlinear thermal radiation is taken into account. The flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of a constant applied magnetic field. The induced magnetic field is neglected for a small magnetic Reynolds number. Mathematical formulation is performed using boundary layer analysis. Newly proposed boundary condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is employed. The governing nonlinear mathematical problems are first converted into dimensionless expressions and then solved for the series solutions of velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration. Convergence of the constructed solutions is verified. Effects of emerging parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are plotted and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and Nusselt number are also computed and analyzed. It is found that the thermal boundary layer thickness is an increasing function of radiative effect. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional boundary layer flow of viscoelastic nanofluid is examined. • Nonlinear thermal radiation is analyzed. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are present. • Recently developed condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is implemented. • Construction of convergent solutions of nonlinear flow is possible.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adolf, D.
1997-11-01
Butyl rubber, unfortunately, has pronounced nonlinear viscoelastic behavior, which may be modelled by a separable KBKZ formalism. While these effects seem to have minimal impact on accelerated sealing force measurements, they do severely impact compression set tests. Therefore, a new test is suggested for evaluating field-return o-rings which is free from such confounding effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haitao Che
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate a H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for nonlinear viscoelasticity equations based on H1-Galerkin method and expanded mixed element method. The existence and uniqueness of solutions to the numerical scheme are proved. A priori error estimation is derived for the unknown function, the gradient function, and the flux.
Fully coupled heat conduction and deformation analyses of nonlinear viscoelastic composites
Khan, Kamran
2012-05-01
This study presents an integrated micromechanical model-finite element framework for analyzing coupled heat conduction and deformations of particle-reinforced composite structures. A simplified micromechanical model consisting of four sub-cells, i.e., one particle and three matrix sub-cells is formulated to obtain the effective thermomechanical properties and micro-macro field variables due to coupled heat conduction and nonlinear thermoviscoelastic deformation of a particulate composite that takes into account the dissipation of energy from the viscoelastic constituents. A time integration algorithm for simultaneously solving the equations that govern heat conduction and thermoviscoelastic deformations of isotropic homogeneous materials is developed. The algorithm is then integrated to the proposed micromechanical model. A significant temperature generation due to the dissipation effect in the viscoelastic matrix was observed when the composite body is subjected to cyclic mechanical loadings. Heat conduction due to the dissipation of the energy cannot be ignored in predicting the factual temperature and deformation fields within the composite structure, subjected to cyclic loading for a long period. A higher creep resistant matrix material or adding elastic particles can lower the temperature generation. Our analyses suggest that using particulate composites and functionally graded materials can reduce the heat generation due to energy dissipation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T McMillen
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Locomotion provides superb examples of cooperation among neuromuscular systems, environmental reaction forces, and sensory feedback. As part of a program to understand the neuromechanics of locomotion, here we construct a model of anguilliform (eel-like swimming in slender fishes. Building on a continuum mechanical representation of the body as an viscoelastic rod, actuated by a traveling wave of preferred curvature and subject to hydrodynamic reaction forces, we incorporate a new version of a calcium release and muscle force model, fitted to data from the lamprey Ichthyomyzon unicuspis, that interactively generates the curvature wave. We use the model to investigate the source of the difference in speeds observed between electromyographic waves of muscle activation and mechanical waves of body curvature, concluding that it is due to a combination of passive viscoelastic and geometric properties of the body and active muscle properties. Moreover, we find that nonlinear force dependence on muscle length and shortening velocity may reduce the work done by the swimming muscles in steady swimming.
A Distortion-Modified Free Volume Theory for Nonlinear Viscoelastic Behavior
Popelar, C. F.; Liechti, K. M.
2003-06-01
Many polymeric materials, including structural adhesives, exhibit anonlinear viscoelastic response. The nonlinear theory of Knauss and Emri(Polym. Engrg. Sci. 27, 1987, 87 100) is based on the Doolittle conceptthat the ‘free volume’ controls the mobility of polymer molecules and,thus, the inherent time scale of the material. It then follows thatfactors such as temperature and moisture, which change the free volume,will influence the time scale. Furthermore, stress-induced dilatationwill also affect the free volume and, hence, the time scale. However,during this investigation, dilatational effects alone were found to beinsufficient for describing the response of near pure shear tests of abisphenol A epoxy with amido amine hardener. Thus, the free volumeapproach presented here has been modified to include distortionaleffects in the inherent time scale of the material. The same was foundto be true for a urethane adhesive.
Quasistatic contact problems in viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity
Han, Weimin
2002-01-01
Phenomena of contact between deformable bodies or between deformable and rigid bodies abound in industry and in everyday life. A few simple examples are brake pads with wheels, tires on roads, and pistons with skirts. Common industrial processes such as metal forming and metal extrusion involve contact evolutions. Because of the importance of contact processes in structural and mechanical systems, considerable effort has been put into modeling and numerical simulations. This book introduces readers to a mathematical theory of contact problems involving deformable bodies. It covers mechanical modeling, mathematical formulations, variational analysis, and the numerical solution of the associated formulations. The authors give a complete treatment of some contact problems by presenting arguments and results in modeling, analysis, and numerical simulations. Variational analysis of the models includes existence and uniqueness results of weak solutions, as well as results of continuous dependence of the solution on...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shuxin Huang; Chuanjing Lu; Ron Marshall
2005-01-01
A new simple thixotropy model was proposed in the present paper to characterize the thixotropy-loop experiments and the start-up experiment of an LDPE (PE-FSB23D022/Q200) melt. The thixotropy model is a combination of a viscoelastic-component and a postulated kinetics process of structure change, which is constituted in terms of the indirect microstructural approach usually adopted in the characterization of thixotropy. The descriptions of the thixotropy model on both the thixotropy-loop tests and the startup test show good agreement with the experimental values, indicating the good capability of the model in characterizing the time-dependent nonlinear viscoelastic. The stress overshoot phenomenon and the stress relaxation after cessation of the thixotropy loop test can be described well by the model, whereas both of the typical viscoelastic phenomena could not be described in our previous work with a variant Huang model.
Spathis, G.; Kontou, E.
2017-06-01
In the present work, the nonlinear viscoelastic/viscoplastic response of polymeric materials is described by introducing essential modifications on a model developed in previous works. A constitutive equation of viscoelasticity, based on the transient network theory, is introduced in a more generalized form, which takes into account volume changes during deformation. This time-dependent equation accounts for the nonlinearity and viscoplasticity at small elastic and finite plastic strain regime. The present description was proved to be more flexible, given that it contains a relaxation function that has been derived by considering instead of first order kinetics a fractional derivative that controls the rate of molecular chain detachment from their junctions. Therefore, the new equation has a more global character, appropriate for cases where heavy tails are expected. On the basis of the distributed nature of free volume, a new functional form of the rate of plastic deformation is developed, which is combined with a proper kinematic formulation and leads to the separation of the total strain into the elastic and plastic part. A three-dimensional constitutive equation is then derived for an isotropic, compressible medium. This analysis was proved to be capable of capturing the main aspects of inelastic response as well as the instability stage taking place at the tertiary creep, related to the creep failure.
Analysis of steady-state and dynamical radially-symmetric problems of nonlinear viscoelasticity
Stepanov, Alexey B.
This thesis treats radially symmetric steady states and radially symmetric motions of nonlinearly elastic and viscoelastic plates and shells subject to dead-load and hydrostatic pressures on their boundaries and with the plate subject to centrifugal force. The plates and shells are described by specializations of the exact (nonlinear) equations of three-dimensional continuum mechanics. The treatment in every case is very general and encompasses large classes of constitutive functions (characterizing the material response). We first treat the radially symmetric steady states of plates and shells and the radially symmetric steady rotations of plates. We show that the existence, multiplicity, and qualitative behavior of solutions for problems accounting for the live loads due to hydrostatic pressure and centrifugal force depend critically on the material properties of the bodies, physically reasonable refined descriptions of which are given and examined here with great care, and on the nature of boundary conditions. he treatment here, giving new and sharp results, employs several different mathematical tools, ranging from phase-plane analysis to the mathematically more sophisticated direct methods of the Calculus of Variations, fixed-point theorems, and global continuation methods, each of which has different strengths and weaknesses for handling intrinsic difficulties in the mechanics. We then treat the initial-boundary-value problems for the radially symmetric motions of annular plates and spherical shells that consist of a nonlinearly viscoelastic material of strain-rate type. We discuss a range of physically natural constitutive equations. We first show that when the material is strong in a suitable sense relative to externally applied loads, solutions exist for all time, depend continuously on the data, and consequently are unique. We study the role of the constitutive restrictions and that of the regularity of the data in ensuring the preclusion of a total
Nonlinear Forced Vibration of a Viscoelastic Buckled Beam with 2 : 1 Internal Resonance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu-Yang Xiong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of a viscoelastic buckled beam subjected to primary resonance in the presence of internal resonance is investigated for the first time. For appropriate choice of system parameters, the natural frequency of the second mode is approximately twice that of the first providing the condition for 2 : 1 internal resonance. The ordinary differential equations of the two mode shapes are established using the Galerkin method. The problem is replaced by two coupled second-order differential equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The multiple scales method is applied to derive the modulation-phase equations. Steady-state solutions of the system as well as their stability are examined. The frequency-amplitude curves exhibit the steady-state response in the directly excited and indirectly excited modes due to modal interaction. The double-jump, the saturation phenomenon, and the nonperiodic region phenomena are observed illustrating the influence of internal resonance. The validity range of the analytical approximations is assessed by comparing the analytical approximate results with a numerical solution by the Runge-Kutta method. The unstable regions in the internal resonance are explored via numerical simulations.
Said-Houari, Belkacem
2012-09-01
The goal of this work is to study a model of the viscoelastic wave equation with nonlinear boundary/interior sources and a nonlinear interior damping. First, applying the Faedo-Galerkin approximations combined with the compactness method to obtain existence of regular global solutions to an auxiliary problem with globally Lipschitz source terms and with initial data in the potential well. It is important to emphasize that it is not possible to consider density arguments to pass from regular to weak solutions if one considers regular solutions of our problem where the source terms are locally Lipschitz functions. To overcome this difficulty, we use an approximation method involving truncated sources and adapting the ideas in [13] to show that the existence of weak solutions can still be obtained for our problem. Second, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data and if the interior source dominates the interior damping term, then the solution ceases to exist and blows up in finite time provided that the initial data are large enough.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gang Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the initial boundary value problem for the nonlinear viscoelastic Petrovsky equation utt+Δ2u−∫0tgt−τΔ2ux,τdτ−Δut−Δutt+utm−1ut=up−1u. Under certain conditions on g and the assumption that m
Liang Fei; Gao Hongjun
2011-01-01
Abstract In this paper, we consider the system of nonlinear viscoelastic equations u t t - Δ u + ∫ 0 t g 1 ( t - τ ) Δ u ( τ ) d τ - Δ u t = f 1 ( u , v ) , ( x , t ) ∈ Ω × ( 0 , T ) , v t t - Δ v + ∫ 0 t g 2 ( t - τ ) Δ v ( τ ) d τ - Δ v t = f 2 ( u , v ) , ( x , t ) ∈ Ω...
Yang, Zhi
2015-12-01
We have investigated the linear and nonlinear rheology of various gelatine-multiwalled carbon nanotube (gel-MWNT) composites, namely physically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites, chemically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites, and chemically-physically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites. Further, the internal structures of these gel-MWNT composites were characterized by ultra-small angle neutron scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption of gelatine onto the surface of MWNT is also investigated to understand gelatine-assisted dispersion of MWNT during ultrasonication. For all gelatine gels, addition of MWNT increases their complex modulus. The dependence of storage modulus with frequency for gelatine-MWNT composites is similar to that of the corresponding neat gelatine matrix. However, by incorporating MWNT, the dependence of the loss modulus on frequency is reduced. The linear viscoelastic region is decreased approximately linearly with the increase of MWNT concentration. The pre-stress results demonstrate that the addition of MWNT does not change the strain-hardening behaviour of physically-crosslinked gelatine gel. However, the addition of MWNT can increase the strain-hardening behaviour of chemically-crosslinked gelatine gel, and chemically-physically crosslinked gelatine gel. Results from light microscopy, cryo-SEM, and USANS demonstrate the hierarchical structures of MWNT, including that tens-of-micron scale MWNT agglomerates are present. Furthermore, the adsorption curve of gelatine onto the surface of MWNT follows two-stage pseudo-saturation behaviour.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIM; C.W.
2010-01-01
Nonlinear combination parametric resonance is investigated for an axially accelerating viscoelastic string.The governing equation of in-planar motion of the string is established by introducing a coordinate transform in the Eulerian equation of a string with moving boundaries.The string under investigation is constituted by the standard linear solid model in which the material,not partial,time derivative was used.The governing equation leads to the Mote model for transverse vibration by omitting the longitudinal component and higher order terms.The Kirchhoff model is derived from the Mote model by replacing the tension with the averaged tension over the string.The two models are respectively analyzed via the method of multiple scales for principal parametric resonance.The amplitudes and the existence conditions of steady-state response and its stability can be numerically determined.Numerical calculations demonstrate the effects of the string material parameters,the initial tension,and the axial speed fluctuation amplitude.The outcomes of the two models are qualitatively and quantitatively compared.
Interaction model between capsule robot and intestine based on nonlinear viscoelasticity.
Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Hao; Tan, Renjia; Li, Hongyi
2014-03-01
Active capsule endoscope could also be called capsule robot, has been developed from laboratory research to clinical application. However, the system still has defects, such as poor controllability and failing to realize automatic checks. The imperfection of the interaction model between capsule robot and intestine is one of the dominating reasons causing the above problems. A model is hoped to be established for the control method of the capsule robot in this article. It is established based on nonlinear viscoelasticity. The interaction force of the model consists of environmental resistance, viscous resistance and Coulomb friction. The parameters of the model are identified by experimental investigation. Different methods are used in the experiment to obtain different values of the same parameter at different velocities. The model is proved to be valid by experimental verification. The achievement in this article is the attempted perfection of an interaction model. It is hoped that the model can optimize the control method of the capsule robot in the future.
非线性粘弹性梁的混沌运动%Chaotic Motions of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Beams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈立群; 程昌; 张能辉
2000-01-01
The integro-partial-differential equation that governs the dynamical behavior of homogeneous viscoelastic beams with geometric and material nonlinearities is established. The material of the beams obeys the Leaderman nonlinear constitutive relation. In the case of simple supported ends, the Galerkin method is applied to simplify the integro-partial-differential equation to a integro -differential equation. The equation is further simplified to a set of ordinary differential equations by introducing an additional variable. Finally, the numerical method is applied to investigate the dynamical behavior of the beam, and results show that chaos occurs in the motion of the beam.
非线性粘弹性梁的混沌运动%Chaotic Motions of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Beams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈立群; 程昌; 张能辉
2001-01-01
The integro-partial-differential equation that governs the dynamical behavior of homogeneous viscoelastic beams with geometric and material nonlinearities is established. The material of the beams obeys the Leaderman nonlinear constitutive relation. In the case of simple supported ends, the Galerkin method is applied to simplify the integro-partial-differential equation to a integro -differential equation. The equation is further simplified to a set of ordinary differential equations by introducing an additional variable. Finally, the numerical method is applied to investigate the dynamical behavior of the beam, and results show that chaos occurs in the motion of the beam.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meili, G.; Dubroca, G.; Pasquier, M.; Thepenier, J.
1982-06-01
The paper discusses a method for the mechanical testing of casebonded composite modified double base charges (CMDB) subjected to thermal cycling. The method proposed to determine stresses and safety margins takes into account the non-linear viscoelastic behaviour and the compressibility of the propellant. The non-linear behaviour is derived from tensile testing. The equations of equilibrium are solved numerically by deviding the grain web into many layers. The nonlinearities mainly concern the modulus; a multiaxial criterion and the time-temperature shift factors are used. At each time-step and for each layer the temperature, the reduced time, the non-linear factor, the Poisson's ratio and the damage according to the concept of Farris are calculated. Different charges (star, wagon wheel, finocyl) were subjected to various types of thermal cycles. The comparison between prediction and experimentation is acceptable even for complex histories in strain and temperature.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
盛冬发; 张燕; 程昌钧
2004-01-01
Based on convolution-type constitutive equations for linear viscoelastic materials with damage and the hypotheses of Timoshenko beams with large deflections, the nonlinear equations governing dynamical behavior of Timoshenko beams with damage on viscoelastic foundation were firstly derived. By using the Galerkin method in spatial domain, the nonlinear integro-partial differential equations were transformed into a set of integro-ordinary differential equations. The numerical methods in nonlinear dynamical systems, such as the phase-trajectory diagram, Poincare section and bifurcation figure, were used to solve the simplified systems of equations. It could be seen that simplified dynamical systems possess the plenty of nonlinear dynamical properties. The influence of load and material parameters on the dynamic behavior of nonlinear system were investigated in detail.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashemabadi, S.H. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Tehran (Iran); Etemad, S.Gh. [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan (Israel); Thibault, J. [Ottawa Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
2004-08-01
Heat transfer to viscoelastic fluids is frequently encountered in various industrial processing. In this investigation an analytical solution was obtained to predict the fully developed, steady and laminar heat transfer of viscoelastic fluids between parallel plates. One of the plates was stationary and was subjected to a constant heat flux. The other plate moved with constant velocity and was insulated. The simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner (SPTT) model, believed to be a more realistic model for viscoelastic fluids, was used to represent the rheological behavior of the fluid. The energy equation was solved for a wide range of Brinkman number, dimensionless viscoelastic group, and dimensionless pressure drop. Results highlight the strong effects of these parameters on the heat transfer rate. (Author)
Řehoř, Martin; Pr&oring; ša, Vít; T&oring; ma, Karel
2016-10-01
Rigorous analysis of the response of nonlinear materials to step inputs requires one to simultaneously handle the discontinuity, differentiation, and nonlinearity. This task is however beyond the reach of the standard theories such as the classical theory of distributions and presents a considerable mathematical difficulty. New advanced mathematical tools are necessary to handle the challenge. An elegant and relatively easy-to-use framework capable of accomplishing the task is provided by the Colombeau algebra, which is a generalisation of the classical theory of distributions to the nonlinear setting. We use the Colombeau algebra formalism and derive explicit formulae describing the response of incompressible Maxwell viscoelastic fluid subject to step load/deformation in the lubricated squeeze flow setting.
Elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator concept-based implicit boundary element methods
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘勇; 梁利华; GlaucioH.Paulino
2000-01-01
An elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator (CTO) concept-based implicit algorithm for nonlinear boundary element methods is presented. Both kinematic and isotropic strain hardening are considered. The elasto-viscoplastic radial return algorithm (RRA) and the elasto-viscoplastic CTO and its related scheme are developed. In addition, the limit cases (e.g. elastoplastic problem) of vis-coplastic RRA and CTO are discussed. Finally, numerical examples, which are compared with the latest FEM results of Ibrahimbegovic et al. and ABAQUS results, are provided.
Elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator concept-based implicit boundary element methods
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
An elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator (CTO) concept-based implicit algorithm for nonlinear boundary element methods is presented. Both kinematic and isotropic strain hardening are considered. The elasto-viscoplastic radial return algorithm (RRA) and the elasto-viscoplastic CTO and its related scheme are developed. In addition, the limit cases (e.g. elastoplastic problem) of viscoplastic RRA and CTO are discussed. Finally, numerical examples, which are compared with the latest FEM results of Ibrahimbegovic et al. and ABAQUS results, are provided.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Xinjun; Feng Zhenzhou; Wang Fusheng; Yue Zhufeng
2007-01-01
Damage-modified nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation and failure criterion are introduced and the three-dimensional incremental forms are deduced based on the updated Lagrangian approach. A simple tensile test model and a split Hopkinson pressure bar model are built to verify the accuracy of the subroutine implemented within the non-linear finite element program LS-DYNA. A numerical model of bird strike on windshield is established to study the responses of windshield under three different bird velocities at three sites. The bird is represented by a cylinder with a hemisphere at each end and the contact-impact coupling algorithm is used in this study. It is found that the implemented subroutine can properly describe the mechanical behavior of polymethyl methacrylate under low and high strain rates and large deformation, and can be used validly.
Nonlinear dynamics of structures
Oller, Sergio
2014-01-01
This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics. This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects. Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.
Nonlinear dynamics aspects of subcritical transitions and singular flows in viscoelastic fluids
Becherer, Paul
2008-01-01
Recently, there has been a renewed interest in theoretical aspects of flows of viscoelastic fluids (such as dilute polymer solutions). This thesis addresses two distinct issues related to such flows. Motivated by the possible occurrence of subcritical (finite-amplitude) instabilities in parallel flo
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Ruymbeke, E.; Nielsen, J.; Hassager, Ole
2010-01-01
In this manuscript, we extend the tube-based model that we developed for predicting the linear viscoelasticity of entangled polymers [van Ruymbeke et al., J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 128, 7-22 (2005)] to the prediction of the extensional rheology of monodisperse and bidisperse linear polymers...
A new elastoviscoplastic model based on the Herschel-Bulkley viscoplastic model
Saramito, Pierre
2009-01-01
International audience; The aim of this paper is to introduce a new three-dimensional elastoviscoplastic model that combines both the Oldroyd viscoelastic model and the Herschel-Bulkley viscoplastic model with a power-law index n>0. The present model is derived to satisfy the second law of thermodynamics. Various fluids of practical interest, such as liquid foams, droplet emulsions or blood, present such elastoviscoplastic behavior: at low stress, the material behaves as a viscoelastic solid,...
Recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity
Rajagopal, KR
1995-01-01
This is a collection of papers dedicated to Prof T C Woo to mark his 70th birthday. The papers focus on recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity, which are related to Prof Woo's work. Prof Woo's recent work concentrates on the viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of metals and plastics when thermal effects are significant, and the papers here address open questions in these and related areas.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yury A. Rossikhin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the previous analysis, the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear plate embedded into a fractional derivative viscoelastic medium has been studied by the method of multiple time scales under the conditions of the internal resonances two-to-one and one-to-one, as well as the internal combinational resonances for the case when the linear parts of nonlinear equations of motion occur to be coupled. A new approach proposed in this paper allows one to uncouple the linear parts of equations of motion of the plate, while the same method, the method of multiple time scales, has been utilized for solving nonlinear equations. The influence of viscosity on the energy exchange mechanism between interacting nonlinear modes has been analyzed. It has been shown that for some internal resonances there exist such particular cases when it is possible to obtain two first integrals, namely, the energy integral and the stream function, which allows one to reduce the problem to the calculation of elliptic integrals. The new approach enables one to solve the problems of vibrations of thin bodies more efficiently.
Fereidoon, A.; Andalib, E.; Mirafzal, A.
2016-07-01
This article studies the nonlinear vibration of viscoelastic embedded nano-sandwich structures containing of a double walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) integrated with two piezoelectric Zinc oxide (ZnO) layers. DWCNT and ZnO layers are subjected to magnetic and electric fields, respectively. This system is conveying viscous fluid and the related force is calculated by modified Navier-Stokes relation considering slip boundary condition and Knudsen number. Visco-Pasternak model with three parameters of the Winkler modulus, shear modulus, and damp coefficient is used for simulation of viscoelastic medium. The nano-structure is simulated as an orthotropic Timoshenko beam (TB) and the effects of small scale, structural damping and surface stress are considered based on Eringen's, Kelvin-voigt and Gurtin-Murdoch theories. Energy method and Hamilton's principle are employed to derive motion equations which are then solved using differential quadrature method (DQM). The detailed parametric study is conducted, focusing on the combined effects of small scale effect, fluid velocity, thickness of piezoelectric layer, boundary condition, surface effects, van der Waals (vdW) force on the frequency and critical velocity of nano-structure. Results indicate that the frequency and critical velocity increases with assume of surface effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Fei
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the system of nonlinear viscoelastic equations u t t - Δ u + ∫ 0 t g 1 ( t - τ Δ u ( τ d τ - Δ u t = f 1 ( u , v , ( x , t ∈ Ω × ( 0 , T , v t t - Δ v + ∫ 0 t g 2 ( t - τ Δ v ( τ d τ - Δ v t = f 2 ( u , v , ( x , t ∈ Ω × ( 0 , T with initial and Dirichlet boundary conditions. We prove that, under suitable assumptions on the functions gi , fi (i = 1, 2 and certain initial data in the stable set, the decay rate of the solution energy is exponential. Conversely, for certain initial data in the unstable set, there are solutions with positive initial energy that blow up in finite time. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classifications: 35L05; 35L55; 35L70.
Hassan, M A; Hamdi, M; Noma, A
2012-01-01
The mechanical behavior of the heart muscle tissues is the central problem in finite element simulation of the heart contraction, excitation propagation and development of an artificial heart. Nonlinear elastic and viscoelastic passive material properties of the left ventricular papillary muscle of a guinea pig heart were determined based on in-vitro precise uniaxial and relaxation tests. The nonlinear elastic behavior was modeled by a hypoelastic model and different hyperelastic strain energy functions such as Ogden and Mooney-Rivlin. Nonlinear least square fitting and constrained optimization were conducted under MATLAB and MSC.MARC in order to obtain the model material parameters. The experimental tensile data was used to get the nonlinear elastic mechanical behavior of the heart muscle. However, stress relaxation data was used to determine the relaxation behavior as well as viscosity of the tissues. Viscohyperelastic behavior was constructed by a multiplicative decomposition of a standard Ogden strain energy function, W, for instantaneous deformation and a relaxation function, R(t), in a Prony series form. The study reveals that hypoelastic and hyperelastic (Ogden) models fit the tissue mechanical behaviors well and can be safely used for heart mechanics simulation. Since the characteristic relaxation time (900 s) of heart muscle tissues is very large compared with the actual time of heart beating cycle (800 ms), the effect of viscosity can be reasonably ignored. The amount and type of experimental data has a strong effect on the Ogden parameters. The in vitro passive mechanical properties are good initial values to start running the biosimulation codes for heart mechanics. However, an optimization algorithm is developed, based on clinical intact heart measurements, to estimate and re-correct the material parameters in order to get the in vivo mechanical properties, needed for very accurate bio-simulation and for the development of new materials for the
Modeling the Non-linear Viscoelastic Response of High Temperature Polyimides
Karra, Satish
2010-01-01
A constitutive model is developed to predict the viscoelastic response of polyimide resins that are used in high temperature applications. This model is based on a thermodynamic framework that uses the notion that the `natural configuration' of a body evolves as the body undergoes a process and the evolution is determined by maximizing the rate of entropy production in general and the rate of dissipation within purely mechanical considerations. We constitutively prescribe forms for the specific Helmholtz potential and the rate of dissipation (which is the product of density, temperature and the rate of entropy production), and the model is derived by maximizing the rate of dissipation with the constraint of incompressibility, and the reduced energy dissipation equation is also regarded as a constraint in that it is required to be met in every process that the body undergoes. The efficacy of the model is ascertained by comparing the predictions of the model with the experimental data for PMR-15 and HFPE-II-52 ...
Brands, Dave W A; Bovendeerd, Peter H M; Wismans, Jac S H M
2002-11-01
In current Finite Element (FE) head models, brain tissue is commonly assumed to display linear viscoelastic material behaviour. However, brain tissue behaves like a non-linear viscoelastic solid for shear strains above 1%. The main objective of this study was to study the effect of non-linear material behaviour on the predicted brain response. We used a non-linear viscoelastic constitutive model, developed on the basis of experimental shear data presented elsewere. First we tested the numerical implementation of the constitutive model by simulating the response of a silicone gel (Sylgard 572 A&B) filled cylindrical cup, subjected to a transient rotational acceleration. The experimental results could be reproduced within 9%. Subsequently, the effect of non-linear material modelling on computed brain response was investigated in an existing three-dimensional head model subjected to an eccentric rotation. At the applied external load strains in the brain were approximately ten times larger than was expected on the basis of published data. This is probably caused by the values of the shear moduli applied in the model. These are at least a factor of ten lower than the ones used in head models in literature but comparable to material data in recent literature. Non-linear material behaviour was found to influence the levels of predicted strains (+20%) and stresses (-11%) but not their temporal and spatial distribution. The pressure response was independent of non-linear material behaviour. In fact it could be predicted by the equilibrium of momentum, and thus it is independent of the choice of the brain constitutive model.
Viscoelasticity, nonlinear shear start-up, and relaxation of entangled star polymers
Snijkers, Frank
2013-07-23
We report on a detailed rheological investigation of well-defined symmetric entangled polymer stars of low functionality with varying number of arms, molar mass of the arms, and solvent content. Emphasis is placed on the response of the stars in simple shear, during start-up, and for relaxation upon flow cessation. To reduce experimental artifacts associated with edge fracture (primarily) and wall slip, we employ a homemade cone-partitioned plate fixture which was successfully implemented in recent studies. Reliable data for these highly entangled stars could be obtained for Weissenberg numbers below 300. The appearance of a stress overshoot during start-up with a corresponding strain approaching a value of 2 suggests that in the investigated shear regime the stars orient but do not stretch. This is corroborated by the fact that the empirical Cox-Merx rule appears to be validated, within experimental error. On the other hand, the (shear) rate dependent steady shear viscosity data exhibit a slope smaller than the convective constraint release slope of -1 (for linear polymers) for the investigated range of rates. The broadness of the stress overshoot reflects the broad linear relaxation spectrum of the stars. The initial stress relaxation rate, reflecting the initial loss of entanglements due to the action of convective constraint release in steady shear flow, increases with Weissenberg number. More importantly, when compared against the relevant rates for comb polymers with relatively short arms, the latter are slower at larger Weissenberg numbers. At long times, the relaxation data are consistent with the linear viscoelastic data on these systems. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Yong, Liu; Qichao, Hong; Lihua, Liang
1999-05-01
This paper presents an elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator (CTO) based boundary element formulation, and application for calculation of path-domain independent J integrals (extension of the classical J integrals) in nonlinear crack analysis. When viscoplastic deformation happens, the effective stresses around the crack tip in the nonlinear region is allowed to exceed the loading surface, and the pure plastic theory is not suitable for this situation. The concept of consistency employed in the solution of increment viscoplastic problem, plays a crucial role in preserving the quadratic rate asymptotic convergence of iteractive schemes based on Newton's method. Therefore, this paper investigates the viscoplastic crack problem, and presents an implicit viscoplastic algorithm using the CTO concept in a boundary element framework for path-domain independent J integrals. Applications are presented with two numerical examples for viscoplastic crack problems and J integrals.
Snijkers, F.
2016-03-31
We report upon the characterization of the steady-state shear stresses and first normal stress differences as a function of shear rate using mechanical rheometry (both with a standard cone and plate and with a cone partitioned plate) and optical rheometry (with a flow-birefringence setup) of an entangled solution of asymmetric exact combs. The combs are polybutadienes (1,4-addition) consisting of an H-skeleton with an additional off-center branch on the backbone. We chose to investigate a solution in order to obtain reliable nonlinear shear data in overlapping dynamic regions with the two different techniques. The transient measurements obtained by cone partitioned plate indicated the appearance of overshoots in both the shear stress and the first normal stress difference during start-up shear flow. Interestingly, the overshoots in the start-up normal stress difference started to occur only at rates above the inverse stretch time of the backbone, when the stretch time of the backbone was estimated in analogy with linear chains including the effects of dynamic dilution of the branches but neglecting the effects of branch point friction, in excellent agreement with the situation for linear polymers. Flow-birefringence measurements were performed in a Couette geometry, and the extracted steady-state shear and first normal stress differences were found to agree well with the mechanical data, but were limited to relatively low rates below the inverse stretch time of the backbone. Finally, the steady-state properties were found to be in good agreement with model predictions based on a nonlinear multimode tube model developed for linear polymers when the branches are treated as solvent.
Morphology of viscoplastic drop impact on viscoplastic surfaces.
Chen, Simeng; Bertola, Volfango
2017-01-25
The impact of viscoplastic drops onto viscoplastic substrates characterized by different magnitudes of the yield stress is investigated experimentally. The interaction between viscoplastic drops and surfaces has an important application in additive manufacturing, where a fresh layer of material is deposited on a partially cured or dried layer of the same material. So far, no systematic studies on this subject have been reported in literature. The impact morphology of different drop/substrate combinations, with yield stresses ranging from 1.13 Pa to 11.7 Pa, was studied by high speed imaging for impact Weber numbers between 15 and 85. Experimental data were compared with one of the existing models for Newtonian drop impact onto liquid surfaces. Results show the magnitude of the yield stress of drop/substrate strongly affects the final shape of the impacting drop, permanently deformed at the end of impact. The comparison between experimental data and model predictions suggests the crater evolution model is only valid when predicting the evolution of the crater at sufficiently high Weber numbers.
Nonlinear visco-elastic finite element analysis of different porcelain veneers configuration.
Sorrentino, Roberto; Apicella, Davide; Riccio, Carlo; Gherlone, Enrico; Zarone, Fernando; Aversa, Raffaella; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Ferrari, Marco; Apicella, Antonio
2009-11-01
This study is aimed at evaluating the biomechanical behavior of feldspathic versus alumina porcelain veneers. A 3D numerical model of a maxillary central incisor, with the periodontal ligament (PDL) and the alveolar bone was generated. Such model was made up of four main volumes: dentin, enamel, cement layer and veneer. Incisors restored with alumina and feldspathic porcelain veneers were compared with a natural sound tooth (control). Enamel, cementum, cancellous and cortical bone were considered as isotropic elastic materials; on the contrary, the tubular structure of dentin was designed as elastic orthotropic. The nonlinear visco-elatic behavior of the PDL was considered. The veneer volumes were coupled with alumina and feldspathic porcelain mechanical properties. The adhesive layers were modeled in the FE environment using spring elements. A 50N load applied at 60 degrees angle with tooth longitudinal axis was applied and validated. Compressive stresses were concentrated on the external surface of the buccal side of the veneer close to the incisal margin; such phenomenon was more evident in the presence of alumina. Tensile stresses were negligible when compared to compressive ones. Alumina and feldspathic ceramic were characterized by a different biomechanical behavior in terms of elastic deformations and stress distributions. The ultimate strength of both materials was not overcome in the performed analysis.
Rozite, L.; Joffe, R.; Varna, J.; Nyström, B.
2012-02-01
The behaviour of highly non-linear cellulosic fibers and their composite is characterized. Micro-mechanisms occurring in these materials are identified. Mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fibers and composites are obtained using simple tensile test. Material visco-plastic and visco-elastic properties are analyzed using creep tests. Two bio-based resins are used in this study - Tribest and EpoBioX. The glass and flax fiber composites are used as reference materials to compare with Cordenka fiber laminates.
On the analysis of viscoplastic buckling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard
1993-01-01
For elastic-viscoplastic structures the classical elastic-plastic bifurcation approach to inelastic buckling is not valid. Only an elastic bifurcation point exists in the el~tic-viscoplastic case, and the inelastic buckling behaviour is controlled by a strong sensitivity to small imperfections...
基于ABAQUS的非线性粘弹性本构模型二次开发%Developing of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Constitutive Model Based on ABAQUS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭云
2011-01-01
基于大型非线性有限元软件ABAQUS/EXPLICIT所提供的用户材料子程序接口VUMAT,对非线性粘弹性本构模型进行二次开发.通过标准犬骨单轴拉伸算例,验证了子程序的有效性,弥补了ABAQUS仅含线性粘弹性本构模型的不足.文中详述了材料子程序开发流程,探讨了涉及的诸多实用技术,可为用户扩充ABAQUS的材料模型提供参考.%Based on the subroutine VUMAT, user - defined material model in the nonlinear FEM software ABAQUS/EXPIiCIT, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is developed. The validity of the subroutine has been proven through the standard uniaxial ten-sile model. The shortage of ABAQUS which only has linear viscoelastic constitutive model is remedied. This paper presents the process of developing a material constitutive model and some useful technology. It can be referred for extending the material constitutive model in ABAQUS.
2012-06-09
these formulations employ some form of either the Euler-Bernoulli or Timoshenko beam theories and are mostly restricted to small strain analysis. The...and Kadioglu [1], wherein a Timoshenko beam element is de- veloped using mixed variational principles. In their work, the finite element model...method in their analysis of cylindrical helical rods (based on the Timoshenko beam hypotheses). Additional numerical formulations for viscoelastic beams
Evidence of viscoplastic behavior of exfoliated graphite nanofluids.
Hermida-Merino, Carolina; Pérez-Rodríguez, Martín; Piñeiro, Manuel M; Pastoriza-Gallego, María José
2016-02-28
The rheological behavior of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids containing exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets has been carried out using a cone-plate Physica MCR rheometer. Initial experiments based on flow curves were carried out, the flow curves were based on the controlled shear stress model, these tests show that the studied nanofluids present non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior with yield stress. Furthermore, linear viscoelastic experiments were conducted in order to determine the viscoelastic behavior: using strain sweep and frequency sweep tests the storage and loss modulus were determined. The fractal dimension (Df) was estimated from the suspension static yield-stress and volume fraction (ϕ) dependence, and was determined to be Df = 2.36, a value consistent with a process of aggregation of RLCA type (reaction limited cluster aggregation). This value is unusual if compared with other nanofluids, and can be regarded as a result of the bidimensionality of the suspended nanoplatelets. Finally, creep-recovery tests and mechanical models confirm the viscoplastic nature of our nanofluids, a feature never shown so far for this type of systems, increasing the solid-like character in the range of concentrations studied if compared with other nanofluids reported in the literature. This is a result of the combination of a remarkable internal structure and strong interactions, which evidence an unexpected behaviour sharing many solid-like features.
Viscoplastic properties of laponite-CMC mixes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Tarhini
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In this dataset, 15 samples of laponite-CMC mixes were realized and their viscoplastic properties are determined. Rheological parameters are then expressed as a function of age and components concentrations.
Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton
2014-01-01
Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: · Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material · Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...
Zhu, Shengyang; Cai, Chengbiao; Spanos, Pol D.
2015-01-01
A nonlinear and fractional derivative viscoelastic (FDV) model is used to capture the complex behavior of rail pads. It is implemented into the dynamic analysis of coupled vehicle-slab track (CVST) systems. The vehicle is treated as a multi-body system with 10 degrees of freedom, and the slab track is represented by a three layer Bernoulli-Euler beam model. The model for the rail pads is one dimensional, and the force-displacement relation is based on a superposition of elastic, friction, and FDV forces. This model takes into account the influences of the excitation frequency and of the displacement amplitude through a fractional derivative element, and a nonlinear friction element, respectively. The Grünwald representation of the fractional derivatives is employed to numerically solve the fractional and nonlinear equations of motion of the CVST system by means of an explicit integration algorithm. A dynamic analysis of the CVST system exposed to excitations of rail harmonic irregularities is carried out, pointing out the stiffness and damping dependence on the excitation frequency and the displacement amplitude. The analysis indicates that the dynamic stiffness and damping of the rail pads increase with the excitation frequency while they decrease with the displacement amplitude. Furthermore, comparisons between the proposed model and ordinary Kelvin model adopted for the CVST system, under excitations of welded rail joint irregularities and of random track irregularities, are conducted in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The proposed model is shown to possess several modeling advantages over the ordinary Kelvin element which overestimates both the stiffness and damping features at high frequencies.
Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole
viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...
On the solvability of incompressible Stokes with viscoplastic rheologies in geodynamics
Spiegelman, Marc; May, Dave A.; Wilson, Cian R.
2016-06-01
Plasticity/failure is an essential ingredient in geodynamics models as earth materials cannot sustain unbounded stresses. However, many questions remain as to appropriate models of plasticity as well as effective solvers for these strongly nonlinear systems. Here we present some simplified model problems designed to elucidate many of the issues involved for the description and solution of viscoplastic problems as currently used in geodynamic modeling. We consider compression and extension of a viscoplastic layer overlying an isoviscous layer and introduce a single plastic yield criterion which includes the most commonly used viscoplasticity models: von Mises, depth-dependent von Mises, and Drucker-Prager. We show that for all rheologies considered, successive substitution schemes (aka Picard iteration) often stall at large values of the nonlinear residual, producing spurious solutions. However, combined Picard-Newton schemes can be effective for rheologies that are independent of the dynamic pressure. Difficulties arise when solving incompressible Stokes problems for rheologies that depend on the dynamic pressure such as Drucker-Prager viscoplasticity. Analysis suggests that incompressible Stokes can become ill-posed when the dependence of the deviatoric stress tensor on dynamic pressure (i.e., |∂τ/∂p'|) becomes large. We demonstrate empirically that, in these cases, Newton solvers can fail by introducing spurious shear bands and discuss the consequence of interpreting the results of nonconverged computations. Even for problems where solvers converge, Drucker-Prager viscoplasticity can produce dynamic pressures that deviate significantly from lithostatic and both the velocity and pressure fields should be evaluated to determine whether solutions are geologically reasonable.
Khurana, Meenakshi; Rana, Puneet; Srivastava, Sangeet
2016-12-01
In the present paper, we present both linear and nonlinear analyses to investigate thermal instability on a rotating non-Newtonian viscoelastic nanofluid layer under the influence of a magnetic field. In the linear stability analysis, the stationary and oscillatory modes of convection are obtained for various controlling parameters using the normal mode technique. Both Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are calculated after employing the minimal truncated Fourier series to steady and unsteady state. The main findings conclude that rotation and strain retardation parameter increase the value of the critical Rayleigh number in the neutral stability curve which delays the onset of convection in the nanofluid layer while the stress relaxation parameter enhances the convection. The magnetic field stabilizes the system for low values of the Taylor number (rotation) but an inverse trend is observed for high Taylor number. Both Nusselt and Sherwood numbers initially oscillate with time until the steady state prevails and they decrease with both Chandrasekhar and Taylor numbers. The magnitude of the streamlines and the contours of both isotherms and iso-nanohalines concentrate near the boundaries for large values of Ra, indicating an increase in convection.
Arzoumanidis, Alexis Gerasimos
A four point bend, mixed-mode, reinforced, cracked lap shear specimen experimentally simulated adhesive joints between load bearing composite parts in automotive components. The experiments accounted for fatigue, solvent and temperature effects on a swirled glass fiber composite adherend/urethane adhesive system. Crack length measurements based on compliance facilitated determination of da/dN curves. A digital image processing technique was also utilized to monitor crack growth from in situ images of the side of the specimen. Linear elastic fracture mechanics and finite elements were used to determine energy release rate and mode-mix as a function of crack length for this specimen. Experiments were conducted in air and in a salt water bath at 10, 26 and 90°C. Joints tested in the solvent were fully saturated. In air, both increasing and decreasing temperature relative to 26°C accelerated crack growth rates. In salt water, crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature. Threshold energy release rate is shown to be the most appropriate design criteria for joints of this system. In addition, path of the crack is discussed and fracture surfaces are examined on three length scales. Three linear viscoelastic properties were measured for the neat urethane adhesive. Dynamic tensile compliance (D*) was found using a novel extensometer and results were considerably more accurate and precise than standard DMTA testing. Dynamic shear compliance (J*) was determined using an Arcan specimen. Dynamic Poisson's ratio (nu*) was extracted from strain gage data analyzed to include gage reinforcement. Experiments spanned three frequency decades and isothermal data was shifted by time-temperature superposition to create master curves spanning thirty decades. Master curves were fit to time domain Prony series. Shear compliance inferred from D* and nu* compared well with measured J*, forming a basis for finding the complete time dependent material property matrix for this
Yamasaki, Tadashi; Houseman, Gregory; Hamling, Ian; Postek, Elek
2010-05-01
We have developed a new parallelized 3-D numerical code, OREGANO_VE, for the solution of the general visco-elastic problem in a rectangular block domain. The mechanical equilibrium equation is solved using the finite element method for a (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic rheology. Time-dependent displacement and/or traction boundary conditions can be applied. Matrix assembly is based on a tetrahedral element defined by 4 vertex nodes and 6 nodes located at the midpoints of the edges, and within which displacement is described by a quadratic interpolation function. For evaluating viscoelastic relaxation, an explicit time-stepping algorithm (Zienkiewicz and Cormeau, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 8, 821-845, 1974) is employed. We test the accurate implementation of the OREGANO_VE by comparing numerical and analytic (or semi-analytic half-space) solutions to different problems in a range of applications: (1) equilibration of stress in a constant density layer after gravity is switched on at t = 0 tests the implementation of spatially variable viscosity and non-Newtonian viscosity; (2) displacement of the welded interface between two blocks of differing viscosity tests the implementation of viscosity discontinuities, (3) displacement of the upper surface of a layer under applied normal load tests the implementation of time-dependent surface tractions (4) visco-elastic response to dyke intrusion (compared with the solution in a half-space) tests the implementation of all aspects. In each case, the accuracy of the code is validated subject to use of a sufficiently small time step, providing assurance that the OREGANO_VE code can be applied to a range of visco-elastic relaxation processes in three dimensions, including post-seismic deformation and post-glacial uplift. The OREGANO_VE code includes a capability for representation of prescribed fault slip on an internal fault. The surface displacement associated with large earthquakes can be detected by some geodetic observations
Modelling cohesive, frictional and viscoplastic materials
Alehossein, Habib; Qin, Zongyi
2016-06-01
Most materials in mining and civil engineering construction are not only viscoplastic, but also cohesive frictional. Fresh concrete, fly ash and mining slurries are all granular-frictional-visco-plastic fluids, although solid concrete is normally considered as a cohesive frictional material. Presented here is both a formulation of the pipe and disc flow rates as a function of pressure and pressure gradient and the CFD application to fresh concrete flow in L-Box tests.
Viscoplastic flow in an extrusion damper
Syrakos, Alexandros; Georgiou, Georgios C; Tsamopoulos, John
2016-01-01
Numerical simulations of the flow in an extrusion damper are performed using a finite volume method. The damper is assumed to consist of a shaft, with or without a spherical bulge, oscillating axially in a containing cylinder filled with a viscoplastic material of Bingham type. The response of the damper to a forced sinusoidal displacement is studied. In the bulgeless case the configuration is the annular analogue of the well-known lid-driven cavity problem, but with a sinusoidal rather than constant lid velocity. Navier slip is applied to the shaft surface in order to bound the reaction force to finite values. Starting from a base case, several problem parameters are varied in turn in order to study the effects of viscoplasticity, slip, damper geometry and oscillation frequency to the damper response. The results show that, compared to Newtonian flow, viscoplasticity causes the damper force to be less sensitive to the shaft velocity; this is often a desirable damper property. The bulge increases the required...
Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons
Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.
2008-11-01
The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.
An analytical solution for transient flow of Bingham viscoplastic materials in rock fractures
Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.
2001-01-01
We present below an analytical solution to model the one-dimensional transient flow of a Bingham viscoplastic material in a fracture with parallel walls (smooth or rough) that is subjected to an applied pressure gradient. The solution models the acceleration and the deceleration of the material as the pressure gradient changes with time. Two cases are considered: A pressure gradient applied over a finite time interval and an applied pressure gradient that is constant over time. The solution is expressed in dimensionless form and can therefore be used for a wide range of Bingham viscoplastic materials. The solution is also capable of capturing the transition that takes place in a fracture between viscoplastic flow and rigid plug flow. Also, it shows the development of a rigid central layer in fractures, the extent of which depends on the fluid properties (viscosity and yield stress), the magnitude of the pressure gradient, and the fracture aperture and surface roughness. Finally, it is shown that when a pressure gradient is applied and kept constant, the solution for the fracture flow rate converges over time to a steady-state solution that can be defined as a modified cubic law. In this case, the fracture transmissivity is found to be a non-linear function of the head gradient. This solution provides a tool for a better understanding of the flow of Bingham materials in rock fractures, interfaces, and cracks. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eskandarian, M.
2005-07-01
The mechanical characteristics of power line components need improvement in order to avoid power failures during severe ice storms. Atmospheric icing of overhead power lines creates electrical and mechanical problems in the transmission network. The successful development of anti-icing and de-icing techniques requires good knowledge of the adherence and bulk strength characteristics of atmospheric ice. This study presented a model for viscoplastic behaviour of porous atmospheric ice in the ductile region. The model was then modified to consider the effects of cracking activities to predict the material behaviour in transition and brittle regions. The following general methodologies were followed in this research for describing the ductile behaviour of porous atmospheric ice: instantaneous elastic strain; delayed viscoelastic strain; and, permanent plastic strain. The scientific contributions of this study include a classification of atmospheric ice structure on power lines on the basis of its grain shape and c-axis orientation. This thesis also presented 3 computer codes in Maple Mathematical Program for determining the elastic moduli of various types of freshwater ice; a poroelastic model for modifying the elastic moduli of porous atmospheric ice; a cap-model plasticity for various types of porous atmospheric ice; new freshwater ice yield envelopes in ductile regions that take porosity into account by means of an elliptical moving cap; and a newly developed user-defined material subroutine for viscoplastic behaviour of atmospheric ice in ductile region including the poroelastic, viscoelastic, and cap-model plasticity.
Documentation for the viscoplastic and creep program
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bellini, Anna
2004-01-01
of this workpackage is to simulate creep behavior of aluminum cast samples subjected to high temperature. In this document a two-state variables unified model is applied in order to simulate creep behavior and time-dependent metallurgical changes. The fundamental assumption of the unified theory is that creep...... and viscoplasticity, which are both irreversible strains developed because of dislocations motion in the material structure, can be modelled through the implementation of a similar plastic strain velocity law, generally called flow rule. The document shows how to obtain the material data needed for the simulation...... is run using the material data obtained through the mentioned experimental study. The results obtained for the simulation of tensile tests and of creep tests are compared with experimental curves, showing a good agreement. Moreover, the document describes the results obtained during the first...
Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials
Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.
1988-01-01
Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials, specifically fiber reinforced composite materials, are examined. The methods include classical lamination theory using time increments, direction solution of the Volterra Integral, Zienkiewicz's linear Prony series method, and a new method called Nonlinear Differential Equation Method (NDEM) which uses a nonlinear Prony series. The criteria used for comparison of the various methods include the stability of the solution technique, time step size stability, computer solution time length, and computer memory storage. The Volterra Integral allowed the implementation of higher order solution techniques but had difficulties solving singular and weakly singular compliance function. The Zienkiewicz solution technique, which requires the viscoelastic response to be modeled by a Prony series, works well for linear viscoelastic isotropic materials and small time steps. The new method, NDEM, uses a modified Prony series which allows nonlinear stress effects to be included and can be used with orthotropic nonlinear viscoelastic materials. The NDEM technique is shown to be accurate and stable for both linear and nonlinear conditions with minimal computer time.
A homogenization-based constitutive model for two-dimensional viscoplastic porous media
Danas, Kostas; Idiart, Martin I.; Ponte Castañeda, Pedro
2008-01-01
An approximate model based on the so-called 'second-order' nonlinear homogenization method is proposed to estimate the effective behavior of viscoplastic porous materials exhibiting transversely isotropic symmetry. The model is constructed in such a way that it reproduces exactly the behavior of a 'composite-cylinder assemblage' in the limit of in-plane hydrostatic loading, and therefore coincides with the hydrostatic limit of Gurson's criterion for plastic porous materials. As a consequence, the new model improves on earlier 'second-order' homogenization estimates, which have been found to be overly stiff at sufficiently high triaxialities and nonlinearities. The proposed model is compared with exact results obtained for a special class of porous materials with sequentially laminated microstructures. The agreement is found to be excellent for the entire range of stress triaxialities, and all values of the porosity and nonlinearity considered. To cite this article: K. Danas et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).
A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on irreversible thermodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU ChangChun; LV HeXiang; GUAN Ping
2008-01-01
A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model for metal materials is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, and an expression for the Helmholtz free energy function involving the parameters reflecting kinematic hardening and isotropic hardening is given. At the same time a non-associated flow potential function including the corresponding state variables is also given, from which the flow equation and the evolution equations of the internal state variables are derived. Thus, a general theoretical framework constructing a unified viscoplasticity con-stitutive model is given. Compared with the typical unified viscoplasticity constitu-tive models, the presented model evidently satisfies the irreversible thermody-namics laws. Moreover, this method not only provides a new theoretical foundation for further development of the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, but also gives a new theoretical framework for the stress-strain analysis of more materials.
Effect of viscoplastic material parameters on polymer indentation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, V; Needleman, A
2012-01-01
The effect of material parameters characterizing viscoplastic flow on the indentation response of polymers is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analyses and a one-dimensional expanding spherical cavity model. The polymer is characterized by a finite strain elastic–viscoplastic c......The effect of material parameters characterizing viscoplastic flow on the indentation response of polymers is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analyses and a one-dimensional expanding spherical cavity model. The polymer is characterized by a finite strain elastic......–viscoplastic constitutive relation and two indenter shapes are considered; a conical indenter and a pyramidal indenter. The ability of the simpler expanding spherical cavity model to reproduce the trends obtained from the finite element solutions is assessed for both indenter shapes. Within the range of parameter...
A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on irreversible thermodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model for metal materials is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, and an expression for the Helmholtz free energy function involving the parameters reflecting kinematic hardening and isotropic hardening is given. At the same time a non-associated flow potential function including the corresponding state variables is also given, from which the flow equation and the evolution equations of the internal state variables are derived. Thus, a general theoretical framework constructing a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model is given. Compared with the typical unified viscoplasticity constitutive models, the presented model evidently satisfies the irreversible thermodynamics laws. Moreover, this method not only provides a new theoretical foundation for further development of the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, but also gives a new theoretical framework for the stress-strain analysis of more materials.
Yielding to stress: Recent developments in viscoplastic fluid mechanics
Balmforth, Neil; Frigaard, Ian A.; Ovarlez, Guillaume
2014-01-01
The archetypal feature of a viscoplastic fluid is its yield stress: If the material is not sufficiently stressed, it behaves like a solid, but once the yield stress is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. Such behavior characterizes materials common in industries such as petroleum and chemical processing, cosmetics, and food processing and in geophysical fluid dynamics. The most common idealization of a viscoplastic fluid is the Bingham model, which has been widely used to rationalize e...
Linear Viscoelasticity, Reptation, Chain Stretching and Constraint Release
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neergaard, Jesper; Schieber, Jay D.; Venerus, David C.
2000-01-01
A recently proposed self-consistent reptation model - alreadysuccessful at describing highly nonlinear shearing flows of manytypes using no adjustable parameters - is used here to interpretthe linear viscoelasticity of the same entangled polystyrenesolution. Using standard techniques, a relaxatio...
Dynamic visco-plastic memorial nested yield surface model of soil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Haiyang ZHUANG; Guoxing CHEN; Dinghua ZHU
2008-01-01
Under cyclic loadings, the plastic strain of soft soil will take place under very small shear strain. So the viscoplastic model is appropriate to be used to model the dynamic characteristics of soft soil. Based on the principles of geotechnical plastic mechanics, the incremental visco-plastic memorial nested yield surface model is developed by using the field theory of nonlinear isotropic materials and the theory of kinematical hardening modulus. At the end of anyone time increment, the inverted loading surface, the damaged surface and the initial loading surface which is tangent with the inside of inverted loading surface are memorized respectively. The kinematical behavior of yield surface is defined by using these three surfaces. The developed model in this paper is successfully implemented in ABAQUS using FORTRAN subroutine. The predicted stress-strain relationships of soft soil are compared with the test results given by dynamic triaxial tests. It is proved that the cyclic undrained stress-strain relation of soils can be fairly simulated by the model. At last, the nonlinear earthquake response of a representative soft site in Nanjing city is calculated with the dynamic behavior of soils modeled by the new developed model. The results are accordant to the earthquake response of soft site given by other scholars.
Viscoelastic flow simulations in model porous media
De, S.; Kuipers, J. A. M.; Peters, E. A. J. F.; Padding, J. T.
2017-05-01
We investigate the flow of unsteadfy three-dimensional viscoelastic fluid through an array of symmetric and asymmetric sets of cylinders constituting a model porous medium. The simulations are performed using a finite-volume methodology with a staggered grid. The solid-fluid interfaces of the porous structure are modeled using a second-order immersed boundary method [S. De et al., J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 232, 67 (2016), 10.1016/j.jnnfm.2016.04.002]. A finitely extensible nonlinear elastic constitutive model with Peterlin closure is used to model the viscoelastic part. By means of periodic boundary conditions, we model the flow behavior for a Newtonian as well as a viscoelastic fluid through successive contractions and expansions. We observe the presence of counterrotating vortices in the dead ends of our geometry. The simulations provide detailed insight into how flow structure, viscoelastic stresses, and viscoelastic work change with increasing Deborah number De. We observe completely different flow structures and different distributions of the viscoelastic work at high De in the symmetric and asymmetric configurations, even though they have the exact same porosity. Moreover, we find that even for the symmetric contraction-expansion flow, most energy dissipation is occurring in shear-dominated regions of the flow domain, not in extensional-flow-dominated regions.
Stress memory effect in viscoelastic stagnant lid convection
Patočka, V.; Čadek, O.; Tackley, P. J.; Čížková, H.
2017-06-01
Present thermochemical convection models of planetary evolution often assume a purely viscous or viscoplastic rheology. Ignoring elasticity in the cold, outer boundary layer is, however, questionable since elastic effects may play an important role there and affect surface topography as well as the stress distribution within the stiff cold lithosphere. Here we present a modelling study focused on the combined effects of Maxwell viscoelastic rheology and a free surface in the stagnant lid planetary convection. We implemented viscoelastic rheology in the StagYY code using a tracer-based stress advection scheme that suppresses subgrid oscillations. We apply this code to perform thermal convection models of the cooling planetary mantles and we demonstrate that while the global characteristics of the mantle flow do not change significantly when including viscoelasticity, the stress state of the cold lithosphere may be substantially different. Transient cooling of an initially thin upper thermal boundary layer results in a complex layered stress structure due to the memory effects of viscoelastic rheology. The stress state of the lid may thus contain a record of the planetary thermal evolution.
The dynamic aspects of thermo-elasto-viscoplastic snap-through and creep buckling phenomena
Riff, R.; Simitses, G. J.
1987-01-01
Use of a mathematical model and solution methodology, to examine dynamic buckling and dynamic postbuckling behavior of shallow arches and spherical caps made of a realistic material and undergoing non-isothermal, elasto-viscoplastic deformation was examined. Thus, geometric as well as material type nonlinearities of higher order are included in this analysis. The dynamic stability problem is studied under impulsive loading and suddenly applied loading with loads of constant magnitude and infinite duration. A finite element model was derived directly from the incrementally formulated nonlinear shell equations, by using a tensor-oriented procedure. As an example of the results, the time history of the midspan displacement of a damped shallow circular arch is presented.
Weickenmeier, J; Jabareen, M
2014-11-01
The characteristic highly nonlinear, time-dependent, and often inelastic material response of soft biological tissues can be expressed in a set of elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations. The specific elastic-viscoplastic model for soft tissues proposed by Rubin and Bodner (2002) is generalized with respect to the constitutive equations for the scalar quantity of the rate of inelasticity and the hardening parameter in order to represent a general framework for elastic-viscoplastic models. A strongly objective integration scheme and a new mixed finite element formulation were developed based on the introduction of the relative deformation gradient-the deformation mapping between the last converged and current configurations. The numerical implementation of both the generalized framework and the specific Rubin and Bodner model is presented. As an example of a challenging application of the new model equations, the mechanical response of facial skin tissue is characterized through an experimental campaign based on the suction method. The measurement data are used for the identification of a suitable set of model parameters that well represents the experimentally observed tissue behavior. Two different measurement protocols were defined to address specific tissue properties with respect to the instantaneous tissue response, inelasticity, and tissue recovery.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吕海炜; 李映辉; 李中华; 李亮
2013-01-01
Based on the Kelvin-Voigt constitutive law, the governing equations for the flutter vibration of the viscoelastic sandwich panel are established with consideration of the von-Karmen thin plate large deflection and the nonlinear piston theory. By using the method of the Galerkin truncation, the nonlinear dynamical characteristics of the viscoelastic sandwich panel under the supersonic flow and with the simple supports on four sides are analyzed. For the equation of the first-order Galerkin truncation, the equilibrium of the system and its stability are studied, the critical flow of the static bifurcation is obtained; for the equation of the second-order Galerkin truncation, the critical flow of the Hopf bifurcation is obtained by applying the Hopf bifurcation criterion, the dynamical behavior with the varying flow conditions is observed by employing the diagram of the response and phase portrait.%基于Kelvin-Voigt黏弹性本构模型、von-Karmen薄板大变形理论和三阶气动力活塞理论建立了三维黏弹性夹层壁板的气动弹性颤振方程.使用Galerkin截断方法,对超声速气流下,四边简支黏弹性夹层壁板颤振的非线性特性进行了研究.对于非线性一阶截断方程,研究了它的平衡点及稳定性随来流速度的变化情况,得到了系统发生静态分叉时的临界速度；对于非线性二阶截断方程,使用数值仿真分析方法,得到了系统发生Hopf分叉时的临界速度,并利用响应、相图等手段研究得到黏弹性夹层板随来流速度变化的动力学特性.
Akherat, S M Javid Mahmoudzadeh
2016-01-01
Considerations on implementation of the stress-strain constitutive relations applied in Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of cardiovascular flows have been addressed extensively in the literature. However, the matter is yet controversial. The author suggests that the choice of non-Newtonian models and the consideration of non-Newtonian assumption versus the Newtonian assumption is very application oriented and cannot be solely dependent on the vessel size. In the presented work, where a renal disease patient-specific geometry is used, the non-Newtonian effects manifest insignificant, while the vessel is considered to be medium to small which, according to the literature, suggest a strict use of non-Newtonian formulation. The insignificance of the non-Newtonian effects specially manifests in Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along the walls of the numerical domain, where the differences between Newtonian calculated WSS and non-Newtonian calculated WSS is barely visible.
Viscoelastic properties of cellular polypropylene ferroelectrets
Gaal, Mate; Bovtun, Viktor; Stark, Wolfgang; Erhard, Anton; Yakymenko, Yuriy; Kreutzbruck, Marc
2016-03-01
Viscoelastic properties of cellular polypropylene ferroelectrets (PP FEs) were studied at low frequencies (0.3-33 Hz) by dynamic mechanical analysis and at high frequencies (250 kHz) by laser Doppler vibrometry. Relaxation behavior of the in-plane Young's modulus ( Y11 ' ˜ 1500 MPa at room temperature) was observed and attributed to the viscoelastic response of polypropylene matrix. The out-of-plane Young's modulus is very small ( Y33 ' ≈ 0.1 MPa) at low frequencies, frequency- and stress-dependent, evidencing nonlinear viscoelastic response of PP FEs. The high-frequency mechanical response of PP FEs is shown to be linear viscoelastic with Y33 ' ≈ 0.8 MPa. It is described by thickness vibration mode and modeled as a damped harmonic oscillator with one degree of freedom. Frequency dependence of Y33 * in the large dynamic strain regime is described by the broad Cole-Cole relaxation with a mean frequency in kHz range attributed to the dynamics of the air flow between partially closed air-filled voids in PP FEs. Switching-off the relaxation contribution causes dynamic crossover from the nonlinear viscoelastic regime at low frequencies to the linear viscoelastic regime at high frequencies. In the small strain regime, contribution of the air flow seems to be insignificant and the power-law response, attributed to the mechanics of polypropylene cell walls and closed air voids, dominates in a broad frequency range. Mechanical relaxation caused by the air flow mechanism takes place in the sound and ultrasound frequency range (10 Hz-1 MHz) and, therefore, should be taken into account in ultrasonic applications of the PP FEs deal with strong exciting or receiving signals.
Buckling and Multiple Equilibrium States of Viscoelastic Rectangular Plates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
On the basis of Karman's theory of thin plates with large deflection, the Boltzmann law on linear viscoelastic materials and the mathematical model of dynamic analysis on viscoelastic thin plates, a set of nonlinear integro-partial-differential equations is first presented by means of a structural function introduced in this paper. Then,by using the Galerkin technique in spatial field and a backward difference scheme in temporal field, the set of nonlinear integro-partial-differential equations reduces to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations. After solving the algebraic equations, the buckling behavior and multiple equilibrium states can be obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roussette, S
2005-05-15
The description of the overall behavior of nonlinear materials with nonlinear dissipative phases requires an infinity of internal variables. An approximate model involving only a finite number of internal variables, Nonuniform Transformation Field Analysis, is obtained by considering a decomposition of these variables on a finite set of nonuniform transformation fields, called plastic modes. The method is initially developed for incompressible elasto viscoplastic materials. Karhunen-Loeve expansion is proposed to optimize the plastic modes. Then the method is extended to porous elasto viscoplastic materials. Finally the transformation field analysis, developed by Dvorak, is applied to nuclear fuels MOX. This method enables to make sensitivity studies to determine the role of some microstructural parameters on the fuel behaviour. Moreover the adequacy of the nonuniform method for fuels MOX is shown, the final objective being to be able to apply the model to the MOX in 3D. (author)
Flow of viscoplastic fluids in a rotating concentric annulus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Bittleston, Simon H.
1992-01-01
A difficulty in any flow calculation with viscoplastic fluids such as Bingham fluids is the determination of possible plug zones in which no deformation occurs. This paper investigates the flow in a concentric annulus when there is both an axial and tangential flow, the tangent flow arising from ...
Numerical Modeling of Penetration Into a Compressible Viscoplastic Media
2004-07-22
Noth Holland, 1967 [9] N. Cristescu, On the optimal die angle in fast wire drawing , Journal of Mechanics and Working Technology, 3 (1980), 275–287. 17...Press, New York, (1993). [18] I. Ionescu and B. Vernescu, A numerical method for a viscoplastic problem. An applica- tion to the wire drawing , Int. J
Folding, stowage, and deployment of viscoelastic tape springs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio
2013-01-01
This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the folding, stowage, and deployment behavior of viscoelastic tape springs. Experiments show that during folding the relationship between load and displacement is nonlinear and varies with rate and temperature. In particular, the limit...... deployment and ends with a slow creep recovery. Unlike elastic tape springs, localized folds in viscoelastic tape springs do not move during deployment. Finite-element simulations based on a linear viscoelastic constitutive model with an experimentally determined relaxation modulus are shown to accurately...
Role of viscoelasticity in mantle convection models
Patocka, Vojtech; Cadek, Ondrej; Tackley, Paul
2015-04-01
A present limitation of global thermo-chemical convection models is that they assume a purely viscous or visco-plastic flow law for solid rock, i.e. elasticity is ignored. This may not be a good assumption in the cold, outer boundary layer known as the lithosphere, where elastic deformation may be important. Elasticity in the lithosphere plays at least two roles: It changes surface topography, which changes the relationship between topography and gravity, and it alters the stress distribution in the lithosphere, which may affect dynamical behaviour such as the formation of plate boundaries and other tectonics features. A method for adding elasticity to a viscous flow solver to make a visco-elastic flow solver, which involves adding advected elastic stress to the momentum equation and introducing an "effective" viscosity has been proposed (e.g. Moresi, 2002). The proposed method is designed primarily for a regional-scale numerical model which employs tracers for advection and co-rotation of the stress field. In this study we test a grid-based version of the method in context of thermal convection in the Boussinesq approximation. A simple finite difference/volume model with staggered grid is used, with the aim to later use the same method to implement viscoelasticity into StagYY (Tackley, 2008). The main obstacle is that Maxwell viscoelastic rheology produces instantaneous deformation if instantaneous change of the driving forces occurs. It is not possible to model such deformation in a velocity formulated convection model, as velocity undergoes a singularity for an instantaneous deformation. For a given Rayleigh number there exists a certain critical value of the Deborah number above which it is necessary to use a thermal time step different from the one used in viscoelastic constitutive equation to avoid this numerical instability from happening. Critical Deborah numbers for various Rayleigh numbers are computed. We then propose a method to decouple the thermal and
Viscoelastic properties of laryngeal posturing muscles
Alipour, Fariborz; Hunter, Eric; Titze, Ingo
2003-10-01
Viscoelastic properties of canine laryngeal muscles were measured in a series of in vitro experiments. Laryngeal posturing that controls vocal fold length and adduction/abduction is an essential component of the voice production. The dynamics of posturing depends on the viscoelastic and physiological properties of the laryngeal muscles. The time-dependent and nonlinear behaviors of these tissues are also crucial in the voice production and pitch control theories. The lack of information on some of these muscles such as posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA), lateral cricoarytenoid muscle (LCA), and intraarytenoid muscle (IA) was the major incentive for this study. Samples of PCA and LCA muscles were made from canine larynges and mounted on a dual-servo system (Ergometer) as described in our previous works. Two sets of experiments were conducted on each muscle, a 1-Hz stretch and release experiment that provides stress-strain data and a stress relaxation test. Data from these muscles were fitted to viscoelastic models and Young's modulus and viscoelastic constants are obtained for each muscle. Preliminary data indicates that elastics properties of these muscles are similar to those of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles. The relaxation response of these muscles also shows some similarity to other laryngeal muscles in terms of time constants.
Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold
Chan, Roger W.
2004-05-01
The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.
Stress Resultant Based Elasto-Viscoplastic Thick Shell Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pawel Woelke
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The current paper presents enhancement introduced to the elasto-viscoplastic shell formulation, which serves as a theoretical base for the finite element code EPSA (Elasto-Plastic Shell Analysis [1–3]. The shell equations used in EPSA are modified to account for transverse shear deformation, which is important in the analysis of thick plates and shells, as well as composite laminates. Transverse shear forces calculated from transverse shear strains are introduced into a rate-dependent yield function, which is similar to Iliushin's yield surface expressed in terms of stress resultants and stress couples [12]. The hardening rule defined by Bieniek and Funaro [4], which allows for representation of the Bauschinger effect on a moment-curvature plane, was previously adopted in EPSA and is used here in the same form. Viscoplastic strain rates are calculated, taking into account the transverse shears. Only non-layered shells are considered in this work.
Modeling the viscoplastic behavior of Inconel 718 at 1200 F
Abdel-Kader, M. S.; Eftis, J.; Jones, D. L.
1988-01-01
A large number of tests, including tensile, creep, fatigue, and creep-fatigue were performed to characterize the mechanical properties of Inconel 718 (a nickel based superalloy) at 1200 F, the operating temperature for turbine blades. In addition, a few attempts were made to model the behavior of Inconel 718 at 1200 F using viscoplastic theories. The Chaboche theory of viscoplasticity can model a wide variety of mechanical behavior, including monotonic, sustained, and cyclic responses of homogeneous, initially-isotropic, strain hardening (or softening) materials. It is shown how the Chaboche theory can be used to model the viscoplastic behavior of Inconel 718 at 1200 F. First, an algorithm was developed to systematically determine the material parameters of the Chaboche theory from uniaxial tensile, creep, and cyclic data. The algorithm is general and can be used in conjunction with similar high temperature materials. A sensitivity study was then performed and an optimal set of Chaboche's parameters were obtained. This study has also indicated the role of each parameter in modeling the response to different loading conditions.
Topology optimization of viscoelastic rectifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin
2012-01-01
An approach for the design of microfluidic viscoelastic rectifiers is presented based on a combination of a viscoelastic model and the method of topology optimization. This presumption free approach yields a material layout topologically different from experimentally realized rectifiers...
Brittle Solvers: Lessons and insights into effective solvers for visco-plasticity in geodynamics
Spiegelman, M. W.; May, D.; Wilson, C. R.
2014-12-01
Plasticity/Fracture and rock failure are essential ingredients in geodynamic models as terrestrial rocks do not possess an infinite yield strength. Numerous physical mechanisms have been proposed to limit the strength of rocks, including low temperature plasticity and brittle fracture. While ductile and creep behavior of rocks at depth is largely accepted, the constitutive relations associated with brittle failure, or shear localisation, are more controversial. Nevertheless, there are really only a few macroscopic constitutive laws for visco-plasticity that are regularly used in geodynamics models. Independent of derivation, all of these can be cast as simple effective viscosities which act as stress limiters with different choices for yield surfaces; the most common being a von Mises (constant yield stress) or Drucker-Prager (pressure dependent yield-stress) criterion. The choice of plasticity model, however, can have significant consequences for the degree of non-linearity in a problem and the choice and efficiency of non-linear solvers. Here we describe a series of simplified 2 and 3-D model problems to elucidate several issues associated with obtaining accurate description and solution of visco-plastic problems. We demonstrate that1) Picard/Successive substitution schemes for solution of the non-linear problems can often stall at large values of the non-linear residual, thus producing spurious solutions2) Combined Picard/Newton schemes can be effective for a range of plasticity models, however, they can produce serious convergence problems for strongly pressure dependent plasticity models such as Drucker-Prager.3) Nevertheless, full Drucker-Prager may not be the plasticity model of choice for strong materials as the dynamic pressures produced in these layers can develop pathological behavior with Drucker-Prager, leading to stress strengthening rather than stress weakening behavior.4) In general, for any incompressible Stoke's problem, it is highly advisable to
A viscoplastic model of expanding cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martineau, Rick L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
1998-04-01
Magnetic flux compression generators rely on the expansion of thin ductile shells to generate magnetic fields. These thin shells are filled with high explosives, which when detonated, cause the shell to expand to over 200% strain at strain-rates on the order of 10^{4} s^{-1}. Experimental data indicate the development and growth of multiple plastic instabilities which appear in a quasi-periodic pattern on the surfaces of the shells. These quasi-periodic instabilities are connected by localized zones of intense shear that are oriented approximately 45° from the outward radial direction. The quasi-periodic instabilities continue to develop and eventually become through-cracks, causing the shell to fragment. A viscoplastic constitutive model is formulated to model the high strain-rate expansion and provide insight into the development of plastic instabilities. The formulation of the viscoplastic constitutive model includes the effects of shock heating and damage in the form of microvoid nucleation, growth, and coalescence in the expanding shell. This model uses the Johnson-Cook strength model with the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state and a modified Gurson yield surface. The constitutive model includes the modifications proposed by Tvergaard and the plastic strain controlled nucleation introduced by Neeleman. The constitutive model is implemented as a user material subroutine into ABAQUS/Explicit, which is a commercially available nonlinear explicit dynamic finite element program. A cylindrical shell is modeled using both axisymmetric and plane strain elements. Two experiments were conducted involving plane wave detonated, explosively filled, copper cylinders. Instability, displacement, and velocity data were recorded using a fast framing camera and a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Good agreement is shown between the numerical results and experimental data. An additional explosively bulged cylinder experiment was also performed and a photomicrograph of an
A viscoplastic model of expanding cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martineau, R.L.
1998-04-01
Magnetic flux compression generators rely on the expansion of thin ductile shells to generate magnetic fields. These thin shells are filled with high explosives, which when detonated, cause the shell to expand to over 200% strain at strain-rates on the order of 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}. Experimental data indicate the development and growth of multiple plastic instabilities which appear in a quasi-periodic pattern on the surfaces of the shells. These quasi-periodic instabilities are connected by localized zones of intense shear that are oriented approximately 45{degree} from the outward radial direction. The quasi-periodic instabilities continue to develop and eventually become through-cracks, causing the shell to fragment. A viscoplastic constitutive model is formulated to model the high strain-rate expansion and provide insight into the development of plastic instabilities. The formulation of the viscoplastic constitutive model includes the effects of shock heating and damage in the form of microvoid nucleation, growth, and coalescence in the expanding shell. This model uses the Johnson-Cook strength model with the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state and a modified Gurson yield surface. The constitutive model includes the modifications proposed by Tvergaard and the plastic strain controlled nucleation introduced by Neeleman. The constitutive model is implemented as a user material subroutine into ABAQUS/Explicit, which is a commercially available nonlinear explicit dynamic finite element program. A cylindrical shell is modeled using both axisymmetric and plane strain elements. Two experiments were conducted involving plane wave detonated, explosively filled, copper cylinders. Instability, displacement, and velocity data were recorded using a fast framing camera and a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Good agreement is shown between the numerical results and experimental data. An additional explosively bulged cylinder experiment was also performed and a photomicrograph of
Nonlinear rheological models for structured interfaces
Sagis, L.M.C.
2010-01-01
The GENERIC formalism is a formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics ideally suited to develop nonlinear constitutive equations for the stress–deformation behavior of complex interfaces. Here we develop a GENERIC model for multiphase systems with interfaces displaying nonlinear viscoelastic stres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Seung Hee; Kim, Sung Jun; Shin, Eui Sup [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)
2012-03-15
A smart interfacing method based on domain/boundary decomposition is presented for the non-linear analysis of thermo-elastoviscoplastic damage and contact. The smart interfacing method provides adaptive reinterfacing of the subdomains and the interface as a result of changes in the viscoplasticity and damage level. Since the whole domain is divided into subdomains, interface, and contact interfaces, non-linear analyses of the problems can be localized within a few subdomains and on the contact interfaces. For the continuity constraints on the interface and the contact interfaces, a penalty method is applied to the variational formulations and finite element approximations. By applying suitable solution algorithms and adopting the smart interfacing method, the computational efficiency can be considerably improved. The important features of the proposed method were also evaluated through numerical experiments.
A viscoplastic strain gradient analysis of materials with voids or inclusions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Fleck, N. A.;
2006-01-01
A finite strain viscoplastic nonlocal plasticity model is formulated and implemented numerically within a finite element framework. The model is a viscoplastic generalisation of the finite strain generalisation by Niordson and Redanz (2004) [Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 52, 2431...... to the overall yield strength as well as the material hardening. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Viscoelastic properties of oat ß-glucan-rich aqueous dispersions
C-trim is a healthy food product containing the dietary of soluble fiber ß-glucan. The suspension of C-trim in water is a hydrocolloid biopolymer. The linear and non-linear rheological properties for suspensions of C-trim biopolymers were investigated. The linear viscoelastic behaviors for C-trim...
Yielding to Stress: Recent Developments in Viscoplastic Fluid Mechanics
Balmforth, Neil J.; Frigaard, Ian A.; Ovarlez, Guillaume
2014-01-01
The archetypal feature of a viscoplastic fluid is its yield stress: If the material is not sufficiently stressed, it behaves like a solid, but once the yield stress is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. Such behavior characterizes materials common in industries such as petroleum and chemical processing, cosmetics, and food processing and in geophysical fluid dynamics. The most common idealization of a viscoplastic fluid is the Bingham model, which has been widely used to rationalize experimental data, even though it is a crude oversimplification of true rheological behavior. The popularity of the model is in its apparent simplicity. Despite this, the sudden transition between solid-like behavior and flow introduces significant complications into the dynamics, which, as a result, has resisted much analysis. Over recent decades, theoretical developments, both analytical and computational, have provided a better understanding of the effect of the yield stress. Simultaneously, greater insight into the material behavior of real fluids has been afforded by advances in rheometry. These developments have primed us for a better understanding of the various applications in the natural and engineering sciences.
A viscoplastic model for the active component in cardiac muscle.
Rubin, M B
2016-08-01
The HMK model (Hunter et al. in Prog Biophys Mol Biol 69:289-331, 1998) proposes mechanobiological equations for the influence of intracellular calcium concentration [Formula: see text] on the evolution of bound calcium concentration [Formula: see text] and the tropomyosin kinetics parameter z, which model processes in the active component of the tension in cardiac muscle. The inelastic response due to actin-myosin crossbridge kinetics is modeled in the HMK model with a function Q that depends on the history of the rate of total stretch of the muscle fiber. Here, an alternative model is proposed which models the active component of the muscle fiber as a viscoplastic material. In particular, an evolution equation is proposed for the elastic stretch [Formula: see text] in the active component. Specific forms of the constitutive equations are proposed and used to match experimental data. The proposed viscoplastic formulation allows for separate modeling of three processes: the high rate deactivation of crossbridges causing rapid reduction in active tension; the high but lower rate reactivation of crossbridges causing recovery of active tension; and the low rate relaxation effects characterizing the Hill model of muscles.
Modelling long term rockslide displacements with non-linear time-dependent relationships
De Caro, Mattia; Volpi, Giorgio; Castellanza, Riccardo; Crosta, Giovanni; Agliardi, Federico
2015-04-01
Rockslides undergoing rapid changes in behaviour pose major risks in alpine areas, and require careful characterization and monitoring both for civil protection and mitigation activities. In particular, these instabilities can undergo very slow movement with occasional and intermittent acceleration/deceleration stages of motion potentially leading to collapse. Therefore, the analysis of such instabilities remains a challenging issue. Rockslide displacements are strongly conditioned by hydrologic factors as suggested by correlations with groundwater fluctuations, snowmelt, with a frequently observed delay between perturbation and system reaction. The aim of this work is the simulation of the complex time-dependent behaviour of two case studies for which also a 2D transient hydrogeological simulation has been performed: Vajont rockslide (1960 to 1963) and the recent Mt. de La Saxe rockslide (2009 to 2012). Non-linear time-dependent constitutive relationships have been used to describe long-term creep deformation. Analyses have been performed using a "rheological-mechanical" approach that fits idealized models (e.g. viscoelastic, viscoplastic, elasto-viscoplastic, Burgers, nonlinear visco-plastic) to the experimental behaviour of specific materials by means of numerical constants. Bidimensional simulations were carried out using the finite difference code FLAC. Displacements time-series, available for the two landslides, show two superimposed deformation mechanisms: a creep process, leading to movements under "steady state" conditions (e.g. constant groundwater level), and a "dynamic" process, leading to an increase in displacement rate due to changes of external loads (e.g. groundwater level). For both cases sliding mass is considered as an elasto-plastic body subject to its self-weight, inertial and seepage forces varying with time according to water table fluctuation (due to snowmelt or changing in reservoir level) and derived from the previous hydrogeological
Uniform Decay for Solutions of an Axially Moving Viscoelastic Beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelleche, Abdelkarim, E-mail: kellecheabdelkarim@gmail.com [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Mathématiques (Algeria); Tatar, Nasser-eddine, E-mail: tatarn@Kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Saudi Arabia)
2017-06-15
The paper deals with an axially moving viscoelastic structure modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam. The aim is to suppress the transversal displacement (transversal vibrations) that occur during the axial motion of the beam. It is assumed that the beam is moving with a constant axial speed and it is subject to a nonlinear force at the right boundary. We prove that when the axial speed of the beam is smaller than a critical value, the dissipation produced by the viscoelastic material is sufficient to suppress the transversal vibrations. It is shown that the rate of decay of the energy depends on the kernel which arise in the viscoelastic term. We consider a general kernel and notice that solutions cannot decay faster than the kernel.
SOME IMPROVEMENTS IN VISCO-PLASTIC MODEL CONSIDERING DYNAMIC RECRYSTALLIZATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QU Jie; JIN Quanlin; XU Bingye
2004-01-01
Some improvements in Jin's thermal visco-plastic constitutive model considering dynamic recrysytallization is presented in this paper. By introducing the influence of the strain rate on the mobility of dynamic recovery, the improved model can be more smoothly applied to numerical simulation of material flow behaviour and microstructure prediction during hot working. Another improvement is to consider the accumulated dislocation energy in the newly recrystallized grains as a resistance to the driving force of dynamic recrystallization volume. This improvement makes the predicted results of dynamic recrystallization progress agree better with the actual physical process.Finally, some numerical examples are given to show the advantages of the improved model and the ability to predict the dynamic recrystallization.
Calendering and Rolling of Viscoplastic Materials: Theory and Experiments
Mitsoulis, E.; Sofou, S.; Muliawan, E. B.; Hatzikiriakos, S. G.
2007-04-01
The calendering and rolling processes are used in a wide variety of industries for the production of rolled sheets or films of specific thickness and final appearance. The acquired final sheet thickness depends mainly on the rheological properties of the material. Materials which have been used in the present study are foodstuff (such as mozzarella cheese and flour-water dough) used in food processing. These materials are rheologically viscoplastic, obeying the Herschel-Bulkley model. The results give the final sheet thickness and the torque as a function of the roll speed. Theoretical analysis based on the Lubrication Approximation Theory (LAT) shows that LAT is a good predictive tool for calendering, where the sheet thickness is very small compared with the roll size. However, in rolling where this is not true, LAT does not hold, and a 2-D analysis is necessary.
Rolling induced size effects in elastic–viscoplastic sheet metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau
2015-01-01
presented revolves around the rolling induced effect of visco-plasticity (ranging hot and cold rolling) in combination with strain gradient hardening – including both dissipative and energetic contributions. To bring out first order effects on rolling at small scale, the modeling efforts are limited to flat...... sheet rolling, where a non-homogeneous material deformation takes place between the rollers. Large strain gradients develop where the rollers first come in contact with the sheet, and a higher order plasticity model is employed to illustrate their influence at small scales. The study reveals...... that the energetic length parameter has negligible effect on the rolling quantities of interest, while the contribution coming from the dissipative length parameter can be dominant. Considering a slow and a fast moving sheet, respectively, convergence towards the rate independent limit is demonstrated...
Rolling induced size effects in elastic–viscoplastic sheet metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau
2015-01-01
Rolling processes for which the characteristic length scale reaches into the range where size effects become important are receiving increased interest. In particularly, this is owed to the roll-molding process under development for high-throughput of micron-scale surface features. The study...... presented revolves around the rolling induced effect of visco-plasticity (ranging hot and cold rolling) in combination with strain gradient hardening – including both dissipative and energetic contributions. To bring out first order effects on rolling at small scale, the modeling efforts are limited to flat...... sheet rolling, where a non-homogeneous material deformation takes place between the rollers. Large strain gradients develop where the rollers first come in contact with the sheet, and a higher order plasticity model is employed to illustrate their influence at small scales. The study reveals...
Flow of viscoplastic fluids in a rotating concentric annulus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Bittleston, Simon H.
1992-01-01
pressure gradient is small compared to the yield stress of the fluid then the full solution predicts the existence of plugs attached to the outer wall of the annulus. The slot approximation fails to predict this feature. For larger pressure gradients the two solutions are in good agreement. The analytical......A difficulty in any flow calculation with viscoplastic fluids such as Bingham fluids is the determination of possible plug zones in which no deformation occurs. This paper investigates the flow in a concentric annulus when there is both an axial and tangential flow, the tangent flow arising from...... rotation of the inner cylinder of the annulus. The flow is analyzed by considering flow in a slot, for which an analytical solution is given, and by solving the full problem numerically. It is shown that when the boundary is set in motion an applied pressure gradient will always cause flow. If the applied...
Arif, Abul Fazal Muhammad
1991-12-01
The details of formulation, numerical implementation, and evaluation of an implicit finite element procedure for nonlinear problems involving large deformation and/or large rotations is presented. A two parameter family of incrementally objective integration schemes is proposed for the analysis of a hypoelastic model with a broad range of unified rate-dependent viscoplastic constitutive models in large deformation problems. These algorithms are a generalization of the mid-point integration rule. An important step in the solution of nonlinear deformation problems using a Newton-Raphson type of iterative scheme is the calculation of a tangent operator (the so-called Jacobian) by linearizing the involved field equations. Full linearization of the virtual work equation is performed in an updated Lagrangian framework together with a calculation of the consistent linearized material moduli. In general, the reference configuration is updated after each iteration to coincide instantaneously with the present guess of the unknown equilibrium configuration. Another approach is to use the previous equilibrium state as the reference configuration until the new equilibrium configuration at the end of the time step is found. The performance of the family of incrementally objective integration schemes and the two different Jacobians is explored with emphasis on their accuracy and convergence characteristics when large incremental steps are used. Some details of the finite element implementation are given for plane strain and axisymmetric problems and results for several numerical test and practical examples are presented and discussed. Finally, the above computational procedure is extended to problems where the theory of exact kinematics is considered and the hyperelastic approximation is used.
A Rate-Dependent Viscoelastic Damage Model for Simulation of Solid Propellant Impacts
Matheson, E. R.; Nguyen, D. Q.
2006-07-01
A viscoelastic deformation and damage model (VED) for solid rocket propellants has been developed based on an extensive set of mechanical properties experiments. Monotonic tensile tests performed at several strain rates showed rate and dilatation effects. During cyclic tensile tests, hysteresis and a rate-dependent shear modulus were observed. A tensile relaxation experiment showed significant stress decay in the sample. Taylor impact tests exhibited large dilatations without significant crack growth. Extensive modifications to a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model (VEP) necessary to capture these experimental results have led to development of the VED model. In particular, plasticity has been eliminated in the model, and the multiple Maxwell viscoelastic formulation has been replaced with a time-dependent shear modulus. Furthermore, the loading and unloading behaviors of the material are modeled independently. To characterize the damage and dilatation behavior, the Tensile Damage and Distention (TDD) model is run in conjunction with VED. The VED model is connected to a single-cell driver as well as to the CTH shock physics code. Simulations of tests show good comparisons with tensile tests and some aspects of the Taylor tests.
Unsteady Boundary-Layer Flow over Jerked Plate Moving in a Free Stream of Viscoelastic Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sufian Munawar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the unsteady boundary-layer flow of a viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluid over a flat surface. The plate is suddenly jerked to move with uniform velocity in a uniform stream of non-Newtonian fluid. Purely analytic solution to governing nonlinear equation is obtained. The solution is highly accurate and valid for all values of the dimensionless time 0≤τ<∞. Flow properties of the viscoelastic fluid are discussed through graphs.
Lebon, Luc; Limat, Laurent; Gaillard, Antoine; Beaumont, Julien; Lhuissier, Henri; Laboratoire MSC Team
2015-11-01
We have investigated experimentally the properties and stability of viscoelastic curtains, falling from a long thin slot and maintained laterally by two highly wetting wires. We have observed several original facts, compared to the seminal work of Brown and Taylor on Newtonian curtains: (1) The stability with respect to breaking is considerably enhanced by the use of appropriate polymers. Even strange tree-like falling filament structures can be also stabilised, though less interesting for applications. (2) Specific instabilities can be observed, when the amount of polymers is excessive, with spatial and temporal modulations of the coating thickness. (3) Even the base state is modified, and does NOT reduce at large scale to a free fall, even slightly displaced vertically from the expected profile. We present this experimental exploration and also some attempts of analytical modeling based on Rheological theories of complex fluids.
Theory of viscoelasticity an introduction
Christensen, R
1982-01-01
Theory of Viscoelasticity: An Introduction, Second Edition discusses the integral form of stress strain constitutive relations. The book presents the formulation of the boundary value problem and demonstrates the separation of variables condition.The text describes the mathematical framework to predict material behavior. It discusses the problems to which integral transform methods do not apply. Another topic of interest is the thermoviscoelastic stress analysis. The section that follows describes the heat conduction, glass transition criterion, viscoelastic Rayleigh waves, optimal str
Viscoelastic behavior of concrete pile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁科; 唐小弟
2008-01-01
Based on constitutive theory of viscoelasticity,the viscoelastic behaviour of concrete pile was investigated.The influence of viscosity coefficient on the stress,displacement and velocity response was discussed.With the increase of viscosity coefficient,the amplitude of stress wave decreases,and the maximum value of the stress wave shifts to deeper position of the pile.In other words,the viscosity coefficient behaves as lag effect to stress wave.
Moyers-Gonzalez, M.; Frigaard, I. A.; Nouar, Cherif
2010-01-01
Multi-fluid flows are frequently thought of as being less stable than single phase flows. Consideration of different non-Newtonian models can give rise to different types of hydrodynamic instability. Here we show that with careful choice of fluid rheologies and flow paradigm, one can achieve multi-l
Moyers-Gonzalez, M.; Frigaard, I. A.; Nouar, Cherif
2010-01-01
Multi-fluid flows are frequently thought of as being less stable than single phase flows. Consideration of different non-Newtonian models can give rise to different types of hydrodynamic instability. Here we show that with careful choice of fluid rheologies and flow paradigm, one can achieve multi-l
LAMINAR SETTLING OF GLASS BEADS IN VISCO-PLASTIC LIQUIDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikoláš Kesely
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with a determination of the terminal settling velocity of coarse particles in quiescent visco-plastic liquids of Herschel-Bulkley type. Experiments on laminar settling of glass beads of different sizes were conducted in transparent Carbopol solutions of various rheological properties in a sedimentation column. The terminal settling velocity of a solitude bead was determined together with the rheological parameters of the Carbopol liquid. An evaluation of the experimental results confirms the existence of the laminar regime for all tests and compares the measured velocities with predictions by Wilson et al. method. Furthermore, an alternative method is proposed for a prediction of the terminal settling velocity in the laminar regime which uses a particle-based determination of the strain rate in the expression for the equivalent viscosity. A comparison with our experimental results shows that the predictions using the proposed method agree well with the experiments and the proposed method is in the laminar settling regime more accurate than the Wilson et al. method.
A multiaxial theory of viscoplasticity for isotropic materials
Robinson, D. N.; Ellis, J. R.
1986-01-01
Many viscoplastic constitutive models for high temperature structural alloys are based exclusively on uniaxial test data. Generalization to multiaxial states of stress is made by assuming the stress dependence to be on the second principal invariant (J sub 2) of the deviatoric stress, frequently called the effective stress. If such a J sub 2 theory, based on uniaxial testing, is called upon to predict behavior under conditions other than uniaxial, e.g., pure shear, and it does so poorly, nothing is left to adjust in the theory. For a fully isotropic material whose inelastic deformation behavior is relatively independent of hydrostatic stress, the most general stress dependence is on the two (non-zero) principal invariants of the deviatoric stress, J sub 2 and J sub 3. These invariants constitute what is known as an integrity basis for the material. A time dependent constitutive theory with stress dependence on J sub 2 and J sub 3 is presented, that reduces to a known J sub 2 theory as a special case.
Khan, Fazeel Jilani
The inelastic deformation of six engineering polymers has been investigated with the desideratum being a thorough mapping of the mechanical response characteristics and the subsequent application of a state-variable based constitutive material model to the data. Materials included in the investigation were polycarbonate (PC), Nylon 66, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethersulfone (PES) and polyphenylene oxide (PPO). Cylindrical specimens were machined from as-received rod stock. The use of a servo-hydraulic test frame with control mode switching capability has permitted data collection under strain and load controlled test configurations. In the region of homogeneous deformation with strain typically less than 10%, during loading all materials have been found to exhibit, (i) positive non-linear rate sensitivity in loading, (ii) the magnitude of the response in creep, relaxation and recovery tests varies non-linearly with changes in the prior loading rate, and (iii) in the inelastic flow region the stress drop in relaxation has been found to be independent of the test strain value. In addition to these findings, perhaps the most singular deformation response has been in the instance of relaxation (creep) during unloading when the rate of change of stress (strain) may undergo a change in sign. This phenomenon has been labeled 'rate reversal' and has surfaced in tensile and compression load conditions. The preponderance of data, therefore, suggests that the amorphous versus crystalline distinction does not largely manifest itself in the qualitative nature of the deformation behavior. This finding endorses the competence of macro-based models to undertake the task of polymer deformation modeling. Common response characteristics such as positive strain rate sensitivity, monotonic decreases in the stress magnitude in a relaxation test (strain hold), and response during creep have been modeled well with the existing viscoplasticity
Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harry H. Hilton
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.
Effect of viscoplasticity on ignition sensitivity of an HMX based PBX
Hardin, D. Barrett; Zhou, Min
2017-01-01
The effect of viscoplastic deformation of the energetic component (HMX) on the mechanical, thermal, and ignition responses of a two-phase (HMX and Estane) PBX is analyzed. PBX microstructures are subjected to impact loading from a constant velocity piston traveling at a rate of 50 to 200 m/s. The analysis uses a 2D cohesive finite element framework, the focus of which is to evaluate the relative ignition sensitivity of the materials to determine the effect of the viscoplasticity of HMX on the responses. To delineate this effect, two sets of calculations are carried out; one set assumes the HMX grains are fully hyperelastic, and the other set assumes the HMX grains are elastic-viscoplastic. Results show that PBX specimens with elastic-viscoplastic HMX grains experience lower average and peak temperature rises, and as a result, show lower numbers of hotspots. An ignition criterion based on a criticality threshold obtained from chemical kinetics is used to quantify the ignition behavior of the materials. The criterion focuses on hotspot size and temperature to determine if a hotspot will undergo thermal runaway. It is found that the viscoplasticity of HMX increases the minimum load duration, mean load duration, threshold loading velocity, and total input energy required for ignition.
Effect of Viscoplasticity on Ignition Sensitivity of an HMX-Based PBX
Hardin, D. Barrett; Zhou, Min
2015-06-01
The effect of viscoplastic deformation of the energetic component (HMX) on the mechanical, thermal, and ignition responses of a two-phase (HMX and Estane) PBX is analyzed. PBX microstructures are subjected to impact loading from a constant velocity piston traveling at a rate of 50 to 200 m/s. The analysis uses a 2D cohesive finite element framework. The focus of is to evaluate the relative ignition sensitivity of the materials to determine the effect of the viscoplasticity of HMX on the responses. To delineate this effect, two sets of calculations are carried out, one set assumes the HMX grains are fully hyperelastic and the other set assumes the HMX grains are elastic-viscoplastic. Results show that PBX specimens with elastic-viscoplastic HMX grains experience lower average and peak temperature rises, and as a result, show lower numbers of hotspots. An ignition criterion based on a criticality threshold obtained from chemical kinetics is used to quantify the ignition behavior of the materials. The criterion focuses on hotspot size and temperature to determine if a hotspot will undergo thermal runaway. It is found that the viscoplasticity of HMX increases the minimum load duration, mean load duration, threshold loading velocity, and total input energy required for ignition.
Modelling the time dependent movements of the La Saxe Rockslide by a dynamic visco-plastic model
Battista Crosta, Giovanni; di Prisco, Claudio; Castellanza, Riccardo; Frattini, Paolo; Agliardi, Federico; Frigerio, Gabriele
2013-04-01
A challenging issue in geological and geotechnical problems associated with slope stability concerns the analysis of sliding masses subject to continuous slow movements and intermittent stages of slowing and accelerating motion. In this work an attempt for simulating and forecasting the movement of the La Saxe rockslide (Aosta valley; Italian Western Alps; volume: about 8*10e6 m3) will be shown. The La Saxe rockslide movement could be interpreted as the result of two specific behaviours: i) a continuous creep-like movement occurring independently on groundwater conditions, even under dry-winter conditions, when the water table is mainly below or close to the failure surface; ii) a superimposed acceleration-exhaustion trend, occurring during the snow melting period (late spring-early summer) and directly related to the associated water table fluctuations, which disappears when the water inputs are reduced (late summer and winter conditions). A reliable, monitoring-driven approach to model such rockslide behaviour should account for: a) the time-dependent behaviour by means of a viscous-plastic constitutive law reproducing the creep behaviour; b) the water table fluctuation as main input to reproduce the late spring - early summer acceleration; c) 3D rockslide behaviour maintaining at the same time an high level of simplicity so to allow implementation within EWS (Early Warning System) for risk management. To this purpose a 1D pseudo-dynamic visco-plastic Newmark approach, based on Perzyna's theory (Secondi et. al 2011) has been applied. Newmark's approach considers the slope as a rigid block placed in the centre of mass of the rock slide, where the active forces are: the landslide weight, the inertial forces and the seepage force deriving from the water table level which is a function of time. All the non-linearities are condensed in an interface thin layer between the rigid block and the bedrock, whose mechanical response is assumed to be visco-plastic. In order to
Dynamic Stability of Viscoelastic Plates with Finite Deformation and Shear Effects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李晶晶; 程昌钧; 等
2002-01-01
Based on Reddy's theory of plates with higher-order shear deformations and the Boltzmann superposition principles,the governing equations were established for dynamic stability of viscoelastic plates with finite deformations taking account of shear effects,The Galerkin method was applied to simplify the set of equations.The numerical methods in nonlinear dynamics were used to solve the simplified system.It could e seen that there are plenty of dynamic properties for this kind of viscoelastic plates under transverse harmonic loads.The influences of the transverse shear deformations and material parameter on the dynamic behavior of nonlinear viscoelatic plates were investigated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sedaghatizadeh, N.; Atefi, G.; Fardad, A. A.
2011-01-01
In this investigation, semiempirical and numerical studies of blood flow in a viscoelastic artery were performed using the Cosserat continuum model. The large-amplitude oscillatory shear deformation model was used to quantify the nonlinear viscoelastic response of blood flow. The finite differenc...
Liu, Alan S.; Wang, Hailong; Copeland, Craig R.; Chen, Christopher S.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Reich, Daniel H.
2016-01-01
The biomechanical behavior of tissues under mechanical stimulation is critically important to physiological function. We report a combined experimental and modeling study of bioengineered 3D smooth muscle microtissues that reveals a previously unappreciated interaction between active cell mechanics and the viscoplastic properties of the extracellular matrix. The microtissues’ response to stretch/unstretch actuations, as probed by microcantilever force sensors, was dominated by cellular actomyosin dynamics. However, cell lysis revealed a viscoplastic response of the underlying model collagen/fibrin matrix. A model coupling Hill-type actomyosin dynamics with a plastic perfectly viscoplastic description of the matrix quantitatively accounts for the microtissue dynamics, including notably the cells’ shielding of the matrix plasticity. Stretch measurements of single cells confirmed the active cell dynamics, and were well described by a single-cell version of our model. These results reveal the need for new focus on matrix plasticity and its interactions with active cell mechanics in describing tissue dynamics. PMID:27671239
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiongqi Peng
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a phenomenological thermal-mechanical viscoelastic constitutive modeling for polypropylene wood composites. Polypropylene (PP wood composite specimens are compressed at strain rates from 10−4 to 10−2 s−1 and at temperature of , , and , respectively. The mechanical responses are shown to be sensitive both to strain rate and to temperature. Based on the Maxwell viscoelastic model, a nonlinear thermal-mechanical viscoelastic constitutive model is developed for the PP wood composite by decoupling the effect of temperature with that of the strain rate. Corresponding viscoelastic parameters are obtained through curve fitting with experimental data. Then the model is used to simulate thermal compression of the PP wood composite. The predicted theoretical results coincide quite well with experimental data. The proposed constitutive model is then applied to the thermoforming simulation of an automobile interior part with the PP wood composites.
Lubrication of soft viscoelastic solids
Pandey, Anupam; Venner, Kees; Snoeijer, Jacco
2015-01-01
Lubrication flows appear in many applications in engineering, biophysics, and in nature. Separation of surfaces and minimisation of friction and wear is achieved when the lubrication fluid builds up a lift force. In this paper we analyse soft lubricated contacts by treating the solid walls as viscoelastic: soft materials are typically not purely elastic, but dissipate energy under dynamical loading conditions. We present a method for viscoelastic lubrication and focus on three canonical examples, namely Kelvin-Voigt-, Standard Linear-, and Power Law-rheology. It is shown how the solid viscoelasticity affects the lubrication process when the timescale of loading becomes comparable to the rheological timescale. We derive asymptotic relations between lift force and sliding velocity, which give scaling laws that inherit a signature of the rheology. In all cases the lift is found to decrease with respect to purely elastic systems.
Two-phase viscoelastic jetting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, J-D; Sakai, S.; Sethian, J.A.
2008-12-10
A coupled finite difference algorithm on rectangular grids is developed for viscoelastic ink ejection simulations. The ink is modeled by the Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluid model. The coupled algorithm seamlessly incorporates several things: (1) a coupled level set-projection method for incompressible immiscible two-phase fluid flows; (2) a higher-order Godunov type algorithm for the convection terms in the momentum and level set equations; (3) a simple first-order upwind algorithm for the convection term in the viscoelastic stress equations; (4) central difference approximations for viscosity, surface tension, and upper-convected derivative terms; and (5) an equivalent circuit model to calculate the inflow pressure (or flow rate) from dynamic voltage.
Advances in the analysis and prediction of turbulent viscoelastic flows
Gatski, T. B.; Thais, L.; Mompean, G.
2014-08-01
It has been well-known for over six decades that the addition of minute amounts of long polymer chains to organic solvents, or water, can lead to significant turbulent drag reduction. This discovery has had many practical applications such as in pipeline fluid transport, oil well operations, vehicle design and submersible vehicle projectiles, and more recently arteriosclerosis treatment. However, it has only been the last twenty-five years that the full utilization of direct numerical simulation of such turbulent viscoelastic flows has been achieved. The unique characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow are dictated by the nonlinear differential relationship between the flow strain rate field and the extra-stress induced by the additive polymer. A primary motivation for the analysis of these turbulent fluid flows is the understanding of the effect on the dynamic transfer of energy in the turbulent flow due to the presence of the extra-stress field induced by the presence of the viscoelastic polymer chain. Such analyses now utilize direct numerical simulation data of fully developed channel flow for the FENE-P (Finite Extendable Nonlinear Elastic - Peterlin) fluid model. Such multi-scale dynamics suggests an analysis of the transfer of energy between the various component motions that include the turbulent kinetic energy, and the mean polymeric and elastic potential energies. It is shown that the primary effect of the interaction between the turbulent and polymeric fields is to transfer energy from the turbulence to the polymer.
VISCO-PLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR UNIAXIAL AND MULTIAXIAL RATCHETING AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
G.Z.Kang; Q.Gao; J.Zhang
2004-01-01
Based on the experimental results of the ratcheting for SS304 stainless steel, a new visco-plastic cyclic constitutive model was established to describe the uniaxial and multiaxial ratcheting of the material at room and elevated temperatures within the framework of unified visco-plasticity. In the model, the temperature dependence of the ratcheting was emphasized, and the dynamic strain aging occurred in the temperature range of 400-600C for the material was taken into account particularly. Finally, the prediction capability of the developed model was checked by comparing to the corresponding experimental results.
Time-dependent viscoelastic behavior of an LDPE melt
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shuxin Huang; Chuanjing Lu; Yurun Fan
2006-01-01
Two differential constitutive equations,i.e.Giesekus model and Johnson-Segalman model were employed here to predict the time-dependent viscoelastic behavior of an LDPE melt in thixotropy-loop experiments and step shear rate experiment. Multiple relaxation modes were adopted, and the parameters used to describe the nonlinear viscoelasticity in the two models were obtained by fitting the shear-thinning viscosity. The predictions on those transient shear characteristics by the two models are found in qualitative agreement with our previous experiments. Johnson-Segalman model predicts oscillation behavior in the thixotropy-loop and step shear rate experiments, whereas Giesekus model does not. Both models predict higher shear stresses than the experimental data in the case of long time shearing, implying that both models are not able to completely characterize the time-dependent shear stress of the-melt at high shear rate.
Viscoelastic behavior of rubbery materials
Roland, C M
2011-01-01
The gigantic size of polymer molecules makes them viscoelastic - their behavior changes depending on how fast and for how long the material is used. This book looks at the latest discoveries in the field from a fundamental molecular perspective, in order to guide the development of better and new applications for soft materials.
Simulation of Transient Viscoelastic Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole
1993-01-01
The Lagrangian kinematic description is used to develop a numerical method for simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids described by integral models. The method is shown to converge to first order in the time step and at least second order in the spatial discretization. The method...
Simulation of Transient Viscoelastic Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole
1993-01-01
The Lagrangian kinematic description is used to develop a numerical method for simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids described by integral models. The method is shown to converge to first order in the time step and at least second order in the spatial discretization. The method...
Li, Yintang; Wu, Minger
2015-02-01
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) foil has been widely used in spatial structures for its light weight and high transparency. This paper studies short- and long-term creep properties of ETFE foil. Two series of short-term creep and recovery tests were performed, in which residual strain was observed. A long-term creep test of ETFE foil was also conducted and lasted about 400 days. A viscoelastic-plastic model was then established to describe short-term creep and recovery behaviour of ETFE foil. This model contains a traditional generalised Kelvin part and an added steady-flow component to represent viscoelastic and viscoplastic behaviour, respectively. The model can fit tests' data well at three stresses and six temperatures. Additionally, time-temperature superposition was adopted to simulate long-term creep behaviour of ETFE foil. Horizontal shifting factors were determined by W.L.F. equation in which transition temperature was simulated by shifting factors. Using this equation, long-term creep behaviours at three temperatures were predicted. The results of the long-term creep test showed that a short-term creep test at identical temperatures was insufficient to predict additional creep behaviour, and the long-term creep test verified horizontal shifting factors which were derived from the time-temperature superposition.
Steady State Crack Propagation in Layered Material Systems Displaying Visco-plastic Behaviour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau
2012-01-01
The steady state fracture toughness of elastic visco-plastic materials is studied numerically, using both a conventional and a higher order model. Focus is on the combined effect of strain hardening, strain gradient hardening and strain rate hardening on cracking in layered material systems...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zecevic, Miroslav; Pantleon, Wolfgang; A. Lebensohn, Ricardo
2017-01-01
In a recent paper, we reported the methodology to calculate intragranular fluctuations in the instantaneous lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials within the mean-field viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. This paper is concerned with the time integration and subsequent use of ...
Viscoplastic discontinuum model of time-dependent fracture and seismicity effects in brittle rock
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Napier, JAL
1997-10-01
Full Text Available A model is proposed for the direct mechanistic simulation of seismic activity and stress transfer effects in deep level mines. The model uses a discontinuum viscoplastic formulation to relate the rate of slip on a crack to the shear stress acting...
Wang, Mu; Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao; Feng, Yufan; Gao, Jiapeng
2016-11-01
An numerical model considering solder viscoplasticity is developed to analyze the thermal deformation of laser disk with indium bonded. The characteristic of soft bonding material is described using Anand viscoplasticity model. The Finite Element Method analytical results show that the back surface of laser disk with pumping will deform more significantly with time and finally be steady. Correspondingly the refraction power increase gradually and diffraction loss induced by aspherical aberration decrease gradually. Futhermore when pump spot is larger the refraction power and aspherical aberration will change more due to solder viscoplasticity.
Rutting Prediction in Asphalt Pavement Based on Viscoelastic Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nahi Mohammed Hadi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Rutting is one of the most disturbing failures on the asphalt roads due to the interrupting it is caused to the drivers. Predicting of asphalt pavement rutting is essential tool leads to better asphalt mixture design. This work describes a method of predicting the behaviour of various asphalt pavement mixes and linking these to an accelerated performance testing. The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model based on viscoplastic theory for simulating the laboratory testing of asphalt mixes in Hamburg Wheel Rut Tester (HWRT for rutting. The creep parameters C1, C2 and C3 are developed from the triaxial repeated load creep test at 50°C and at a frequency of 1 Hz and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’ s ratio determined at the same temperature. Viscoelastic model (creep model is adopted using a FE simulator (ANSYS in order to calculate the rutting for various mixes under a uniform loading pressure of 500 kPa. An eight-node with a three Degrees of Freedom (UX, UY, and UZ Element is used for the simulation. The creep model developed for HWRT tester was verified by comparing the predicted rut depths with the measured one and by comparing the rut depth with ABAQUS result from literature. Reasonable agreement can be obtained between the predicted rut depths and the measured one. Moreover, it is found that creep model parameter C1 and C3 have a strong relationship with rutting. It was clear that the parameter C1 strongly influences rutting than the parameter C3. Finally, it can be concluded that creep model based on finite element method can be used as an effective tool to analyse rutting of asphalt pavements.
Viscoelastic properties of heavy oils
Rojas Luces, Maria Alejandra
Rheological low frequency measurements were carried out to analyze the viscoelastic properties of four heavy oil samples. At room conditions, the heavy oil samples exhibit non-Newtonian or viscoelastic behavior since they have a viscous component and an elastic component. The latter becomes very important for temperatures below 30°C, and for seismic to ultrasonic frequencies. Above this temperature, the viscous component increases significantly in comparison to the elastic component, and for seismic frequencies heavy oils can be considered as Newtonian fluids. A new viscosity model based on the concept of activation energy was derived to predict viscosity in terms of frequency and temperature for temperatures below 60°C. A new frequency-temperature dispersion model was derived to address the variation of the complex shear modulus (G*) with frequency and temperature for the heavy oil samples. This model fits the data well for seismic and sonic frequencies but it overpredicts G* at ultrasonic frequencies.
Viscoelastic behavior of dense microemulsions
Cametti, C.; Codastefano, P.; D'arrigo, G.; Tartaglia, P.; Rouch, J.; Chen, S. H.
1990-09-01
We have performed extensive measurements of shear viscosity, ultrasonic absorption, and sound velocity in a ternary system consisting of water-decane-sodium di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfo- succinate(AOT), in the one-phase region where it forms a water-in-oil microemulsion. We observe a rapid increase of the static shear viscosity in the dense microemulsion region. Correspondingly the sound absorption shows unambiguous evidence of a viscoelastic behavior. The absorption data for various volume fractions and temperatures can be reduced to a universal curve by scaling both the absorption and the frequency by the measured static shear viscosity. The sound absorption can be interpreted as coming from the high-frequency tail of the viscoelastic relaxation, describable by a Cole-Cole relaxation formula with unusually small elastic moduli.
Dynamical problem of micropolar viscoelasticity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rajneesh Kumar; Suman Choudhary
2001-09-01
The dynamic problem in micropolar viscoelastic medium has been investigated by employing eigen value approach after applying Laplace and Fourier transformations. An example of infinite space with concentrated force at the origin has been presented to illustrate the application of the approach. The integral transforms have been inverted by using a numerical technique to obtain the displacement components, force stresses, couple stress and microrotation in the physical domain. The results for these quantities are given and illustrated graphically.
Near critical swirling flow of a viscoelastic fluid
Ly, Nguyen; Rusak, Zvi; Tichy, John; Wang, Shixiao
2016-11-01
The interaction between flow inertia and elasticity in high Re, axisymmetric, and near-critical swirling flows of a viscoelastic fluid in a finite-length straight circular pipe is studied. The viscous stresses are described by the Giesekus constitutive model. The application of this model to columnar streamwise vortices is first investigated. Then, a nonlinear small-disturbance analysis is developed from the governing equations of motion. It explores the complicated interactions between flow inertia, swirl, and fluid viscosity and elasticity. An effective Re that links between steady states of swirling flows of a viscoelastic fluid and those of a Newtonian fluid is revealed. The effects of the fluid viscosity, relaxation time, retardation time and mobility parameter on the flow development and on the critical swirl for the appearance of vortex breakdown are explored. Decreasing the ratio of the viscoelastic characteristic times from one increases the critical swirl for breakdown. Increasing the Weissenberg number from zero or increasing the fluid mobility parameter from zero cause a similar effect. Results may explain changes in the appearance of breakdown zones as a function of swirl level that were observed in Stokes et al. (2001) experiments, where Boger fluids were used.
Floquet stability analysis of viscoelastic flow over a cylinder
Richter, David
2011-06-01
A Floquet linear stability analysis has been performed on a viscoelastic cylinder wake. The FENE-P model is used to represent the non-Newtonian fluid, and the analysis is done using a modified version of an existing nonlinear code to compute the linearized initial value problem governing the growth of small perturbations in the wake. By measuring instability growth rates over a wide range of disturbance spanwise wavenumbers α, the effects of viscoelasticity were identified and compared directly to Newtonian results.At a Reynolds number of 300, two unstable bands exist over the range 0. ≤ α≤ 10 for Newtonian flow. For the low α band, associated with the "mode A" wake instability, a monotonic reduction in growth rates is found for increasing polymer extensibility L. For the high α band, associated with the "mode B" instability, first a rise, then a significant decrease to a stable state is found for the instability growth rates as L is increased from L= 10 to L= 30. The mechanism behind this stabilization of both mode A and mode B instabilities is due to the change of the base flow, rather than a direct effect of viscoelasticity on the perturbation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Fully coupled heat conduction and deformation analyses of visco-elastic solids
Khan, Kamran
2012-04-21
Visco-elastic materials are known for their capability of dissipating energy. This energy is converted into heat and thus changes the temperature of the materials. In addition to the dissipation effect, an external thermal stimulus can also alter the temperature in a viscoelastic body. The rate of stress relaxation (or the rate of creep) and the mechanical and physical properties of visco-elastic materials, such as polymers, vary with temperature. This study aims at understanding the effect of coupling between the thermal and mechanical response that is attributed to the dissipation of energy, heat conduction, and temperature-dependent material parameters on the overall response of visco-elastic solids. The non-linearly viscoelastic constitutive model proposed by Schapery (Further development of a thermodynamic constitutive theory: stress formulation, 1969,Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997) is used and modified to incorporate temperature- and stress-dependent material properties. This study also formulates a non-linear energy equation along with a dissipation function based on the Gibbs potential of Schapery (Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997). A numerical algorithm is formulated for analyzing a fully coupled thermo-visco-elastic response and implemented it in a general finite-element (FE) code. The non-linear stress- and temperature-dependent material parameters are found to have significant effects on the coupled thermo-visco-elastic response of polymers considered in this study. In order to obtain a realistic temperature field within the polymer visco-elastic bodies undergoing a non-uniform heat generation, the role of heat conduction cannot be ignored. © Springer Science+Business Media, B. V. 2012.
The prediction of long term viscoelastic properties of fiber reinforced plastics
Brinson, H. F.; Dillard, D. A.
1982-01-01
A method for the experimental and analytical accelerated characterization of long term viscoelastic properties is presented. The time-temperature-stress superposition principle (TTSSP) is shown to serve as the basis for determining long term compliance data from short term creep test results. Nonlinear viscoelastic theories are discussed to provide the framework for the mathematically modeling of such a process. A time dependent Tsai-Hill-Zhurkov failure theory is used to determine long term failure properties from short term data. Compliance and failure data are incorporated in an incremental lamination theory to make long term laminate predictions. Comparisons are made between theory and experiment.
A Viscoelastic-Plastic Constitutive Model with a Finite Element Solution Methodology
1978-06-01
the finite element method." Sandia Corporation Report SC-CR-72-3102, Alburquerque, N.Mex., Jan 1972. 9. Hartzman, M., and J. T. Hutchinson. "Nonlinear...Engineering Laboratory. Technical Report R-803: Ice engineering: Viscoelastic finite element formulation, by M. G. Kato-:a. Port Hueneme, Calif., Jan 1974. 22...viscoelastic-plas’tic media, by A. E. Green and t P. . Naghdi. Berkeley, Cal if., Mar 1967. 107 I L•I TT 26. Bazant , Z. P. "Endochronic theory of inelasticity
Prediction of the nonlinear creep deformation of plastic products
Spoormaker, Jan; Skrypnyk, Ihor; Heidweiller, Anton
2015-01-01
Based on an example of the non-linear creep deformations of an air inlet, thispaper demonstrates modern capabilities in the FEA modeling of complex 3D visco-elastic deformations in relation to the design of plastic products. The importance of such capabilities for designing complex plastic components is discussed. Because commercial FEA packages do not yet render these capabilities "off the shelf", the non-linear visco-elasticity model is incorporated through a user subroutine. The specifics ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Neng-hui; WANG Jian-jun; CHENG Chang-jun
2007-01-01
Under the consideration of harmonic fluctuations of initial tension and axially velocity, a nonlinear governing equation for transverse vibration of an axially accelerating string is set up by using the equation of motion for a 3-dimensional deformable body with initial stresses. The Kelvin model is used to describe viscoelastic behaviors of the material. The basis function of the complex-mode Galerkin method for axially accelerating nonlinear strings is constructed by using the modal function of linear moving strings with constant axially transport velocity. By the constructed basis functions, the application of the complex-mode Galerkin method in nonlinear vibration analysis of an axially accelerating viscoelastic string is investigated. Numerical results show that the convergence velocity of the complex-mode Galerkin method is higher than that of the real-mode Galerkin method for a variable coefficient gyroscopic system.
Akbarov, Surkay
2013-01-01
This book investigates stability loss and buckling delamination problems of the viscoelastic composite materials and structural members made from these materials within the framework of the Three-Dimensional Linearized Theory of Stability (TDLTS). The investigation of stability loss problems is based on the study of an evolution of the initial infinitesimal imperfection in the structure of the material or of the structural members with time (for viscoelastic composites) or with external compressing forces (for elastic composites). This study is made within the scope of the Three-Dimensional Geometrically Non-Linear Theory of the Deformable Solid Body Mechanics. The solution to the corresponding boundary-value problems is presented in the series form in a small parameter which characterizes the degree of the initial imperfection. The boundary form perturbation technique is employed and nonlinear problems for the domains bounded by noncanonical surfaces are reduced to the same nonlinear problem for the correspo...
Propagation of acoustic wave in viscoelastic medium permeated with air bubbles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liang Bin; Zhu Zhe-Min; Cheng Jian-Chun
2006-01-01
Based on the modification of the radial pulsation equation of an individual bubble, an effective medium method (EMM) is presented for studying propagation of linear and nonlinear longitudinal acoustic waves in viscoelastic medium permeated with air bubbles. A classical theory developed previously by Gaunaurd (Gaunaurd GC and (U)berall H, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1978; 63: 1699-1711) is employed to verify the EMM under linear approximation by comparing the dynamic (i.e. frequency-dependent) effective parameters, and an excellent agreement is obtained. The propagation of longitudinal waves is hereby studied in detail. The results illustrate that the nonlinear pulsation of bubbles serves as the source of second harmonic wave and the sound energy has the tendency to be transferred to second harmonic wave. Therefore the sound attenuation and acoustic nonlinearity of the viscoelastic matrix are remarkably enhanced due to the system's resonance induced by the existence of bubbles.
Axisymmetric Granular Collapse: A Transient 3D Flow Test of Viscoplasticity
Lacaze, Laurent; Kerswell, Rich R.
2009-03-01
A viscoplastic continuum theory has recently been proposed to model dense, cohesionless granular flows [P. Jop , Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 441, 727 (2006)10.1038/nature04801]. We confront this theory for the first time with a transient, three-dimensional flow situation—the simple collapse of a cylinder of granular matter onto a horizontal plane—by extracting stress and strain rate tensors directly from soft particle simulations. These simulations faithfully reproduce the different flow regimes and capture the observed scaling laws for the final deposit. Remarkably, the theoretical hypothesis that there is a simple stress-strain rate tensorial relationship does seem to hold across the whole flow even close to the rough boundary provided the flow is dense enough. These encouraging results suggest viscoplastic theory is more generally applicable to transient, multidirectional, dense flows and open the way for quantitative predictions in real applications.
Development of a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on classical plasticity theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUAN Ping; LIU ChangChun; L(U) HeXiang
2009-01-01
The traditional unified viscoplasticity constitutive model can be only applied to metal materials. The study of the unified constitutive theory for metal materials has discovered the correlation between the classical plasticity theory and the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, thus leading to the con-cepts of the classic plastic potential and yield surface in the unified constitutive model. Moreover, this research has given the continuous expression of the classical plastic multiplier and presented the corresponding constructive method, which extends its physical significance and lays down a good foundation for the application of the unified constitutive theory to the material analysis in more fields.This paper also introduces the unified constitutive model for metal materials and geo-materials. The numerical simulation indicates that the construction should be both reasonable and practical.
Development of a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on classical plasticity theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The traditional unified viscoplasticity constitutive model can be only applied to metal materials.The study of the unified constitutive theory for metal materials has discovered the correlation between the classical plasticity theory and the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model,thus leading to the con-cepts of the classic plastic potential and yield surface in the unified constitutive model.Moreover,this research has given the continuous expression of the classical plastic multiplier and presented the corresponding constructive method,which extends its physical significance and lays down a good foundation for the application of the unified constitutive theory to the material analysis in more fields.This paper also introduces the unified constitutive model for metal materials and geo-materials.The numerical simulation indicates that the construction should be both reasonable and practical.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Chung Wu
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentação do teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura para o estudo da resistência intrínseca de material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não-linear representado neste trabalho por segmento íntegro de cólon descendente de rato. Métodos: Implementação do teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura e do Sistema de Aquisição e Análise de dados Biomecânicos - SABI 2.0. Para esse fim, foram utilizados conceitos físico-mecânicos, computacionais e biomecânicos e como corpos de teste, 15 espécimes de cólon descendente de ratos. Resultados: O teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura permitiu o cálculo da energia total acumulada necessária para promover a ruptura dos corpos de prova durante os ensaios mecânicos. Por meio da automatização e gerenciamento da aquisição e análise dos dados capturados foi possível a geração de gráficos e relatórios descritivos e estatísticos. Conclusão: Fundamentado em conceitos físico-mecânicos, computacionais e biomecânicos, o teste Energia Total de Ruptura pôde proporcionar análise matemática do comportamento dos segmentos de cólon descendente de ratos durante os ensaios, demonstrando ser um possível método de medição da resistência intrínseca desse material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não-linear.Purpose: Presentation of the Total Energy of Rupture biomechanical test to evaluate the intrinsic resistance of the rat’s left colon which presents a non-linear viscoelastic property. Methods: Implementation of Total Energy of Rupture test (ETR and the Biomechanical Data Acquisition and Analysis System (SABI 2.0 based on physic-mechanical, computational and biomechanical concepts. Fifteen specimens of Wistar adults rat’s left colon where considered for experiments. Results: Using the TER biomechanical test it was possible calculate the accumulated total energy necessary to promote the specimens rupture during the mechanical trial. It was
Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Eungjun; Kim, Do Hyun; Kwak, Rhokyun
2016-11-01
Dynamics of Newtonian fluid on a non-wettable substrate have been reported, but those of non-Newtonian fluid, especially of viscoplastic fluid showing a yield stress, are not fully characterized yet. Here, we investigate three distinct behaviors of a viscoplastic drop (xanthan gum solution) -rolling, sliding, and sticking- on an inclined superhydrophobic surface with various inclined angles (1-24 degree) and xanthan gum concentrations (0.25-1.5%). At a low concentration of xanthan gum (low yield stress) and/or a high inclined angle (high gravitational stress), the drop rolls down the surface as the gravitational stress exceeds the yield stress. As the concentration increases, and thus the yield stress exceeds the gravitational stress, the drop stays on the surface like a solid (sticking). However, if we adjust the gravitational stress to induce an adhesive failure between the xanthan gum drop and the surface (but still lower than the yield stress), the drop slides down the surface without rolling. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct characterization of the behavior of the viscoplastic drops on an inclined surface considering gravitational stress, yield stress, and adhesive failure.
Efficient numerical schemes for viscoplastic avalanches. Part 1: The 1D case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernández-Nieto, Enrique D., E-mail: edofer@us.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Avda, Reina Mercedes, s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Gallardo, José M., E-mail: jmgallardo@uma.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad de Málaga, F. Ciencias, Campus Teatinos S/N (Spain); Vigneaux, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Vigneaux@math.cnrs.fr [Unitée de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)
2014-05-01
This paper deals with the numerical resolution of a shallow water viscoplastic flow model. Viscoplastic materials are characterized by the existence of a yield stress: below a certain critical threshold in the imposed stress, there is no deformation and the material behaves like a rigid solid, but when that yield value is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. In the context of avalanches, it means that after going down a slope, the material can stop and its free surface has a non-trivial shape, as opposed to the case of water (Newtonian fluid). The model involves variational inequalities associated with the yield threshold: finite-volume schemes are used together with duality methods (namely Augmented Lagrangian and Bermúdez–Moreno) to discretize the problem. To be able to accurately simulate the stopping behavior of the avalanche, new schemes need to be designed, involving the classical notion of well-balancing. In the present context, it needs to be extended to take into account the viscoplastic nature of the material as well as general bottoms with wet/dry fronts which are encountered in geophysical geometries. We derived such schemes and numerical experiments are presented to show their performances.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
毛在砂; 杨超; Vassilios C. Kelessidis
2012-01-01
Numerical solution of yield viscoplastic fluid flow is hindered by the singularity inherent to the Herschel-Bulkley model. A finite difference method over the boundary-fitted orthogonal coordinate system is util- ized to investigate numerically the fully developed steady flow of non-Newtonian yield viscoplastic fluid through concentric and eccentric annuli. The fluid rheology is described with the Herschel-Bulkley model. The numerical simulation based on a continuous viscoplastic approach to the Herschel-Bulkley model is found in poor accordance with the experimental data on volumetric flow rate of a bentonite suspension. A strict mathematical model for Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow is established and the corresponding numerical procedures are proposed. However, only the case of flow of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid in a concentric annulus is resolved based on the presumed flow stnicture by using the common optimization technique. Possible flow structures in an eccentric afinulus are presumed, and further challenges in numerical simulation of the Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow are suggested.
Chen, Wen-Yau; Lai, Jeng-You; Young, D. L.
2010-11-01
Asymptotic and transient stability analyses of unbounded uniform granular shear flow at high solids volume fractions were carried out in the paper, based on a model composed of the viscoplastic constitutive law [P. Jop, Y. Forterre, and O. Pouliquen, Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006)] and the dilatancy law [O. Pouliquen et al., J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2006) P07020]. We refer to this model as the VPDL (meaning of the "viscoplastic and dilatancy laws") thereinafter. In this model, dense granular flows were treated as a viscoplastic fluid with a Drucker-Prager-like yielding criterion. We compared our results to those obtained using the frictional-kinetic model (FKM) [M. Alam and P. R. Nott, J. Fluid Mech. 343, 267 (1997)]. Our main result is that unbounded uniform dense granular shear flows are always asymptotically stable at large time based on the VPDL model, at least for two-dimensional perturbations. This is valid for disturbances of layering modes (i.e., the perturbations whose wavenumber vectors are aligned along the transverse coordinate) as well as for nonlayering modes (the streamwise component of the wavenumber vector is nonzero). By contrast, layering modes can be unstable based on the FKM constitutive laws. Interestingly, in the framework of the VPDL, the analysis shows that significant transient growth may occur owing to the non-normality of the linear system, although disturbances eventually decay at large time.
Sensitivity analysis for the dynamic response of viscoplastic shells of revolution
Kulkarni, Makarand; Noor, Ahmed K.
1995-01-01
A computational procedure is presented for evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the dynamic axisymmetric response of viscoplastic shells of revolution. The analytical formulation is based on Reissner's large deformation shell theory with the effects of transverse shear deformation, rotatory inertia and moments turning around the normal to the middle surface included. The material model is chosen to be isothermal viscoplasticity, and an associated flow rule is used with a von Mises effective stress. A mixed formulation is used with the fundamental unknowns consisting of six stress resultants, three generalized displacements and three velocity components. Spatial discretization is performed using finite elements, with discontinuous stress resultants across element interfaces. The temporal integration is performed by using an explicit central difference scheme (leap-frog method) with an implicit constitutive update. The sensitivity coefficients are evaluated using a direct differentiation approach. Numerical results are presented for a spherical cap subjected to step loading, and a circular plate subjected to impulsive loading. The sensitivity coefficients are generated by evaluating the derivatives of the response quantities with respect to thickness, mass density, Young's modulus, and two of the material parameters characterizing the viscoplastic response. Time histories of the response and sensitivity coefficients are presented, along with spatial distributions of these quantities at selected times.
Effect of the Material Parameters on Layered Viscoelastic Frictional Contact Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatin F. Mahmoud
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the design process, one of the main targets is to reduce the peak values of the contact stresses. This can be attained by layering the contacting bodies by layers of different material characteristics. Viscoelastic materials are characterized by either a stress relaxation or a creep deformation; therefore, the contacting bodies can be layered with such materials to attain this target. This paper discusses effects of the material characteristics of viscoelastic layers upon the unbounded contact configuration. Three material parameters are considered: the layer/contact solids stiffness ratio, the delayed/instantaneous elasticity ratio, and the material relaxation time. The results are obtained by using a two-dimensional time-dependent nonlinear computational model, developed by the authors, capable of analyzing quasistatic viscoelastic frictional contact problems.
Tuttle, M. E.; Brinson, H. F.
1986-01-01
The impact of flight error in measured viscoelastic parameters on subsequent long-term viscoelastic predictions is numerically evaluated using the Schapery nonlinear viscoelastic model. Of the seven Schapery parameters, the results indicated that long-term predictions were most sensitive to errors in the power law parameter n. Although errors in the other parameters were significant as well, errors in n dominated all other factors at long times. The process of selecting an appropriate short-term test cycle so as to insure an accurate long-term prediction was considered, and a short-term test cycle was selected using material properties typical for T300/5208 graphite-epoxy at 149 C. The process of selection is described, and its individual steps are itemized.
Aspiration of biological viscoelastic drops
Guevorkian, Karine; Durth, Mélanie; Dufour, Sylvie; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise
2010-01-01
Spherical cellular aggregates are in vitro systems to study the physical and biophysical properties of tissues. We present a novel approach to characterize the mechanical properties of cellular aggregates using micropipette aspiration technique. We observe an aspiration in two distinct regimes, a fast elastic deformation followed by a viscous flow. We develop a model based on this viscoelastic behavior to deduce the surface tension, viscosity, and elastic modulus. A major result is the increase of the surface tension with the applied force, interpreted as an effect of cellular mechanosensing.
Undulatory swimming in viscoelastic fluids
Shen, Xiaoning
2011-01-01
The effects of fluid elasticity on the swimming behavior of the nematode \\emph{Caenorhabditis elegans} are experimentally investigated by tracking the nematode's motion and measuring the corresponding velocity fields. We find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion. Compared to Newtonian solutions, fluid elasticity leads to 35% slower propulsion speed. Furthermore, self-propulsion decreases as elastic stresses grow in magnitude in the fluid. This decrease in self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids is related to the stretching of flexible molecules near hyperbolic points in the flow.
Optimization of Bistable Viscoelastic Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin
2014-01-01
We consider the flow of a viscoelastic fluid in a symmetric cross geometry. For small driving pressures the flow is symmetric, but beyond a certain critical pressure the symmetric flow becomes unstable; two stable asymmetric solutions appear, and forcing of the unstable symmetric flow beyond...... find a design that significantly reduces the driving pressure required for bistability, and furthermore is in agreement with the approach followed by experimental researchers. Furthermore, by comparing the two asymmetric solutions, we succesfully apply the same approach to a problem with two fluids...
Undulatory swimming in viscoelastic fluids.
Shen, X N; Arratia, P E
2011-05-20
The effects of fluid elasticity on the swimming behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are experimentally investigated by tracking the nematode's motion and measuring the corresponding velocity fields. We find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion. Compared to Newtonian solutions, fluid elasticity leads to up to 35% slower propulsion. Furthermore, self-propulsion decreases as elastic stresses grow in magnitude in the fluid. This decrease in self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids is related to the stretching of flexible molecules near hyperbolic points in the flow.
The visco-elastic multilayer program VEROAD
Hopman, P.C.
1996-01-01
The mathematical principles and derivation of a linear visco-elastic multilayer computer program are described. The mathematical derivation is based on Fourier Transformation. The program is called VEROAD, which is an acronym for Visco-Elastic ROad Analysis Delft. The program allows calculation of p
Shape recovery of viscoelastic beams after stowage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwok, Kawai
2015-01-01
The deployment of viscoelastic structures that have been held stowed for a given time duration can be formulated as a viscoelastic boundary value problem in which the prescribed condition switches from constant displacement to constant traction. This paper presents closed-form expressions...
Visco-plastic Lubrication: New Areas for Application
Hormozi, Sarah; Frigaard, Ian
2011-11-01
Stable multi-layer flows can be achieved at high Reynolds numbers by using a yield stress fluids in a lubricating outer layer. These flows have been demonstrated to be linearly and nonlinearly stable as well as observable experimentally; see Frigaard (2001), Moyers-Gonzalez et al. (2004) and Huen et al. (2007). Recently, we have studied these flows computationally in the setting of a Newtonian core fluid surrounded by a Bingham lubricated fluid, within pipe and channel configurations; see Hormozi et al. (2011a) and Hormozi et al. (2011b). The results show that we are able to freeze in non-planar interface and form interesting patterns by retaining an unyielded plug region at the interface. Our studies open up new potential areas for application such as drop encapsulation and near net shape production of multi-layered products with axial variations. We give an overview of experimental results on establishing these exotic patterns.
Instability analysis of cosmic viscoelastic gyro-gravitating clouds in the presence of dark matter
Karmakar, Pralay Kumar; Das, Papari
2017-08-01
A classical formalism for the weakly nonlinear instability analysis of a gravitating rotating viscoelastic gaseous cloud in the presence of gyratory dark matter is presented on the cosmic Jeans flat scales of space and time. The constituent neutral gaseous fluid (NGF) and dark matter fluid (DMF) are inter-coupled frictionally via mutual gravity alone. Application of standard nonlinear perturbation techniques over the complex gyro-gravitating clouds results in a unique conjugated pair of viscoelastic forced Burgers (VFB) equations. The VFB pair is conjointly twinned by correlational viscoelastic effects. There is no regular damping term here, unlike, in the conventional Burgers equation for the luminous (bright) matter solely. Instead, an interesting linear self-consistent derivative force-term naturalistically appears. A numerical illustrative platform is provided to reveal the micro-physical insights behind the weakly non-linear natural diffusive eigen-modes. It is fantastically seen that the perturbed NGF evolves as extended compressive solitons and compressive shock-like structures. In contrast, the perturbed DMF grows as rarefactive extended solitons and hybrid shocks. The latter is micro-physically composed of rarefactive solitons and compressive shocks. The consistency and reliability of the results are validated in the panoptic light of the existing reports based on the preeminent nonlinear advection-diffusion-based Burgers fabric. At the last, we highlight the main implications and non-trivial futuristic applications of the explored findings.
Fessel, Gion; Snedeker, Jess G
2009-10-01
The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate side-chains of small leucine-rich proteoglycans have been increasingly posited to act as molecular cross links between adjacent collagen fibrils and to directly contribute to tendon elasticity. GAGs have also been implicated in tendon viscoelasticity, supposedly affecting frictional loss during elongation or fluid flow through the extra cellular matrix. The current study sought to systematically test these theories of tendon structure-function by investigating the mechanical repercussions of enzymatic depletion of GAG complexes by chondroitinase ABC in a reproducible tendon structure-function model (rat tail tendon fascicles). The extent of GAG removal (at least 93%) was verified by relevant spectrophotometric assays and transmission electron microscopy. Dynamic viscoelastic tensile tests on GAG depleted rat tail tendon fascicle were not mechanically different from controls in storage modulus (elastic behavior) over a wide range of strain-rates (0.05, 0.5, and 5% change in length per second) in either the linear or nonlinear regions of the material curve. Loss modulus (viscoelastic behavior) was only affected in the nonlinear region at the highest strain-rate, and even this effect was marginal (19% increased loss modulus, p=0.035). Thus glycosaminoglycan chains of small leucine-rich proteoglycans do not appear to mediate dynamic elastic behavior nor do they appear to regulate the dynamic viscoelastic properties in rat tail tendon fascicles.
On the prediction of stress relaxation from known creep of nonlinear materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Touati, D.; Cederbaum, G. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)
1997-04-01
A method to predict the nonlinear relaxation behavior from creep experiments of nonlinear viscoelastic materials is presented. It is shown that for given nonlinear creep properties, and creep compliance represented by the Prony series, the Schapery creep model can be transformed into a set of first order nonlinear equations. The solution of these equations enables the obtaining of the nonlinear stress relaxation curves. The strain-dependent constitutive equation can then be constructed for a given nonlinear viscoelastic model, as needed for engineering applications. A comparison example of the calculated stress relaxation curves, with test data for polyurethane demonstrates the very good accuracy of the proposed method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Da Peng; Lei, Yong Jun; Shen, Zhi Bin [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Wang, Cheng Yuan [Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea Wales (United Kingdom)
2017-01-15
Vibration responses were investigated for a viscoelastic Single-walled carbon nanotube (visco-SWCNT) resting on a viscoelastic foundation. Based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model, velocity-dependent external damping and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations were derived. The Transfer function method (TFM) was then used to compute the natural frequencies for general boundary conditions and foundations. In particular, the exact analytical expressions of both complex natural frequencies and critical viscoelastic parameters were obtained for the Kelvin-Voigt visco-SWCNTs with full foundations and certain boundary conditions, and several physically intuitive special cases were discussed. Substantial nonlocal effects, the influence of geometric and physical parameters of the SWCNT and the viscoelastic foundation were observed for the natural frequencies of the supported SWCNTs. The study demonstrates the efficiency and robustness of the developed model for the vibration of the visco-SWCNT-viscoelastic foundation coupling system.
Rotating convection in a viscoelastic magnetic fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pérez, L.M. [Departamento de Fíisica y Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Laroze, D., E-mail: dlarozen@uta.cl [Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Díaz, P. [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Casilla 54 D, Temuco (Chile); Martinez-Mardones, J. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Mancini, H.L. [Departamento de Fíisica y Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain)
2014-09-01
We report theoretical and numerical results on convection for a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid under rotation. The viscoelastic properties are given by the Oldroyd model. We obtain explicit expressions for the convective thresholds in terms of the parameters of the system in the case of idealized boundary conditions. We also calculate numerically the convective thresholds for the case of realistic boundary conditions. The effects of the rheology and of the rotation rate on the instability thresholds for a diluted magnetic suspension are emphasized. - Highlights: • Ferrofluids. • Thermal convection. • Viscoelastic model. • Realistic boundary conditions.
Cake Filtration in Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions
Surý, Alexander; Machač, Ivan
2009-07-01
In this contribution, the filtration equations for a cake filtration in viscoelastic fluids are presented. They are based on a capillary hybrid model for the flow of a power law fluid. In order to express the elastic pressure drop excess in the flow of viscoelastic filtrate through the filter cake and filter screen, modified Deborah number correction functions are included into these equations. Their validity was examined experimentally. Filtration experiments with suspensions of hardened polystyrene particles (Krasten) in viscoelastic aqueous solutions of polyacryl amides (0.4% and 0.6%wt. Kerafloc) were carried out at a constant pressure on a cylindrical filtration unit using filter screens of different resistance.
Transient vibration of thin viscoelastic orthotropic plates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J. Soukup; F. Vale(s); J. Volek; J. Sko(c)ilas
2011-01-01
This article deals with solutions of transient vibration of a rectangular viscoelastic orthotropic thin 2D plate for particular deformation models according to Flügge and Timoshenko-Mindlin. The linear model, a general standard viscoelastic body, of the rheologic properties of a viscoelastic material was applied. The time and coordinate curves of the basic quantities displacement, rotation, velocity, stress and deformation are compared. The results obtained by an approximate analytic method are compared with numerical results for 3D plate generated by FEM application and with experimental investigation.
Transient waves in visco-elastic media
Ricker, Norman
1977-01-01
Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave
Viscoelastic coupling of nanoelectromechanical resonators.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simonson, Robert Joseph; Staton, Alan W.
2009-09-01
This report summarizes work to date on a new collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to utilize nanoelectromechanical resonators designed at Caltech as platforms to measure the mechanical properties of polymeric materials at length scales on the order of 10-50 nm. Caltech has succeeded in reproducibly building cantilever resonators having major dimensions on the order of 2-5 microns. These devices are fabricated in pairs, with free ends separated by reproducible gaps having dimensions on the order of 10-50 nm. By controlled placement of materials that bridge the very small gap between resonators, the mechanical devices become coupled through the test material, and the transmission of energy between the devices can be monitored. This should allow for measurements of viscoelastic properties of polymeric materials at high frequency over short distances. Our work to date has been directed toward establishing this measurement capability at Sandia.
Viscoelasticity of mixed polyacrylamide solution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐丽娜
2008-01-01
The viscoelastic behavior of polyacrylamide solution is crucial for its application in various industries.The mixed polyacrylamide solution was prepared by mixing polyacrylamide with different relative molecular masses according to the defined mass fraction.The viscosity and elasticity of mixed polyacrylamide solution were separately tested with RS150 rheometer and capillary breakup extensional rheometer and compared with those of the single polyacrylamide solution which is directly provided by manufacturer without any mixing.The results indicate that the mixed and single polyacrylamide solutions have the same shear viscosity and intrinsic viscosity.However,some mixed polyacrylamide solutions have higher elasticity than single polyacrylamide solution.The flow resistance of mixed polyacrylamide with higher elasticity is also greater than that of single polyacrylamide solution in porous medium.This paper presents an effective method of mixing polyacrylamides with different relative molecular masses,which can enhance the elasticity of polyacrylamide solution and flowing resistance through porous medium.
Viscoelastic behavior of stock indices
Gündüz, Güngör; Gündüz, Yalin
2010-12-01
The scattering diagram of a stock index results in a complex network structure, which can be used to analyze the viscoelastic properties of the index. The change along x- or y-direction of the diagram corresponds to purely elastic (or spring like) movement whereas the diagonal change at an angle of 45° corresponds to purely viscous (or dashpot like) movement. The viscous component pushes the price from its current value to any other value, while the elastic component acts like a restoring force. Four indices, namely, DJI, S&P-500, NASDAQ-100, and NASDAQ-composite were studied for the period of 2001-2009. NASDAQ-composite displayed very high elasticity while NASDAQ-100 displayed the highest fluidity in the time period considered. The fluidity of DJI and S&P-500 came out to be close to each other, and they are almost the same in the second half of the period.
Modeling electrically active viscoelastic membranes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sitikantha Roy
Full Text Available The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism.
The Effect of Evolving Damage on the Finite Strain Response of Inelastic and Viscoelastic Composites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacob Aboudi
2009-11-01
Full Text Available A ﬁnite strain micromechanical model is generalized in order to incorporate the effect of evolving damage in the metallic and polymeric phases of unidirectional compostes. As a result, it is possible to predict the response of composites with ductile and brittle phases undergoing large coupled inelastic-damage and viscoelastic-damage deformations, respectively. For inelastic composites, both ﬁnite strain elastoplastic (time-independent and viscoplastic (time-dependent behaviors are considered. The ductile phase exhibits initially a hyperelastic behavior which is followed by an inelastic one, and its analysis is based on the multiplicative split of its deformation gradient into elastic and inelastic parts. The embedded damage mechanisms and their evolutions are based on Gurson’s (which is suitable for the modeling of porous materials and Lemaitre’s ﬁnite strain models. Similarly, the polymeric phase exhibits large viscoelastic deformations in which the damage evolves according to a suitable evolution law that depends on the amount of accumulated deformation. Evolving damage in hyperelastic materials can be analyzed as a special case by neglecting the viscous effects. The micromechanical analysis is based on the homogenization technique for periodic multiphase materials, which establishes the strong form of the Lagrangian equilibrium equations. These equations are implemented together with the interfacial and periodic boundary conditions, in conjunction with the current tangent tensor of the phase. As a result, the instantaneous strain concentration tensor that relates the local deformation gradient of the phase to the externally applied deformation gradient is established. This provides also the instantaneous effective stiffness tangent tensor of the composite as well as its current response. Results are given that exhibit the effect of damage on the initial yield surfaces, response and possible failure of the composite.
Nonlinear sequential laminates reproducing hollow sphere assemblages
Idiart, Martín I.
2007-07-01
A special class of nonlinear porous materials with isotropic 'sequentially laminated' microstructures is found to reproduce exactly the hydrostatic behavior of 'hollow sphere assemblages'. It is then argued that this result supports the conjecture that Gurson's approximate criterion for plastic porous materials, and its viscoplastic extension of Leblond et al. (1994), may actually yield rigorous upper bounds for the hydrostatic flow stress of porous materials containing an isotropic, but otherwise arbitrary, distribution of porosity. To cite this article: M.I. Idiart, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).
Leise, Tanya L.
2009-08-19
We consider the problem of the dynamic, transient propagation of a semi-infinite, mode I crack in an infinite elastic body with a nonlinear, viscoelastic cohesize zone. Our problem formulation includes boundary conditions that preclude crack face interpenetration, in contrast to the usual mode I boundary conditions that assume all unloaded crack faces are stress-free. The nonlinear viscoelastic cohesive zone behavior is motivated by dynamic fracture in brittle polymers in which crack propagation is preceeded by significant crazing in a thin region surrounding the crack tip. We present a combined analytical/numerical solution method that involves reducing the problem to a Dirichlet-to-Neumann map along the crack face plane, resulting in a differo-integral equation relating the displacement and stress along the crack faces and within the cohesive zone. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李晶晶; 程昌钧; 张能辉
2002-01-01
Based on Reddy' s theory of plates with higher-order shear deformations and the Boltzmann superposition principles, thegoverning equations were established for dynamic stability of viscoelastic plates with finite deformations taking account of shear ef-fects. The Galerkin method was applied to simplify the set of equations. The numerical methods in nonlinear dynamics were used tosolve the simplified system. It could be seen that there are plenty of dynamic properties for this kind of viscoelastic plates under trans-verse harmonic loads. The influences of the transverse shear deformations and material parameter on the dynamic behavior of nonlin-ear viscoelastic plates were investigated.
Analysis of viscoelasticity of POF gratings in the stress sensing
Luo, Yanhua; Wang, Xin; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Tongxin; Wu, Wenxuan; Peng, Gang-Ding; Zhang, Qijin
2013-11-01
The time-dependent behavior of polymer optical fiber (POF) grating under constant tensile stresses has been studied. We show that the evident time-dependence is due to the viscoelastic nature of POF grating materials that can be described with the Kelvin Model. Based on the Kelvin Model, the time-dependent relationship between the Bragg wavelength shift and stress has been analyzed in detail. The results show that the viscoelasticity has a great impact upon the stress response of POF gratings. With the increment of stress level, the visco response part increases faster than that of elastic response part. Especially, the response and recovery with and without stress can be fitted with dual exponential decay and the time constant of fast response and relaxation is ˜102 s and that of the slow is ˜103 s, which corresponds to the fast and slow movements of polymer segments, respectively. Experiments and regressions also show that the stress sensitivity is observed to be 369 pm/MPa for the immediate response and 598 pm/MPa for response balance, showing high stress sensitivity. All the spring stiffness and dashpot viscosity of Kelvin elements are larger than 1010 Pa and 1013 Pa s. The dashpot viscosity of slow Kelvin element (1014 Pa s) is around one order larger than that of fast Kelvin element (1013 Pa s) with stress. Further analysis demonstrate the response and recovery of POF gratings with and without the stress displays an evident non-linear viscoelasticity, which will bring more complexity for POF gratings in the mechanical sensing applications.
Gomaa, Said Taha Khalil
2000-10-01
This thesis is dedicated to developing the computational procedures required in implementing the finite element method for finite deformation, rate-independent plasticity and finite deformation viscoplasticity theory based on overstress. The classical rate-independent, von Mises plasticity is formulated using both hypoelastic-plastic model and hyperelastic-plastic model. In the hypoelastic-plastic model, a relationship between an objective rate of Kirchhoff stress, based on a new recently proposed logarithmic spin [13], and the elastic part of rate of deformation tensor is postulated. In the hyperelastic-plastic model, the deformation gradient is decomposed into elastic and plastic deformations, a relationship between Kirchhoff stress and the logarithm of the elastic left stretch tensor is used. Numerical procedures for the integration of both models are developed. The isotropic, viscoplasticity theory based on overstress consisting of a flow law and two tensor valued and one scalar valued stress-like state variables is extended to finite deformation. To this end the Cauchy stress rate and the rates of the two tensor-valued state variables are interpreted as Eulerian tensors. The rate of deformation is equal to the sum of the elastic (the rate form of Hooke's law) and the inelastic rate of deformation, which depends on the overstress. The model does not contain a strain like quantity. Two integration schemes are considered: (i) a one step time integration scheme based on the forward gradient approximation and (ii) unconditionally stable implicit integration scheme based on backward Euler. The finite deformation, anisotropic, viscoplasticity theory based on overstress is formulated. A hypoelastic relation between the Lagrangian, rotated, logarithmic Cauchy stress rate and the rotated rate of deformation is used. The deformation induced anisotropy is modeled using a compliance tensor that allowed to grow according to Armstrong-Frederick law for fourth order tensors
Theory of reciprocating contact for viscoelastic solids
Putignano, Carmine; Carbone, Giuseppe; Dini, Daniele
2016-04-01
A theory of reciprocating contacts for linear viscoelastic materials is presented. Results are discussed for the case of a rigid sphere sinusoidally driven in sliding contact with a viscoelastic half-space. Depending on the size of the contact, the frequency and amplitude of the reciprocating motion, and on the relaxation time of the viscoelastic body, we establish that the contact behavior may range from the steady-state viscoelastic solution, in which traction forces always oppose the direction of the sliding rigid punch, to a more elaborate trend, which is due to the strong interaction between different regions of the path covered during the reciprocating motion. Practical implications span a number of applications, ranging from seismic engineering to biotechnology.
Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2013-04-30
Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.
Changes in protein solubility, fermentative capacity, viscoelasticity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
SAM
2014-05-14
May 14, 2014 ... solubility, fermentative capacity and viscoelasticity of frozen dough. In addition to examining ... A dynamic ... ten protein fractions of higher molecular weight and are .... An SE-HPLC system (Varian ProStar equipment, Model.
STUDY ON VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF PAPER COATING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Heng Zhang; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang
2004-01-01
The flow behavior of paper coating is critical to the coating operation. In this work, the influence of the added agents on the flow behavior and the viscoelastic behavior is investigated using rheometer in steady and dynamic oscillatory modes.
Understanding Viscoelasticity An Introduction to Rheology
Phan-Thien, Nhan
2013-01-01
This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity; in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity at a first year graduate level. The main aim is to provide a still compact book, sufficient at the level of first year graduate course for those who wish to understand viscoelasticity and to embark in modeling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. To this end, a new chapter on Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) was introduced which is relevant to model complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed,...
Understanding viscoelasticity an introduction to rheology
Phan-Thien, Nhan
2017-01-01
This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity, in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis of this book is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity. This is a compact book for a first year graduate course in viscoelasticity and modelling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. The Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is introduced as a particle-based method, relevant in modelling of complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed. The third edition has been updated and expanded with new results in the meso-scale modelling, links between...
Dynamic response of visco-elastic plates
Kadıoǧlu, Fethi; Tekin, Gülçin
2016-12-01
In this study, a comprehensive analysis about the dynamic response characteristics of visco-elastic plates is given. To construct the functional in the Laplace-Carson domain for the analysis of visco-elastic plates based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, functional analysis method is employed. By using this new energy functional in the Laplace-Carson domain, moment values that are important for engineers can be obtained directly with excellent accuracy and element equations can be written explicitly. Three-element model is considered for modelling the visco-elastic material behavior. The solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain by utilizing mixed finite element formulation are transformed to the time domain using the Durbin's inverse Laplace transform technique. The proposed mixed finite element formulation is shown to be simple to implement and gives satisfactory results for dynamic response of visco-elastic plates.
Enhanced active swimming in viscoelastic fluids
Riley, Emily E
2014-01-01
Swimming microorganisms often self propel in fluids with complex rheology. While past theoretical work indicates that fluid viscoelasticity should hinder their locomotion, recent experiments on waving swimmers suggest a possible non-Newtonian enhancement of locomotion. We suggest a physical mechanism, based on fluid-structure interaction, leading to swimming in a viscoelastic fluid at a higher speed than in a Newtonian one. Using Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model, we solve for the shape of an active swimmer as a balance between the external fluid stresses, the internal driving moments, and the passive elastic resistance. We show that this dynamic balance leads to a generic transition from hindered rigid swimming to enhanced flexible locomotion. The results are physically interpreted as due to a viscoelastic suction increasing the swimming amplitude in a non-Newtonian fluid and overcoming viscoelastic damping.
OPERATOR-SPLITTING METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OFBINGHAM VISCO-PLASTIC FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This article discusses computational methods for the numerical simulation of unsteady Bingham visco-plastic flow. These methods are based on time-discretization by operator-splitting and take advantage of a characterization of the solutions involving some kind of Lagrange multipliers. The full discretization is achieved by combining the above operator-splitting methods with finite element approximations, the advection being treated by a wave-like equation "equivalent" formulation easier to implement than the method of characteristics or high order upwinding methods. The authors illustrate the methodology discussed in this article with the results of numerical experiments concerning the simulation of wall driven cavity Bingham flow in two dimensions.
Longtime behavior for oscillations of an extensible viscoelastic beam with elastic external supply
Bochicchio, Ivana
2011-01-01
This work is focused on a nonlinear equation describing the oscillations of an extensible viscoelastic beam with fixed ends, subject to distributed elastic external force. For a general axial load $\\beta$, the existence of a finite/infinite set of stationary solutions and buckling occurrence are scrutinized. The exponential stability of the straight position is discussed. Finally, the related dynamical system in the history space framework is shown to possess a regular global attractor.
VISCOELASTIC STRUCTURAL MODEL OF ASPHALT CONCRETE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Bogomolov
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The viscoelastic rheological model of asphalt concrete based on the generalized Kelvin model is offered. The mathematical model of asphalt concrete viscoelastic behavior that can be used for calculation of asphalt concrete upper layers of non-rigid pavements for strength and rutting has been developed. It has been proved that the structural model of Burgers does not fully meet all the requirements of the asphalt-concrete.
Dynamic response of a viscoelastic Timoshenko beam
Kalyanasundaram, S.; Allen, D. H.; Schapery, R. A.
1987-01-01
The analysis presented in this study deals with the vibratory response of viscoelastic Timoshenko (1955) beams under the assumption of small material loss tangents. The appropriate method of analysis employed here may be applied to more complex structures. This study compares the damping ratios obtained from the Timoshenko and Euler-Bernoulli theories for a given viscoelastic material system. From this study the effect of shear deformation and rotary inertia on damping ratios can be identified.
A non-local, ordinary-state-based viscoelasticity model for peridynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitchell, John Anthony
2011-10-01
A non-local, ordinary-state-based, peridynamics viscoelasticity model is developed. In this model, viscous effects are added to deviatoric deformations and the bulk response remains elastic. The model uses internal state variables and is conceptually similar to linearized isotropic viscolelasticity in the local theory. The modulus state, which is used to form the Jacobian matrix in Newton-Raphson algorithms, is presented. The model is shown to satisfy the 2nd law of thermodynamics and is applicable to problems in solid continuum mechanics where fracture and rate effects are important; it inherits all the advantages for modeling fracture associated with peridynamics. By combining this work with the previously published ordinary-state-based plasticity model, the model may be amenable to viscoplasticity problems where plasticity and rate effects are simultaneously important. Also, the model may be extended to include viscous effects for spherical deformations as well. The later two extensions are not presented and may be the subject of further work.
Karimi, Mohammad M.; Tabatabaee, Nader; Jahanbakhsh, H.; Jahangiri, Behnam
2016-11-01
Asphalt binder is responsible for the thermo-viscoelastic mechanical behavior of asphalt concrete. Upon application of pure compressive stress to an asphalt concrete specimen, the stress is transferred by mechanisms such as aggregate interlock and the adhesion/cohesion properties of asphalt mastic. In the pure tensile stress mode, aggregate interlock plays a limited role in stress transfer, and the mastic phase plays the dominant role through its adhesive/cohesive and viscoelastic properties. Under actual combined loading patterns, any coordinate direction may experience different stress modes; therefore, the mechanical behavior is not the same in the different directions and the asphalt specimen behaves as an anisotropic material. The present study developed an anisotropic nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive relationship that is sensitive to the tension/compression stress mode by extending Schapery's nonlinear viscoelastic model. The proposed constitutive relationship was implemented in Abaqus using a user material (UMAT) subroutine in an implicit scheme. Uniaxial compression and indirect tension (IDT) testing were used to characterize the viscoelastic properties of the bituminous materials and to calibrate and validate the proposed constitutive relationship. Compressive and tensile creep compliances were calculated using uniaxial compression, as well as IDT test results, for different creep-recovery loading patterns at intermediate temperature. The results showed that both tensile creep compliance and its rate were greater than those of compression. The calculated deflections based on these IDT test simulations were compared with experimental measurements and were deemed acceptable. This suggests that the proposed viscoelastic constitutive relationship correctly demonstrates the viscoelastic response and is more accurate for analysis of asphalt concrete in the laboratory or in situ.
Karimi, Mohammad M.; Tabatabaee, Nader; Jahanbakhsh, H.; Jahangiri, Behnam
2017-08-01
Asphalt binder is responsible for the thermo-viscoelastic mechanical behavior of asphalt concrete. Upon application of pure compressive stress to an asphalt concrete specimen, the stress is transferred by mechanisms such as aggregate interlock and the adhesion/cohesion properties of asphalt mastic. In the pure tensile stress mode, aggregate interlock plays a limited role in stress transfer, and the mastic phase plays the dominant role through its adhesive/cohesive and viscoelastic properties. Under actual combined loading patterns, any coordinate direction may experience different stress modes; therefore, the mechanical behavior is not the same in the different directions and the asphalt specimen behaves as an anisotropic material. The present study developed an anisotropic nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive relationship that is sensitive to the tension/compression stress mode by extending Schapery's nonlinear viscoelastic model. The proposed constitutive relationship was implemented in Abaqus using a user material (UMAT) subroutine in an implicit scheme. Uniaxial compression and indirect tension (IDT) testing were used to characterize the viscoelastic properties of the bituminous materials and to calibrate and validate the proposed constitutive relationship. Compressive and tensile creep compliances were calculated using uniaxial compression, as well as IDT test results, for different creep-recovery loading patterns at intermediate temperature. The results showed that both tensile creep compliance and its rate were greater than those of compression. The calculated deflections based on these IDT test simulations were compared with experimental measurements and were deemed acceptable. This suggests that the proposed viscoelastic constitutive relationship correctly demonstrates the viscoelastic response and is more accurate for analysis of asphalt concrete in the laboratory or in situ.
Droplet impact on soft viscoelastic surfaces
Chen, Longquan; Bonaccurso, Elmar; Deng, Peigang; Zhang, Haibo
2016-12-01
In this work, we experimentally investigate the impact of water droplets onto soft viscoelastic surfaces with a wide range of impact velocities. Several impact phenomena, which depend on the dynamic interaction between the droplets and viscoelastic surfaces, have been identified and analyzed. At low We , complete rebound is observed when the impact velocity is between a lower and an upper threshold, beyond which droplets are deposited on the surface after impact. At intermediate We , entrapment of an air bubble inside the impinging droplets is found on soft surfaces, while a bubble entrapment on the surface is observed on rigid surfaces. At high We , partial rebound is only identified on the most rigid surface at We ≳92 . Rebounding droplets behave similarly to elastic drops rebounding on superhydrophobic surfaces and the impact process is independent of surface viscoelasticity. Further, surface viscoelasticity does not influence drop spreading after impact—as the surfaces behave like rigid surfaces—but it does affect drop recoiling. Also, the postimpact drop oscillation on soft viscoelastic surfaces is influenced by dynamic wettability of these surfaces. Comparing sessile drop oscillation with a damped harmonic oscillator allows us to conclude that surface viscoelasticity affects the damping coefficient and liquid surface tension sets the spring constant of the system.
Mourad, Hashem M.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Addessio, Francis L.; Cady, Carl M.; Brown, Donald W.; Chen, Shuh Rong; Gray, George T.
2014-05-01
The present paper focuses on the development of a fully implicit, incrementally objective integration algorithm for a hypoelastic formulation of -viscoplasticity, which employs the mechanical threshold strength model to compute the material's flow stress, taking into account its dependence on strain rate and temperature. Heat generation due to high-rate viscoplastic deformation is accounted for, assuming adiabatic conditions. The implementation of the algorithm is discussed, and its performance is assessed in the contexts of implicit and explicit dynamic finite element analysis, with the aid of example problems involving a wide range of loading rates. Computational results are compared to experimental data, showing very good agreement.
Stability of Couette flow past a viscoelastic solid
Hess, Andrew; Gao, Tong
2016-11-01
Soft materials such as polymer gels have been widely used in engineering applications such as microfluidics, micro-optics, and active surfaces. It is important to obtain fundamental understandings of the dynamics of various soft materials when interacting with fluid. Here we investigate the material behavior of a viscoelastic solid film immersed in a simple Newtonian Couette flow. An Eulerian formulation of the Zener model is used to model the solid phase with the surface tension effect. A linear stability analysis is first performed to predict the material instabilities induced by the shear flow field, and provide an analytical basis to the numerical results. The nonlinear fluid/elastic structure interactions are further explored by using the direct numerical simulations. Phase tracking is accomplished through the use of a generalized Cahn-Hilliard model for the surface tension between the gel-like material and the ambient fluid. The coupled Cahn-Hilliard/Navier-Stokes/Zener equations are then solved on a staggered grid through a finite difference method. The results are compared with previous studies for both the hyperelastic and viscoelastic materials.
Ma, J.; Narayanan, H.; Garikipati, K.; Grosh, K.; Arruda, E. M.
The important mechanisms by which soft collagenous tissues such as ligament and tendon respond to mechanical deformation include non-linear elasticity, viscoelasticity and poroelasticity. These contributions to the mechanical response are modulated by the content and morphology of structural proteins such as type I collagen and elastin, other molecules such as glycosaminoglycans, and fluid. Our ligament and tendon constructs, engineered from either primary cells or bone marrow stromal cells and their autogenous matricies, exhibit histological and mechanical characteristics of native tissues of different levels of maturity. In order to establish whether the constructs have optimal mechanical function for implantation and utility for regenerative medicine, constitutive relationships for the constructs and native tissues at different developmental levels must be established. A micromechanical model incorporating viscoelastic collagen and non-linear elastic elastin is used to describe the non-linear viscoelastic response of our homogeneous engineered constructs in vitro. This model is incorporated within a finite element framework to examine the heterogeneity of the mechanical responses of native ligament and tendon.
Analysis of tristable energy harvesting system having fractional order viscoelastic material
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oumbé Tékam, G. T.; Woafo, P. [Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Biomimetics and Prototypes, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé (Cameroon); Kitio Kwuimy, C. A. [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Control, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, Pennsylvania 19085 (United States)
2015-01-15
A particular attention is devoted to analyze the dynamics of a strongly nonlinear energy harvester having fractional order viscoelastic flexible material. The strong nonlinearity is obtained from the magnetic interaction between the end free of the flexible material and three equally spaced magnets. Periodic responses are computed using the KrylovBogoliubov averaging method, and the effects of fractional order damping on the output electric energy are analyzed. It is obtained that the harvested energy is enhanced for small order of the fractional derivative. Considering the order and strength of the fractional viscoelastic property as control parameter, the complexity of the system response is investigated through the Melnikov criteria for horseshoes chaos, which allows us to derive the mathematical expression of the boundary between intra-well motion and bifurcations appearance domain. We observe that the order and strength of the fractional viscoelastic property can be effectively used to control chaos in the system. The results are confirmed by the smooth and fractal shape of the basin of attraction as the order of derivative decreases. The bifurcation diagrams and the corresponding Lyapunov exponents are plotted to get insight into the nonlinear response of the system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Hong-wei; YANG He; SUN Zhi-chao
2006-01-01
Computational stability and efficiency are the key problems for numerical modeling of crystal plasticity,which will limit its development and application in finite element (FE) simulation evidently. Since implicit iterative algorithms are inefficient and have difficulty to determine initial values,an explicit incremental-update algorithm for the elasto-viscoplastic constitutive relation was developed in the intermediate frame by using the second Piola-Kirchoff (P-K) stress and Green stain. The increment of stress and slip resistance were solved by a calculation loop of linear equations sets. The reorientation of the crystal as well as the elastic strain can be obtained from a polar decomposition of the elastic deformation gradient. User material subroutine VUMAT was developed to combine crystal elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model with ABAQUS/Explicit. Numerical studies were performed on a cubic upset model with OFHC material (FCC crystal). The comparison of the numerical results with those obtained by implicit iterative algorithm and those from experiments demonstrates that the explicit algorithm is reliable. Furthermore,the effect rules of material anisotropy,rate sensitivity coefficient (RSC) and loading speeds on the deformation were studied. The numerical studies indicate that the explicit algorithm is suitable and efficient for large deformation analyses where anisotropy due to texture is important.
Relevance of visco-plastic theory in a multi-directional inhomogeneous granular flow
Cortet, P.-P.; Bonamy, D.; Daviaud, F.; Dauchot, O.; Dubrulle, B.; Renouf, M.
2009-10-01
We confront a recent visco-plastic description of dense granular flows (Jop P. et al., Nature, 441 (2006) 727) with multi-directional inhomogeneous steady flows observed in non-smooth contact dynamics simulations of 2D half-filled rotating drums. Special attention is paid to check separately the two underlying fundamental statements into which the considered theory can be recast, namely i) a single relation between the invariants of stress and strain rate tensors and ii) the alignment between these tensors. Interestingly, the first prediction is fairly well verified over more than four decades of small strain rate, from the surface rapid flow to the quasi-static creep phase, where it is usually believed to fail because of jamming. On the other hand, the alignment between stress and strain rate tensors is shown to fail over the whole flow, what yields an apparent violation of the visco-plastic rheology when applied without care. In the quasi-static phase, the particularly large misalignment is conjectured to be related to transient dilatancy effects.
Equilibrium circulation and stress distribution in viscoelastic creeping flow
Biello, Joseph A
2015-01-01
An analytic, asymptotic approximation of the nonlinear steady-state equations for viscoelastic creeping flow, modeled by the Oldroyd-B equations with polymer stress diffusion, is derived. Near the extensional stagnation point the flow stretches and aligns polymers along the outgoing streamlines of the stagnation point resulting in a stress-island, or birefringent strand. The polymer stress diffusion coefficient is used, both, as an asymptotic parameter and a regularization parameter. The structure of the singular part of polymer stress tensor is a Gaussian aligned with the incoming streamline of the stagnation point; a smoothed $\\delta$-distribution whose width is proportional to the square-root of the diffusion coefficient. The amplitude of the stress island scales with the Wiessenberg number and, although singular in the limit of vanishing diffusion, it is integrable in the cross stream direction due to its vanishing width; this yields a convergent secondary flow. The leading order velocity response to this...
Dynamic analyses of viscoelastic dielectric elastomers incorporating viscous damping effect
Zhang, Junshi; Zhao, Jianwen; Chen, Hualing; Li, Dichen
2017-01-01
In this paper, based on the standard linear solid rheological model, a dynamics model of viscoelastic dielectric elastomers (DEs) is developed with incorporation of viscous damping effect. Numerical calculations are employed to predict the damping effect on the dynamic performance of DEs. With increase of damping force, the DEs show weak nonlinearity and vibration strength. Phase diagrams and Poincaré maps are utilized to detect the dynamic stability of DEs, and the results indicate that a transition from aperiodic vibration to quasi-periodic vibration occurs with enlargement of damping force. The resonance properties of DEs including damping effect are subsequently analyzed, demonstrating a reduction of resonant frequency and resonance peak with increase of damping force.
Deformation and relaxation of an incompressible viscoelastic body with surface viscoelasticity
Liu, Liping; Yu, Miao; Lin, Hao; Foty, Ramsey
2017-01-01
Measuring mechanical properties of cells or cell aggregates has proven to be an involved process due to their geometrical and structural complexity. Past measurements are based on material models that completely neglect the elasticity of either the surface membrane or the interior bulk. In this work, we consider general material models to account for both surface and bulk viscoelasticity. The boundary value problems are formulated for deformations and relaxations of a closed viscoelastic surface coupled with viscoelastic media inside and outside of the surface. The linearized surface elasticity models are derived for the constant surface tension model and the Helfrich-Canham bending model for coupling with the bulk viscoelasticity. For quasi-spherical surfaces, explicit solutions are obtained for the deformation, stress-strain and relaxation behaviors under a variety of loading conditions. These solutions can be applied to extract the intrinsic surface and bulk viscoelastic properties of biological cells or cell aggregates in the indentation, electro-deformation and relaxation experiments.
A new numerical framework to simulate viscoelastic free-surface flows with the finite-volume method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
A new method for the simulation of 2D viscoelastic flow is presented. Numerical stability is obtained by the logarithmic-conformation change of variable, and a fully-implicit pure-streamfunction flow formulation, without use of any artificial diffusion. As opposed to other simulation results, our...... calculations predict a hydrodynamic instability in the 4:1 contraction geometry at a Weissenberg number of order 4. This new result is in qualitative agreement with the prediction of a non-linear subcritical elastic instability in Poiseuille flow. Our viscoelastic flow solver is coupled with a volume...
A new numerical framework to simulate viscoelastic free-surface flows with the finite-volume method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2015-01-01
A new method for the simulation of 2D viscoelastic flow is presented. Numerical stability is obtained by the logarithmic-conformation change of variable, and a fully-implicit pure-streamfunction flow formulation, without use of any artificial diffusion. As opposed to other simulation results, our...... calculations predict a hydrodynamic instability in the 4:1 contraction geometry at a Weissenberg number of order 4. This new result is in qualitative agreement with the prediction of a non-linear subcritical elastic instability in Poiseuille flow. Our viscoelastic flow solver is coupled with a volume...
Effects of viscoelasticity on drop impact and spreading on a solid surface
Izbassarov, Daulet; Muradoglu, Metin
2016-06-01
The effects of viscoelasticity on drop impact and spreading on a flat solid surface are studied computationally using a finite-difference-front-tracking method. The finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Chilcott-Rallison model is used to account for the fluid viscoelasticity. It is found that viscoelasticity favors advancement of contact line during the spreading phase, leading to a slight increase in the maximum spreading, in agreement with experimental observations [Huh, Jung, Seo, and Lee, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 18, 1221 (2015), 10.1007/s10404-014-1518-4]. However, in contrast with the well-known antirebound effects of polymeric additives, the viscoelasticity is found to enhance the tendency of the drop rebound in the receding phase. These results suggest that the antirebound effects are mainly due to the polymer-induced modification of wetting properties of the substrate rather than the change in the material properties of the drop fluid. A model is proposed to test this hypothesis. It is found that the model results in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations and the antirebound behavior can be captured by the modification of surface wetting properties in the receding phase.
Calculation of viscoelastic properties of edible films: application of three models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CHANDRA Prabir K.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The viscoelastic properties of edible films can provide information at the structural level of the biopolymers used. The objective of this work was to test three simple models of linear viscoelastic theory (Maxwell, Generalized Maxwell with two units in parallel, and Burgers using the results of stress relaxation tests in edible films of myofibrillar proteins of Nile Tilapia. The films were elaborated according to a casting technique and pre-conditioned at 58% relative humidity and 22ºC for 4 days. The testing sample (15mm x 118mm was submitted to tests of stress relaxation in an equipment of physical measurements, TA.XT2i. The deformation, imposed to the sample, was 1%, guaranteeing the permanency in the domain of the linear viscoelasticity. The models were fitted to experimental data (stress x time by nonlinear regression. The Generalized Maxwell model with two units in parallel and the Burgers model represented the relaxation curves of stress satisfactorily. The viscoelastic properties varied in a way that they were less dependent on the thickness of the films.
Zoback, M. D.; Xu, S.; Rassouli, F.; Ma, X.
2016-12-01
In this paper we extend the viscoplastic stress relaxation model of Sone and Zoback (Jour. Petrol. Sci. and Eng., 2014) for predicting variations of least principal stress with stress and its impact on the vertical propagation of hydraulic fractures. Viscoplastic stress relaxation in clay-rich (or diagenetically immature) sedimentary rocks makes the stress field more isotropic. In normal faulting and strike-slip faulting environments, this causes the least principal stress to increase making such formations likely barriers to vertical hydraulic fracture growth. In order to predict the magnitude of viscoplastic stress relaxation in different unconventional formations, we generalize a constitutive law developed from a wide range of creep experiments in our lab over the past several years and apply it to areas of stacked pay in Oklahoma and Texas. Using frac gradients were measured from minifrac and DFIT (Diagnostic Fracture Injection Test) experiments. The viscoplastic model does a good job of explaining vertical hydraulic fracture propagation, as indicated by the distribution of microseismic events recorded during stimulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Ying Zheng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Through embedding an in-house subroutine into FLUENT code by utilizing the functionalization of user-defined function provided by the software, a new numerical simulation methodology on viscoelastic fluid flows has been established. In order to benchmark this methodology, numerical simulations under different viscoelastic fluid solution concentrations (with solvent viscosity ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.9, extensibility parameters (100≤L2≤500, Reynolds numbers (0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 100, and Weissenberg numbers (0 ≤ Wi ≤ 20 are conducted on unsteady laminar flows through a symmetric planar sudden expansion with expansion ratio of 1: 3 for viscoelastic fluid flows. The constitutive model used to describe the viscoelastic effect of viscoelastic fluid flow is FENE-P (finitely extensive nonlinear elastic-Peterlin model. The numerical simulation results show that the influences of elasticity, inertia, and concentration on the flow bifurcation characteristics are more significant than those of extensibility. The present simulation results including the critical Reynolds number for which the flow becomes asymmetric, vortex size, bifurcation diagram, velocity distribution, streamline, and pressure loss show good agreements with some published results. That means the newly established method based on FLUENT software platform for simulating peculiar flow behaviors of viscoelastic fluid is credible and suitable for the study of viscoelastic fluid flows.
3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.
Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian
2014-10-28
Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.
Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography
Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.
2015-03-01
We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.
Random Response of Linear Viscoelastic Systems under Random Excitation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张天舒; 方同
2001-01-01
A method of analyzing random response of linear viscoelastic systems under random excitation has been presented. The covariance matrices of random responses of a single-degree-freedom linear viscoelastic system subjected to stationary white noise and filtered white noise excitations have been obtained in closed form. For illustration, a numerical example has been included. It is observed that viscoelasticity has damping effect on the mean square random responses of the system, the higher is viscoelastic behavior, the higher the damping effect.
Aftershock production rate of driven viscoelastic interfaces.
Jagla, E A
2014-10-01
We study analytically and by numerical simulations the statistics of the aftershocks generated after large avalanches in models of interface depinning that include viscoelastic relaxation effects. We find in all the analyzed cases that the decay law of aftershocks with time can be understood by considering the typical roughness of the interface and its evolution due to relaxation. In models where there is a single viscoelastic relaxation time there is an exponential decay of the number of aftershocks with time. In models in which viscoelastic relaxation is wave-vector dependent we typically find a power-law dependence of the decay rate that is compatible with the Omori law. The factors that determine the value of the decay exponent are analyzed.
Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K A Suresh
2003-08-01
Viscoelastic properties of liquid crystals are very important for applications like display technology. However, there are not many direct techniques to study them. In this review, we describe our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic modes corresponding to the C director ﬂuctuations in the chiral smectic C phase and the behaviour of the Goldstone-mode near the chiral smectic C–smectic A phase transition. In cholesteric liquid crystals, we consider the director ﬂuctuations in a wavevector range comparable to the inverse pitch of the cholesteric. Here, the study of the scattered light in the vicinity of the Bragg reﬂection using a novel geometry will be presented.
Conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics
Fukuma, Masafumi
2012-01-01
We present a generally covariant formulation of conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics with strain allowed to take arbitrarily large values. We give a general prescription to determine the dynamics of a relativistic viscoelastic fluid in a way consistent with the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. We then elaborately study the transient time scales at which the strain almost relaxes and becomes proportional to the gradients of velocity. We particularly show that a conformal second-order fluid with all possible parameters in the constitutive equations can be obtained without breaking the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium, if the conformal fluid is defined as the long time limit of a conformal second-order viscoelastic system. We also discuss how local thermodynamic equilibrium could be understood in the context of the fluid/gravity correspondence.
Conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2012-06-01
We present a generally covariant formulation of conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics with strain allowed to take arbitrarily large values. We give a general prescription to determine the dynamics of a relativistic viscoelastic fluid in a way consistent with the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. We then elaborately study the transient time scales at which the strain almost relaxes and becomes proportional to the gradients of velocity. We particularly show that a conformal second-order fluid with all possible parameters in the constitutive equations can be obtained without breaking the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium, if the conformal fluid is defined as the long time limit of a conformal second-order viscoelastic system. We also discuss how local thermodynamic equilibrium could be understood in the context of the fluid/gravity correspondence.
Viscoelastic love-type surface waves
Borcherdt, Roger D.
2008-01-01
The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.
Wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sievers, Ryan A.; Mullings, Justin L.
2017-01-10
A wind turbine blade (60) damped by viscoelastic material (54, 54A-F) sandwiched between stiffer load-bearing sublayers (52A, 52B, 56A, 56B) in portions of the blade effective to damp oscillations (38) of the blade. The viscoelastic material may be located in one or more of: a forward portion (54A) of the shell, an aft portion (54D) of the shell, pressure and suction side end caps (54B) of an internal spar, internal webbing walls (54C, 54E), and a trailing edge core (54F).
Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theory of viscoelasticity
Hanyga, A.; Seredyńska, M.
2008-03-01
The viscoelastic relaxation modulus is a positive-definite function of time. This property alone allows the definition of a conserved energy which is a positive-definite quadratic functional of the stress and strain fields. Using the conserved energy concept a Hamiltonian and a Lagrangian functional are constructed for dynamic viscoelasticity. The Hamiltonian represents an elastic medium interacting with a continuum of oscillators. By allowing for multiphase displacement and introducing memory effects in the kinetic terms of the equations of motion a Hamiltonian is constructed for the visco-poroelasticity.
Molecular and structural analysis of viscoelastic properties
Yapp, Rebecca D.; Kalyanam, Sureshkumar; Insana, Michael F.
2007-03-01
Elasticity imaging is emerging as an important tool for breast cancer detection and monitoring of treatment. Viscoelastic image contrast in breast lesions is generated by disease specific processes that modify the molecular structure of connective tissues. We showed previously that gelatin hydrogels exhibit mechanical behavior similar to native collagen found in breast tissue and therefore are suitable as phantoms for elasticity imaging. This paper summarizes our study of the viscoelastic properties of hydrogels designed to discover molecular-scale sources of elasticity image contrast.
Idiart, Martín I.; Lahellec, Noel
2016-12-01
New estimates are derived for the overall properties of linear solids with pointwise heterogeneous local properties. The derivation relies on the use of 'comparison solids' which, unlike comparison solids considered previously, are themselves pointwise heterogeneous. The estimates are then exploited within an incremental homogenization scheme to determine the overall response of multiphase elasto-viscoplastic solids under arbitrary loading histories. By way of example, the scheme is applied to incompressible Maxwellian solids with power-law plastic dissipation; particularly simple estimates of the Hashin-Shtrikman type are obtained. Predictions are confronted with full-field simulations for particulate composites under cyclic and rotating loading conditions. Good agreement is found for all cases considered. In particular, elasto-plastic transitions, tension-compression asymmetries (Bauschinger effect) and stress-path distortions induced by material heterogeneity are all well-captured, thus improving significantly on commonly used elastic-plastic decoupled schemes.
Saleeb, A. F.; Wilt, T. E.
1993-01-01
The mathematical structure underlying the rate equations of a recently-developed constitutive model for the coupled viscoplastic-damage response of anisotropic composites is critically examined. In this regard, a number of tensor projection operators have been identified, and their properties were exploited to enable the development of a general computational framework for their numerical implementation using the Euler fully-implicit integration method. In particular, this facilitated (i) the derivation of explicit expressions of the (consistent) material tangent stiffnesses that are valid for both three-dimensional as well as subspace (e.g. plane stress) formulations, (ii) the implications of the symmetry or unsymmetry properties of these tangent operators from a thermodynamic standpoint, and (iii) the development of an effective time-step control strategy to ensure accuracy and convergence of the solution. In addition, the special limiting case of inviscid elastoplasticity is treated. The results of several numerical simulations are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the schemes developed.
Perfect elastic-viscoplastic field at mode Ⅰ dynamic propagating crack-tip
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhen-qing; LIANG Wen-yan; ZHOU Bo; SU Juan
2007-01-01
The viscosity of material is considered at propagating crack-tip. Under the assumption that the artificial viscosity coefficient is in inverse proportion to power law of the plastic strain rate, an elastic-viscoplastic asymptotic analysis is carried out for moving crack-tip fields in power-hardening materials under plane-strain condition. A continuous solution is obtained containing no discontinuities. The variations of numerical solution are discussed for mode Ⅰ crack according to each parameter. It is shown that stress and strain both possess exponential singularity. The elasticity, plasticity and viscosity of material at crack-tip only can be matched reasonably under linear-hardening condition. And the tip field contains no elastic unloading zone for mode Ⅰ crack. It approaches the limiting case, crack-tip is under ultra-viscose situation and energy accumulates, crack-tip begins to propagate under different compression situations.
ANALYSIS OF SLAB EDGING BY A 3-D RIGID VISCO-PLASTIC FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
3-D rigid visco-plastic finite element method (FEM) is used in the analysis of metal forming processes, including strip and plate rolling, shape rolling, slab edging, special strip rolling. The shifted incomplete Cholesky decomposition of the stiffness matrix with the solution of the equations for velocity increment by the conjugate gradient method is combined. This technique, termed the shifted ICCG method, is then employed to solve the slab edging problem. The performance of this algorithm in terms of the number of iterations, friction variation, shifted parameter ( and the results of simulation for processing parameters are analysed. Numerical tests and application of this technique verify the efficiency and stability of the shifted ICCG method in the analysis of slab edging.
An Extended Chaboche's Viscoplastic Law at Finite Strains: Theoretical and Numerical Aspects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R.C.Lin; W.Brocks
2005-01-01
This paper presents a newly extended Chaboche's viscoplastic law at finite strains, so that the classical Chaboche's theories can be applied to the physical and numerical simulation of metals processing and behavior description of spatial metal structures. The extension is based on a new dissipation inequality at finite strains. The evolution equations are formulated in terms of the corotational rates of the logarithmic elastic strain and the strain-like internal variable conjugate to the back stress as well as the material time derivative of the accumulated plastic strain. The stress equation is expressed on the hyperelastic theory. Therefore, the possible inconsistency with elasticity, caused by the hypoelastic equations, is completely removed. A set of numerical examples with finite deformations are presented to prove the effectivities of the new model and numerical algorithms.
Smart viscoelastic and self-healing characteristics of graphene nano-gels
Dhar, Purbarun; Katiyar, Ajay; Maganti, Lakshmi Sirisha
2016-12-01
Readily synthesizable nano-graphene and poly ethylene glycol based stable gels have been synthesized employing an easy refluxing method, and exhaustive rheological and viscoelastic characterizations have been performed to understand the nature of such complex gel systems. The gels exhibit shear thinning response with pronounced yield stress values which is indicative of a microstructure, where the graphene nanoflakes intercalate (possible due to the refluxing) with the polymer chains and form a pseudo spring damper network. Experimentations on the thixotropic behavior of the gels indicate that the presence of the G nanoflakes leads to immensely augmented structural stability capable of withstanding severe impact shears. Further information about the localized interactions of the G nanoflakes with the polymer chains is revealed from the amplitude and frequency sweep analyses in both linear and non-linear viscoelastic regimes. Massively enhanced cross over amplitude values are recorded and several smart effects such as enhanced elastic behavior at increasing forcing frequencies are registered. Structural resonance induced disruption of the elastic behavior is observed for the gels for a given range of frequency and the proposition of resonance has been justified mathematically. It is observed that, post this resonance bandwidth, the gels are able to self-heal and regain their original elastic behavior back without any external intervention. More detailed information on the viscoelastic nature of the gels has been obtained from creep and recovery compliance tests and justifications for the spring damper microstructure has been obtained. Smart features such as enhanced stress relaxation behavior with increasing strain have been observed and the same explained, based on the proposed microstructure. The viscoelastic response of the gels has been mathematically modeled and it has been revealed that such complex gels can be accommodated as modified Burger's viscoelastic
Bates, Belinda; Ancey, Christophe
2015-04-01
Recently, experiments were designed and carried out examining how a viscoplastic avalanche begins to entrain a shallow layer of identical fluid lying in its path, much like a snow avalanche or mud flow which suddenly encounters an entrainable layer, described as a yield stress material. This represents a simplified problem, investigated in order to gain some physical insight into entrainment by avalanches. These experiments serve as a test for mathematical models of entraining gravity currents. Two classes of entrainment behaviour were observed: either the avalanche ``glided'' out over the entrainable bed, immediately shearing it in the downstream direction and progressively incorporating fluid down to the rigid base, or the avalanche seemed to ``roll'' out onto the entrainable bed, with strong motion in the slope-normal direction in the bed after yield. This difference in behaviour was dictated by the magnitude of the flume's slope. For the steeper flows studied (20 and 24 degrees), entrainment was principally in the former class, whereas for shallower slope angle (12 and 16 degrees) entrainment more closely resembled the latter type. This would suggest that there is a competition between the normal and shear stresses exerted on the bed, with bed-yield and entrainment occurring when these stresses exceed a critical value. An interesting phenomenon that was observed in all cases was a sort of buckling of the bed, downstream of the avalanche front. This was far more significant in the flows down shallower slopes, and regular waves were created in the bed with wavelength dependent on the flow depth. Based on theoretical comparisons with non-entraining Herschel Bulkley flows, the physics of entraining flows are investigated numerically for shallow viscoplastic gravity currents on different slopes. The predictions are compared with the experimental values for velocity field and surface height. The model was successful in reproducing velocities of the correct order, but
Smart viscoelastic and self-healing characteristics of graphene nano-gels
Dhar, Purbarun; Maganti, Lakshmi Sirisha
2016-01-01
Readily synthesizable nano-graphene and poly ethylene glycol based stable gels have been synthesized employing an easy refluxing method and exhaustive rheological and viscoelastic characterizations have been performed to understand the nature of such complex gel systems. The gels exhibit shear thinning response with pronounced yield stress values which is indicative of a microstructure where the graphene nanoflakes intercalate with the polymer chains and form a pseudo spring damper network. Experimentations on the thixotropic behavior of the gels indicate that the presence of the G nanoflakes leads to immensely augmented structural stability capable of withstanding severe impact shears. Further information about the localized interactions of the G nanoflakes with the polymer chains is revealed from the amplitude and frequency sweep analyses in both linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes. Massively enhanced cross over amplitude values are recorded and several smart effects such as enhanced elastic behavior ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gong Yan-Jun; Zhang Dong; Gong Xiu-Fen; Tan Kai-Bin; Liu Zheng
2006-01-01
The viscoelasticity and subharmonic generation of a kind of lipid ultrasound contrast agent are investigated.Based on the measurement of the sound attenuation spectrum, the viscoelasticity of the lipid shell is estimated by use of an optimization method. Shear modulus Gs=10MPa and shear viscosity μs=1.49N·S/m2 are obtained. The nonlinear oscillation of the encapsulated microbubble is studied with Church's model theoretically and experimentally.Especially, the dependence of subharmonic on the incident acoustic pressure is studied. The results reveal that the development of the subharmonic undergoes three stages, i.e. occurrence, growth and saturation, and that hysteresis appears in descending ramp insonation.
Viscoelastic flow modeling in the extrusion of a dough-like fluid.
Dhanasekharan, M; Kokini, J L
2000-08-01
This work attempts to investigate the effect of viscoelasticity and three-dimensional geometry in screw channels. The Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation with simplified model parameters was solved in conjunction with the flow equations. Polyflow, a commercially available finite element code was used to solve the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations. The PTT model predicted one log scale lower pressure buildup compared to the equivalent Newtonian results. However, the velocity profile did not show significant changes for the chosen PTT model parameters. Past Researchers neglected viscoelastic effects and also the three dimensional nature of the flow in extruder channels. The results of this paper provide a starting point for further simulations using more realistic model parameters, which may enable the food engineer to more accurately scale-up and design extrusion processes.
On the Study of Viscoelastic Walters' B Fluid in Boundary Layer Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed Ali Madani Tonekaboni
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Viscoelastic Walters' B fluid flows for three problems, stagnation-point flow, Blasius flow, and Sakiadis flow, have been investigated. In each problem, Cauchy equations are changed to a nondimensional differential equations using stream functions and with assumption of boundary layer flow. The fourth-order predictor-corrector finite-difference method for solving these nonlinear differential equations has been employed. The results that have been obtained using this method are compared with the results of the last studies, and it is clarified that this method is more accurate. It is also shown that the results of last study about Sakiadis flow of Walter's B fluid are not true. In addition, the effects of order of discretization in the boundaries are investigated. Moreover, it has been discussed about the valid region of Weissenberg numbers for the second-order approximation of viscoelastic fluids in each case of study.
A corrected particle method with high-order Taylor expansion for solving the viscoelastic fluid flow
Jiang, T.; Ren, J. L.; Lu, W. G.; Xu, B.
2017-02-01
In this paper, a corrected particle method based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method with high-order Taylor expansion (CSPH-HT) for solving the viscoelastic flow is proposed and investigated. The validity and merits of the CSPH-HT method are first tested by solving the nonlinear high order Kuramoto-Sivishinsky equation and simulating the drop stretching, respectively. Then the flow behaviors behind two stationary tangential cylinders of polymer melt, which have been received little attention, are investigated by the CSPH-HT method. Finally, the CSPH-HT method is extended to the simulation of the filling process of the viscoelastic fluid. The numerical results show that the CSPH-HT method possesses higher accuracy and stability than other corrected SPH methods and is more reliable than other corrected SPH methods.
Protsenko, Iu L; Kobelev, A V; Lukin, O N; Balakin, A A; Smoliuk, L T
2009-07-01
Peculiarities of viscoelastic behavior of rabbit papillary muscle in passive state are studied by transversal versus longitudinal deformation curves, stress-strain and hysteresis curves, and stress relaxation curves under ramp stretching. The papillary muscle was chosen because of mostly longitudinal orientation of fibers and its elongated shape, which both make it as an appropriate model for uniaxial tests. The problem of evaluation of connective tissue protein structures and intracellular matrix contribution into the properties under consideration is solved by using the maceration method to remove intracellular structures. The different contribution of intracellular and extracellular protein features into total properties of a papillary muscle leads to nonlinearity of myocardial viscoelastic properties, such as the increase of differential elastic module and relaxation time with deformation.
Viscoelastic flow modeling in the extrusion of a dough-like fluid
Dhanasekharan, M.; Kokini, J. L.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)
2000-01-01
This work attempts to investigate the effect of viscoelasticity and three-dimensional geometry in screw channels. The Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation with simplified model parameters was solved in conjunction with the flow equations. Polyflow, a commercially available finite element code was used to solve the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations. The PTT model predicted one log scale lower pressure buildup compared to the equivalent Newtonian results. However, the velocity profile did not show significant changes for the chosen PTT model parameters. Past Researchers neglected viscoelastic effects and also the three dimensional nature of the flow in extruder channels. The results of this paper provide a starting point for further simulations using more realistic model parameters, which may enable the food engineer to more accurately scale-up and design extrusion processes.
Bifurcation of Periodic Solutions and Numerical Simulation for the Viscoelastic Belt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Li
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We study the bifurcation of periodic solutions for viscoelastic belt with integral constitutive law in 1: 1 internal resonance. At the beginning, by applying the nonsingular linear transformation, the system is transformed into another system whose unperturbed system is composed of two planar systems: one is a Hamiltonian system and the other has a focus. Furthermore, according to the Melnikov function, we can obtain the sufficient condition for the existence of periodic solutions and make preparations for studying the stability of the periodic solution and the invariant torus. Eventually, we need to give the phase diagrams of the solutions under different parameters to verify the analytical results and obtain which parameters the existence and the stability of the solution are based on. The conclusions not only enrich the behaviors of nonlinear dynamics about viscoelastic belt but also have important theoretical significance and application value on noise weakening and energy loss.
Tang, Yugang; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Dong
2016-10-01
In this paper, the viscoelastic wave propagation in an embedded viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is studied based on the nonlocal strain gradient theory. The characteristic equation for the viscoelastic wave in SWCNTs is derived. The emphasis is placed on the influence of the tube diameter on the viscoelastic wave dispersion. A blocking diameter is observed, above which the wave could not propagate in SWCNTs. The results show that the blocking diameter is greatly dependent on the damping coefficient, the nonlocal and the strain gradient length scale parameters, as well as the Winkler modulus of the surrounding elastic medium. These findings may provide a prospective application of SWCNTs in nanodevices and nanocomposites.
Time-Dependent Behavior of Diabase and a Nonlinear Creep Model
Yang, Wendong; Zhang, Qiangyong; Li, Shucai; Wang, Shugang
2014-07-01
Triaxial creep tests were performed on diabase specimens from the dam foundation of the Dagangshan hydropower station, and the typical characteristics of creep curves were analyzed. Based on the test results under different stress levels, a new nonlinear visco-elasto-plastic creep model with creep threshold and long-term strength was proposed by connecting an instantaneous elastic Hooke body, a visco-elasto-plastic Schiffman body, and a nonlinear visco-plastic body in series mode. By introducing the nonlinear visco-plastic component, this creep model can describe the typical creep behavior, which includes the primary creep stage, the secondary creep stage, and the tertiary creep stage. Three-dimensional creep equations under constant stress conditions were deduced. The yield approach index (YAI) was used as the criterion for the piecewise creep function to resolve the difficulty in determining the creep threshold value and the long-term strength. The expression of the visco-plastic component was derived in detail and the three-dimensional central difference form was given. An example was used to verify the credibility of the model. The creep parameters were identified, and the calculated curves were in good agreement with the experimental curves, indicating that the model is capable of replicating the physical processes.
Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
on the strain. The slope of the viscous response showed a strain rate dependence corresponding to a power function of powers 0.242 and 0.168 for the two patellar tendon fibrils, respectively. In conclusion, the present work provides direct evidence of viscoelastic behavior at the single fibril level, which has...
Viscoelasticity of suspensions of long, rigid rods
Dhont, Jan K.G.; Briels, W.J.
2003-01-01
A microscopic theory for the viscoelastic behaviour of suspensions of rigid rods with excluded volume interactions is presented, which is valid in the asymptotic limit of very long and thin rods. Stresses arising from translational and rotational Brownian motion and direct interactions are calculate
Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svensson, René; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip
2010-01-01
Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon fibr...
DYNAMIC DEFORMATION THE VISCOELASTIC TWOCOMPONENT MEDIUM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Polenov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Summary. In the article are scope harmonious warping of the two-component medium, one component which are represent viscoelastic medium, hereditary properties which are described by the kernel aftereffect Abel integral-differential ratio BoltzmannVolterr, while second – compressible liquid. Do a study one-dimensional case. Use motion equation of two-component medium at movement. Look determination system these equalization in the form of damped wave. Introduce dimensionless coefficient. Combined equations happen to homogeneous system with complex factor relatively waves amplitude in viscoelastic component and in fluid. As a result opening system determinant receive biquadratic equation. Elastic operator express through kernel aftereffect Abel for space Fourier. With the help transformation and symbol series biquadratic equation reduce to quadratic equation. Come to the conclusion that in two-component viscoelastic medium exist two mode sonic waves. As a result solution of quadratic equation be found description advance of waves sonic in viscoelastic two-component medium, which physical-mechanical properties represent complex parameter. Velocity determination advance of sonic waves, attenuation coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, depending on characteristic porous medium and circular frequency formulas receive. Graph dependences of description advance of waves sonic from the temperature logarithm and with the fractional parameter γ are constructed.
Viscoelastic Pavement Modeling with a Spreadsheet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levenberg, Eyal
2016-01-01
The aim herein was to equip civil engineers and students with an advanced pavement modeling tool that is both easy to use and highly adaptive. To achieve this, a mathematical solution for a layered viscoelastic half-space subjected to a moving load was developed and subsequently implemented...
Dynamics of a reinforced viscoelastic plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor V. Andrianov
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Oscillations and static bending deformation of a viscoelastic reinforced plate are considered. Analytical solutions are derived. An asymptotic technique, based on the homogenization method, is used for this purpose. In addition, a special perturbation approach is employed. An example is given for the purpose of illustration. The approximate analytical expressions are shown to adequately meet the requirements of optimal structural design.
The role of viscoelasticity in subducting plates
Farrington, R. J.; Moresi, L.-N.; Capitanio, F. A.
2014-11-01
of tectonic plates into Earth's mantle occurs when one plate bends beneath another at convergent plate boundaries. The characteristic time of deformation at these convergent boundaries approximates the Maxwell relaxation time for olivine at lithospheric temperatures and pressures, it is therefore by definition a viscoelastic process. While this is widely acknowledged, the large-scale features of subduction can, and have been, successfully reproduced assuming the plate deforms by a viscous mechanism alone. However, the energy rates and stress profile within convergent margins are influenced by viscoelastic deformation. In this study, viscoelastic stresses have been systematically introduced into numerical models of free subduction, using both the viscosity and shear modulus to control the Maxwell relaxation time. The introduction of an elastic deformation mechanism into subduction models produces deviations in both the stress profile and energy rates within the subduction hinge when compared to viscous only models. These variations result in an apparent viscosity that is variable throughout the length of the plate, decreasing upon approach and increasing upon leaving the hinge. At realistic Earth parameters, we show that viscoelastic stresses have a minor effect on morphology yet are less dissipative at depth and result in an energy transfer between the energy stored during bending and the energy released during unbending. We conclude that elasticity is important during both bending and unbending within the slab hinge with the resulting stress loading and energy profile indicating that slabs maintain larger deformation rates at smaller stresses during bending and retain their strength during unbending at depth.
Viscoelastic coagulation testing: technology, applications, and limitations.
McMichael, Maureen A; Smith, Stephanie A
2011-06-01
Use of viscoelastic point-of-care (POC) coagulation instrumentation is relatively new to veterinary medicine. In human medicine, this technology has recently undergone resurgence owing to its capacity to detect hypercoagulability. The lack of sensitive tests for detecting hypercoagulable states, along with our current understanding of in vivo coagulation, highlights the deficiencies of standard coagulation tests, such as prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, which are performed on platelet-poor plasma. Viscoelastic coagulation analyzers can provide an assessment of global coagulation, from the beginning of clot formation to fibrinolysis, utilizing whole blood. In people, use of this technology has been reported to improve management of hemostasis during surgery and decrease usage of blood products and is being used as a rapid screen for hypercoagulability. In veterinary medicine, clinical use of viscoelastic technology has been reported in dogs, cats, foals, and adult horses. This article will provide an overview of the technology, reagents and assays, applications in human and veterinary medicine, and limitations of the 3 viscoelastic POC analyzers in clinical use.
Seismic Analysis of a Viscoelastic Damping Isolator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo-Wun Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Seismic prevention issues are discussed much more seriously around the world after Fukushima earthquake, Japan, April 2011, especially for those countries which are near the earthquake zone. Approximately 1.8×1012 kilograms of explosive energy will be released from a magnitude 9 earthquake. It destroys most of the unprotected infrastructure within several tens of miles in diameter from the epicenter. People can feel the earthquake even if living hundreds of miles away. This study is a seismic simulation analysis for an innovated and improved design of viscoelastic damping isolator, which can be more effectively applied to earthquake prevention and damage reduction of high-rise buildings, roads, bridges, power generation facilities, and so forth, from earthquake disaster. Solidworks graphic software is used to draw the 3D geometric model of the viscoelastic isolator. The dynamic behavior of the viscoelastic isolator through shock impact of specific earthquake loading, recorded by a seismometer, is obtained via ANSYS finite element package. The amplitude of the isolator is quickly reduced by the viscoelastic material in the device and is shown in a time response diagram. The result of this analysis can be a crucial reference when improving the design of a seismic isolator.
Construction of constant-Q viscoelastic model with three parameters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Cheng-yu; YIN Xing-yao
2007-01-01
The popularly used viscoelastic models have some shortcomings in describing relationship between quality factor (Q) and frequency, which is not consistent with the observation data. Based on the theory of viscoelasticity, a new approach to construct constant-Q viscoelastic model in given frequency band with three parameters is developed. The designed model describes the frequency-independence feature of quality factor very well, and the effect of viscoelasticity on seismic wave field can be studied relatively accurate in theory with this model. Furthermore, the number of required parameters in this model has been reduced fewer than that of other constant-Q models, this can simplify the solution of the viscoelastic problems to some extent. At last, the accuracy and application range have been analyzed through numerical tests. The effect of viscoelasticity on wave propagation has been briefly illustrated through the change of frequency spectra and waveform in several different viscoelastic models.
Viscoelastic effective properties of two types of heterogeneous materials.
Cornet, Jan; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmid, Daniel
2015-04-01
In the past, a lot of efforts have been put to describe two end cases of rock behaviors: elasticity and viscosity. In recent years, more focus has been brought on the intermediate viscoelastic cases which describe better the rheology of rocks such as shales. Shales are typically heterogeneous and the question arises as to how to derive their effective properties so that they can be approximated as homogeneous media. This question has already been dealt with at the elastic and viscous limit but still remains for some cases in between. Using MILAMIN, a fast finite element solver for large problems, we numerically investigate different approaches to derive the effective properties of several viscoelastic media. Two types of geometries are considered: layered and inclusion based media. We focus on two dimensional plane strain problems considering two phase composites deformed under pure shear. We start by investigating the case of transversely isotropic layered media made of two Maxwell materials. Using the Backus averaging method we discuss the degree of relevance of this averaging by considering some parameters as: layer periodicity, layer thickness and layer interface roughness. Other averaging methods are also discussed which provide a broader perspective on the performances of Backus averaging. In a second part we move on to inclusion based models. The advantage of these models compared to the previous one is that they provide a better approximation to real microstructures in rocks. The setup we consider in this part is the following: some viscous circular inclusions are embedded in an elastic matrix. Both the inclusions and the matrix are homogeneous but the inclusions are purely isotropic while the matrix can also be anisotropic. In order to derive the effective viscoelastic properties of the medium we use two approaches: the self-consistent averaging and the differential effective medium theory. The idea behind self-consistency is to assume that the inclusions
The effect of surface roughness and viscoelasticity on rubber adhesion.
Tiwari, A; Dorogin, L; Bennett, A I; Schulze, K D; Sawyer, W G; Tahir, M; Heinrich, G; Persson, B N J
2017-05-21
Adhesion between silica glass or acrylic balls and silicone elastomers and various industrial rubbers is investigated. The work of adhesion during pull-off is found to strongly vary depending on the system, which we attribute to the two opposite effects: (1) viscoelastic energy dissipation close to an opening crack tip and (2) surface roughness. Introducing surface roughness on the glass ball is found to increase the work of adhesion for soft elastomers, while for the stiffer elastomers it results in a strong reduction in the work of adhesion. For the soft silicone elastomers a strong increase in the work of adhesion with increasing pull-off velocity is observed, which may result from the non-adiabatic processes associated with molecular chain pull-out. In general, the work of adhesion is decreased after repeated contacts due to the transfer of molecules from the elastomers to the glass ball. Thus, extracting the free chains (oligomers) from the silicone elastomers is shown to make the work of adhesion independent of the number of contacts. The viscoelastic properties (linear and nonlinear) of all of the rubber compounds are measured, and the velocity dependent crack opening propagation energy at the interface is calculated. Silicone elastomers show a good agreement between the measured work of adhesion and the predicted results, but carbon black filled hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber compounds reveal that strain softening at the crack tip may play an important role in determining the work of adhesion. Additionally, adhesion measurement under submerged conditions in distilled water and water + soap solutions are also performed: a strong reduction in the work of adhesion is measured for the silicone elastomers submerged in water, and a complete elimination of adhesion is found for the water + soap solution attributed to an osmotic repulsion between the negatively charged surface of the glass and the elastomer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cochrane, Alexander P. [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Merrett, Craig G. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Carleton Univ., 1125 Col. By Dr., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hilton, Harry H. [Aerospace Engineering Department in the College of Engineering and Private Sector Program Division at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)
2014-12-10
which control reversal takes place (V{sub REV}{sup E}). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds V{sub REV<}{sup ≧}V{sub REV}{sup E}, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < t{sub REV} ≤ ∞. This paper reports on analytical analyses and simulations of the effects of flexibility and time dependent material properties (viscoelasticity) on aerodynamic derivatives and on lateral, longitudinal, directional and spin stability derivatives. Cases of both constant and variable flight and maneuver velocities are considered. Analytical results for maneuvers involving constant and time dependent rolling velocities are analyzed, discussed and evaluated. The relationships between rolling velocity p and aileron angular displacement β as well as control effectiveness are analyzed and discussed in detail for elastic and viscoelastic wings. Such analyses establish the roll effectiveness derivatives (∂[p(t)])/(V{sub ∞}∂β(t)) . Similar studies involving other stability and aerodynamic derivatives are also undertaken. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight, rolling, pitching and yawing velocities on longitudinal, lateral and directional are also investigated. Variable flight velocities, encountered during maneuvers, render the usually linear problem at constant velocities into a nonlinear one.
Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2017-01-01
Here two classes of viscoelastic fluids have been analyzed in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion expressions of heat and mass transfer. A linearly stretched sheet has been used to create the flow. Thermal and concentration diffusions are characterized firstly by introducing Cattaneo-Christov fluxes. Novel features regarding Brownian motion and thermophoresis are retained. The conversion of nonlinear partial differential system to nonlinear ordinary differential system has been taken into place by using suitable transformations. The resulting nonlinear systems have been solved via convergent approach. Graphs have been sketched in order to investigate how the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are affected by distinct physical flow parameters. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and heat and mass transfer rates at the wall are also computed and discussed. Our observations demonstrate that the temperature and concentration fields are decreasing functions of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters. PMID:28046011
Saleeb, Atef F.; Li, Wei
1995-01-01
This two-part report is concerned with the development of a general framework for the implicit time-stepping integrators for the flow and evolution equations in generalized viscoplastic models. The primary goal is to present a complete theoretical formulation, and to address in detail the algorithmic and numerical analysis aspects involved in its finite element implementation, as well as to critically assess the numerical performance of the developed schemes in a comprehensive set of test cases. On the theoretical side, the general framework is developed on the basis of the unconditionally-stable, backward-Euler difference scheme as a starting point. Its mathematical structure is of sufficient generality to allow a unified treatment of different classes of viscoplastic models with internal variables. In particular, two specific models of this type, which are representative of the present start-of-art in metal viscoplasticity, are considered in applications reported here; i.e., fully associative (GVIPS) and non-associative (NAV) models. The matrix forms developed for both these models are directly applicable for both initially isotropic and anisotropic materials, in general (three-dimensional) situations as well as subspace applications (i.e., plane stress/strain, axisymmetric, generalized plane stress in shells). On the computational side, issues related to efficiency and robustness are emphasized in developing the (local) interative algorithm. In particular, closed-form expressions for residual vectors and (consistent) material tangent stiffness arrays are given explicitly for both GVIPS and NAV models, with their maximum sizes 'optimized' to depend only on the number of independent stress components (but independent of the number of viscoplastic internal state parameters). Significant robustness of the local iterative solution is provided by complementing the basic Newton-Raphson scheme with a line-search strategy for convergence. In the present first part of the
Li, Wei; Saleeb, Atef F.
1995-01-01
This two-part report is concerned with the development of a general framework for the implicit time-stepping integrators for the flow and evolution equations in generalized viscoplastic models. The primary goal is to present a complete theoretical formulation, and to address in detail the algorithmic and numerical analysis aspects involved in its finite element implementation, as well as to critically assess the numerical performance of the developed schemes in a comprehensive set of test cases. On the theoretical side, the general framework is developed on the basis of the unconditionally-stable, backward-Euler difference scheme as a starting point. Its mathematical structure is of sufficient generality to allow a unified treatment of different classes of viscoplastic models with internal variables. In particular, two specific models of this type, which are representative of the present start-of-art in metal viscoplasticity, are considered in applications reported here; i.e., fully associative (GVIPS) and non-associative (NAV) models. The matrix forms developed for both these models are directly applicable for both initially isotropic and anisotropic materials, in general (three-dimensional) situations as well as subspace applications (i.e., plane stress/strain, axisymmetric, generalized plane stress in shells). On the computational side, issues related to efficiency and robustness are emphasized in developing the (local) interative algorithm. In particular, closed-form expressions for residual vectors and (consistent) material tangent stiffness arrays are given explicitly for both GVIPS and NAV models, with their maximum sizes 'optimized' to depend only on the number of independent stress components (but independent of the number of viscoplastic internal state parameters). Significant robustness of the local iterative solution is provided by complementing the basic Newton-Raphson scheme with a line-search strategy for convergence. In the present second part of
Arya, V. K.; Kaufman, A.
1989-01-01
A description of the finite element implementation of Robinson's unified viscoplastic model into the General Purpose Finite Element Program (MARC) is presented. To demonstrate its application, the implementation is applied to some uniaxial and multiaxial problems. A comparison of the results for the multiaxial problem of a thick internally pressurized cylinder, obtained using the finite element implementation and an analytical solution, is also presented. The excellent agreement obtained confirms the correct finite element implementation of Robinson's model.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
A new rigid-plastic/rigid-viscoplastic (RP/RVP) FEM based on linear programming (LP) for plane-strain metal forming simulation is proposed. Compared with the traditional RP/RVP FEM based on iteration solution, it has some remarkable advantages, such as it's free of convergence problem and its convenience in contact, incompressibility constraint and rigid zone treatment. Two solution examples are provided to validate its accuracy and efficiency.
Mäkelä, J T A; Korhonen, R K
2016-06-14
Modern fibril-reinforced computational models of articular cartilage can include inhomogeneous tissue composition and structure, and nonlinear mechanical behavior of collagen, proteoglycans and fluid. These models can capture well experimental single step creep and stress-relaxation tests or measurements under small strains in unconfined and confined compression. Yet, it is known that in indentation, especially at high strain velocities, cartilage can express highly nonlinear response. Different fibril reinforced poroelastic and poroviscoelastic models were used to assess measured highly nonlinear stress-relaxation response of rabbit articular cartilage in indentation. Experimentally measured depth-dependent volume fractions of different tissue constituents and their mechanical nonlinearities were taken into account in the models. In particular, the collagen fibril network was modeled using eight separate models that implemented five different constitutive equations to describe the nonlinearity. These consisted of linear elastic, nonlinear viscoelastic and multiple nonlinear elastic representations. The model incorporating the most nonlinearly increasing Young׳s modulus of collagen fibrils as a function of strain captured best the experimental data. Relative difference between the model and experiment was ~3%. Surprisingly, the difference in the peak forces between the experiment and the model with viscoelastic collagen fibrils was almost 20%. Implementation of the measured volume fractions did not improve the ability of the model to capture the measured mechanical data. These results suggest that a highly nonlinear formulation for collagen fibrils is needed to replicate multi-step stress-relaxation response of rabbit articular cartilage in indentation with high strain rates.
Agoras, M.; Ponte Castañeda, P.
2013-03-01
Analytical estimates are obtained for the effective constitutive response of porous viscoplastic materials consisting of aligned ellipsoidal voids that are distributed randomly with "ellipsoidal" symmetry in the matrix material. These estimates are obtained by means of a novel iterative homogenization strategy recently proposed by Ponte Castañeda (2012), and can be shown to be bounds for certain classes of multi-scale microstructures. By design, the resulting constitutive model agrees exactly with the earlier "variational linear comparison" model at the first iteration (N=1), and provides estimates that get progressively more accurate as the number of iterations increases (N→∞), especially for high-triaxiality loading conditions, and low porosity and strain-rate sensitivity. However, in practice, a small number of iterations (N≈10) is sufficient to get very accurate results. It is important to emphasize that, unlike other models that have been proposed in the literature, the new model requires no fitting parameters, solely depending on the properties of the matrix phase and microstructural information, such as the porosity, the average void shape and orientation, as well as the generally different shape and orientation of their distribution. Results are given for the yield and gauge surfaces of ideally plastic and power-law viscoplastic porous materials for the special cases of aligned spheroidal and ellipsoidal voids, and the results are compared with available numerical results and with the results of other models. Compared to available numerical results, the new estimates are found to be quite accurate, while they also provide more flexibility than competing models in terms of the characterization of the microstructure. In particular, it was found that the effect of different shapes for the average pore shape and distribution on the yield surfaces of the porous materials can be significant at high triaxialities, even for very small porosities. In addition
Viscoelasticity of Xenon near the Critical Point
Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.
1999-01-01
Using a novel, overdamped, oscillator flown aboard the Space Shuttle, we measured the viscosity of xenon near the liquid-vapor critical point in the frequency range 2 Hz less than or equal to f less than or equal to 12 Hz. The measured viscosity divergence is characterized by the exponent z(sub eta) = 0.0690 +/- 0.0006, in agreement with the value z(sub eta) = 0.067 +/- 0.002 calculated from a two-loop perturbation expansion. Viscoelastic behavior was evident when t = (T - T(sub c))/T(sub c) less than 10(exp -5) and dominant when t less than 10(exp -6), further from T(sub c) than predicted. Viscoelastic behavior scales as Af(tau) where tau is the fluctuation decay time. The measured value of A is 2.0 +/- 0.3 times the result of a one-loop calculation. (Uncertainties stated are one standard uncertainty.)
A Viscoelastic Constitutive Law For FRP Materials
Ascione, Luigi; Berardi, Valentino Paolo; D'Aponte, Anna
2011-09-01
The present study deals with the long-term behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials in civil engineering. More specifically, the authors propose a mechanical model capable of predicting the viscoelastic behavior of FRP laminates in the field of linear viscoelasticity, starting from that of the matrix material and fiber. The model is closely connected with the low FRP stress levels in civil engineering applications. The model is based on a micromechanical approach which assumes that there is a perfect adhesion between the matrix and fiber. The long-term behavior of the phases is described through a four-parameter rheological law. A validation of the model has also been developed by matching the predicted behavior with an experimental one available in the literature.
On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole
1999-01-01
The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...... it is demonstrated that surface tension plays a key role in the selection of the most unstable mode...
Modeling and analysis of a contact problem for a viscoelastic rod
Bartosz, Krzysztof; Sofonea, Mircea
2016-10-01
We consider a nonlinear viscoelastic rod which is in contact with a foundation along its length and is in contact with an obstacle at its end. The rod is acted up by body forces and, as a result, its mechanical state evolves. Our aim in this paper is twofold. The first one is to construct an appropriate mathematical model which describes the evolution of the rod. The second one is to prove the weak solvability of the problem. To this end, we use arguments on second-order inclusions with multivalued pseudomonotone operators.
Exponential Energy Decay of Solutions for a Transmission Problem With Viscoelastic Term and Delay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danhua Wang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In our previous work (Journal of Nonlinear Science and Applications 9: 1202–1215, 2016, we studied the well-posedness and general decay rate for a transmission problem in a bounded domain with a viscoelastic term and a delay term. In this paper, we continue to study the similar problem but without the frictional damping term. The main difficulty arises since we have no frictional damping term to control the delay term in the estimate of the energy decay. By introducing suitable energy and Lyapunov functionals, we establish an exponential decay result for the energy.
Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying; Khayat, Roger E.
2017-05-01
As a new transduction technology, dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are capable of converting mechanical energy from diverse sources into electrical energy. However, their energy harvesting performance is strongly affected by the material viscoelasticity. Based on the finite-deformation viscoelasticity theory and the nonlinear coupled field theory for dielectric elastomers, this work presents a theoretical framework to model the performance of DEGs. Motivated by the recent experiments of DEGs with a triangular harvesting scheme, we propose a method to optimize the harvesting cycle, which could significantly improve the conversion efficiency of viscoelastic DEGs. From our simulation results, choosing a higher voltage power source appears to be an effective way to improve the performance of DEGs. In addition, optimizing the period of the discharging process of DEG can markedly increase its efficiency. Also, we have uncovered that the triangular harvesting scheme for DEGs, which is expected to harvest energy close to the maximum achievable energy, could be actually realized by choosing dielectric elastomers with a higher fraction of time-independent polymer networks. The theoretical framework and simulation results presented in this work are expected to benefit the optimal design of DEGs for different applications.
Viscoelastic fluid-structure interaction between a non-Newtonian fluid flow and flexible cylinder
Dey, Anita; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Rothstein, Jonathan
2016-11-01
It is well known that when a flexible or flexibly-mounted structure is placed perpendicular to the flow of a Newtonian fluid, it can oscillate due to the shedding of separated vortices at high Reynolds numbers. If the same flexible object is placed in non-Newtonian flows, however, the structure's response is still unknown. Unlike Newtonian fluids, the flow of viscoelastic fluids can become unstable at infinitesimal Reynolds numbers due to a purely elastic flow instability. In this talk, we will present a series of experiments investigating the response of a flexible cylinder placed in the cross flow of a viscoelastic fluid. The elastic flow instabilities occurring at high Weissenberg numbers can exert fluctuating forces on the flexible cylinder thus leading to nonlinear periodic oscillations of the flexible structure. These oscillations are found to be coupled to the time-dependent state of viscoelastic stresses in the wake of the flexible cylinder. The static and dynamic responses of the flexible cylinder will be presented over a range of flow velocities, along with measurements of velocity profiles and flow-induced birefringence, in order to quantify the time variation of the flow field and the state of stress in the fluid.
Altmeyer, Guillaume; Panicaud, Benoit; Rouhaud, Emmanuelle; Wang, Mingchuan; Roos, Arjen; Kerner, Richard
2016-11-01
When constructing viscoelastic models, rate-form relations appear naturally to relate strain and stress tensors. One has to ensure that these tensors and their rates are indifferent with respect to the change of observers and to the superposition with rigid body motions. Objective transports are commonly accepted to ensure this invariance. However, the large number of transport operators developed makes the choice often difficult for the user and may lead to physically inconsistent formulation of hypoelasticity. In this paper, a methodology based on the use of the Lie derivative is proposed to model consistent hypoelasticity as an equivalent incremental formulation of hyperelasticity. Both models are shown to be reversible and completely equivalent. Extension to viscoelasticity is then proposed from this consistent model by associating consistent hypoelastic models with viscous behavior. As an illustration, Mooney-Rivlin nonlinear elasticity is coupled with Newton viscosity and a Maxwell-like material is investigated. Numerical solutions are then presented to illustrate a viscoelastic material subjected to finite deformations for a large range of strain rates.
VISCOELASTIC MODELS OF TIDALLY HEATED EXOMOONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobos, Vera [Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute, Research Centre of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, Budapest (Hungary); Turner, Edwin L., E-mail: dobos@konkoly.hu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 08544, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ (United States)
2015-05-01
Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life has been intensely studied on solar system moons such as Europa or Enceladus where the surface ice layer covers a tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. To study the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models because it takes into account the temperature dependence of the tidal heat flux and the melting of the inner material. Using this model, we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), which strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ using both models. We have found that the viscoelastic model predicts 2.8 times more exomoons in the TTZ with orbital periods between 0.1 and 3.5 days than the fixed Q model for plausible distributions of physical and orbital parameters. The viscoelastic model provides more promising results in terms of habitability because the inner melting of the body moderates the surface temperature, acting like a thermostat.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nir, N.; Huang, F.H.; Hart, E.W.; Li, C.Y.
1976-05-01
At low homologous temperature the plastic strain rate seems to be controlled largely by dislocation glide friction. However, since a sizeable fraction of the applied stress sigma is dissipated in overcoming the strong barriers due to dislocation tangles generated by strain hardening, only a portion of the applied stress is actually expended against the frictional resistance. A recent model for this process includes the role of dislocation pile-ups at the strong barriers. The pile-ups provide a mechanism for producing the internal back stresses that limit the effective frictional stress. The also appear in the deformation as a stored anelastic strain component. The resultant behavior at low temperature and high stress is similar to that proposed by Grupta and Li. The same model also predicts an anelastic behavior at low stress. Measurements at both high and low stress levels on 316 Stainless Steel have now shown that the predictions of the model are quantitatively consistent at both stress levels.
Pastor, M.; Martin Stickle, M.; Dutto, P.; Mira, P.; Fernández Merodo, J. A.; Blanc, T.; Sancho, S.; Benítez, A. S.
2015-01-01
This paper deals with modelling of landslide propagation. Its purpose is to present a methodology of analysis based on mathematical, constitutive and numerical modelling, which includes both well-established theories together with some improvements which are proposed herein. Concerning the mathematical model, it is based on Biot-Zienkiewicz equations, from where a depth-integrated model is developed. The main contribution here is to combine a depth-integrated description of the soil-pore fluid mixture together with a set of 1D models dealing with pore pressure evolution within the soil mass. In this way, pore pressure changes caused by vertical consolidation, changes of total stresses resulting from height variations and changes of basal surface permeability can be taken into account with more precision. Most of rheological models used in depth-integrated models are derived either heuristically (the case of Voellmy model, for instance), or from general 3D rheological models. Here, we will propose an alternative way, based on Perzyna's viscoplasticity. The approach followed for numerical modelling is the SPH method, which we have enriched adding a 1D finite difference grid to each SPH node, in order to improve the description of pore water profiles in the avalanching soil. This paper intends to be a homage to Professor Felix Darve, who has very much contributed to the field of modern geomechanics.
Mechanisms-based viscoplasticity: Theoretical approach and experimental validation for steel 304L
Zubelewicz, Aleksander; Oliferuk, Wiera
2016-03-01
We propose a mechanisms-based viscoplasticity approach for metals and alloys. First, we derive a stochastic model for thermally-activated motion of dislocations and, then, introduce power-law flow rules. The overall plastic deformation includes local plastic slip events taken with an appropriate weight assigned to each angle of the plane misorientation from the direction of maximum shear stress. As deformation progresses, the material experiences successive reorganizations of the slip systems. The microstructural evolution causes that a portion of energy expended on plastic deformation is dissipated and the rest is stored in the defect structures. We show that the reorganizations are stable in a homogeneously deformed material. The concept is tested for steel 304L, where we reproduce experimentally obtained stress-strain responses, we construct the Frost-Ashby deformation map and predict the rate of the energy storage. The storage is assessed in terms of synchronized measurements of temperature and displacement distributions on the specimen surface during tensile loading.
Xiao, Rui; Ghazaryan, Gagik; Tervoort, Theo A.; Nguyen, Thao D.
2017-06-01
The enthalpic response of amorphous polymers depends strongly on their thermal and deformation history. Annealing just below the glass transition temperature (Tg) causes a large endothermic overshoot of the isobaric heat capacity at Tg as measured by differential scanning calorimetry, while plastic deformation (cold work) can erase this overshoot and create an exothermic undershoot. This indicates that a strong coupling exists between the polymer structure, thermal response, and mechanical deformation. In this work, we apply a recently developed thermomechanical model for glassy polymers that couples structural evolution and viscoplastic deformation to investigate the effect of annealing and plastic deformation on the accumulation of stored energy during cold work and calorimetry measurements of heat flow. The thermomechanical model introduces the effective temperature as an additional state variable in a nonequilibrium thermodynamics setting to describe the structural evolution of the material. The results show that the model accurately describes the stress and enthalpy response of quenched and annealed polymers with different plastic predeformations. The model also shows that at 30% strain in uniaxial compression, 45% of the applied work is converted into stored energy, which is consistent with experimental data from literature.
CRACK PROPAGATION IN POLYCRYSTALLINE ELASTIC-VISCOPLASTIC MATERIALS USING COHESIVE ZONE MODELS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Cohesive zone model was used to simulate two-dimensional plane strain crack propagation at the grain level model including grain boundary zones. Simulated results show that the original crack-tip may not be separated firstly in an elastic-viscoplastic polycrystals. The grain interior's material properties (e.g. strain rate sensitivity) characterize the competitions between plastic and cohesive energy dissipation mechanisms.The higher the strain rate sensitivity is, the larger amount of the external work is transformed into plastic dissipation energy than into cohesive energy, which delays the cohesive zone rupturing. With the strain rate sensitivity decreased, the material property tends to approach the elastic-plastic responses. In this case, the plastic dissipation energy decreases and the cohesive dissipation energy increases which accelerates the cohesive zones debonding. Increasing the cohesive strength or the critical separation displacement will reduce the stress triaxiality at grain interiors and grain boundaries. Enhancing the cohesive zones ductility can improve the matrix materials resistance to void damage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tomé, Carlos N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maudlin, Paul J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2003-08-01
In this work we consider the presence of ellipsoidal voids inside polycrystals submitted to large strain deformation. For this purpose, the originally incompressible viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) formulation of Lebensohn and Tomé (1993) has been extended to compressible polycrystals. In doing this, both the deviatoric and the spherical components of strain rate and stress are accounted for. Such an extended model allows us to account for the presence of voids and for porosity evolution, while preserving the anisotropy and crystallographic capabilities of the VPSC model. The formulation is adjusted to match Gurson model in the limit of rateindependent isotropic media and spherical voids. We present several applications of this extended VPSC model that address the coupling between texture, plastic anisotropy, void shape, triaxiality, and porosity evolution. This report contains a detailed and comprehensive derivation of the VPSC polycrystal model and of the equations associated with the theory. Such description is meant to serve as a general reference source for the VPSC formulation and is not limited to the particular case of voided polycrystals.
Elastic-viscoplastic field at mixed-mode interface crack-tip under compression and shear
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁文彦; 王振清; 刘方; 刘晓铎
2014-01-01
For a compression-shear mixed mode interface crack, it is difficult to solve the stress and strain fields considering the material viscosity, the crack-tip singularity, the frictional effect, and the mixed loading level. In this paper, a mechanical model of the dynamic propagation interface crack for the compression-shear mixed mode is proposed using an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive model. The governing equations of propagation crack interface at the crack-tip are given. The numerical analysis is performed for the interface crack of the compression-shear mixed mode by introducing a displacement function and some boundary conditions. The distributed regularities of stress field of the interface crack-tip are discussed with several special parameters. The final results show that the viscosity effect and the frictional contact effect on the crack surface and the mixed-load parameter are important factors in studying the mixed mode interface crack-tip fields. These fields are controlled by the viscosity coefficient, the Mach number, and the singularity exponent.
Viscoplastic behavior of multiphase Earth mantle polycrystals inferred from micromechanical modeling
Castelnau, O.; Detrez, F.; Bollinger, C.; Cordier, P.; Hilairet, N.; Merkel, S.; Raterron, P. C.
2012-12-01
The strongly anisotropic rheology of olivine and pyroxene single grains, associated to polycrystal microstructures, constitutes a key feature affecting the dynamics of the Earth's upper mantle. High pressure deformation experiments carried out on olivine single crystals under synchrotron radiation, together with estimations of lattice friction based on first-principle calculations, show a transition from easy [100] to easy [001] slips in olivine as pressure and temperature (thus depth) increases. Besides dislocation glide, diffusion related deformation mechanisms such as dislocation climb, diffusion creep, and grain boundary sliding cannot be completely ruled out. Since their behavior is poorly known, they are grouped into a single isotropic viscous component. We input these elementary deformation mechanisms into a mean-field homogenization scheme (second-order self-consistent scheme of Ponte-Castaneda). This model presents the advantage of accurately predicting the mechanical interaction between deforming grains, as attested by many comparisons with full-field modeling on various polycrystals and 2-phases composites. The model has been adapted for predicting the viscoplastic behavior of olivine and olivine-pyroxene polycrystalline aggregates. Results illustrating the respective activation of elementary deformation mechanisms, but also the effect on texture evolution along several flow paths representative for in situ conditions, will be presented. It is shown that results strongly depart from intuitive models sometimes used in the literature. In particular, the polycrystal rheology is highly influenced by the poorly known hard slip systems and/or diffusion related processes.
Micromechanical modeling of the viscoplastic behavior of multiphase Earth mantle polycrystals
Detrez, F.; Castelnau, O.; Bollinger, C.; Cordier, P.; Hilairet, N.; Merkel, S.; Raterron, P. C.
2011-12-01
The strongly anisotropic rheology of olivine and pyroxene single grains, associated to polycrystal microstructures, constitutes a key feature affecting the dynamics of the Earth's upper mantle. High pressure deformation experiments carried out on olivine single crystals under synchrotron radiation, together with estimations of lattice friction based on first-principle calculations, show a transition from easy [100] to easy [001] slips in olivine as pressure and temperature (thus depth) increases. Besides dislocation glide, diffusion related deformation mechanisms such as dislocation climb, diffusional creep, and grain boundary sliding cannot be completely ruled out. Since their behavior is poorly known, they are grouped into a single isotropic viscous component. We input these elementary deformation mechanisms into a mean-field homogenization scheme (second-order self-consistent scheme of Ponte-Castaneda). This model presents the advantage of accurately predicting the mechanical interaction between deforming grains, as attested by many comparisons with full-field modeling on various polycrystals and 2-phases composites. The model has been adapted for predicting the viscoplastic behavior of olivine and olivine-pyroxene polycrystalline aggregates. Results illustrating the respective activation of elementary deformation mechanisms, but also the effect on texture evolution along several flow paths representative for in situ conditions, will be presented. It is shown that results strongly depart from intuitive models sometimes used in the literature. In particular, the polycrystal rheology is highly influenced by the poorly known hard slip systems and/or diffusion related processes.
Viscoelastic material inversion using Sierra-SD and ROL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aquino, Wilkins [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urbina, Angel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-11-01
In this report we derive frequency-domain methods for inverse characterization of the constitutive parameters of viscoelastic materials. The inverse problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients and Hessian vector products through matrix free operations. The abstract optimization operators for first and second derivatives are derived from first principles. Various methods from the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL) are tested on the viscoelastic inversion problem. The methods described herein are applied to compute the viscoelastic bulk and shear moduli of a foam block model, which was recently used in experimental testing for viscoelastic property characterization.
Modelling the viscoelasticity of ceramic tiles by finite element
Pavlovic, Ana; Fragassa, Cristiano
2016-05-01
This research details a numerical method aiming at investigating the viscoelastic behaviour of a specific family of ceramic material, the Grès Porcelain, during an uncommon transformation, known as pyroplasticity, which occurs when a ceramic tile bends under a combination of thermal stress and own weight. In general, the theory of viscoelasticity can be considered extremely large and precise, but its application on real cases is particularly delicate. A time-depending problem, as viscoelasticity naturally is, has to be merged with a temperature-depending situation. This paper investigates how the viscoelastic response of bending ceramic materials can be modelled by commercial Finite Elements codes.
Quantitative modelling of viscoelasticity of isotropic fibrous composites with viscoelastic matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
Despite the wide usage of isotropic fibrous composites with a viscoelastic polymer matrix,no analytic model for their mechanical behaviour is known.This paper develops such a model for time-dependent Young's modulus,showing that for typical constituents the time constants of composites are up to about 6% greater than the matrix shear time constant.Viscoelasticity is strongly suppressed for stiff fibres even at modest fibre volume fractions.Comparison with known results for particle and oriented fibre compos...
Sedaghatizadeh, N; Atefi, G; Fardad, A A; Barari, A; Soleimani, Soheil; Khani, S
2011-10-01
In this investigation, semiempirical and numerical studies of blood flow in a viscoelastic artery were performed using the Cosserat continuum model. The large-amplitude oscillatory shear deformation model was used to quantify the nonlinear viscoelastic response of blood flow. The finite difference method was used to solve the governing equations, and the particle swarm optimization algorithm was utilized to identify the non-Newtonian coefficients (k(υ) and γ(υ)). The numerical results agreed well with previous experimental results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dynamic viscoelastic behavior of lower extremity tendons during simulated running.
De Zee, M; Bojsen-Moller, F; Voigt, M
2000-10-01
The aim of this project was to see whether the tendon would show creep during long-term dynamic loading (here referred to as dynamic creep). Pig tendons were loaded by a material-testing machine with a human Achilles tendon force profile (1.37 Hz, 3% strain, 1,600 cycles), which was obtained in an earlier in vivo experiment during running. All the pig tendons showed some dynamic creep during cyclic loading (between 0.23 +/- 0.15 and 0.42 +/- 0.21%, means +/- SD). The pig tendon data were used as an input of a model to predict dynamic creep in the human Achilles tendon during running of a marathon and to evaluate whether there might consequently be an influence on group Ia afferent-mediated length and velocity feedback from muscle spindles. The predicted dynamic creep in the Achilles tendon was considered to be too small to have a significant influence on the length and velocity feedback from soleus during running. In spite of the characteristic nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of tendons, our results demonstrate that these properties have a minor effect on the ability of tendons to act as predictable, stable, and elastic force transmitters during long-term cyclic loading.
Leukocyte deformability: finite element modeling of large viscoelastic deformation.
Dong, C; Skalak, R
1992-09-21
An axisymmetric deformation of a viscoelastic sphere bounded by a prestressed elastic thin shell in response to external pressure is studied by a finite element method. The research is motivated by the need for understanding the passive behavior of human leukocytes (white blood cells) and interpreting extensive experimental data in terms of the mechanical properties. The cell at rest is modeled as a sphere consisting of a cortical prestressed shell with incompressible Maxwell fluid interior. A large-strain deformation theory is developed based on the proposed model. General non-linear, large strain constitutive relations for the cortical shell are derived by neglecting the bending stiffness. A representation of the constitutive equations in the form of an integral of strain history for the incompressible Maxwell interior is used in the formulation of numerical scheme. A finite element program is developed, in which a sliding boundary condition is imposed on all contact surfaces. The mathematical model developed is applied to evaluate experimental data of pipette tests and observations of blood flow.
Maarschalk, KV; Vromans, H; Bolhuis, GK; Lerk, CF
This paper evalutes the applicability of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) as a tool to explain consolidation and relaxation behaviour of a viscoelastic powder compressed at different speeds. From the DMA-data it is concluded that the material becomes more rigid and more elastic with increasing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebensohn, Ricardo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Sukbin [CMU; Rollett, Anthony D [CMU
2009-01-01
A viscoplastic approach using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method for obtaining local mechanical response is utilized to study microstructure-property relationships in composite materials. Specifically, three-dimensional, two-phase digital materials containing isotropically coarsened particles surrounded by a matrix phase, generated through a Kinetic Monte Carlo Potts model for Ostwald ripening, are used as instantiations in order to calculate the stress and strain rate fields under uniaxial tension. The effects of the morphology of the matrix phase, the volume fraction and the contiguity of particles, and the polycrystallinity of matrix phase, on the stress and strain rate fields under uniaxial tension are examined. It is found that the first moments of the stress and strain rate fields have a different dependence on the particle volume fraction and the particle contiguity from their second moments. The average stresses and average strain rates of both phases and of the overall composite have rather simple relationships with the particle volume fraction whereas their standard deviations vary strongly, especially when the particle volume fraction is high, and the contiguity of particles has a noticeable effect on the mechanical response. It is also found that the shape of stress distribution in the BCC hard particle phase evolves as the volume fraction of particles in the composite varies, such that it agrees with the stress field in the BCC polycrystal as the volume of particles approaches unity. Finally, it is observed that the stress and strain rate fields in the microstructures with a polycrystalline matrix are less sensitive to changes in volume fraction and contiguity of particles.
Mud-Wave Interaction: A Viscoelastic Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
This study is devoted to the interaction between water surface waves and a thin layer of viscoelastic mud on the bottom. On the assumption that the mud layer is comparable in thickness with the wave boundary layer and is much smaller than the wavelength, a two-layer Stokes boundary layer model is adopted to determine the mud motions under the waves. Analytical expressions are derived for the near-bottom water and mud velocity fields, surface wave-damping rate, and interface wave amplitude and phase lag. Examined in particular is how these kinematic quantities may depend on the viscous and elastic properties of the mud.
Viscoelastic Phase Separation of Protein Solutions
Tanaka, Hajime; Nishikawa, Yuya
2005-08-01
In addition to the known behavior of normal phase separation and gelation, we report novel phase-separation behavior of protein solutions as their intermediate case. A network structure of the protein-rich phase may be formed even if it is the minority phase, contrary to the conventional wisdom. This behavior is characteristic of viscoelastic phase separation found in polymer solutions. This kinetic pathway may play crucial roles in the complex phase ordering of protein solutions, in particular, protein network formation in biological systems and foods.
Transient waves in finite viscoelastic rods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mainardi, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Nervosi, R. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))
1980-11-29
A method based on the Laplace transform is presented to compute wave-front expansions for transient waves in finite viscoelastic rods using the creep or the relaxation representation. The response is related to the basic solution of the semi-infinite problem, for which a series expansion is obtained by a recursive procedure. The convergence is guaranteed in any space-time domain if the material functions are entirely of exponential type. However, for numerical computation an acceleration of convergence is required and the Pade approximants turn out to be successful as shown by some examples.
Absolute instability in viscoelastic mixing layers
Ray, Prasun K.; Zaki, Tamer A.
2014-01-01
The spatiotemporal linear stability of viscoelastic planar mixing layers is investigated. A one-parameter family of velocity profiles is used as the base state with the parameter, S, controlling the amount of shear and backflow. The influence of viscoelasticity in dilute polymer solutions is modeled with the Oldroyd-B and FENE-P constitutive equations. Both models require the specification of the ratio of the polymer-relaxation and convective time scales (the Weissenberg number, We) and the ratio of solvent and solution viscosities (β). The maximum polymer extensibility, L, must also be specified for the FENE-P model. We examine how the variation of these parameters along with the Reynolds number, Re, affects the minimum value of S at which the flow becomes locally absolutely unstable. With the Oldroyd-B model, the influence of viscoelasticity is shown to be almost fully captured by the elasticity, E^* equiv (1-β ) We/Re, and Scrit decreases as elasticity is increased, i.e., elasticity is destabilizing. A simple approximate dispersion relation obtained via long-wave asymptotic analysis is shown to accurately capture this destabilizing influence. Results obtained with the FENE-P model exhibit a rich variety of behavior. At large values of the extensibility, L, results are similar to those for the Oldroyd-B fluid as expected. However, when the extensibility is reduced to more realistic values (L ≈ 100), one must consider the scaled shear rate, η _c equiv We S/2L, in addition to the elasticity. When ηc is large, the base-state polymer stress obtained by the FENE-P model is reduced, and there is a corresponding reduction in the overall influence of viscoelasticity on stability. Additionally, elasticity exhibits a stabilizing effect which is driven by the streamwise-normal perturbation polymer stress. As ηc is reduced, the base-state and perturbation normal polymer stresses predicted by the FENE-P model move towards the Oldroyd-B values, and the destabilizing
Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model
Wang, Xiaofei; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model. In the case with a small nonlinearity (small amplitude of wave), asymptotic analysis predicts several behaviours of the wave: propagation in a uniform tube, attenuation of the amplitude due to the skin friction, diffusion due to the viscosity of the wall, and reflection and transmission at a branching point. These predictions are compared very favorably with all of the numerical solutions. The schemes are also tested in case with a larger nonlinearity. Finally, we apply all of the schemes on a relatively realistic arterial system with 55 arteries. The schemes are compared in four aspects: the spatial and temporal convergence speed, the ability to capture shock phenomena, the computation speed and the complexity of the implementation. The suitable conditions for the application of the various schemes are discussed.
Light scanner based on a viscoelastic stretchable grating
Simonov, A.N.; Akhzar-Mehr, O.; Vdovine, G.V.
2005-01-01
We present a new technique for light scanning by use of viscoelastic-based deformable phase diffraction gratings. Mechanical stretching of the grating permits control of its spatial period, and thus the orders of diffraction can be spatially deflected. In the experiments the viscoelastic gratings wi
Convergence of the Solution to General Viscoelastic Koiter Shell Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fu Shan LI
2007-01-01
By applying the inequality of Korn's type without boundary conditions on a general surface, we prove that the scaled displacement of the two-dimensional linearly viscoelastic Koiter's shell converges to the solution of two-dimensional model system of linearly viscoelastic "membrane" shell.
Semi-analytical computation of displacement in linear viscoelastic materials
Spinu, S.; Gradinaru, D.
2015-11-01
Prediction of mechanical contact performance based on elastic models is not accurate in case of viscoelastic materials; however, a closed-form description of the viscoelastic contact has yet to be found. This paper aims to advance a semi-analytical method for computation of displacement induced in viscoelastic materials by arbitrary surface tractions, as a prerequisite to a semi-analytical solution for the viscoelastic contact problem. The newly advanced model is expected to provide greater generality, allowing for arbitrary contact geometry and / or arbitrary loading history. While time-independent equations in the purely elastic model can be treated numerically by imposing a spatial discretization only, a viscoelastic constitutive law requires supplementary temporal discretization capable of simulating the memory effect specific to viscoelastic materials. By deriving new influence coefficients, computation of displacement induced in a viscoelastic material by a known but otherwise arbitrary history of surface tractions can be achieved via superposition authorized by the Boltzmann superposition theory applicable in the frame of linear viscoelasticity.
EXPERIMENTAL MODAL ANALYSIS OF VISCO-ELASTICALLY DAMPED STRUCTURES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
The form of the modal analysis of viscoelastically damped structures is simplified and this simplified form is similar to the form of the modal analysis of linear viscously damped structures. As a result of this simplified form, the experimental modal analysis methods of linear viscously damped structures are applied to the experimental modal analysis of viscoelastically damped structures.
Effect of Viscoelasticity on Adhesion of Bioinspired Micropatterned Epoxy Surfaces
Castellanos, G.; Arzt, E.; Kamperman, M.M.G.
2011-01-01
The effect of viscoelasticity on adhesion was investigated for micropatterned epoxy surfaces and compared to nonpatterned surfaces. A two-component epoxy system was used to produce epoxy compositions with different viscoelastic properties. Pillar arrays with flat punch tip geometries were fabricated
Light scanner based on a viscoelastic stretchable grating
Simonov, A.N.; Akhzar-Mehr, O.; Vdovine, G.V.
2005-01-01
We present a new technique for light scanning by use of viscoelastic-based deformable phase diffraction gratings. Mechanical stretching of the grating permits control of its spatial period, and thus the orders of diffraction can be spatially deflected. In the experiments the viscoelastic gratings wi
Numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows with free surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2013-01-01
We present a new methodology to simulate viscoelastic flows with free-surfaces. These simulations are motivated by the modelling of polymers manufacturing techniques, such as extrusion and injection moulding. One of the consequences of viscoelasticity is that polymeric materials have a “memory...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sauter, F
2001-02-01
This work is a part of a project led by EDF the purpose of which is the development of more predictive models to describe the thermomechanical behavior of fuel assembly. First, we recall the baselines of the Power Water Reactors then we deal with the viscoplastic behavior of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This knowledge enables an accurate description of the stress relaxation during Pellet Cladding Interactions. The pellets we have used in the last part are similar to the industrial ones. They exhibit a yield point during strain hardening tests and a sigma creep curve. In order to describe these characteristics, we have adapted different kind of approaches: thermodynamical - the Distribution of Non Linear Relaxations, approaches based on dislocation glide inspired by Alexander and Haasen and introduced in the Pilvin polycrystalline model. We recall the purpose of internal variables in the thermodynamics of system far from equilibrium then in case of a viscoplastic flow controlled by dislocation glide, we establish a link between densities of dislocations and internal variables in the D.N.L.R. approach. As vacancy diffusion in the grain boundary has a contribution to the viscoplastic strain, a similar is presented in appendix. These models are able to reproduce the behavior of UO{sub 2} pellets in strain hardening, stress relaxation and creep tests. Much possible progress has been revealed by the analysis of the tests. Further more, we propose a model for yield point and sigma creep curve. We also have extended these results to the behavior of irradiated pellets and stressed the influence of damage. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Plastic limit load of viscoplastic thick-walled cylinder and spherical shell subjected to internal pressure is investigated analytically using a strain gradient plastic-itv theory. As a result, the current solutions can capture the size effect at the micron scale. Numerical results show that the smaller the inner radius of the cylinder or spherical shell, the more significant the scale effects. Results also show that the size effect is more evident with increasing strain or strain-rate sensitivity index. The classical plastic-based solutions of the same problems are shown to be a special case of the present solution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmadi, Nabi; Nayebi, Ali [Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-07-15
Yield surface distortion and its center movement were employed in a unified viscoplastic model to predict the ratcheting behavior of the 304 stainless steel. A combination of the Ohno-Wang model and the yield surface distortion model of Baltov and Sawczuk was used in uniaxial loading. Stress amplitude and the mean stress were varied in the tests to verify the model. Uniaxial loadings were simulated with and without consideration of yield surface distortion. Results from both simulations were compared. Yield surface distortion showed a significant effect on the simulation of the ratcheting responses.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Compared with the traditional rigid-plastic/rigid-viscoplastic(RP/RVP) FEM(based on iteration solution),RP/RVP FEM based on linear programming (LP) has some remarkable advantages,such as it's free of convergence problem and its convenience in contact,rigid zone,and friction force treatment.The numerical model of RP/RVP FEM based on LP for axisymmetrical metal forming simulation is studied,and some related key factors and its treatment methods in formulation of constraint condition are proposed.Some solution examples are provided to validate its accuracy and efficiency.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Rostami
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An analytical strong method, the homotopy analysis method (HAM, is employed to study the mixed convective heat transfer in an incompressible steady two-dimensional viscoelastic fluid flow over a wedge in the presence of buoyancy effects. The two-dimensional boundary-layer governing partial differential equations (PDEs are derived by the consideration of Boussinesq approximation. By the use of similarity transformation, we have obtained the ordinary differential nonlinear (ODE forms of momentum and energy equations. The highly nonlinear forms of momentum and energy equations are solved analytically. The effects of different involved parameters such as viscoelastic parameter, Prandtl number, buoyancy parameter, and the wedge angle parameter, which is related to the exponent m of the external velocity, on velocity and temperature distributions are plotted and discussed. An excellent agreement can be seen between the results and the previously published papers for f′′(0 and θ′(0 in some of the tables and figures of the paper for velocity and temperature profiles for various values of viscoelastic parameter and Prandtl number. The effects of buoyancy parameter on the velocity and temperature distributions are completely illustrated in detail.
Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake
Richter, David
2012-01-16
At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.
Rheology of human blood plasma: Viscoelastic versus Newtonian behavior
Brust, M; Pan, L; Garcia, M; Arratia, P E; Wagner, C; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.078305
2013-01-01
We investigate the rheological characteristics of human blood plasma in shear and elongational flows. While we can confirm a Newtonian behavior in shear flow within experimental resolution, we find a viscoelastic behavior of blood plasma in the pure extensional flow of a capillary break-up rheometer. The influence of the viscoelasticity of blood plasma on capillary blood flow is tested in a microfluidic device with a contraction-expansion geometry. Differential pressure measurements revealed that the plasma has a pronounced flow resistance compared to that of pure water. Supplementary measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity of the plasma might even lead to viscoelastic instabilities under certain conditions. Our findings show that the viscoelastic properties of plasma should not be ignored in future studies on blood flow.
Is viscoelastic coagulation monitoring with ROTEM or TEG validated?
Solomon, Cristina; Asmis, Lars M; Spahn, Donat R
2016-10-01
Recent years have seen increasing worldwide interest in the use of viscoelastic coagulation monitoring tests, performed using devices such as ROTEM and TEG. The use of such tests to guide haemostatic therapy may help reduce transfusion of allogeneic blood products in bleeding patients and is supported in European guidelines for managing trauma and severe perioperative bleeding. In addition, viscoelastic tests form the basis of numerous published treatment algorithms. However, some publications have stated that viscoelastic tests are not validated. A specific definition of the term validation is lacking and regulatory requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have been fulfilled by ROTEM and TEG assays. Viscoelastic tests have been used in pivotal clinical trials, and they are approved for use in most of the world's countries. Provided that locally approved indications are adhered to, the regulatory framework for clinicians to use viscoelastic tests in routine clinical practice is in place.
Interfacial Dynamics of Thin Viscoelastic Films and Drops
Barra, Valeria; Kondic, Lou
2016-01-01
We present a computational investigation of thin viscoelastic films and drops on a solid substrate subject to the van der Waals interaction force. The governing equations are obtained within a long-wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations with Jeffreys model for viscoelastic stresses. We investigate the effects of viscoelasticity, Newtonian viscosity, and the substrate slippage on the dynamics of thin viscoelastic films. We also study the effects of viscoelasticity on drops that spread or recede on a prewetted substrate. For dewetting films, the numerical results show the presence of multiple secondary droplets for higher values of elasticity, consistently with experimental findings. For drops, we find that elastic effects lead to deviations from the Cox-Voinov law for partially wetting fluids. In general, elastic effects enhance spreading, and suppress retraction, compared to Newtonian ones.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Nonlinear parametric vibration of axially accelerating viscoelastic beams is inves-tigated via an approximate analytical method with numerical confirmations. Based on nonlinear models of a finite-small-stretching slender beam moving at a speed with a periodic fluctuation, a solvability condition is established via the method of multiple scales for subharmonic resonance. Therefore, the amplitudes of steady-state periodic responses and their existence conditions are derived. The amplitudes of stable steady-state responses increase with the amplitude of the axial speed fluctuation, and decrease with the viscosity coefficient and the nonlinear coefficient. The minimum of the detuning parameter which causes the existence of a stable steady-state periodic response decreases with the amplitude of the axial speed fluctuation, and increases with the viscosity coefficient. Nu-merical solutions are sought via the finite difference scheme for a nonlinear par-tial-differential equation and a nonlinear integro-partial-differential equation. The calculation results qualitatively confirm the effects of the related parameters pre-dicted by the approximate analysis on the amplitude and the existence condition of the stable steady-state periodic responses. Quantitative comparisons demonstrate that the approximate analysis results have rather high precision.
Krempl, Erhard; Hong, Bor Zen
1989-01-01
A macromechanics analysis is presented for the in-plane, anisotropic time-dependent behavior of metal matrix laminates. The small deformation, orthotropic viscoplasticity theory based on overstress represents lamina behavior in a modified simple laminate theory. Material functions and constants can be identified in principle from experiments with laminae. Orthotropic invariants can be repositories for tension-compression asymmetry and for linear elasticity in one direction while the other directions behave in a viscoplastic manner. Computer programs are generated and tested for either unidirectional or symmetric laminates under in-plane loading. Correlations with the experimental results on metal matrix composites are presented.
Mechanical vibration of viscoelastic liquid droplets
Sharp, James; Harrold, Victoria
2014-03-01
The resonant vibrations of viscoelastic sessile droplets supported on different substrates were monitored using a simple laser light scattering technique. In these experiments, laser light was reflected from the surfaces of droplets of high Mw poly acrylamide-co-acrylic acid (PAA) dissolved in water. The scattered light was allowed to fall on the surface of a photodiode detector and a mechanical impulse was applied to the drops using a vibration motor mounted beneath the substrates. The mechanical impulse caused the droplets to vibrate and the scattered light moved across the surface of the photodiode. The resulting time dependent photodiode signal was then Fourier transformed to obtain the mechanical vibrational spectra of the droplets. The frequencies and widths of the resonant peaks were extracted for droplets containing different concentrations of PAA and with a range of sizes. This was repeated for PAA loaded water drops on surfaces which displayed different values of the three phase contact angle. The results were compared to a simple model of droplet vibration which considers the formation of standing wave states on the surface of a viscoelastic droplet. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Leverhulme trust under grant number RPG-2012-702.
Polymer engineering science and viscoelasticity an introduction
Brinson, Hal F
2015-01-01
This book provides a unified mechanics and materials perspective on polymers: both the mathematics of viscoelasticity theory as well as the physical mechanisms behind polymer deformation processes. Introductory material on fundamental mechanics is included to provide a continuous baseline for readers from all disciplines. Introductory material on the chemical and molecular basis of polymers is also included, which is essential to the understanding of the thermomechanical response. This self-contained text covers the viscoelastic characterization of polymers including constitutive modeling, experimental methods, thermal response, and stress and failure analysis. Example problems are provided within the text as well as at the end of each chapter. New to this edition: · One new chapter on the use of nano-material inclusions for structural polymer applications and applications such as fiber-reinforced polymers and adhesively bonded structures · Brings up-to-date polymer pro...
Viscoelastic struts for vibration mitigation of FORTE
Maly, Joseph R.; Butler, Thomas A.
1996-05-01
FORTE is a small satellite being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque (SNLA). It will be placed into orbit via a Pegasus launch in 1996. Testing a full-scale engineering model of the structure using the proto- qualification, system-level vibration spectrum indicated that acceleration levels caused by structural resonances exceed component levels to which certain sensitive components had previously been qualified. Viscoelastic struts were designed to reduce response levels associated with these resonances by increasing the level of damping in key structural modes of the spacecraft. Four identical shear-lap struts were fabricated and installed between the two primary equipment decks. The struts were designed using a system finite element model (FEM) of the spacecraft, a component FEM of the strut, and measured viscoelastic properties. Direct complex stiffness testing was performed to characterize the frequency-dependent behavior of the struts, and these measured properties (shear modulus and loss factor) were used to represent the struts in the spacecraft model. System-level tests were repeated with the struts installed and the response power spectral densities at critical component locations were reduced by as much as 10 dB in the frequency range of interest.
Droplet breakup dynamics of weakly viscoelastic fluids
Marshall, Kristin; Walker, Travis
2016-11-01
The addition of macromolecules to solvent, even in dilute quantities, can alter a fluid's response in an extensional flow. For low-viscosity fluids, the presence of elasticity may not be apparent when measured using a standard rotational rheometer, yet it may still alter the response of a fluid when undergoing an extensional deformation, especially at small length scales where elastic effects are enhanced. Applications such as microfluidics necessitate investigating the dynamics of fluids with elastic properties that are not pronounced at large length scales. In the present work, a microfluidic cross-slot configuration is used to study the effects of elasticity on droplet breakup. Droplet breakup and the subsequent iterated-stretching - where beads form along a filament connecting two primary droplets - were observed for a variety of material and flow conditions. We present a relationship on the modes of bead formation and how and when these modes will form based on key parameters such as the properties of the outer continuous-phase fluid. The results are vital not only for simulating the droplet breakup of weakly viscoelastic fluids but also for understanding how the droplet breakup event can be used for characterizing the extensional properties of weakly-viscoelastic fluids.
Measurement of tissue viscoelasticity with ultrasound
Greenleaf, J. F.; Alizad, A.
2017-02-01
Tissue properties such as elasticity and viscosity have been shown to be related to such tissue conditions as contraction, edema, fibrosis, and fat content among others. Magnetic Resonance Elastography has shown outstanding ability to measure the elasticity and in some cases the viscosity of tissues, especially in the liver, providing the ability to stage fibrotic liver disease similarly to biopsy. We discuss ultrasound methods of measuring elasticity and viscosity in tissues. Many of these methods are becoming widely available in the extant ultrasound machines distributed throughout the world. Some of the methods to be discussed are in the developmental stage. The advantages of the ultrasound methods are that the imaging instruments are widely available and that many of the viscoelastic measurements can be made during a short addition to the normal ultrasound examination time. In addition, the measurements can be made by ultrasound repetitively and quickly allowing evaluation of dynamic physiologic function in circumstances such as muscle contraction or artery relaxation. Measurement of viscoelastic tissue mechanical properties will become a consistent part of clinical ultrasound examinations in our opinion.
Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets: Viscoelastic Response Models
Henning, Wade G; Sasselov, Dimitar D; 10.1088/0004-637X/707/2/1000
2009-01-01
Tidal friction in exoplanet systems, driven by orbits that allow for durable nonzero eccentricities at short heliocentric periods, can generate internal heating far in excess of the conditions observed in our own solar system. Secular perturbations or a notional 2:1 resonance between a Hot Earth and Hot Jupiter can be used as a baseline to consider the thermal evolution of convecting bodies subject to strong viscoelastic tidal heating. We compare results first from simple models using a fixed Quality factor and Love number, and then for three different viscoelastic rheologies: the Maxwell body, the Standard Anelastic Solid, and the Burgers body. The SAS and Burgers models are shown to alter the potential for extreme tidal heating by introducing the possibility of new equilibria and multiple response peaks. We find that tidal heating tends to exceed radionuclide heating at periods below 10-30 days, and exceed insolation only below 1-2 days. Extreme cases produce enough tidal heat to initiate global-scale parti...
Viscoelastic properties of actin-coated membranes
Helfer, E.; Harlepp, S.; Bourdieu, L.; Robert, J.; Mackintosh, F. C.; Chatenay, D.
2001-02-01
In living cells, cytoskeletal filaments interact with the plasma membrane to form structures that play a key role in cell shape and mechanical properties. To study the interaction between these basic components, we designed an in vitro self-assembled network of actin filaments attached to the outer surface of giant unilamellar vesicles. Optical tweezers and single-particle tracking experiments are used to study the rich dynamics of these actin-coated membranes (ACM). We show that microrheology studies can be carried out on such an individual microscopic object. The principle of the experiment consists in measuring the thermally excited position fluctuations of a probe bead attached biochemically to the membrane. We propose a model that relates the power spectrum of these thermal fluctuations to the viscoelastic properties of the membrane. The presence of the actin network modifies strongly the membrane dynamics with respect to a fluid, lipid bilayer one. It induces first a finite (ω=0) two-dimensional (2D) shear modulus G02D~0.5 to 5 μN/m in the membrane plane. Moreover, the frequency dependence at high frequency of the shear modulus [G'2D(f )~f0.85+/-0.07] and of the bending modulus (κACM(f)~f0.55+/-0.21) demonstrate the viscoelastic behavior of the composite membrane. These results are consistent with a common exponent of 0.75 for both moduli as expected from our model and from prior measurements on actin solutions.
Viscoelasticity and shear thinning of nanoconfined water
Kapoor, Karan; Amandeep, Patil, Shivprasad
2014-01-01
Understanding flow properties and phase behavior of water confined to nanometer-sized pores and slits is central to a wide range of problems in science, such as percolation in geology, lubrication of future nano-machines, self-assembly and interactions of biomolecules, and transport through porous media in filtration processes. Experiments with different techniques in the past have reported that viscosity of nanoconfined water increases, decreases, or remains close to bulk water. Here we show that water confined to less than 20-nm-thick films exhibits both viscoelasticity and shear thinning. Typically viscoelasticity and shear thinning appear due to shearing of complex non-Newtonian mixtures possessing a slowly relaxing microstructure. The shear response of nanoconfined water in a range of shear frequencies (5 to 25 KHz) reveals that relaxation time diverges with reducing film thickness. It suggests that slow relaxation under confinement possibly arises due to existence of a critical point with respect to slit width. This criticality is similar to the capillary condensation in porous media.
Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles†
Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L.
2015-01-01
Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic. PMID:26268612
Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles.
Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L; Malmstadt, Noah
2015-10-07
Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P H Veena
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper two dimensional flow of a viscoelastic fluid due to stretching surface is considered. Flow analysis is carried out by using closed form solution of fourth order differential equation of motion of viscoelastic fluid. Further (Walters’ liquid B’ model heat transfer analysis is carried out using convective surface condition. The governing equations of flow and heat transfer are non-linear partial differential equations which are unable to solve analytically hence are solved using Runge-Kutta Numerical Method with efficient shooting technique. The flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied through plots drawn. Numerical values of Wall temperature are calculated and presented in the table and compared with earlier published results which are in good agreement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhadauria B.S.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the combined effect of internal heating and time periodic gravity modulation in a viscoelastic fluid saturated porous medium by reducing the problem into a complex non-autonomous Ginzgburg-Landau equation. Weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed by using power series expansion in terms of the amplitude of gravity modulation, which is assumed to be small. The Nusselt number is obtained in terms of the amplitude for oscillatory mode of convection. The influence of viscoelastic parameters on heat transfer has been discussed. Gravity modulation is found to have a destabilizing effect at low frequencies and a stabilizing effect at high frequencies. Finally, it is found that overstability advances the onset of convection, more with internal heating. The conditions for which the complex Ginzgburg-Landau equation undergoes Hopf bifurcation and the amplitude equation undergoes supercritical pitchfork bifurcation are studied.
Kawai, Masamichi; Kazama, Takeshi; Masuko, Yoichi; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Jun; Kemmochi, Kiyoshi
Off-axis stress relaxation behavior of unidirectional T800H/3631 carbon/epoxy composite exposed to high temperature is examined at relatively high tensile strain levels, and a phenomenological viscoplasticity model is tested on the capability to describe the time-dependent response observed. First, stress relaxation tests are performed at 100°C on plain coupon specimens with different fiber orientations, θ=0, 10, 30, 45, and 90°. For each of the fiber orientations, in principle, stress relaxation tests are carried out at three different strain levels. The relaxation of axial stress in the unidirectional composite is clearly observed, regardless of the fiber orientation. Just after the total strain hold, the axial stress quickly relaxes with time in a short period. The stress relaxation rate of the composite tends to become zero, irrespective of the fiber orientation. The associated relaxation modulus depends on the level of strain. The entire process of the prior instantaneous tensile response and the subsequent off-axis stress relaxation behavior is simulated using a macromechanical viscoplasticity model based on an overstress concept. It is demonstrated that the model succeeds in adequately reproducing the off-axis stress relaxation behavior of the unidirectional composite laminate.
A viscoplastic shear-zone model for episodic slow slip events in oceanic subduction zones
Yin, A.; Meng, L.
2016-12-01
Episodic slow slip events occur widely along oceanic subduction zones at the brittle-ductile transition depths ( 20-50 km). Although efforts have been devoted to unravel their mechanical origins, it remains unclear about the physical controls on the wide range of their recurrence intervals and slip durations. In this study we present a simple mechanical model that attempts to account for the observed temporal evolution of slow slip events. In our model we assume that slow slip events occur in a viscoplastic shear zone (i.e., Bingham material), which has an upper static and a lower dynamic plastic yield strength. We further assume that the hanging wall deformation is approximated as an elastic spring. We envision the shear zone to be initially locked during forward/landward motion but is subsequently unlocked when the elastic and gravity-induced stress exceeds the static yield strength of the shear zone. This leads to backward/trenchward motion damped by viscous shear-zone deformation. As the elastic spring progressively loosens, the hanging wall velocity evolves with time and the viscous shear stress eventually reaches the dynamic yield strength. This is followed by the termination of the trenchward motion when the elastic stress is balanced by the dynamic yield strength of the shear zone and the gravity. In order to account for the zig-saw slip-history pattern of typical repeated slow slip events, we assume that the shear zone progressively strengthens after each slow slip cycle, possibly caused by dilatancy as commonly assumed or by progressive fault healing through solution-transport mechanisms. We quantify our conceptual model by obtaining simple analytical solutions. Our model results suggest that the duration of the landward motion increases with the down-dip length and the static yield strength of the shear zone, but decreases with the ambient loading velocity and the elastic modulus of the hanging wall. The duration of the backward/trenchward motion depends
Interrogating the viscoelastic properties of tissue using viscoelastic response (VISR) ultrasound
Selzo, Mallory Renee
Affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 newborn males, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic disorders in humans. Boys with DMD suffer progressive loss of muscle strength and function, leading to wheelchair dependence, cardiac and respiratory compromise, and death during young adulthood. There are currently no treatments that can halt or reverse the disease progression, and translating prospective treatments into clinical trials has been delayed by inadequate outcome measures. Current outcome measures, such as functional and muscle strength assessments, lack sensitivity to individual muscles, require subjective effort of the child, and are impacted by normal childhood growth and development. The goal of this research is to develop Viscoelastic Response (VisR) ultrasound which can be used to delineate compositional changes in muscle associated with DMD. In VisR, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is used to produce small, localized displacements within the muscle. Using conventional ultrasound to track the motion, the displacement response of the tissue can be evaluated against a mechanical model. In order to develop signal processing techniques and assess mechanical models, finite element method simulations are used to model the response of a viscoelastic material to ARF excitations. Results are then presented demonstrating VisR differentiation of viscoelastic changes with progressive dystrophic degeneration in a dog model of DMD. Finally, clinical feasibility of VisR imaging is demonstrated in two boys with DMD.
Research on nonlinear constitutive relationship of permanent deformation in asphalt pavements
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG; Miaojuan; XU; Zhihong
2006-01-01
To predict correctly the rut depths in asphalt pavements,a new nonlinear viscoelastic-elastoplastic constitutive model of permanent deformation in asphalt pavements is presented.The model combines a generalized Maxwell model with an elastoplastic one.Then from the creep theory,the linear and nonlinear constitutive equations of the generalized Maxwell model are obtained.From the nonlinear finite element method for the rutting of the asphalt pavement,the rut depths of 4 asphalt-aggregate mixtures are obtained.And the results are compared with the ones from the finite element method by SHRP and the experiments by SWK/UN.The results in this paper are better than the ones by SHRP,and agree with the ones of the experiment by SWK/UN.This shows that the nonlinear viscoelastic-elastoplastic constitutive model,which is presented in this paper for the rutting of the asphalt pavement,is effective.The properties,such as nonlinear elasticity,plasticity,viscoelasticity and nonlinear viscoelasticity,which affect the rutting of an asphalt pavement,can be shown in the model.And the characteristics of the permanent deformation of the asphalt pavement can be presented entirely in the model.
MICROMECHANICS ANALYSIS ON EVOLUTION OF CRACK IN VISCOELASTIC MATERIALS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张双寅
2002-01-01
A preliminary analysis on crack evolution in viscoelastic materials was presented Based on the equivalent inclusion concept of micro mechanics theory, the explicit expressions of crack opening displacement δ and energy release rate G were derived,indicating that both δ and G are increasing with time. The equivalent modulus of the viscoelastic solid comprising cracks was evaluated. It is proved that the decrease of the modulus comes from two mechanisms: one is the viscoelasticity of the material; the other is the crack opening which is getting larger with time.
Study of the interconversion between viscoelastic behaviour functions of PMMA
Fernández, P.; Rodríguez, D.; Lamela, M. J.; Fernández-Canteli, A.
2011-05-01
The use of polymers and polymer-based composites in mechanical, civil and electronic engineering has been growing owing to advances in the technology of materials. The different applications and working conditions of these materials require knowledge about their viscoelastic material functions: relaxation modulus, compliance, complex modulus, etc. Interconversion between these functions may be required for different reasons such as the impossibility of direct experimentation under certain excitation conditions. In this work, a DMA is used to calculate the experimental viscoelastic functions of a linear viscoelastic material (PMMA). The same functions are estimated by interconversion methods and compared with experimental ones. The results show that the interconversion functions fit properly the experimental functions.
Wave Dispersion and Attenuation in Viscoelastic Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z.Q. Cheng
1998-01-01
Full Text Available A viscoelastic split Hopkinson pressure bar intended for testing soft materials with low acoustic impedance is studied. Using one-dimensional linear viscoelastic wave propagation theory, the basic equations have been established for the determination of the stress—strain—strain rate relationship for the tested material. A method, based on the spectral analysis of wave motion and using measured wave signals along the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is developed for the correction of the dispersion and attenuation of viscoelastic waves. Computational simulations are performed to show the feasibility of the method.
Thermal convection of viscoelastic shear-thinning fluids
Albaalbaki, Bashar; Khayat, Roger E.; Ahmed, Zahir U.
2016-12-01
The Rayleigh-Bénard convection for non-Newtonian fluids possessing both viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviours is examined. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation is implemented to model the non-Newtonian character of the fluid. It is found that while the shear-thinning and viscoelastic effects could annihilate one another for the steady roll flow, presence of both behaviours restricts the roll stability limit significantly compared to the cases when the fluid is either inelastic shear-thinning or purely viscoelastic with constant viscosity.
The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bastholm, Sara K.; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer;
2014-01-01
ObjectiveTo characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. DesignExperimental research. SettingDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Population/SampleSpontaneously shed CMPs from 18 healthy women in active...... labor. MethodsViscoelastic properties of CMPs were investigated with a dynamic oscillatory rheometer using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Main outcome measuresThe rheological variables obtained were as follows: elastic modulus (G), viscous modulus (G...
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF VISCOELASTIC FLOWS THROUGH ONE SLOT CHANNEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YIN Hong-jun; ZHONG Hui-ying; FU Chun-quan; WANG Lei
2007-01-01
In this article, the Modified Upper-Convected Maxwell equation (MUCM) is proposed. The viscoelastic polymer solution flow characteristics are described by the numerical method. The stream function contour, velocity contour and stress modulus contour of fluid in slot channel are drawn. The non-Newtonian power law property and viscoelasticity of MUCM fluid influence on the stream function are analyzed. The velocity contour move towards dead oil area with the viscoelasticity increase, flow area increase and the sweep area enlarges, so the sweep efficiency is enhanced.
[Viscoelastic properties of relaxed papillary muscle at physiological hypertrophy].
Smoliuk, L T; Lisin, R V; Kuznetsov, D A; Protsenko, Iu L
2012-01-01
Viscoelastic properties of relaxed rat papillary muscles at physiological hypertrophy (intensive swimming for 5 weeks) have been obtained. It has been ascertained that viscoelastic properties of hypertrophied muscles are not significantly distinguished from those of control papillary muscles. A three-dimensional model of myocardial fascicle has been verified in compliance with experimental data of biomechanical tests of hypertrophied muscles. Elastic and viscous parameters of structural elements of the model negligibly differ from the parameters of the model of a control muscle. It is shown that physiological hypertrophy has a slight influence on viscoelastic properties of papillary muscles.
Active-passive calibration of optical tweezers in viscoelastic media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fischer, Mario; Richardson, Andrew C; S Reihani, S Nader
2010-01-01
In order to use optical tweezers as a force measuring tool inside a viscoelastic medium such as the cytoplasm of a living cell, it is crucial to perform an exact force calibration within the complex medium. This is a nontrivial task, as many of the physical characteristics of the medium and probe......, e.g., viscosity, elasticity, shape, and density, are often unknown. Here, we suggest how to calibrate single beam optical tweezers in a complex viscoelastic environment. At the same time, we determine viscoelastic characteristics such as friction retardation spectrum and elastic moduli of the medium...
Love wave dispersion in anisotropic visco-elastic medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. GIR SUBHASH
1978-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a study on Love wave propagation in a anisotropic
visco-elastic layer overlying a rigid half space. The characteristic frequency
equation is obtained and the variation of the wave number with frequency
under the combined effect of visco-elasticity and anisotropy is analysed
in detail. The results show that the effect of visco-elasticity on the
wave is similar to that of anisotropy as long as the coefficient of anisotropy
is less than unity.
Collective dynamics of sperm in viscoelastic fluid
Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming
Collective dynamics in biology is an interesting subject for physicists, in part because of its close relations to emergent behaviors in condensed matter, such as phase separation and criticality. However, the emergence of order is often less drastic in systems composed of the living cells, sometimes due to the natural variability among individual organisms. Here, using bull sperm as a model system, we demonstrate that the cells migrate collectively in viscoelastic fluids, exhibiting behavior similar to ``flocking''. This collectiveness is greatly reduced in similarly viscous Newtonian fluids, suggesting that the cell-cell interaction is primarily a result of the elastic property or the memory effect of the fluids, instead of pure hydrodynamic interactions. Unlike bacterial swarming, this collectiveness does not require a change in phenotype of the cells; therefore, it is a better model system for physicists. Supported by NIH grant 1R01HD070038.
Viscoelastic models for explosive binder materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bardenhagen, S.G.; Harstad, E.N.; Maudlin, P.J.; Gray, G.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Foster, J.C. Jr. [Wright Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)
1997-07-01
An improved model of the mechanical properties of the explosive contained in conventional munitions is needed to accurately simulate performance and accident scenarios in weapons storage facilities. A specific class of explosives can he idealized as a mixture of two components: energetic crystals randomly suspended in a polymeric matrix (binder). Strength characteristics of each component material are important in the macroscopic behavior of the composite (explosive). Of interest here is the determination of an appropriate constitutive law for a polyurethane binder material. This paper is a continuation of previous work in modeling polyurethane at moderately high strain rates and for large deformations. Simulation of a large deformation (strains in excess of 100%) Taylor Anvil experiment revealed numerical difficulties which have been addressed. Additional experimental data have been obtained including improved resolution Taylor Anvil data, and stress relaxation data at various strain rates. A thorough evaluation of the candidate viscoelastic constitutive model is made and possible improvements discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙启新; 陈书法; 董玉平
2015-01-01
针对生物质颗粒生产能耗高、效率低的现状，该文从生物质组成角度，特别是木质素特性出发探讨其成型机理。秸秆成型过程由于内摩擦力的作用产生大量热量，温度的上升会造成木质素的软化，木质素的这一变化为纤维颗粒的团聚提供了黏结力。温度和木质素特性对生物质塑性成型性能产生巨大影响，是热黏塑变形过程。为研究生物质内部特性对塑性成型过程的影响，运用内时理论，以玉米秸秆、小麦秸秆和水稻秸秆为研究对象，构建了秸秆类生物质压缩成型内时本构方程。借助黏土流动理论，推导定义生物质黏塑性强化函数和核函数，运用数值分析和试验得出本构方程的系数。与试验数据相比较，基于内时理论的热黏塑性本构模型较好的模拟了生物质塑性流变过程。结果显示，向秸秆中添加20%的木质素，可有效提高其塑性流动性能，降低其在相同应变下的应力以及生产能耗；当成型温度在100～115℃之间，应变率在1×102～1×103 s-1之间，对于木质素质量分数分别为29%的玉米秸秆、33.5%的小麦秸秆和34.3%的水稻秸秆的固化成型性能最好。%Biomass briquetting is one of the key technologies to solve the problem of its collection, transportation and storage. Meanwhile biomass pellet, as a renewable energy, can be used instead of coal for heating, electricity, etc. Study on the mechanism of biomass briquetting is the basic way to develop new forming methods and equipments, and to improve productivity greatly. The research in this paper is about a thermo viscoplastic constitutive model for the biomass briquetting mechanism based on endochronic theory. Straw mainly consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is a typical example of dissipative material. Biomass briquetting process is a mixed process of extrusion flow and interstitial flow. During the process, a large
Oscillatory and electrohydrodynamic instabilities in flow over a viscoelastic gel
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R M Thaokar
2015-05-01
The stability of oscillatory flows over compliant surfaces is studied analytically and numerically. The type of compliant surfaces studied is the incompressible viscoelastic gel model. The stability is determined using the Floquet analysis, where amplitude of perturbations at time intervals separated by one time period is examined to determine whether perturbations grow or decay. Oscillatory flows pas viscoelastic gels exhibit an instability in the limit of zero Reynolds number, and the transition amplitude of the oscillatory velocity increases with the frequency of oscillations. The transition amplitude has a minimum at a finite wavenumber for the viscoelastic gel model. The instability is found to depend strongly on the gel viscosity $\\eta_{g}$, and the effect of oscillations on the continuation of viscous modes at intermediate Reynolds number shows a complicated dependence on the oscillation frequency. Experimental studies are carried out on the stability of an oscillatory flow past a viscoelastic gel at zero Reynolds number, and these confirm the theoretical predictions.
STABILITY ANALYSIS OF VISCOELASTIC CURVED PIPES CONVEYING FLUID
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhong-min; ZHANG Zhan-wu; ZHAO Feng-qun
2005-01-01
Based on the Hamilton's principle for elastic systems of changing mass, a differential equation of motion for viscoelastic curved pipes conveying fluid was derived using variational method, and the complex characteristic equation for the viscoelastic circular pipe conveying fluid was obtained by normalized power series method. The effects of dimensionless delay time on the variation relationship between dimensionless complex frequency of the clamped-clamped viscoelastic circular pipe conveying fluid with the Kelvin-Voigt model and dimensionless flow velocity were analyzed. For greater dimensionless delay time, the behavior of the viscoelastic pipe is that the first, second and third mode does not couple, while the pipe behaves divergent instability in the first and second order mode, then single-mode flutter takes place in the first order mode.
Free vibration and transverse stresses of viscoelastic laminated plates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ming-yong HU; An-wen WANG
2009-01-01
Based on Reddy's layerwise theory, the governing equations for dynamic response of viscoelastic laminated plate are derived by using the quadratic interpolation function for displacement in the direction of plate thickness. Vibration frequencies and loss factors are calculated for flee vibration of simply supported viscoelastic sandwich plate, showing good agreement with the results in the literature. Harmonious transverse stresses can be obtained. The results show that the transverse shear stresses are the main factor to the delamination of viscoelastic laminated plate in lower-frequency free vibra-tion, and the transverse normal stress is the main one in higher-frequency free vibration. Relationship between the modulus of viscoelastic materials and transverse stress is an-alyzed. Ratio between the transverse stress's maximum value and the in-plane stress's maximum-value is obtained. The results show that the proposed method, and the adopted equations and programs are reliable.
Lid-driven cavity flow of viscoelastic liquids
Sousa, R G; Afonso, A M; Pinho, F T; Oliveira, P J; Morozov, A; Alves, M A
2016-01-01
The lid-driven cavity flow is a well-known benchmark problem for the validation of new numerical methods and techniques. In experimental and numerical studies with viscoelastic fluids in such lid-driven flows, purely-elastic instabilities have been shown to appear even at very low Reynolds numbers. A finite-volume viscoelastic code, using the log-conformation formulation, is used in this work to probe the effect of viscoelasticity on the appearance of such instabilities in two-dimensional lid-driven cavities for a wide range of aspect ratios (0.125 < height/length < 4.0), at different Deborah numbers under creeping-flow conditions and to understand the effects of regularization of the lid velocity. The effect of the viscoelasticity on the steady-state results and on the critical conditions for the onset of the elastic instabilities are described and compared to experimental results.
Experimental characterisation of a novel viscoelastic rectifier design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin; Szabo, Peter
2012-01-01
A planar microfluidic system with contractions and obstacles is characterized in terms of anisotropic flow resistance due to viscoelastic effects. The working mechanism is illustrated using streak photography, while the diodicity performance is quantified by pressure drop measurements. The point...
Viscoelastic behavior of yellow pitahaya treated with 1-MCP
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Laura Sofia Torres Valenzuela; Alfredo Adolfo Ayala-Aponte; Liliana Serna
2016-01-01
.... The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the application of 1-MCP on the viscoelastic properties of minimally processed yellow pitahaya during refrigeration storage, by using a stress relaxation test...
Geometrically nonlinear creeping mathematic models of shells with variable thickness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Zhgoutov
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Calculations of strength, stability and vibration of shell structures play an important role in the design of modern devices machines and structures. However, the behavior of thin-walled structures of variable thickness during which geometric nonlinearity, lateral shifts, viscoelasticity (creep of the material, the variability of the profile take place and thermal deformation starts up is not studied enough.In this paper the mathematical deformation models of variable thickness shells (smoothly variable and ribbed shells, experiencing either mechanical load or permanent temperature field and taking into account the geometrical nonlinearity, creeping and transverse shear, were developed. The refined geometrical proportions for geometrically nonlinear and steadiness problems are given.
NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PILES UNDER HORIZONTAL VIBRATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Yu-jia; CHENG Chang-jun; YANG Xiao
2005-01-01
The pile-soil system is regarded as a visco-elastic half-space embedded pile. Based on the method of continuum mechanics, a nonlinear mathematical model of pilesoil interaction was established-a coupling nonlinear boundary value problem. Under the case of horizontal vibration, the nonlinearly dynamical characteristics of pile applying the axis force were studied in horizontal direction in frequency domain. The effects of parameters, especially the axis force on the stiffness were studied in detail. The numerical results suggest that it is possible that the pile applying an axis force will lose its stability. So, the effect of the axis force on the pile is considered.
Simulation of transient viscoelastic flow with second order time integration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole
1995-01-01
The Lagrangian Integral Method (LIM) for the simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids is extended to second order accuracy in the time integration. The method is tested on the established sphere in a cylinder benchmark problem.......The Lagrangian Integral Method (LIM) for the simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids is extended to second order accuracy in the time integration. The method is tested on the established sphere in a cylinder benchmark problem....
Micro-mechanisms of residual oil mobilization by viscoelastic fluids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Lijuan; Yue Xiang'an; Guo Fenqiao
2008-01-01
Four typical types of residual oil, residual oil trapped in dead ends, oil ganglia in pore throats,oil at pore comers and oil film adhered to pore walls, were studied. According to main pore structure characteristics and the fundamental morphological features of residual oil, four displacement models for residual oil were proposed, in which pore-scale flow behavior of viscoelastic fluid was analyzed by a numerical method and micro-mechanisms for mobilization of residual oil were discussed. Calculated results indicate that the viscoelastic effect enhances micro displacement efficiency and increases swept volume. For residual oil trapped in dead ends, the flow field of viscoelastic fluid is developed in dead ends more deeply, resulting in more contact with oil by the displacing fluid, and consequently increasing swept volume. In addition, intense viscoelastic vortex has great stress, under which residual oil becomes small oil ganglia, and finally be carried into main channels. For residual oil at pore throats, its displacement mechanisms are similar to the oil trapped in dead ends. Vortices are developed in the depths of the throats and oil ganglia become smaller. Besides, viscoelastic fluid causes higher pressure drop on oil ganglia, as a driving force, which can overcome capillary force, consequently, flow direction can be changed and the displacing fluid enter smaller throats. For oil at pore comers, viscoelastic fluid can enhance displacement efficiency as a result of greater velocity and stress near the comers. For residual oil adhered to pore wall,viscoelastic fluid can provide a greater displacing force on the interface between viscoelastic fluid and oil,thus, making it easier to exceed the minimum interfacial tension for mobilizing the oil film.
Modelling water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines: short brief
Urbanowicz, K.; Firkowski, M.; Zarzycki, Z.
2016-10-01
The model of water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines is analyzed. An appropriate mathematical model of water hammer in polymer pipelines is presented. An additional term has been added to continuity equation to describe the retarded deformation of the pipe wall. The mechanical behavior of viscoelastic material is described by generalized Kelvin-Voigt model. The comparison of numerical simulation and experimental data from well known papers is presented. Short discussion about obtained results are given.
Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J;
2012-01-01
Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....
Estimation of piezoelastic and viscoelastic properties in laminated structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Araujo, A. L.; Soares, C. M. Mota; Herskovits, J.;
2009-01-01
An inverse method for material parameter estimation of elastic, piezoelectric and viscoelastic laminated plate structures is presented. The method uses a gradient based optimization technique in order to solve the inverse problem, through minimization of an error functional which expresses...... the difference between experimental free vibration data and corresponding numerical data produced by a finite element model. The complex modulus approach is used to model the viscoelastic material behavior, assuming hysteretic type damping. Applications that illustrate the influence of adhesive material...
FEM simulation of non-isothermal viscoelastic fluids
Damanik, Hogenrich
2011-01-01
Thermo-mechanically coupled transport processes of viscoelastic fluids are important components in many applications in mechanical and chemical engineering. The aim of this thesis is the development of efficient numerical techniques for incompressible, non-isothermal, viscoelastic fluids which take into account the multiscale behaviour in space and time, the multiphase character and significant geometrical changes. Based on special CFD techniques including adaptivity/local grid alignment in s...
Viscoelasticity imaging using ultrasound: parameters and error analysis
Sridhar, M; Liu, J; Insana, M F
2007-01-01
Techniques are being developed to image viscoelastic features of soft tissues from time-varying strain. A compress-hold-release stress stimulus commonly used in creep-recovery measurements is applied to samples to form images of elastic strain and strain retardance times. While the intended application is diagnostic breast imaging, results in gelatin hydrogels are presented to demonstrate the techniques. The spatiotemporal behaviour of gelatin is described by linear viscoelastic theory formul...
The modified Jeffreys model approach for elasto-viscoplastic thixotropic substances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azikri de Deus, Hilbeth P., E-mail: azikri@utfpr.edu.br [CERNN-UTFPR/NuMAT-UTFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Negrão, Cezar O.R.; Franco, Admilson T. [CERNN-UTFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)
2016-02-05
In this work, a new constitutive model for thixotropic fluids is proposed via a formal analysis of their functional forms. The constitutive model for thixotropic substances is basically composed by a set of two equations: a constitutive equation based on viscoelastic models and a rate equation (an equation related to the evolution of the micro-structural character of the substance). The constitutive equations, in many works, do not have taken into account in the dynamical principles from which is developed the micro-structural dependence of shear modulus and viscosity. To aim this fault, in the current study a new constitutive model (based on Jeffreys model) is proposed, in coherence with expected behavior for thixotropic fluids. In addition a special emphasis has been given to the structural nature of substances (based on coagulation theory of Smoluchowski) and thermodynamic consistency. The proposed model for thixotropic fluids takes into account a simple isothermal laminar shear flows and some important aspects of that are explored. - Highlights: • A new constitutive model, composed by a constitutive and a rate equations, for thixotropic fluids is proposed. • The constitutive equation takes into account the micro-structural dependence of the shear modulus and viscosity coefficients. • The rate equation is based on Brownian motion (coagulation theory of Smoluchowski) and reptation model. • The thermodynamic consistence of the proposed model is proved too.
A robust algorithm for the contact of viscoelastic materials
Spinu, S.; Cerlinca, D.
2016-08-01
Existing solutions for the contact problem involving viscoelastic materials often require numerical differentiation and integration, as well as resolution of transcendental equations, which can raise convergence issues. The algorithm advanced in this paper can tackle the contact behaviour of the viscoelastic materials without any convergence problems, for arbitrary contact geometry, arbitrary loading programs and complex constitutive models of linear viscoelasticity. An updated algorithm for the elastic frictionless contact, coupled with a semi-analytical method for the computation of viscoelastic displacement, is employed to solve the viscoelastic contact problem at a series of small time increments. The number of equations in the linear system resulting from the geometrical condition of deformation is set by the number of cells in the contact area, which is a priori unknown. A trial-and-error approach is implemented, resulting in a series of linear systems which are solved on evolving contact areas, until static equilibrium equations and complementarity conditions are fully satisfied for every cell in the computational domain. At any iteration, cells with negative pressure are excluded from the contact area, while cells with negative gap (i.e. cells where the contacting bodies are predicted to overlap) are reincluded. The solution is found when pressure is stabilized in relation to the imposed normal load. This robust algorithm is expected to solve a large variety of contact problems involving viscoelastic materials.
MECHANISM FOR VISCOELASTIC POLYMER SOLUTION PERCOLATING THROUGH POROUS MEDIA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Li-juan; YUE Xiang-an
2007-01-01
The pore throat of porous media is modeled as a constricted channel or expanded channel. The flow of viscoelastic polymer solution in pore throat model is studied by numerical method. Relationship between pressure drop and flow rate is developed, viscoelasticity and throat size are found to be two main factors in high flow resistance. According to pore throat model, 2-D stochastic channel bundle is put forward to model porous media, which is composed of pore throat models in series - parallel connection with size and length accord to Haring - Greenkorn stochastic distribution. Percolation model of viscoelastic fluid is developed on the basis of Darcy equation and pressure drop vs. flow rate relation in 2-D stochastic channel bundle. Results indicate that the seepage ability of viscoelastic polymer solution decreases with the increase of viscoelasticity, injection rate, and heterogeneity as well as the decrease of mean pore size of porous media. The high pressure drop of viscoelastic fluid at the connection of pore to throat plays a great role in its anomalous high flow resistance through porous media.
Dynamic Behaviors of Axially Moving Viscoelastic Plate with Varying Thicknessn
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Yinfeng; WANG Zhongmin
2009-01-01
Structural components of varying thickness draw increasing attention these days due to economy and light-weight considerations. In view of the absence of research in vibration analysis of viscoelastic plate with varying thickness, this study devotes to investigate the dynamic behaviors of axially moving viscoelastic plate with varying thickness. Based on the thin plate theory and the two-dimensional viscoelastic differential constitutive relation, the differential equation of motion of the axially moving viscoelastic rectangular plate is derived, the plate constituted by Kelvin-Voigt model has linearly varying thickness in the y-direction. The dimensionless complex frequencies of axially moving viscoelastic plate with four edges simply supported are calculated by the differential quadrature method, curves of real parts and imaginary parts of the first three-order dimensionless complex frequencies versus dimensionless moving speed are obtained, the effects of the aspect ratio, thickness ratio, the dimensionless moving speed and delay time on the dynamic behaviors of the axially moving viscoelastic rectangular plate with varying thickness are analyzed. When other parameters keep constant, with the decrease of thickness ratio, the real parts of the first three-order natural frequencies decrease, and the critical divergence speeds of various modes decrease too, moreover, whether the delay time is large or small, the frequencies are all complex numbers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bing Wang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available To explore the time-dependent dissipative behaviors of a circular dielectric elastomer membrane subject to force and voltage, a viscoelastic model is formulated based on the nonlinear theory for dissipative dielectrics. The circular membrane is attached centrally to a light rigid disk and then connected to a fixed rigid ring. When subject to force and voltage, the membrane deforms into an out-of plane shape, undergoing large deformation. The governing equations to describe the large deformation are derived by using energy variational principle while the viscoelasticity of the membrane is describe by a two-unit spring-dashpot model. The evolutions of the considered variables and the deformed shape are illustrated graphically. In calculation, the effects of the voltage and the pre-stretch on the electromechanical behaviors of the membrane are examined and the results show that they significantly influence the electromechanical behaviors of the membrane. It is expected that the present model may provide some guidelines in the design and application of such dielectric elastomer transducers.
Time-dependent rotational stability of dynamic planets with viscoelastic lithospheres
Moore, K. M.; Chan, N.-H.; Daradich, A.; Mitrovica, J. X.
2017-06-01
We extend previous work to derive a non-linear rotational stability theory governing true polar wander (TPW) of terrestrial planets with viscoelastic lithospheres. We demonstrate, analytically and using numerical examples, that our expressions are consistent with previous results in the limiting cases of low and infinite (i.e., purely elastic) viscosity lithospheres. To illustrate the stability theory, we compute TPW on Mars driven by a simple, prescribed mass loading. Our calculations demonstrate that on short time scales relative to the relaxation time of the viscoelastic lithosphere, the rotation axis follows a constrained path that reflects stabilization by remnant strength in the lithosphere, but that on long times scales this stabilization disappears and the load ultimately reaches the equator. Earlier work based on the assumption of a permanent remnant bulge in the case of a purely elastic lithosphere has suggested that Martian TPW would not persist for any significant time after a load is emplaced, and thus an equilibrium stability theory is sufficient to model long-term (order 1 Myr or longer) polar motion of the planet. Our results suggest, in contrast, that TPW on Mars can continue over time scales on the order of the relaxation time of the lithosphere after load emplacement; for sufficiently high lithospheric viscosities, this time scale may be comparable to the age of the planet.
Wang, Bing; Wang, Zhengang; He, Tianhu
2016-12-01
To explore the time-dependent dissipative behaviors of a circular dielectric elastomer membrane subject to force and voltage, a viscoelastic model is formulated based on the nonlinear theory for dissipative dielectrics. The circular membrane is attached centrally to a light rigid disk and then connected to a fixed rigid ring. When subject to force and voltage, the membrane deforms into an out-of plane shape, undergoing large deformation. The governing equations to describe the large deformation are derived by using energy variational principle while the viscoelasticity of the membrane is describe by a two-unit spring-dashpot model. The evolutions of the considered variables and the deformed shape are illustrated graphically. In calculation, the effects of the voltage and the pre-stretch on the electromechanical behaviors of the membrane are examined and the results show that they significantly influence the electromechanical behaviors of the membrane. It is expected that the present model may provide some guidelines in the design and application of such dielectric elastomer transducers.
Omerspahic, E.; Mattiasson, K.
2003-09-01
Within the scope of thermodynamics with internal variables, constitutive and evolution equations (representing ductile deformation of sheets made of high strength steel alloys) with mixed hardening and damage have been derived. As a result of the derivation, the rate-dependent elastoplastic constitutive model is identified. The material is assumed to be oriented in the principal damage directions, indicating orthotropic damage. Owing to postulates within continuum damage mechanics, a general expression for degradation of elastic properties in materials has been obtained. A numerical algorithm for the integration of the constitutive equations has been developed as well, based on an elastic predictor plastic/damage corrector procedure. The plastic/damage corrector is based on a fully implicit backward Euler scheme. In order to consider viscoplastic material properties, the overstress (in the definition of the plastic multiplier) is a function of the plastic yield function.
Yao, David; Krempl, Erhard
1988-01-01
The isotropic theory of viscoplasticity based on overstress does not use a yield surface or a loading and unloading criterion. The inelastic strain rate depends on overstress, the difference between the stress and the equilibrium stress, and is assumed to be rate dependent. Special attention is paid to the modeling of elastic regions. For the modeling of cyclic hardening, such as observed in annealed Type 304 stainless steel, and additional growth law for a scalar quantity which represents the rate independent asymptotic value of the equilibrium stress is added. It is made to increase with inelastic deformation using a new scalar measure which differentiates between nonproportional and proportional loading. The theory is applied to correlate uniaxial data under two step amplitude loading including the effect of further hardening at the high amplitude and proportional and nonproportional cyclic loadings. Results are compared with corresponding experiments.
Lee, Pilhwa; Wolgemuth, Charles W.
2016-01-01
The swimming of microorganisms typically involves the undulation or rotation of thin, filamentary objects in a fluid or other medium. Swimming in Newtonian fluids has been examined extensively, and only recently have investigations into microorganism swimming through non-Newtonian fluids and gels been explored. The equations that govern these more complex media are often nonlinear and require computational algorithms to study moderate to large amplitude motions of the swimmer. Here, we develop an immersed boundary method for handling fluid-structure interactions in a general two-phase medium, where one phase is a Newtonian fluid and the other phase is viscoelastic (e.g., a polymer melt or network). We use this algorithm to investigate the swimming of an undulating, filamentary swimmer in 2D (i.e., a sheet). A novel aspect of our method is that it allows one to specify how forces produced by the swimmer are distributed between the two phases of the fluid. The algorithm is validated by comparing theoretical predictions for small amplitude swimming in gels and viscoelastic fluids. We show how the swimming velocity depends on material parameters of the fluid and the interaction between the fluid and swimmer. In addition, we simulate the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans in viscoelastic fluids and find good agreement between the swimming speeds and fluid flows in our simulations and previous experimental measurements. These results suggest that our methodology provides an accurate means for exploring the physics of swimming through non-Newtonian fluids and gels.
Lee, Pilhwa; Wolgemuth, Charles
2016-11-01
While swimming in Newtonian fluids has been examined extensively, only recently have investigations into microorganism swimming through non-Newtonian fluids and gels been explored. The equations that govern these more complex media are often nonlinear and require computational algorithms to study moderate to large amplitude motions of the swimmer. Here we develop an immersed boundary method for handling fluid-structure interactions in a general two-phase medium, where one phase is a Newtonian fluid and the other phase is viscoelastic. We use this algorithm to investigate the swimming of an undulating, filamentary swimmer in 2D. A novel aspect of our method is that it allows one to specify how forces produced by the swimmer are distributed between the two phases of the fluid. The algorithm is validated by comparison to theoretical predictions for small amplitude swimming in gels and viscoelastic fluids. We show how the swimming velocity depends on material parameters of the fluid and the interaction between the fluid and swimmer. In addition, we simulate the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans in viscoelastic fluids and find good agreement between the swimming speeds and fluid flows in our simulations and previous experimental measurements. NIH R01 GM072004, NIH P50GM094503.
The physics of aerobreakup. III. Viscoelastic liquids
Theofanous, T. G.; Mitkin, V. V.; Ng, C. L.
2013-03-01
We extend the work of Theofanous and Li [Phys. Fluids 20, 052103 (2008), 10.1063/1.2907989] on aerobreakup physics of water-like, low viscosity liquid drops, and of Theofanous et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 022104 (2012), 10.1063/1.3680867] for Newtonian liquids of any viscosity, to polymer-thickened liquids over wide ranges of viscoelasticity. The scope includes the full range of aerodynamics from near incompressible to supersonic flows and visualizations are recorded with μs/μm resolutions. The key physics of Rayleigh-Taylor piercing (RTP, first criticality) and of Shear-Induced Entrainment (SIE, second criticality) are verified and quantified on the same scaling approach as in our previous work, but with modifications due to the shear-thinning and elastic nature of these liquids. The same holds for the onset of surface waves by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, which is a key attribute of the second criticality. However, in the present case, even at conditions well-past the first criticality, there is no breakup (particulation) to be found; instead the apparently unstable (extensively stretched into sheets) drops rebound elastically to reconstitute an integral mass. Such a resistance to breakup is found also past the second criticality, now with extensive filament formation that maintain a significant degree of cohesiveness, until the gas-dynamic pressure is high enough to cause filament ruptures. Thereby we define the onset of a third criticality peculiar to viscoelastic liquids—SIER, for SIE with ruptures. Past this criticality the extent of particulation increases and the characteristic dimension of fragments generated decreases in a more or less continuous fashion with increasing dynamic pressure. We outline a rheology-based scaling approach for these elasticity-modulated phenomena and suggest a path to similitude (with polymer and solvent variations) in terms of a critical rupture stress that can be measured independently. The advanced stages of breakup and
Davoodi, M.; Norouzi, M.
2016-10-01
In the present study, an investigation of the motion and shape deformation of drops is carried out in creeping flow to highlight the effect of viscoelastic properties on the problem. A perturbation method is employed to derive an analytical solution for the general case that both interior and exterior fluids are viscoelastic, both fluids obeying the Giesekus model. An experiment is also performed for the limiting case of an immiscible drop of a 0.03% (w/w) polyacrylamide in an 80:20 glycerol/water solution falling through a viscous Newtonian silicon oil (410 cP polydimethylsiloxane oil) in order to check the accuracy of the analytical solution. It is shown that the addition of elastic properties to the interior fluid may cause a decrease in the terminal velocity of the droplet while an increase in the elastic properties of the exterior fluid results in the opposite behavior and increases the terminal velocity. The well-known spherical shape of creeping drops for Newtonian fluids is modified by elasticity into either prolate or oblate shapes. Using the analytical solution, it is shown that normal stresses play a key role on the final steady-state shape of the drops. To keep the drops spherical in viscoelastic phases, it is shown that the effect of normal stresses on the interior and exterior media can cancel out under certain conditions. The results presented here may be of interest to industries dealing with petroleum and medicine processing, paint and power-plant related fields where knowledge of the shape and terminal velocity of descending droplets is of great importance.
II. Rheology of Weakly Flocculated Suspensions of Viscoelastic Particles
Snabre, P.; Mills, P.
1996-12-01
A microrheological model is proposed to estimate the steady state shear viscosity of concentrated suspensions of viscoelastic particles. We first present a Kelvin Voigt model to describe the deformation and stable orientation of a viscoelastic particle in a simple shear field. We then use a viscosity law for concentrated suspensions of hard particles in purely hydrodynamic interactions and we relate the maximum packing concentration to the component of the particle deformation tensor in the direction of the flow. We analyse the steady state viscometric behavior of red cell suspensions in saline solution and we show the influence of the nonlinear viscoelectric properties of the cell membrane. In a second part, we consider a flocculation of deformable particles and we deduce a viscosity law taking into account both the aggregation phenomena and the deformation-orientation of particles in the shear field. The rheological law describes the viscosity behavior of aggregated deformable red cells in dextran saline solution only for negligible shear induced restructuration of the aggregates. Nous proposons un modèle microrhéologique pour estimer la viscosité de cisaillement des suspensions concentrées de particules viscoélastiques. Dans un premier temps, nous présentons un modèle de Kelvin Voigt tournant afin de décrire la déformation et l'orientation stable d'une particule de viscoélastique dans un écoulement de cisaillement simple. Nous utilisons alors une loi de viscosité valable pour des suspensions concentrées de sphères dures en interaction purement hydrodynamique et nous relions la concentration maximale d'empilement à la composante du tenseur de déformation des particules dans la direction de l'écoulement. Nous analysons ensuite le comportement rhéologique des suspensions de globules rouges et nous montrons le rôle des propriétés viscoélastiques non linéaires de la membrane cellulaire. Dans une seconde partie, nous introduisons une floculation
Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model.
Wang, Xiaofei; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves
2015-01-01
A reliable and fast numerical scheme is crucial for the 1D simulation of blood flow in compliant vessels. In this paper, a 1D blood flow model is incorporated with a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic arterial wall. This leads to a nonlinear hyperbolic-parabolic system, which is then solved with four numerical schemes, namely: MacCormack, Taylor-Galerkin, monotonic upwind scheme for conservation law and local discontinuous Galerkin. The numerical schemes are tested on a single vessel, a simple bifurcation and a network with 55 arteries. The numerical solutions are checked favorably against analytical, semi-analytical solutions or clinical observations. Among the numerical schemes, comparisons are made in four important aspects: accuracy, ability to capture shock-like phenomena, computational speed and implementation complexity. The suitable conditions for the application of each scheme are discussed.
Three dimensional boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic nanofluid with Soret and Dufour effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ramzan
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The present research focuses on the three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid in the presence of Soret and Dufour effects. Effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are taken into account. Appropriate similarity transformations lead to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Solution expressions of velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration are computed via homotopy analysis method (HAM. Convergence of obtained solutions is analyzed graphically and numerically. Results are plotted and analyzed for the dimensionless velocities, temperature and nanoparticle concentration. Values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are examined through tabular form. It is observed that Temperature field is enhanced for the larger Brownian motion parameter and an increase in Dufour number gives rise to the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness.
A viscoelastic spring-block model for investigating subglacial water pressure pulse generation
Kavanaugh, J. L.
2009-12-01
A viscoelastic spring-block model of glacier motion has been developed to investigate the mechanisms responsible for generating brief pulses in subglacial water pressure recorded at Trapridge Glacier, Yukon. In this model, the glacier is treated as an array of ice blocks, each of which is connected to its nearest neighbors by spring-and-dashpot linkages. The model glacier is gravitationally driven, and down-slope flow is resisted by a basal shear stress determined by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. This model is forced with realistic basal water pressure conditions. With prescribed summer-mode, diurnally-varying pressures, the model produces elevated slip activity at times of rising (rather than peak) water pressures; with steady, elevated winter-mode pressures, slip events occur at non-uniform intervals due to the effects of elastic loading and the (nonlinear) viscous relaxation of stresses. Magnitude and interevent time statistics for model slip events and basal water pressure pulses are compared.
Viscoelastic Properties of Organic Hybrid of Chlorinated Polythylene and Small Molecule
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chifei Wu
2000-01-01
Viscoelastic properties of an organic hybrid of chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) and N,Ndicyclohexyl-benzthiazyl-2-sulfenaamid (DZ) are investigated. All CPE/DZ hybrids show a single loss tangent (Fan δ ) peak. Its position shift linearly to higher temperature and its maximum value increases nonlinearly with increasing DZ content. The energy absorptinity (EA, a ratio of loss modulus to complex modulus) is used to characterize these hybrids. The DZ content dependence of EA changes at a critical value. The existence of a bending point in the DZ content dependence of glass transition temperature and energy absorptinity is due to the microseparation and the crystallization of DZ molecules in CPE/DZ hybrids with high DZ content. The molecular structural model can successfully explain the influence of dispersion state of DZ molecules in the matrix polymer CPE on the maximum value and the position of Tan δ of CPE/DZ hybrids.
Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in viscoelastic media
Remmer, Hilke; Roeben, Eric; Schmidt, Annette M.; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank
2017-04-01
We compare different models for the description of the complex susceptibility of magnetic nanoparticles in an aqueous gelatin solution representing a model system for a Voigt-Kelvin scheme. The analysis of susceptibility spectra with the numerical model by Raikher et al. [7] is compared with the analysis applying a phenomenological, modified Debye model. The fit of the models to the measured data allows one to extract the viscoelastic parameter dynamic viscosity η and shear modulus G. The experimental data were recorded on single-core thermally blocked CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in an aqueous solution with 2.5 wt% gelatin. Whereas the dynamic viscosities obtained by fitting the model - extended by distributions of hydrodynamic diameters and viscosities - agree very well, the derived values for the shear modulus show the same temporal behavior during the gelation process, but vary approximately by a factor of two. To verify the values for viscosity and shear modulus obtained from nanorheology, macrorheological measurements are in progress.
Dynamic homogenization of viscoelastic phononic metasolids
Pichard, Hélène; Torrent, Daniel
2016-12-01
The effects of dissipation in metamaterials is a sensitive issue and, although experiments show that they are more than relevant, their theoretical study and modeling has received less attention. In this work, we study the effects of viscosity on the dissipation of elastic metamaterials. It is found that these metasolids present effective constitutive parameters that are in general complex, in contrast with common elastic materials where the mass density is a real valued scalar quantity and dissipation enters only through the stiffness tensor. It is also found that, while in the low frequency limit the dissipation is higher as the viscoelastic coefficient is also higher, near a resonance of the metamaterial this condition does not hold, since the imaginary part of the constitutive parameters is higher as the viscosity is smaller. Finally, the effects of viscosity are studied on the non-local properties of the effective parameters, and it is found that this property is attenuated with dissipation although still has to be considered.
Sliding viscoelastic drops on slippery surfaces
Xu, H.; Clarke, A.; Rothstein, J. P.; Poole, R. J.
2016-06-01
We study the sliding of drops of constant-viscosity dilute elastic liquids (Boger fluids) on various surfaces caused by sudden surface inclination. For smooth or roughened hydrophilic surfaces, such as glass or acrylic, there is essentially no difference between these elastic liquids and a Newtonian comparator fluid (with identical shear viscosity, surface tension, and static contact angle). In contrast for embossed polytetrafluoroethylene superhydrophobic surfaces, profound differences are observed: the elastic drops slide at a significantly reduced rate and complex branch-like patterns are left on the surface by the drop's wake including, on various scales, beads-on-a-string like phenomena. Microscopy images indicate that the strong viscoelastic effect is caused by stretching filaments of fluid from isolated islands, residing at pinning sites on the surface pillars, of the order ˜30 μm in size. On this scale, the local strain rates are sufficient to extend the polymer chains, locally increasing the extensional viscosity of the solution, retarding the drop and leaving behind striking branch-like structures on much larger scales.
Viscoelastic Models of Tidally Heated Exomoons
Dobos, Vera
2015-01-01
Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life is intensely studied on Solar System moons such as Europa or Enceladus, where the surface ice layer covers tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. For studying the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models, because it takes into account the temperature dependency of the tidal heat flux, and the melting of the inner material. With the use of this model we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), that strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon, and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ usi...
Parametric vibrations and stability of viscoelastic shells
Ilyasov, M. H.
2010-05-01
The problem of dynamic stability of viscoelastic extremely shallow and circular cylindrical shells with any hereditary properties, including time-dependence of Poisson’s ratio, are reduced to the investigation of stability of the zero solution of an ordinary integro-differential equation with variable coefficients. Using the Laplace integral transform, an integro-differential equation is reduced to the new integro-differential one of which the main part coincides with the damped Hill equation and the integral part is proportional to the product of two small parameters. Changing this equation for the system of two linear equations of the first order and using the averaging method, the monodromy matrix of the obtained system is constructed. Considering the absolute value of the eigen-values of monodromy matrix is greater than unit, the condition for instability of zero solution is obtained in the three-dimensional space of parameters corresponding to the frequency, viscosity and amplitude of external action. Analysis of form and size of instability domains is carried out.
Kumar, Bipin; Das, Apurba; Alagirusamy, R
2012-09-01
Understanding the stress relaxation behavior of the compression bandage could be very useful in determining the behavior of the interface pressure exerted by the bandage on a limb during the course of the compression treatment. There has been no comprehensive study in the literature to investigate the pressure profile (interface pressure with time) generated by a compression bandage when applied at different levels of strain. The present study attempts to describe the pressure profile, with the use of a quasi-linear viscoelastic model, generated by a compression bandage during compression therapy. The quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory proposed by Fung (Fung, 1972, "Stress Strain History Relations of Soft Tissues in Simple Elongation," Biomechanics: Its Foundations and Objectives, Y. C. Fung, N. Perrone, and M. Anliker, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 181-207). was used to model the nonlinear time- and history-dependent relaxation behavior of the bandage using the ramp strain approach. The regression analysis was done to find the correlation between the pressure profile and the relaxation behavior of the bandage. The parameters of the QLV model, describing the relaxation behavior of the bandage, were used to determine the pressure profile generated by the bandage at different levels of strain. The relaxation behaviors of the bandage at different levels of strain were well described by the QLV model parameters. A high correlation coefficient (nearly 0.98) shows a good correlation of the pressure profile with the stress relaxation behavior of the bandage.The prediction of the pressure profile using the QLV model parameters were in agreement with the experimental data. The pressure profile generated by a compression bandage could be predicted using the QLV model describing the nonlinear relaxation behavior of the bandage. This new application of the QLV theory helps in evaluating the bandage performance during compression therapy as scientific wound
Bloembergen, Nicolaas
1996-01-01
Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe
Szopinski, Daniel; Luinstra, Gerrit A
2016-11-20
The industrial relevant nonlinear viscoelastic properties of aqueous carboxymethyl hydroxypropyl guar gum (CMHPG) and non-ionic hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) solutions between semi-dilute and concentrated solution state were investigated by large amplitude oscillatory shear flow (LAOS). Aqueous CMHPG and HPG solutions enter the nonlinear flow regime at deformations γ0>100%. The nonlinear stress waveforms were analyzed by FT-rheology and orthogonal stress decomposition along the MITlaos framework. A rheological fingerprint is generated (Pipkin space) showing that the guar gum derivative solutions undergo a shear-thinning at high strains, which is preceded by a thickening above a minimum strain rate at intermediate strains. The influence and breakup of superstructures/aggregates gives a "rheological fingerprint", a function of the applied deformation and time scale (Pipkin space). A characteristic process time was found that scales exponentially with the overlap parameter with an exponent of 4/2, and is proposed to represent the relaxation process of the superstructure in solution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geniet, F; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR 5825, 34095 Montpellier (France)
2003-05-07
A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, J.C. [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Y.Q., E-mail: cyqzhang@zju.edu.cn [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Structural Strength and Vibration, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Fan, L.F. [College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)
2017-04-11
The general equation for transverse vibration of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system with viscoelastic Pasternak medium in between and each nanoplate subjected to in-plane edge loads is formulated on the basis of the Eringen's nonlocal elastic theory and the Kelvin model. The factors of the structural damping, medium damping, small size effect, loading ratio, and Winkler modulus and shear modulus of the medium are incorporated in the formulation. Based on the Navier's method, the analytical solutions for vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system with simply supported boundary conditions are obtained. The influences of these factors on vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system are discussed. It is demonstrated that the vibrational frequency of the system for the out-of-phase vibration is dependent upon the structural damping, small size effect and viscoelastic Pasternak medium, whereas the vibrational frequency for the in-phase vibration is independent of the viscoelastic Pasternak medium. While the buckling load of the system for the in-phase buckling case has nothing to do with the viscoelastic Pasternak medium, the buckling load for the out-of-phase case is related to the small size effect, loading ratio and Pasternak medium. - Highlights: • Vibration of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system under in-plane edge loads is investigated. • Biaxial buckling of the system with simply supported boundary conditions is analyzed. • Explicit expression for the vibrational frequency and buckling load is obtained. • Impacts of viscoelastic Pasternak medium on vibrational frequency and buckling load are discussed. • Influences of structural damping, small size effect and loading ratio are also considered.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. E. M. Oliveira
Full Text Available This work investigates the response of two reinforced concrete (RC plane frames after the loss of a column and their potential resistance for progressive collapse. Nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed using a multilayered Euler/Bernoulli beam element, including elasto-viscoplastic effects. The material nonlinearity is represented using one-dimensional constitutive laws in the material layers, while geometrical nonlinearities are incorporated within a corotational beam formulation. The frames were designed in accordance with the minimum requirements proposed by the reinforced concrete design/building codes of Europe (fib [1-2], Eurocode 2 [3] and Brazil (NBR 6118 [4]. The load combinations considered for PC analysis follow the prescriptions of DoD [5]. The work verifies if the minimum requirements of the considered codes are sufficient for enforcing structural safety and robustness, and also points out the major differences in terms of progressive collapse potential of the corresponding designed structures.
A surface wave elastography technique for measuring tissue viscoelastic properties.
Zhang, Xiaoming
2017-04-01
A surface wave elastography method is proposed to study the viscoelastic properties of skin by measuring the surface wave speed and attenuation on the skin. Experiments were carried out on porcine skin tissues. The surface wave speed is measured by the change of phase with distance. The wave attenuation is measured by the decay of wave amplitude with distance. The change of viscoelastic properties with temperature was studied at room and body temperatures. The wave speed was 1.83m/s at 22°C but reduced to 1.52m/s at 33°C. The viscoelastic ratio was almost constant from 22°C to 33°C. Fresh and decayed tissues were studied. The wave speed of the decayed tissue increased from 1.83m/s of fresh state to 2.73m/s. The viscoelastic ratio was 0.412/mm at the decayed state compared to 0.215/mm at the fresh state. More tissue samples are needed to study these viscoelastic parameters according to specific applications.
Tailoring Hydrogel Viscoelasticity with Physical and Chemical Crosslinking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michal Bartnikowski
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Biological tissues are viscoelastic, demonstrating a mixture of fluid and solid responses to mechanical strain. Whilst viscoelasticity is critical for native tissue function, it is rarely used as a design criterion in biomaterials science or tissue engineering. We propose that viscoelasticity may be tailored to specific levels through manipulation of the hydrogel type, or more specifically the proportion of physical and chemical crosslinks present in a construct. This theory was assessed by comparing the mechanical properties of various hydrogel blends, comprising elastic, equilibrium, storage and loss moduli, as well as the loss tangent. These properties were also assessed in human articular cartilage explants. It was found that whilst very low in elastic modulus, the physical crosslinks found in gellan gum-only provided the closest approximation of loss tangent levels found in cartilage. Blends of physical and chemical crosslinks (gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA combined with gellan gum gave highest values for elastic response. However, a greater proportion of gellan gum to GelMA than investigated may be required to achieve native cartilage viscoelasticity in this case. Human articular chondrocytes encapsulated in hydrogels remained viable over one week of culture. Overall, it was shown that viscoelasticity may be tailored similarly to other mechanical properties and may prove a new criterion to be included in the design of biomaterial structures for tissue engineering.
The ultratough peeling of elastic tapes from viscoelastic substrates
Afferrante, L.; Carbone, G.
2016-11-01
The peeling of an elastic thin tape from a flat smooth viscoelastic substrate is investigated. Based on a Green function approach and on the translational invariance, a closed form analytical solution is proposed, which takes into account the viscoelastic dissipation in the substrate material. We find that peeling is prevented from taking place, only when the external force is smaller than the one predicted by Kendall's formula for elastic tapes on rigid substrates. However, we also find that, regardless of the value of the applied force, steady state detachment may occur when the elastic tape is sufficiently stiff. In this case, the constant peeling velocity can be modulated by properly defining the geometrical parameters and the material properties of tape and viscoelastic foundation. On the other hand, for relatively high peeling angles or compliant tapes a threshold value of the peeling force is found, above which the steady-state equilibrium is no longer possible and unstable detachment occurs. The present study contributes to shed light on the behavior of pressure sensitive adhesives in contact with viscoelastic substrates like the human skin. At the same time, it can be considered a first step towards a better understanding of the effect of viscoelastic dissipation on the fracture behavior of solids.
Huang, C Y; Mow, V C; Ateshian, G A
2001-10-01
A long-standing challenge in the biomechanics of connective tissues (e.g., articular cartilage, ligament, tendon) has been the reported disparities between their tensile and compressive properties. In general, the intrinsic tensile properties of the solid matrices of these tissues are dictated by the collagen content and microstructural architecture, and the intrinsic compressive properties are dictated by their proteoglycan content and molecular organization as well as water content. These distinct materials give rise to a pronounced and experimentally well-documented nonlinear tension-compression stress-strain responses, as well as biphasic or intrinsic extracellular matrix viscoelastic responses. While many constitutive models of articular cartilage have captured one or more of these experimental responses, no single constitutive law has successfully described the uniaxial tensile and compressive responses of cartilage within the same framework. The objective of this study was to combine two previously proposed extensions of the biphasic theory of Mow et al. [1980, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 102, pp. 73-84] to incorporate tension-compression nonlinearity as well as intrinsic viscoelasticity of the solid matrix of cartilage. The biphasic-conewise linear elastic model proposed by Soltz and Ateshian [2000, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 122, pp. 576-586] and based on the bimodular stress-strain constitutive law introduced by Curnier et al. [1995, J. Elasticity, 37, pp. 1-38], as well as the biphasic poroviscoelastic model of Mak [1986, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 108, pp. 123-130], which employs the quasi-linear viscoelastic model of Fung [1981, Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues, Springer-Verlag, New York], were combined in a single model to analyze the response of cartilage to standard testing configurations. Results were compared to experimental data from the literature and it was found that a simultaneous prediction of compression and tension experiments of
The viscoelastic flow behavior of pitches
Fleurot, Olivier
1998-11-01
For the first time, a commercial impregnating coal-tar pitch was air-blown (or heat-treated) for various periods of time to produce series of treated pitches. Each pitch was chemically and rheologically characterized. During air-blowing, the formation of large, aromatic, cross- linked molecules increased the elasticity of the pitch and prevented mesophase formation. During heat-treatment, large, planar, aromatic molecules formed and aggregated in mesophase spheres. These two-phase materials exhibited yield stress behavior. Also, their elasticity was similar to that of air-blown pitches. The flow/microstructure relationship in mesophase pitches was investigated. It was found that the steady and transient shear behaviors of mesophase pitches were qualitatively similar to that of LCPs. Also, the size of the structure decreased with increasing shear rate. Upon cessation of flow, the structure slowly coarsened. New techniques were proposed to estimate (1) relaxation time for structure recovery, and (2) the average elastic constant of mesophase pitches. Using Marrucci's model (originally designed for LCPs) it was possible for the first time to predict mesophase pitches' structure shrinkage during pure shear. Finally, the flow-induced structural development that occurs during extrusion of mesophase pitch through capillaries was observed and accurately predicted by coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to Marrucci's model. Using a viscoelastic stress tensor to characterize the pitch flow behavior, the model was able to accurately predict the magnitude of the vortex experimentally observed at the spinnerette capillary counterbore as well as the extend of die swell at the exit of the capillary.
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of transverse wave travelling in Maxwell viscoelastic fluid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Hua-Bing; Fang Hai-Ping
2004-01-01
A nine-velocity lattice Boltzmann method for Maxwell viscoelastic fluid is proposed. Travelling of transverse wave in Maxwell viscoelastic fluid is simulated. The instantaneous oscillating velocity, transverse shear speed and decay rate agree with theoretical results very well.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Zhigang; Hjort, Klas; Wicher, Grzegorz
2008-01-01
A high viability microfluidic cell separation technique of high throughput was demonstrated based on size difference continuous mode hydrodynamic spreading with viscoelastic tuning. Using water with fluorescent dye as sample fluid and in parallel introducing as elution a viscoelastic biocompatibl...
Gilormini, P.; Chevalier, L.; Régnier, G.
2011-01-01
Using suitable constitutive equations, numerical simulation allows predicting the properties of transparencies that are thermoformed near their glass transition temperature. Such equations are presented, which describe the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) at large deformations near glass transition. The simulation of the thermoforming of a transparency at constant and uniform temperature is performed and compared with experimental results.
Liu, J. C.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Fan, L. F.
2017-04-01
The general equation for transverse vibration of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system with viscoelastic Pasternak medium in between and each nanoplate subjected to in-plane edge loads is formulated on the basis of the Eringen's nonlocal elastic theory and the Kelvin model. The factors of the structural damping, medium damping, small size effect, loading ratio, and Winkler modulus and shear modulus of the medium are incorporated in the formulation. Based on the Navier's method, the analytical solutions for vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system with simply supported boundary conditions are obtained. The influences of these factors on vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system are discussed. It is demonstrated that the vibrational frequency of the system for the out-of-phase vibration is dependent upon the structural damping, small size effect and viscoelastic Pasternak medium, whereas the vibrational frequency for the in-phase vibration is independent of the viscoelastic Pasternak medium. While the buckling load of the system for the in-phase buckling case has nothing to do with the viscoelastic Pasternak medium, the buckling load for the out-of-phase case is related to the small size effect, loading ratio and Pasternak medium.
Effect of dynamic visco-elasticity on vertical and torsional vibrations of a half-space
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Prakash Chandra Pal
2001-08-01
By expressing the dynamic visco-elastic characteristic of a material in terms of the complex shear modulus, the vertical vibrations of a visco-elastic half-space as well as that of a mass in visco-elastic half-space are considered here. Torsional vibrations of a visco-elastic half-space is also considered. Numerical results are derived for two cases and shown graphically.
Viscoelastic Analysis of Asphalt Mixture Based on Creep Test
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihua Zhao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Two kinds of mineral fibers were added to AC-16C asphalt mixture. Trabecular bending creep experiments of asphalt mixtures were carried out at -10 and 20°C. The influence of mineral fibers on the low temperature viscoelasticity of asphalt mixtures were analyzed systemically. Furthermore, by using Origin, Burgers viscoelastic model was used to investigate the parameter regression for the creep test results at the different temperatures. The results show that the addition of mineral fibers can effectively improve the bending creep rate of asphalt mixtures, indicates the increase of crack resistance of asphalt mixtures. Good agreement between experimental data and Burgers model was found. The parameters of Burgers model at different temperatures can also provide data support for the viscoelastic design of asphalt pavements.
Light scanner based on a viscoelastic stretchable grating.
Simonov, A N; Akhzar-Mehr, O; Vdovin, G
2005-05-01
We present a new technique for light scanning by use of viscoelastic-based deformable phase diffraction gratings. Mechanical stretching of the grating permits control of its spatial period, and thus the orders of diffraction can be spatially deflected. In the experiments the viscoelastic gratings with triangular and rectangular profiles have been characterized at lambda = 633 nm. It is demonstrated that the reversible elongation can exceed 20% of the initial length. For the triangular profile grating, the diffraction angle of the first order changed from 6.6 degrees to 5.4 degrees while the diffraction efficiency remained almost constant at approximately 17%. Dynamic scanning of a laser beam at frequencies of approximately 1 kHz is demonstrated by use of electromechanically driven viscoelastic gratings.
Light scanner based on a viscoelastic stretchable grating
Simonov, A. N.; Akhzar-Mehr, O.; Vdovin, G.
2005-05-01
We present a new technique for light scanning by use of viscoelastic-based deformable phase diffraction gratings. Mechanical stretching of the grating permits control of its spatial period, and thus the orders of diffraction can be spatially deflected. In the experiments the viscoelastic gratings with triangular and rectangular profiles have been characterized at lambda = 633 nm. It is demonstrated that the reversible elongation can exceed 20% of the initial length. For the triangular profile grating, the diffraction angle of the first order changed from 6.6μ to 5.4μ while the diffraction efficiency remained almost constant at ~17%. Dynamic scanning of a laser beam at frequencies of ~1 kHz is demonstrated by use of electromechanically driven viscoelastic gratings.
Self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids: pushers vs. pullers
Zhu, Lailai; Brandt, Luca
2012-01-01
We use numerical simulations to address locomotion at zero Reynolds number in viscoelastic (Giesekus) fluids. The swimmers are assumed to be spherical, to self-propel using tangential surface deformation, and the computations are implemented using a finite element method. The emphasis of the study is on the change of the swimming kinematics, energetics, and flow disturbance from Newtonian to viscoelastic, and on the distinction between pusher and puller swimmers. In all cases, the viscoelastic swimming speed is below the Newtonian one, with a minimum obtained for intermediate values of the Weissenberg number, $We$. An analysis of the flow field places the origin of this swimming degradation in non-Newtonian elongational stresses. The power required for swimming is also systematically below the Newtonian power, and always a decreasing function of $We$. A detail energetic balance of the swimming problem points at the polymeric part of the stress as the primary $We$-decreasing energetic contribution, while the c...
Local viscoelasticity of living cells measured by rotational magnetic spectroscopy.
Berret, J-F
2016-01-05
When submitted to a magnetic field, micron-size wires with superparamagnetic properties behave as embedded rheometers and represent interesting sensors for microrheology. Here we use rotational magnetic spectroscopy to measure the shear viscosity of the cytoplasm of living cells. We address the question of whether the cytoplasm is a viscoelastic liquid or an elastic gel. The main result of the study is the observation of a rotational instability between a synchronous and an asynchronous regime of rotation, found for murine fibroblasts and human cancer cells. For wires of susceptibility 3.6, the transition occurs in the range 0.01-1 rad s(-1). The determination of the shear viscosity (10-100 Pa s) and elastic modulus (5-20 Pa) confirms the viscoelastic character of the cytoplasm. In contrast to earlier studies, it is concluded that the interior of living cells can be described as a viscoelastic liquid, and not as an elastic gel.
GPU accelerated numerical simulations of viscoelastic phase separation model.
Yang, Keda; Su, Jiaye; Guo, Hongxia
2012-07-05
We introduce a complete implementation of viscoelastic model for numerical simulations of the phase separation kinetics in dynamic asymmetry systems such as polymer blends and polymer solutions on a graphics processing unit (GPU) by CUDA language and discuss algorithms and optimizations in details. From studies of a polymer solution, we show that the GPU-based implementation can predict correctly the accepted results and provide about 190 times speedup over a single central processing unit (CPU). Further accuracy analysis demonstrates that both the single and the double precision calculations on the GPU are sufficient to produce high-quality results in numerical simulations of viscoelastic model. Therefore, the GPU-based viscoelastic model is very promising for studying many phase separation processes of experimental and theoretical interests that often take place on the large length and time scales and are not easily addressed by a conventional implementation running on a single CPU.
Bhukta, D; Dash, G C; Mishra, S R
2014-01-01
An attempt has been made to study the heat and mass transfer effect in a boundary layer flow through porous medium of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a shrinking sheet subject to transverse magnetic field in the presence of heat source. Effects of radiation, viscous dissipation, and uniform heat sink on the heat transfer have been considered. The method of solution involves similarity transformation. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations representing momentum, concentration, and nonhomogenous heat equation are reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are solved by applying Kummer's function. The exact solution of temperature field is obtained for power-law surface temperature (PST) as well as power-law heat flux (PHF) boundary condition. The interaction of magnetic field is proved to be counterproductive in enhancing velocity and concentration distribution, whereas presence of porous matrix reduces the temperature field at all points.
Sengeh, David Moinina; Petron, Arthur; Herr, Hugh
2016-01-01
Although the socket is critical in a prosthetic system for a person with limb amputation, the methods of its design are largely artisanal. A roadblock for a repeatable and quantitative socket design process is the lack of predictive and patient specific biomechanical models of the residuum. This study presents the evaluation of such a model using a combined experimental-numerical approach. The model geometry and tissue boundaries are derived from MRI. The soft tissue non-linear elastic and viscoelastic mechanical behavior was evaluated using inverse finite element analysis (FEA) of in-vivo indentation experiments. A custom designed robotic in-vivo indentation system was used to provide a rich experimental data set of force versus time at 18 sites across a limb. During FEA, the tissues were represented by two layers, namely the skin-adipose layer and an underlying muscle-soft tissue complex. The non-linear elastic behavior was modeled using 2nd order Ogden hyperelastic formulations, and viscoelasticity was mod...
2016-07-01
Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Dynamics-Enabled Frequency Sources (DEFYS) program is focused on the convergence of nonlinear dynamics and...Early work in this program has shown that nonlinear dynamics can provide performance advantages. However, the pathway from initial results to...dependent nonlinear stiffness observed in these devices. This work is ongoing, and will continue through the final period of this program . Reference 9
Nayfeh, Ali Hasan
1995-01-01
Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim
Yoshida, Zensho
2010-01-01
This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl
Nanda, Sudarsan
2013-01-01
"Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.
Controllability of a viscoelastic plate using one boundary control in displacement or bending
Pandolfi, L.
2016-01-01
In this paper we consider a viscoelastic plate (linear viscoelasticity of the Maxwell-Boltzmann type) and we compare its controllability properties with the (known) controllability of a purely elastic plate (the control acts on the boundary displacement or bending). By combining operator and moment methods, we prove that the viscoelastic plate inherits the controllability properties of the purely elastic plate.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF A FEM FOR A TRANSIENT VISCOELASTIC FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
穆君; 冯民富
2004-01-01
We present the numerical analysis of a coupled method for the numerical simulation of transient viscoelastic flow obeying a differential constitutive equation with a Newtonian viscosity. The scheme used is based on Euler implicit method in time and maintains at each time step a couple of the velocity u and the viscoelastic part of the stress σ. Approximation in space is made by finite element method. The approximate stress, velocity and pressure are, respectively, P1-continuous, p2-continuous, and p1continuous. Upwinding needed for convection of σ is made by a "Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin" method (SUPG).
Micromechanics Models for Viscoelastic Plain-Weave Composite Tape Springs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio
2017-01-01
The viscoelastic behavior of polymer composites decreases the deployment force and the postdeployment shape accuracy of composite deployable space structures. This paper presents a viscoelastic model for single-ply cylindrical shells (tape springs) that are deployed after being held folded...... for a given period of time. The model is derived from a representative unit cell of the composite material, based on the microstructure geometry. Key ingredients are the fiber volume density in the composite tows and the constitutive behavior of the fibers (assumed to be linear elastic and transversely...
DYNAMICAL BEHAVIOR OF VISCOELASTIC CYLINDRICAL SHELLS UNDER AXIAL PRESSURES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程昌钧; 张能辉
2001-01-01
The hypotheses of the Kármán-Donnell theory of thin shells with large deflections and the Boltzmann laws for isotropic linear, viscoelastic materials, the constitutive equations of shallow shells are first derived. Then the governing equations for the deflection equations of elastic thin plates. Introducing proper assumptions, an approximate theory for viscoelastic cylindrical shells under axial pressures can be obtained. Finally, the dynamical behavior is studied in detail by using several numerical methods. Dynamical properties,such as, hyperchaos , chaos, strange attractor, limit cycle etc., are discovered.
HYDROMAGNETIC DIVERGENT CHANNEL FLOW OF A VISCOELASTIC ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING FLUID
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RITA CHOUDHURY
2011-10-01
Full Text Available A theoretical study for the two-dimensional boundary layer flow through a divergent channel of a visco-elastic electrically conducting fluid in presence of transverse magnetic field has been considered. Similarity solutions are obtained by considering a special form of magnetic field. The analytical expressions for velocity and skin friction at the wall have been obtained and numerically worked out for different values of the flow parametersinvolved in the solution. The velocity and the skin friction coefficient have been presented graphically to observe the visco-elastic effects for various values of the flow parameters across the boundary layer.
Effective viscoelastic behavior of particulate polymer composites at finite concentration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Dan; HU Geng-kai
2007-01-01
Polymeric materials usually present some viscoelastic behavior. To improve the mechanical behavior of these materials, ceramics materials are often filled into the polymeric materials in form of fiber or particle. A micromechanical model was proposed to estimate the overall viscoelastic behavior for particulate polymer composites, especially for high volume concentration of filled particles. The method is based on Laplace transform technique and an elastic model including two-particle interaction. The effective creep compliance and the stress and strainrelation at a constant loading rate are analyzed. The results show that the proposed method predicts a significant stiffer response than those based on Mori-Tanaka's method at high volume concentration of particles.
DYNAMICAL STABILITY OF VISCOELASTIC COLUMN WITH FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE CONSTITUTIVE RELATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李根国; 朱正佑; 程昌钧
2001-01-01
The dynamic stability of simple supported viscoelastic column, subjected to a periodic axial force, is investigated. The viscoelastic material was assumed to obey the fractional derivative constitutive relation. The governing equation of motion was derived as a weakly singular Volterra integro-partial-differential equation, and it was simplified into a weakly singular Volterra integro-ordinary-differential equation by the Galerkin method. In terms of the averaging method, the dynamical stability was analyzed. A new numerical method is proposed to avoid storing all history data. Numerical examples are presented and the numerical results agree with the analytical ones.
Strain analysis of nonlocal viscoelastic Kelvin bar in tension
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Xue-chuan; LEI Yong-jun; ZHOU Jian-ping
2008-01-01
Based on viscoelastic Kelvin model and nonlocal relationship of strain and stress, a nonlocal constitutive relationship of viscoelasticity is obtained and the strain response of a bar in tension is studied. By transforming governing equation of the strain analysis into Volterra integration form and by choosing a symmetric exponential form of kernel function and adapting Neumann series, the closed-form solution of strain field of the bar is obtained. The creep process of the bar is presented. When time approaches infinite, the strain of bar is equal to the one of nonlocal elasticity.
GENERALIZED VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLESFOR VISCOELASTIC THIN AND THICK PLATES WITH DAMAGE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ShengDongfa; ChengChangjun
2004-01-01
From the constitutive model with generalized force fields for a viscoelastic body with damage, the differential equations of motion for thin and thick plates with damage are derived under arbitrary boundary conditions. The convolution-type functionals for the bending of viscoelastic thin and thick plates with damage are presented, and the corresponding generalized variational principles are given. From these generalized principles, all the basic equations of the displacement and damage variables and initial and boundary conditions can be deduced. As an example, we compare the difference between the dynamical properties of plates with and without damage and consider the effect of damage on the dynamical properties of plates.
Relationship Between Structure and Viscoelastic Properties of Geosynthetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Loginova Irina
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, a study on viscoelastic properties of geosynthetic materials used in civil engineering is presented. Six samples of geofabrics and geogrids with different structures including woven geotextile fabric, nonwoven geotextile fabrics, warp-knitted geogrids and extruded geogrid were investigated. The tensile properties of geosynthetics including tensile strength, strain at maximum load and tensile load at specified strain have been determined. The creep and relaxation tests were carried out. The structure type was found to significantly affect the viscoelastic properties of the geosynthetics materials. In the article some results of numerous conducted tests are presented, analyzed and may be used to preselection of geosynthetics materials.
The bounce-splash of a viscoelastic drop
Hernandez-Sanchez, Federico; Zenit, Roberto
2008-01-01
This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 61st Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics videos). This video shows the collision and rebound of viscoelastic drops against a solid wall. Using a high speed camera, the process of approach, contact and rebound of drops of a viscoelastic liquid is observed. We found that these drops first splash, similar to what is observed in Newtonian colliding drops; after a few instants, the liquid recoils, recovering its original drop shape and bounce off the wall.
QUASI-STATIC ANALYSIS FOR VISCOELASTIC TIMOSHENKO BEAMS WITH DAMAGE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Based on convolution-type constitutive equations for linear viscoelastic materials with damage and the hypotheses of Timoshenko beams, the equations governing quasi-static and dynamical behavior of Timoshenko beams with damage were first derived. The quasi-static behavior of the viscoelastic Timoshenko beam under step loading was analyzed and the analytical solution was obtained in the Laplace transformation domain. The deflection and damage curves at different time were obtained by using the numerical inverse transform and the influences of material parameters on the quasi-static behavior of the beam were investigated in detail.
DYNAMIC STABILITY OF AXIALLY MOVING VISCOELASTIC BEAMS WITH PULSATING SPEED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Xiao-dong; CHEN Li-qun
2005-01-01
Parametric vibration of an axially moving, elastic, tensioned beam with pulsating speed was investigated in the vicinity of subharmonic and combination resonance. The method of averaging was used to yield a set of autonomous equations when the parametric excitation frequency is twice or the combination of the natural frequencies. Instability boundaries were presented in the plane of parametric frequency and amplitude. The analytical results were numerically verified. The effects of the viscoelastic damping, steady speed and tension on the instability boundaries were numerically demonstrated. It is found that the viscoelastic damping decreases the instability regions and the steady speed and the tension make the instability region drift along the frequency axis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Rashidi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, a steady, incompressible, and laminar-free convective flow of a two-dimensional electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a moving stretching surface through a porous medium is considered. The boundary-layer equations are derived by considering Boussinesq and boundary-layer approximations. The nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the momentum and energy equations are obtained and solved analytically by using homotopy analysis method (HAM with two auxiliary parameters for two classes of visco-elastic fluid (Walters’ liquid B and second-grade fluid. It is clear that by the use of second auxiliary parameter, the straight line region in ℏ-curve increases and the convergence accelerates. This research is performed by considering two different boundary conditions: (a prescribed surface temperature (PST and (b prescribed heat flux (PHF. The effect of involved parameters on velocity and temperature is investigated.
The modified Langevin description for probes in a nonlinear medium
Krüger, Matthias; Maes, Christian
2017-02-01
When the motion of a probe strongly disturbs the thermal equilibrium of the solvent or bath, the nonlinear response of the latter must enter the probe’s effective evolution equation. We derive that induced stochastic dynamics using second order response around the bath thermal equilibrium. We discuss the nature of the new term in the evolution equation which is no longer purely dissipative, and the appearance of a novel time-scale for the probe related to changes in the dynamical activity of the bath. A major application for the obtained nonlinear generalized Langevin equation is in the study of colloid motion in a visco-elastic medium.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方波; 曹丹红; 江体乾
2008-01-01
The viscoelastic micelle systems formed by novel anionic-nonionic dimeric surfactant and conventional cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium(1631) were studied.The viscoelasticity,thixotropy,flow curves and constitutive equation for the novel viscoelastic micelle systems were investigated.The results show that the micelle systems possess viscoelasticity,thixotropy,and shear thinning property.Some micelle systems possess hysteresis loops showing both viscoelasticity and thixotropy.It is proved that the flow curves are characterized by the co-rotational Jeffreys constitutive equation correctly.
A Visco-plastic Model of Magnetorheological Materials%磁流变材料的粘塑性模型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
司鹄; 彭向和
2001-01-01
Magnetorheological materials are a class of smart materials whose reological properties may be rapidly varied by application of magnetic field. By a simple mechanical mold, a visco-plastic model for the materials is developed. It is shown that the model can describe the variation of the mechanical properties for the Magnetorheological materials in the different magnetic field. The result is shown that the model can characterize the mechanical properties of Magnetorheological Materials in plastic and viscous variation.%在外加磁场作用下，磁流变材料的力学性质可迅速发生变化甚至发生相变固化，材料的性能依赖于外加磁场的强度。作者基于一个简单的机械模型，发展了磁流变体的粘塑性本构描述，预言了磁流变流体的力学行为随磁场强度的变化，较好地描述材料在不同磁场强度下应力随应变而变化。结果表明所提出的模型能描述MR材料的塑性变形、粘性变形等内在的力学响应特性。
Viscoelasticity of brain corpus callosum in biaxial tension
Labus, Kevin M.; Puttlitz, Christian M.
2016-11-01
Computational models of the brain rely on accurate constitutive relationships to model the viscoelastic behavior of brain tissue. Current viscoelastic models have been derived from experiments conducted in a single direction at a time and therefore lack information on the effects of multiaxial loading. It is also unclear if the time-dependent behavior of brain tissue is dependent on either strain magnitude or the direction of loading when subjected to tensile stresses. Therefore, biaxial stress relaxation and cyclic experiments were conducted on corpus callosum tissue isolated from fresh ovine brains. Results demonstrated the relaxation behavior to be independent of strain magnitude, and a quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model was able to accurately fit the experimental data. Also, an isotropic reduced relaxation tensor was sufficient to model the stress-relaxation in both the axonal and transverse directions. The QLV model was fitted to the averaged stress relaxation tests at five strain magnitudes while using the measured strain history from the experiments. The resulting model was able to accurately predict the stresses from cyclic tests at two strain magnitudes. In addition to deriving a constitutive model from the averaged experimental data, each specimen was fitted separately and the resulting distributions of the model parameters were reported and used in a probabilistic analysis to determine the probability distribution of model predictions and the sensitivity of the model to the variance of the parameters. These results can be used to improve the viscoelastic constitutive models used in computational studies of the brain.
Viscoelastic Model Analogy of the Dark Cosmic Fluid
Brevik, Iver
2015-01-01
A one-component dark energy fluid model of the late universe is considered ($w \\zeta$. This is just as one would expect physically. The corresponding entropy production is also considered. A special point emphasized in the paper is the analogy that exists between the cosmic fluid and a so-called Maxwell fluid in viscoelasticity.
Oscillatory squeeze flow for the study of linear viscoelastic behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole
2016-01-01
The squeezing of a sample between parallel plates has been used for many years to characterize the rheological behavior of soft, purely viscous materials, and in recent times, small-amplitude oscillatory squeezing has been proposed as a means to determine the linear viscoelastic properties of mol...
EIGEN THEORY OF VISCOELASTIC MECHANICS FOR ANISOTROPIC SOLIDS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guo Shaohua
2001-01-01
Anisotropic viscoelastic mechanics is studied under anisotropic subspace. It is proved that there also exist the eigen properties for viscoelastic medium. The modal Maxwell's equation,modal dynamical equation (or modal equilibrium equation) and modal compatibility equation are obtained. Based on them, a new theory of anisotropic viscoelastic mechanics is presented. The advantages of the theory are as follows: 1) the equations are all scalar, and independent of each other. The number of equations is equal to that of anisotropic subspaces, 2) no matter how complicated the anisotropy of solids may be, the form of the definite equation and the boundary condition are in common and explicit, 3) there is no distinction between the force method and the displacement method for statics, that is, the equilibrium equation and the compatibility equation are indistinguishable under the mechanical space, 4) each modal equation has a definite physical meaning, for example, the modal equations of order one and order two express the volume change and shear deformation respectively for isotropic solids, 5) there also exist the potential functions which are similar to the stress functions of elastic mechanics for viscoelastic mechanics, but they are not man-made, 6) the final solution of stress or strain is given in the form of modal superimposition, which is suitable to the proximate calculation in engineering.
Stationary solutions of equations of incompressible viscoelastic polymer liquid
Bambaeva, N. V.; Blokhin, A. M.
2014-05-01
The equations describing flows of an incompressible viscoelastic polymer liquid are studied. Stationary solutions similar to the Poiseuille and Couette solutions for the system of the Navier-Stokes equations are constructed. Stationary discontinuous solutions of the polymer liquid equation are also considered.
Cutting edge science: Laser surgery illuminates viscoelasticity of merotelic kinetochores.
Cabello, Simon; Gachet, Yannick; Tournier, Sylvie
2016-03-28
Increasing evidence in eukaryotic cells suggests that mechanical forces are essential for building a robust mitotic apparatus and correcting inappropriate chromosome attachments. In this issue, Cojoc et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol., http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201506011) use laser microsurgery in vivo to measure and study the viscoelastic properties of kinetochores.
About the Interactions Controlling Nafion's Viscoelastic Properties and Morphology
Melchior, Jan-Patrick; Bräuniger, Thomas; Wohlfarth, Andreas; Portale, Giuseppe; Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter
2015-01-01
Interactions controlling the viscoelastic properties of Nafion are identified by investigating morphological changes induced through stretching at a wide range of controlled temperature and relative humidity. H-2-goniometer NMR exploiting the pseudonematic effect in D2O-containing membranes provides